Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Trihalomethanes: Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedBaths: The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Methylene Chloride: A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Swimming PoolsSolanum nigrum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE that contains steroidal glycosides.Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Orthosiphon: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains pimarane-type diterpenes. Several species of Orthosiphon are also called Java tea.Cajanus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is used for food in NIGERIA.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Genetic Privacy: The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.Phosgene: A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Dizziness: An imprecise term which may refer to a sense of spatial disorientation, motion of the environment, or lightheadedness.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.History of MedicineEncyclopediasDictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.2-Propanol: An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Liquid-Liquid Extraction: The removal of a soluble component from a liquid mixture by contact with a second liquid, immiscible with the carrier liquid, in which the component is preferentially soluble. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Solid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.

Structural and functional changes in acute liver injury. (1/581)

Carbon tetrachloride produces liver cell injury in a variety of animal species. The first structurally recognizable changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum, with alteration in ribosome-membrane interactions. Later there is an increase in intracellular fat, and the formation of tangled nets of the ergastoplasm. At no time are there changes in mitochondria or single membrane limited bodies in cells with intact plasmalemma, although a relative increase in cell sap may appear. In dead cells (those with plasmalemma discontinuties) crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatase may be noted. Functional changes are related to the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. An early decrease in protein synthesis takes place; an accumulation of neutral lipid is related to this change. Later alterations in the ergastoplasmic functions (e.g., mixed function oxidation) occurs. Carbon tetrachloride is not the active agent; rather, a product of its metabolism, probably the CC1, free radical, is. The mechanisms of injury include macromolecular adduction and peroxide propagation. A third possibility includes a cascade effect with the production of secondary and tertiary products, also toxic in nature, with the ability to produce more widespread damage to intracellular structures.  (+info)

Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury. (2/581)

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

Model for bacteriophage T4 development in Escherichia coli. (3/581)

Mathematical relations for the number of mature T4 bacteriophages, both inside and after lysis of an Escherichia coli cell, as a function of time after infection by a single phage were obtained, with the following five parameters: delay time until the first T4 is completed inside the bacterium (eclipse period, nu) and its standard deviation (sigma), the rate at which the number of ripe T4 increases inside the bacterium during the rise period (alpha), and the time when the bacterium bursts (mu) and its standard deviation (beta). Burst size [B = alpha(mu - nu)], the number of phages released from an infected bacterium, is thus a dependent parameter. A least-squares program was used to derive the values of the parameters for a variety of experimental results obtained with wild-type T4 in E. coli B/r under different growth conditions and manipulations (H. Hadas, M. Einav, I. Fishov, and A. Zaritsky, Microbiology 143:179-185, 1997). A "destruction parameter" (zeta) was added to take care of the adverse effect of chloroform on phage survival. The overall agreement between the model and the experiment is quite good. The dependence of the derived parameters on growth conditions can be used to predict phage development under other experimental manipulations.  (+info)

A novel strategy for the preparation of liposomes: rapid solvent exchange. (4/581)

During the preparation of multi-component model membranes, a primary consideration is that compositional homogeneity should prevail throughout the suspension. Some conventional sample preparation methods pass the lipid mixture through an intermediary, solvent-free state. This is an ordered, solid state and may favor the demixing of membrane components. A new preparative method has been developed which is specifically designed to avoid this intermediary state. This novel strategy is called rapid solvent exchange (RSE) and entails the direct transfer of lipid mixtures between organic solvent and aqueous buffer. RSE liposomes require no more than a minute to prepare and manifest considerable entrapment volumes with a high fraction of external surface area. In phospholipid/cholesterol mixtures of high cholesterol content, suspensions prepared by more conventional methods reveal evidence of artifactual demixing, whereas samples prepared by rapid solvent exchange do not. The principles which may lead to artifactual demixing during conventional sample preparation are discussed.  (+info)

Distribution of gangliosides, GM1 and GM3, in the rat oviduct. (5/581)

It is known that gangliosides, being ubiquitous membrane components, play important roles in cell-cell recognition, differentiation and transmembrane signalling. GM3, GM1 and GD1a were detected in the rat oviduct as major gangliosides by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis. The total amounts of gangliosides from the oviducts at various times after hormone injection were not much changed. In order to identify their distribution and possible changes during ovulation, frozen sections of the rat oviducts were stained with specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the ganglio-series gangliosides. GM3 and GM1 were expressed in a different manner, but GD1a and other gangliosides were not immunohistochemically detected. In the ampullar region, GM3 was expressed in all the stroma and epithelial cells, but not GM1. GM1 was also not observed in epithelial cells. Staining by anti-GM1 monoclonal antibodies revealed long and minute thread-like structures in some of the stroma cells, whereas anti-GM3 monoclonal antibodies stained the entire cytoplasm, but not the nucleus, of all the stroma and epithelial cells. Other ganglio-series gangliosides, including GD1a, were not detected to some extent in the ampullar region by immunohistochemistry. Thus, these data suggest that GM3 and GM1 are oviduct-specific gangliosides.  (+info)

Preliminary characterization of a reovirus isolated from golden ide Leuciscus idus melanotus. (6/581)

Some characteristics of a reovirus recently isolated from golden ide Leuciscus idus melanotus and tentatively designated as golden ide reovirus (GIRV) were determined. Spherical non-enveloped particles with an outer capsid of about 70 nm and an inner capsid of about 50 nm were observed by electron microscopy. The density of the virus determined in CsCl gradients was 1.36 g ml-1. The genome contained 11 segments of dsRNA. GIRV differed from other aquareoviruses by a slight reduction of infectivity after treatment with chloroform and by the absence of forming syncytia in cell monolayers.  (+info)

Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation. (7/581)

There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in standard rodent models; transgenic mouse models and small fish models; in vitro mechanistic and toxicokinetic studies; and reproductive, immunotoxicity, and developmental studies. The goal is to create a toxicity database that reflects a wide range of DBPs resulting from different disinfection practices. This paper describes the approach developed by these agencies to provide the information needed to make scientifically based regulatory decisions.  (+info)

Hepatoprotection by dimethyl sulfoxide. I. Protection when given twenty-four hours after chloroform or bromobenzene. (8/581)

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has previously been reported to protect against hepatotoxicity resulting from chloroform (CHCl3) or bromobenzene (BB) when given 10 hr after the toxicant. The object of these studies was to further demonstrate the latent protective ability of DMSO by administering it at a much later time (24 hr) following toxicant exposure. In addition, a more detailed evaluation of the lesions was performed to better characterize the lesion progression and resolution. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a hepatotoxic oral dose of either CHCl3 (1.0 ml/kg) or BB (0.5 ml/kg) and then received 2 ml/kg DMSO intraperitoneally 24 hr later. With both toxicants, limited centrilobular lesions were already present by the time DMSO was administered. Without treatment, liver injury rapidly progressed so that by 48 hr it occupied 40-50% of the liver, with accompanying large increases in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. Administration of DMSO greatly attenuated lesion development for both toxicants; the area injured was reduced by more than 4-fold, accompanied by a decrease in 48 hr ALT activity of 8-16-fold. The ability of DMSO to intervene in the development of liver injury at such a late time appears to be unique and may provide insight into therapies for acute xenobiotic-induced hepatitis.  (+info)

