A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE that contains steroidal glycosides.
Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains pimarane-type diterpenes. Several species of Orthosiphon are also called Java tea.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is used for food in NIGERIA.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.
The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.
A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An imprecise term which may refer to a sense of spatial disorientation, motion of the environment, or lightheadedness.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.
An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.
The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.
The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.

Structural and functional changes in acute liver injury. (1/581)

Carbon tetrachloride produces liver cell injury in a variety of animal species. The first structurally recognizable changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum, with alteration in ribosome-membrane interactions. Later there is an increase in intracellular fat, and the formation of tangled nets of the ergastoplasm. At no time are there changes in mitochondria or single membrane limited bodies in cells with intact plasmalemma, although a relative increase in cell sap may appear. In dead cells (those with plasmalemma discontinuties) crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatase may be noted. Functional changes are related to the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. An early decrease in protein synthesis takes place; an accumulation of neutral lipid is related to this change. Later alterations in the ergastoplasmic functions (e.g., mixed function oxidation) occurs. Carbon tetrachloride is not the active agent; rather, a product of its metabolism, probably the CC1, free radical, is. The mechanisms of injury include macromolecular adduction and peroxide propagation. A third possibility includes a cascade effect with the production of secondary and tertiary products, also toxic in nature, with the ability to produce more widespread damage to intracellular structures.  (+info)

Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury. (2/581)

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

Model for bacteriophage T4 development in Escherichia coli. (3/581)

Mathematical relations for the number of mature T4 bacteriophages, both inside and after lysis of an Escherichia coli cell, as a function of time after infection by a single phage were obtained, with the following five parameters: delay time until the first T4 is completed inside the bacterium (eclipse period, nu) and its standard deviation (sigma), the rate at which the number of ripe T4 increases inside the bacterium during the rise period (alpha), and the time when the bacterium bursts (mu) and its standard deviation (beta). Burst size [B = alpha(mu - nu)], the number of phages released from an infected bacterium, is thus a dependent parameter. A least-squares program was used to derive the values of the parameters for a variety of experimental results obtained with wild-type T4 in E. coli B/r under different growth conditions and manipulations (H. Hadas, M. Einav, I. Fishov, and A. Zaritsky, Microbiology 143:179-185, 1997). A "destruction parameter" (zeta) was added to take care of the adverse effect of chloroform on phage survival. The overall agreement between the model and the experiment is quite good. The dependence of the derived parameters on growth conditions can be used to predict phage development under other experimental manipulations.  (+info)

A novel strategy for the preparation of liposomes: rapid solvent exchange. (4/581)

During the preparation of multi-component model membranes, a primary consideration is that compositional homogeneity should prevail throughout the suspension. Some conventional sample preparation methods pass the lipid mixture through an intermediary, solvent-free state. This is an ordered, solid state and may favor the demixing of membrane components. A new preparative method has been developed which is specifically designed to avoid this intermediary state. This novel strategy is called rapid solvent exchange (RSE) and entails the direct transfer of lipid mixtures between organic solvent and aqueous buffer. RSE liposomes require no more than a minute to prepare and manifest considerable entrapment volumes with a high fraction of external surface area. In phospholipid/cholesterol mixtures of high cholesterol content, suspensions prepared by more conventional methods reveal evidence of artifactual demixing, whereas samples prepared by rapid solvent exchange do not. The principles which may lead to artifactual demixing during conventional sample preparation are discussed.  (+info)

Distribution of gangliosides, GM1 and GM3, in the rat oviduct. (5/581)

It is known that gangliosides, being ubiquitous membrane components, play important roles in cell-cell recognition, differentiation and transmembrane signalling. GM3, GM1 and GD1a were detected in the rat oviduct as major gangliosides by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis. The total amounts of gangliosides from the oviducts at various times after hormone injection were not much changed. In order to identify their distribution and possible changes during ovulation, frozen sections of the rat oviducts were stained with specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the ganglio-series gangliosides. GM3 and GM1 were expressed in a different manner, but GD1a and other gangliosides were not immunohistochemically detected. In the ampullar region, GM3 was expressed in all the stroma and epithelial cells, but not GM1. GM1 was also not observed in epithelial cells. Staining by anti-GM1 monoclonal antibodies revealed long and minute thread-like structures in some of the stroma cells, whereas anti-GM3 monoclonal antibodies stained the entire cytoplasm, but not the nucleus, of all the stroma and epithelial cells. Other ganglio-series gangliosides, including GD1a, were not detected to some extent in the ampullar region by immunohistochemistry. Thus, these data suggest that GM3 and GM1 are oviduct-specific gangliosides.  (+info)

Preliminary characterization of a reovirus isolated from golden ide Leuciscus idus melanotus. (6/581)

Some characteristics of a reovirus recently isolated from golden ide Leuciscus idus melanotus and tentatively designated as golden ide reovirus (GIRV) were determined. Spherical non-enveloped particles with an outer capsid of about 70 nm and an inner capsid of about 50 nm were observed by electron microscopy. The density of the virus determined in CsCl gradients was 1.36 g ml-1. The genome contained 11 segments of dsRNA. GIRV differed from other aquareoviruses by a slight reduction of infectivity after treatment with chloroform and by the absence of forming syncytia in cell monolayers.  (+info)

Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation. (7/581)

There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in standard rodent models; transgenic mouse models and small fish models; in vitro mechanistic and toxicokinetic studies; and reproductive, immunotoxicity, and developmental studies. The goal is to create a toxicity database that reflects a wide range of DBPs resulting from different disinfection practices. This paper describes the approach developed by these agencies to provide the information needed to make scientifically based regulatory decisions.  (+info)

Hepatoprotection by dimethyl sulfoxide. I. Protection when given twenty-four hours after chloroform or bromobenzene. (8/581)

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has previously been reported to protect against hepatotoxicity resulting from chloroform (CHCl3) or bromobenzene (BB) when given 10 hr after the toxicant. The object of these studies was to further demonstrate the latent protective ability of DMSO by administering it at a much later time (24 hr) following toxicant exposure. In addition, a more detailed evaluation of the lesions was performed to better characterize the lesion progression and resolution. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a hepatotoxic oral dose of either CHCl3 (1.0 ml/kg) or BB (0.5 ml/kg) and then received 2 ml/kg DMSO intraperitoneally 24 hr later. With both toxicants, limited centrilobular lesions were already present by the time DMSO was administered. Without treatment, liver injury rapidly progressed so that by 48 hr it occupied 40-50% of the liver, with accompanying large increases in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. Administration of DMSO greatly attenuated lesion development for both toxicants; the area injured was reduced by more than 4-fold, accompanied by a decrease in 48 hr ALT activity of 8-16-fold. The ability of DMSO to intervene in the development of liver injury at such a late time appears to be unique and may provide insight into therapies for acute xenobiotic-induced hepatitis.  (+info)

