A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).
A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.
A plant genus of the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE. Members contain iridoid glucosides.
An acid which is found in cinchona bark and elsewhere in plants. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.
Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
A plant species of the genus CYNARA, family ASTERACEAE. The flower bud is the familiar artichoke eaten as a vegetable.
A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.
A plant species of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. An infusion of the leaves is commonly drunk in South America for stimulating effect in much the same manner as coffee is in other cultures.
A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain suspensaside.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Cinnamates are organic compounds that contain a cinnamic acid moiety, widely used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries as esters, with various applications ranging from UV absorbers to local anesthetics and antimicrobial agents.
A genus in the family ROSACEAE of shrubs and small trees native to the North Temperate Zone. It is best known for a traditional medication for the heart.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 1.10.3.1.
Phenolic benzoic acid esters.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE after which the compound SCOPOLAMINE HYDROBROMIDE got its name.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Picrates are salts of picric acid, an explosive organic compound previously used as a yellow dye and antiseptic, which are now primarily used in chemical research and industrial applications. Please note that picrates should be handled with care due to their potential explosiveness when heated or subjected to friction.
Glucosides are glycosides that contain glucose as the sugar component, often forming part of the plant's defense mechanism and can have various pharmacological effects when extracted and used medically.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.
A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Ciwujia extract, which is prepared from plants of this genus, contains ciwujianosides and is used to enhance PHYSICAL ENDURANCE.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glucoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.
A plant family of the order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida.
A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).

Irreversible inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase by dicaffeoylquinic acids. (1/190)

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other retroviruses require integration of a double-stranded DNA copy of the RNA genome into the host cell chromosome for productive infection. The viral enzyme, integrase, catalyzes the integration of retroviral DNA and represents an attractive target for developing antiretroviral agents. We identified several derivatives of dicaffeoylquinic acids (DCQAs) that inhibit HIV-1 replication in tissue culture and catalytic activities of HIV-1 integrase in vitro. The specific step at which DCQAs inhibit the integration in vitro and the mechanism of inhibition were examined in the present study. Titration experiments with different concentrations of HIV-1 integrase or DNA substrate found that the effect of DCQAs was exerted on the enzyme and not the DNA. In addition to HIV-1, DCQAs also inhibited the in vitro activities of MLV integrase and truncated variants of feline immunodeficiency virus integrase, suggesting that these compounds interacted with the central core domain of integrase. The inhibition on retroviral integrases was relatively specific, and DCQAs had no effect on several other DNA-modifying enzymes and phosphoryltransferases. Kinetic analysis and dialysis experiments showed that the inhibition of integrase by DCQAs was irreversible. The inhibition did not require the presence of a divalent cation and was unaffected by preassembling integrase onto viral DNA. The results suggest that the irreversible inhibition by DCQAs on integrase is directed toward conserved amino acid residues in the central core domain during catalysis.  (+info)

Identification of protein components of the microsomal glucose 6-phosphate transporter by photoaffinity labelling. (2/190)

The glucose-6-phosphatase system catalyses the terminal step of hepatic glucose production from both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis and is thus a key regulatory factor of blood glucose homoeostasis. To identify the glucose 6-phosphate transporter T1, we have performed photoaffinity labelling of human and rat liver microsomes by using the specific photoreactive glucose-6-phosphate translocase inhibitors S 0957 and S 1743. Membrane proteins of molecular mass 70, 55, 33 and 31 kDa were labelled in human microsomes by [3H]S 0957, whereas in rat liver microsomes bands at 95, 70, 57, 54, 50, 41, 33 and 31 kDa were detectable. The photoprobe [3H]S 1743 led to the predominant labelling of a 57 kDa and a 50 kDa protein in the rat. Stripping of microsomes with 0.3% CHAPS retains the specific binding of T1 inhibitors; photoaffinity labelling of such CHAPS-treated microsomes resulted in the labelling of membrane proteins of molecular mass 55, 33 and 31 kDa in human liver and 50, 33 and 31 kDa in rat liver. Photoaffinity labelling of human liver tissue samples from a healthy individual and from liver samples of patients with a diagnosed glycogen-storage disease type 1b (GSD type 1b; von Gierke's disease) revealed the absence of the 55 kDa protein from one of the patients with GSD type 1. These findings support the identity of the glucose 6-phosphate transporter T1, with endoplasmic reticulum protein of molecular mass 50 kDa in rat liver and 55 kDa in human liver.  (+info)

Natural antioxidant, chlorogenic acid, protects against DNA breakage caused by monochloramine. (3/190)

Chlorogenic acid prevented a stepwise conversion of plasmid pUC18 DNA, from I-->form II-->form III, induced by 3 mM monochloramine with a half inhibition of 67.4 microM. Chlorogenic acid reacted with monochloramine in a time-dependent manner, and the reaction rate increased with decreasing pH. These results suggest that chlorogenic acid prevents genotoxicity of monochloramine in gastric mucosa.  (+info)

The small intestine can both absorb and glucuronidate luminal flavonoids. (4/190)

We have studied the perfusion of the jejunum and ileum in an isolated rat intestine model with flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates and the influence of glycosylation on the subsequent metabolism. Flavone and flavonol glucosides and their corresponding aglycones are glucuronidated during transfer across the rat jejunum and ileum and this glucuronidation occurs without the need for gut microflora. Furthermore, this suggests the presence of glycosidases as well as UDP-glucuronyl transferase in the jejunum. In contrast, quercetin-3-glucoside and rutin are mainly absorbed unmetabolised. The results suggest that the more highly reducing phenolics are absorbed predominantly as glucuronides (96.5%+/-4.6) of the amount absorbed, whereas monophenolic hydroxycinnamates and monophenolic B-ring flavonoids are less predisposed to glucuronidation and higher levels of aglycone (88.1%+/-10.1) are detected on absorption through both the jejunum and ileum.  (+info)

Expression of tryptophan decarboxylase and tyrosine decarboxylase genes in tobacco results in altered biochemical and physiological phenotypes. (5/190)

The substrate specificity of tryptophan (Trp) decarboxylase (TDC) for Trp and tyrosine (Tyr) decarboxylase (TYDC) for Tyr was used to modify the in vivo pools of these amino acids in transgenic tobacco. Expression of TDC and TYDC was shown to deplete the levels of Trp and Tyr, respectively, during seedling development. The creation of artificial metabolic sinks for Trp and Tyr also drastically affected the levels of phenylalanine, as well as those of the non-aromatic amino acids methionine, valine, and leucine. Transgenic seedlings also displayed a root-curling phenotype that directly correlated with the depletion of the Trp pool. Non-transformed control seedlings could be induced to display this phenotype after treatment with inhibitors of auxin translocation such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid or N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid. The depletion of aromatic amino acids was also correlated with increases in the activities of the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways in older, light-treated transgenic seedlings expressing TDC, TYDC, or both. These results provide in vivo confirmation that aromatic amino acids exert regulatory feedback control over carbon flux through the shikimate pathway, as well as affecting pathways outside of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis.  (+info)

Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by constituents of St. John's Wort, an herbal preparation used in the treatment of depression. (6/190)

