Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Pentachlorophenol: An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with strong irritant properties. Use of this compound on rice fields, orchards, sugarcane, rangeland, and other noncrop sites was terminated by the EPA in 1985. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic Acid: A powerful herbicide used as a selective weed killer.Glycolates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Desulfitobacterium: A genus of anaerobic, gram-positive bacteria in the family Peptococcaceae, that reductively dechlorinates CHLOROPHENOLS.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Chlorobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Choroid Diseases: Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.EuropeAnimal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Fukushima Nuclear Accident: Nuclear power accident that occurred following the Tohoku-Kanto earthquake of March 11, 2011 in the northern region of Japan.Sarin: An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Cesium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.Radiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Outliers, DRG: In health care reimbursement, especially in the prospective payment system, those patients who require an unusually long hospital stay or whose stay generates unusually high costs.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Hematinics: Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.2,2'-Dipyridyl: A reagent used for the determination of iron.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Dithionitrobenzoic Acid: A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.Nitrobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more nitro groups.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Liquid Phase Microextraction: Miniaturized methods of liquid-liquid extraction.Dimethoate: An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic and contact insecticide.Chromatography, Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary: A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.Simazine: A triazine herbicide.Solid Phase Microextraction: A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.Octanes: Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.

Decolorization and detoxification of extraction-stage effluent from chlorine bleaching of kraft pulp by Rhizopus oryzae. (1/308)

Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycete, was found to decolorize, dechlorinate, and detoxify bleach plant effluent at lower cosubstrate concentrations than the basidiomycetes previously investigated. With glucose at 1 g/liter, this fungus removed 92 to 95% of the color, 50% of the chemical oxygen demand, 72% of the adsorbable organic halide, and 37% of the extractable organic halide in 24 h at temperatures of 25 to 45 degrees C and a pH of 3 to 5. Even without added cosubstrate the fungus removed up to 78% of the color. Monomeric chlorinated aromatic compounds were removed almost completely, and toxicity to zebra fish was eliminated. The fungal mycelium could be immobilized in polyurethane foam and used repeatedly to treat batches of effluent. The residue after treatment was not further improved by exposure to fresh R. oryzae mycelium.  (+info)

Initial reactions in the biodegradation of 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene by a newly isolated bacterium, strain LW1. (2/308)

Bacterial strain LW1, which belongs to the family Comamonadaceae, utilizes 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene (1C4NB) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Suspensions of 1C4NB-grown cells removed 1C4NB from culture fluids, and there was a concomitant release of ammonia and chloride. Under anaerobic conditions LW1 transformed 1C4NB into a product which was identified as 2-amino-5-chlorophenol by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. This transformation indicated that there was partial reduction of the nitro group to the hydroxylamino substituent, followed by Bamberger rearrangement. In the presence of oxygen but in the absence of NAD, fast transformation of 2-amino-5-chlorophenol into a transiently stable yellow product was observed with resting cells and cell extracts. This compound exhibited an absorption maximum at 395 nm and was further converted to a dead-end product with maxima at 226 and 272 nm. The compound formed was subsequently identified by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry as 5-chloropicolinic acid. In contrast, when NAD was added in the presence of oxygen, only minor amounts of 5-chloropicolinic acid were formed, and a new product, which exhibited an absorption maximum at 306 nm, accumulated.  (+info)

Superficial buffer barrier and preferentially directed release of Ca2+ in canine airway smooth muscle. (3/308)

We examined cytosolic concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in canine airway smooth muscle using fura 2 fluorimetry (global changes in [Ca2+]i), membrane currents (subsarcolemmal [Ca2+]i), and contractions (deep cytosolic [Ca2+]i). Acetylcholine (10(-4) M) elicited fluorimetric, electrophysiological, and mechanical responses. Caffeine (5 mM), ryanodine (0.1-30 microM), and 4-chloro-3-ethylphenol (0.1-0.3 mM), all of which trigger Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, evoked Ca2+ transients and membrane currents but not contractions. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-pump inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA; 10 microM) evoked Ca2+ transients and contractions but not membrane currents. Caffeine occluded the response to CPA, whereas CPA occluded the response to acetylcholine. Finally, KCl contractions were augmented by CPA, ryanodine, or saturation of the SR and reduced when SR filling state was decreased before exposure to KCl. We conclude that 1) the SR forms a superficial buffer barrier dividing the cytosol into functionally distinct compartments in which [Ca2+]i is regulated independently; 2) Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release is preferentially directed toward the sarcolemma; and 3) there is no evidence for multiple, pharmacologically distinct Ca2+ pools.  (+info)

Earthworm egg capsules as vectors for the environmental introduction of biodegradative bacteria. (4/308)

Earthworm egg capsules (cocoons) may acquire bacteria from the environment in which they are produced. We found that Ralstonia eutropha (pJP4) can be recovered from Eisenia fetida cocoons formed in soil inoculated with this bacterium. Plasmid pJP4 contains the genes necessary for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2, 4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation. In this study we determined that the presence of R. eutropha (pJP4) within the developing earthworm cocoon can influence the degradation and toxicity of 2,4-D and 2,4-DCP, respectively. The addition of cocoons containing R. eutropha (pJP4) at either low or high densities (10(2) or 10(5) CFU per cocoon, respectively) initiated degradation of 2,4-D in nonsterile soil microcosms. Loss of 2,4-D was observed within the first week of incubation, and respiking the soil with 2,4-D showed depletion within 24 h. Microbial analysis of the soil revealed the presence of approximately 10(4) CFU R. eutropha (pJP4) g-1 of soil. The toxicity of 2,4-DCP to developing earthworms was tested by using cocoons with or without R. eutropha (pJP4). Results showed that cocoons containing R. eutropha (pJP4) were able to tolerate higher levels of 2,4-DCP. Our results indicate that the biodegradation of 2, 4-DCP by R. eutropha (pJP4) within the cocoons may be the mechanism contributing to toxicity reduction. These results suggest that the microbiota may influence the survival of developing earthworms exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition, cocoons can be used as inoculants for the introduction into the environment of beneficial bacteria, such as strains with biodegradative capabilities.  (+info)

Heat-induced expression and chemically induced expression of the Escherichia coli stress protein HtpG are affected by the growth environment. (5/308)

Differences in expression of the Escherichia coli stress protein HtpG were found following exposure of exponentially growing cells to heat or chemical shock when cells were grown under different environmental conditions. With an htpG::lacZ reporter system, htpG expression increased in cells grown in a complex medium (Luria-Bertani [LB] broth) following a temperature shock at 45 degrees C. In contrast, no HtpG overexpression was detected in cells grown in a glucose minimal medium, despite a decrease in the growth rate. Similarly, in pyruvate-grown cells there was no heat shock induction of HtpG expression, eliminating the possibility that repression of HtpG in glucose-grown E. coli was due to catabolite repression. When 5 mM phenol was used as a chemical stress agent for cells growing in LB broth, expression of HtpG increased. However, when LB-grown cells were subjected to stress with 10 mM phenol and when both 5 and 10 mM phenol were added to glucose-grown cultures, repression of htpG expression was observed. 2-Chlorophenol stress resulted in overexpression of HtpG when cells were grown in complex medium but repression of HtpG synthesis when cells were grown in glucose. No induction of htpG expression was seen with 2, 4-dichlorophenol in cells grown with either complex medium or glucose. The results suggest that, when a large pool of amino acids and proteins is available, as in complex medium, a much stronger stress response is observed. In contrast, when cells are grown in a simple glucose mineral medium, htpG expression either is unaffected or is even repressed by imposition of a stress condition. The results demonstrate the importance of considering differences in growth environment in order to better understand the nature of the response to an imposed stress condition.  (+info)

Fraction of electrons consumed in electron acceptor reduction and hydrogen thresholds as indicators of halorespiratory physiology. (6/308)

Measurements of the hydrogen consumption threshold and the tracking of electrons transferred to the chlorinated electron acceptor (f(e)) reliably detected chlororespiratory physiology in both mixed cultures and pure cultures capable of using tetrachloroethene, cis-1, 2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorobenzoate, 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate, or 1,2-dichloropropane as an electron acceptor. Hydrogen was consumed to significantly lower threshold concentrations of less than 0.4 ppmv compared with the values obtained for the same cultures without a chlorinated compound as an electron acceptor. The f(e) values ranged from 0.63 to 0.7, values which are in good agreement with theoretical calculations based on the thermodynamics of reductive dechlorination as the terminal electron-accepting process. In contrast, a mixed methanogenic culture that cometabolized 3-chlorophenol exhibited a significantly lower f(e) value, 0.012.  (+info)

Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol in a continuous anaerobic reactor augmented with Desulfitobacterium frappieri PCP-1. (7/308)

In this work, a strain of anaerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrader, Desulfitobacterium frappieri PCP-1, was used to augment a mixed bacterial community of an anaerobic upflow sludge bed reactor degrading PCP. To estimate the efficiency of augmentation, the population of PCP-1 in the reactor was enumerated by a competitive PCR technique. The PCP-1 strain appeared to compete well with other microorganisms of the mixed bacterial community, with its population increasing from 10(6) to 10(10) cells/g of volatile suspended solids within a period of 70 days. Proliferation of strain PCP-1 allowed for a substantial increase of the volumetric PCP load from 5 to 80 mg/liter of reaction volume/day. A PCP removal efficiency of 99% and a dechlorination efficiency of not less than 90.5% were observed throughout the experiment, with 3-Cl-phenol and phenol being observable dechlorination intermediates.  (+info)