If youre in a hurry, you can shorten the protocol to two phenol extractions and one chloroform extraction. The number of repetitions also depends on what kind of sample you have and what you want to do with it. If you have whole cell extracts you want to use more phenol steps as if you have only one restriction enzyme to get rid of. In the same way you might not care about residual phenol if you just want so run your DNA or RNA on a gel so one chlorophorm step is sufficient. Some other reactions you can do with nucleic acids are more sensitive to phenol so you should use chlorophorm two times ...
Chloroform was once a widely used anesthetic. On 4 November 1847, the Scottish obstetrician James Young Simpson first used the anaesthetic qualities of chloroform on a human,[12] two guests at his dinner party. This was done as an entertainment and not as a medical procedure. This was followed, only three days later, by the first use of chloroform on an actual patient, for a dental procedure, by Francis Brodie Imlach (1819-1891), also in Edinburgh, who, under other circumstances, may have gained the same fame as Simpson.[13] The use of chloroform during surgery expanded rapidly thereafter in Europe. In the 1850s, chloroform was used during the birth of Queen Victorias last two children.[14] In the United States, chloroform began to replace ether as an anesthetic at the beginning of the 20th century; however, it was quickly abandoned in favor of ether upon discovery of its toxicity, especially its tendency to cause fatal cardiac arrhythmia analogous to what is now termed sudden sniffers ...
The anaesthetic qualities of chloroform were first described in 1842 in a thesis by Robert Mortimer Glover, which won the Gold Medal of the Harveian Society for that year. Glover also undertook practical experiments on dogs to prove his theories. Glover further refined his theories and presented them in the thesis for his doctorate at the University of Edinburgh in the summer of 1847. The Scottish obstetrician James Young Simpson was one of the persons required to read the thesis, but later claimed to have never read the thesis and to have come to his conclusions independently.[citation needed]. On 4 November 1847, Simpson first used the anesthetic qualities of chloroform on a pair of humans: two guests at his dinner party. This was done as an entertainment and not as a medical procedure.[34]. A few days later, during the course of a dental procedure in Edinburgh, Francis Brodie Imlach became the first person to use chloroform on a patient in a clinical context.[35]. In May 1848, Robert Halliday ...
It should also be noted that, in this round of cloning, I stacked the deck [I didnt know where my problem was]: There was no hint of a kit--every purification (post-PCR and post-digest/SAP) was one phenol/chloroform extraction, one chloroform extraction, and an ethanol precipitation with glycogen and washing with 75% EtOH. I quantitated insert and plasmid on the nanodrop and did the proper 3:1 insert:plasmid ratio with 100ng of plasmid. And I did the ligation overnight in the refrigerator. I also checked my ligations on an agarose gel for the heck of it. All things to try, if troubles are being had ...
(CNN) -- Casey Anthonys mother, Cindy Anthony, testified Thursday that she, not her daughter, conducted Internet searches for key words including chloroform and alcohol on the Anthony family computer in March 2008.
A mathematical analysis of the effects of chloroform on the production of carbon dioxide by living Ulva, killed Ulva, and unsaturated organic acids indicates that the same process is taking place in all three cases. On the basis of this interpretation it is reasonable to conclude that the action of chloroform on the oxidative mechanism of the cell is chemical in nature and that it acts either by catalysis or by the formation of a loose compound with some portion of the system.. ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about chloroform at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about chloroform easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Paul Cullen wrote: , , I would try incorporating a phenol/chloroform and chloroform extraction , into your miniprep. I routinely do this for endonuclease producing , strains with much success. If you use a kit for miniprep, the kit from Roche contains an extra washing buffer which can be used if your strain produces endonuclease. -- Ing. Aldert Zomer, , Tel: +31 50 36 32 360 Research Technician, , Fax: +31 50 36 35 205 IMEnz Bioengineering, , Email: zomeral at biol.rug.nl PO BOX 14, 9750 AA Haren, Netherlands , Homepage: http://www.imenz.com ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Automated Medline search: http://molgen.biol.rug.nl/cgi-bin/biomail/users.pl ...
Greetings bionetters, Last week I recd the trichlorobutanol (Sigma-Aldrich cat no 11,205-4) and tested it on several preps (DNA and RNA from tissues, blood, semen and serum). They all looked normal and PCRed great (no changes from nucl acid using CHCl3). My preliminary findings are that it works GREAT as an additive in chloroform! The viscosity and surface tension are dramatically increased, yet all the denaturing and phase separating properties of chloroform are retained. I wonder how come nobody ever tested this before (maybe not commonly found on shelf)? 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol (trichlorobutanol, herein referred to as TCB) has a melting point of 77*C. I dissolved 25 grams of it in 100 mL of chloroform (at room temp). After shaking or stirring, the TCB dissolved nicely in the CHCl3. It stores okay in fridge (1 week so far and no visible ppt) ... in -20*C it turns cloudy, but brief shaking turns it clear again. For nucl acid extns I simply substituted this TCB(25% w/v)-CHCl3 for ...
Membrane-bound and membrane-associated proteins are difficult to analyze by mass spectrometry, since the association with lipids impedes the isolation and solubilization of the proteins in buffers suitable for mass spectrometry and the efficient generation of positively charged peptide ions by electrospray ionization. Current methods mostly utilize detergents for the isolation of proteins from membranes. In this study, we present an improved detergent-free method for the isolation and mass spectrometric identification of membrane-bound and membrane-associated proteins. We delipidate proteins from the membrane bilayer by chloroform extraction to overcome dissolution and ionization problems during analysis. Comparison of our results to results obtained by direct tryptic digestion of insoluble membrane pellets identifies an increased number of membrane proteins, and a higher quality of the resulting mass spectral data. ...
Phenols 5530 C - Chloroform Extraction Method Description: PHENOL STANDARD, 1000ppm (1mL = 1mg)Test SpecificationAppearance: clear, colorless solutionConcentration ppm Phenol: 1000ppm +/- 10ppmConcentration mg Phenol / L: 1.000 + / - 0.010 mg/mLTr
Mouse Heart, left and right atrium Total RNA is extracted from freshly harvested tissues of single healthy normal donor using classical guanidine isothiocyanate-phenol:chloroform extraction method which allows the rapid isolation of total RNA including microRNAs. RNA is treated with RNase-free DNase-1to remove residual DNA, precisely quantified, and stored at -80oC. Quality Control: The integrity of
Rat Major Tissue Total RNA panel is your choice of any 10 RNA samples (0.025mg each). Total RNA is extracted from freshly harvested tissues of single healthy normal animal donor using classical guanidine isothiocyanate-phenol:chloroform extraction method which allows the rapid isolation of total RNA including microRNAs. RNA is treated with RNase-free DNase-1to remove residual
Phenols 5530 C - Chloroform Extraction Method Test SpecificationAppearance: clear, colorless solutionAssay: 36.5-38.0%Color (APHA): </= APHA 10Residue after ignition: </= 5 ppmBromide (Br): </= 0.005%Sulfate (SO4): <
I followed the standard phenol/chloroform extraction to purify DNA, and found a big chuck of pellet at the bottom of the tube after NaAc and 100% ethanol precipitation. The big chuck still exists after 70% ethanol washing. This white chuck can disolve very fast in water. When I check the DNA concentration using spec. The DNA conc. is 70ng/ul, 260/280 is 1.67, 260/230 is 1.45. I am not sure what is that white pellet. What is the amount of DNA that you are able to visualize with naked eyes ...
Archival slides are a potentially useful source of DNA for mutation analyses in large population-based studies. However, it is unknown whether specimen age or histological stains alter the accuracy of Taq polymerase or induce secondary mutations in sample DNA. To address this question, we evaluated five methods for extraction of genomic DNA from archival bone marrow slides of 17 leukemia patients and analyzed exons 1 and 2 of the N- and K-ras genes for the presence of mutations. Of the five methods, optimal DNA purification was achieved by boiling and phenol:chloroform extraction. N-and K-ras exons 1 and 2 were independently amplified using 35 cycles of PCR, and 6-12 clones for each exon were isolated and individually sequenced for each patient. Mutations were confirmed by repeat extraction, cloning, and sequencing. Sixteen of 17 patient samples were successfully amplified (94%), including slides up to 29 years old. Twelve slides had been stained with Wright-Giemsa, I stained with toluidine ...
