Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
An herbicide with strong irritant properties. Use of this compound on rice fields, orchards, sugarcane, rangeland, and other noncrop sites was terminated by the EPA in 1985. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A powerful herbicide used as a selective weed killer.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
A genus of anaerobic, gram-positive bacteria in the family Peptococcaceae, that reductively dechlorinates CHLOROPHENOLS.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Nuclear power accident that occurred following the Tohoku-Kanto earthquake of March 11, 2011 in the northern region of Japan.
An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.
Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.
Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.

Decolorization and detoxification of extraction-stage effluent from chlorine bleaching of kraft pulp by Rhizopus oryzae. (1/308)

Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycete, was found to decolorize, dechlorinate, and detoxify bleach plant effluent at lower cosubstrate concentrations than the basidiomycetes previously investigated. With glucose at 1 g/liter, this fungus removed 92 to 95% of the color, 50% of the chemical oxygen demand, 72% of the adsorbable organic halide, and 37% of the extractable organic halide in 24 h at temperatures of 25 to 45 degrees C and a pH of 3 to 5. Even without added cosubstrate the fungus removed up to 78% of the color. Monomeric chlorinated aromatic compounds were removed almost completely, and toxicity to zebra fish was eliminated. The fungal mycelium could be immobilized in polyurethane foam and used repeatedly to treat batches of effluent. The residue after treatment was not further improved by exposure to fresh R. oryzae mycelium.  (+info)

Initial reactions in the biodegradation of 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene by a newly isolated bacterium, strain LW1. (2/308)

Bacterial strain LW1, which belongs to the family Comamonadaceae, utilizes 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene (1C4NB) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Suspensions of 1C4NB-grown cells removed 1C4NB from culture fluids, and there was a concomitant release of ammonia and chloride. Under anaerobic conditions LW1 transformed 1C4NB into a product which was identified as 2-amino-5-chlorophenol by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. This transformation indicated that there was partial reduction of the nitro group to the hydroxylamino substituent, followed by Bamberger rearrangement. In the presence of oxygen but in the absence of NAD, fast transformation of 2-amino-5-chlorophenol into a transiently stable yellow product was observed with resting cells and cell extracts. This compound exhibited an absorption maximum at 395 nm and was further converted to a dead-end product with maxima at 226 and 272 nm. The compound formed was subsequently identified by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry as 5-chloropicolinic acid. In contrast, when NAD was added in the presence of oxygen, only minor amounts of 5-chloropicolinic acid were formed, and a new product, which exhibited an absorption maximum at 306 nm, accumulated.  (+info)

Superficial buffer barrier and preferentially directed release of Ca2+ in canine airway smooth muscle. (3/308)

We examined cytosolic concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in canine airway smooth muscle using fura 2 fluorimetry (global changes in [Ca2+]i), membrane currents (subsarcolemmal [Ca2+]i), and contractions (deep cytosolic [Ca2+]i). Acetylcholine (10(-4) M) elicited fluorimetric, electrophysiological, and mechanical responses. Caffeine (5 mM), ryanodine (0.1-30 microM), and 4-chloro-3-ethylphenol (0.1-0.3 mM), all of which trigger Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, evoked Ca2+ transients and membrane currents but not contractions. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-pump inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA; 10 microM) evoked Ca2+ transients and contractions but not membrane currents. Caffeine occluded the response to CPA, whereas CPA occluded the response to acetylcholine. Finally, KCl contractions were augmented by CPA, ryanodine, or saturation of the SR and reduced when SR filling state was decreased before exposure to KCl. We conclude that 1) the SR forms a superficial buffer barrier dividing the cytosol into functionally distinct compartments in which [Ca2+]i is regulated independently; 2) Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release is preferentially directed toward the sarcolemma; and 3) there is no evidence for multiple, pharmacologically distinct Ca2+ pools.  (+info)

Earthworm egg capsules as vectors for the environmental introduction of biodegradative bacteria. (4/308)

Earthworm egg capsules (cocoons) may acquire bacteria from the environment in which they are produced. We found that Ralstonia eutropha (pJP4) can be recovered from Eisenia fetida cocoons formed in soil inoculated with this bacterium. Plasmid pJP4 contains the genes necessary for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2, 4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation. In this study we determined that the presence of R. eutropha (pJP4) within the developing earthworm cocoon can influence the degradation and toxicity of 2,4-D and 2,4-DCP, respectively. The addition of cocoons containing R. eutropha (pJP4) at either low or high densities (10(2) or 10(5) CFU per cocoon, respectively) initiated degradation of 2,4-D in nonsterile soil microcosms. Loss of 2,4-D was observed within the first week of incubation, and respiking the soil with 2,4-D showed depletion within 24 h. Microbial analysis of the soil revealed the presence of approximately 10(4) CFU R. eutropha (pJP4) g-1 of soil. The toxicity of 2,4-DCP to developing earthworms was tested by using cocoons with or without R. eutropha (pJP4). Results showed that cocoons containing R. eutropha (pJP4) were able to tolerate higher levels of 2,4-DCP. Our results indicate that the biodegradation of 2, 4-DCP by R. eutropha (pJP4) within the cocoons may be the mechanism contributing to toxicity reduction. These results suggest that the microbiota may influence the survival of developing earthworms exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition, cocoons can be used as inoculants for the introduction into the environment of beneficial bacteria, such as strains with biodegradative capabilities.  (+info)

Heat-induced expression and chemically induced expression of the Escherichia coli stress protein HtpG are affected by the growth environment. (5/308)

Differences in expression of the Escherichia coli stress protein HtpG were found following exposure of exponentially growing cells to heat or chemical shock when cells were grown under different environmental conditions. With an htpG::lacZ reporter system, htpG expression increased in cells grown in a complex medium (Luria-Bertani [LB] broth) following a temperature shock at 45 degrees C. In contrast, no HtpG overexpression was detected in cells grown in a glucose minimal medium, despite a decrease in the growth rate. Similarly, in pyruvate-grown cells there was no heat shock induction of HtpG expression, eliminating the possibility that repression of HtpG in glucose-grown E. coli was due to catabolite repression. When 5 mM phenol was used as a chemical stress agent for cells growing in LB broth, expression of HtpG increased. However, when LB-grown cells were subjected to stress with 10 mM phenol and when both 5 and 10 mM phenol were added to glucose-grown cultures, repression of htpG expression was observed. 2-Chlorophenol stress resulted in overexpression of HtpG when cells were grown in complex medium but repression of HtpG synthesis when cells were grown in glucose. No induction of htpG expression was seen with 2, 4-dichlorophenol in cells grown with either complex medium or glucose. The results suggest that, when a large pool of amino acids and proteins is available, as in complex medium, a much stronger stress response is observed. In contrast, when cells are grown in a simple glucose mineral medium, htpG expression either is unaffected or is even repressed by imposition of a stress condition. The results demonstrate the importance of considering differences in growth environment in order to better understand the nature of the response to an imposed stress condition.  (+info)

Fraction of electrons consumed in electron acceptor reduction and hydrogen thresholds as indicators of halorespiratory physiology. (6/308)

Measurements of the hydrogen consumption threshold and the tracking of electrons transferred to the chlorinated electron acceptor (f(e)) reliably detected chlororespiratory physiology in both mixed cultures and pure cultures capable of using tetrachloroethene, cis-1, 2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorobenzoate, 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate, or 1,2-dichloropropane as an electron acceptor. Hydrogen was consumed to significantly lower threshold concentrations of less than 0.4 ppmv compared with the values obtained for the same cultures without a chlorinated compound as an electron acceptor. The f(e) values ranged from 0.63 to 0.7, values which are in good agreement with theoretical calculations based on the thermodynamics of reductive dechlorination as the terminal electron-accepting process. In contrast, a mixed methanogenic culture that cometabolized 3-chlorophenol exhibited a significantly lower f(e) value, 0.012.  (+info)

Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol in a continuous anaerobic reactor augmented with Desulfitobacterium frappieri PCP-1. (7/308)

In this work, a strain of anaerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrader, Desulfitobacterium frappieri PCP-1, was used to augment a mixed bacterial community of an anaerobic upflow sludge bed reactor degrading PCP. To estimate the efficiency of augmentation, the population of PCP-1 in the reactor was enumerated by a competitive PCR technique. The PCP-1 strain appeared to compete well with other microorganisms of the mixed bacterial community, with its population increasing from 10(6) to 10(10) cells/g of volatile suspended solids within a period of 70 days. Proliferation of strain PCP-1 allowed for a substantial increase of the volumetric PCP load from 5 to 80 mg/liter of reaction volume/day. A PCP removal efficiency of 99% and a dechlorination efficiency of not less than 90.5% were observed throughout the experiment, with 3-Cl-phenol and phenol being observable dechlorination intermediates.  (+info)

Reductive dehalogenation and conversion of 2-chlorophenol to 3-chlorobenzoate in a methanogenic sediment community: implications for predicting the environmental fate of chlorinated pollutants. (8/308)

Biotransformation of 2-chlorophenol by a methanogenic sediment community resulted in the transient accumulation of phenol and benzoate. 3-Chlorobenzoate was a more persistent product of 2-chlorophenol metabolism. The anaerobic biotransformation of phenol to benzoate presumably occurred via para-carboxylation and dehydroxylation reactions, which may also explain the observed conversion of 2-chlorophenol to 3-chlorobenzoate.  (+info)