Commercially available St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) extracts, preparations that are used in the treatment of depression, were examined for the potential to inhibit human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities, specifically CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. Crude extracts demonstrated inhibition of each of these five enzymes, with CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4 being more sensitive than CYP1A2 and CYP2C19. Extracts were fractionated by HPLC, and each of the fractions was tested for inhibition of these five CYPs to identify individual constituents with inhibitory activity. Several fractions were shown to possess inhibitory activity, including the fractions containing hyperforin (the putative active antidepressant constituent), I3,II8-biapigenin, and hypericin. Hyperforin and I3,II8-biapigenin were isolated from the extract, and inhibition constants for the five CYP activities were measured. In addition, three other constituents, hypericin, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid, were tested for inhibitory activity toward the CYP enzymes. The flavonoid compound I3,II8-biapigenin was shown to be a potent, competitive inhibitor of CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP1A2 activities with K(i) values of 0.038, 0.32, and 0.95 microM, respectively. Hyperforin was a potent noncompetitive inhibitor of CYP2D6 activity (K(i) = 1.5 microM) and competitive inhibitor of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 activities (K(i) = 1.8 and 0.48 microM, respectively). Hypericin also demonstrated potent inhibition of several CYP activities. These in vitro data indicate that St. John's wort preparations contain constituents that can potently inhibit the activities of major human drug-metabolizing enzymes and suggest that these preparations should be examined for potential pharmacokinetic drug interactions in vivo.  (+info)

Inhibition of NFkappaB by methyl chlorogenate from Eriobotrya japonica. (7/190)

Methylchlorogenic acid (MC) is one of the main components in the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica. We previously reported that MC is the most potent antioxidant among several components of Eriobotrya japonica, and its antioxidant activity is stronger than that of chlorogenic acid. Antioxidants are expected to inhibit redox-sensitive NFkappaB activation since NFkappaB is readily influenced by cellular oxidative state. Based on these findings, in vivo experiments with MC were conducted to determine its ability to downregulate the NFkappaB activation in mouse liver. Results clearly showed that MC is a potent suppressor of BHP-induced NFkappaB activation. We observed a significant reduction by MC on BHP-induced translocation of p65 subunit of NFkappaB. This may be due to formation of p50/p65 heterodimer, which is mainly inducible NFkappaB. MC slightly blocked the BHP-induced IkappaB alpha degradation. There is a possibility of IkappaB alpha resynthesis via activated NFkappaB during a 5 h waiting period following BHP injection. The present results suggest that MC may inhibit NFkappaB activation, exhibiting its ability to downregulate the NFkappaB-dependent gene expression. Thus, it can be expected that MC may have potential for therapeutic intervention on various NFkappaB-dependent pathological conditions such as inflammatory or possibly mutagenic processes.  (+info)

Naturally occurring polyphenolic antioxidants modulate IgE-mediated mast cell activation. (8/190)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to modulate activities of a host of kinases, phosphatases and transcription factors. Rutin and chlorogenic acid (CGA) are the major polyphenolic antioxidants present in the small molecular fraction of smokeless tobacco leaf extracts, as ascertained by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. Levels of intracellular ROS in resting versus antigen-immunoglobulin E (IgE)-challenged murine mast cells were measured at 510 nm by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) using carboxy-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH-DA). Enhanced ROS production was observed in IgE-sensitized mast cells following antigenic challenge. Rutin and CGA reduced ROS levels in antigen-IgE-activated mast cells. Concomitantly, they also profoundly inhibited histamine release by these activated mast cells. In contrast, rutin and CGA augmented the inducible cytokine messages, i.e. interleukin (IL)-10, IL-13, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in IgE-sensitized mast cells following antigen challenge. This study indicates that tobacco polyphenolic antioxidants that quench intracellular ROS, differentially affect two effector functions of antigen-IgE-activated mast cells. This model system may be employed to determine the molecular target of polyphenols. The potential role of these polyphenolic antioxidants on IgE-mediated allergy in vivo depends on a balance of their differential effects on mast cell activation.  (+info)

Chlorogenic acid is a type of polyphenolic compound that is found in various plants, including coffee, tea, and several fruits and vegetables. It is a ester of cinnamic acid and quinic acid. Chlorogenic acids are known to have antioxidant properties and may also play a role in regulating glucose metabolism and inhibiting the growth of certain types of cancer cells. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits and risks associated with chlorogenic acid consumption.

Caffeic acids are a type of phenolic compounds that contain a catechol structure and a carboxylic acid group. They are found in various plants, including coffee, tea, fruits, and vegetables. The most common caffeic acid is caffeic acid itself, which is abundant in coffee. Caffeic acids have been studied for their potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand their effects on human health.

"Lonicera" is a genus of shrubs and climbers commonly known as honeysuckles. It does not have a specific medical definition, but some species of Lonicera are used in traditional medicine in various cultures. For example, Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. However, it's important to note that the use of these plants as medicine should be under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can also have side effects and interact with other medications.

Quinic acid is not typically defined in a medical context, but rather it is an organic compound that is widely found in nature. It's a type of chemical called a hydroxyacid, and it's particularly abundant in plants. Quinic acid is a white crystalline solid at room temperature and has a slightly sweet taste.

In the medical field, quinic acid may be mentioned in relation to certain medical conditions or treatments. For example, quinic acid is one of the compounds found in large quantities in tea, coffee, and some fruits, and it has been studied for its potential antioxidant properties. Additionally, quinic acid is a metabolic intermediate in the synthesis of various substances in the body, including certain amino acids and neurotransmitters.

However, it's important to note that quinic acid itself is not typically used as a medication or treatment for any medical conditions.

Rutin is a flavonoid, a type of plant pigment that is found in various plants and foods including citrus fruits, buckwheat, and asparagus. It has antioxidant properties and is known to help strengthen blood vessels and reduce inflammation. In medical terms, rutin may be mentioned in the context of discussing treatments for conditions related to these effects, such as varicose veins or hemorrhoids. However, it's important to note that while rutin has potential health benefits, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and proper dosages.

Coumaric acids are a type of phenolic acid that are widely distributed in plants. They are found in various foods such as fruits, vegetables, and grains. The most common forms of coumaric acids are p-coumaric acid, o-coumaric acid, and m-coumaric acid.

Coumaric acids have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. They may also play a role in preventing chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of coumaric acids.

It's worth noting that coumaric acids are not to be confused with warfarin (also known as Coumadin), a medication used as an anticoagulant. While both coumaric acids and warfarin contain a similar chemical structure, they have different effects on the body.

"Coffea" is the genus name for the Coffea plant, which belongs to the Rubiaceae family. This plant is native to tropical regions of Africa and Asia, and it is widely cultivated for its seeds, commonly known as coffee beans. These beans are used to produce a popular beverage called coffee, which contains caffeine, a stimulant drug that affects the central nervous system.

Coffee has been consumed for centuries and is one of the most traded commodities in the world. It contains several bioactive compounds, including caffeine, chlorogenic acids, diterpenes, and polyphenols, which have been associated with various health benefits, such as improved cognitive function, increased alertness, and reduced risk of certain diseases like type 2 diabetes and Parkinson's disease. However, excessive consumption of coffee can lead to adverse effects, including insomnia, nervousness, restlessness, and rapid heart rate.

It is worth noting that the term "Coffea" refers specifically to the plant genus, while "coffee" refers to the beverage produced from its seeds.

Hydroxybenzoates are the salts or esters of hydroxybenzoic acids. They are commonly used as preservatives in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products due to their antimicrobial and antifungal properties. The most common examples include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben. These compounds work by inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi, thereby increasing the shelf life and safety of various products. However, there has been some concern about their potential health effects, including possible hormonal disruption, and their use in certain applications is being re-evaluated.

'Cynara scolymus' is the scientific name for the plant species more commonly known as artichoke. It belongs to the family Asteraceae and is native to the Mediterranean region. The artichoke plant produces large, purple flower buds that are eaten as a vegetable. The edible portion of the bud consists of the fleshy bases of the scales (or bracts) and the heart, which is the base of the bud. Artichokes are rich in antioxidants, fiber, and various nutrients, making them a valuable addition to a healthy diet.