Reductive dehalogenation and conversion of 2-chlorophenol to 3-chlorobenzoate in a methanogenic sediment community: implications for predicting the environmental fate of chlorinated pollutants. (8/308)

Biotransformation of 2-chlorophenol by a methanogenic sediment community resulted in the transient accumulation of phenol and benzoate. 3-Chlorobenzoate was a more persistent product of 2-chlorophenol metabolism. The anaerobic biotransformation of phenol to benzoate presumably occurred via para-carboxylation and dehydroxylation reactions, which may also explain the observed conversion of 2-chlorophenol to 3-chlorobenzoate.  (+info)

Chlorophenols are a group of chemicals in which chlorines (between one and five) have been added to phenol.� Phenol is an aromatic compound derived from benzene, the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon, by adding a hydroxy group to a carbon� to replace a hydrogen.� There are five basic types of chlorophenols:� mono[one]chlorophenols, di[two]chlorophenols, tri[three]chlorophenols, tetra[four]chlorophenols, and penta[five]chlorophenols.� In all, there are 19 different chlorophenols.� Eight are discussed in this document:� 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, and 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol.� Pentachlorophenol is discussed in another document.
Separation of 2-Chlorophenol; 2,4-Dichlorophenol; 2,4,6-Tribromophenol; 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol; 2,4-Dinitrophenol; Pentafluorophenol; 2-Methylphenol, analytical standard; 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol; Pentachlorophenol; 4-Nitrophenol; 2-Bromophenol; 2,3,5,6-Tetrachlorophenol; 2,3,5-Trichlorophenol; 4-Chloro-3-methylphenol; 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol; 4-Methylphenol, analytical standard; 2,4-Dimethylphenol; 2-Nitrophenol; 3-Methylphenol, analytical standard; Phenol; 2-Methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol; 2,3,4-Trichlorophenol; 2,6-Dichlorophenol; 2,3,4,5-Tetrachlorophenol
The authors examined cancer mortality in a historical cohort study of 21,863 male and female workers in 36 cohorts exposed to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins in 12 countries. Subjects in this updated and expanded multinational study coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer were followed from 1939 to 1992. Exposure was reconstructed using job records, company ex
M. M. Mortland, Sun Shaobai, S. A. Boyd; Clay-organic complexes as adsorbents for phenol and chlorophenols. Clays and Clay Minerals ; 34 (5): 581-585. doi: Download citation file:. ...
While direct toxicity assessment (DTA) is now widely recognised as a useful tool for environmental risk assessment, many existing tests fail to meet end-user needs. This article describes the significant progress made to the MICREDOX® DTA assay, developed at Lincoln Ventures Ltd, brought about by miniaturising this assay to a multi-well plate format combined with limiting current microelectrode transduction. The benefits have been reduced: preparation time, reduced assay time, lower material costs and a higher level of replication achieved. To validate the precision of the miniaturised format, the concentrations required to cause a 50% decrease in signal (EC50) by an archetypal group of toxicants, the chlorophenols, were determined using two terrestrial bacterial strains, Escherichia coli K12 and Klebsiella oxytoca 13183. The assay time was then reduced by stepwise adjustment of the incubation time, from 60 down to 5 min, and the EC50s reported by E. coli to each of the toxicants after 45, 30, ...
2,3,4-Trichlorophenol 15950-66-0 MSDS report, 2,3,4-Trichlorophenol MSDS safety technical specifications search, 2,3,4-Trichlorophenol safety information specifications ect.
This study investigated the encapsulation and photocatalysis of chlorophenol compounds in water using porphyrin-(polystyrene-b-2-dimethylaminoethyl acrylate) star polymer. The chloride ions generated during photocatalytic process were identified and quantified. 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol and 2, 4-dichlorophenol were satisfactorily decomposed in the photo-reactor using porphyrin-(polystyrene-b-2-dimethylaminoethyl acrylate) star polymer, with removal efficiencies of 2454, 498 and 760 mg per gram of porphyrin-(polystyrene-b-2-dimethylaminoethyl acrylate) star polymer. The half-life times reached around 30 minutes, with the exception of that for 2, 4- dichlorophenol. The porphyrin-(polystyrene-b-2-dimethylaminoethyl acrylate) star polymer impregnated porphyrin is a promising photocatalyst for the removal of chlorophenols ...
This study investigated the adsorption potential of oil palm shell-based activated carbon to remove 2,4,6-trichlorophenol from aqueous solution using fixed-bed adsorption column. The effects of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol inlet concentration, feed flow rate and activated carbon bed height on the breakthrough characteristics of the adsorption system were determined. The regeneration efficiency of the oil palm shell-based activated carbon was evaluated using ethanol desorption technique. Through ethanol desorption, 96.25% of the adsorption sites could be recovered from the regenerated activated carbon.. ...
In the present study, a comparative assessment of 2,4,6-T (2,4,6-Trichlorophenol) degradation by different AOPs (Advanced Oxidation Processes - UV, U
Abstract : 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) are two isomers of dichlorophenols, have beenused as preservative agents for wood, paints, vegetable fibers and as intermediates in the production of pharmaceuticals anddyes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 2H/1H or13C/12C, and 18O/16O or 37Cl/35Cl, in dichlorophenol isomers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 2,4-DCP and 2,6-DCP samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control sample remained as untreated, whilethe treated sample was further divided into four groups as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedisbiofield energy treatment. The GC-MS spectra of 2,4-DCP and 2,6-DCP showed three to six m/z peaks at 162, 126, 98, 73, 63,37 etc. due to the molecular ion peak and fragmented peaks. The isotopic abundance ratios (percentage) in both the isomerswere increased significantly ...
Ex-situ bioremediation of saturated soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol and 2,3,5,6-TeCP is commonly accomplished by landfarming or by treatment in a bioreactor. Treating saturated, low-permeability soils in bioreactors, without pre-treatment requires a reactor capable of promoting anaerobic and/or aerobic removal of chlorophenols without transferring these contaminants to the aqueous phase. A pilot-scale bioreactor was designed to treat 3.7 cubic meters of contaminated soil with a saturated hydraulic conductivity of 0.12 cm/day. The bioreactor demonstrated significant removal of chlorophenols when soil was infused with a treatment mixture containing imitation vanilla flavoring as an electron donor for reductive dechlorination and primary substrate for aerobic cometabolism. Bench scale studies showed greater overall removal when feed mixtures included an inoculated biomass, or when treatment mixtures were maintained anaerobically prior to use. The combined results of these studies suggest ...
The residue dynamics and risk assessment of prochloraz and its metabolite 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) in apple under different treatment concentrations were investigated using a GC-ECD method. The derivatization percent of prochloraz to 2,4,6-TCP was stable and complete. The recoveries of prochloraz and 2,4,6-TCP were 82.9%-114.4%, and the coefficients of variation (CV) were 0.7%-8.6% for the whole fruit, apple pulp, and apple peel samples. Under the application of 2 °C 2.0 g/L, 2 °C 1.0 g/L, 20 °C 2.0 g/L, and 20 °C 1.0 g/L treatment, the half-life for the degradation of prochloraz was 57.8-86.6 d in the whole fruit and apple peel, and the prochloraz concentration in the apple pulp increased gradually until a peak (0.72 mg·kg−1) was reached. The concentration of 2,4,6-TCP was below 0.1 mg·kg−1 in four treatment conditions and not detected (<LOD) in apple pulp. Finally, based on the detection of market samples in Hefei (China), we believe that the residual level of prochloraz in
The unexplained deaths and illnesses at Shenandoah immediately caught the attention of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). In August 1971, the CDC completed an inspection of Shenandoah Stable, and collected human and animal blood samples, as well as soil samples.[10] Although initial results revealed that the soil at Shenandoah Stable contained PCBs and chlorinated insecticides, the CDC was unable to identify a specific chemical culprit. It was not until 1973 that tests revealed the presence of trichlorophenol.[14] When trace amounts of the crude trichlorophenol contaminant were administered to the inner surfaces of rabbit ears, blisters developed, which was a characteristic result of trichlorophenol poisoning.[10] The unexpected death of some of the affected rabbits however, led the CDC to run more complex tests. On July 30, 1974, the CDC found that, in addition to 5,000 ppm of trichlorophenol and 1,590 ppm of PCBs, the soil samples collected from Shenandoah contained over 30 ppm of ...
Article Investigation of UV-assisted chlorophenol congeners’ degradation by organic oxidant |italic|p|/italic|-nitrobenzoic acid in basic media. This research specifically addressed the photodegradation of selected model chlorophenol (CP) cong...
This parameter is a very useful tool that involves the degradation rate and the biomass growth, referred to the initial biomass instead of the actual biomass. Progressively, the biomass grows and the degradation rate increases. This parameter simultaneously takes both into account.. Results and discussion. The mixed culture constituted of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Achromobacter marplatensis was able to simultaneously degrade the mixture of highly-substituted chlorophenols PCP, 2,3,5,6-TeCP and 2,4,6-TCP, as the only source of carbon and energy in batch and fed-batch systems. The initial experimental settings for the fed-batch assays at different feed flow rates (I, II, III) and the batch system control (B) is shown in Table 1. The initial biomass was similar in all cases but the initial CP concentrations were much higher in B than in the fed-batch assays when they were close to zero (Table I). The substrate to biomass yield coefficients based on total CP degradation are also shown in Table 1. ...