Chlorophenols are a group of chemicals in which chlorines (between one and five) have been added to phenol.� Phenol is an aromatic compound derived from benzene, the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon, by adding a hydroxy group to a carbon� to replace a hydrogen.� There are five basic types of chlorophenols:� mono[one]chlorophenols, di[two]chlorophenols, tri[three]chlorophenols, tetra[four]chlorophenols, and penta[five]chlorophenols.� In all, there are 19 different chlorophenols.� Eight are discussed in this document:� 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, and 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol.� Pentachlorophenol is discussed in another document.
Chlorophenols are a group of chemicals in which chlorines (between one and five) have been added to phenol.� Phenol is an aromatic compound derived from benzene, the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon, by adding a hydroxy group to a carbon� to replace a hydrogen.� There are five basic types of chlorophenols:� mono[one]chlorophenols, di[two]chlorophenols, tri[three]chlorophenols, tetra[four]chlorophenols, and penta[five]chlorophenols.� In all, there are 19 different chlorophenols.� Eight are discussed in this document:� 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, and 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol.� Pentachlorophenol is discussed in another document.
Reactive Green HE 4BD carrying polyamide hollow fibers were investigated as dye-affinity adsorbents for removal of chlorophenols (i.e., phenol. o-chlorophenol, p-chlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol). Adsorption rates of chlorophenols were very high. Equilibrium was achieved in about 30 min. The applicability of two kinetic models including pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order model was estimated on the basis of comparative analysis of the corresponding rate parameters, equilibrium capacity and correlation coefficients. Results suggest that chemisorption process could be the rate-limiting step in the adsorption process. The maximum adsorption values of chlorophenols onto the Reactive Green HE 4BD carrying hollow fibers were 145.9 mu mol/g for phenol, 179.2 mu mol/g for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 194.5 mu mol/g for p-chlorophenol and 202.8 mu mol/g for o-chlorophenol. The affinity order was as follows: o-chlorophenol > p-chlorophenol > 2,4,6-trichlorophenol > phenol. The adsorption capacity ...
Determination of trace chlorophenols (CPs) in environmental samples has been evaluated using liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) without derivatization. The LPME procedure used to extract CPs from water involved 15 mu l 1-octanol as acceptor solution in a 5.0 cm polypropylene hollow fiber with an inner diameter of 600 mu m and a pore size of 0.2 mu m. Under the optimal extraction conditions, enrichment factors from 117 to 220 are obtained. The obtained linear range is 1-100 ngmL(-1) with r(2) =0.9967 for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-130); 1-100 ngmL(-1) with r(2) =0.9905 for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP); 5-500 ngmL(-1) with r(2) = 0.9983 for 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP), and 10-1000ngmL(-1) with r(2)=0.9929 for pentachlorophenol (PCP). The limits of detection range from 0.08 to 2 ngmL(-1), which is comparable with the reported values (12-120 ngmL(-1)). Recoveries of CPs in various matrices exceed 85% with relative standard ...
Separation of 2-Chlorophenol; 2,4-Dichlorophenol; 2,4,6-Tribromophenol; 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol; 2,4-Dinitrophenol; Pentafluorophenol; 2-Methylphenol, analytical standard; 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol; Pentachlorophenol; 4-Nitrophenol; 2-Bromophenol; 2,3,5,6-Tetrachlorophenol; 2,3,5-Trichlorophenol; 4-Chloro-3-methylphenol; 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol; 4-Methylphenol, analytical standard; 2,4-Dimethylphenol; 2-Nitrophenol; 3-Methylphenol, analytical standard; Phenol; 2-Methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol; 2,3,4-Trichlorophenol; 2,6-Dichlorophenol; 2,3,4,5-Tetrachlorophenol
The authors examined cancer mortality in a historical cohort study of 21,863 male and female workers in 36 cohorts exposed to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins in 12 countries. Subjects in this updated and expanded multinational study coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer were followed from 1939 to 1992. Exposure was reconstructed using job records, company ex
M. M. Mortland, Sun Shaobai, S. A. Boyd; Clay-organic complexes as adsorbents for phenol and chlorophenols. Clays and Clay Minerals ; 34 (5): 581-585. doi: Download citation file:. ...
While direct toxicity assessment (DTA) is now widely recognised as a useful tool for environmental risk assessment, many existing tests fail to meet end-user needs. This article describes the significant progress made to the MICREDOX® DTA assay, developed at Lincoln Ventures Ltd, brought about by miniaturising this assay to a multi-well plate format combined with limiting current microelectrode transduction. The benefits have been reduced: preparation time, reduced assay time, lower material costs and a higher level of replication achieved. To validate the precision of the miniaturised format, the concentrations required to cause a 50% decrease in signal (EC50) by an archetypal group of toxicants, the chlorophenols, were determined using two terrestrial bacterial strains, Escherichia coli K12 and Klebsiella oxytoca 13183. The assay time was then reduced by stepwise adjustment of the incubation time, from 60 down to 5 min, and the EC50s reported by E. coli to each of the toxicants after 45, 30, ...
2,3,4-Trichlorophenol 15950-66-0 MSDS report, 2,3,4-Trichlorophenol MSDS safety technical specifications search, 2,3,4-Trichlorophenol safety information specifications ect.
This study investigated the encapsulation and photocatalysis of chlorophenol compounds in water using porphyrin-(polystyrene-b-2-dimethylaminoethyl acrylate) star polymer. The chloride ions generated during photocatalytic process were identified and quantified. 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol and 2, 4-dichlorophenol were satisfactorily decomposed in the photo-reactor using porphyrin-(polystyrene-b-2-dimethylaminoethyl acrylate) star polymer, with removal efficiencies of 2454, 498 and 760 mg per gram of porphyrin-(polystyrene-b-2-dimethylaminoethyl acrylate) star polymer. The half-life times reached around 30 minutes, with the exception of that for 2, 4- dichlorophenol. The porphyrin-(polystyrene-b-2-dimethylaminoethyl acrylate) star polymer impregnated porphyrin is a promising photocatalyst for the removal of chlorophenols ...
This study investigated the adsorption potential of oil palm shell-based activated carbon to remove 2,4,6-trichlorophenol from aqueous solution using fixed-bed adsorption column. The effects of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol inlet concentration, feed flow rate and activated carbon bed height on the breakthrough characteristics of the adsorption system were determined. The regeneration efficiency of the oil palm shell-based activated carbon was evaluated using ethanol desorption technique. Through ethanol desorption, 96.25% of the adsorption sites could be recovered from the regenerated activated carbon.. ...
In the present study, a comparative assessment of 2,4,6-T (2,4,6-Trichlorophenol) degradation by different AOPs (Advanced Oxidation Processes - UV, U
ILO: International Labour Organization - The International Labour Organization is the UN specialized agency which seeks the promotion of social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights
Abstract : 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) are two isomers of dichlorophenols, have beenused as preservative agents for wood, paints, vegetable fibers and as intermediates in the production of pharmaceuticals anddyes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 2H/1H or13C/12C, and 18O/16O or 37Cl/35Cl, in dichlorophenol isomers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 2,4-DCP and 2,6-DCP samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control sample remained as untreated, whilethe treated sample was further divided into four groups as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedisbiofield energy treatment. The GC-MS spectra of 2,4-DCP and 2,6-DCP showed three to six m/z peaks at 162, 126, 98, 73, 63,37 etc. due to the molecular ion peak and fragmented peaks. The isotopic abundance ratios (percentage) in both the isomerswere increased significantly ...
Ex-situ bioremediation of saturated soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol and 2,3,5,6-TeCP is commonly accomplished by landfarming or by treatment in a bioreactor. Treating saturated, low-permeability soils in bioreactors, without pre-treatment requires a reactor capable of promoting anaerobic and/or aerobic removal of chlorophenols without transferring these contaminants to the aqueous phase. A pilot-scale bioreactor was designed to treat 3.7 cubic meters of contaminated soil with a saturated hydraulic conductivity of 0.12 cm/day. The bioreactor demonstrated significant removal of chlorophenols when soil was infused with a treatment mixture containing imitation vanilla flavoring as an electron donor for reductive dechlorination and primary substrate for aerobic cometabolism. Bench scale studies showed greater overall removal when feed mixtures included an inoculated biomass, or when treatment mixtures were maintained anaerobically prior to use. The combined results of these studies suggest ...
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The residue dynamics and risk assessment of prochloraz and its metabolite 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) in apple under different treatment concentrations were investigated using a GC-ECD method. The derivatization percent of prochloraz to 2,4,6-TCP was stable and complete. The recoveries of prochloraz and 2,4,6-TCP were 82.9%-114.4%, and the coefficients of variation (CV) were 0.7%-8.6% for the whole fruit, apple pulp, and apple peel samples. Under the application of 2 °C 2.0 g/L, 2 °C 1.0 g/L, 20 °C 2.0 g/L, and 20 °C 1.0 g/L treatment, the half-life for the degradation of prochloraz was 57.8-86.6 d in the whole fruit and apple peel, and the prochloraz concentration in the apple pulp increased gradually until a peak (0.72 mg·kg−1) was reached. The concentration of 2,4,6-TCP was below 0.1 mg·kg−1 in four treatment conditions and not detected (<LOD) in apple pulp. Finally, based on the detection of market samples in Hefei (China), we believe that the residual level of prochloraz in