Coffee is defined in medical terms as a beverage prepared from the roasted seeds of the Coffea plant. It contains caffeine, a stimulant that can help increase alertness, improve mood, and boost mental and physical performance. Coffee also contains antioxidants and other bioactive compounds that may have health benefits. However, excessive consumption of coffee can lead to side effects such as insomnia, nervousness, restlessness, and rapid heart rate. It's important to consume coffee in moderation and be aware of its potential interactions with medications and medical conditions.

Phenols, also known as phenolic acids or phenol derivatives, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon ring. In the context of medicine and biology, phenols are often referred to as a type of antioxidant that can be found in various foods and plants.

Phenols have the ability to neutralize free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can cause damage to cells and contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Some common examples of phenolic compounds include gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and ellagic acid, among many others.

Phenols can also have various pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and analgesic effects. However, some phenolic compounds can also be toxic or irritating to the body in high concentrations, so their use as therapeutic agents must be carefully monitored and controlled.

Polyphenols are a type of phytochemical, which are naturally occurring compounds found in plant-based foods. They contain multiple phenol units and can be classified into several subgroups, including flavonoids, stilbenes, tannins, and lignans. These compounds have been studied for their potential health benefits due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulating properties. They are found in a wide variety of foods such as fruits, vegetables, tea, wine, chocolate, and cereals.

"Ilex paraguariensis" is the scientific name for a plant species native to South America, specifically in parts of Argentina, Paraguay, and Brazil. This evergreen tree or shrub belongs to the Aquifoliaceae family and is commonly known as "yerba mate" or "Paraguayan tea."

The leaves of Ilex paraguariensis contain several biologically active compounds, including xanthines (such as caffeine), saponins, polyphenols, and chlorogenic acids. Traditionally, the leaves are dried, chopped, and steeped in hot water to make a popular beverage called "mate," which is consumed for its stimulant effects and potential health benefits. Some studies suggest that yerba mate may have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and thermogenic properties; however, more research is needed to confirm these findings and establish the safety and efficacy of Ilex paraguariensis for medicinal purposes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Forsythia" is not a medical term. It is actually the name of a genus of flowering plants in the olive family, Oleaceae. These plants are known for their yellow flowers that typically bloom in early spring. They are often used as ornamental shrubs in gardens and landscapes. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try and help with those!

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

Cinnamates are organic compounds that are derived from cinnamic acid. They contain a carbon ring with a double bond and a carboxylic acid group, making them aromatic acids. Cinnamates are widely used in the perfume industry due to their pleasant odor, and they also have various applications in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

In a medical context, cinnamates may be used as topical medications for the treatment of skin conditions such as fungal infections or inflammation. For example, cinnamate esters such as cinoxacin and ciclopirox are commonly used as antifungal agents in creams, lotions, and shampoos. These compounds work by disrupting the cell membranes of fungi, leading to their death.

Cinnamates may also have potential therapeutic benefits for other medical conditions. For instance, some studies suggest that cinnamate derivatives may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties, making them promising candidates for the development of new drugs to treat diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and determine their safety and efficacy in humans.

'Crataegus' is a genus of plants in the family Rosaceae, commonly known as Hawthorns. These plants are native to Europe, Asia, and North America, and are characterized by their thorny branches and clusters of white or pink flowers that bloom in the spring. The fruit of these plants, which are small red or black berries, are often used in herbal medicine for treating heart-related conditions.

In a medical context, Crataegus is most commonly referred to as Hawthorn, and its medicinal uses are primarily related to cardiovascular health. Hawthorn extracts have been shown to improve circulation, lower blood pressure, and help regulate irregular heartbeats. It has also been used to treat anxiety and digestive issues.

It is important to note that while Hawthorn has a long history of use in traditional medicine, it should not be used as a substitute for conventional medical treatment. Before taking any herbal supplements, including Hawthorn, it is always best to consult with a healthcare provider.

Catechol oxidase, also known as polyphenol oxidase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechols and other phenolic compounds to quinones. These quinones can then undergo further reactions to form various pigmented compounds, such as melanins. Catechol oxidase is widely distributed in nature and is found in plants, fungi, and some bacteria. In humans, catechol oxidase is involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and epinephrine.

Depsides are a type of chemical compound that are formed by the condensation of two molecules of phenolic acids. They are a subclass of polyphenols, which are compounds found in plants that have various biological activities. Depsides are characterized by the presence of a central core structure consisting of a benzene ring linked to a carboxylic acid group through a carbon-carbon bond.

Depsides can be further classified into different subgroups based on the specific phenolic acids that make up their structure. Some common examples of depsides include chlorogenic acid, which is formed from caffeic acid and quinic acid, and rosmarinic acid, which is formed from caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid.

Depsides have been studied for their potential health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. They are found in a variety of plant foods, such as fruits, vegetables, herbs, and spices, and may contribute to the overall health-promoting properties of these foods.

Flavonoids are a type of plant compounds with antioxidant properties that are beneficial to health. They are found in various fruits, vegetables, grains, and wine. Flavonoids have been studied for their potential to prevent chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer due to their ability to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress.

There are several subclasses of flavonoids, including:

1. Flavanols: Found in tea, chocolate, grapes, and berries. They have been shown to improve blood flow and lower blood pressure.
2. Flavones: Found in parsley, celery, and citrus fruits. They have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
3. Flavanonols: Found in citrus fruits, onions, and tea. They have been shown to improve blood flow and reduce inflammation.
4. Isoflavones: Found in soybeans and legumes. They have estrogen-like effects and may help prevent hormone-related cancers.
5. Anthocyanidins: Found in berries, grapes, and other fruits. They have antioxidant properties and may help improve vision and memory.

It is important to note that while flavonoids have potential health benefits, they should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or a healthy lifestyle. It is always best to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

Scopolia is not a medical condition or term itself, but it refers to a genus of plants in the nightshade family (Solanaceae) that includes several species such as Scopolia carniolica and Scopolia japonica. These plants contain powerful alkaloids including scopolamine and hyoscyamine, which have been used in medicine for their anticholinergic properties to treat conditions like motion sickness, gastrointestinal disorders, and Parkinson's disease. However, these substances can also cause significant side effects and toxicity if not properly managed. Improper use or misuse of Scopolia plants can lead to severe poisoning, resulting in symptoms such as dry mouth, dilated pupils, blurred vision, tachycardia, delirium, hallucinations, convulsions, coma, and even death.

"Achillea" is the genus name for a group of flowering plants commonly known as yarrows. These plants belong to the family Asteraceae and are native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The name "Achillea" comes from Achilles, the legendary Greek hero of the Trojan War, who was said to have used the plant to treat wounds on the battlefield.

Yarrows are hardy herbaceous plants that typically grow to a height of 1-2 feet. They have feathery, aromatic leaves and produce clusters of small flowers in shades of white, yellow, pink, or red. The flowers are popular with bees and butterflies, making yarrows a good choice for pollinator gardens.

Yarrows have a long history of use in traditional medicine. The leaves and flowers can be made into teas, tinctures, or salves to treat a variety of ailments, including wounds, cuts, bruises, and inflammation. Some studies suggest that certain species of yarrow may have antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties, although more research is needed to confirm these effects.

It's worth noting that some people may experience allergic reactions to yarrow, particularly if they are sensitive to plants in the Asteraceae family. If you are considering using yarrow for medicinal purposes, it's a good idea to consult with a healthcare provider first to ensure that it is safe and appropriate for your needs.