The E.Z.N.A.® Blood DNA Maxi Kit is specially designed for large scale isolation of genomic DNA. The kit provides a rapid purification of genomic DNA from up to 20 mL whole blood samples. Sample sources include fresh and frozen whole blood treated with common anticoagulants such as citrate, EDTA and heparin. In addition plasma, serum, buffy coat, bone marrow, lymphocytes, platelets, and body fluid samples can also be used. Phenol/chloroform extractions, and time-consuming steps such as precipitation with isopropanol have been eliminated. DNA purified using the E.Z.N.A.® Blood DNA Maxi method is free of contaminants and enzyme inhibitors making it suitable for most downstream applications such as PCR, Southern blotting and restriction enzyme digestion of high-quality total DNA.. ...
RNA co-immunoprecipitations with C-terminal protein A-tagged She proteins. One liter of cells were cultured at 30 degrees in YPAD medium and collected during exponential growth by centrifugation. Cells were washed twice and broken mechanically with glass beads. Extracts were incubated with IgG-agarose beads (Sigma). The beads were washed four times, and She proteins were released from the beads by cleavage with TEV-protease (Invitrogen). RNA was isolated by phenol/chloroform extraction and isopropanol precipitation from TEV eluates, which corresponds to the purified fraction, and from extracts (input). Both RNA samples, input and purified, were reverse transcribed and labeled with the fluorescent dyes Cy3 and Cy5 (Amersham), respectively. The samples were mixed and competitively hybridized to yeast DNA microarrays containing all yeast genes
The NucleoBond BAC 100 Kit is designed to purify large DNA fragments such as cosmids, bacteriophage P1 clones, PACs, and BACs, without phenol/chloroform extraction. 1 hour protocol accomodates vectors up to to 300 kb.
8-oxoguanine is a common oxidation product in DNA and can lead to missense mutations. The metallointercalator Ru(phen)2dppz2+ is a useful luminescent probe for DNA that has also found use as a guanine-selective oxidizing agent via the flash-quench technique. Here, we show that its osmium analogue can selectively oxidize 8-oxoguanine in double-stranded DNA. With a 3+/2+ couple of 1.15 V, Os(phen)2dppz3+ should be able to oxidize 8-oxo-G (~0.7 V) without oxidizing guanine (~1.3V). MALDI mass spectrometry data confirms that oxidizing guanine using Ru(NH3)63+ and Ru(phen)2dppz2+ produces 8-oxo-G. In plasmid DNA where 8-oxo-G has been incorporated as above, further flash-quench treatment with Os(phen)2dppz2+ and Co(NH3)5Cl2+ leads to crosslinking with histone protein in gel shift experiments and in the chloroform extraction assay. Furthermore, in gel shift experiments with a duplex of the oligonucleotide 5-ATATGATAT8GATATGATAT -3 (8 = 8-oxo-G), flash-quench treatment with Ru(phen)2dppz2+ in the
Animals and Treatments. All animal experiments and treatments were reviewed and approved by the Research Animal Resource Center at the University of Wisconsin or by the appropriate oversight department of submitting institutions. Institutions, strains, sex, ages, treatment vehicle, circadian time, and route of administration are recorded for all experiments and can be found for each experiment at the EDGE Web site.. Expressed Sequence Tag Libraries. Poly-A mRNA was isolated from total RNA via the Oligotex kit (QIAGEN, Valencia, CA). Construction of expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries was typically performed by using the cDNA Timesaver kit (Amersham Biosciences Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). In brief, 5 μg of poly-A was used to generate first strand cDNA with an anchored poly-T oligonucleotide [dT(18)-N] that also contained a NotI-specific restriction site. First strand cDNA was then purified via a phenol/chloroform extraction. After second strand synthesis, cDNA was again purified using ...
Maxiprep NucleoBond Plasmid Kits: Purify plasmid DNA, cosmids, BACs, PACs, and YACs in just a few hours-no phenol/chloroform extraction. Use for transfection, in vitro transcription, and automated sequencing.
We put Deekshas question to resident chemist Ben Pilgrim... Ben - The first thing to say is that the movies definitely have it wrong with regards to chloroform. Chloroform has been used as an anesthetic for about 150 years and the kind of misconception that you have from watching movies is that by breathing a chloroform soaked rag youll knock someone out within a second or so. This isnt the case, you need to be breathing it for several minutes in order to make someone pass out and they need to be breathing it constantly in order to keep them passed out.
Thermo Scientific™ Pierce™ Phenol: Chloroform 400mL Thermo Scientific™ Pierce™ Phenol: Chloroform Miscellaneous Reagents for...
Chloroform, 99.8%, for analysis, stabilized with amylene, ACROS Organics™ 1L; Glass bottle Chloroform, 99.8%, for analysis, stabilized with amylene, ACROS...
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Potential danger for health in case of a leak. Formation of disinfection byproducts, such as chloroform. The MAC in water will be increased in the near future from 60 mkg/l up to 60 mg/l because there was no proof of direct action of the chloroform on DNA ...
Chloroform is a colorless liquid with a pleasant nonirritating odor and has a chemical formula of CHCl3. Other names for this chemical are trichloromethane and methyl trichloride. In the past, it was used as an inhaled anesthetic during surgery, but it isnt used that way today. Today, the liquid is used to make other chemicals and can also be formed in small amounts when chlorine is added to water.. Date back to 1847, at that time chloroform was firstly used as an anesthetic. In 1848, a patient died because her heart went into fibrillation while she was chloroformed, and continued use of the drug only cemented the link between chloroform and cardiac events. By the early twentieth century, it had been abandoned in favor of safer and cheaper drugs, and today has been replaced by anesthetics such as halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane, among many others. When a less expensive anesthetic is required, as is the case in some impoverished nations, ether, an older anesthetic, is preferred over the ...
Q. 2.9 A sample of drinking water was found to be severely contaminated with chloroform supposed to be a carcinogen. The level of contamination was (by mass): (ii) determine the molality of chloroform in the water sample.
In vitro antibacterial activities of four fractions of stem bark of Distemonanthus benthamianus Baill. against some bacterial isolates implicated in oro-dental infections were investigated using standard microbiological methods. The aqueous and chloroform fractions exhibited significant inhibitory action against all twelve bacterial isolates tested at a concentration of 10 mg mL-1. The zones of inhibition due to the aqueous fraction ranged between 10 and 15 mm while that of chloroform fraction ranged between 8 and 13 mm. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) exhibited by aqueous fraction against the bacterial isolates ranged between 0.625 and 2.5 mg mL-1 while that of chloroform fraction ranged between 0.313 and 5.0 mg mL-1. Phytochemical analysis of Distemonanthus benthamianus extract revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, saponins and alkaloids. Between 18 and 76% of Streptococcus mutans were killed within 120 min contact time in aqueous extract concentration of between 0.3125 and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Formation of chloroform during chlorination of alanine in drinking water. AU - Chu, Wen Hai. AU - Gao, Nai Yun. AU - Deng, Yang. AU - Dong, Bing Zhi. PY - 2009/11/1. Y1 - 2009/11/1. N2 - Currently, dissolved nitrogenous organic matters in water, important precursors of disinfection by-products (DBPs), are of significant concern. This study was to explore the formation of chloroform (CF) during chlorination of alanine (Ala), an important nitrogenous organic compound commonly present in water sources. Our results indicated that the CF yield reached a maximum value of 0.143% at the molar ratio of chlorine atom to nitrogen atom (Cl/N) = 1.0 over a Cl/N range of 0.2-5.0 (pH = 7.0, reaction time = 5 d, and initial Ala = 0.1 mM). At an acidic-neutral condition (pH 4-7), the formation of CF was suppressed. However, the highest CF yield (0.227%) occurred at weakly alkaline condition (pH 8.0) (initial Ala = 0.1 mM, and Cl/N = 1.0). The increase of Br- in water can increase total ...
Yes, the Monarch Genomic DNA Purification Kit can be used to clean up phenol/chloroform purified gDNA by following the protocol for Genomic DNA Cleanup. However, recovery may be lower than the usual 80% because phenol/chloroform purified DNA typically yields longer fragments. Although the use of preheated elution buffer in the Monarch protocol facilitates the elution of large gDNA fragments, the fraction of gDNA that is longer than 80 kb will be eluted less efficiently from the silica matrix ...