If youre in a hurry, you can shorten the protocol to two phenol extractions and one chloroform extraction. The number of repetitions also depends on what kind of sample you have and what you want to do with it. If you have whole cell extracts you want to use more phenol steps as if you have only one restriction enzyme to get rid of. In the same way you might not care about residual phenol if you just want so run your DNA or RNA on a gel so one chlorophorm step is sufficient. Some other reactions you can do with nucleic acids are more sensitive to phenol so you should use chlorophorm two times ...
Chloroform was once a widely used anesthetic. On 4 November 1847, the Scottish obstetrician James Young Simpson first used the anaesthetic qualities of chloroform on a human,[12] two guests at his dinner party. This was done as an entertainment and not as a medical procedure. This was followed, only three days later, by the first use of chloroform on an actual patient, for a dental procedure, by Francis Brodie Imlach (1819-1891), also in Edinburgh, who, under other circumstances, may have gained the same fame as Simpson.[13] The use of chloroform during surgery expanded rapidly thereafter in Europe. In the 1850s, chloroform was used during the birth of Queen Victorias last two children.[14] In the United States, chloroform began to replace ether as an anesthetic at the beginning of the 20th century; however, it was quickly abandoned in favor of ether upon discovery of its toxicity, especially its tendency to cause fatal cardiac arrhythmia analogous to what is now termed "sudden sniffers ...
The anaesthetic qualities of chloroform were first described in 1842 in a thesis by Robert Mortimer Glover, which won the Gold Medal of the Harveian Society for that year. Glover also undertook practical experiments on dogs to prove his theories. Glover further refined his theories and presented them in the thesis for his doctorate at the University of Edinburgh in the summer of 1847. The Scottish obstetrician James Young Simpson was one of the persons required to read the thesis, but later claimed to have never read the thesis and to have come to his conclusions independently.[citation needed]. On 4 November 1847, Simpson first used the anesthetic qualities of chloroform on a pair of humans: two guests at his dinner party. This was done as an entertainment and not as a medical procedure.[34]. A few days later, during the course of a dental procedure in Edinburgh, Francis Brodie Imlach became the first person to use chloroform on a patient in a clinical context.[35]. In May 1848, Robert Halliday ...
It should also be noted that, in this round of cloning, I stacked the deck [I didnt know where my problem was]: There was no hint of a kit--every purification (post-PCR and post-digest/SAP) was one phenol/chloroform extraction, one chloroform extraction, and an ethanol precipitation with glycogen and washing with 75% EtOH. I quantitated insert and plasmid on the nanodrop and did the proper 3:1 insert:plasmid ratio with 100ng of plasmid. And I did the ligation overnight in the refrigerator. I also checked my ligations on an agarose gel for the heck of it. All things to try, if troubles are being had ...
A mathematical analysis of the effects of chloroform on the production of carbon dioxide by living Ulva, killed Ulva, and unsaturated organic acids indicates that the same process is taking place in all three cases. On the basis of this interpretation it is reasonable to conclude that the action of chloroform on the oxidative mechanism of the cell is chemical in nature and that it acts either by catalysis or by the formation of a loose compound with some portion of the system.. ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about chloroform at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about chloroform easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Paul Cullen wrote: , , I would try incorporating a phenol/chloroform and chloroform extraction , into your miniprep. I routinely do this for endonuclease producing , strains with much success. If you use a kit for miniprep, the kit from Roche contains an extra washing buffer which can be used if your strain produces endonuclease. -- Ing. Aldert Zomer, , Tel: +31 50 36 32 360 Research Technician, , Fax: +31 50 36 35 205 IMEnz Bioengineering, , Email: zomeral at biol.rug.nl PO BOX 14, 9750 AA Haren, Netherlands , Homepage: http://www.imenz.com ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Automated Medline search: http://molgen.biol.rug.nl/cgi-bin/biomail/users.pl ...
Greetings bionetters, Last week I recd the trichlorobutanol (Sigma-Aldrich cat no 11,205-4) and tested it on several preps (DNA and RNA from tissues, blood, semen and serum). They all looked normal and PCRed great (no changes from nucl acid using CHCl3). My preliminary findings are that it works GREAT as an additive in chloroform! The viscosity and surface tension are dramatically increased, yet all the denaturing and phase separating properties of chloroform are retained. I wonder how come nobody ever tested this before (maybe not commonly found on shelf)? 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol (trichlorobutanol, herein referred to as TCB) has a melting point of 77*C. I dissolved 25 grams of it in 100 mL of chloroform (at room temp). After shaking or stirring, the TCB dissolved nicely in the CHCl3. It stores okay in fridge (1 week so far and no visible ppt) ... in -20*C it turns cloudy, but brief shaking turns it clear again. For nucl acid extns I simply substituted this TCB(25% w/v)-CHCl3 for ...
Membrane-bound and membrane-associated proteins are difficult to analyze by mass spectrometry, since the association with lipids impedes the isolation and solubilization of the proteins in buffers suitable for mass spectrometry and the efficient generation of positively charged peptide ions by electrospray ionization. Current methods mostly utilize detergents for the isolation of proteins from membranes. In this study, we present an improved detergent-free method for the isolation and mass spectrometric identification of membrane-bound and membrane-associated proteins. We delipidate proteins from the membrane bilayer by chloroform extraction to overcome dissolution and ionization problems during analysis. Comparison of our results to results obtained by direct tryptic digestion of insoluble membrane pellets identifies an increased number of membrane proteins, and a higher quality of the resulting mass spectral data. ...
Mouse Heart, left and right atrium Total RNA is extracted from freshly harvested tissues of single healthy normal donor using classical guanidine isothiocyanate-phenol:chloroform extraction method which allows the rapid isolation of total RNA including microRNAs. RNA is treated with RNase-free DNase-1to remove residual DNA, precisely quantified, and stored at -80oC. Quality Control: The integrity of
Rat Major Tissue Total RNA panel is your choice of any 10 RNA samples (0.025mg each). Total RNA is extracted from freshly harvested tissues of single healthy normal animal donor using classical guanidine isothiocyanate-phenol:chloroform extraction method which allows the rapid isolation of total RNA including microRNAs. RNA is treated with RNase-free DNase-1to remove residual
I followed the standard phenol/chloroform extraction to purify DNA, and found a big chuck of pellet at the bottom of the tube after NaAc and 100% ethanol precipitation. The big chuck still exists after 70% ethanol washing. This white chuck can disolve very fast in water. When I check the DNA concentration using spec. The DNA conc. is 70ng/ul, 260/280 is 1.67, 260/230 is 1.45. I am not sure what is that white pellet. What is the amount of DNA that you are able to visualize with naked eyes ...
The E.Z.N.A.® Blood DNA Maxi Kit is specially designed for large scale isolation of genomic DNA. The kit provides a rapid purification of genomic DNA from up to 20 mL whole blood samples. Sample sources include fresh and frozen whole blood treated with common anticoagulants such as citrate, EDTA and heparin. In addition plasma, serum, buffy coat, bone marrow, lymphocytes, platelets, and body fluid samples can also be used. Phenol/chloroform extractions, and time-consuming steps such as precipitation with isopropanol have been eliminated. DNA purified using the E.Z.N.A.® Blood DNA Maxi method is free of contaminants and enzyme inhibitors making it suitable for most downstream applications such as PCR, Southern blotting and restriction enzyme digestion of high-quality total DNA.. ...
RNA co-immunoprecipitations with C-terminal protein A-tagged She proteins. One liter of cells were cultured at 30 degrees in YPAD medium and collected during exponential growth by centrifugation. Cells were washed twice and broken mechanically with glass beads. Extracts were incubated with IgG-agarose beads (Sigma). The beads were washed four times, and She proteins were released from the beads by cleavage with TEV-protease (Invitrogen). RNA was isolated by phenol/chloroform extraction and isopropanol precipitation from TEV eluates, which corresponds to the purified fraction, and from extracts (input). Both RNA samples, input and purified, were reverse transcribed and labeled with the fluorescent dyes Cy3 and Cy5 (Amersham), respectively. The samples were mixed and competitively hybridized to yeast DNA microarrays containing all yeast genes
The NucleoBond BAC 100 Kit is designed to purify large DNA fragments such as cosmids, bacteriophage P1 clones, PACs, and BACs, without phenol/chloroform extraction. 1 hour protocol accomodates vectors up to to 300 kb.
8-oxoguanine is a common oxidation product in DNA and can lead to missense mutations. The metallointercalator Ru(phen)2dppz2+ is a useful luminescent probe for DNA that has also found use as a guanine-selective oxidizing agent via the flash-quench technique. Here, we show that its osmium analogue can selectively oxidize 8-oxoguanine in double-stranded DNA. With a 3+/2+ couple of 1.15 V, Os(phen)2dppz3+ should be able to oxidize 8-oxo-G (~0.7 V) without oxidizing guanine (~1.3V). MALDI mass spectrometry data confirms that oxidizing guanine using Ru(NH3)63+ and Ru(phen)2dppz2+ produces 8-oxo-G. In plasmid DNA where 8-oxo-G has been incorporated as above, further flash-quench treatment with Os(phen)2dppz2+ and Co(NH3)5Cl2+ leads to crosslinking with histone protein in gel shift experiments and in the chloroform extraction assay. Furthermore, in gel shift experiments with a duplex of the oligonucleotide 5-ATATGATAT8GATATGATAT -3 (8 = 8-oxo-G), flash-quench treatment with Ru(phen)2dppz2+ in the
Animals and Treatments. All animal experiments and treatments were reviewed and approved by the Research Animal Resource Center at the University of Wisconsin or by the appropriate oversight department of submitting institutions. Institutions, strains, sex, ages, treatment vehicle, circadian time, and route of administration are recorded for all experiments and can be found for each experiment at the EDGE Web site.. Expressed Sequence Tag Libraries. Poly-A mRNA was isolated from total RNA via the Oligotex kit (QIAGEN, Valencia, CA). Construction of expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries was typically performed by using the cDNA Timesaver kit (Amersham Biosciences Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). In brief, 5 μg of poly-A was used to generate first strand cDNA with an anchored poly-T oligonucleotide [dT(18)-N] that also contained a NotI-specific restriction site. First strand cDNA was then purified via a phenol/chloroform extraction. After second strand synthesis, cDNA was again purified using ...
Maxiprep NucleoBond Plasmid Kits: Purify plasmid DNA, cosmids, BACs, PACs, and YACs in just a few hours-no phenol/chloroform extraction. Use for transfection, in vitro transcription, and automated sequencing.
We put Deekshas question to resident chemist Ben Pilgrim... Ben - The first thing to say is that the movies definitely have it wrong with regards to chloroform. Chloroform has been used as an anesthetic for about 150 years and the kind of misconception that you have from watching movies is that by breathing a chloroform soaked rag youll knock someone out within a second or so. This isnt the case, you need to be breathing it for several minutes in order to make someone pass out and they need to be breathing it constantly in order to keep them passed out.
Chloroform, 99.8%, for analysis, stabilized with amylene, ACROS Organics™ 1L; Glass bottle Chloroform, 99.8%, for analysis, stabilized with amylene, ACROS...
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Chloroform is a colorless liquid with a pleasant nonirritating odor and has a chemical formula of CHCl3. Other names for this chemical are trichloromethane and methyl trichloride. In the past, it was used as an inhaled anesthetic during surgery, but it isnt used that way today. Today, the liquid is used to make other chemicals and can also be formed in small amounts when chlorine is added to water.. Date back to 1847, at that time chloroform was firstly used as an anesthetic. In 1848, a patient died because her heart went into fibrillation while she was chloroformed, and continued use of the drug only cemented the link between chloroform and cardiac events. By the early twentieth century, it had been abandoned in favor of safer and cheaper drugs, and today has been replaced by anesthetics such as halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane, among many others. When a less expensive anesthetic is required, as is the case in some impoverished nations, ether, an older anesthetic, is preferred over the ...
Q. 2.9 A sample of drinking water was found to be severely contaminated with chloroform supposed to be a carcinogen. The level of contamination was (by mass): (ii) determine the molality of chloroform in the water sample.