The unexplained deaths and illnesses at Shenandoah immediately caught the attention of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). In August 1971, the CDC completed an inspection of Shenandoah Stable, and collected human and animal blood samples, as well as soil samples.[10] Although initial results revealed that the soil at Shenandoah Stable contained PCBs and chlorinated insecticides, the CDC was unable to identify a specific chemical culprit. It was not until 1973 that tests revealed the presence of trichlorophenol.[14] When trace amounts of the crude trichlorophenol contaminant were administered to the inner surfaces of rabbit ears, blisters developed, which was a characteristic result of trichlorophenol poisoning.[10] The unexpected death of some of the affected rabbits however, led the CDC to run more complex tests. On July 30, 1974, the CDC found that, in addition to 5,000 ppm of trichlorophenol and 1,590 ppm of PCBs, the soil samples collected from Shenandoah contained over 30 ppm of ...
at correlate with those reported by other recognised DTA and BOD methods. The miniaturised MICREDOX® DTA assay reported EC₅₀ (concentration where effect is 50%) values that were in close accord to those previously reported with other recognised methodology for a group of chlorophenols (4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 3,5- dichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol). Good correlation indices indicated that the miniaturised assay was capable of determining reproducible EC₅₀ values. The ability for this assay to report EC₅₀ values for other groups of toxicants, however, was shown to be limited due to the mediator potassium hexacyanoferrate III (HCF). Use of alternative redox mediators (hexamine ruthenium chloride II, methylene blue, neutral red, phenazine ethosulfate, resazurin, toluidine blue-O and TIRON® showed that those chosen could not report accurate bacterial respiration, and were therefore unable to be utilised as a reliable primary mediator in the MICREDOX® assay. MICREDOX® ...
Article Investigation of UV-assisted chlorophenol congeners’ degradation by organic oxidant |italic|p|/italic|-nitrobenzoic acid in basic media. This research specifically addressed the photodegradation of selected model chlorophenol (CP) cong...
This parameter is a very useful tool that involves the degradation rate and the biomass growth, referred to the initial biomass instead of the actual biomass. Progressively, the biomass grows and the degradation rate increases. This parameter simultaneously takes both into account.. Results and discussion. The mixed culture constituted of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Achromobacter marplatensis was able to simultaneously degrade the mixture of highly-substituted chlorophenols PCP, 2,3,5,6-TeCP and 2,4,6-TCP, as the only source of carbon and energy in batch and fed-batch systems. The initial experimental settings for the fed-batch assays at different feed flow rates (I, II, III) and the batch system control (B) is shown in Table 1. The initial biomass was similar in all cases but the initial CP concentrations were much higher in B than in the fed-batch assays when they were close to zero (Table I). The substrate to biomass yield coefficients based on total CP degradation are also shown in Table 1. ...
Triclofenol Piperazine,2,4,5-Trichlorophenol compd with piperazine (2:1),bis(2,4,5-trichlorophenol) piperazine,piperazine salt of bis(2,4,5-trichlorophenol),CI-416,Ranestol (obsolete)
2,4,5-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TftD) and 2,4,6-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TcpA) have been discovered in the biodegradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). TcpA and TftD belong to the reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2)-dependent monooxygenases and both use 2,4,6-TCP as a substrate; however, the two enzymes produce different end products. TftD catalyzes a typical monooxygenase reaction, while TcpA catalyzes a typical monooxygenase reaction followed by a hydrolytic dechlorination. We have previously reported the 3D structure of TftD and confirmed the catalytic residue, His289. Here we have determined the crystal structure of TcpA and investigated the apparent differences in specificity and catalysis between these two closely related monooxygenases through structural comparison. Our computational docking results suggest that Ala293 in TcpA (Ile292 in TftD) is possibly responsible for the differences in substrate specificity between the two monooxygenases. We have
Abstract : The chlorinated phenols are widely used in chemical industries for the manufacturing of herbicides, insecticides,etc. However, due to consistent use they create hazards to the environment. This study was designed to use an alternativemethod i.e. biofield energy treatment and analyse its impact on the physicochemical properties of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), which are the important factors related to its degradation. The 2,4-DCP sample was treated with Mr. Trivedis biofieldenergy and analyzed as compared to the untreated 2,4-DCP sample (control) using various analytical techniques. The X-raydiffraction studies revealed up to 19.4% alteration in the lattice parameters along with approximately 1.8% alteration in themolecular weight, unit cell volume and density of the treated sample. The crystallite size of treated sample was increased andfound as 215.24 nm as compared to 84.08 nm in the control sample. Besides, the thermal study results showed an alteration inthe thermal stability ...
Research on substituted phenol degradations has received substantial attention. In this work, effective Co(II) and Cu(II) phthalocyanine complexes as catalysts were studied to degrade toxic phenols to harmless products. The effect of various process parameters, such as initial concentration of phenol, catalyst, oxygen sources, and temperature on the degradation reaction was investigated to achieve maximum degradation efficiency. The catalytic activities of Co(II) and Cu(II) phthalocyanines were evaluated for oxidation of phenolic compounds such as p-nitrophenol, o-chlorophenol, 2,3-dichlorophenol, and m-methoxyphenol. Co(II) phthalocyanine displayed good catalytic performance in degradation of 2,3-dichlorophenol to 2,3-dichlorobenzaldehyde and 2,3-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone with the highest TON and TOF values within 3h at 50 degrees C. The fate of catalyst during the degradation process was followed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. ...
While direct toxicity assessment (DTA) is now widely recognised as a useful tool for environmental risk assessment, many existing tests fail to meet end-user needs. This article describes the significant progress made to the MICREDOX® DTA assay, developed at Lincoln Ventures Ltd, brought about by miniaturising this assay to a multi-well plate format combined with limiting current microelectrode transduction. The benefits have been reduced: preparation time, reduced assay time, lower material costs and a higher level of replication achieved. To validate the precision of the miniaturised format, the concentrations required to cause a 50% decrease in signal (EC50) by an archetypal group of toxicants, the chlorophenols, were determined using two terrestrial bacterial strains, Escherichia coli K12 and Klebsiella oxytoca 13183. The assay time was then reduced by stepwise adjustment of the incubation time, from 60 down to 5 min, and the EC50s reported by E. coli to each of the toxicants after 45, 30, ...
Product name : JC-10 Mitochondrial membrane potential determination, FC, fluorescence microscopy, fluorescent assaysPurity: >98%Format: solidHandling & Safety
A mesoporous Fe₃/MnO₂ composite was fabricated by a co-precipitation method in this paper, and it showed a much higher activity than Fe₃O₄ and MnO₂ in the catalytic ozonation of a p-cresol and p-chlorophenol mixture. The physicochemical properties of Fe₃O₄ and MnO₂ and Fe₃O₄/MnO₂ were compared using XRD, SEM, TEM and N₂ physical adsorption/desorption. pH had a significant effect on the degradation ...
3,5-Dichlorophenol 591-35-5 NMR spectrum, 3,5-Dichlorophenol H-NMR spectral analysis, 3,5-Dichlorophenol C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
NTP STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY TUMORS REPORT: PEIRPT08 LAB: Battelle Columbus 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOL DATE: 09/07/94 EXPERIMENT: 05052 TEST: 01 TIME: 20:38:43 TEST TYPE: CHRONIC CAGES FROM 0000 TO LAST CAGE PAGE: 1 CONT: N01-ES-38068 ROUTE: DOSED FEED NTP C#: C55345 PATHOLOGIST: S. ESUTIS R. PERSING CAS: 120-83-2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ REASONS FOR REMOVAL: ALL REMOVAL DATE RANGE: ALL TREATMENT GROUPS: INCLUDE ALL NTP STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY TUMORS REPORT: PEIRPT08 LAB: Battelle Columbus 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOL DATE: 09/07/94 EXPERIMENT: 05052 TEST: 01 TIME: 20:38:43 TEST TYPE: CHRONIC CAGES FROM 0000 TO LAST CAGE CONT: N01-ES-38068 ROUTE: DOSED FEED NTP C#: C55345 PATHOLOGIST: S. ESUTIS R. PERSING CAS: 120-83-2 RATS(FISCHER344) ---------------------------- FOR ALL DOSES THE TUMOR RATES IN THE FOLLOWING TISSUES/ORGANS ARE BASED ON NUMBER OF TISSUES EXAMINED. IN OTHER TISSUES/ORGANS, ...
InCHi String: canonical and isomeric SMILES: C1=CC(=C(C(=C1)Cl)O)Cl. PUBCHEM iupac NAME: PUBCHEM iupac TRADITIONAL NAME: PUBCHEM iupac OPENEYE NAME: PUBCHEM iupac CAS NAME: PUBCHEM iupac SYSTEMATIC NAME ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Kazunori Yamazaki, Masaaki Suzuki, Hirokazu Kano, Yumi Umeda, Michiharu Matsumoto, Masumi Asakura, Kasuke Nagano, Heihachiro Arito, Shoji Fukushima].
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Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Some animal studies and some human studies suggest that exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) may be associated with adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. As part of a cross-sectional medical study comparing workers employed 15 years earlier in the manufacture of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol or one of its derivatives at two U.S. chemical plants with an unexposed comparison group,
Many researchers have hypothesized that atopy is more common in western countries as people there are less exposed to microbes in the environment. It is a known fact that the dichlorophenols used in many pesticides and for chlorination of water, have an adverse effect on the environmental microbes. A new study carried out by ElinaJerschow from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in Bronx, N.Y along with her colleagues and presented at the meeting of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma ...