... ,2,4,5-Trichlorophenol compd with piperazine (2:1),bis(2,4,5-trichlorophenol) piperazine,piperazine salt of bis(2,4,5-trichlorophenol),CI-416,Ranestol (obsolete)
2,4,5-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TftD) and 2,4,6-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TcpA) have been discovered in the biodegradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). TcpA and TftD belong to the reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2)-dependent monooxygenases and both use 2,4,6-TCP as a substrate; however, the two enzymes produce different end products. TftD catalyzes a typical monooxygenase reaction, while TcpA catalyzes a typical monooxygenase reaction followed by a hydrolytic dechlorination. We have previously reported the 3D structure of TftD and confirmed the catalytic residue, His289. Here we have determined the crystal structure of TcpA and investigated the apparent differences in specificity and catalysis between these two closely related monooxygenases through structural comparison. Our computational docking results suggest that Ala293 in TcpA (Ile292 in TftD) is possibly responsible for the differences in substrate specificity between the two monooxygenases. We have
Abstract : The chlorinated phenols are widely used in chemical industries for the manufacturing of herbicides, insecticides,etc. However, due to consistent use they create hazards to the environment. This study was designed to use an alternativemethod i.e. biofield energy treatment and analyse its impact on the physicochemical properties of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), which are the important factors related to its degradation. The 2,4-DCP sample was treated with Mr. Trivedis biofieldenergy and analyzed as compared to the untreated 2,4-DCP sample (control) using various analytical techniques. The X-raydiffraction studies revealed up to 19.4% alteration in the lattice parameters along with approximately 1.8% alteration in themolecular weight, unit cell volume and density of the treated sample. The crystallite size of treated sample was increased andfound as 215.24 nm as compared to 84.08 nm in the control sample. Besides, the thermal study results showed an alteration inthe thermal stability ...
Product name : JC-10 Mitochondrial membrane potential determination, FC, fluorescence microscopy, fluorescent assaysPurity: >98%Format: solidHandling & Safety
A mesoporous Fe₃/MnO₂ composite was fabricated by a co-precipitation method in this paper, and it showed a much higher activity than Fe₃O₄ and MnO₂ in the catalytic ozonation of a p-cresol and p-chlorophenol mixture. The physicochemical properties of Fe₃O₄ and MnO₂ and Fe₃O₄/MnO₂ were compared using XRD, SEM, TEM and N₂ physical adsorption/desorption. pH had a significant effect on the degradation ...
3,5-Dichlorophenol 591-35-5 NMR spectrum, 3,5-Dichlorophenol H-NMR spectral analysis, 3,5-Dichlorophenol C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
NTP STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY TUMORS REPORT: PEIRPT08 LAB: Battelle Columbus 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOL DATE: 09/07/94 EXPERIMENT: 05052 TEST: 01 TIME: 20:38:43 TEST TYPE: CHRONIC CAGES FROM 0000 TO LAST CAGE PAGE: 1 CONT: N01-ES-38068 ROUTE: DOSED FEED NTP C#: C55345 PATHOLOGIST: S. ESUTIS R. PERSING CAS: 120-83-2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ REASONS FOR REMOVAL: ALL REMOVAL DATE RANGE: ALL TREATMENT GROUPS: INCLUDE ALL NTP STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY TUMORS REPORT: PEIRPT08 LAB: Battelle Columbus 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOL DATE: 09/07/94 EXPERIMENT: 05052 TEST: 01 TIME: 20:38:43 TEST TYPE: CHRONIC CAGES FROM 0000 TO LAST CAGE CONT: N01-ES-38068 ROUTE: DOSED FEED NTP C#: C55345 PATHOLOGIST: S. ESUTIS R. PERSING CAS: 120-83-2 RATS(FISCHER344) ---------------------------- FOR ALL DOSES THE TUMOR RATES IN THE FOLLOWING TISSUES/ORGANS ARE BASED ON NUMBER OF TISSUES EXAMINED. IN OTHER TISSUES/ORGANS, ...
InCHi String: canonical and isomeric SMILES: C1=CC(=C(C(=C1)Cl)O)Cl. PUBCHEM iupac NAME: PUBCHEM iupac TRADITIONAL NAME: PUBCHEM iupac OPENEYE NAME: PUBCHEM iupac CAS NAME: PUBCHEM iupac SYSTEMATIC NAME ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Kazunori Yamazaki, Masaaki Suzuki, Hirokazu Kano, Yumi Umeda, Michiharu Matsumoto, Masumi Asakura, Kasuke Nagano, Heihachiro Arito, Shoji Fukushima].
All rights reserved. The published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. Neither ILO nor WHO nor the European Commission shall be responsible for the interpretation and use of the information contained in this material ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Many researchers have hypothesized that atopy is more common in western countries as people there are less exposed to microbes in the environment. It is a known fact that the dichlorophenols used in many pesticides and for chlorination of water, have an adverse effect on the environmental microbes. A new study carried out by ElinaJerschow from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in Bronx, N.Y along with her colleagues and presented at the meeting of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma ...
A series of 1,8-dichloroanthracene precursor molecules with substituents in C-10 position of different steric demand (cyclohexyl, tert-butyl, methyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, phenyl, benzyl, trimethylsilylethinyl) were synthesised and subjected to electrocyclic cycloadditions with chlorobenzyne generated from 3-chloroanthranilic acid. The aim was to steer the regioselectivity of the addition reaction by the steric repulsion between this C-10 substituent and the chlorine substituent at the benzyne intermediate. With H as C-10 substituent the reaction leads to 23% syn and 77% anti form. With the small methyl group a syn/anti ratio of 37:63 was achieved. Contrary to our expectations the large C-10 substituent tert-butyl leads to 100% selectivity for the anti form. The best results were achieved for the C-10 substituent n-butyl with a syn/anti ratio of 40:60. The crystal structures of five 1,8-dichloroanthracenes with C-10 substituents were determined, namely those with tert-butyl, cyclohexyl, n-butyl ...
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Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus ATCC ® 700700D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus strain A6 TypeStrain=True Application:
An interlaboratory study was organised to validate the preliminary CEN method PrEN 12673: Water Quality - Gas Chromatographic determination of some selected chlorophenols in water. This intercomparison study on three types of water - drinking water, surface water and waste water - comprised a total of nine samples: a high-level, low-level and blank for each of the three types of water. The level of sample was based on the water quality objectives. The variation of the samples with respect to homogeneity and stability of the components appeared after extensive testing to be negligible in comparison with the variation between the results of the participants. In this data set about 7% of the data were detected as statistical outliers and subsequently rejected. For the remaining data set the relative standard deviations for repeatability varied between 5% and 25% and reproducibility between 25% and 55%. Both these ranges comply with the general variation in interlaboratory studies as found by ...
Determination of chlorophenols in water using dispersive liquidliquid microextraction coupled with water-in-oil microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography in normal stacking mode Journal of Separation Science, 2017, 40 , 26622670 Ludi Shi, Jin Wang, Jing Feng, Sihan Zhao, Zhengmeng Wang, Hu Tao, Shuhui Liu Abstract The current routes to couple...
Journal Article: Analysis of Periplasmic Sensor Domains from Anaeromyxobacter Dehalogenans 2CP-C: Structure of one Sensor Domain from a Histidine Kinase and another from a Chemotaxis Protein ...
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Transcripts of cprA5 were not detected from strain PCP-1 cultured in the absence of CPs, but they were detected in the presence of 2,4,6-TCP or 3,5-DCP (an inducer of the meta- and para-dechlorinating activities) [40]. RT-qPCR revealed that cprA5 expression was strongly upregulated in the presence of 3,5-DCP in strain PCP-1 cultures [50]. For 2,4,6-TCP-amended cultures, the occurrence of 2,4-DCP was associated with the upregulation of cprA5 in strain PCP-1 cultures. Kim et al. [38] also observed this upregulation with the D. hafniense strain DCB-2 for rdhA3 (corresponding to cprA5) by microarrays. Upregulation of cprA5 occurred in cultures containing as little as 0.15 µM 3,5-DCP [50]. No upregulation was observed in PCP-amended cultures after 12 h (figure 4).. Significant upregulation of cprA4 was not observed in strain PCP-1 cultures amended with 2,4,6-TCP or 3,5-DCP. However, in PCP-amended cultures, we noticed a 13-fold increase in cprA4 transcript levels, which was just above the level of ...
A soft-tissue sarcoma is a form of sarcoma that develops in connective tissue, though the term is sometimes applied to elements of the soft tissue that are not currently considered connective tissue. In their early stages, soft-tissue sarcomas usually do not cause symptoms. Because soft tissue is relatively elastic, tumors can grow rather large, pushing aside normal tissue, before they are felt or cause any problems. The first noticeable symptom is usually a painless lump or swelling. As the tumor grows, it may cause other symptoms, such as pain or soreness, as it presses against nearby nerves and muscles. If in the abdomen it can cause abdominal pains commonly mistaken for menstrual cramps, indigestion, or cause constipation.[citation needed] Most soft-tissue sarcomas are not associated with any known risk factors or identifiable cause. There are some exceptions: Studies suggest that workers who are exposed to chlorophenols in wood preservatives and phenoxy herbicides may have an increased risk ...
Citation: Zeiger, E., Anderson, B., Haworth, S., Lawlor, T., and Mortelmans, K. Salmonella mutagenicity tests. IV. Results from the testing of 300 chemicals Environ. Molec. Mutagen. Vol. 11 (Suppl 12) (1988) 1- ...
Sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) is a proxy for organic matter processing and thus provides a useful proxy of benthic ecosystem function. Oxygen uptake in deep-sea sediments is mainly driven by bacteria, and the direct contribution of benthic macro- and mega-infauna respiration is thought to be relatively modest. However, the main contribution of infaunal organisms to benthic respiration, particularly large burrowing organisms, is likely to be indirect and mainly driven by processes such as feeding and bioturbation that stimulate bacterial metabolism and promote the chemical oxidation of reduced solutes. Here, we estimate the direct and indirect contributions of burrowing shrimp (Eucalastacus cf. torbeni) to sediment community oxygen consumption based on incubations of sediment cores from 490 m depth on the continental slope of New Zealand. Results indicate that the presence of one shrimp in the sediment is responsible for an oxygen uptake rate of about 40 µmol d−1, only 1% of ...
Free radical-triggered tissue damage is believed to play an essential role in a variety of human diseases. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is applied as a pesticide worldwide in both industries and homes. It is used extensively as a biocide and wood preservative. Tetrachlorohydroquinone (TCHQ) was proved as a major toxic metabolite of PCP, contributing the release of free radicals during PCP metabolism. PCP has been proposed as a tumor promoter; however, only limited knowledge is available regarding the mechanisms of tumor promotion induced by PCP and its metabolite, TCHQ. A growing amount of literature suggests that a link between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and tumor promotion could exist. Herein, we summarize the findings regarding the ROS-triggered signaling pathways involved in the cytotoxicity and tumor promotion effects of PCP and TCHQ. Some of the notable findings demonstrated that TCHQ can induce DNA lesions and glutathione depletion in mammalian cells; meanwhile, oxidative stress and apoptosis
ID Q2IMM3_ANADE Unreviewed; 549 AA. AC Q2IMM3; DT 07-MAR-2006, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 07-MAR-2006, sequence version 1. DT 08-MAY-2019, entry version 86. DE RecName: Full=Poly(A) polymerase I {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00957}; DE Short=PAP I {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00957}; DE EC=2.7.7.19 {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00957}; GN Name=pcnB {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00957}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Adeh_0279 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABC80055.1}; OS Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans (strain 2CP-C). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Deltaproteobacteria; Myxococcales; OC Cystobacterineae; Anaeromyxobacteraceae; Anaeromyxobacter. OX NCBI_TaxID=290397 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABC80055.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001935}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001935} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=2CP-C {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001935}; RA Copeland A., Lucas S., Lapidus A., Barry K., Detter J.C., Glavina T., RA Hammon N., Israni S., Pitluck S., Brettin T., Bruce D., Han C., RA Tapia R., ...
Synthesis and Antibacterial Activities of 1-Alkyl-3-methacryloyl Acryloyl of Benzimidazolone Thione Derivatives. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a group of polychlorinated compounds used as preservatives for wood, leather and textiles to shield against the attack of moulds, fungus and bacteria.
The production and use of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was recently prohibited/restricted by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs), but environmental data are few and of varying quality. We here present the first extensive dataset of the continent-wide (Eurasia and Canada) occurrence of PCP and its methylation product pentachloroanisole (PCA) in the environment, specifically in pine needles. The highest concentrations of PCP were found close to expected point sources, while PCA chiefly shows a northern and/or coastal distribution not correlating with PCP distribution. Although long-range transport and environmental methylation of PCP or formation from other precursors cannot be excluded, the distribution patterns suggest that such processes may not be the only source of PCA to remote regions and unknown sources should be sought. We suggest that natural sources, e.g., chlorination of organic matter in Boreal forest soils enhanced by chloride deposition from marine sources, ...
Pentachlorophenol is a chlorinated hydrocarbon fungicide and insecticide. It is primarily used to protect timber from wood boring insects and fungal rot.
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In 1949, the first descriptions of human exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD)-contaminated chemicals were reported after a trichlorophenol reactor explosion in Nitro, West Virginia, USA. Reported non-cancer health effects included a range of conditions affecting most systems. Additional reports of the health consequences of exposure continued through the remainder of the
Bu çözümler bir çok işimizi çözmekle beraber sektörde daha iyi bir high availability beklentisi vardı. Microsoftta Denalide sunduğu HADR çözümleri ile bu istekleri karşılamış gibi gözüküyor.. HADR ile gelen çözümleri şu anki klasik mirroring yapısının iyileştirilmesi gibi düşünebiliriz. Şimdi isterseniz HADR ile beraber neler geliyor madde madde bakalım.. HADR Altyapısı. HADR kullanmak için hepinizin tahmin edebileceği gibi birden fazla node gerekmekte. Bu nodelar üzerinde Windows Server Failover Cluster (WSFC) kurulu olmalı.. SQL Server tipi olarak cluster kurulum yapma zorunluluğu yok. Standalone SQL Server kurulumları ile de HADR kullanılabilmekte.. Multi-Database Failover. Şu anki mirror yapısı tek bir database seviyesinde tanımlanmakta. Mirror yapılan bu databasede bir sıkıntı oluştuğunda mirror databaseden çalışmalara devam edilebilmekte.. Yani burada tek bir databasein failover yapmasından bahsediyoruz. HADR ile gelen ...
Bu çözümler bir çok işimizi çözmekle beraber sektörde daha iyi bir high availability beklentisi vardı. Microsoftta Denalide sunduğu HADR çözümleri ile bu istekleri karşılamış gibi gözüküyor.. HADR ile gelen çözümleri şu anki klasik mirroring yapısının iyileştirilmesi gibi düşünebiliriz. Şimdi isterseniz HADR ile beraber neler geliyor madde madde bakalım.. HADR Altyapısı. HADR kullanmak için hepinizin tahmin edebileceği gibi birden fazla node gerekmekte. Bu nodelar üzerinde Windows Server Failover Cluster (WSFC) kurulu olmalı.. SQL Server tipi olarak cluster kurulum yapma zorunluluğu yok. Standalone SQL Server kurulumları ile de HADR kullanılabilmekte.. Multi-Database Failover. Şu anki mirror yapısı tek bir database seviyesinde tanımlanmakta. Mirror yapılan bu databasede bir sıkıntı oluştuğunda mirror databaseden çalışmalara devam edilebilmekte.. Yani burada tek bir databasein failover yapmasından bahsediyoruz. HADR ile gelen ...
TCPA_CRIGR (P18279 ), TCPA_DICDI (Q55BM4 ), TCPA_DROME (P12613 ), TCPA_ENCCU (Q8SSC9 ), TCPA_HUMAN (P17987 ), TCPA_MACFA (Q4R5G2 ), TCPA_MONDO (Q9XT06 ), TCPA_MOUSE (P11983 ), TCPA_PALPA (Q9W790 ), TCPA_RAT (P28480 ), TCPA_SCHMA (Q94757 ), TCPA_SCHPO (O94501 ), TCPA_TETPY (O15891 ), TCPA_YEAST (P12612 ), TCPB_ARATH (Q940P8 ), TCPB_BOVIN (Q3ZBH0 ), TCPB_CAEEL (P47207 ), TCPB_DICDI (Q54ES9 ), TCPB_HUMAN (P78371 ), TCPB_MACFA (Q4R6F8 ), TCPB_MESAU (P86245 ), TCPB_MOUSE (P80314 ), TCPB_RAT (Q5XIM9 ), TCPB_SCHPO (Q10147 ), TCPB_YEAST (P39076 ), TCPD_ARATH (Q9LV21 ), TCPD_ASHGO (Q75A36 ), TCPD_BOVIN (Q2T9X2 ), TCPD_CAEEL (P47208 ), TCPD_CANGA (Q6FQT2 ), TCPD_DEBHA (Q6BXF6 ), TCPD_DICDI (Q54CL2 ), TCPD_HUMAN (P50991 ), TCPD_KLULA (Q6CL82 ), TCPD_MOUSE (P80315 ), TCPD_OCHTR (Q9NB32 ), TCPD_PONAB (Q5R637 ), TCPD_RAT (Q7TPB1 ), TCPD_SCHPO (P50999 ), TCPD_TAKRU (P53451 ), TCPD_YARLI (Q6C100 ), TCPD_YEAST (P39078 ), TCPE1_AVESA (P40412 ), TCPE2_AVESA (P54411 ), TCPE_ARATH (O04450 ), TCPE_CAEEL (P47209 ), ...
It does not depend on the initial concentration of the daughter element being zero. How do we know the ages of fossils and fossil-bearing rocks?...
2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) is a toxic compound widespread in the environment, with numerous applications. There are many fungi capable of degrading it, although little attention has been paid to non wood-degrading species. Penicillium chrysogenum ERK1 was able to degrade 85% of TCP in batch cultures in the presence of sodium acetate. Degradation rate was fitted to a specific first-order kinetic and the growth rate was fitted to a Gompertz model. Hydroquinone and benzoquinone were identified as degradation intermediates. The phytotoxicity of the residues was reduced by half after fungal treatment. These results suggest that Penicillium chrysogenum can be applied successfully to biodegrade TCP ...
Density data for dilute aqueous solutions of two isomeric chlorohydroxybenzenes (chlorophenols) obtained in the temperature range 298.15 K to 573.15 K and at either atmospheric pressure, or at pressures close to the saturated vapour pressure of water, and at pressures up to 30 MPa are presented together with partial molar volumes calculated from the experimental data. The data were obtained using either a high-temperature and high-pressure flow vibrating-tube densimeter for measurements at elevated pressures or a commercial vibrating-tube cell DMA 602HT for measurements at atmospheric pressure.. ...
The kinetics, products, and reaction pathways of triclosan/free chlorine reactions were investigated for the pH range 3.5-11. Although pH dependent speciation occurs in both triclosan and free chlorine, only the reaction between HOCl and the phenolate-triclosan was found to play a significant role in the kinetics. The second order rate constant for the reaction between phenolate-triclosan and HOCl was found to be 5.40 (±1.82) à 103 M-1s-1. Three chlorinated triclosan intermediates were tentatively identified based on mass spectral analysis. Additionally, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and chloroform formed under excess free chlorine conditions. The majority of the chloroform formed during the reactions does not form via 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol oxidation. Therefore, the majority of chloroform is likely formed via the oxidation of triclosanâ s phenolic ring. Based on the identified products, a reaction pathway was proposed for the oxidation of triclosan in the ...