Yes, the Monarch Genomic DNA Purification Kit can be used to clean up phenol/chloroform purified gDNA by following the protocol for Genomic DNA Cleanup. However, recovery may be lower than the usual 80% because phenol/chloroform purified DNA typically yields longer fragments. Although the use of preheated elution buffer in the Monarch protocol facilitates the elution of large gDNA fragments, the fraction of gDNA that is longer than 80 kb will be eluted less efficiently from the silica matrix ...
TRPV1 and TRPA1 have a remarkable ability to detect a wide range of noxious stimuli (Julius, 2013). Here we have provided conclusive evidence that the environmental irritant and VGA chloroform activates TRPV1 while also functioning as a reversible antagonist of TRPA1 activity. We have shown that the responses of DRG neurons to chloroform are mediated mainly by TRPV1 as almost all neurons responding to chloroform also responded to the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin and pretreatment with the TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810 abrogated responses to chloroform. TRPM8, which is expressed a small percentage of DRG neurons (,10%), may also contribute to the response of DRG neurons to chloroform (Dhaka et al., 2008). Neurons expressing TRPM8 that were insensitive to capsaicin, thus not likely expressing TRPV1, also responded to chloroform.. It is well established that multiple agonists of TRPV1 can sensitize the activation of the channel by other agonists and that this cooperation is often synergistic as opposed to ...
EWGs Tap Water Database Chloroform results for Ayersville Water and Sewer District | Chloroform. Find out what is in your tap water
A.C.E. mixture (or ACE mixture) is a historical anaesthetic agent for general anaesthesia. It was first suggested by Dr. George Harley and first used in England around 1860. In 1864 it was recommended for use by the Royal Medical and Surgical Societys Chloroform Committee. It was rarely used after the 19th century, except in Germany, where it was used for slightly longer. It was a mixture of alcohol, chloroform and ether which gives the mixture its name. Its effects were said to be between that of chloroform and ether and it was used when ether alone was contraindicated. Its boiling point was given as 48°C and it was measured in Drachm. A.C.E. mixture was most commonly made up in the ratio: 1 part alcohol, 2 parts chloroform, and 3 parts ether although other ratios existed. See other preparations below. Chloroform (which was first used in 1847) used on its own produces myocardial depression, however the excitatory properties of the alcohol and ether contained with the choloroform in the ...
DNA extraction from human blood by phenol chloroform method - posted in Molecular Biology: i had standardized the protocol for DNA extraction from human blood using the following protocol Reagents: 1. Red Blood Cells Lysis Buffer a. NH4CL : 8.29g b. KHCO3 : 1g -made upto 1000ml with D/W/. pH adjusted to 7.4 c. Na2EDTA : 0.034g 2. 10% SDS 10g Sodium Dodecyl sulphate in 100ml of autoclaved double distilled water 3. 5M NaCl (50 ml) 14.62g of NaCl in 50ml of Double distilled water 4. Phen...
Chloroform solvent molecule. Stylized skeletal formula (chemical structure). Atoms are shown as color-coded circles: hydrogen (white), carbon (grey), chlorine (green). - Stock Image F012/5874
Release Date: July 10, 2020. Bundle includes:. -CD copy of Purgatory Dance Party. -Chloroform womens t-shirt. -3.5" round embroidered patch. -Three stickers. ...
A young accountant committed suicide by forcing himself to inhale chloroform, after work collegues had made jibes about him not making coffee in the office
Trichloromethane CHCl3 CAS: 67-66-3 FW: 119.38 Merck Index: 13.2160 D: 1.49 kg/L Stabilized, HPLC Grade, 99.8% min. Stabilized with ~0.75% ethanol. Suitable for use in HPLC and spectrophotometry. UV cutoff at 244nm. Acetone and Al
4. Extract with 50µl of phenol:chloroform:isoamyl-alcohol (50:48:2). Mix gently by inversion, centrifuge and collect top aqueous phase. 5. Extract aqueous phase as above but with 50µl of chloroform:isoamyl-alcohol (24:1 ...
An experimental study upon the demonstrable effects of large doses of dried thyroid gland and thyroxin upon the myocardium of rabbits has been made. Animals under such treatment show characteristic clinical symptoms with definite, although relatively slight, myocardial lesions. Similarly treated animals which have, in addition, been subjected to chloroform anesthesia show more striking, widespread myocardial necrosis.. These experiments indicate very distinctly that chloroform as an anesthetic in cases of hyperthyroidism is apt to be exceptionally detrimental to the myocardium, and should be avoided.. ...
3.05mm diameter. Copper 300 mesh. Formvar/Carbon Coated.. Note: Particles or specimens suspended in chloroform should not be applied to Formvar grids, the chloroform will dissolve the Formvar coating.. Learn More ...
Lucy felt the train begin to move as she sat alone in her compartment. It was just after sunrise. The trip would take 30 hours, and for the night the seats would be folded down to make a bed. It was day now, and most people in the sleeper car had their doors and curtains open and were sitting in their seats looking out the window. There was something very romantic about riding a train, but not for Lucy yet. Lucy was 24 and very attractive with long brown hair and firm well rounded breasts. Her legs were long and slender, and turned heads wherever she went. She didnt have a boyfriend though, and hadnt had sex in a long time. "Way too long!" She thought to herself as the train picked up speed and she could feel bumps. The motion of the train and the bumps were already arousing her. Lucy had seen several good looking guys her age, or slightly older, board the train. At least two had even made eye contact with her and smiled. Perhaps later on she would get lucky and meet someone. It was way too ...
Melvin Robert Bowers went on trial yesterday for a second time on a manslaughter charge in the 1993 chloroform-inhalation death of his 20-year-old girlfriend.A Howard Circuit Court jury could not
Disclaimer THE LEGAL STUFF: Modern drugs and surgery produce stunning progress in relieving human suffering. When results are disappointing, people who are sick and tired of their condition often seek different approaches. Their hope is that natural healing can reduce their discomforts, even help with recovery of better health. Our patient stories are "best case" examples of what has been possible with our programs over the past 38 years. While we cannot promise or guarantee results to anyone, we offer our genuine effort to apply our training, skill, and expertise in caring for you. All material on this site is the work product of John Parks Trowbridge M. D., (see the page About Dr. Trowbridge) unless it is identified as having originated from other authors (with information on the source from which obtained). Presentation of various options is strictly for education and does not constitute medical advice or endorsement of any particular treatment for any specific patient or medical condition. ...
The E.Z.N.A.® Cycle Pure Kit is designed for the rapid purification of single or double-stranded DNA from PCR or other enzymatic reactions. The purification procedure completely removes primers, nucleotides enzymes, salts, and other impurities from DNA sample. The DNA sample is simply mixed with buffer and spun through the HiBind DNA column. The DNA bound to the HiBind Matrix is washed and the clean concentrated DNA is eluted with deionized water or elution buffer. This convenient spin-column format eliminates the need for expensive resins or toxic organic compounds such as phenol and chloroform, thereby making it possible to process multiple samples in parallel. Purified DNA can be used in T-A ligations, sequencing, restriction enzyme digestion, and various other labeling reactions.. The E.Z.N.A.® Cycle Pure Kit is is available with 2 different types of columns: V-spin columns have an attached cap (D6492), while Q-spin columns are capless (D6493). The columns are otherwise identical in use ...
A patient suffered from ulceration of the eyeball, occurring at different times and resulting in the formation of holes through which the fluids in the interior escaped. These openings had to be closed by surgical operations. At first these operations were performed under the influence of cocaine; but the progressive disease of the eye caused so much congestion that complete anaesthesia was no longer attainable by the use of this drug, and ether and chloroform were employed. As so many operations were needed, it became desirable to get along, if possible, without anaesthetics, and the patients success in relieving pain by the memory of black suggested that she might also be able to prevent the pain of operations in the same way. Her ability to do this was tested by touching her eyeball lightly with a blunt probe. At first she forgot the black as soon as the probe touched her eye, but later she became able to remember it. The operation was then successfully performed; the patient not only felt ...
Ache relief continues to be a significant target of drugs advancement for millennia. Ahead of the mid-nineteenth century, surgeons took terrific satisfaction from read more the speed with which they may comprehensive a surgical process. A lot quicker operation meant which the affected person would bear the excruciating soreness for shorter periods of time. In 1842 ether was initially utilized being an anesthetic during surgical procedures, and chloroform followed soon just after in 1847. These brokers revolutionized the practice of surgery. Following their introduction, thorough consideration could possibly be paid to prevention of tissue injury, and longer plus more-complex surgical treatments may very well be carried out additional safely ...
Total Lipid Extract is a chloroform:methanol extract of the respective tissue (Brain, Soybean, Heart, etc.). This extract is partitioned against deionized water
Total Lipid Extract is a chloroform:methanol extract of the respective tissue (Brain, Soybean, Heart, etc.). This extract is partitioned against deionized water
Chloremia, "is an excess of chlorides in the blood" has got the same root as Chloroform, but at the same time as Chloroleukemia: "is a kind of myelogenous leukemia in which specific tumor masses are not seen at autopsy, but body fluids and organs are green", chloroplast: "any of the chlorophyll-bearing bodies of plant cells.", chlorosis: "A form of chronic anemia, primarily of young women, characterized by a greenish-yellow discoloration of the skin and usually associated with deficiency in iron and protein. Also called chloremia." ...
Chloremia, "is an excess of chlorides in the blood" has got the same root as Chloroform, but at the same time as Chloroleukemia: "is a kind of myelogenous leukemia in which specific tumor masses are not seen at autopsy, but body fluids and organs are green", chloroplast: "any of the chlorophyll-bearing bodies of plant cells.", chlorosis: "A form of chronic anemia, primarily of young women, characterized by a greenish-yellow discoloration of the skin and usually associated with deficiency in iron and protein. Also called chloremia." ...
These are only two of the adventures which took place in the neighbourhood. Several arrests were made during yesterday and last night, to these but little importance is attached. In one case the prisoner was apprehended in Dorset-street. It took place at about three oclock yesterday morning. Two young men had their attention drawn to two loiterers. The two men separated, and one of them was followed by the two youths into Houndsditch. They carefully observed his appearance, which was that of a foreigner. He was about 5ft. 8ins. In height, hand a long pointed moustache, and wore also a cloth deerstalker hat. When near Bishopsgate-street the young men spoke to a policeman, who at once stopped the stranger and took him to Bishopsgate-street Police-station. Here he was searched, and it was then found that he was carrying a sort of pocket medical chest, containing several small bottles of chloroform. In rather imperfect English he explained that he lived in Pimlico, where he was well known. After ...
1). Dubois selbst scheint allerdings nicht an eine hier wirksame Affinität des Aethers, Chloroforms u. s. w. zu gewissen Zellbestandtheilen zu denken, sondern den Vorgang auf Diffusion zwischen Aetherdampf und Wasser zurückführen zu wollen, da er sich auf die von Graham (1864) beobachtete Verdrängung von Wasser durch Alkohol, Alkohol durch Aether u. s. w. in einer Kieselsäuregallerte beruft. Mir däucht diese Analogie aber nicht richtig. ...
Choose Bio-PRF and Bio-Heat technology when the amount of regenerative cells in PRF, long resorption time and scientific research matters to you
As might be expected from its use as an anesthetic, inhaling chloroform vapors depresses the central nervous system. Breathing about 900 parts of chloroform per million parts air (900 parts per million) for a short time can cause dizziness, fatigue, and headache. Chronic chloroform exposure may cause damage to the liver (where chloroform is metabolized to phosgene) and to the kidneys, and some people develop sores when the skin is immersed in chloroform. Approximately 10 percent of the population has an allergic reaction to chloroform that produces a fever of around 40°C (104°F) upon exposure.. Animal studies have shown that miscarriages occur in rats and mice that have breathed air containing 30 to 300 ppm chloroform during pregnancy and also in rats that have ingested chloroform during pregnancy. Offspring of rats and mice that breathed chloroform during pregnancy have a higher incidence of birth defects, and abnormal sperm have been found in male mice that have breathed air containing 400 ...