Free radical scavengers, also known as antioxidants, are substances that neutralize or stabilize free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons, capable of causing damage to cells and tissues in the body through a process called oxidative stress. Antioxidants donate an electron to the free radical, thereby neutralizing it and preventing it from causing further damage. They can be found naturally in foods such as fruits, vegetables, and nuts, or they can be synthesized and used as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium.

I am not a medical expert, but I can provide some information that may be helpful. "Picrates" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. Instead, it is a term used in chemistry to refer to salts of picric acid (2,4,6-trinitrophenol), which was once used as a yellow dye and explosive.

Picric acid has been used historically in some medical applications, such as a component in certain topical antiseptics and in histological staining procedures. However, its use in modern medicine is quite limited due to its high sensitivity to impact, heat, and friction, which makes it potentially dangerous to handle.

Therefore, it's important to note that "picrates" is not a medical term per se but rather a chemical one, and any medical application of picric acid or its salts would be highly specialized and unlikely to be encountered in most healthcare settings.

Glucosides are chemical compounds that consist of a glycosidic bond between a sugar molecule (typically glucose) and another non-sugar molecule, which can be an alcohol, phenol, or steroid. They occur naturally in various plants and some microorganisms.

Glucosides are not medical terms per se, but they do have significance in pharmacology and toxicology because some of them may release the sugar portion upon hydrolysis, yielding aglycone, which can have physiological effects when ingested or absorbed into the body. Some glucosides are used as medications or dietary supplements due to their therapeutic properties, while others can be toxic if consumed in large quantities.

Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or slow damage to cells caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that the body produces as a reaction to environmental and other pressures. Antioxidants are able to neutralize free radicals by donating an electron to them, thus stabilizing them and preventing them from causing further damage to the cells.

Antioxidants can be found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Some common antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium. Antioxidants are also available as dietary supplements.

In addition to their role in protecting cells from damage, antioxidants have been studied for their potential to prevent or treat a number of health conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using antioxidant supplements.

An ileostomy is a surgical procedure in which the end of the small intestine, called the ileum, is brought through an opening in the abdominal wall (stoma) to create a path for waste material to leave the body. This procedure is typically performed when there is damage or removal of the colon, rectum, or anal canal due to conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), cancer, or trauma.

After an ileostomy, waste material from the small intestine exits the body through the stoma and collects in a pouch worn outside the body. The patient needs to empty the pouch regularly, typically every few hours, as the output is liquid or semi-liquid. Ileostomies can be temporary or permanent, depending on the underlying condition and the planned course of treatment. Proper care and management of the stoma and pouch are essential for maintaining good health and quality of life after an ileostomy.

"Acanthopanax" is a genus of shrubs and small trees in the family Araliaceae. It includes several species native to Asia, such as Acanthopanax senticosus (also known as Eleutherococcus senticosus or Siberian ginseng) and Acanthopanax gracilistylus (also known as Mikania cordata or Japanese tea). These plants have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, including boosting the immune system, increasing energy, and reducing stress. However, it's important to note that the scientific evidence supporting these uses is limited, and more research is needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn.

Therefore, "Acanthopanax" itself does not have a specific medical definition as it refers to a genus of plants with various proposed medicinal properties.

Chinese herbal drugs, also known as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), refer to a system of medicine that has been practiced in China for thousands of years. It is based on the belief that the body's vital energy, called Qi, must be balanced and flowing freely for good health. TCM uses various techniques such as herbal therapy, acupuncture, dietary therapy, and exercise to restore balance and promote healing.

Chinese herbal drugs are usually prescribed in the form of teas, powders, pills, or tinctures and may contain one or a combination of herbs. The herbs used in Chinese medicine are typically derived from plants, minerals, or animal products. Some commonly used Chinese herbs include ginseng, astragalus, licorice root, and cinnamon bark.

It is important to note that the use of Chinese herbal drugs should be under the guidance of a qualified practitioner, as some herbs can interact with prescription medications or have side effects. Additionally, the quality and safety of Chinese herbal products can vary widely depending on the source and manufacturing process.

Iridoid glucosides are a type of plant-based compounds that are characterized by their iridoid structure, which is a cyclic organic compound containing a cyclopentane ring fused to a six-membered unsaturated carbocycle. These compounds are often found in plants as glycosides, meaning they are combined with a sugar molecule such as glucose.

Iridoid glucosides have been identified in a variety of plant families, including the Lamiaceae (mint family), Scrophulariaceae (figwort family), and Rubiaceae (coffee family). Some examples of iridoid glucosides include geniposide, which is found in the fruit of the gardenia plant, and aucubin, which is found in the leaves of the eucommia tree.

Iridoid glucosides have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects. However, more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic uses.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Malus" is not a medical term. It is a genus name in the plant kingdom, referring to the apple tree. If you have a different term or concept in mind, please provide it so I can give you an accurate definition or explanation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flowers" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "flowers" is commonly used to refer to the reproductive structures of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are characterized by having both male and female reproductive organs or separate male and female flowers.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "planets" is not a medical term. It is a term used in astronomy to refer to celestial bodies that orbit the sun and meet certain criteria, such as having cleared their orbit of other debris. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to try to help!

Caprifoliaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes shrubs, trees, and climbers. It was previously known as Honeysuckle family, as it includes the genera containing common honeysuckles (Lonicera spp.). The family Caprifoliaceae contains around 90 genera and 2000 species of plants, including well-known garden plants such as elderberries (Sambucus spp.), valerians (Valeriana spp.), and snowberries (Symphoricarpos spp.).

The plants in Caprifoliaceae are characterized by their opposite leaves, typically with entire margins, and their flowers, which are usually tubular or bell-shaped. The fruits of these plants can be berries, drupes, or capsules. Many species in this family have medicinal properties, while others are cultivated for their ornamental value.

It's worth noting that recent phylogenetic studies have led to a reclassification of some plant families, and Caprifoliaceae is now sometimes included as part of the larger family Dipsacaceae.

Iridoids are a type of naturally occurring compounds that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. They are characterized by the presence of a cyclopentanoid structure fused to a monoterpene unit. Iridoids have a wide range of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antioxidant effects. Some iridoids also have potential therapeutic benefits in the treatment of various diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

In a medical context, iridoids may be mentioned in relation to their presence in certain medicinal plants or herbs used in traditional medicine, or in research investigating their potential pharmacological properties. However, it is important to note that the use of iridoid-containing plants or supplements should only be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as with any medical treatment.