A series of 1,8-dichloroanthracene precursor molecules with substituents in C-10 position of different steric demand (cyclohexyl, tert-butyl, methyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, phenyl, benzyl, trimethylsilylethinyl) were synthesised and subjected to electrocyclic cycloadditions with chlorobenzyne generated from 3-chloroanthranilic acid. The aim was to steer the regioselectivity of the addition reaction by the steric repulsion between this C-10 substituent and the chlorine substituent at the benzyne intermediate. With H as C-10 substituent the reaction leads to 23% syn and 77% anti form. With the small methyl group a syn/anti ratio of 37:63 was achieved. Contrary to our expectations the large C-10 substituent tert-butyl leads to 100% selectivity for the anti form. The best results were achieved for the C-10 substituent n-butyl with a syn/anti ratio of 40:60. The crystal structures of five 1,8-dichloroanthracenes with C-10 substituents were determined, namely those with tert-butyl, cyclohexyl, n-butyl ...
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Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus ATCC ® 700700D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus strain A6 TypeStrain=True Application:
An interlaboratory study was organised to validate the preliminary CEN method PrEN 12673: Water Quality - Gas Chromatographic determination of some selected chlorophenols in water. This intercomparison study on three types of water - drinking water, surface water and waste water - comprised a total of nine samples: a high-level, low-level and blank for each of the three types of water. The level of sample was based on the water quality objectives. The variation of the samples with respect to homogeneity and stability of the components appeared after extensive testing to be negligible in comparison with the variation between the results of the participants. In this data set about 7% of the data were detected as statistical outliers and subsequently rejected. For the remaining data set the relative standard deviations for repeatability varied between 5% and 25% and reproducibility between 25% and 55%. Both these ranges comply with the general variation in interlaboratory studies as found by ...
Determination of chlorophenols in water using dispersive liquidliquid microextraction coupled with water-in-oil microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography in normal stacking mode Journal of Separation Science, 2017, 40 , 26622670 Ludi Shi, Jin Wang, Jing Feng, Sihan Zhao, Zhengmeng Wang, Hu Tao, Shuhui Liu Abstract The current routes to couple...
Journal Article: Analysis of Periplasmic Sensor Domains from Anaeromyxobacter Dehalogenans 2CP-C: Structure of one Sensor Domain from a Histidine Kinase and another from a Chemotaxis Protein ...
Dubai Dichlorophenol, Buy High Quality Dichlorophenol Products from Dubai Dichlorophenol Suppliers and Manufacturers at Dubai Yellow Pages Online
Title: New Peptidic Neuroprotectants Against NMDA Neurotoxicity: Syntheses and Biological Evaluations of Linear Complestatin Analogs. VOLUME: 5 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Ho-Joon Park, Seung-Woo Kim, Young-Gyun Shin, Yun-Jung Kim, Ja-Kyeong Lee, Suk Bin Kong and Sung-Hwa Yoon. Affiliation:Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon, 443-749 South Korea.. Keywords:NMDA, Neurotoxicity, Complestatin, LDH release, 3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxyphenylglycine. Abstract: Linear peptide analogs of complestatin were synthesized via solid phase peptide synthesis and tested in vitro as inhibitors against N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) neurotoxicity as possible new peptidic neuroprotectants. While none of the analogs were as potent as the parent compound (IC50 = 2.5 μM), hexamer 11c and heptamer 1c, which contain all D-amino acids, showed modestly potent neuroprotective effects with IC50 values of 23.8 μM and 22.5 μM, respectively. The results indicate that the bicyclic ring structure of ...
Transcripts of cprA5 were not detected from strain PCP-1 cultured in the absence of CPs, but they were detected in the presence of 2,4,6-TCP or 3,5-DCP (an inducer of the meta- and para-dechlorinating activities) [40]. RT-qPCR revealed that cprA5 expression was strongly upregulated in the presence of 3,5-DCP in strain PCP-1 cultures [50]. For 2,4,6-TCP-amended cultures, the occurrence of 2,4-DCP was associated with the upregulation of cprA5 in strain PCP-1 cultures. Kim et al. [38] also observed this upregulation with the D. hafniense strain DCB-2 for rdhA3 (corresponding to cprA5) by microarrays. Upregulation of cprA5 occurred in cultures containing as little as 0.15 µM 3,5-DCP [50]. No upregulation was observed in PCP-amended cultures after 12 h (figure 4).. Significant upregulation of cprA4 was not observed in strain PCP-1 cultures amended with 2,4,6-TCP or 3,5-DCP. However, in PCP-amended cultures, we noticed a 13-fold increase in cprA4 transcript levels, which was just above the level of ...
A soft-tissue sarcoma is a form of sarcoma that develops in connective tissue, though the term is sometimes applied to elements of the soft tissue that are not currently considered connective tissue. In their early stages, soft-tissue sarcomas usually do not cause symptoms. Because soft tissue is relatively elastic, tumors can grow rather large, pushing aside normal tissue, before they are felt or cause any problems. The first noticeable symptom is usually a painless lump or swelling. As the tumor grows, it may cause other symptoms, such as pain or soreness, as it presses against nearby nerves and muscles. If in the abdomen it can cause abdominal pains commonly mistaken for menstrual cramps, indigestion, or cause constipation.[citation needed] Most soft-tissue sarcomas are not associated with any known risk factors or identifiable cause. There are some exceptions: Studies suggest that workers who are exposed to chlorophenols in wood preservatives and phenoxy herbicides may have an increased risk ...
Citation: Zeiger, E., Anderson, B., Haworth, S., Lawlor, T., and Mortelmans, K. Salmonella mutagenicity tests. IV. Results from the testing of 300 chemicals Environ. Molec. Mutagen. Vol. 11 (Suppl 12) (1988) 1- ...
Sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) is a proxy for organic matter processing and thus provides a useful proxy of benthic ecosystem function. Oxygen uptake in deep-sea sediments is mainly driven by bacteria, and the direct contribution of benthic macro- and mega-infauna respiration is thought to be relatively modest. However, the main contribution of infaunal organisms to benthic respiration, particularly large burrowing organisms, is likely to be indirect and mainly driven by processes such as feeding and bioturbation that stimulate bacterial metabolism and promote the chemical oxidation of reduced solutes. Here, we estimate the direct and indirect contributions of burrowing shrimp (Eucalastacus cf. torbeni) to sediment community oxygen consumption based on incubations of sediment cores from 490 m depth on the continental slope of New Zealand. Results indicate that the presence of one shrimp in the sediment is responsible for an oxygen uptake rate of about 40 µmol d−1, only 1% of ...
EWGs Tap Water Database Pentachlorophenol results for Waukesha Water Utility | Pentachlorophenol. Find out what is in your tap water
EWGs Tap Water Database Pentachlorophenol results for Rapid Creek Ridge | Pentachlorophenol. Find out what is in your tap water
Free radical-triggered tissue damage is believed to play an essential role in a variety of human diseases. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is applied as a pesticide worldwide in both industries and homes. It is used extensively as a biocide and wood preservative. Tetrachlorohydroquinone (TCHQ) was proved as a major toxic metabolite of PCP, contributing the release of free radicals during PCP metabolism. PCP has been proposed as a tumor promoter; however, only limited knowledge is available regarding the mechanisms of tumor promotion induced by PCP and its metabolite, TCHQ. A growing amount of literature suggests that a link between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and tumor promotion could exist. Herein, we summarize the findings regarding the ROS-triggered signaling pathways involved in the cytotoxicity and tumor promotion effects of PCP and TCHQ. Some of the notable findings demonstrated that TCHQ can induce DNA lesions and glutathione depletion in mammalian cells; meanwhile, oxidative stress and apoptosis
ID Q2IMM3_ANADE Unreviewed; 549 AA. AC Q2IMM3; DT 07-MAR-2006, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 07-MAR-2006, sequence version 1. DT 08-MAY-2019, entry version 86. DE RecName: Full=Poly(A) polymerase I {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00957}; DE Short=PAP I {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00957}; DE EC=2.7.7.19 {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00957}; GN Name=pcnB {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00957}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Adeh_0279 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABC80055.1}; OS Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans (strain 2CP-C). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Deltaproteobacteria; Myxococcales; OC Cystobacterineae; Anaeromyxobacteraceae; Anaeromyxobacter. OX NCBI_TaxID=290397 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABC80055.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001935}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001935} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=2CP-C {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001935}; RA Copeland A., Lucas S., Lapidus A., Barry K., Detter J.C., Glavina T., RA Hammon N., Israni S., Pitluck S., Brettin T., Bruce D., Han C., RA Tapia R., ...
Synthesis and Antibacterial Activities of 1-Alkyl-3-methacryloyl Acryloyl of Benzimidazolone Thione Derivatives. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a group of polychlorinated compounds used as preservatives for wood, leather and textiles to shield against the attack of moulds, fungus and bacteria.
The production and use of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was recently prohibited/restricted by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs), but environmental data are few and of varying quality. We here present the first extensive dataset of the continent-wide (Eurasia and Canada) occurrence of PCP and its methylation product pentachloroanisole (PCA) in the environment, specifically in pine needles. The highest concentrations of PCP were found close to expected point sources, while PCA chiefly shows a northern and/or coastal distribution not correlating with PCP distribution. Although long-range transport and environmental methylation of PCP or formation from other precursors cannot be excluded, the distribution patterns suggest that such processes may not be the only source of PCA to remote regions and unknown sources should be sought. We suggest that natural sources, e.g., chlorination of organic matter in Boreal forest soils enhanced by chloride deposition from marine sources, ...
A pentachlorophenol degrading bacterium was isolated from effluent of a wastewater treatment plant in Durban, South Africa, and identified as Bacillus trop