Egg yolk has been considered a promising source of antibodies. Our study was designed to compare six principal IgY extraction methods (water dilution, polyethylene glycol [PEG] precipitation, caprylic acid extraction, chloroform extraction, phenol extraction, and carrageenan extraction), and to assess their relative extraction efficiencies and the purity of the resulting antibodies. The results showed that the organic solvents (chloroform or phenol) minimised the lipid ratio in the egg yolk. The water dilution, PEG precipitation and caprylic acid extraction methods resulted in high yields, and antibodies purified with PEG and carrageenan exhibited high purity. Our results indicate that phenol extraction would be more suitable for preparing high concentrations of IgY for non-therapeutic usage, while the water dilution and carrageenan extraction methods would be more appropriate for use in the preparation of IgY for oral administration ...
Egg yolk has been considered a promising source of antibodies. Our study was designed to compare six principal IgY extraction methods (water dilution, polyethylene glycol [PEG] precipitation, caprylic acid extraction, chloroform extraction, phenol extraction, and carrageenan extraction), and to assess their relative extraction efficiencies and the purity of the resulting antibodies. The results showed that the organic solvents (chloroform or phenol) minimised the lipid ratio in the egg yolk. The water dilution, PEG precipitation and caprylic acid extraction methods resulted in high yields, and antibodies purified with PEG and carrageenan exhibited high purity. Our results indicate that phenol extraction would be more suitable for preparing high concentrations of IgY for non-therapeutic usage, while the water dilution and carrageenan extraction methods would be more appropriate for use in the preparation of IgY for oral administration ...
The purpose of this study was to show that individual malaria rapid diagnosis tests (MRDTs) could also be used to isolate Plasmodium DNA for genetic studies. We extracted and amplified Plasmodium DNA using two commercial MRDT kits. Phenol/chloroform extraction followed by a nested polymerse chain reaction (PCR) can be used to identify Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax from MRDTs. The PCR on MRDT-isolated DNA was more sensitive than antigen capture by MRDT. Satisfactory results were also obtained if older MRDT tests were used, even after long periods of storage at ambient temperature, with no special preservation.
On Fri, 28 Jan 2000, Robert G. Russell wrote: , 3. The texts recommmend 1% methyl green in distilled water - is this the , general recommendation out there?. For a simple counterstain it doesnt matter much. Slight acidification (e.g. pH 4) prevents staining of collagen and of most cytoplasms. Its really just like any other basic dye. , ... I presume chlorofrom extraction of MG , is not necessary for routine counterstain use, only for use in DNA,RNA , staining. If the methyl green was manufactured less than about 20 years ago it shouldnt contain crystal violet, and chloroform extraction shouldnt be needed for any purpose. The dye sold as methyl green has in fact been ethyl green (CI 42590) for many years, and this is noted in tiny print in chemical catalogues. True methyl green (CI 42585), which was always contaminated with crystal violet, is now a curiosity found only in old bottles at the backs of shelves. It is high time this stain was routinely called ethyl green because thats what it ...
... IUPAC name Trichloromethane Other names Chloroform, Formyl trichloride, Methane trichloride, Methyl trichloride, Methenyl trichloride,
Ordered to the precinct for questioning, she shocks the police officers at the crime scene by removing her nightgown and standing before them, stunningly naked. On the way to Sing Sing Prison, she asks her guard to stop by a roadhouse in Sleepy Hollow so that she can order a lobster dinner. Left to his own devices, Hansens Gray is affable and ingratiating, ignoring slights and forgiving wrongs, making friends even with strangers, anything but the type to lash out in fury, let alone kill. Ingeniously and insistently, Hansen - a professor at Santa Clara University perhaps best known for his novel The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford - details how, step-by-seductive-step, Ruth draws Judd into her scheme. Uncertain of the moment when he agreed to do it, Judd recalls mentioning chloroform on the Wednesday afternoon before Thanksgiving, as Ruth lowered her head into his chest, her right hand gently arranging his sleeping penis. Judd slips into the side door of the Snyder
... is a liquid-liquid extraction technique in biochemistry and molecular biology for purifying DNA
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease (15 cases per million) that is characterized by widespread loss of the pulmonary microcirculation and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance leading to pathological right ventricular remodeling and ultimately right heart failure. Regenerative cell therapies (i.e., therapies involving cells with stem or progenitor-like properties) could potentially restore the effective lung microcirculation and provide a curative therapy for PAH. Preclinical evidence suggests that regenerative cell therapy using endothelial progenitor cells or mesenchymal stem cells may be beneficial in the treatment of PAH. These findings have led to the completion of a small number of human clinical trials, albeit with modest effect compared to animal studies. The objective of this systematic review is to compare the efficacy and safety of regenerative cell therapies in preclinical models of PAH as well as assess study quality to inform future clinical studies. We will include
Sphingolipid extraction was performed as described [50] with modifications. Briefly, 500 larvae or 350 adult flies (both male and female were equally represented in control and treatment) were snap‐frozen in liquid nitrogen and homogenized by grinding. The homogenate was added to 201 g of methanol/chloroform/water mixture (3:1:1, v/v/v), followed by sonication for 20 min in room temperature. After overnight incubation, the extract was vortexed and centrifuged at 210 g for 10 min. The organic phase was dried by nitrogen stream, and the dried pellet was re‐dissolved in 2 ml of MeOH/water/CHCl3 (96:94:6, v/v) and applied to a Strata C18‐E solid‐phase extraction cartridge (SPE) (Phenomenex Inc., Torrance, CA, US) which was pre‐conditioned with 4 ml water. Two mL of MeOH was then added into the SPE cartridge after sample loading. A 3 ml of MeOH/CHCl3 (1:1, v/v) was added into the SPE cartridge to elute the sphingolipids. The MeOH/CHCl3 eluent was dried by nitrogen stream. The dried extract ...
Sphingolipid extraction was performed as described [50] with modifications. Briefly, 500 larvae or 350 adult flies (both male and female were equally represented in control and treatment) were snap‐frozen in liquid nitrogen and homogenized by grinding. The homogenate was added to 201 g of methanol/chloroform/water mixture (3:1:1, v/v/v), followed by sonication for 20 min in room temperature. After overnight incubation, the extract was vortexed and centrifuged at 210 g for 10 min. The organic phase was dried by nitrogen stream, and the dried pellet was re‐dissolved in 2 ml of MeOH/water/CHCl3 (96:94:6, v/v) and applied to a Strata C18‐E solid‐phase extraction cartridge (SPE) (Phenomenex Inc., Torrance, CA, US) which was pre‐conditioned with 4 ml water. Two mL of MeOH was then added into the SPE cartridge after sample loading. A 3 ml of MeOH/CHCl3 (1:1, v/v) was added into the SPE cartridge to elute the sphingolipids. The MeOH/CHCl3 eluent was dried by nitrogen stream. The dried extract ...
Previous research states that Selaginella doederleinii Hieron. can inhibit sarcoma and cervical cancerin mice and L cellisolated from human liver cancer (Dalimarta, 1999). In other research mentioned that Selaginella doederleiniiare cytotoxic against murinecells (Lin et al., 1994). Moreover, Selaginella doederleinii reported to have antimutagenic activityagainst salmonella induced carcinogen benzo [a] pyren (Lee & Lin, 1988). Widodo (2006) reported that the chloroform and methanol extractsS. doederleinii toxic to larvaeArtemia salina Leach with valueLC50 in the amount of 216,32 ± 39,63 µg/ml for chloroform extract and223,34 ± 19,64 µg/ml for the methanol extract. Nurwaini (2006) also reported that the chloroform extract, ethanol and ethyl acetate S. doederleinii have potential as antiradicalwith IC50 values ​​of51,24 µg/ml for the ethyl acetate extract, 95,26 µg/ml to extract ethanol and135,75 µg/ml for the chloroform extract.. ...
The reactions for the 132 compounds are not all run in the same solvent, so I first tested gas phase, chloroform (i.e. dielectric 4.8) and DMF (dimethylformamide, dielectric 37) using PM3 and COSMO in MOPAC. I chose PM3/COSMO because that gave the best results in a previous pKa study. The most representative choice of solvent seems to be chloroform, where PM3/COSMO predicted the correct bromination site in 95% of the cases, i.e. it fails for 7 cases. Gas phase and DMF fails for 14 and 8 cases, so its important to include solvent, but the value of the dielectric constant is not all that important. Using chloroform as a solvent, I then tested AM1, PM6, PM6-DH+, PM7 and DFTB3/SMD (using GAMESS for the last one), which resulted in 12, 12, 12, 9, and 13 wrong predictions. One of the compounds includes an Si atom, which the DFTB3 parameter set I used couldnt handle so the 13 wrong predictions is out of 131 compounds. Anyway, PM3/COSMO/chloroform works best ...
The reactions for the 132 compounds are not all run in the same solvent, so I first tested gas phase, chloroform (i.e. dielectric 4.8) and DMF (dimethylformamide, dielectric 37) using PM3 and COSMO in MOPAC. I chose PM3/COSMO because that gave the best results in a previous pKa study. The most representative choice of solvent seems to be chloroform, where PM3/COSMO predicted the correct bromination site in 95% of the cases, i.e. it fails for 7 cases. Gas phase and DMF fails for 14 and 8 cases, so its important to include solvent, but the value of the dielectric constant is not all that important. Using chloroform as a solvent, I then tested AM1, PM6, PM6-DH+, PM7 and DFTB3/SMD (using GAMESS for the last one), which resulted in 12, 12, 12, 9, and 13 wrong predictions. One of the compounds includes an Si atom, which the DFTB3 parameter set I used couldnt handle so the 13 wrong predictions is out of 131 compounds. Anyway, PM3/COSMO/chloroform works best ...
The reactions for the 132 compounds are not all run in the same solvent, so I first tested gas phase, chloroform (i.e. dielectric 4.8) and DMF (dimethylformamide, dielectric 37) using PM3 and COSMO in MOPAC. I chose PM3/COSMO because that gave the best results in a previous pKa study. The most representative choice of solvent seems to be chloroform, where PM3/COSMO predicted the correct bromination site in 95% of the cases, i.e. it fails for 7 cases. Gas phase and DMF fails for 14 and 8 cases, so its important to include solvent, but the value of the dielectric constant is not all that important. Using chloroform as a solvent, I then tested AM1, PM6, PM6-DH+, PM7 and DFTB3/SMD (using GAMESS for the last one), which resulted in 12, 12, 12, 9, and 13 wrong predictions. One of the compounds includes an Si atom, which the DFTB3 parameter set I used couldnt handle so the 13 wrong predictions is out of 131 compounds. Anyway, PM3/COSMO/chloroform works best ...
3.10 India Methyl Chloroform Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016). Browse Complete Report @ http://www.reportsweb.com/global-methyl-chloroform-market-research-report-2017 .. About Us:. ReportsWeb.com is a one stop shop of market research reports and solutions to various companies across the globe. We help our clients in their decision support system by helping them choose most relevant and cost effective research reports and solutions from various publishers. The market research industry has changed in last decade. As corporate focus has shifted to niche markets and emerging countries, a number of publishers have stepped in to fulfil these information needs. We have experienced and trained staff that helps you navigate different options and lets you choose best research solution at most effective cost.. Contact Information:. Call: +1-646-491-9876. Email: [email protected] ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The mention of the grant of the patent No. 108 635 in respect of European patent application No. 83 306 762.2 filed on 7 November 1983 and claiming the priority of 8 November 1982 from an earlier application in the United States, was published on 8 June 1988 on the basis of nine claims.. Claim 1, after deletion of a superfluous a before the word catalyst in the second paragraph, read as follows:. A process of forming a high molecular weight polylactide polymer: having an inherent viscosity(IV), measured as a 1% w/v solution in chloroform at a temperature of 25 C, of between 4.5 and 10; the unreacted monomer content (UM) of the polymer being less that 2% based on the total weight of the reaction product; and the polymer being capable of being used as a resorbable bone fixation device, comprising;. polymerising L(-)lactide monomer containing up to 10% by weight of a compatible comonomer in an inert atmosphere, in the presence of a catalyst which is present ...