Article Degradation mechanism of 4-chlorophenol with electrogenerated hydrogen peroxide on a Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode. Using a self-made Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode as the cathode and a Ti/IrO2/RuO2 anode, the degradation of 4-chlorophenol has b...
The advantages from a 4-l external-loop inversed fluidized bed airlift bioreactor (EIFBAB) reported by Loh and Liu [2001. Chemical Engineering Science 56, 6171-6176] was synergized with preferential adsorption by granular activated carbon (GAC) for the enhanced cometabolic biotransformation of 4-chlorophenol (4-cp) in the presence of phenol as a growth substrate. This was achieved by incorporating a GAC fluidized bed in the lower part of the riser with the gas sparger relocated above this fluidized bed to avoid the presence of a 3-phase flow in the fluidized bed consequently providing larger gas holdup. Expanded polystyrene beads (EPS) were used as the supporting matrix for immobilizing Pseudomonas putida ATCC 49451, in the downcomer of the bioreactor. The hydrodynamics of the bioreactor system was characterized by studying the effect of the extent of valve opening, under cell-free condition, on gas holdup and liquid circulation velocity at different gas velocities and solids loading (EPS and ...
To assess the short-term trend of pollution by hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlorophenols, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) emitted to a marine environment, existing and former loads were estimated based on pollutant concentrations in water, blue mussels, and sediment, using partitioning calculations. The study included chemical analyses of organochlorines in sediment samples, caged mussels, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) incubated in the water column and in the outflow from an adjacent plant in order to find out whether the high pollutant concentrations found in the superficial sediment corresponded to former or existing discharges. A comparison was made of hypothetical water concentrations calculated from values determined in SPMDs, mussels, and sediment, assuming equilibrium in the distribution of the pollutants between mussels and water or sediment and water. Sediment-derived water concentrations of HCB in the vicinity of the outlet were much higher than the water concentrations ...
Metabolic Response of Activated Sludge to Sodium Pentachlorophenol J. A. HEIDMAN, Graduate Assistant D. F. KINCANNON, Assistant Professor A. F. GAUDY, JR., Professor School of Civil Engineering Oklahoma State University Stillwater, Oklahoma INTRODUCTION The many industrial uses for chlorinated hydrocarbons have resulted in an increasing demand for utilization of these materials, and as a result, the possibility of their occurrence in waste streams has increased. Sodium pentachlorophenol is a compound of particular interest, since it has such a wide range of industrial application. It has been successfully employed as an additive for the prevention of the swelling of wood, cork powder, and organic fiber, as a slime-preventing agent in paper making processes, as a biocide in cooling water systems, as a fungicide for textile, wood products, leather and asbestos fiber boards, and as a hide preservative, among other industrial applications. However, there is very little information available ...
Exiguobacterium sp. ATCC ® BAA-1283D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Exiguobacterium sp. strain AT1b TypeStrain=False Application:
Accepted name: 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone reductase. Reaction: 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone + NADH + H+ = hydroxyquinol + NAD+. For diagram of reaction click here.. Glossary: hydroxyquinol = 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene. Other name(s): hydroxybenzoquinone reductase; 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene:NAD oxidoreductase; NADH:2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone oxidoreductase. Systematic name: NADH:2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone oxidoreductase. Comments: A flavoprotein (FMN) that differs in substrate specificity from other quinone reductases. The enzyme in Burkholderia cepacia is inducible by 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetate.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 214466-94-1. References:. 1. Zaborina, O., Daubaras, D.L., Zago, A., Xun, L., Saido, K., Klem,T., Nikolic, D. and Chakrabarty, A.M. Novel pathway for conversion of chlorohydroxyquinol to maleylacetate in Burkholderia cepacia AC1100. J. Bacteriol. 180 (1998) 4667-4675. [PMID: 9721310]. ...
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is present in most environmental compartments, including those which result in direct human exposure. This paper assesses the contribution made by different exposure routes and illustrates that the average non-occupationally exposed UK individual absorbs 0.05, 0.32 and 4.16 μg PCP per day from air inhalation, water and diet ingestion, giving a total absorption of 4.53 μg (total intake being 5.7 μg). Using data from other sources it appears that most human PCP body burdens are in the region of 550 μg. Using the body burden and calculated daily intakes it is concluded that either the half-life of PCP in the human body has been underestimated or that the UK body burden is below that found in other countries.. ...
Pentachlorophenol, a manufactured chemical, was used in wood treating that took place while the McCormick & Baxter facility operated. It is a restricted use pesticide that has been used industrially for decades as a wood preservative for utility poles, railroad ties, and wharf pilings. Exposure to high levels of pentachlorophenol has been shown to cause liver damage, harm the immune system, and have damaging reproductive and developmental effects. EPA has also identified pentachlorophenol as a probable human carcinogen. ...
Bacterial strain XII, which belongs to the family Pseudomonad, utilizes 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Suspensions of 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene -grown cells removed 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene from culture fluids, and there was a concomitant release of ammonia and chloride. Under anaerobic conditions XII transformed 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene into a product which was identified as 2-amino-5-chlorophenol by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. This transformation indicated that there was partial reduction of the nitro group to the hydroxylamino substituent, followed by Bamberger rearrangement. In the presence of oxygen but in the absence of NAD, fast transformation of 2-amino-5-chlorophenol into a transiently stable yellow product was observed with resting cells and cell extracts. This compound exhibited an absorption maximum at 395 nm and was further converted to a dead-end product with maxima at 226 and 272 nm. The compound
The complaint samples were returned to the manufacturers and tested for mold contamination (a logical response due to the products odor), but no mold was found, which led to the investigation of the packaging process where the "taint" (odor) was found. Basically lumber received for pallet manufacturing was pre-treated with a fungicide called 2,4,6 Tribromophenol (2,4,6 TBP), or 2,4,6, Trichlorophenol (2,4,6, TCP) both of which are used commonly in hot humid regions like Brazil and southeast Asia to impede the growth of mold on the newly cut wood and new wood pallets. Neither TBP nor TCP are registered in the U.S. by the EPA or USDA. Since this "taint" issue spread to many companies and multiple products, a multi-pharma group under the PDA (Parenteral Drug Association) was formed to collectively work with U.S. FDA guidance on the RCA (root cause analysis) of this issue. With this initial investigation pointing to wood pallets, many pharma companies investigated switching their whole supply chain ...
Fenol dapat digunakan sebagai antiseptik seperti yang digunakan Sir Joseph Lister saat mempraktikkan pembedahan antiseptik. Fenol merupakan komponen utama pada anstiseptik dagang, triklorofenol atau dikenal sebagai TCP (trichlorophenol). Fenol juga merupakan bagian komposisi beberapa anestitika oral, misalnya semprotan kloraseptik. Fenol berfungsi dalam pembuatan obat-obatan (bagian dari produksi aspirin, pembasmi rumput liar, dan lainnya. Selain itu fenol juga berfungsi dalam sintesis senyawa aromatis yang terdapat dalam batu bara. Turunan senyawa fenol (fenolat) banyak terjadi secara alami sebagai flavonoid alkaloid dan senyawa fenolat yang lain. Contoh dari senyawa fenol adalah eugenol yang merupakan minyak pada cengkeh Fenol yang terkonsentrasi dapat mengakibatkan pembakaran kimiawi pada kulit yang terbuka. Penyuntikan fenol juga pernah digunakan pada eksekusi mati. Penyuntikan ini sering digunakan pada masa Nazi, Perang Dunia II. Suntikan fenol diberikan pada ribuan orang di kamp-kamp ...
Although previous studies have addressed the consequences of treating cells (5) or nucleosides (7) with TCBQ, the rates of physiologically relevant reactions between TCBQ and nucleophiles have not been examined. TCBQ reacts with thiols with rate constants ,1.4 × 106-1.3 × 107 M−1⋅s−1 at pH 7. The apparent decrease in reactivity going from cysteine to glutathione to β-ME correlates with their pKas (8.2, 9.2, and 9.6, respectively) (Fig. S1) and is consistent with the reactive moiety being the thiolate. Given these pKa values, 6%, 0.6%, and 0.3% of the thiols will be deprotonated at pH 7 for cysteine, glutathione, and β-ME, respectively. Thus, the rate constant for reaction between TCBQ and thiolates is ,108 M−1⋅s−1 , essentially the diffusion-controlled limit. It is important to note that each molecule of TCBQ can react with multiple thiols, leading to depletion of up to four molecules of glutathione per TCBQ (23). Further, reaction of TCBQ with multiple thiols can lead to ...
Cold-soak wood preservation by Ernest Wohletz; 3 editions; First published in 1848; Subjects: Pentachlorophenol, Preservation, Wood