Pentachlorophenol is a chlorinated hydrocarbon fungicide and insecticide. It is primarily used to protect timber from wood boring insects and fungal rot.
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Bu çözümler bir çok işimizi çözmekle beraber sektörde daha iyi bir high availability beklentisi vardı. Microsoftta Denalide sunduğu HADR çözümleri ile bu istekleri karşılamış gibi gözüküyor.. HADR ile gelen çözümleri şu anki klasik mirroring yapısının iyileştirilmesi gibi düşünebiliriz. Şimdi isterseniz HADR ile beraber neler geliyor madde madde bakalım.. HADR Altyapısı. HADR kullanmak için hepinizin tahmin edebileceği gibi birden fazla node gerekmekte. Bu nodelar üzerinde Windows Server Failover Cluster (WSFC) kurulu olmalı.. SQL Server tipi olarak cluster kurulum yapma zorunluluğu yok. Standalone SQL Server kurulumları ile de HADR kullanılabilmekte.. Multi-Database Failover. Şu anki mirror yapısı tek bir database seviyesinde tanımlanmakta. Mirror yapılan bu databasede bir sıkıntı oluştuğunda mirror databaseden çalışmalara devam edilebilmekte.. Yani burada tek bir databasein failover yapmasından bahsediyoruz. HADR ile gelen ...
Bu çözümler bir çok işimizi çözmekle beraber sektörde daha iyi bir high availability beklentisi vardı. Microsoftta Denalide sunduğu HADR çözümleri ile bu istekleri karşılamış gibi gözüküyor.. HADR ile gelen çözümleri şu anki klasik mirroring yapısının iyileştirilmesi gibi düşünebiliriz. Şimdi isterseniz HADR ile beraber neler geliyor madde madde bakalım.. HADR Altyapısı. HADR kullanmak için hepinizin tahmin edebileceği gibi birden fazla node gerekmekte. Bu nodelar üzerinde Windows Server Failover Cluster (WSFC) kurulu olmalı.. SQL Server tipi olarak cluster kurulum yapma zorunluluğu yok. Standalone SQL Server kurulumları ile de HADR kullanılabilmekte.. Multi-Database Failover. Şu anki mirror yapısı tek bir database seviyesinde tanımlanmakta. Mirror yapılan bu databasede bir sıkıntı oluştuğunda mirror databaseden çalışmalara devam edilebilmekte.. Yani burada tek bir databasein failover yapmasından bahsediyoruz. HADR ile gelen ...
TCPA_CRIGR (P18279 ), TCPA_DICDI (Q55BM4 ), TCPA_DROME (P12613 ), TCPA_ENCCU (Q8SSC9 ), TCPA_HUMAN (P17987 ), TCPA_MACFA (Q4R5G2 ), TCPA_MONDO (Q9XT06 ), TCPA_MOUSE (P11983 ), TCPA_PALPA (Q9W790 ), TCPA_RAT (P28480 ), TCPA_SCHMA (Q94757 ), TCPA_SCHPO (O94501 ), TCPA_TETPY (O15891 ), TCPA_YEAST (P12612 ), TCPB_ARATH (Q940P8 ), TCPB_BOVIN (Q3ZBH0 ), TCPB_CAEEL (P47207 ), TCPB_DICDI (Q54ES9 ), TCPB_HUMAN (P78371 ), TCPB_MACFA (Q4R6F8 ), TCPB_MESAU (P86245 ), TCPB_MOUSE (P80314 ), TCPB_RAT (Q5XIM9 ), TCPB_SCHPO (Q10147 ), TCPB_YEAST (P39076 ), TCPD_ARATH (Q9LV21 ), TCPD_ASHGO (Q75A36 ), TCPD_BOVIN (Q2T9X2 ), TCPD_CAEEL (P47208 ), TCPD_CANGA (Q6FQT2 ), TCPD_DEBHA (Q6BXF6 ), TCPD_DICDI (Q54CL2 ), TCPD_HUMAN (P50991 ), TCPD_KLULA (Q6CL82 ), TCPD_MOUSE (P80315 ), TCPD_OCHTR (Q9NB32 ), TCPD_PONAB (Q5R637 ), TCPD_RAT (Q7TPB1 ), TCPD_SCHPO (P50999 ), TCPD_TAKRU (P53451 ), TCPD_YARLI (Q6C100 ), TCPD_YEAST (P39078 ), TCPE1_AVESA (P40412 ), TCPE2_AVESA (P54411 ), TCPE_ARATH (O04450 ), TCPE_CAEEL (P47209 ), ...
While reprocessing is ongoing please note that substances whose registration dossiers are not yet processed can incorrectly state in the Infocard that they are not registered under REACH. In these cases if there is a link to a REACH registered substance factsheet then the substance IS registered. The correct total tonnage band can be found in the factsheet(s) for the substance ...
Method Aerobic wastewater microorganisms of activated sludge exposed to test substance in a 3 -hour respiration inhibition test according to OECD guideline 209. Nominal tested concentrations were: 10, 32, 100, 320 and 1000 mg/l. Concentrations in excess of nominal 1000 mg/l were not tested. In addition, 2 controls and 3 different concentrations of the reference item 3,5-dichlorophenol (5, 16 and 50 mg/l) were tested in parallel. Results The results of these treatments confirmed suitability of the activated sludge and the method used. Up to and including the highest concentration of nominal 1000 mg/l, test substance had no significant inhibitory effect (, 15 %) on the respiration rate of activated sludge after the incubation period of 3 hours. Based on the physical appearance of test suspensions, the saturation concentration (equilibrium) under present test conditions was reached and resulted in less than 15 % inhibition after 3 hours contact time. Thus, the 3-hour EC50 is clearly higher than the ...
Literature References: Cholinesterase inhibitor. Prepd from O,O-diethyl phosphorochloridothioate, 2,4-dichlorophenol and NaOH: Smithey, Jr., US 3004054 (1960 to Virginia-Carolina Chemical). Toxicity data: T. B. Gaines, R. E. Linder, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 7, 299 (1986). ...
It does not depend on the initial concentration of the daughter element being zero. How do we know the ages of fossils and fossil-bearing rocks?...
Desmurs J, Ratton S. Chlorophenols. In: Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th Edition. Kroschwitz JI, Howe-Grant ... "Chlorophenols". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a07_001.pub2. ...
Chlorophenol Trichlorophenol Pentachlorophenol François Muller, Liliane Caillard (2011). "Chlorophenols". Ullmann's ...
François Muller, Liliane Caillard (2011). "Chlorophenols". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH ...
Its pKa is 6.78, which is about 100x more acidic than 2-chlorophenol (8.52) and 1000x more acidic than phenol itself (9.95). It ... 2,6-Dichlorophenol at Sigma-Aldrich François Muller; Liliane Caillard (2011). "Chlorophenols". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
3-Chlorophenol, which does not arise by chlorination of phenol, can be produced by Cumene process beginning with the alkylation ... François Muller, Liliane Caillard (2011). "Chlorophenols". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH ...
Hoke, Jeffrey B.; Gramiccioni, Gary A.; Balko, Edward N. (1992). "Catalytic hydrodechlorination of chlorophenols". Applied ... "Electrochemical Dechlorination of 4-Chlorophenol to Phenol". Environmental Science & Technology. 31 (4): 1074-1078. Bibcode: ...
For example, they convert phenols to chlorophenols. Calcium hypochlorite converts piperidine to N-chloropiperidine. Chlorine ...
Chlorophenols are common in pesticide and industrial waste. 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T were herbicides used to make Agent Orange in the ... 2-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol did not meet the water quality criteria (WQC) suggested by the EPA. CERCLA was designed ... "Toxicological Profile of Chlorophenols and Their Derivatives in the Environment: The Public Health Perspective". The Scientific ... 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), naphthalene, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, diethyl phthalate, Silvex ( ...
Mohn WW, Kennedy KJ (April 1992). "Reductive dehalogenation of chlorophenols by Desulfomonile tiedjei DCB-1". Applied and ...
nov., a 4-chlorophenol-degrading bacterium". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 54 (3): 851-5. ... Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum is a 4-chlorophenol-degrading bacterium from the genus Herbaspirillum. "CIP 108432 Strain ...
It is, however, formed as a synthesis side product when producing certain chlorophenols or chlorophenoxy acid herbicides. It ... chlorophenols, and dioxins". Am J Epidemiol. 145 (12): 1061-1075. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009069. PMID 9199536. Schwarz ... "Cancer mortality in workers exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols". The Lancet. 338 (8774): 1027-1032. doi: ...
Chlorophenols can also be a product of the chlorine bleaching process used to sterilize corks (not in use anymore); this has ... Chlorophenols taken up by cork trees are an industrial pollutant found in many pesticides and wood preservatives, which may ... Chlorine dioxide has not been shown to produce these spontaneous chlorophenols. Chlorine dioxide is a relatively new agent ... but most results when naturally occurring airborne fungi are presented with chlorophenol compounds, which they then convert ...
Arthrobacter defluvii has the ability to degrade 4-chlorophenol. In 2016, taxonomy of this species changed and it became a part ... nov., 4-chlorophenol-degrading bacteria isolated from sewage". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... nov., 4-chlorophenol-degrading bacteria isolated from sewage". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ...
... has the ability to degrade chlorophenol. Parte, A.C. "Novosphingobium". LPSN. "Novosphingobium lentum". ... psychrotolerant and non-motile bacterium from the genus of Novosphingobium which has been isolated from chlorophenol- ...
"Electrochemical oxidation of several chlorophenols on diamond electrodes Part I. Reaction mechanism". Journal of Applied ... "Electrochemical Oxidation of 4-Chlorophenol for Wastewater Treatment: Definition of Normalized Current Efficiency (φ)". Journal ...
"Degradation of chlorophenols by means of advanced oxidation processes: a general review". Applied Catalysis B: Environmental. ...
1997). "Cancer mortality in workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins. An expanded and updated ...
Formulations containing chlorophenol are still available in the United Kingdom. In 1911, poisoning by drinking Lysol was the ...
nov., an anaerobic bacterium which reductively dechlorinates pentachlorophenol to 3-chlorophenol". International Journal of ... "A Desulfitobacterium strain isolated from human feces that does not dechlorinate chloroethenes or chlorophenols". Archives of ... are facultatively organohalide respiring bacteria capable of reductive dechlorination of organohalides such as chlorophenols, ...
Chlorophenols can also be a product of the chlorine bleaching process used to sterilize or bleach wood, paper, and other ... The chlorophenols can originate from various contaminants such as those found in some pesticides and wood preservatives. ... They can also migrate from other objects such as shipping pallets treated by chlorophenols. The odor of TCA is not directly ...
A tank of chlorophenols released its contents to air including many kilograms of TCDD, and contaminated much of the city. The ... Dioxins are formed as important toxic side products in the production of PCBs, chlorophenols, chlorophenoxy acid herbicides, ... Synthesis side products of several chemicals, especially PCBs, chlorophenols, chlorophenoxy acid herbicides and hexachlorophene ... even in cases of severe contamination due to the main chemicals such as chlorophenols. In surface waters, dioxins are bound to ...
ToxFAQs for Chlorophenols, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Edgerton TR, Moseman RF. Determination of ...
... is also used in the production of phenoxy herbicides by etherification with chlorophenols. In this way 2- ...