... chlorogenic acid is the ester formed between caffeic acid and the 3-hydroxyl of L-quinic acid. Isomers of chlorogenic acid ... caffeic acid, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid) with quinic acid. Despite the "chloro" of the name, chlorogenic acids contain ... Isomers of chlorogenic acid are found in potatoes. Chlorogenic acid is present in the flesh of eggplants, peaches, prunes and ... Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is the ester of caffeic acid and (−)-quinic acid, functioning as an intermediate in lignin biosynthesis ...
... chlorogenic acid; coumaroylagmatine; lithospermic acid; rosmarinic acid; rutin; sagerinic acid; salvinorin C; santaflavone; and ... Of which, over 180 phytochemicals (87 flavonoids, 41 phenolic acids, 16 terpenoids, 8 sulfate derivatives, 7 iridoids, and ...
... it is an ester formed from quinic acid and two units of caffeic acid. Chlorogenic acid Panizzi, Luigi; Scarpati, Maria Luisa ( ... Hydroxycinnamic acid esters, Hydroxycinnamic acid glycosides, Quinic acid esters, Catechols, Vinylogous carboxylic acids, All ... Cynarine is a hydroxycinnamic acid derivative and a biologically active chemical constituent of artichoke (Cynara cardunculus ...
... chlorogenic acid levels are increased. Additionally, phytoplasma diseases greatly reduce the essential oil yield of the plant. ...
J. A. Pedersen, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 2000, volume 28, pages 229-253 Clifford, M. N. (1999). "Chlorogenic acids ... Thus, chemically, rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid with 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid, but biologically, it is ... after which the acid is named. Chemically, rosmarinic acid is a caffeic acid ester, with tyrosine providing another phenolic ... "Production of rosmarinic acid and a new rosmarinic acid 3′-O-β-D-glucoside in suspension cultures of the hornwort Anthoceros ...
Chlorogenic acids are homologous compounds comprising caffeic acid, ferulic acid and 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, which are ... The lipids found in green coffee include: linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, diterpenes, ... Chlorogenic acids belong to a group of compounds known as phenolic acids, which are antioxidants. The content of chlorogenic ... hexanoic acid (fatty-rancid odor), heptanoic acid (fatty odor), octanoic acid (repulsive oily rancid odor); nonanoic acid (mild ...
It is an isomer of chlorogenic acid; both of these are members of the caffeoylquinic acid class of molecules. Infante, Rodrigo ... Hydroxycinnamic acid esters, Hydroxycinnamic acid glycosides, Quinic acid esters, Catechols, Vinylogous carboxylic acids, All ... Neochlorogenic acid is a natural polyphenol found in some dried fruits and other plant sources, such as peaches. ...
It is made synthetically by hydrolysis of chlorogenic acid. Quinic acid is also implicated in the perceived acidity of coffee. ... Dehydrogenation and oxidation of quinic acid affords gallic acid. Quinic acid is used as an astringent. This acid is a ... On the reduction of quinic acid to benzoic acid and its transformation into hippuric acid in the animal organism), Annalen der ... Quinic acid is a cyclitol, a cyclic polyol, and a cyclohexanecarboxylic acid. It is a colorless solid that can be extracted ...
"Chicoric and Chlorogenic Acids in Plant Species from Georgia". Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology. 37 (2): 188-191. doi: ... Chicoric acid (also known as cichoric acid) is a hydroxycinnamic acid, an organic compound of the phenylpropanoid class and ... It is a derivative of both caffeic acid and tartaric acid. As a suitable marker for the distinction of Echinacea species, it is ... Caftaric acid (monocaffeyltartaric acid) John Shi; Giuseppe Mazza; Marc Le Maguer (27 February 2002). Functional Foods: ...
This hydroxylation produces the caffeic acid ester of shikimic acid, which converts to chlorogenic acid. It is the precursor to ... Umbellic acid (2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) 2,3-Dihydroxycinnamic acid 2,5-Dihydroxycinnamic acid Gould, Kevin S.; Markham, ... Olthof, M. R.; Hollman, P. C.; Katan, M. B. (January 2001). "Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans". J. Nutr ... Caffeate O-methyltransferase is an enzyme responsible for the transformation of caffeic acid into ferulic acid. Caffeic acid ...
Niggeweg R, Michael AJ, Martin C (June 2004). "Engineering plants with increased levels of the antioxidant chlorogenic acid". ... Qiu S, Adema CM, Lane T (2005). "A computational study of off-target effects of RNA interference". Nucleic Acids Research. 33 ( ... doi:10.1046/j.1365-313X.1994.6060861.x. Mol JN, van der Krol AR (1991). Antisense nucleic acids and proteins: fundamentals and ... Givosiran is an siRNA that breaks down aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1) mRNA in the liver. Breaking down ALAS1 mRNA ...
Chlorogenic acid is a component of common foods and beverages; coffee contains an average of 53.8 mg chlorogenic acid per 100 ... Deoxycholic acid is a bile acid. Deoxycholic acid is one of the secondary bile acids, which are metabolic byproducts of ... Bacteria metabolize chenodeoxycholic acid into the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid, and they metabolize cholic acid into ... There are additional secondary bile acids, such as ursodeoxycholic acid. Deoxycholic acid is soluble in alcohol and acetic acid ...
Occurrence of rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid and rutin in Marantaceae species. Yana Abdullah, Bernd Schneider and Maike ... Rosmarinic acid can be found in plants in the family Marantaceae such as Maranta leuconeura. Maranta usually experiences ...
"Green coffee infusion as a source of caffeine and chlorogenic acid". Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 84: 103307. doi: ... Red berries, with their higher aromatic oil and lower organic acid content, are more fragrant, smooth, and mellow. As such, ...
Of particular importance to the roaster are the chlorogenic acids (CGAs). One of the key goals of roasting is to break down ... "Caffeine and chlorogenic acids intake from coffee brew: influence of roasting degree and brewing procedure". International ... Unroasted beans contain similar if not higher levels of acids, protein, sugars, and caffeine as those that have been roasted, ... Green coffee contains many different types of acids, some of which are pleasant to taste and some that are not. ...
"Green coffee infusion as a source of caffeine and chlorogenic acid". Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 84: 103307. doi: ... During roasting, aromatic oils and acids weaken, changing the flavor; at 205 °C (401 °F), other oils start to develop. One of ... Lighter roasts have a more complex and therefore perceived stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids otherwise destroyed by ... They are especially appreciated by worms and acid-loving plants such as blueberries. Climate change may significantly impact ...
Abdullah, Yana (2008). "Occurrence of rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid and rutin in Marantaceae species". Phytochemistry ... Rosmarinic acid can be found in plants in the family Marantaceae such as species in the genera Maranta (Maranta leuconeura, ...
Tajik, N; Tajik, M; Mack, I; Enck, P (8 April 2017). "The potential effects of chlorogenic acid, the main phenolic components ... A larger 2017 review assessed the effects of chlorogenic acid, the main phenolic compound in green coffee extract, determining ... "Green coffee infusion as a source of caffeine and chlorogenic acid". Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 84: 103307. doi: ...
... and chlorogenic acid esterase. Schobel B, Pollmann W (1980). "Isolation and characterization of a chlorogenic acid esterase ... Further characterization of a chlorogenic acid hydrolase from Aspergillus niger (author's transl)]". Z. Naturforsch. C. 35 (9- ...
The major antioxidative compounds in yacon are chlorogenic acid and L-tryptophan. Yacon contains also different phenolic ... In addition, yacon juice is rich in free essential amino acids. Dry basis ND Not determined Carbohydrate was estimated by the ... Kapuler, A.M; Gurusiddiah, Sarangamat (1993-10-14). "The Twenty Protein Amino Acids Free in the Juices of Our Common Vegetables ... Kapuler, A. M.; Gurusiddiah, Sarangamat (1993-10-14). "The Twenty Protein Amino Acids Free in the Juices of Our Common ...