Endometrial regenerative cells: A novel stem cell population. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - APPLICATION OF THE IDEAL ASSOCIATED MIXTURE MODEL FOR CHLOROFORM-KETONE MIXTURES.. AU - Salamon, T.. AU - Kristóf, T.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - The applicability of the ideal associated mixture model for binary mixtures of chloroform with acetone, 2-butanone and with 2-pentanone was investigated. It was found that the excess Gibbs function values obtained from vapour-liquid equilibrium data at 293. 15 K and at 313. 15 K can be described in the 0. 3 less than x//B less than 0. 75 concentration range with a relative error of less than 5%, supposing that in these systems not only AB-but also AB//2-type mixed associated species are formed. According to model calculations, the maximum amounts of AB-type complexes are in the 10-20% range in these systems.. AB - The applicability of the ideal associated mixture model for binary mixtures of chloroform with acetone, 2-butanone and with 2-pentanone was investigated. It was found that the excess Gibbs function values obtained from ...
Hi. Why is sodium chloride insoluble in chloroform? Please include talk of polarity & intermolecular forces if relevantLets look at chloroform. ...
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Jual Obat Bius Hirup Chloroform - Obat Bius Hirup Chloroform merupakan buatan Jerman yang biasanya dipakai buat pelarut organik di […] ...
Jual Obat Bius Hirup Chloroform - Obat Bius Hirup Chloroform merupakan buatan Jerman yang biasanya dipakai buat pelarut organik di […] ...
The threshold photoelectron spectrum and threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectra of CHCl2F, CHClF2 and CH2ClF are reported in the range 11.3-24.8 eV. Tunable photoionizing radiation with a resolution of 0.3 nm is provided from a synchrotron source with a vacuum-UV monochromator. The coincidence
This wont hurt a bit. Weve all heard that one before. Through the ages, people have used substances to dull pain from alcohol to opium. However, through the 1800s many surgical procedures even amputations! were performed without any anesthetic at all. By the late-1800s, doctors had developed techniques using ether or chloroform to keep the patient from feeling the pain of surgery. There was always the danger, though, that the dose intended to produce a gentle, pleasant sleep ended up producing something, well, more permanent. (See Morgue.). ...
i) express this in percent by mass (ii) determine the molality of chloroform in the water sample. Question12:State Henrys law and mention some important applications? Question13:The partial pressure of ethane over a solution containing 6.56 × 10−3 g of ethane is 1 bar. ...
The GENEzol™ 96 Well TriRNA Pure Kit is a phenol and guanidine isothiocyanate plus 96 well RNA binding plate system for high-throughput purification of high-quality total RNA from a variety of samples. Initially, samples are homogenized in GENEzol™ Reagent without chloroform phase separation or isopropanol RNA precipitation.
M.I.T. theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. See provided URL for inquiries about permission ...
The process whereby relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organisms life history ...
V V water (4:8:1:4:6) in the upper solution as the mobile phase, to start out, dried, was observed under ultraviolet wavelength 254nm, the then sprayed with 1% ferric chloride ethanol solution color, was observed under visible light for the test materials chromatography, chromatography with the reference substance for the corresponding position, substantially the same color spots. The blank reference substance and reference substance in the corresponding position, without the same color spots. The results shown in Figure 2. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http:// 2.3 Identification of toadfish to take this product 10, dumping out the contents, add 30 ml chloroform and ultrasonic extraction 15 min, filtration, the filtrate home Separating funnel, add the sodium hydroxide solution (0.1 mol / L) 20 ml. Gently Zhen Yao, abandoned to the sodium hydroxide solution; chloroform solution 20 ml of water washing, abandoned to the water, lotion, chloroform solution with anhydrous sodium ...
Current immunoassays for interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) are effective for analyzing fluids derived from cultured cells. However, IL-1 beta determinations in human plasma or serum samples are technically complicated by higher protein and lipid concentrations, physicochemical differences which exist between samples from healthy subjects and those experiencing acute phase responses, and by the fact that IL-1 beta can be produced and degraded in the blood collection tube after the sample is drawn. A simple chloroform extraction process has been developed which eliminates several of the interfering factors from plasma samples and increases the amount of IL-1 beta detected by radioimmunoassay and lymphocyte activation assay. In the radioimmunoassay, rabbit sera was found to influence the accuracy and variability of plasma measurements. Improvements in radioimmunoassay reagents and methods are reported which reduce this influence. Finally, different concentrations of IL-1 beta were measured depending on
The dark green reaction mixture is stirred vigorously for 3 hours and then is treated carefully with 96 g. (1.2 moles) of solid ammonium nitrate (Note 3). All the fittings are removed from the flask, and the ammonia is allowed to evaporate (Note 4). Water (300 ml.) is added cautiously to the residue. (Caution! Traces of undecomposed sodium amide may adhere to the upper walls of the flask.) The organic layer is taken up in two 160-ml. portions of chloroform, and the solutions are combined and washed twice with 100 ml. of 5% hydrochloric acid and once with 100 ml. of water. (Caution! The extraction procedure and subsequent chloroform distillation should be conducted in a hood because some hydrogen cyanide is usually evolved.) The chloroform solution is dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and the chloroform is removed by distillation. The residual liquid is distilled under reduced pressure through an insulated, 5-in. Vigreux column. The forerun, b.p. 95-100° (3 mm.), weighs ca. 1 g.; the product ...
Actually, anions are not unstable in organic phases per se. There is no intrinsic physical property of organic phases that would make anions inherently unstable: the main problem is that most heteroatoms in organic solvents are more electronegative than carbon and therefore carry a slightly negative charge which attracts cations more easily than anions.. Most organic phases are best classified as ionophobe, however. They will not like cations or anions in their vicinity. Remember that organic phases are typically mainly hydrocarbons with the odd heteroatom, so they have a low polarisablility. Water, on the other hand, is a highly polarised dipole and able to stabilise both cations and anions easily with the appropriate side of the water molecule.. Now if we add a phase transfer catalyst to a biphasic mixture of water and an organic solvent - typical examples would be $\ce{Bu4N+ I-}$ or crown ethers - then these will readily transfer themselves into the organic phase. In the case of crown ethers, ...
DOSE DEPENDENT EFFECT ON HYPOGLYCEMIC AND ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITIES OF CHLOROFORM EXTRACT OF PHYSALIS MINIMA IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
Isolation and Characterization of Anti Sickling Bioactive Compounds from Seeds of Picralima Nitida Stapf (Apocynaceae). Aim: To isolate and Characterize the anti-sickling bioactive compounds of Ethanol fraction of Picralima nitida seeds. Methods: The fresh matured fruits (8 kg) of P. nitida were cut into transverse section to expose the seeds, The seeds were air-dried and then pulverized into a homogenous powder, The organoleptic properties (taste, colour, odor, texture) of the powdered P. nitida were determined using the sensory organs. A 2.5 kg pulverized seeds were extracted with methanol and concentrated in a rotary evaporator to yield a dried residue. The methanol extract of Picralima nitida was then defatted using n-hexane. The extract was successively fractionated with different solvents, chloroform, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and 50% ethanol in increasing order of polarity to obtain the chloroform fraction (CF), dichloromethane fraction (DCMF), ethyl acetate fraction (EF) and ethanol ...
The extraction of beryllium has been carried out in the presence of butyric acid. Of the solvents tried, viz., ether, benzene, chloroform, amyl acetate, ethyl acetate and carbon tetrachloride, chloroform is found to be the best, ethyl acetate being the next. 30.7 mg of BeO in solution as chloride is raised to a pH of 9.3 to 9.5 to which 10-15 ml of butyric acid is added. Four extractions with chloroform extract 99% of beryllium. ...
Problems with the quality of treated water have existed in the distribution network of water treatment in Nýrsko for a long time. Apart from the state of and the way of distributing the water, adjustment and disinfection are important for the quality of distributed water.. Disinfection by chlorination was used in WT Nýrsko up to July 1997. Raw water contains a lot of organic substances especially humin substances. A second chlorination took place in the water pipes and dangerous chlorination derivates rose in this water especially chloroform. The created chloroform was taken out from the water in the locality of Klatovy thanks to changes in the water treatment in June 1997. The main change was in the disinfection from chlorination to chloramidation. Chloramidation was successful and stopped the production of chloroform. Unfortunately new problems arose. The expansion of nitrification germs in water pipes and an increased content of nitrite in drinking water was above the tolerance limit. ...
This study aims to investigate the effects of selected organic substances on the degradation of hydrogen peroxide during the Fenton reaction. Since the presence of organic substances can strongly affect the mechanism of the Fenton reaction, the information on effects of organic substances on the reaction would be a vital guide to the success of its application to the destruction of organics in wastewater. Several organic compounds having different structures were selected as model pollutants: 4-chlorophenol, 1,4-dioxane, chloroform, a dye (reactive black-5), and EDTA. Oxidation of 4-chlorophenol and reactive black-5 resulted in enormously fast degradation of hydrogen peroxide, while others such as 1,4-dioxane and chloroform showed much slower degradation. These experimental data were compared to simulation results from a computational model based on a simple áOH-driven oxidation model. Modelling results for chloroform and 1,4-dioxane were in relatively good agreement with the experimental data, ...
* found in: Phenol:Chloroform(pH6.7/8.0), Phenol:Chloroform 5:1 (pH4.5), Phenol S/P Buffer-Saturtd, Phenol:Chloroform Low pH, Phenol, Crystalline, Phenol..
THE ALE/GAGE/AGAGE NETWORK (Last revision-August 2014, Last data update-May 2014) The following material provides a brief history of the ALE/GAGE/AGAGE program, which has consisted of 3 stages corresponding to major advances and upgrades in instrumentation and resulting increases in measurement frequency, precision, and number of gaseous species that could be measured. The first stage, ALE(Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment), began in 1978 using Hewlett-Packard (HP) 5840 gas chromatographs (gc) with an electron-capture detector (ECD) to measure five species (CFC-11 (CCl3F), CFC-12 (CCl2F2), methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)) 4 times daily. In the 1981-1985 time frame, ALE was phased into GAGE (Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) which used HP 5880 chromatographs and flame ionization detectors (FIDs) to measure the original suite of gases plus chloroform (CHCl3), CFC-113 (CCl2FCClF2 ) and methane (CH4). During GAGE the frequency of measurement was also ...
A palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation of halo-substituted 7-azaindoles utilizing CHCl3 as the carbonyl source has been developed for the straightforward incorporation of an amide functional group. The protocol was extended to other heteroarenes such as pyrazolopyridines and indazoles. The substrate scope
Bovine plasma was collected at a slaughterhouse into 10% sodium citrate. Each experiment was performed with 2,000 ml of this plasma and pH was adjusted to 7.2 with acetate buffer, pH 4.0 (4 M sodium acetate and 10 M acetic acid). A mixture of ethanol and chloroform was slowly added under homogenization to a final concentration of 19% ethanol and 0.6% chloroform. This mixture was kept at 4oC and was homogenized for an additional 20 min in order to obtain complete hemoglobin precipitation. After this step, plasma was kept in a cold room at -5oC overnight for g-globulin precipitation. The precipitate consisting of hemoglobin and g-globulin was removed by centrifugation at 2,500 g for 10 min at -5oC (Sorvall RC-3B plus, Du Pont, Wilmington, DE, USA) and discarded. The pH of supernatant I (Figure 1) was adjusted to 6.0 with acetate buffer solution, pH 4.0, under homogenization for about 30 min at -5oC and the preparation was left to stand for 6 h to precipitate a- and ß-globulin, which were removed ...
Abstract. The research was conducted between May, 2009 and January, 2010 on the "The Phytochemical component of Leucas martinicensis that cause repellence of adult mosquitoes". The skin repellency of L. martinicensis leaf extract was determined by noting number of bites by adult mosquito in varying concentrations of 2.5%, 5.0%, 10.0% and 20.0% and at various time interval of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45 and 60 minutes respectively for all concentration. The extract was fractionated using methanol and chloroform and its skin repellency was also noted, at exposure of skin in 1 in 5 minutes. Observation shows that low repellence was observed with 1.00 and 0.67 means bites over 5 and 45 minutes respectively at 2.5% concentration of the extract. The highest repellency was observed to be 0.00 mean bite over 5 and 60 minutes exposure at 20.0% concentration, however, bite by culex adult mosquitoes was highest in the control with 1.25 bites. The fractions of methanol and chloroform gave no significant ...