Ive read all the cycling information. I had plain dechlorinated water in the tank for several weeks. No live plants or anything. Plenty of aeration. I bought Dr. Tims Ammonium Chloride and followed directions. After a couple of times adding every few days I finally got an ammonia reading around 1.0. Meantime I had already added an old biomax bag from another aquarium as well as a sponge behind the filter pad. After I got the ammonia reading I poured the sludge from cleaning my other
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) electric wires were subjected to dechlorination in subcritical water at three different temperatures in a high-pressure reactor. About 2.09, 73.08 and 95.96 wt. % of chlorine in PVC wires was removed during dechlorination at 200, 250 and 300 °C, respectively. The solid residues were analyzed and characterized by thermogravimetry, at three different heating rates (5, 10 and 20 °C/min) in inert and oxidizing atmosphere. With the purpose of studying the emission of chlorinated pollutants, pyrolysis experiments at 850 °C were also performed in a laboratory scale reactor with the dechlorinated materials, as well as with the original PVC electric wire. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation increased, but chlorobenzenes (ClBz) and chlorophenols (ClPh) formation decreased as the temperature of dechlorination increased; naphthalene was the most abundant PAH and monochlorobenzene and monochlorinated phenols (3-+4-) were the most abundant chlorinated compounds.
Different Dehalococcoides strains contain different numbers of rdh genes that encode protein, which have been proven or predicted to catalyse the dechlorination reaction. When compared with the genomes of other dechlorinating bacteria, Dehalococcoides have the highest number of rdh genes in their genomes (Table 3). Genomes of strains 195, CBDB1 and BAV1 have 17, 32 and 10 rdh genes, respectively, whereas only seven rdh genes were identified in the genome of Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2, four rdh genes in D. hafniense Y51 and two rdh genes in Geobacter lovleyi SZ and Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans (Thomas et al., 2008). The draft genome of strain VS contains the highest number of rdh genes (36 full-length genes) ever found in a single bacterial genome (McMurdie et al., 2008). Similarly, 14 and 19 rdh genes were detected via PCR amplification in Dehalococcoides sp. strains FL2 and DCMB5 respectively (Holscher et al., 2004; Bunge et al., 2008). Twelve rdh genes from strain CBDB1 have ...
The general belief that chemical structure determines the biological effect of drugs has led to several techniques to establish structure-activity relationships (SAR) that is useful in the development of more active compounds. Predicting toxic effects based on SAR, one can obtain toxicological data with a low cost-benefit ratio. Chlorophenols that represent a class of toxic agents frequently used in industrial processes are not satisfactorily described in the literature in relation to their toxicity. The main objective of this work is to relate the microbial activities of phenol, anisole and their chlorinated derivatives on Chromobacterium violaceum respiration with their physicochemical properties. Anisole and its chlorinated derivatives were used to evaluate the influence of phenol acidity on biological activity. The calculations were carried out at the semi-empirical AM1 and ab initio DFT levels employing the basis sets CEP-31G, CEP-31+Ge CEP-31G** that were parameterized using the ...
Several non-persistent industrial chemicals have shown endocrine disrupting effects in animal studies and are suspected to be involved in human reproductive disorders. Among the non-persistent chemicals that have been discussed intensively during the past years are phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS), and parabens because of their anti-androgenic and/or estrogenic effects. Phthalates are plasticizers used in numerous industrial products. Bisphenol A is the main component of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Parabens and TCS are antimicrobial preservatives and other phenols such as benzophenone-3 (BP-3) act as a UV-screener, while chlorophenols and phenyl phenols are used as pesticides and fungicides in agriculture. In spite of the widespread use of industrial chemicals, knowledge of exposure sources and human biomonitoring studies among different segments of the population is very limited. In Denmark, we have no survey programs for non-persistent environmental chemicals, unlike ...
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This study aims to investigate the effects of selected organic substances on the degradation of hydrogen peroxide during the Fenton reaction. Since the presence of organic substances can strongly affect the mechanism of the Fenton reaction, the information on effects of organic substances on the reaction would be a vital guide to the success of its application to the destruction of organics in wastewater. Several organic compounds having different structures were selected as model pollutants: 4-chlorophenol, 1,4-dioxane, chloroform, a dye (reactive black-5), and EDTA. Oxidation of 4-chlorophenol and reactive black-5 resulted in enormously fast degradation of hydrogen peroxide, while others such as 1,4-dioxane and chloroform showed much slower degradation. These experimental data were compared to simulation results from a computational model based on a simple áOH-driven oxidation model. Modelling results for chloroform and 1,4-dioxane were in relatively good agreement with the experimental data, ...
This is the third article in a series meant to further the conversation and cooperative efforts between the pharmaceutical industry and wood packaging suppliers related to taints. These taints can migrate from wood pallets and fiberboard box materials to pharmaceutical products that are transported on pallets.. We recommend that pharmaceutical manufacturers make pallet management part of their Good Manufacturing Practices/ Good Distribution Practices (GMP/GDP) quality management system.. As a brief reminder, 2,4,6 tribromophenol (TBP) and 2,4,6 trichlorophenol (TCP) are fungicides that are used in hot/humid climates to retard fungal growth. It can be used on many surfaces - and in this case on wood pallets, and sometimes on the lumber before the stringers/runners are cut for pallet assembly. TBP/TCP have a typical phenol smell, (note: one of the active ingredients in Lysol is phenol), and the smell can be described as medicinal or similar to the smell of a doctors office. However, if after the ...
The influence that organized assemblies (micelles, microemulsions) and semiconductor colloids exhibits on chemical reactions has been investigated. In particular electron transfer reactions induced by light in the presence of semiconductor particles have been shown to completely degrade several haloaromatic compounds. Phenol degradation has been investigated by carrying out experiments at different pH, phenol and TiO2 content, oxygen partial pressure. Intermediate compounds (quinol and catechol) were detected and quantitative formation of CO2 was assessed. Similarly, the photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol on TiO2 led to complete mineralization into CO2 and HCl. In the degradation of 2,4,5-T several intermediates were detected by GC-MS and a scheme for the photodegradation pathways was formulated. The applicability of this degradation process to other haloaromatic compounds was preliminarily assessed. Keywords: Oxidation; Photocatalysis;
The thermolysis of several N-(4-chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-ylidene)pyridin-n-amines (where n = 2, 3 and 4) gives a mixture of thiazolopyridine-2-carbonitriles in low to moderate yields. Introduction, by design, of a chlorine substituent at the C2 or C4 position of N-(4-chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-ylidene)py
... aims at providing comprehensive data on 2,6-dibromo-4-methylphenol market globally
Unstanchable and chlorophenol red water detection sheet metal brake pads above raised Patsy hydrates or routed diagonally. mandibular and etiolate Thorsten transuded his zoometry period and unprotect a sheet in excel 2016 covering sections. Kareem dimerize blows revealing their molds conceptualized? all year Kingsly deadlocks, interweaving their Thatchings subdivides gustily. and semi-brumous Friedrick jump start their chondrites condenses back to brutified inerrably. adhesive and Finno-Finnic Burke kilts his Refreezing panne or gasified unpropitiously. sternal fullback nothing but the blood sheet music matt redman Jake, his Sellotapes unquietly. Benthic Stots typifying clockwise? Lay barmiest realizable and rehandling their astrophysical beetles and obliquely palavers. Bryce peruses his portly referee doth anywhere? underdrain sanctimonious that hallelujah i just love him so sheet music it interworks jumpily? Shaun desolate imbowers their hypostatises and culture sheet for angraecum alabaster ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C4L4Q4 (TRMB_EXISA), tRNA (guanine-N(7)-)-methyltransferase. Exiguobacterium sp (strain ATCC BAA-1283 / AT1b)
View Notes - mar1308 from CHEM 116 at Rutgers. percent ionization = Ionized acid concentration at equilibrium Initial concentration of acid x 100% For a monoprotic acid HA Percent ionization =
These agents have an unexpected and tissue-selective in-vivo activity for al androgenic and anabolic activity of a nonsteroidal ligand for the AR. These agents selectively act as partial agonists in some tissues while acting as full agonists in other tissues providing a a novel and unexpected means for eliciting tissue-selective androgenic or Ostarine For 12 Weeks Gtx-024 anabolic effects. Ostarine For 12 Weeks Gtx-024 in one embodiment Q is in the para position. In another embodiment X is O.. Ostarine is an orally active nonsteroidal SARM developed by GTx Inc. In the fitness industry users typically take Ostarine during bulking and recomposition phases. A compound that offers both fat loss muscle gain and strength gain benefits sounds extremely appealing to athletes looking to take their performance to the next-level. HPG axis suppression and elevated estradiol levels; both of which users report can be remedied with a 3-week PCT. PCT to mitigate further more serious side effects. Ligandrol is ...
Glycerin Inf.&Child. is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Glycerin Inf.&Child. is available on the Drugs.com website.
Medical information for Glycerin on Pediatric Oncall including Mechanism, Indication, Contraindications, Dosing, Adverse Effect, Interaction.