nov., a new species capable of degrading high concentrations of 4-chlorophenol". International Journal of Systematic and ... is a species of bacteria capable of degrading high concentrations of 4-chlorophenol, hence its name. As such. It may be useful ...
... in some methods the phenol is replaced by 4-chlorophenol, which is less toxic) Perid = peroxidase In ultraviolet (UV) methods ... 4-chlorophenol --(enzyme peroxidase)--> colored complex Urea Urea + water --(enzyme urease)--> ammonium carbonate Ammonium ...
A. crystallopoietes and A. chlorophenolicus have been shown to reduce hexavalent chromium and 4-chlorophenol levels in ... nov., a new species capable of degrading high concentrations of 4-chlorophenol". International Journal of Systematic and ...
Deriving the aquatic predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) of three chlorophenols for the Taihu Lake, China. Journal of ...
It is prepared by the AlCl3-catalyzed reaction of 4-chlorophenol with sulfur dichloride. It can also be prepared by ...
A downstream, nontoxic metabolite, 4-bromo-2-chlorophenol, has been proposed as biomarker for exposure. A United States ... followed by treatment with 4-bromo-2-chlorophenol. A 2007 World Health Organization report found no adverse effects to workers ... "Metabolism of profenofos to 4-bromo-2-chlorophenol, a specific and sensitive exposure biomarker". Toxicology. 306: 35-9. doi: ...
"Partial solubility parameters of chlorobenzene and chlorophenol compounds at equilibrium distribution in two immiscible phases ...
Chlorophenols are a group of compounds that are used in a number of industries and products. Exposure to high levels can cause ... There are 5 basic types of chlorophenols and 19 different chlorophenols.. Most chlorophenols are solid at room temperature. ... What are chlorophenols?. Chlorophenols are a group of chemicals that are produced by adding chlorines to phenol. Phenol is an ... How likely are chlorophenols to cause cancer?. There is evidence to suggest that people exposed to chlorophenols for a long ...
Toxicological Profile for Chlorophenols. Draft for Public Comment Comments may be submitted via Regulations.gov. Public Comment ... Toxicological profile for Chlorophenols (Draft for Public Comment). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, ...
Monochlorophenol (3 positional isomers) 2-Chlorophenol 3-Chlorophenol 4-Chlorophenol Dichlorophenol (6 positional isomers) 2,3- ... Most chlorophenols are solid at room temperature. They have a strong, medicinal taste and smell. Chlorophenols are commonly ... There are five basic types of chlorophenols (mono- to pentachlorophenol) and 19 different chlorophenols in total when ... There is a total of 19 chlorophenols, corresponding to the different ways in which chlorine atoms can be attached to the five ...
4-Chlorophenol is an organic compound with the formula ClC6H4OH. It is one of three monochlorophenol isomers. It is a colorless ... Direct chlorination of molten phenol favors the formation of 2-chlorophenol. It once was produced on a large scale as a ... The commercial dye quinizarin is produced by the reaction of phthalic anhydride and 4-chlorophenol followed by hydrolysis of ... François Muller; Liliane Caillard (2011). "Chlorophenols". Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH ...
2-AMINO-4-CHLOROPHENOL. ICSC. : 1652. p-Chloro-o-aminophenol. 2-Hydroxy-5-chloroaniline. 4-Chloro-2-aminophenol. C.I. 76525. ...
Other names: 3-Chlorophenol, tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether; 3-chlorophenol, TBDMS * Permanent link for this species. Use this ...
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES TO CHLOROPHENOLS. VOL.: 41 (1986) (p. 319) 5. Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation. 5.1 Exposure data ... Several chlorophenols and their salts have been widely produced since the 1950s and used as wood preservatives, fungicides, ... Burning of chlorophenol-containing materials in industrial or municipal incinerators may lead to the formation of various ... There is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of occupational exposure to chlorophenols to humans. For definition of the ...
4-chlorophenol, 99+%, ACROS Organics 100g; Glass bottle Chemicals:Organic Compounds:Benzenoids:Phenols:Halophenols: ... p-chlorophenol,parachlorophenol,phenol, 4-chloro,4-hydroxychlorobenzene,phenol, p-chloro,applied 3-78,4-monochlorophenol,p- ... p-chlorophenol,parachlorophenol,phenol, 4-chloro,4-hydroxychlorobenzene,phenol, p-chloro,applied 3-78,4-monochlorophenol,p- ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
4-chlorophenol EC Number:. 203-402-6. EC Name:. 4-chlorophenol. CAS Number:. 106-48-9 Molecular formula:. C6H5ClO IUPAC Name:. ... 4-chlorophenolchlorophenol. CAS Number:. 106-48-9. Molecular formula:. C6H5ClO. IUPAC ... 4-chlorophenolchlorophenol. CAS Number:. 106-48-9. Molecular formula:. C6H5ClO. IUPAC ...
In accordance with REACH Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 Annex VII, column 2 section 7.14 the study does not need to be conducted if the substance is marketed or used in a non-solid or granular form. The substance is a non-granular (bulk) solid in the form of large chunks at ambient conditions, and as such the study is scientifically not feasible. According to ECHA Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment (Chapter R.7a: Endpoint Specific Guidance, R.7.1.14, July 2017) the study does not need to be conducted ...
This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of 4-chloro-phenol in methanol at infinite dilution for various temperature and ... Winkelmann J. (2018) Diffusion coefficient of 4-chloro-phenol in methanol at infinite dilution. In: Lechner M.D. (eds) ...
4-chlorophenol. C6 H5 Cl O. WXNZTHHGJRFXKQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ...
In addition to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols, workers in manufacturing plants may have been exposed to raw materials, ... Chemical exposure in manufacture of phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols and in spraying of phenoxy herbicides. ...
4-Bromo-2-chlorophenol, 99%, ACROS Organics 5g; Glass bottle Chemicals:Organic Compounds:Benzenoids:Phenols:Halophenols: ... 4-bromo-2-chloro-phenol,attercop-chm at106179,4-bromo-2-chlorophenol 25gr,4-bromo-chlorophenol,pubchem3596,acmc-209j6p. ... 4-bromo-2-chloro-phenol,attercop-chm at106179,4-bromo-2-chlorophenol 25gr,4-bromo-chlorophenol,pubchem3596,acmc-209j6p. ... 2-chloro-4-bromophenol,phenol, 4-bromo-2-chloro,phenol, 4-bromochloro,unii-994sj34d8p, ...
o-chlorophenol, phenol, 2-chloro, 2-hydroxychlorobenzene, o-chlorphenol, o-chlorophenic acid, phenol, o-chloro, 2-chloro-1- ... o-chlorophenol, phenol, 2-chloro, 2-hydroxychlorobenzene, o-chlorphenol, o-chlorophenic acid, phenol, o-chloro, 2-chloro-1- ...
Re: Phenols/Chlorophenols from decoction? « Reply #1 on: September 30, 2012, 08:48:30 PM » ... Re: Phenols/Chlorophenols from decoction? « Reply #2 on: September 30, 2012, 08:54:08 PM » ... Re: Phenols/Chlorophenols from decoction? « Reply #3 on: October 01, 2012, 12:47:32 AM » ... Re: Phenols/Chlorophenols from decoction? « Reply #4 on: October 01, 2012, 01:49:05 AM » ...
... chlorophenols, and dioxins in 12 countries. Subjects in this updated and expanded multinational study coordinated by the ... Cancer mortality in workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins: an expanded and updated international ... chlorophenols, and dioxins in 12 countries. Subjects in this updated and expanded multinational study coordinated by the ... compared with workers from the same cohort exposed to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols but with minimal or no exposure to ...
2-Chlorophenol explanation free. What is 2-Chlorophenol? Meaning of 2-Chlorophenol medical term. What does 2-Chlorophenol mean? ... Looking for online definition of 2-Chlorophenol in the Medical Dictionary? ... chlorophenol. (redirected from 2-Chlorophenol). Also found in: Wikipedia. chlor·o·phe·nol. (klōrō-fēnol), One of several ... UHPLC detects chlorophenols in drinking water: many chlorophenols released into the environment can seep into ground water ...
Chlorophenol-4-monooxygenase component 2. A, B, C, D. 515. Burkholderia cepacia. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: tftD. EC: 1.14.14. ... Crystal Structure of Chlorophenol 4-Monooxygenase (TftD) of Burkholderia cepacia AC1100. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3HWC/pdb ... Characterization of chlorophenol 4-monooxygenase (TftD) and NADH:FAD oxidoreductase (TftC) of Burkholderia cepacia AC1100.. ...
Reaction products of 2-amino-4-chlorophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol-6-sulfonic acid with resorcinol, iron complex, sodium salts ...
Re: "Cancer mortality in workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins. An expanded and updated ... Cancer mortality in workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins. An expanded and updated international ...
2-Amino-4-chlorophenol; methanesulfonic acid , C7H10ClNO4S , CID 269619 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical ...
Oral carcinogenicity and toxicity of 2-amino-4-chlorophenol in rats.. [Kazunori Yamazaki, Masaaki Suzuki, Hirokazu Kano, Yumi ... This study was carried out to clarify the subchronic and chronic toxicity, and carcinogenicity of 2-amino-4-chlorophenol(ACP). ...
... by surface-deposition of gold nanoparticles was investigated trough the photocatalytic degradation of aqueous 4-Chlorophenol (4 ... Titanium dioxide Gold nanoparticles Photocatalysis 4-chlorophenol This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Effect of Gold Particle Size and Deposition Method on the Photodegradation of 4-Chlorophenol by Au/TiO2 ... by surface-deposition of gold nanoparticles was investigated trough the photocatalytic degradation of aqueous 4-Chlorophenol (4 ...
... of chlorophenol wastewater, including 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). Results ... Biodegradability of chlorophenol wastewater enhanced by solar photo-Fenton process. Kuo, W. S.; Lin, I. T. // Water Science & ... Chlorophenols, commonly found in industrial effluents, are considered as priority pollutants because they may cause severe ... This study presents some results on the performance of nanofiltration for the removal of 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol ...
TLC Analysis of Chlorophenols on HPTLC Silica Gel 60 RP-18 F 254s (analyte set 2). ...
65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on P-Chlorophenol Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe ... Major end users of P-Chlorophenol Potential users of P-Chlorophenol The main trading companies of P-Chlorophenol List of ... P-Chlorophenol Global Market and Forecast Research Table of Contents Part 1: General Information of P-Chlorophenol Chapter 1: ... 2.2 Construction of Industry Chain of P-Chlorophenol Chapter 3: End User of P-Chlorophenol List of Tables Manufacturers and ...