... dactylifric acid) and its positional isomers (3-caffeoylshikimic acid and 4-caffeoylshikimic acid)... "Chlorogenic acids and ... Dactylifric acid (also known as dattelic acid or 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid) is an ester derived from caffeic acid and shikimic ... 5-O-Caffeoylshikimic acid Maier, V. P.; Metzler, D. M.; Huber, A. F. (1964). "3-O-Caffeoylshikimic acid (dactylifric acid) and ... Hydroxycinnamic acid esters, Hydroxycinnamic acid glycosides, Cyclitol esters, Cyclohexenes, Vinylogous carboxylic acids, All ...
The main polyphenols contained in the tobacco leaf are rutin and chlorogenic acid. Amino acids contained include glutamic acids ... Roberts, E.A.H. (1951). "The polyphenols and amino acids of tobacco leaf". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 33 (2): 299 ... propionic acid, anthalin, anethole, acrolein, cembrene, choline, nicotelline, nicotianine, and pyrene. Tobacco aroma is due to ... asparagine, glutamine, and γ-Aminobutyric acid Pyridine alkaloids are present in tobacco as free bases and salts. Nicotine ...
Several phytochemicals have been found in Hypericum origanifolium; chlorogenic acid and rutin are the most common phenols found ...
The most present chemicals are chlorogenic acid, shikimic acid, rutin, epicatechin, and hyperoside. Hypericum androsaemum is ... In particular, room-temperature water or the plant hormone gibberellic acid are most effective at bringing its seeds out of a ... Hydroxyl Radical and Hypochlorous Acid". Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 25 (10): 1320-1323. doi:10.1248/bpb.25.1320. ...
Hydroxycinnamic acids p-coumaric acid caffeic acid ferulic acid Chlorogenic acids chlorogenic acid (3-(3,4-dihydroxycinnamoyl) ... quinic acid) 3-O-(3'-methylcaffeoyl)quinic acid 5-O-caffeoyl-4-methylquinic acid 3-O-caffeoyl-1-methylquinic acid (C 17H 20O 9 ... Identification and Antioxidant Activity of Novel Chlorogenic Acid Derivatives from Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis). Mee-Hyang ... Journal of Food Biochemistry Phyllostachys edulis Compounds Inhibit Palmitic Acid-Induced Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 ( ...
"Enzymic Synthesis of Caffeoylglucaric Acid from Chlorogenic Acid and Glucaric Acid by a Protein Preparation from Tomato ... Strack D, Gross W (1990). "Properties and Activity Changes of Chlorogenic Acid:Glucaric Acid Caffeoyltransferase From Tomato ( ... Other names in common use include chlorogenate:glucarate caffeoyltransferase, chlorogenic acid:glucaric acid O- ...
Other phenolic compounds present in the plant are hyperoside, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid. The two secoiridoid ... protocatechuic acid, methyl chlorogenic acid, and luteolin. The two biflavonoids, 3′-O-methyl loniflavone and loniflavone, ... Peng, Youyuan; Liu, Fanghua; Ye, Jiannong (2005). "Determination of Phenolic Acids and Flavones in Lonicera japonica Thumb. By ... Lonicera japonica contains methyl caffeate, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, methyl 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinate, ...
Hyperoside is the largest constituent, and chlorogenic acid and quercitrin are also present in meaningful amounts. Hypericum ...
The main phenolic compounds in ethanol extracts of the ripe fruits are caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. It is believed that ... 480-83 doi:10.1080/14786419.2014.951930 Bicalho Silva and Viviane de Cassia (2015): "Larvicidal activity of oils, fatty acids, ...
... chlorogenic, and caffeic acids in the basal leaves and the roots of intact plants, and greater concentrations in E. planum from ... chlorogenic and caffeic acids in in vitro cultures of Eryngium planum L." Acta Physiol Plant. 34 (6): 2425-2433. doi:10.1007/ ... The groups of bioactive compounds present in E. planum are phenolic acids, triterpenoid saponins, flavonoids, coumarins, and ... Qualitative and quantitative determinations of the phenolic acids by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP ...
... chlorogenic acid is the ester formed between caffeic acid and the 3-hydroxyl of L-quinic acid. Isomers of chlorogenic acid ... caffeic acid, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid) with quinic acid. Despite the "chloro" of the name, chlorogenic acids contain ... Isomers of chlorogenic acid are found in potatoes. Chlorogenic acid is present in the flesh of eggplants, peaches, prunes and ... Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is the ester of caffeic acid and (−)-quinic acid, functioning as an intermediate in lignin biosynthesis ...
The result is a health energy ingredient that is rich in caffeine, chlorogenic acid antioxidants, catechins antioxidants, and ... AMATEA™ has a unique fingerprint standardized at 20% caffeine, 30% chlorogenic acids, 5% catechins, and contains other ... AFSs Issued Patent for Producing Guayusa Extract Rich in Caffeine and Chlorogenic Acids. ... amino acids and caffeine. AFS are the inventors of a novel process that converts fresh guayusa leaves into a healthier, ...
Chlorogenic acid was the most prominent phenolic acid in both treatments as well as cultivars. In the current trial, 24 ◦C ... The potential effect of elevated root zone temperature on the concentration of chlorogenic, caffeic, and ferulic acids and the ... The potential effect of elevated root zone temperature on the concentration of chlorogenic, caffeic, and ferulic acids and the ... significantly increased chlorogenic acid in cv. SB and BP1. Ethanolic extracts of all the samples showed no activity at the ...
Metabolism of chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-rutinoside and black tea polyphenols in healthy volunteers. / Olthof, M.O.; ... Metabolism of chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-rutinoside and black tea polyphenols in healthy volunteers. In Johnson IT, Fenwick ... Olthof, M. O., Siebelink, E., Hollman, P. C. H., & Katan, M. B. (2000). Metabolism of chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-rutinoside ... Metabolism of chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-rutinoside and black tea polyphenols in healthy volunteers. Dietary anticarcinogens ...
... CATANZARO, DANIELA;FILIPPINI ... The antiproliferative effect of the naturally occurring polyphenol chlorogenic acid (CGA) was evaluated in combination with ... The antiproliferative effect of the naturally occurring polyphenol chlorogenic acid (CGA) was evaluated in combination with ...
You can also browse global suppliers,vendor,prices,Price,manufacturers of Chlorogenic acid(327-97-9). At last,Chlorogenic acid( ... Visit ChemicalBook To find more Chlorogenic acid(327-97-9) information like chemical properties,Structure,melting point,boiling ... quinic Acid CHLOROGENIC ACID extrapure Chlorogenic acid,3-Caffeoylquinic acid Chlorogenic Acid (50 mg) Chlorogenic Acid (50 mg) ... Chlorogenic acid Spectrum. Chlorogenic acid(327-97-9)1HNMRChlorogenic acid(327-97-9)IR1Chlorogenic acid(327-97-9)IR2Chlorogenic ...
... chlorogenic acid. These extracts would yield a dose of about 1 gram of chlorogenic acids in 4-5 grams of extract, a rather ... chlorogenic acid, have been produced and sold has health products. Chlorogenic acid is also found as a significant component in ... CHOLORGENIC ACIDS. Chlorogenic acids are cholegogues; their regular ingestion helps the flow of bile and thus reduces the ... It has been estimated that coffee drinkers may consume about a gram of chlorogenic acid each day. This amount of chlorogenic ...
Through 80 Mesh Chlorogenic Acid product, with strict quality control Chlorogenic Acid 10:1 Natural Herbal Extract factories, ... producing high quality Chlorogenic Acid 10:1 Natural Herbal Extract products. ... High quality Natural Herbal Extract Chlorogenic Acid 10:1 Eucommia Ulmoides Extract from China, Chinas leading 100% ... 100% Through 80 Mesh Chlorogenic Acid. , Chlorogenic Acid 10:1 Natural Herbal Extract. ...
... chlorogenic acid may help lose weight, lower blood pressure, and reduce the risk of diabetes. What can it do for you? ... Health Benefits of Chlorogenic Acid. Possibly Effective for:. 1) Lowering Blood Pressure. A single dose of chlorogenic acid or ... What Is Chlorogenic Acid?. Chlorogenic acid is a polyphenol compound found in coffee beans and different types of coffee, ... Note: Many studies refer to chlorogenic acids (plural) as opposed to chlorogenic acid. The plural form refers to a related ...
... buy Brown Yellow Powder Eucommia Ulmoides Leaf Extract Chlorogenic Acid 3-5% from China manufacturer. ...