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Given that bradycardia leads to syncope, and that electricity can be used to pace the heart, Giovani Aldini reasoned that electrical pacing of the heart could alleviate syncope. In 1804 he alleviated syncope by pacing the heart. He went on to recommend a combination of pacing and respiration to revive people.. In 1853 chloroform anesthesia was used during Queen Victorias delivery of children, and the use of the anesthetic grew. Although, it was an advance, one major side effect of its use was cardiac arrest. A solution was needed to prevent this fatal side effect. Building on previous observations, F. Steiner in Germany was the first to perform needle electrode pacing in animals after chloroform induced cardiac arrest.9 Direct current pulses were delivered via a 13-cm long, 1-mm thick needle with a metronome as a regulator. Steiner paced a woman who had suffered cardiac arrest by placing a needle electrode inserted to her ventricular apex.10 This emergency temporary pacing may have saved her ...
I really hope someone else watched Geraldo last night and saw this too. Its driving me crazy. I think we may have a true bombshell. Or else I am crazy and everyone else has heard about this and I missed it. But I know if it has come out before or is not new, here is the place to post and find out. Did anyone watch Geraldo last night, where he did the special on Anna Nicole Smith? He had on Dr. Baden and Dr. Perper to discuss the autopsy and the toxicology examination of Anna Nicole.
Descripci n Trieste Publishing Pty Ltd, 2017. Paperback. Estado de conservación: New. Language: English . This book usually ship within 10-15 business days and we will endeavor to dispatch orders quicker than this where possible. Brand New Book. Trieste Publishing has a massive catalogue of classic book titles. Our aim is to provide readers with the highest quality reproductions of fiction and non-fiction literature that has stood the test of time. The many thousands of books in our collection have been sourced from libraries and private collections around the world.The titles that Trieste Publishing has chosen to be part of the collection have been scanned to simulate the original. Our readers see the books the same way that their first readers did decades or a hundred or more years ago. Books from that period are often spoiled by imperfections that did not exist in the original. Imperfections could be in the form of blurred text, photographs, or missing pages. It is highly unlikely that this ...
SOURCE: Frank Taussig, Principles of Economics, Volume II, 1911. Pages 299-300. As with legislation on hours, factory conditions, and the like, a compulsory minimum wages rate might serve simply to regulate the plane of competition. All employers would be affected alike; no one could undersell the others by cutting below the established rate. There would … Continue reading ». ...
J. Trúchly, Š. Bauer, and D. Šikl. Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava. Abstract: The di-Et dithioacetal (I) of 2,3:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-D-galactose can be substituted in the 6 position. Di-Et dithioacetal (II) of 2,3: 4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-6-O-methyl-D-galactose, [α]25D -55° (c 1, CHCl3), was prepd. by heating I with NaOH and Me2SO4. Hydrolysis of II with concd. HCl gave diethyl dithioacetal of 6-O-methyl-D-galactose, m. 134° [α]25D 6.2° (c 1, MeOH). By the reaction of I with Ac2O and pyridine at room temp., di-Et dithioacetal of 6-O-acetyl-2,3:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-D-galactose, [α]25D -44.8° (c 1, CHCl3), was prepd. By the reaction of I with pyridine and Ph3CCl at room temp., di-Et dithioacetal of 2,3:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-6-O-trityl-D-galactose, [α]24D -26.6° (c 1.5, CHCl3), was prepd. I was isolated on preparative chromatography in CHCl3 on a thin layer of Al2O3 as a sirup with Rf 0.64 and [α]23D -53.2° (c 1, CHCl3).. Full paper in Portable Document Format: ...
Chloroform. Ether (anhydrous). Ethyl Acetate (anhydrous). Acetone (anhydrous). methanol. ethanol. Pyridine. Acetic Acid. Water ...
Theoretical predictions of buckyball molecules appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s,[7][8] but these reports went largely unnoticed. In the early 1970s, the chemistry of unsaturated carbon configurations was studied by a group at the University of Sussex, led by Harry Kroto and David Walton. In the 1980s, Smalley and Curl at Rice University developed experimental technique to generate these substances. They used laser vaporization of a suitable target to produce clusters of atoms. Kroto realized that by using a graphite target,[9] a range of carbon clusters could be studied.. Concurrent but unconnected to the Kroto-Smalley work, astrophysicists conducting were working with spectroscopists to study infrared emissions from giant red carbon stars.[10][11][12] Smalley and team were able to use a laser vaporization technique to create carbon clusters which could potentially emit infrared at the same wavelength as had been emitted by the red carbon star.[10][13] Hence, the inspiration came to ...
"Chloroform: The molecular lifesaver" An article at University of Bristol providing interesting facts about chloroform. ... The use of chloroform anesthesia expanded rapidly thereafter in Europe. Chloroform began to replace ether as an anesthetic in ... In 1847, Scottish obstetrician James Young Simpson (1811-1870) of Edinburgh was the first to use chloroform as a general ... as well as in the setting of general anesthesia with chloroform.[80][81][82] All previous observations of the glottis and ...
Chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol. Phenethylephrine-induced rat Antimutagenic. S. calva. NA. Chloroform. Ames ... Petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol. Hydrated Wistar albino rats Antimicrobial. S. paniculata. Leaves. NA. Bacillus ... Chloroform, hexane, ethyl actate, methanol. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay ... Chloroform, methanol and water. In vitro HIV-1 protease solution assay method ...
Chloroform Fu. Poison gas Fu. Grenade Fu. Alter-ego wolf Fu, with twitching. Drive-In Academy Award nominations for Sonny Chiba ... Chloroform Fu. Foreclosure Fu. Effigy Fu. Paintball Fu. Steam Fu. Drive-In Academy Award nominations for Itonia Salochek, Dean ...
"Methyl chloroform". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety ... The organic compound 1,1,1-trichloroethane, also known as methyl chloroform, is a chloroalkane. This colourless, sweet-smelling ... Volatiles/gases (e.g., chloral hydrate, chloroform, desflurane, diethyl ether (ether), enflurane, halothane, isoflurane, ... 1,1,1-TCA, methyl chloroform, chlorothene, Solvent 111, R-140a, Genklene ...
8) Chloroform. (9) Ethylene oxide. (10) Nitilotriacetic acid. (11) Butyl benzyl phthalate. (12) Butyl decyl phthalate. (13) Di( ...
... with chloroform), and CNS (with chloropicrin and chloroform). Mixtures of agents have been identified with either a hyphen (e.g ...
Deuterated chloroform - CDCl3. *Deuterated dichloromethane - CD2Cl2. *Deuterated DMF - (CD3)2NCOD ...
acetonitrile, water, acetone, chloroform. 337, 355, 266. peptides, proteins, lipids 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid[8][11] ... acetonitrile, water, methanol, acetone, chloroform. 337, 355, 266. peptides, nucleotides, oligonucleotides, oligosaccharides ...
In 1847 chloroform was introduced as an anaesthetic by James Young Simpson.[88] Chloroform was favoured by doctors and hospital ... Chloroform gained in popularity in England and Germany after John Snow gave Queen Victoria chloroform for the birth of her ... Cholera, Chloroform, and the Science of Medicine: A Life of John Snow (2003) p. 355 ... "History of chloroform anaesthesia". General-anaesthesia.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2010. Retrieved 10 ...
Chloroform is a colorless liquid that is non-flammable. This chemical can be found in floor polishing substances and pesticides ... "Chemical Profile: Chloroform". Scorecard. GoodGuide. Retrieved 28 September 2017. "Lead". Tox Town. U.S. National Library of ... "Frequently Asked Questions: Chloroform" (PDF). Delaware Health and Social Services: Division of Public Health: 1. September ... Chemicals dumped on the site are believed to be 1,2-Dichloroethane, arsenic, benzene, chloroform, lead, and vinyl chloride, all ...
Discoverer of chloroform. National Galleries of Scotland. Retrieved 11 January 2018. Dunn, P. M. (2002-05-01). "Sir James Young ... His innovations in anaesthetics and properties of chloroform in November 1847 overshadowed his contributions to obstetrics. ...
One doctor described using equal parts alcohol and chloroform in minor operations, but chloroform with Eau de Cologne (which ... No 2: 45 parts chloroform, 150 parts sulphuric ether, 15 parts petroleum ether. No 3: 30 parts chloroform, 80 parts sulphuric ... It was a mixture of alcohol, chloroform and ether which gives the mixture its name. Its effects were said to be between that of ... Chloroform (which was first used in 1847) used on its own produces myocardial depression, however the excitatory properties of ...
Harcourt chloroform regulator Harcourt pentane-air lamp 1863: Fellow of the Royal Society 1865-1873: Secretary of the Chemical ... Harcourt's chloroform regulator. Harcourt, A. Vernon (1899). "The Ten-Candle Standard Lamp". In Cole, Thomas. Transactions, ... Harcourt's other activities included inventing a device to safely administer chloroform as an anesthesic, and the analysis and ...
chloroform. An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound ... Chloroform was formerly produced thus. Chlorine adds to the multiple bonds on alkenes and alkynes as well, giving di- or tetra- ... Most low molecular weight chlorinated hydrocarbons such as chloroform, dichloromethane, dichloroethene, and trichloroethane are ... Historically significant, but smaller in scale is chloroform, mainly a precursor to chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2) and ...
Chloroform gained in popularity in England and Germany after John Snow gave Queen Victoria chloroform for the birth of her ... In 1847 chloroform was introduced as an anaesthetic by James Young Simpson. Chloroform was favoured by doctors and hospital ... Cholera, Chloroform, and the Science of Medicine: A Life of John Snow (2003) p. 355 D. W. Bebbington, The Nonconformist ... "History of chloroform anaesthesia". General-anaesthesia.com. Retrieved 10 August 2010. Ralph R. Frerichs. "Anesthesia and Queen ...
"Queen Victoria uses chloroform in childbirth, 1853". Financial Times. 28 November 2017. Wawersik, J. (1997-01-01). "History of ... Of these first famous anesthetics, only nitrous oxide is still widely used today, with chloroform and ether having been ... In 1847, Scottish obstetrician James Y. Simpson was the first to demonstrate the anaesthetic properties of chloroform on humans ... The first fatality directly attributed to chloroform anesthesia was recorded on 28 January 1848 after the death of Hannah ...
Chloroform had been invented in 1831, but its uses had not been greatly investigated. Dr Robert Mortimer Glover had first ... If he had inhaled too much and died, chloroform would have been seen as a dangerous substance, which in fact it is. Conversely ... On 4 November 1847, they decided to try a ponderous material named chloroform that had been used to anaethestise large animals ... Discoverer of chloroform [a]. National Galleries of Scotland. Retrieved 11 January 2018. "Sir James Young Simpson". ...
Chloroform: an early anesthetic. Dextrallorphan: a more potent analogue of dextromethorphan. Dextromethorphan: a common ...
It is, together with chloroform, a minor side-product of the chlorination of water when organic residues such as humic acids ... While chloral hydrate was converted to a different metabolite than chloroform, it was found that was converted into the more ... In 1875, Claude Bernard tried to tell if chloral hydrate exerted its action through a metabolic conversion to chloroform. This ... In basic conditions the haloform reaction takes place and chloral hydrate is decomposed by hydrolysis to form chloroform. 4 Cl2 ...
Comes in free form; fairly insoluble in water and chloroform, soluble in ethanol; phenylbutazone.. As per diclofenac.. PO, ... Fairly insoluble in water and chloroform; soluble in most other organic solvents; salicylate.. As per diclofenac.. PO, topical. ... Practically insoluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol and methanol, soluble in acetone and chloroform.. As per aspirin ... Comes in calcium salt; fairly insoluble in water and chloroform and fairly soluble in alcohol; sensitive to degradation by air ...
This is chloroform, for our gums.". "This," Ville said, emptying his shoulder bag "is liniment to put warmth back into our ...
It is a colourless liquid with a chloroform-like odour. The most common use of 1,2-dichloroethane is in the production of vinyl ...
Chloroform was formerly produced thus. Chlorine adds to the multiple bonds on alkenes and alkynes as well, giving di- or tetra- ... In addition, a variety of simple chlorinated hydrocarbons including dichloromethane, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride have ... Historically significant, but smaller in scale is chloroform, mainly a precursor to chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2) and ... Most low molecular weight chlorinated hydrocarbons such as chloroform, dichloromethane, dichloroethene, and trichloroethane are ...