TRPV1 and TRPA1 have a remarkable ability to detect a wide range of noxious stimuli (Julius, 2013). Here we have provided conclusive evidence that the environmental irritant and VGA chloroform activates TRPV1 while also functioning as a reversible antagonist of TRPA1 activity. We have shown that the responses of DRG neurons to chloroform are mediated mainly by TRPV1 as almost all neurons responding to chloroform also responded to the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin and pretreatment with the TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810 abrogated responses to chloroform. TRPM8, which is expressed a small percentage of DRG neurons (,10%), may also contribute to the response of DRG neurons to chloroform (Dhaka et al., 2008). Neurons expressing TRPM8 that were insensitive to capsaicin, thus not likely expressing TRPV1, also responded to chloroform.. It is well established that multiple agonists of TRPV1 can sensitize the activation of the channel by other agonists and that this cooperation is often synergistic as opposed to ...
EWGs Tap Water Database Chloroform results for Ayersville Water and Sewer District | Chloroform. Find out what is in your tap water
A.C.E. mixture (or ACE mixture) is a historical anaesthetic agent for general anaesthesia. It was first suggested by Dr. George Harley and first used in England around 1860. In 1864 it was recommended for use by the Royal Medical and Surgical Societys Chloroform Committee. It was rarely used after the 19th century, except in Germany, where it was used for slightly longer. It was a mixture of alcohol, chloroform and ether which gives the mixture its name. Its effects were said to be between that of chloroform and ether and it was used when ether alone was contraindicated. Its boiling point was given as 48°C and it was measured in Drachm. A.C.E. mixture was most commonly made up in the ratio: 1 part alcohol, 2 parts chloroform, and 3 parts ether although other ratios existed. See other preparations below. Chloroform (which was first used in 1847) used on its own produces myocardial depression, however the excitatory properties of the alcohol and ether contained with the choloroform in the ...
Webb and Hansen (1963) administered methyl salicylate in the diet to groups of 24-25 male and 25-26 female Osborne-Mendel rats at dietary concentrations of 0, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0% or 2.0%, providing doses of approximately 0, 50, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight/day for two years. All rats in the 1000 mg/kg group died by the 49th week. Body weight of both sexes were significantly decreased in both the 500 and 1000 mg/kg group body weight/day groups. Gross pituitary gland lesions were found in 10 rats at 250 mg/kg bw/day compared to 4 rats in the control groups. Incidence in the 500 mg/kg/day group was similar to controls, while all animals of the 1000 mg/kg/day group died before the usual age at which many spontaneous lesions develop. Similar kinds and numbers of tumors occurred in rats of all diets except the 1000 mg/kg/day group (premature decedents), with mammary tumors of the females being the most common. Benign pituitary tumors occurred in similar numbers of surviving rats on all diets, ...
DNA extraction from human blood by phenol chloroform method - posted in Molecular Biology: i had standardized the protocol for DNA extraction from human blood using the following protocol Reagents: 1. Red Blood Cells Lysis Buffer a. NH4CL : 8.29g b. KHCO3 : 1g -made upto 1000ml with D/W/. pH adjusted to 7.4 c. Na2EDTA : 0.034g 2. 10% SDS 10g Sodium Dodecyl sulphate in 100ml of autoclaved double distilled water 3. 5M NaCl (50 ml) 14.62g of NaCl in 50ml of Double distilled water 4. Phen...
Chloroform solvent molecule. Stylized skeletal formula (chemical structure). Atoms are shown as color-coded circles: hydrogen (white), carbon (grey), chlorine (green). - Stock Image F012/5874
Procurement Resource provides latest prices of Chloroform. Each price database is tied to a user-friendly graphing tool dating back to 2014, which provides a range of functionalities: configuration of price series over user defined time period; comparison of product movements across countries; customisation of price currencies and unit; extraction of price data as excel files to be used offline.
Release Date: July 10, 2020. Bundle includes:. -CD copy of Purgatory Dance Party. -Chloroform womens t-shirt. -3.5 round embroidered patch. -Three stickers. ...
Release Date: July 10, 2020. Bundle includes:. -CD copy of Purgatory Dance Party. -Chloroform womens t-shirt. -3.5 round embroidered patch. -Three stickers. ...
A young accountant committed suicide by forcing himself to inhale chloroform, after work collegues had made jibes about him not making coffee in the office
Trichloromethane CHCl3 CAS: 67-66-3 FW: 119.38 Merck Index: 13.2160 D: 1.49 kg/L Stabilized, HPLC Grade, 99.8% min. Stabilized with ~0.75% ethanol. Suitable for use in HPLC and spectrophotometry. UV cutoff at 244nm. Acetone and Al
4. Extract with 50µl of phenol:chloroform:isoamyl-alcohol (50:48:2). Mix gently by inversion, centrifuge and collect top aqueous phase. 5. Extract aqueous phase as above but with 50µl of chloroform:isoamyl-alcohol (24:1 ...
As might be expected from its use as an anesthetic, inhaling chloroform vapors depresses the central nervous system. Breathing about 900 parts of chloroform per million parts air (900 parts per million) for a short time can cause dizziness, fatigue, and headache. Chronic chloroform exposure may cause damage to the liver (where chloroform is metabolized to phosgene) and to the kidneys, and some people develop sores when the skin is immersed in chloroform. Approximately 10 percent of the population has an allergic reaction to chloroform that produces a fever of around 40°C (104°F) upon exposure.. Animal studies have shown that miscarriages occur in rats and mice that have breathed air containing 30 to 300 ppm chloroform during pregnancy and also in rats that have ingested chloroform during pregnancy. Offspring of rats and mice that breathed chloroform during pregnancy have a higher incidence of birth defects, and abnormal sperm have been found in male mice that have breathed air containing 400 ...
Egg yolk has been considered a promising source of antibodies. Our study was designed to compare six principal IgY extraction methods (water dilution, polyethylene glycol [PEG] precipitation, caprylic acid extraction, chloroform extraction, phenol extraction, and carrageenan extraction), and to assess their relative extraction efficiencies and the purity of the resulting antibodies. The results showed that the organic solvents (chloroform or phenol) minimised the lipid ratio in the egg yolk. The water dilution, PEG precipitation and caprylic acid extraction methods resulted in high yields, and antibodies purified with PEG and carrageenan exhibited high purity. Our results indicate that phenol extraction would be more suitable for preparing high concentrations of IgY for non-therapeutic usage, while the water dilution and carrageenan extraction methods would be more appropriate for use in the preparation of IgY for oral administration ...
Egg yolk has been considered a promising source of antibodies. Our study was designed to compare six principal IgY extraction methods (water dilution, polyethylene glycol [PEG] precipitation, caprylic acid extraction, chloroform extraction, phenol extraction, and carrageenan extraction), and to assess their relative extraction efficiencies and the purity of the resulting antibodies. The results showed that the organic solvents (chloroform or phenol) minimised the lipid ratio in the egg yolk. The water dilution, PEG precipitation and caprylic acid extraction methods resulted in high yields, and antibodies purified with PEG and carrageenan exhibited high purity. Our results indicate that phenol extraction would be more suitable for preparing high concentrations of IgY for non-therapeutic usage, while the water dilution and carrageenan extraction methods would be more appropriate for use in the preparation of IgY for oral administration ...
Using a double polymerase chain reaction a method was devised for detecting and subtyping hepatitis B virus DNA in serum samples. Primers from the S-gene were selected from the sequence analyses of five HBV HBsAg subtypes, to amplify HBV DNA and subtype for y specific DNA. Thirty-eight samples were subtyped for d and y determinants by radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Subtyping by PCR and RIPA was in agreement in 100% of subtype y samples and 83.3% of subtype d, giving an overall correlation of 92.1%. As a third comparison, 12 amplified samples were digested by the restriction enzyme Sau 3A, which differentiates between subtypes y and d. The digest results agreed with PCR in 83.3% of the samples. In addition, we compared our standard phenol/chloroform extraction against a rapid one step method. The phenol/chloroform stage was found to be essential for the removal of nucleases and polymerase inhibitors present in sera.