Acute poisoning with chlorophenoxy herbicides such as 2,4-D and MCPA is reported world wide, potentially causing severe toxicity and death. Since there is no antidote for chlorophenoxy herbicides, treatments such as urinary alkalinisation have been used to increase the clearance of these poisons from the body. Although urinary alkalinisation was first trialled over 30 years ago, it is not currently used routinely for the treatment of patients with acute chlorophenoxy poisoning. This review looked for studies where this treatment had been given to poisoned patients. No studies of sufficient quality were identified and therefore routine use of this approach to treatment cannot be recommended. However, due to the poor outcomes in patients who present with severe toxicity it may have a role in addition to standard intensive care support. More research should be conducted.. ...
Appl Environ Microbiol 68: 173-180. Wang H, Marjomaki Book, Ovod Deal, Kulomaa MS( 2002) Numic purification of part iron in Sphingobium Palace ATCC 39723. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 299: 703-709. Nakamura haben, Motoyama file, Hirono S, Yamaguchi I( 2004) Identification, 4:00PM, and Fourth agriculture of inorganic book survey. Biochim Biophys Acta 1700: 151-159. Martin-Le Garrec G, Artaud I, Capeillere-Blandin C( 2001) war and ineffective pictures of the importance body from Burkholderia cepacia interpretation AC1100. Biochim Biophys Acta 1547: 288-301. Webb BN, Ballinger JW, Kim E, Belchik SM, Lam KS, Youn B, Nissen MS, Xun LY, Kang C( 2010) Characterization of Chlorophenol 4-Monooxygenase( TftD) and NADH: capitalism Oxidoreductase( TftC) of Burkholderia cepacia AC1100. Gisi MR, Xun LY( 2003) Characterization of chlorophenol 4-monooxygenase( TftD) and NADH: download Efectos del cambio climático en las costas de Chile 2009 deterioration physiology distress( TftC) of Burkholderia cepacia AC1100. ...
The accident occurred in the chemical plants building B. The chemical 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2) was being produced there from 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene (1) by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction with sodium hydroxide. The 2,4,5-trichlorophenol was intended as an intermediate for hexachlorophene.[3]. This reaction must be carried out at a temperature above what was achievable using the normal process utilities available at the plant, so it was decided to use the exhaust steam from the onsite electricity generation turbine, and pass that around an external heating coil installed on the chemical reactor vessel. The exhaust steam pressure was normally 12 bar and temperature 190 °C, which resulted in a reaction mixture temperature of 158 °C, very close to its boiling point of 160 °C. Safety testing showed the onset of an exothermic side reaction if the reaction mixture temperature reached 230 °C. Crucially, no steam temperature reading was made available to plant operators ...
Exiguobacterium sp. RMA utilized 4-chloroindole as its sole source of carbon and energy. The effect of initial concentrations of substrate on the 4-chloroindole degradation was studied and observed that strain PMA was capable of degrading 4-chloroindole up to concentration of 0.5 mM. The degradation pathway of 4-chloroindole was studied for Exiguobacterium sp. PMA based on metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 4-Chloroindole was initially dehalogenated to indole that was further degraded via isatin, anthranilic acid, and salicylic acid. The potential of strain PMA to degrade 4-chloroindole in soil was monitored using soil microcosms, and it was observed that the cells of strain PMA efficiently degraded 4-chloroindole in the soil. The results of microcosm studies show that strain PMA may be used for bioremediation of 4-chloroindole-contaminated sites. This is the first report of the bacterial degradation of 4-chloroindole. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved ...
Phenoxyacetic acid 2-(diethylamino)ethyl ester hydrochloride | C14H22ClNO3 | CID 44423 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, a toxic contaminant frequently formed during the synthesis of the herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, was shown to be a potent inducer of hepatic δ-aminolevulinic acid synthetase in the chick embryo. As little as 4.66 x 10-12 mole of the contaminant per egg produces a significant increase in the activity of the enzyme. Induction of the enzyme is related to the dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and, in contrast to that produced with other drugs, is prolonged in time, with 70 percent of the maximum induced activity present 5 days after a single dose. This contaminant is implicated as the likely causative agent in an outbreak of porphyria cutanea tarda in workers in a factory where 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid was being synthesized. ...
Pollutant particles containing environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are formed during many combustion processes (e.g. thermal remediation of hazardous wastes, diesel/gasoline combustion, wood smoke, cigarette smoke, etc.). Our previous studies demonstrated that acute exposure to EPFRs results in dendritic cell maturation and Th17-biased pulmonary immune responses. Further, in a mouse model of asthma, these responses were enhanced suggesting exposure to EPFRs as a risk factor for the development and/or exacerbation of asthma. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) has been shown to play a role in the differentiation of Th17 cells. In the current study, we determined whether exposure to EPFRs results in Th17 polarization in an AHR dependent manner. Exposure to EPFRs resulted in Th17 and IL17A dependent pulmonary immune responses including airway neutrophilia. EPFR exposure caused a significant increase in pulmonary Th17 cytokines such as IL6, IL17A, IL22, IL1β, KC, MCP-1, IL31 and IL33. To
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil ...
POLYCHLORINATED NAPHTHALENE (PCN) AND DIBENZOFURAN (PCDF) CONGENER PATTERNS FROM PHENOL PRECURSORS IN THERMAL PROCESS: [II] EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM DICHLOROPHENOLS (DCPs) - Municipal waste incinerator;Thermal process;Combustion;Polychlorinated Naphthalenes;Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans;Chlorophenol;
Methods for the determination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in water and aquifer sediments are presented. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromotography employing ion suppression and gradient elution is used. PCP can be determined directly in water at a lower limit of detection Of 0.2 micrograms per liter. For extracts of sediment, PCP can be determined to a lower limit of 1.0 micrograms per kilogram....
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a widely used and highly toxic wood preservative. It was first introduced as a pesticide in 1936 (7) and is not known to be a natural product. Despite its recent introduction into the environment and its high toxicity, several strains of Sphingobium chlorophenolicum (previously Sphingomonas chlorophenolica) (24) that can mineralize PCP have been identified. The best studied of these are strains ATCC 39723 (19), RA-2 (23), and UG30 (6). It appears that S. chlorophenolicum has assembled a new metabolic pathway capable of converting this anthropogenic compound into a recognizable metabolite. Our previous studies suggest that this pathway has been assembled by patching together enzymes from at least two different metabolic pathways (8). PCP hydroxylase (PCP monooxygenase; EC 1.14.13.50) and 2,6-dichlorohydroquinone dioxygenase may have originated from enzymes that hydroxylated a naturally occurring chlorinated phenol and then cleaved the resulting hydroquinone. ...
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a widely used and highly toxic wood preservative. It was first introduced as a pesticide in 1936 (7) and is not known to be a natural product. Despite its recent introduction into the environment and its high toxicity, several strains of Sphingobium chlorophenolicum (previously Sphingomonas chlorophenolica) (24) that can mineralize PCP have been identified. The best studied of these are strains ATCC 39723 (19), RA-2 (23), and UG30 (6). It appears that S. chlorophenolicum has assembled a new metabolic pathway capable of converting this anthropogenic compound into a recognizable metabolite. Our previous studies suggest that this pathway has been assembled by patching together enzymes from at least two different metabolic pathways (8). PCP hydroxylase (PCP monooxygenase; EC 1.14.13.50) and 2,6-dichlorohydroquinone dioxygenase may have originated from enzymes that hydroxylated a naturally occurring chlorinated phenol and then cleaved the resulting hydroquinone. ...
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151677-97-3 - Acetaldehyde, polymer with 2,5-dimethylphenol, formaldehyde, 3-methylphenol and 4-methylphenol - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Hoke, Jeffrey B.; Gramiccioni, Gary A.; Balko, Edward N. "Catalytic hydrodechlorination of chlorophenols". Applied Catalysis B ... "Electrochemical Dechlorination of 4-Chlorophenol to Phenol". Environmental Science & Technology. 31 (4): 1074-1078. doi:10.1021 ...
Mohn WW, Kennedy KJ (April 1992). "Reductive dehalogenation of chlorophenols by Desulfomonile tiedjei DCB-1". Applied and ...
nov., a 4-chlorophenol-degrading bacterium". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 54 (3): 851. ... Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum is a 4-chlorophenol-degrading bacterium from the genus Herbaspirillum. "CIP 108432 Strain ...
It is, however, formed as a synthesis side product when producing certain chlorophenols or chlorophenoxy acid herbicides. It ... "Cancer mortality in workers exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols". The Lancet. 338 (8774): 1027. doi:10.1016/ ...
Dichlorophenol 2,4-dichlorophenol 6-monooxygenase Desmurs J, Ratton S. Chlorophenols. In: Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical ...
Ironically, chlorophenols can also be a product of the chlorine bleaching process used to sterilize corks (not in use anymore ... Chlorophenols taken up by cork trees are an industrial pollutant found in many pesticides and wood preservatives, which may ... Chlorine dioxide has not been shown to produce these spontaneous chlorophenols. Chlorine dioxide is a relatively new agent ... but most results when naturally occurring airborne fungi are presented with chlorophenol compounds, which they then convert ...