Chlorogenic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid and phytonutrient that has a wide range of health benefits in the human body. ... Coffee is the best natural source of chlorogenic acid and contains between 35mg and 175mg of this hydroxycinnamic acid per 100 ... You can read up on chlorogenic acid and the other hydroxycinnamic acids by visiting Free Fitness Tips. ... Want To Prevent Heart Disease? Then Give Chlorogenic Acid A Try by: Thomas Parker. Posted In: Heart Disease Published: 12 years ...
Chlorogenic acid: Found in carrots, artichokes, apples, kiwi, and coffee. Research has found that it affects subcutaneous fat, ... Omega-3 fatty acids: Found primarily in seafood. They convert white fat into brown fat and stimulate the activity of brown fat ... Ursolic acid: Found in berries, lavender, thyme, and rosemary. It increases the amount of brown fat cells and improves ...
... and caffeoylquinic acids (CQA) to the cognitive effects of CA water extract (CAW) in 5XFAD mice, a model of Alzheimers disease ... chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid C, neochlorogenic acid), and a combined ... 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid) (CAS 327-97-9), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (isochlorogenic acid A) (CAS 2450-53-5), 3 ... 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (isochlorogenic acid B) (CAS 14534-61-3), and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (isochlorogenic acid C) (CAS ...
... chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid) and scavenging the radical intermediates (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid) [ ... Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid appeared early (at 1.5 h) in plasma and urine, suggesting an absorption of chlorogenic acid ... chlorogenic acid, loganic acid, secologanin, and vindoline [3].. *Chlorogenic acid attenuates hypertension and improves ... Inhibitory effect of curcumin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid on tumor promotion in mouse skin by 12-O- ...
Tajik N, Tajik M, Mack I, Enck P. The potential effects of chlorogenic acid, the main phenolic components in coffee, on health ... Phenolic acids increase cells antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defenses against damage that could lead to cancer in cell and ...
Chlorogenic acid (CGA), known as an important natural antioxidative compound in Ficus carica L, has valuable application ... A surface multiple imprinting layers membrane with well-oriented recognition sites for selective separation of chlorogenic acid ...
Green coffee: 200 mg (providing 45% chlorogenic acid). A few years back, green coffee bean extract burst into the spotlight, ... An amino acid found in green tea, l-theanine has a relaxing effect on humans (without making you sleepy) and when stacked with ...
Chlorogenic Acid:. Chlorogenic Acid is a naturally occurring antioxidant found in coffee beans. If youre asking why you ... According to multiple research studies, this is a direct impact of the Chlorogenic Acid present in the Java Burn mix. ... The Java Burn recipe, on the other hand, provides a high dose of chlorogenic acid, which the body requires. ... It is an amino acid that aids in the transfer of fatty acids for energy synthesis and aids in the removal of metabolic waste ...
Standardized for 45% chlorogenic acids. Collagen Peptides (as hydrolyzed bovine collagen peptides) ... Designed with folic acid, which is important to women, this multitasking gummy also contains biotin. ... Tapioca Syrup, Sugar, Pectin, Natural Flavors, Citric Acid, Sodium Citrate, Luo Han Guo Fruit (Monk Fruit) Extract, Color ( ...
ß-Lactoglobulin-chlorogenic acid conjugate-based nanoparticle for delivery of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate - (Peer Reviewed ... ß-Lactoglobulin-chlorogenic acid conjugate-based nanoparticle for delivery of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. RSC Advances. 7: ... Improved chemical stability and antiproliferative activities of curcumin-loaded nanoparticles with a chitosan chlorogenic acid ... Improved chemical stability and antiproliferative activities of curcumin-loaded nanoparticles with a chitosan chlorogenic acid ...
The drink also contains chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and diterpenes, which act as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents (. 11. ... Coffee contains powerful antioxidants like polyphenols, hydroxycinnamates, and chlorogenic acid (. 28. , 33. , 34. ). ... These benefits may be largely due to chlorogenic acids, which are powerful antioxidants in coffee (. 11. ). ... Acid reflux is a condition in which stomach acid frequently flows from your stomach back into your esophagus, causing ...
Chen Junhua, Z. G., Peng, G., Qin, H., Cheng, H., and Shen, J. (2014). Content determination of chlorogenic acid, quercetin and ... fatty acids and amino acids to protect the kidney against acrylamide-induced nephrotoxicity (Bao et al., 2017; Bo et al., 2018 ... Valproic acid (VPA) is widely used to intervene in epilepsy and control multiple seizures. It was deduced from experimental ... Arauz, J., Rivera-Espinoza, Y., Shibayama, M., Favari, L., Flores-Beltrán, R. E., and Muriel, P. (2015). Nicotinic acid ...
Chlorogenic acid (antioxidant). Caffeine, active. Garcinia Cambogia. May reduce synthesis of fatty acids and glycogen storage ... GIP receptor agonists reduce secretion of stomach acid and increase insulin sensitivity to control blood sugar after meal ... May stimulate the hormone adiponectin, an enhancer of fatty acid oxidation, glucose regulation. Jitteriness, increased heart ...
Green Coffee Bean Extract (50% Chlorogenic Acids)(Caffea canefora L.) 50 mg ...
Green coffee- is loaded with chlorogenic acid and natural antioxidants. *Turmeric- a natural thermogenic that speeds up ... Green coffee -contains chlorogenic acid that reduces fat and glucose level in the blood. ... Green coffee - reduces fat and glucose because of the chlorogenic acid present in it. ... L-Carnitine Fumarate (naturally-occurring amino acid) - burns fat but also prevents the body from shredding too much fat. ...
These compounds include cafestol, caffeine, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and more. The researchers concluded, "Available ...
  • Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is the ester of caffeic acid and (−)-quinic acid, functioning as an intermediate in lignin biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "chlorogenic acids" refers to a related polyphenol family of esters, including hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid) with quinic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structurally, chlorogenic acid is the ester formed between caffeic acid and the 3-hydroxyl of L-quinic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structures having more than one caffeic acid group are called isochlorogenic acids, and can be found in coffee. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can make the bromine water fade, It is azeotropic with strong hydrogen iodide and obtain benzoic acid, It is obtained phenol by thermal decomposition together with water at 230 ℃, It decomposite to caffeic acid and quinic acid with dilute hydrochloric acid, and caffeic acid and quinic acid with dilute alkali at room temperature. (bestpetlove.com)
  • Chlorogenic acid as the condensation product of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is blue when meeting with iron, which is similar to tannins , but not precipitated with protein, so no convergence. (bestpetlove.com)
  • Caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid has the wide bacteriostasis, but can be inactivated protein in the body. (bestpetlove.com)
  • Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and quinic acid can increase the tension of rat uterus, this function can be cancelled by papaverine, while atropine can't influence. (bestpetlove.com)
  • Similar to caffeic acid, oral or intraperitoneal injection can increase the central excitability of rats. (herbal-plantextract.com)
  • Kao has been conducting metabolic research on body fat and visceral fat for about 30 years, starting in the 1990s with the discovery that two polyphenols, tea catechins in green tea and the chlorogenic acids abundant in coffee beans, are effective in reducing visceral fat. (businesswire.com)
  • Research suggests green coffee bean extract (coffea canephora) contains a mixture of chlorogenic acid, polyphenols and 5-caffeylquinic acid. (herbalmagic.ca)
  • Therefore, the present study explores the phenolic acids and biological activities of cv. (up.ac.za)
  • Chlorogenic acid was the most prominent phenolic acid in both treatments as well as cultivars. (up.ac.za)