The purpose of this study was to show that individual malaria rapid diagnosis tests (MRDTs) could also be used to isolate Plasmodium DNA for genetic studies. We extracted and amplified Plasmodium DNA using two commercial MRDT kits. Phenol/chloroform extraction followed by a nested polymerse chain reaction (PCR) can be used to identify Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax from MRDTs. The PCR on MRDT-isolated DNA was more sensitive than antigen capture by MRDT. Satisfactory results were also obtained if older MRDT tests were used, even after long periods of storage at ambient temperature, with no special preservation.
On Fri, 28 Jan 2000, Robert G. Russell wrote: , 3. The texts recommmend 1% methyl green in distilled water - is this the , general recommendation out there?. For a simple counterstain it doesnt matter much. Slight acidification (e.g. pH 4) prevents staining of collagen and of most cytoplasms. Its really just like any other basic dye. , ... I presume chlorofrom extraction of MG , is not necessary for routine counterstain use, only for use in DNA,RNA , staining. If the methyl green was manufactured less than about 20 years ago it shouldnt contain crystal violet, and chloroform extraction shouldnt be needed for any purpose. The dye sold as methyl green has in fact been ethyl green (CI 42590) for many years, and this is noted in tiny print in chemical catalogues. True methyl green (CI 42585), which was always contaminated with crystal violet, is now a curiosity found only in old bottles at the backs of shelves. It is high time this stain was routinely called ethyl green because thats what it ...
Chloroform Chloroform IUPAC name Trichloromethane Other names Chloroform, Formyl trichloride, Methane trichloride, Methyl trichloride, Methenyl trichloride,
Ordered to the precinct for questioning, she shocks the police officers at the crime scene by removing her nightgown and standing before them, stunningly naked. On the way to Sing Sing Prison, she asks her guard to stop by a roadhouse in Sleepy Hollow so that she can order a lobster dinner. Left to his own devices, Hansens Gray is affable and ingratiating, ignoring slights and forgiving wrongs, making friends even with strangers, anything but the type to lash out in fury, let alone kill. Ingeniously and insistently, Hansen - a professor at Santa Clara University perhaps best known for his novel The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford - details how, step-by-seductive-step, Ruth draws Judd into her scheme. Uncertain of the moment when he agreed to do it, Judd recalls mentioning chloroform on the Wednesday afternoon before Thanksgiving, as Ruth lowered her head into his chest, her right hand gently arranging his sleeping penis. Judd slips into the side door of the Snyder
Phenol-chloroform extraction Phenol-chloroform extraction is a liquid-liquid extraction technique in biochemistry and molecular biology for purifying DNA
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease (15 cases per million) that is characterized by widespread loss of the pulmonary microcirculation and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance leading to pathological right ventricular remodeling and ultimately right heart failure. Regenerative cell therapies (i.e., therapies involving cells with stem or progenitor-like properties) could potentially restore the effective lung microcirculation and provide a curative therapy for PAH. Preclinical evidence suggests that regenerative cell therapy using endothelial progenitor cells or mesenchymal stem cells may be beneficial in the treatment of PAH. These findings have led to the completion of a small number of human clinical trials, albeit with modest effect compared to animal studies. The objective of this systematic review is to compare the efficacy and safety of regenerative cell therapies in preclinical models of PAH as well as assess study quality to inform future clinical studies. We will include
Sphingolipid extraction was performed as described [50] with modifications. Briefly, 500 larvae or 350 adult flies (both male and female were equally represented in control and treatment) were snap‐frozen in liquid nitrogen and homogenized by grinding. The homogenate was added to 201 g of methanol/chloroform/water mixture (3:1:1, v/v/v), followed by sonication for 20 min in room temperature. After overnight incubation, the extract was vortexed and centrifuged at 210 g for 10 min. The organic phase was dried by nitrogen stream, and the dried pellet was re‐dissolved in 2 ml of MeOH/water/CHCl3 (96:94:6, v/v) and applied to a Strata C18‐E solid‐phase extraction cartridge (SPE) (Phenomenex Inc., Torrance, CA, US) which was pre‐conditioned with 4 ml water. Two mL of MeOH was then added into the SPE cartridge after sample loading. A 3 ml of MeOH/CHCl3 (1:1, v/v) was added into the SPE cartridge to elute the sphingolipids. The MeOH/CHCl3 eluent was dried by nitrogen stream. The dried extract ...
Sphingolipid extraction was performed as described [50] with modifications. Briefly, 500 larvae or 350 adult flies (both male and female were equally represented in control and treatment) were snap‐frozen in liquid nitrogen and homogenized by grinding. The homogenate was added to 201 g of methanol/chloroform/water mixture (3:1:1, v/v/v), followed by sonication for 20 min in room temperature. After overnight incubation, the extract was vortexed and centrifuged at 210 g for 10 min. The organic phase was dried by nitrogen stream, and the dried pellet was re‐dissolved in 2 ml of MeOH/water/CHCl3 (96:94:6, v/v) and applied to a Strata C18‐E solid‐phase extraction cartridge (SPE) (Phenomenex Inc., Torrance, CA, US) which was pre‐conditioned with 4 ml water. Two mL of MeOH was then added into the SPE cartridge after sample loading. A 3 ml of MeOH/CHCl3 (1:1, v/v) was added into the SPE cartridge to elute the sphingolipids. The MeOH/CHCl3 eluent was dried by nitrogen stream. The dried extract ...
Previous research states that Selaginella doederleinii Hieron. can inhibit sarcoma and cervical cancerin mice and L cellisolated from human liver cancer (Dalimarta, 1999). In other research mentioned that Selaginella doederleiniiare cytotoxic against murinecells (Lin et al., 1994). Moreover, Selaginella doederleinii reported to have antimutagenic activityagainst salmonella induced carcinogen benzo [a] pyren (Lee & Lin, 1988). Widodo (2006) reported that the chloroform and methanol extractsS. doederleinii toxic to larvaeArtemia salina Leach with valueLC50 in the amount of 216,32 ± 39,63 µg/ml for chloroform extract and223,34 ± 19,64 µg/ml for the methanol extract. Nurwaini (2006) also reported that the chloroform extract, ethanol and ethyl acetate S. doederleinii have potential as antiradicalwith IC50 values ​​of51,24 µg/ml for the ethyl acetate extract, 95,26 µg/ml to extract ethanol and135,75 µg/ml for the chloroform extract.. ...
The reactions for the 132 compounds are not all run in the same solvent, so I first tested gas phase, chloroform (i.e. dielectric 4.8) and DMF (dimethylformamide, dielectric 37) using PM3 and COSMO in MOPAC. I chose PM3/COSMO because that gave the best results in a previous pKa study. The most representative choice of solvent seems to be chloroform, where PM3/COSMO predicted the correct bromination site in 95% of the cases, i.e. it fails for 7 cases. Gas phase and DMF fails for 14 and 8 cases, so its important to include solvent, but the value of the dielectric constant is not all that important. Using chloroform as a solvent, I then tested AM1, PM6, PM6-DH+, PM7 and DFTB3/SMD (using GAMESS for the last one), which resulted in 12, 12, 12, 9, and 13 wrong predictions. One of the compounds includes an Si atom, which the DFTB3 parameter set I used couldnt handle so the 13 wrong predictions is out of 131 compounds. Anyway, PM3/COSMO/chloroform works best ...
The reactions for the 132 compounds are not all run in the same solvent, so I first tested gas phase, chloroform (i.e. dielectric 4.8) and DMF (dimethylformamide, dielectric 37) using PM3 and COSMO in MOPAC. I chose PM3/COSMO because that gave the best results in a previous pKa study. The most representative choice of solvent seems to be chloroform, where PM3/COSMO predicted the correct bromination site in 95% of the cases, i.e. it fails for 7 cases. Gas phase and DMF fails for 14 and 8 cases, so its important to include solvent, but the value of the dielectric constant is not all that important. Using chloroform as a solvent, I then tested AM1, PM6, PM6-DH+, PM7 and DFTB3/SMD (using GAMESS for the last one), which resulted in 12, 12, 12, 9, and 13 wrong predictions. One of the compounds includes an Si atom, which the DFTB3 parameter set I used couldnt handle so the 13 wrong predictions is out of 131 compounds. Anyway, PM3/COSMO/chloroform works best ...
The reactions for the 132 compounds are not all run in the same solvent, so I first tested gas phase, chloroform (i.e. dielectric 4.8) and DMF (dimethylformamide, dielectric 37) using PM3 and COSMO in MOPAC. I chose PM3/COSMO because that gave the best results in a previous pKa study. The most representative choice of solvent seems to be chloroform, where PM3/COSMO predicted the correct bromination site in 95% of the cases, i.e. it fails for 7 cases. Gas phase and DMF fails for 14 and 8 cases, so its important to include solvent, but the value of the dielectric constant is not all that important. Using chloroform as a solvent, I then tested AM1, PM6, PM6-DH+, PM7 and DFTB3/SMD (using GAMESS for the last one), which resulted in 12, 12, 12, 9, and 13 wrong predictions. One of the compounds includes an Si atom, which the DFTB3 parameter set I used couldnt handle so the 13 wrong predictions is out of 131 compounds. Anyway, PM3/COSMO/chloroform works best ...