Buy 2-Chlorophenol PESTANAL® - CAS Number 95-57-8 from LGC Standards. Please login or register to view prices, check ... NSC 2870 ; o-Chlorophenic acid ; Phenol, o-chloro- (8CI) ; 2-Hydroxychlorobenzene ; 2-Chlorophenol ; o-Chlorophenol ; NSC 5725 ...
  • The present method is suitable for examining whether or not tap water samples are contaminated with phenol and chlorophenols in excess of regulatory values. (scirp.org)
  • Higashi, Y. (2016) Development of Simultaneous HPLC-Fluorescence Assay of Phenol and Chlorophenols in Tap Water after Pre-Column Derivatization with 3-Chlorocarbonyl-6,7-dimethoxy-1- methyl-2(1 H )-quinoxalinone. (scirp.org)
  • Since it is very important to quickly check and confirm the quality of water throughout the world, we set out to develop a sensitive and selective method for simultaneous determination of phenol and chlorophenols without any clean-up step. (scirp.org)
  • Vacuum, 73 (2004) 705] was used for removal of phenol and chlorophenols from water. (ac.rs)
  • Removal of phenol and chlorophenols from. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
  • Using a self-made Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode as the cathode and a Ti/IrO2/RuO2 anode, the degradation of 4-chlorophenol has been investigated in an undivided electrolysis device by the electrochemical oxidation processes. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The degradation of 4-chlorophenol was attributed to the cooperative oxidation processes including electrochemical oxidation at the anode and H2O2 and hydroxyl radical (HO·) produced by the reduction of oxygen at the cathode. (environmental-expert.com)
  • This paper presents results of radiolytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol in the presence of TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , y SiO 2 , using different radiation sources than 60 Co, which is so common in this type of experiment. (scielo.org.mx)
  • There are five basic types of chlorophenols (mono- to pentachlorophenol) and 19 different chlorophenols in total when positional isomerism is taken into account. (wikipedia.org)
  • An admissible daily dose of individual chlorophenol that may be taken by a man that does not induce carcinogenic changes is 5gg/kg of body weight for 2-chlorophenol , and 3gg/kg of body weight for 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol [79]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Exploiting the interparticle electron transfer process in the photocatalysed oxidation of phenol, 2-chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol: chemical evidence for electron and hole transfer between coupled semiconductors", J. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At optimal conditions in which 7 mM coniferyl alcohol and laccase were added to chlorinated phenols over 20h, about 34% of the radioactivity of 4-chlorophenol, 57% of 2,4-dichlorophenol, 66% of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and 85% of pentachlorophenol were removed from the supernatants, compared to the level without laccase activity. (ovid.com)
  • Chlorophenols other than pentachlorophenol / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization. (who.int)
  • Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by the widespread manufacturing and use of chlorophenols other than pentachlorophenol. (who.int)
  • however, children may be more sensitive than adults to the effects of chlorophenol-based pesticides and herbicides. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorophenols are commonly used as pesticides, herbicides, and disinfectants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several chlorophenols and their salts have been widely produced since the 1950s and used as wood preservatives, fungicides, slimicides, weed-killers and as precursors for chlorophenoxy herbicides. (inchem.org)
  • In a Danish cohort study, there may have been exposure to chlorophenols, present as intermediates in the production of chlorophenoxy herbicides. (inchem.org)
  • In addition to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols, workers in manufacturing plants may have been exposed to raw materials, process chemicals, other agents synthesized or formulated, and impurities of all these agents. (ilo.org)
  • Cancer mortality in workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins: an expanded and updated international cohort study. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors examined cancer mortality in a historical cohort study of 21,863 male and female workers in 36 cohorts exposed to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins in 12 countries. (cdc.gov)
  • In a Poisson regression analysis, workers exposed to TCDD or higher chlorinated dioxins had an increased risk for all neoplasms (rate ratio = 1.29,95% CI 0.94-1.76) compared with workers from the same cohort exposed to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols but with minimal or no exposure to TCDD and higher chlorinated dioxins. (cdc.gov)
  • Re: "Cancer mortality in workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins. (nih.gov)
  • There are 5 basic types of chlorophenols and 19 different chlorophenols. (cdc.gov)
  • Low levels of chlorophenols in water, soil, or sediment are broken down and removed from the environment in a few days to weeks by microorganisms. (cdc.gov)
  • Most people are exposed to very low levels of chlorophenols in chlorinated drinking water. (cdc.gov)
  • In laboratory studies, animals that received high levels of chlorophenols in food or water developed liver and immune system effects. (cdc.gov)
  • High levels of chlorophenols given to pregnant female rats in their drinking water reduced the number of babies they had, and caused low birth weights. (cdc.gov)
  • Increased urinary levels of chlorophenols and increased concentrations in adipose tissue of some chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans have been measured in workers exposed in sawmills and tanneries and in the textile industry. (inchem.org)
  • Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study of 2-chlorophenol adsorption onto Ricinus communis pericarp activated carbon from aqueous solutions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Adsorption and bio-sorption of nickel ions and reuse for 2-chlorophenol catalytic ozonation oxidation degradation from water. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Variables in the adsorption process were bed depths, (5, 10 and 15 cm), flow rate (1, 2 and 4 ml/min), influent 4-chlorophenol concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 mg/l) and influent solution pH (6-7). (iwaponline.com)
  • The highest adsorption capacity (145.2 mg/g) on a 5 mg/l 4-chlorophenol solution was achieved within a flow rate of 1 ml/min and a bed depth of 15 cm. (iwaponline.com)
  • Adsorption rates of chlorophenols were very high. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
  • The maximum adsorption values of chlorophenols onto the Reactive Green HE 4BD carrying hollow fibers were 145.9 mu mol/g for phenol, 179.2 mu mol/g for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 194.5 mu mol/g for p-chlorophenol and 202.8 mu mol/g for o-chlorophenol. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
  • The adsorption capacity of chlorophenols decreased with increasing pH. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
  • Desorption of chlorophenols was achieved using methanol solution (30%, v/v). The Reactive Green HE 4BD-carrying hollow fibers are suitable for repeated use for more than 10 cycles without noticeable loss of adsorption capacity. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
  • A laboratory scale set-up fitted with AFC 40 membranes was used for the study of nanofiltration parameters influence (mode of operation, pressure and cleaning conditions) on the removal efficiencies, considering different initial concentrations of 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol in the aqueous solutions. (ebscohost.com)
  • The result indicated that the neutral aqueous solutions can accelerate 4-chlorophenol degradation during electrolysis. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Density data for dilute aqueous solutions of two isomeric chlorohydroxybenzenes (chlorophenols) obtained in the temperature range 298.15 K to 573.15 K and at either atmospheric pressure, or at pressures close to the saturated vapour pressure of water, and at pressures up to 30 MPa are presented together with partial molar volumes calculated from the experimental data. (edu.au)
  • Here it is applied as an extraction solvent for chlorophenol determination in water samples with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. (rsc.org)
  • Chlorophenols (2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,6-dichlorophenol and 2,4, 6-trichlorophenol) may be presented in natural waters or drinking water as a result of disinfection processes involving chlorination, or as contaminants derived from domestic products, industrial operations and agricultural chemicals. (scirp.org)
  • In view of the predominant uses of chlorophenols, a section linking levels in the environment to human exposure concentrates on the presence of these chemicals in drinking-water, foods and feed, and treated wood. (who.int)
  • Pseudomonas putida CPI degraded mono-chlorophenols to completion via an orthocleavage pathway. (dcu.ie)
  • Three indigenous pseudomonads, Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4, Pseudomonas reactans and Pseudomonas fluorescens , were isolated from chlorophenol-contaminated soil samples collected from a sawmill located in Durban (South Africa). (springer.com)
  • chlorophenols Pseudomonas spp. (springer.com)
  • Literature data on the toxicity of chlorophenols for three luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, and the lux-marked Pseudomonas fluorescens 10586s pUCD607 and Burkholderia spp. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Influences of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) for autoaggregation of Pseudomonas putida CP1 during growth on mono-chlorophenol. (usm.my)
  • This study investigated the encapsulation and photocatalysis of chlorophenol compounds in water using porphyrin-(polystyrene-b-2-dimethylaminoethyl acrylate) star polymer. (kist.re.kr)
  • Photodegradation of 2-chlorophenol over colloidal [alpha]-feooh supported mesostructured silica nanoparticles: Influence of a pore expander and reaction optimization. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A previous HPLC-UV method for determination of phenol and five chlorophenols in tap water using 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiaole as a UV labeling reagent shows limited sensitivity. (scirp.org)
  • Here, we present an improved HPLC-fluorescence detection method for simultaneous determination of phenol and the above chlorophenols in tap water after pre-column derivatization with 3-chlorocarbonyl-6,7-dimethoxy-1-methyl-2(1 H )-quino- xalinone (DMEQ-COCl), using a short, narrow column (50 × 2.1 mm i.d., packed with 5 μm particles of C18 material) to improve the sensitivity. (scirp.org)