  • The process patent covers the production of enriched natural guayusa, from a single source plant, containing antioxidants, amino acids and caffeine. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • The result is a health energy ingredient that is rich in caffeine, chlorogenic acid antioxidants, catechins antioxidants, and trace elements of other nutritional compounds (like theobromine), which can then be brewed into a tea-like beverage or used to produce a potent guayusa extract. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • AMATEA™ has a unique fingerprint standardized at 20% caffeine, 30% chlorogenic acids, 5% catechins, and contains other beneficial compounds, although in lesser amounts, like theobromine. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • Roasting of coffee beans removes a significant portion of the active ingredient chlorogenic acid.1 Hence, Green coffee beans are one of the best natural sources for chlorogenic acid.2 Herbal Magic's Green Coffee Bean Extract is a jitter free formula that contains less caffeine than a quarter cup of coffee daily (less than 2% caffeine/less than 20 mg daily), and is suitable for those with caffeine sensitivities. (herbalmagic.ca)
  • Isomers of chlorogenic acid include the caffeoyl ester at other hydroxyl sites on the quinic acid ring: 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (cryptochlorogenic acid or 4-CQA) and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (neochlorogenic acid or 5-CQA). (wikipedia.org)
  • The order of numbering of atoms on the quinic acid ring was reversed in 1976 following IUPAC guidelines, with the consequence that 3-CQA became 5-CQA, and 5-CQA became 3-CQA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oral the drug of chlorogenic acid and coffee acid can increase the amount of hydrochloric acid secretion in the stomach, and can make slow pulse, and quinic acid is not. (bestpetlove.com)
  • Chlorogenic acid and the related compounds cryptochlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid have been found in the leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anticancer model's overal antioxidant activity (34.72 µg/mL) was slightly lower than quercetin (30.44 µg/mL) but higher than ascorbic acid (41.68 µg/mL). (who.int)
  • and cynarine (1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) The biosynthetic precursor to chlorogenic acid is 4-coumaroyl-CoA, containing a single hydroxyl group on the aryl ring, which in turn is produced from cinnamic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorogenic acid could significantly increase small intestine peristalsis on the rat or mouse. (bestpetlove.com)
  • Dried plums, for instance, did not raise volunteers' plasma AOC levels, perhaps because one of plums' most plentiful antioxidants chlorogenic acid isn't readily absorbed, or is readily degraded, by our bodies. (usda.gov)
  • Chlorogenic acid has good biological activity, the transparent acid enzyme and inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase, free radical lipid perxidation qing mutagenesis resistance and cardiovascular crown reinforcement, special efficacy in lipid-lowering, both anti-bacterial anti-virus, protecting liver cholagogic. (bestpetlove.com)
  • In the current trial, 24 ◦C significantly increased chlorogenic acid in cv. (up.ac.za)
  • Content of oleanolic acid and betulin can be significantly improved in various parts of birch after treatment with different concentration of MeJA. (scirp.org)
  • Chlorogenic acid and its isomer different chlorogenic acid and green chlorogenic acid are in fruits of dicotyledonous plants, leaves, and other organizations,which is an important factor for plant metabolism. (bestpetlove.com)
  • Green coffee is rich in chlorogenic acid, an antioxidant that can boost metabolism. (thomsonscientific.com)
  • Oleanolic acid can also decrease the blood lipids and improve the immunity. (scirp.org)
  • Effect of MeJA and Light on the Accumulation of Betulin and Oleanolic Acid in the Saplings of White Birch (Betula platyphylla Suk. (scirp.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the effect of different types of light and MeJA treatment on the accumulation of betulin and oleanolic acid in various organs of white birch. (scirp.org)
  • J. Yin, H. Ma, Y. Gong, J. Xiao, L. Jiang, Y. Zhan, C. Li, C. Ren and Y. Yang, "Effect of MeJA and Light on the Accumulation of Betulin and Oleanolic Acid in the Saplings of White Birch ( Betula platyphylla Suk. (scirp.org)
  • In this study, we used 1-year-old white birch to study the effect of light and MeJA treatment on the accumulation of oleanolic acid and betulin. (scirp.org)
  • Chlorogenic acid has been studied as a possible chemical sensitizer involved in respiratory allergy to certain plant materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorogenic acid is present in the flesh of eggplants, peaches, prunes and coffee beans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Green Coffee Bean Extract (50% Chlorogenic Acids)(Caffea canefora L. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Six capsules contain 100 billion Lactococcus lactis strain Plasma, a Kirin Group proprietary material, and 267 mg of chlorogenic acid from coffee beans, which help reduce visceral fat. (businesswire.com)
  • Green Coffee Bean Extract is a 100% all-natural plant concentrate, with standardized bioactives providing 45% chlorogenic acids. (herbalmagic.ca)
  • Various studies have suggested that chlorogenic acids from green coffee beans have been shown to influence postprandial blood sugar concentration, glucose tolerance, serum lipid concentration, and glucose absorption from the intestine. (herbalmagic.ca)
  • According to the latest studies, chlorogenic acid from this type of coffee helps against heart disease and diabetes, as well as it promotes weight loss. (traveltipsperu.com)
  • Chlorogenic acid has a broad antibacterial effect, but it can be inactivated by protein in the body. (herbal-plantextract.com)
  • Chlorogenic acid (CGA), known as an important natural antioxidative compound in Ficus carica L, has valuable application prospects on health food , functional food , nutrition and dietary formulations . (bvsalud.org)
  • Cherries contain a naturally occurring antioxidant called chlorogenic acid that contributes to cellular health. (puritan.com)
  • The beneficial health effects of chlorogenic acids are well known and have been documented. (herbalmagic.ca)
  • Because oleanolic acid and betulin are natural products of plants, they can selectively inhibit tumor cell growth with low toxicity on normal cells. (scirp.org)
  • Chlorogenic acid is under preliminary research for its possible biological effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4, Lowering blood pressure with stable effect, nontoxic and no side effects.The University of Wisconsin found that the effective lowering blood pressure components of Eucommia are Pinoresinol diglucoside, aucubin, chlorogenic acid, and eucommia chlorogenic acid 327-97-9polysaccharide. (herbal-plantextract.com)
  • 1993. Protective effects of chlorogenic acid, curcumin and beta-carotene against gamma-radiation-induced in vivo chromosomal damage. (cdc.gov)
  • To test the efficiency of adding a naturally-occurring chlorogenic acid (CGA) to the three commonly used chemotherapeutics, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and doxorubicin (DOXO), and cisplatin (CIS) in preventing metastatic potential on HepG2 cell line. (authorea.com)
  • Zolpidem works by enhancing the activity of neurotransmitters in the brain called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). (wikitruth.info)
  • Chlorogenic acid can be found in the bamboo Phyllostachys edulis, as well as in many other plants, such as the shoots of common heather (Calluna vulgaris). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorogenic acid is one of the main antibacterial and antiviral effective pharmacological components of Eucommia ulmoides leaves. (herbal-plantextract.com)
  • In contrast, oleanolic acid in leaves was increased by 13.28 folds when the white birch was treated with green light. (scirp.org)
  • Chlorogenic acid has not been approved as a prescription drug or food additive recognized as a safe ingredient for foods or beverages. (wikipedia.org)
  • A surface multiple imprinting layers membrane with well-oriented recognition sites for selective separation of chlorogenic acid from Ficus carica L. (bvsalud.org)
  • The study lays the foundation to metabolic regulation of oleanolic acid and betulin in birch. (scirp.org)
  • It is azeotropic with concentrated hydrochloric acid and come to blue dye. (bestpetlove.com)