Nominated Substances: Chloroform. Nomination Date: 12/30/1994 Nominator: California EPA Rationale: There are data gaps that should be filled in order to set scientifically-based acute and chronic non-cancer reference exposure levels for use in human and environmental risk assessments; lack of quality acute inhalation data. NTP Principles: not specified ...
3.10 India Methyl Chloroform Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016). Browse Complete Report @ http://www.reportsweb.com/global-methyl-chloroform-market-research-report-2017 .. About Us:. ReportsWeb.com is a one stop shop of market research reports and solutions to various companies across the globe. We help our clients in their decision support system by helping them choose most relevant and cost effective research reports and solutions from various publishers. The market research industry has changed in last decade. As corporate focus has shifted to niche markets and emerging countries, a number of publishers have stepped in to fulfil these information needs. We have experienced and trained staff that helps you navigate different options and lets you choose best research solution at most effective cost.. Contact Information:. Call: +1-646-491-9876. Email: [email protected] ...
You may also wish to search for items by Kawamura. 3 matching references were found. Nagata, I.; Kawamura, Y.; Ogasawara, Y.; Tokuriki, S., Excess enthalpies of chloroform + cyclohexane, propanol-2-ol + toluene + cyclohexane and propan-2-ol + chloroform + cyclohexane at 298.15 k, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1980, 12, 223-8. [all data] Nagata, I.; Kawamura, Y., Excess thermodynamic functions and complex formation in binary liquid mixtures containing acetonitrile, Fluid Phase Equilib., 1979, 3, 1-11. [all data] Nagata, I.; Kawamura, Y.; Asano, H.; Fujiwara, K.; Ogasawara, Y., Excess enthalpies for binary mixtures of chloroform with alcohols., Z. Phys. Chem. (Leipzig), 1978, 259, 1109-16. [all data] ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The mention of the grant of the patent No. 108 635 in respect of European patent application No. 83 306 762.2 filed on 7 November 1983 and claiming the priority of 8 November 1982 from an earlier application in the United States, was published on 8 June 1988 on the basis of nine claims.. Claim 1, after deletion of a superfluous a before the word catalyst in the second paragraph, read as follows:. A process of forming a high molecular weight polylactide polymer: having an inherent viscosity(IV), measured as a 1% w/v solution in chloroform at a temperature of 25 C, of between 4.5 and 10; the unreacted monomer content (UM) of the polymer being less that 2% based on the total weight of the reaction product; and the polymer being capable of being used as a resorbable bone fixation device, comprising;. polymerising L(-)lactide monomer containing up to 10% by weight of a compatible comonomer in an inert atmosphere, in the presence of a catalyst which is present ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - APPLICATION OF THE IDEAL ASSOCIATED MIXTURE MODEL FOR CHLOROFORM-KETONE MIXTURES.. AU - Salamon, T.. AU - Kristóf, T.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - The applicability of the ideal associated mixture model for binary mixtures of chloroform with acetone, 2-butanone and with 2-pentanone was investigated. It was found that the excess Gibbs function values obtained from vapour-liquid equilibrium data at 293. 15 K and at 313. 15 K can be described in the 0. 3 less than x//B less than 0. 75 concentration range with a relative error of less than 5%, supposing that in these systems not only AB-but also AB//2-type mixed associated species are formed. According to model calculations, the maximum amounts of AB-type complexes are in the 10-20% range in these systems.. AB - The applicability of the ideal associated mixture model for binary mixtures of chloroform with acetone, 2-butanone and with 2-pentanone was investigated. It was found that the excess Gibbs function values obtained from ...
Hi. Why is sodium chloride insoluble in chloroform? Please include talk of polarity & intermolecular forces if relevantLets look at chloroform. ...
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Jual Obat Bius Hirup Chloroform - Obat Bius Hirup Chloroform merupakan buatan Jerman yang biasanya dipakai buat pelarut organik di […] ...
Jual Obat Bius Hirup Chloroform - Obat Bius Hirup Chloroform merupakan buatan Jerman yang biasanya dipakai buat pelarut organik di […] ...
Liu, Jie et al Nitric oxide prodrugs and metallochemotherapeutics: JS-K and CB-3-100 enhance arsenic and cisplatin cytolethality by increasing cellular accumulation. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 3.6 (2004): 709-714. Web. 19 Oct. 2020. ...
The threshold photoelectron spectrum and threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectra of CHCl2F, CHClF2 and CH2ClF are reported in the range 11.3-24.8 eV. Tunable photoionizing radiation with a resolution of 0.3 nm is provided from a synchrotron source with a vacuum-UV monochromator. The coincidence
This wont hurt a bit. Weve all heard that one before. Through the ages, people have used substances to dull pain from alcohol to opium. However, through the 1800s many surgical procedures even amputations! were performed without any anesthetic at all. By the late-1800s, doctors had developed techniques using ether or chloroform to keep the patient from feeling the pain of surgery. There was always the danger, though, that the dose intended to produce a gentle, pleasant sleep ended up producing something, well, more permanent. (See Morgue.). ...
i) express this in percent by mass (ii) determine the molality of chloroform in the water sample. Question12:State Henrys law and mention some important applications? Question13:The partial pressure of ethane over a solution containing 6.56 × 10−3 g of ethane is 1 bar. ...
The GENEzol™ 96 Well TriRNA Pure Kit is a phenol and guanidine isothiocyanate plus 96 well RNA binding plate system for high-throughput purification of high-quality total RNA from a variety of samples. Initially, samples are homogenized in GENEzol™ Reagent without chloroform phase separation or isopropanol RNA precipitation.
M.I.T. theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. See provided URL for inquiries about permission ...
Protonix - Physician to the Eoyal Hospital for Diseases of the Chest, and to the North present time to be passing through one of those phases of terrorism which, induced by the news of a death during the administration of chloroform, occur from time to time.
The process whereby relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organisms life history ...
Chloroform. Ether (anhydrous). Ethyl Acetate (anhydrous). Acetone (anhydrous). methanol. ethanol. Pyridine. Acetic Acid. Water ...
Theoretical predictions of buckyball molecules appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s,[7][8] but these reports went largely unnoticed. In the early 1970s, the chemistry of unsaturated carbon configurations was studied by a group at the University of Sussex, led by Harry Kroto and David Walton. In the 1980s, Smalley and Curl at Rice University developed experimental technique to generate these substances. They used laser vaporization of a suitable target to produce clusters of atoms. Kroto realized that by using a graphite target,[9] a range of carbon clusters could be studied.. Concurrent but unconnected to the Kroto-Smalley work, astrophysicists conducting were working with spectroscopists to study infrared emissions from giant red carbon stars.[10][11][12] Smalley and team were able to use a laser vaporization technique to create carbon clusters which could potentially emit infrared at the same wavelength as had been emitted by the red carbon star.[10][13] Hence, the inspiration came to ...
"Chloroform: The molecular lifesaver" An article at University of Bristol providing interesting facts about chloroform. ... The use of chloroform anesthesia expanded rapidly thereafter in Europe. Chloroform began to replace ether as an anesthetic in ... In 1847, Scottish obstetrician James Young Simpson (1811-1870) of Edinburgh was the first to use chloroform as a general ... as well as in the setting of general anesthesia with chloroform.[80][81][82] All previous observations of the glottis and ...
Chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol. Phenethylephrine-induced rat Antimutagenic. S. calva. NA. Chloroform. Ames ... Petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol. Hydrated Wistar albino rats Antimicrobial. S. paniculata. Leaves. NA. Bacillus ... Chloroform, hexane, ethyl actate, methanol. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay ... Chloroform, methanol and water. In vitro HIV-1 protease solution assay method ...
"Methyl chloroform". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety ... The organic compound 1,1,1-trichloroethane, also known as methyl chloroform, is a chloroalkane. This colourless, sweet-smelling ... Volatiles/gases (e.g., chloral hydrate, chloroform, desflurane, diethyl ether (ether), enflurane, halothane, isoflurane, ... 1,1,1-TCA, methyl chloroform, chlorothene, Solvent 111, R-140a, Genklene ...