  • Phenols/Chlorophenols from decoction? (homebrewersassociation.org)
  • Author Topic: Phenols/Chlorophenols from decoction? (homebrewersassociation.org)
  • Re: Phenols/Chlorophenols from decoction? (homebrewersassociation.org)
  • This correlation successfully predicted the toxicity of the heavily chlorinated phenols, suggesting in V. fischeri only one overall mechanism is present for all chlorophenols. (qub.ac.uk)
  • With 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, 99.8 and 98.9% of corresponding phenols were removed. (ac.rs)
  • Chlorophenols stick to soil and sediments at the bottom of lakes, streams, and rivers. (cdc.gov)
  • A method for determination of chlorophenols (CPs) in sediments was developed using ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by solid-phase extraction, derivatization, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The photoactivity of TiO 2 P25 modified by surface-deposition of gold nanoparticles was investigated trough the photocatalytic degradation of aqueous 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP). (springer.com)
  • Oral carcinogenicity and toxicity of 2-amino-4-chlorophenol in rats. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This study was carried out to clarify the subchronic and chronic toxicity, and carcinogenicity of 2-amino-4-chlorophenol(ACP). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • For mono-, di- and tri-chlorophenols multiple linear regression analysis of V. fischeri toxicity showed a good correlation with the solvent accessible surface area and the charge on the oxygen atom. (qub.ac.uk)
  • The previously described trends of increasing toxicity with increasing chlorine substitution and the observation that meta-substituted chlorophenols are more toxic than their ortho-substituted counterparts are also confirmed. (waikato.ac.nz)
  • To validate the precision of the miniaturised format, the concentrations required to cause a 50% decrease in signal (EC50) by an archetypal group of toxicants, the chlorophenols, were determined using two terrestrial bacterial strains, Escherichia coli K12 and Klebsiella oxytoca 13183. (waikato.ac.nz)
  • It suggested that most of 4-chlorophenol was oxidised to intermediates using the Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode. (environmental-expert.com)
  • These intermediates can be degraded by two chlorophenol hydroxylases encoded by the tfdB(I) and tfdB(II) genes to produce the respective chlorocatechols. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Previous IARC evaluations of the carcinogenicity to experimental animals of several individual chlorophenols and of their impurity, 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro- para- dibenzodioxin (TCDD), are summarized in section 3.1, in this volume. (inchem.org)
  • There is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of occupational exposure to chlorophenols to humans. (inchem.org)
  • Reactive Green HE 4BD carrying polyamide hollow fibers were investigated as dye-affinity adsorbents for removal of chlorophenols (i.e., phenol. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
  • A review of data on kinetics and metabolism concludes that experimental animals accumulate chlorophenols mostly in the liver and kidney. (who.int)
  • Characterization of a second tfd gene cluster for chlorophenol and chlorocatechol metabolism on plasmid pJP4 in Ralstonia eutropha JMP134(pJP4). (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Results of this study will be helpful in the exploitation of these organisms and/or their enzymes in bioremediation strategies for chlorophenol-polluted environment. (springer.com)
  • Some chlorophenols are used as pesticides. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorophenols can enter the environment when they are being made or used as pesticides. (cdc.gov)
  • You can be exposed if you work with chlorophenols or use them as pesticides. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers exposed to pesticides that contain chlorophenols have developed acne and mild injury to their livers. (cdc.gov)
  • Parents should keep children away from areas where chlorophenols have been used as pesticides. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorophenols (CPs) are used in the production of pesticides and preservatives. (mysciencework.com)
  • Studies in rats showed that chlorophenols can pass through the placenta and produce toxic effects to the developing fetuses. (cdc.gov)
  • An accumulation of chlorophenol was found to inhibit chlorophenoxyacetate degradation, and inactivation of the tfdB genes enhanced the toxic effect of 2,4-DCP on C. necator cells. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • The results of this work indicate that codification and expression of the two tfdB genes in pJP4 are important to avoid toxic accumulations of chlorophenols during phenoxyacetic acid degradation and that a balance between chlorophenol-producing and chlorophenol-consuming reactions is necessary for growth on these compounds. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Chlorophenols can be easily oxidized into chlorobenzoquinones (CBQs), which are highly toxic and have been linked to bladder cancer risk. (usda.gov)
  • 2] Anodes in Electrochemical Degradation of 2-chlorophenol for Wastewater Treatment," J. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To accomplish this, the tfdB(I) and tfdB(II) genes were independently inactivated, and growth on each chlorophenoxyacetate and total chlorophenol hydroxylase activity were measured for the mutant strains. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • These results indicate that an active species in addition to the hydroxyl radical participates in the formation of the p-semiquinone radical from chlorophenols during ozonation. (elsevier.com)
  • Surface chemical analysis of corroded alloys in subcritical and supercritical water oxidation of 2-chlorophenol in continuous anticorrosive reactor system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chlorophenols are a group of compounds that are used in a number of industries and products. (cdc.gov)
  • P. viridicatum produced compounds such as 4-methyl thiazole, terpenes and alcohols, whereas M. mesophilicum produced dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and chlorophenol with growth on laboratory media. (nih.gov)
  • There is a total of 19 chlorophenols, corresponding to the different ways in which chlorine atoms can be attached to the five carbons in the benzene ring of the phenol molecule, excluding the carbon atom to which the hydroxy group is attached. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, a new methodology for this combination using water-in-oil microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography coupled with normal stacking mode on-line sample concentration was developed to analyze chlorophenols in water samples. (separationsnow.com)
  • The column sorption process was found to perform better at lower influent 4-chlorophenol concentration, lower flow rate and higher bed depth. (iwaponline.com)
  • The breakthrough time and exhaustion time decreased with increasing flow rate, decreasing bed depth and increasing influent 4-chlorophenol concentration. (iwaponline.com)
  • Chlorophenol hydroxylases encoded by plasmid pJP4 differentially contribute to chlorophenoxyacetic acid degradation. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Although agricultural use is now restricted in a number of countries, chlorophenols continue to be widely applied in wood treatment and preservation and in the surface treatment of freshly cut logs and lumber. (who.int)
  • Chlorophenol red (CPR) is widely used as a chromogenic label, but its capacity for translation to electroanalytical devices has yet to be fully explored. (elsevier.com)
  • How can families reduce the risk of exposure to chlorophenols? (cdc.gov)
  • Widespread occupational exposure to chlorophenols and their chlorinated dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran impurities is known to have occurred, especially in manufacturing plants and in wood-treatment applications. (inchem.org)
  • A statistically significant association between malignant lymphoma and exposure to chlorophenols was identified in a Swedish case-control study. (inchem.org)
  • A case-control study in Sweden detected a significant association between nasal and nasopharyngeal cancer and exposure to chlorophenols, independent of exposure to wood dust. (inchem.org)
  • A commercial mixed culture, Biolyte HAB, degraded mono-chlorophenols using a metci- cleavage pathway. (dcu.ie)
  • Growth of P. putida CPI on the mono-chlorophenols resulted in the formation of large clumps of cells in the culture medium. (dcu.ie)
  • The beneficial effect of Biolyte HAB on the degradation of mono-chlorophenols by P. putida CPI was greatest for 3-chlorophenol, followed by 2-chlorophenol and finally 4- chlorophenol. (dcu.ie)
  • Nanofiltration (NF) represents an important option for the removal of chlorophenols present in aqueous effluents. (ebscohost.com)
  • This study presents some results on the performance of nanofiltration for the removal of 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol from synthetic wastewaters considering the selection of adequate operating and cleaning conditions, flux recovery and removal efficiencies. (ebscohost.com)
  • The results show that, depending on process parameters and initial pollutant loads, it is possible to achieve removal efficiencies of up to 85% for both chlorophenols. (ebscohost.com)
  • The removal efficiency of 4-chlorophenol and COD reached about 89.6% and 62.0% after 120 min electrolysis, respectively. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Total bacterial numbers, chlorophenol degrading numbers and P. putida CPI numbers were found to increase with substrate removal. (dcu.ie)
  • Continuous fixed-bed column studies were carried out using nano graphene oxide adsorbent for the removal of 4-chlorophenol in a contaminated aquatic solution. (iwaponline.com)
  • Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were successfully used for predicting breakthrough curves for 4-chlorophenol removal by a fixed bed of nano graphene oxide using different flow rates and bed depths. (iwaponline.com)
  • The porphyrin-(polystyrene-b-2-dimethylaminoethyl acrylate) star polymer impregnated porphyrin is a promising photocatalyst for the removal of chlorophenols. (kist.re.kr)
  • 4-Chlorophenol is an organic compound with the formula ClC6H4OH. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2-Chlorophenol or ortho-chlorophenol is an organic compound, a derivative of phenol. (molbase.com)
  • Biolyte HAB was capable of the complete degradation of 2.34 mM 4-chlorophenol, via the intermediate 5-chloro-2- hydroxymuconic semialdehyde, using the meta- cleavage pathway. (dcu.ie)