Breathing chloroform can cause dizziness, fatigue, and headaches. Breathing chloroform or ingesting chloroform over long ... Exposure to chloroform can occur when breathing contaminated air or when drinking or touching the substance or water containing ... Breathing chloroform can cause dizziness, fatigue, and headaches. Breathing chloroform or ingesting chloroform over long ... How can chloroform affect my health?. Breathing about 900 parts of chloroform per million parts air (900 ppm) for a short time ...
Chloroform can be toxic if inhaled or swallowed. Exposure to chloroform may also cause cancer. Workers may be harmed from ... Chloroform (CHCl3) is a colorless liquid that quickly evaporates into gas. It can harm the eyes, skin, liver, kidneys, and ... exposure to chloroform. The level of exposure depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done. ... Chloroform can be toxic if inhaled or swallowed. Exposure to chloroform may also cause cancer. Workers may be harmed from ...
Chloroform is a solvent for many substances, including fats, oils, rubber, alkaloids, waxes, gutta-percha, and resins. It has ... Chloroform is a solvent for many substances, including fats, oils, rubber, alkaloids, waxes, gutta-percha, and resins. It has ... Middleditch B.S., Missler S.R., Hines H.B. (1981) Chloroform. In: Mass Spectrometry of Priority Pollutants. Springer, Boston, ...
A.E. Sansom Chloroform..., 1865; detection of chloroform Wellcome L0014061.jpg 1,656 × 1,138; 245 KB. ... Media in category "Chloroform". The following 66 files are in this category, out of 66 total. ... Levy-type regulating chloroform inhaler, England, 1919-1925 Wellcome L0058171.jpg 4,256 × 2,832; 1.07 MB. ... Snow-type chloroform inhaler, London, England, 1848-1870 Wellcome L0058154.jpg 2,832 × 4,256; 1.43 MB. ...
Chloroform (CHCl3), nonflammable, clear, colourless liquid that is denser than water and has a pleasant etherlike odour. It was ... Chloroform is prepared by the chlorination of methane. The major use of chloroform is in the preparation of ... Chloroform is formed by the reaction of chlorine with organic substances present in water and thus can occur in drinking water ... More About Chloroform. 5 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *synthesis* In organohalogen compound: ...
Chloroform is also called Trichloromethane, Methyl trichloride and Methane trichloride. Chemical Formula: CHCl3 MSDS Number: ... p. p. Chloroformed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chloroforming.] To treat with chloroform, or to place under its influence. ... Chloroform is a colorless, mobile, heavy, ethereal liquid.. The vapor of chloroform, when inhaled for some time, produces a ... Chloroform, is formed by the action of the suns rays on a mixture of chlorine and marsh gas; also by the action of caustic ...
Toxicological profile for Chloroform. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
In the past, chloroform was used as an inhaled anesthetic during surgery, but it isnt used that way today. Today, chloroform ... Other names for chloroform are trichloromethane and methyl trichloride. ... Chloroform is a colorless liquid with a pleasant, nonirritating odor and a slightly sweet taste. It will burn only when it ... In the past, chloroform was used as an inhaled anesthetic during surgery, but it isnt used that way today. Today, chloroform ...
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½ Chloroform was one of the first inhaled anesthetics to be used during surgery, but it is not used for anesthesia today.� ... ½ Most of the chloroform found in the environment comes from industry.� It will only burn when it reaches very high ... Nearly all the chloroform made in the United States today is used to make other chemicals, but some is sold or traded to other ... Chloroform is also known as trichloromethane or methyltrichloride.� It is a colorless liquid with a pleasant, nonirritating ...
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Synonym: Trichloromethane Formula: CHCl3 F.W.: 119.38 CAS No: 67-66-3 Characteristic: Clear Notes: consider ethyl acetate as a green chemistry substitute.
I suppose it means to melt phenol , (Sigma) and add the same volume of chloroform - you will get acid , phenol/chloroform. The ... Acid Phenol/chloroform. Ed Siefker via methods%40net.bio.net (by ebs15242 from creighton.edu). Wed Nov 7 12:05:49 EST 2007 * ... What do I need to add to ,, make acid phenol/chloroform? Thanks. ,, -Ed ,, ,, ... phenol/chloroform but doesnt tell me what the composition of this is. ,, I called Ambion and they didnt know. I couldnt find ...
I. Recommendations for a Chloroform Standard. 79-chlor.pdf (6 pages, 361K)Cdc-pdf. ...
Chronic chloroform exposure may cause damage to the liver (where chloroform is metabolized to phosgene) and to the kidneys, and ... The effect of chloroform on reproduction in humans is unknown.. Chloroform once appeared in toothpastes, cough syrups, ... Stephen Belding, Chloroform: The Molecular Lifesaver. Retrieved February 20, 2017.. *↑ General Anaesthesia, Chloroform. ... The use of chloroform during surgery expanded rapidly thereafter in Europe. In the United States, chloroform began to replace ...
Main article: Deuterated chloroform. Deuterated chloroform is an isotopologue of chloroform with a single deuterium atom. CDCl3 ... On p. 654, Dumas names chloroform: "Diess hat mich veranlasst diese Substanz mit dem Namen Chloroform zu belegen." (This ... In the 1850s, chloroform was used during the birth of Queen Victorias last two children.[37] In the United States, chloroform ... The hydrogen attached to carbon in chloroform participates in hydrogen bonding.[28][29] Worldwide, chloroform is also used in ...
Make research projects and school reports about chloroform easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Chloroform Medical Discoveries COPYRIGHT 1997 Thomson Gale. Chloroform. Chloroform is another name for the colorless, dense, ... Chloroform is also used to extract and purify penicillin. Anesthetic Chloroform. Chloroform was popular as an anesthetic from ... chloroform (klo-rŏ-form) n. a volatile liquid formerly widely used as a general anaesthetic. Chloroform is now used only in low ...
Many kinds of seaweed produce chloroform, and fungi are believed to produce chloroform in soil. Chloroform volatilizes readily ... The use of chloroform during surgery expanded rapidly thereafter in Europe. In the 1850s, chloroform was used during the birth ... The reservations about chloroform could not halt its soaring popularity. Between about 1865 and 1920, chloroform was used in 80 ... In a 2007 plea bargain a man confessed to using stun guns and chloroform to sexually assault minors. Use of chloroform as an ...
Chloroform. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Chloroform results for Ayersville ... Human studies show that chloroform damages the kidneys, liver and central nervous system. In animals, chloroform causes ... Chloroform. Ayersville Water and Sewer District. NOTE: Ayersville Water and Sewer District purchases water from Defiance City ... Chloroform, one of the total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), is formed when chlorine or other disinfectants are used to treat drinking ...
  • Many people in the area of Price Landfill own residential wells, which were found to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds, including benzene & chloroform, and arsenic in 1980. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early solvents used included chloroform and benzene. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is soluble in alcohol, acetone, benzene and chloroform. (wikipedia.org)
  • Landfill operations began in 1945, and continued until September 1972, when large amounts of toluene, benzene, chloroform, dichloroethylene, and methylene chloride were found, all of which have are a hazard to human health causing cancer and organ failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large amounts of carcinogenic compounds such as benzene, chloroform, and nethylene chloride were found within the site, along with other dangerous and volatile chemicals such as toluene and dichloroethylene were also found. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroform may also be produced on a small scale via the haloform reaction between acetone and sodium hypochlorite: 3 NaClO + (CH3)2CO → CHCl3 + 2 NaOH + NaOCOCH3 Deuterated chloroform is an isotopologue of chloroform with a single deuterium atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium hypochlorite solution (chlorine bleach) mixed with common household liquids such as acetone, butanone, methyl ethyl ketone, ethanol, or isopropyl alcohol can produce some chloroform, in addition to other compounds such as chloroacetone or dichloroacetone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once made from acetone and bleaching powder, chloroform is now prepared by the photochemical reaction of methane with chlorine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The adsorption performances of chloroform (TCM), carbon disulfide (CDS), and acetone (CP) were investigated and compared over self-prepared coconut shell-derived carbon (CDC) to study the adsorption behavior and mechanism of heteroatom (Cl, S, O)-containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). (springer.com)
  • Consider a non-ideal binary mixture composed of acetone and chloroform. (wolfram.com)
  • 2) if the initial composition is very rich in chloroform (respectively acetone) then this latter component will exit the column first, followed by the binary azeotrope. (wolfram.com)
  • Locator coordinates (i.e., the mole fractions of chloroform and acetone in the liquid phase) are displayed in the upper-right corner. (wolfram.com)
  • It is miscible with acetone, alcohols, and chloroform. (wikipedia.org)
  • Riddelliine is a colorless to off-white crystalline solid at room temperature and has a melting point of 197° to 198 °C. It is soluble in chloroform, acetone, and ethanol, and is sparingly soluble in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, acetone / methanol / chloroform form an intermediate boiling (saddle) azeotrope. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the past, chloroform was used as an inhaled anesthetic during surgery, but it isn't used that way today. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1847, the Edinburgh obstetrician James Young Simpson experimented with chloroform narcosis on himself, then began using it as an anesthetic to assist women during childbirth. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In the United States, chloroform began to replace ether as an anesthetic at the beginning of the twentieth century. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chloroform was popular as an anesthetic from the mid-1800s to around 1900, but it was found to cause death from paralysis of the heart in one patient in about 3,000. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Frenchman Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens (1794-1867) noted the anesthetic, but toxic, effect of chloroform on animals in March 1847. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sir James Young Simpson, an eminent Scottish obstetrician, introduced the medical use of chloroform as an anesthetic in Edinburgh , Scotland , in November 1847. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This event quieted the clergy and made chloroform the most fashionable anesthetic - especially in England - for the next 50 years. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Other applications 5 of chloroform have included use in the extraction and purification of penicillin and other antibiotics, in the purification of alkaloids, in the solvent extraction of vitamins and flavors, as a general solvent, as an intermediate in the preparation of dyes, drugs, and pesticides, and as an anesthetic. (cdc.gov)
  • Chloroform was first used as an anesthetic in 1847. (cdc.gov)
  • High-dose chloroform has been used as an anesthetic, but is no longer used for that purpose. (cdc.gov)
  • Chloroform has been used as an anesthetic for about 150 years and the kind of misconception that you have from watching movies is that by breathing a chloroform soaked rag you'll knock someone out within a second or so. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Civil War administering anesthetic agent It is perhaps well known that with the introduction of general inhalation anesthesia using ether in 1846 followed by chloroform in 1847 that medical and surgical practice in the mid-19th century was transformed. (pbs.org)
  • From the first use of chloroform in the 1840s through to the twentieth century the question of anesthetic death was investigated by elite physicians across the globe, and though these investigations produced no clear consensus on what caused sudden death, these research questions were explored by elite physicians during the Civil War. (pbs.org)
  • While the cause of anesthetic death in the 1860s was not understood, we now know that when administered improperly, chloroform can cause cardiac arrest leading to sudden death. (pbs.org)
  • A number of questions precipitated the investigations into anesthetic deaths in the 19th century: was the death the result of the toxicity of the chloroform, the way or circumstances under which it was administered or was it owing to the patient's weakened constitution? (pbs.org)
  • Simpson's later personal discovery of chloroform's anesthetic properties inspired subsequent trials with chloroform that he went on to make public in November, 1847. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol (trichlorobutanol, herein referred to as 'TCB') has a melting point of 77*C. I dissolved 25 grams of it in 100 mL of chloroform (at room temp). (bio.net)
  • 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (methyl chloroform) (revised 1961). (cdc.gov)
  • Today, chloroform is used to make other chemicals and can also be formed in small amounts when chlorine is added to water. (cdc.gov)