Brody, H. (2003). Cholera, Chloroform, and the Science of Medicine: A Life of John Snow. Oxford University Press. p. 30. ISBN ... Vinten-Johansen, P. "Cholera, Chloroform, and the Science of Medicine : A Life of John Snow" (PDF). Retrieved 18 March 2017. ( ... Greenhow and Snow both advocated for the usage of chloroform when performing major surgery and undertook "dedicated research" ... Greenhow's son, surgeon Henry Martineau Greenhow, reported in The Lancet his father's surgical success involving chloroform. ...
"Chloroform." Wisconsin Department of Health Services, //www.dhs.wisconsin.gov/chemical/chloroform.htm, 23 Mar. 2019 ... Chloroform is a Trihalomethane that is often used as a fumigant for wheat products, a coolant, and as a cleaning spot remover. ... Chloroform is a naturally occurring substance, but its presence in water in almost always man-made. The lake itself is not man ... However, there is a high level of chloroform present in the Lake, at 4.43 ppb (parts per billion) out of an allowed 14 ppb. ...
In 1832, Justus von Liebig reported the reaction of chloral with calcium hydroxide to form chloroform and calcium formate. The ... The reaction can be used to transform acetyl groups into carboxyl groups or to produce chloroform (CHCl3), bromoform (CHBr3), ... It was formerly used to produce iodoform, bromoform, and even chloroform industrially.[citation needed] Water chlorination can ... On pages 259-265, Liebig describes Chlorkohlenstoff ("carbon chloride", chloroform), but on p. 264, Liebig incorrectly states ...
1831 Chloroform Chloroform is a chemical compound in the trihalomethane family that does not undergo combustion in air, ... Chloroform was first discovered in July 1831 by American physician Samuel Guthrie, independently a few months later by French ... "Chloroform". BBC Radio 4. "Finding the World's First Dinosaur Skeleton Hadrosaurus foulki". Hoag Levins. "Discovery of Midway ...
In 2013 she starred in the music videos for "First Fires" by British musician Bonobo and for "Chloroform" by French band ... "Phoenix - Chloroform". 13 November 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2017. "Hplus Nano Teoranta - About the Company". Retrieved 29 ...
Its odor is "strong, ethereal; chloroform-like". It is toxic and may be carcinogenic in humans. Furan is used as a starting ...
... with chloroform), and CNS (with chloropicrin and chloroform). Mixtures of agents have been identified with either a hyphen (e.g ...
Chloroform was not without fault though. The first fatality directly attributed to chloroform administration was recorded on 28 ... "Queen Victoria uses chloroform in childbirth, 1853". Financial Times. 28 November 2017.. ... Wawersik J (1 January 1997). "[History of chloroform anesthesia]". Anaesthesiologie Und Reanimation. 22 (6): 144-52. PMID ... During the birth itself, chloroform met all the Queen's expectations; she stated it was "delightful beyond measure".[60] ...
Deuterated chloroform - CDCl3. *Deuterated dichloromethane - CD2Cl2. *Deuterated DMF - (CD3)2NCOD ...
In 1847 chloroform was introduced as an anaesthetic by James Young Simpson.[88] Chloroform was favoured by doctors and hospital ... Chloroform gained in popularity in England and Germany after John Snow gave Queen Victoria chloroform for the birth of her ... Cholera, Chloroform, and the Science of Medicine: A Life of John Snow (2003) p. 355 ... "History of chloroform anaesthesia". General-anaesthesia.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2010. Retrieved 10 ...
For example, reaction with chloral hydrate gives deuterated chloroform, and reaction with n-nitrosodimethylamine gives the ... Breuer, F. W. (1935). "Chloroform-d (Deuteriochloroform)". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 57 (11): 2236-2237. doi: ...
Today one must…chloroform the Yugoslavians. But later on one must adopt a politics of deep interest in Kosovo. This will help ... Today one must ... chloroform the Yugoslavians. But later on one must adopt a politics of deep interest in Kosovo. This will ...
Chloroform is recognized carcinogen, meaning it can cause cancer if one is exposed to it for a long period of time. It is ... Chloroform is a colorless liquid that is non-flammable. This chemical can be found in floor polishing substances and pesticides ... "Chemical Profile: Chloroform". Scorecard. GoodGuide. Retrieved 28 September 2017. "Lead". Tox Town. U.S. National Library of ... "Frequently Asked Questions: Chloroform" (PDF). Delaware Health and Social Services: Division of Public Health: 1. September ...
Discoverer of chloroform. National Galleries of Scotland. Retrieved 11 January 2018. Dunn, P. M. (2002-05-01). "Sir James Young ... His innovations in anaesthetics and properties of chloroform in November 1847 overshadowed his contributions to obstetrics. ...
Chloroform, 1 oz.; Laudanum, 1 oz.; Oil Sassafras, 1 oz.; Oil Hemlock, 1 oz.; Oil Turpentine, 1 oz.; Balsam fir, 1 oz.; ...
Harcourt chloroform regulator Harcourt pentane-air lamp 1863: Fellow of the Royal Society 1865-1873: Secretary of the Chemical ... Harcourt's chloroform regulator. Harcourt, A. Vernon (1899). "The Ten-Candle Standard Lamp". In Cole, Thomas (ed.). ... Harcourt's other activities included inventing a device to safely administer chloroform as an anesthesic, and the analysis and ...
chloroform. An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound ... Chloroform was formerly produced thus. Chlorine adds to the multiple bonds on alkenes and alkynes as well, giving di- or tetra- ... Most low molecular weight chlorinated hydrocarbons such as chloroform, dichloromethane, dichloroethene, and trichloroethane are ... Historically significant, but smaller in scale is chloroform, mainly a precursor to chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2) and ...
She was the author of Arctic Experiences; Teeth, Ether and Chloroform; History of Newburyport; A History of Tammany Hall, and ... and a scientific work on the use of ether and chloroform applied to practical dentistry. She wrote the first considerable ...
Chloroform gained in popularity in England and Germany after John Snow gave Queen Victoria chloroform for the birth of her ... In 1847 chloroform was introduced as an anaesthetic by James Young Simpson. Chloroform was favoured by doctors and hospital ... "History of chloroform anaesthesia". General-anaesthesia.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2010. Retrieved 10 ... eighth child (Prince Leopold). By 1920, chloroform was used in 80 to 95% of all narcoses performed in the UK and German- ...
"The Professor Under Chloroform" . The Atlantic Monthly. Washington D.C.: Jay Lauf. Vol. 2 no. 5 - via Wikisource. Bartlett, ...
Chloroform: an early anesthetic. Delucemine: also an SSRI with neuroprotective properties. Dextrallorphan: a more potent ...
In 1908, he designed an apparatus to regulate the percentage of chloroform vapour administered as an anaesthetic. Alcock was ... "Prototype Alcock chloroform inhaler, 1907-1908 , Science Museum Group Collection". collection.sciencemuseumgroup.org.uk. ... Zuck, D. (1988). "The Alcock chloroform vaporizer". Anaesthesia. 43 (11): 972-980. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.1988.tb05667.x. ISSN ...
It is, together with chloroform, a minor side-product of the chlorination of water when organic residues such as humic acids ... While chloral hydrate was converted to a different metabolite than chloroform, it was found that was converted into the more ... In 1875, Claude Bernard tried to determine if chloral hydrate exerted its action through a metabolic conversion to chloroform. ... Alston, Theodore A. (July 2016). "Noteworthy Chemistry of Chloroform". Journal of Anesthesia History. 2 (3): 85-88. doi:10.1016 ...
The use of chloroform during surgery expanded rapidly thereafter in Europe. In the 1850s, chloroform was used by the physician ... The reservations about chloroform could not halt its soaring popularity. Between about 1865 and 1920, chloroform was used in 80 ... In a 2007 plea bargain, a man confessed to using stun guns and chloroform to sexually assault minors. Use of chloroform as an ... "Ether and Chloroform". Archived from the original on 24 March 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018. "Chloroform [MAK Value ...
Chloroform may also refer to: "Chloroform" (song), a song by Phoenix "Chloroform", a song by Crystal Castles from Amnesty (I) " ... Chloroform is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CHCl3. ... "Chloroform", a song by SycAmour Cloroform, a Norwegian alternative band This disambiguation page lists articles associated with ... the title Chloroform. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended ...
Chloroform can be toxic if inhaled or swallowed. Exposure to chloroform may also cause cancer. Workers may be harmed from ... Chloroform (CHCl3) is a colorless liquid that quickly evaporates into gas. It can harm the eyes, skin, liver, kidneys, and ... exposure to chloroform. The level of exposure depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done. ... Chloroform can be toxic if inhaled or swallowed. Exposure to chloroform may also cause cancer. Workers may be harmed from ...