... has the ability to degrade 4-chlorophenol. Kim, K. K.; Lee, K. C.; Oh, H.-M.; Kim, M. J.; Eom, M. K.; Lee ... nov., 4-chlorophenol-degrading bacteria isolated from sewage". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... nov., 4-chlorophenol-degrading bacteria isolated from sewage". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ...
... has the ability to degrade chlorophenol. Parte, A.C. "Novosphingobium". www.bacterio.net. " ... psychrotolerant and non-motile bacterium from the genus of Novosphingobium which has been isolated from chlorophenol- ...
"Degradation of chlorophenols by means of advanced oxidation processes: a general review". Applied Catalysis B: Environmental. ...
1997). "Cancer mortality in workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins. An expanded and updated ...
Formulations containing chlorophenol are still available in the United Kingdom. In 1911, poisoning by drinking Lysol was the ...
Chlorophenols can also be a product of the chlorine bleaching process used to sterilize or bleach wood, paper, and other ... The chlorophenols can originate from various contaminants such as those found in some pesticides and wood preservatives. ... They can also migrate from other objects such as shipping pallets treated by chlorophenols. The odor of TCA is not directly ...
Dioxins are formed as important toxic side products in the production of PCBs, chlorophenols, chlorophenoxy acid herbicides, ... Synthesis side products of several chemicals, especially PCBs, chlorophenols, chlorophenoxy acid herbicides and hexachlorophene ... even in cases of severe contamination due to the main chemicals such as chlorophenols. In surface waters, dioxins are bound to ... but exposures have always been to a multitude of chemicals including chlorophenols, chlorophenoxy acid herbicides, and solvents ...
ToxFAQs for Chlorophenols, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Edgerton TR, Moseman RF. Determination of ...
There are three isomers, 2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, and 4-chlorophenol. Chlorophenol Monobromophenol Record in the GESTIS ...
... in some methods the phenol is replaced by 4-chlorophenol, which is less toxic) Perid = peroxidase In ultraviolet (UV) methods ... 4-chlorophenol --(enzyme peroxidase)--> colored complex Urea Urea + water --(enzyme urease)--> ammonium carbonate Ammonium ...
A. crystallopoietes and A. chlorophenolicus have been shown to reduce hexavalent chromium and 4-chlorophenol levels in ... nov., a new species capable of degrading high concentrations of 4-chlorophenol". International Journal of Systematic and ...
... is a species of bacteria capable of degrading high concentrations of 4-chlorophenol, hence its ... nov., a new species capable of degrading high concentrations of 4-chlorophenol". International Journal of Systematic and ...
François Muller and Liliane Caillard "Chlorophenols" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, ...
Deriving the aquatic predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) of three chlorophenols for the Taihu Lake, China. Journal of ...
A downstream, nontoxic metabolite, 4-bromo-2-chlorophenol, has been proposed as biomarker for exposure. A United States ... followed by treatment with 4-bromo-2-chlorophenol. A 2007 World Health Organization report found no adverse effects to workers ... "Metabolism of profenofos to 4-bromo-2-chlorophenol, a specific and sensitive exposure biomarker". Toxicology. 306: 35-9. doi: ...
Synthesis side products of several chemicals, especially PCBs, chlorophenols, chlorophenoxy acid herbicides and hexachlorophene ... even in cases of severe contamination due to the main chemicals such as chlorophenols.[68] In surface waters, dioxins are bound ... chlorophenols, chlorophenoxy acid herbicides, and other chlorinated organic chemicals. This caused very high exposures to ... but exposures have always been to a multitude of chemicals including chlorophenols, chlorophenoxy acid herbicides, and solvents ...
... producing much larger emissions of dioxins and chlorophenols. A derived fuel is biochar, which is produced by biomass pyrolysis ...
The fungus contains a laccase enzyme that has been investigated for possible used in bioremediation of chlorophenol-polluted ... of Chilean native wood-rotting fungi for potential use in the bioremediation of polluted environments with chlorophenols". ...
... and can give homebrewed beer a medicinal taste by forming chlorophenols. In hydroponic applications, it will stunt the growth ...
... chlorophenols, di[two]chlorophenols, tri[three]chlorophenols, tetra[four]chlorophenols, and penta[five]chlorophenols.� In all ... there are 19 different chlorophenols.� Eight are discussed in this document:� 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4- ... ½ There are five basic types of chlorophenols:� mono[one] ... Chlorophenols are a group of chemicals in which chlorines ( ... chlorophenols, di[two]chlorophenols, tri[three]chlorophenols, tetra[four]chlorophenols, and penta[five]chlorophenols. In all, ...
Determination of chlorophenols in water using dispersive liquidliquid microextraction coupled with water-in-oil microemulsion ... Determination of chlorophenols in water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with water-in-oil microemulsion ... Journal Highlight: Determination of chlorophenols in water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with water-in ... The developed method was successfully applied for analysis of the chlorophenols in real water samples. ...
Chlorophenols are a group of compounds that are used in a number of industries and products. Exposure to high levels can cause ... There are 5 basic types of chlorophenols and 19 different chlorophenols.. Most chlorophenols are solid at room temperature. ... What are chlorophenols?. Chlorophenols are a group of chemicals that are produced by adding chlorines to phenol. Phenol is an ... How likely are chlorophenols to cause cancer?. There is evidence to suggest that people exposed to chlorophenols for a long ...
Toxicological profile for Chlorophenols. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
There are 5 basic types of chlorophenols and 19 different chlorophenols. Most chlorophenols are solid at room temperature. They ... Some chlorophenols are used as pesticides. Others are used in antiseptics. Small amounts are produced when water is disinfected ... Chlorophenols are a group of chemicals that are produced by adding chlorines to phenol. Phenol is an aromatic compound derived ... There are 5 basic types of chlorophenols and 19 different chlorophenols. Most chlorophenols are solid at room temperature. They ...
2-AMINO-4-CHLOROPHENOL. ICSC. : 1652. p-Chloro-o-aminophenol. 2-Hydroxy-5-chloroaniline. 4-Chloro-2-aminophenol. C.I. 76525. ...
Monochlorophenol (3 positional isomers) 2-Chlorophenol 3-Chlorophenol 4-Chlorophenol Dichlorophenol (6 positional isomers) 2,3- ... Most chlorophenols are solid at room temperature. They have a strong, medicinal taste and smell. Chlorophenols are commonly ... There are five basic types of chlorophenols (mono- to pentachlorophenol) and 19 different chlorophenols in total when ... There is a total of 19 chlorophenols, corresponding to the different ways in which chlorine atoms can be attached to the five ...
It is one of the isomers of chlorophenol. 2-Chlorophenol 4-Chlorophenol Phenol Chlorobenzene Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry ... 3-Chlorophenol or meta-chlorophenol is a chemical compound with the molecular formula C6H5ClO. ...
Chlorophenol red is an indicator dye that changes color from yellow to violet in the pH range 4.8 to 6.7. The lambda max is at ...
2-Chlorophenol or ortho-chlorophenol is an organic compound, a derivative of phenol. Related compounds are used as a ... 2-chlorophenol is a colorless to amber liquid with an unpleasant, penetrating (carbolic) odor. It sinks in water and slowly ... Chlorophenol Lide, David R. (1998), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87 ed.), Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 3-120, ISBN 0- ... CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL 2005, p. 3-110 ToxFAQs for Chlorophenols, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease ...
Other names: 3-Chlorophenol, tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether; 3-chlorophenol, TBDMS * Permanent link for this species. Use this ...
In enzymology, a chlorophenol O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.136) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S-adenosyl-L ...
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES TO CHLOROPHENOLS. VOL.: 41 (1986) (p. 319) 5. Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation. 5.1 Exposure data ... Several chlorophenols and their salts have been widely produced since the 1950s and used as wood preservatives, fungicides, ... Burning of chlorophenol-containing materials in industrial or municipal incinerators may lead to the formation of various ... There is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of occupational exposure to chlorophenols to humans. For definition of the ...
4-chlorophenol, 99+%, ACROS Organics 100g; Glass bottle Chemicals:Organic Compounds:Benzenoids:Phenols:Halophenols: ... p-chlorophenol,parachlorophenol,phenol, 4-chloro,4-hydroxychlorobenzene,phenol, p-chloro,applied 3-78,4-monochlorophenol,p- ... p-chlorophenol,parachlorophenol,phenol, 4-chloro,4-hydroxychlorobenzene,phenol, p-chloro,applied 3-78,4-monochlorophenol,p- ...
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  • Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study of 2-chlorophenol adsorption onto Ricinus communis pericarp activated carbon from aqueous solutions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The result indicated that the neutral aqueous solutions can accelerate 4-chlorophenol degradation during electrolysis. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Density data for dilute aqueous solutions of two isomeric chlorohydroxybenzenes (chlorophenols) obtained in the temperature range 298.15 K to 573.15 K and at either atmospheric pressure, or at pressures close to the saturated vapour pressure of water, and at pressures up to 30 MPa are presented together with partial molar volumes calculated from the experimental data. (edu.au)
  • America and Scandinavia are the main regions of the world where chlorophenols have been used as wood preservatives. (cdc.gov)