  • Chloroform is formed by the reaction of chlorine with organic substances present in water and thus can occur in drinking water that has been chlorinated. (britannica.com)
  • Chloroform enters the environment from chemical companies and paper mills, It is also found in waste water from sewage treatment plants and drinking water to which chlorine has been added. (cdc.gov)
  • Small amounts of chloroform are formed as an unwanted product during the process of adding chlorine to water. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorine is chloroform may increase. (cdc.gov)
  • As suggested by its chemical formula, each chloroform molecule has three chlorine (halogen) atoms attached to a central carbon atom. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chloroform, one of the total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), is formed when chlorine or other disinfectants are used to treat drinking water. (ewg.org)
  • Chloroform may be found in the environment as a result of industrial production and use (mainly in the manufacture of the refrigerant HCFC-22) or from generation of chloroform during water disinfection with chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • The chloroform found in tap water is one of the trihalomethanes, a class of contaminants that form as byproducts when chlorine or other disinfectants are added to drinking water," EWG reported. (wateronline.com)
  • Chloroform is also formed in swimming pools which are disinfected with chlorine or hypochlorite in the haloform reaction with organic substances (e.g. urine, sweat, hair and skin particles). (wikipedia.org)
  • The EPA drinking water limit for total trihalomethanes, a class of chemicals that includes chloroform, is 100 micrograms per liter of water (100 µg/L). (cdc.gov)
  • Total trihalomethanes have a maximum contaminant level of .08 mg/L, per the U.S. EPA's National Primary Drinking Water Regulations , though EWG reported that chloroform itself doesn't have a maximum federal legal limit that utilities must adhere to. (wateronline.com)
  • Some utilities have detected chloroform, as part of the federally regulated trihalomethanes class, at levels that exceed the federal maximum legal limit of 80 parts per billion for the entire group of chemicals," per EWG. (wateronline.com)
  • In the United States, the EPA limits the total concentration of the four chief constituents (chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane, and dibromochloromethane), referred to as total trihalomethanes (TTHM), to 80 parts per billion in treated water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroform has a relatively narrow margin of safety and has been replaced by better inhalation anesthetics. (britannica.com)
  • 12 Inhalation of chloroform also produces dilation of pupils of the eyes, reduced reaction to light, and reduced intraocular pressure. (cdc.gov)
  • The revised IDLH for chloroform is 500 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [Lehmann and Flury (cdc.gov)
  • With the exception of chloroform, adequate chronic inhalation data are not available for most of the endpoints of concern for the chemicals that make up the mixture. (cdc.gov)
  • As such, chloroform was used as the model chemical for consideration of chronic TTDs, and chronic TTD values for chloroform were derived in Appendix A. The chronic inhalation MRL for chloroform is 0.02 ppm and the intermediate inhalation MRL is 0.05 ppm, with both being based on similar physiological effects. (cdc.gov)
  • The chronic inhalation TTD values are presented in Table 22, along with the chronic inhalation MRL for chloroform. (cdc.gov)
  • Following oral exposure in animal studies, distribution of chloroform appears to be similar to following inhalation exposure, with the primary concentrations in lipophilic tissues (Brown et al. (cdc.gov)
  • On the basis of pharmacokinetic results obtained in rats and mice exposed to chloroform by inhalation, and of enzymatic studies in human tissues in vitro , in vivo metabolic rate constants (VmaxC = 15.7 mg/hour/kg, Km = 0.448 mg/L) were defined for humans (Corley et al. (cdc.gov)
  • Chloroform is readily absorbed following oral, dermal, and inhalation exposure. (umn.edu)
  • 1990). Chloroform concentrations in exhaled breath were measured in six human subjects before and after a normal shower, and following inhalation-only shower exposure. (umn.edu)
  • These data indicate that humans absorb chloroform by both the dermal and inhalation routes (U.S. EPA, 1994d). (umn.edu)
  • Breathing chloroform or ingesting chloroform over long periods of time may damage your liver and kidneys. (cdc.gov)
  • Breathing air, eating food, or drinking water containing high levels of chloroform for long periods of time may damage your liver and kidneys. (cdc.gov)
  • Rats and mice that ate food or drank water with chloroform developed cancer of the liver and kidneys. (cdc.gov)
  • Chloroform is not a proven carcinogen , however it caused liver and kidney cancer in rats fed water or food containing chloroform. (everything2.com)
  • Human studies show that chloroform damages the kidneys, liver and central nervous system. (ewg.org)
  • Chloroform produced benign and malignant tumours of the liver and kidney in mice following oral gavage [ref: 17, (inchem.org)
  • Oral administration of chloroform did not enhance the incidences of liver and lung tumours induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of N -ethyl- N -nitrosourea [ref: but it enhanced the incidence of liver preneoplastic foci in rats treated with a single dose of N -nitrosodiethylamine [ref: (inchem.org)
  • Chloroform did not induce micronuclei in bone-marrow cells of mice or DNA damage in liver or kidney cells of rats treated in vivo . (inchem.org)
  • Dose-dependent liver regeneration in chloroform, tri chloroethylene and allyl alcohol ternary mixture hepatotoxicity in rats. (cdc.gov)
  • After whole-body autoradiography to study the distribution of inhaled 14C-labeled chloroform in mice, most of the radioactivity was found in fat immediately after exposure, while the concentration of radioactivity in the liver increased during the postanesthetic period, most likely due to covalent binding to lipid and protein in the liver (Cohen and Hood 1969). (cdc.gov)
  • One study examined the joint effects of acute intraperitoneal administration of chloroform and trichloro ethylene on liver endpoints in rats (Anand et al. (cdc.gov)
  • In animals, studies involving chloroform have shown increased incidence of liver and kidney tumors in several species by several exposure routes. (umn.edu)
  • Chloroform doses of 15 mg/kg/day resulted in an increase in the severity of fatty cysts in liver. (umn.edu)
  • In postmortem samples from eight humans, the highest levels of chloroform were detected in the body fat (5 68 g/kg), with lower levels (1 10 g/kg) detected in the kidney, liver, and brain.9 Studies in animals indicate rapid uptake of chloroform by the liver and kidney. (umn.edu)
  • In mice receiving chloroform via gavage in either corn oil or water, the uptake of chloroform was achieved within 10 minutes in the liver and within 1 hour in the kidney. (umn.edu)
  • Chloroform is metabolized mainly in the liver, but metabolism also occurs in other tissues such as the kidney. (umn.edu)
  • Chloroform was toxic to the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal toxicity studies of inhaled chloroform have provided evidence for absorption, but quantitative estimates have not been reported (see ATSDR 1997). (cdc.gov)
  • 1989. Glutathione s-transferases and chloroform toxicity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (cdc.gov)
  • Application of an updated physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for chloroform to evaluate CYP2E1-mediated renal toxicity in rats and mice," Toxicological Sciences , vol. 131, no. 2, pp. 360-374, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • In 1842, Dr Robert Mortimer Glover in London discovered the anaesthetic qualities of chloroform on laboratory animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1864, the Report of Chloroform Committee of Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society endorsed chloroform as Britain's favourite anaesthetic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some 5 years prior to James Young Simpson's use of chloroform on human patients in 1842 Glover discovered its anaesthetic qualities on laboratory animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether you need HPLC chloroform, ACS chloroform, Anhydrous chloroform or another Sigma-Aldrich grade, we stock the right product for your application. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on chloroform -NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH) Value Profile: Chloroform -NIOSH reviews relevant scientific data and researches methods for developing IDLH values. (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSH Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Chloroform -DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 75-114. (cdc.gov)
  • Because of the uses of chloroform in the work environment and the potential for cancer induction in humans, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is alerting the occupational health community as part of its Current Intelligence System. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, NIOSH is attempting to identify a worker population at risk of chloroform exposures for epidemiologic study. (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSH considers chloroform to be a potential occupational carcinogen as defined by the OSHA carcinogen policy [29 CFR (cdc.gov)
  • Note: NIOSH recommends as part of its carcinogen policy that the 'most protective' respirators be worn for chloroform at concentrations above 2 ppm. (cdc.gov)
  • An example of Karasch addition is the synthesis of 1,1,3-trichloro-n-nonane from 1-octene, chloroform and ferric chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • For phenol:chloroform mixtures or for chloroform, glass pipettes should be used, or micropipettors exclusively, as the chloroform is usually able to attack plastic pipettes. (bionity.com)
  • Other mixtures were: Not included in table as they don't contain chloroform and they list two different ethers: Schleich's solutions for general anaesthesia (number one for light anaesthesia and number three for deep anaesthesia): No 1: 45 parts chloroform, 180 parts sulphuric ether, 15 parts petroleum ether. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breathing about 900 parts of chloroform per million parts air (900 ppm) for a short time can cause dizziness, fatigue, and headache. (cdc.gov)
  • Large amounts of chloroform can cause sores when chloroform touches your skin. (cdc.gov)
  • Although the amounts of chloroform in the air that you exhale and in blood, urine, and body tissues can be measured, there is no reliable test to determine how much chloroform you have been exposed to or whether you will experience any harmful effects. (cdc.gov)
  • The measurement of chloroform in body fluids and tissues may help to determine if you have come into contact with large amounts of chloroform, but these tests are useful for only a short time after you are exposed. (cdc.gov)
  • Chloroform does not appear to build up in great amounts in plants and animals, but we may find some small amounts of chloroform in foods. (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, there had been deaths from chloroform prior to the war, and though rare, these deaths were widely publicized in medical journals, newspapers, and even coroners' inquests. (pbs.org)
  • However, fewer deaths from A.C.E. mixture were reported than deaths from chloroform or ether. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to chloroform may also cause cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to chloroform. (cdc.gov)
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to chloroform. (cdc.gov)
  • Occupational Health Guideline for Chloroform -This guideline is intended as a source of information for employees, employers, and those in the health professions who need more information on exposure to chloroform. (cdc.gov)
  • Criteria for a recommended standard: occupational exposure to chloroform. (cdc.gov)
  • No PBPK models specific for co-exposure to chloroform and 1,1-dichloroethylene were located. (cdc.gov)
  • If you work in an industry that uses chloroform, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheets for hazard information. (cdc.gov)
  • Nevertheless, chloroform has remained an important industrial chemical. (britannica.com)
  • Information regarding the chemical identity of chloroform is located in Table 3-1. (cdc.gov)
  • Chloroform enters the environment from chemical companies and paper mills. (cdc.gov)
  • In carbon-13 NMR, the sole carbon deuterated chloroform shows a triplet at a chemical shift of 77 ppm with the three peaks being about equal size, as the deuterium has a spin of 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • This page provides supplementary chemical data on chloroform. (wikipedia.org)
  • Harcourt chloroform regulator Harcourt pentane-air lamp 1863: Fellow of the Royal Society 1865-1873: Secretary of the Chemical Society 1895: President of the Chemical Society "Academic Genealogy of the NDSU Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1972). Experiments in mice, rats, and monkeys indicate that oral doses (up to 60 mg/kg) of 14C-labeled chloroform in olive oil were almost completely absorbed, as indicated by an 80-96% recovery of radioactivity in expired air, urine, and carcass (Brown et al. (cdc.gov)
  • In their final report the committee stated that Chloroform doses above 2% were unsafe as cardiac arrest occurred under inhibition of the vagus nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glover caught dysentery here and began taking doses of opium and chloroform to deal with this. (wikipedia.org)