Chloroform is a solvent for many substances, including fats, oils, rubber, alkaloids, waxes, gutta-percha, and resins. It has ... Chloroform is a solvent for many substances, including fats, oils, rubber, alkaloids, waxes, gutta-percha, and resins. It has ... Middleditch B.S., Missler S.R., Hines H.B. (1981) Chloroform. In: Mass Spectrometry of Priority Pollutants. Springer, Boston, ...
Breathing chloroform can cause dizziness, fatigue, and headaches. Breathing chloroform or ingesting chloroform over long ... Exposure to chloroform can occur when breathing contaminated air or when drinking or touching the substance or water containing ... Breathing chloroform can cause dizziness, fatigue, and headaches. Breathing chloroform or ingesting chloroform over long ... How can chloroform affect my health?. Breathing about 900 parts of chloroform per million parts air (900 ppm) for a short time ...
A.E. Sansom Chloroform..., 1865; detection of chloroform Wellcome L0014061.jpg 1,656 × 1,138; 245 KB. ... Media in category "Chloroform". The following 66 files are in this category, out of 66 total. ... Levy-type regulating chloroform inhaler, England, 1919-1925 Wellcome L0058171.jpg 4,256 × 2,832; 1.07 MB. ... Snow-type chloroform inhaler, London, England, 1848-1870 Wellcome L0058154.jpg 2,832 × 4,256; 1.43 MB. ...
Toxicological profile for Chloroform. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
I. Recommendations for a Chloroform Standard. 79-chlor.pdf (6 pages, 361K)pdf icon. ...
Chloroform (CHCl3), nonflammable, clear, colourless liquid that is denser than water and has a pleasant etherlike odour. It was ... Chloroform is prepared by the chlorination of methane. The major use of chloroform is in the preparation of ... Chloroform is formed by the reaction of chlorine with organic substances present in water and thus can occur in drinking water ... More About Chloroform. 5 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *synthesis* In organohalogen compound: ...
Chloroform is also called Trichloromethane, Methyl trichloride and Methane trichloride. Chemical Formula: CHCl3 MSDS Number: ... p. p. Chloroformed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chloroforming.] To treat with chloroform, or to place under its influence. ... Chloroform is a colorless, mobile, heavy, ethereal liquid.. The vapor of chloroform, when inhaled for some time, produces a ... Chloroform, is formed by the action of the suns rays on a mixture of chlorine and marsh gas; also by the action of caustic ...
Ether v. Chloroform: Mixed Anæsthesia. Br Med J 1881; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.1044.30 (Published 01 January 1881) ...
Synonym: Trichloromethane Formula: CHCl3 F.W.: 119.38 CAS No: 67-66-3 Characteristic: Clear Notes: consider ethyl acetate as a green chemistry substitute.
I suppose it means to melt phenol , (Sigma) and add the same volume of chloroform - you will get acid , phenol/chloroform. The ... Acid Phenol/chloroform. Ed Siefker via methods%40net.bio.net (by ebs15242 from creighton.edu). Wed Nov 7 12:05:49 EST 2007 * ... What do I need to add to ,, make acid phenol/chloroform? Thanks. ,, -Ed ,, ,, ... phenol/chloroform but doesnt tell me what the composition of this is. ,, I called Ambion and they didnt know. I couldnt find ...
Chronic chloroform exposure may cause damage to the liver (where chloroform is metabolized to phosgene) and to the kidneys, and ... The effect of chloroform on reproduction in humans is unknown.. Chloroform once appeared in toothpastes, cough syrups, ... Stephen Belding, Chloroform: The Molecular Lifesaver. Retrieved February 20, 2017.. *↑ General Anaesthesia, Chloroform. ... The use of chloroform during surgery expanded rapidly thereafter in Europe. In the United States, chloroform began to replace ...
Main article: Deuterated chloroform. Deuterated chloroform is an isotopologue of chloroform with a single deuterium atom. CDCl3 ... On p. 654, Dumas names chloroform: "Diess hat mich veranlasst diese Substanz mit dem Namen Chloroform zu belegen." (This ... In the 1850s, chloroform was used during the birth of Queen Victorias last two children.[37] In the United States, chloroform ... The hydrogen attached to carbon in chloroform participates in hydrogen bonding.[28][29] Worldwide, chloroform is also used in ...
Make research projects and school reports about chloroform easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Chloroform Medical Discoveries COPYRIGHT 1997 Thomson Gale. Chloroform. Chloroform is another name for the colorless, dense, ... Chloroform is also used to extract and purify penicillin. Anesthetic Chloroform. Chloroform was popular as an anesthetic from ... chloroform (klo-rŏ-form) n. a volatile liquid formerly widely used as a general anaesthetic. Chloroform is now used only in low ...
Chloroform. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Chloroform results for Ayersville ... Human studies show that chloroform damages the kidneys, liver and central nervous system. In animals, chloroform causes ... Chloroform. Ayersville Water and Sewer District. NOTE: Ayersville Water and Sewer District purchases water from Defiance City ... Chloroform, one of the total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), is formed when chlorine or other disinfectants are used to treat drinking ...
Chloroform. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Chloroform results for Tate-Monroe ... Chloroform. Tate-Monroe Water Association PWS. Chloroform, one of the total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), is formed when chlorine or ... Human studies show that chloroform damages the kidneys, liver and central nervous system. In animals, chloroform causes ... Chloroform and other disinfection byproducts increase the risk of cancer and may cause problems during pregnancy. Read More. ...
... Hamel, Andre AGR AHamel at agr.gov.mb.ca Fri Mar 24 11:40:35 EST 2000 *Previous ... I dissolved 25 grams of it in 100 mL of chloroform (at room temp). After shaking or stirring, the TCB dissolved nicely in the ... yet all the denaturing and phase separating properties of chloroform are retained. I wonder how come nobody ever tested this ... My preliminary findings are that it works GREAT as an additive in chloroform! The viscosity and surface tension are ...
Chloroform (HSG 87, 1994) Chloroform (ICSC) Chloroform (WHO Food Additives Series 14) CHLOROFORM (JECFA Evaluation) Chloroform ... Chloroform did not induce mutation or DNA damage in bacteria [ref: 24]. Overall evaluation. Chloroform is possibly carcinogenic ... No adequate data were available on the genetic and related effects of chloroform in humans.. Chloroform did not induce ... CHLOROFORM. (Group 2B). For definition of Groups, see Preamble Evaluation. Supplement 7: (1987) (p. 152) CAS No.: 67-66-3. Chem ...
CHLOROFORM. Chemical name:. CHLOROFORM. Class:. 6.1. Packaging group:. III. EmS code:. F-A, S-A. Labels:. 6.1. Remarksopen all ... CHLOROFORM. Chemical name:. CHLOROFORM. Class:. 6.1. Packaging group:. III. Labels:. 6.1. Remarksopen allclose all. ... CHLOROFORM. Chemical name:. CHLOROFORM. Language:. English. Class:. 6.1. Classification code:. T1. Packaging group:. III. ... CHLOROFORM. Chemical name:. CHLOROFORM. Language:. English. Class:. 6.1. Classification code:. T1. Packaging group:. III. ...
Chloroform. ↓Other names: Regulatory process names [3] Trade names [5] IUPAC names [7] ...
1.2 Chloroform Classification. 1.2.1 2014 Global Chloroform Sales Market Share by Product Type. 1.3 Chloroform Application. 1.3 ... 6.3 2010-2015 Chloroform Sales Overview. 6.4 2010-2015 Chloroform Supply Sales and Shortage. 6.5 2010-2015 Chloroform Import ... 9.1 Chloroform Marketing Channels Status. 9.2 Chloroform Trader or Distributors and Their Contact Information. 9.3 Chloroform ... Figure Chloroform Industry Chain Structure. Table Chloroform Industry Policy List. Table Chloroform Industry News List. Table ...
trichloromethane, formyl trichloride, methane, trichloro, trichloroform, methane trichloride, methenyl trichloride, methyl trichloride, trichlormethan, chloroforme, cloroformio ...
... is a liquid-liquid extraction technique in biochemistry and molecular ... Chloroform. The chloroform will be stabilized with small quantities of amylene or ethanol because storage of pure chloroform ... chloroform mixtures or for chloroform, glass pipettes should be used, or micropipettors exclusively, as the chloroform is ... Chloroform sometimes also comes as a 96% chloroform, 4% isoamyl alcohol solution that can be mixed with an equal volume of ...
... The Environmental Protection Agency recently promulgated interim regulations ... requiring the reduction of trihalomethane compounds to 100 μg/I as chloroform or below in many public drinking water supplies. ... Air Stripping of Chloroform from Water by Nicole Houel, Robert E. Selleck, (A.M.ASCE), Frank H. Pearson, (M.ASCE), Serial ... Agency recently promulgated interim regulations requiring the reduction of trihalomethane compounds to 100 μg/I as chloroform ...
Standard Specification for Fluorocarbon Feedstock Grade Chloroform , chloroform, feedstock, fluorocarbon, trichloromethane,, ... Standard Specification for Fluorocarbon Feedstock Grade Chloroform. Active Standard ASTM D7509 , Developed by Subcommittee: ... The fluorocarbon feedstock grade chloroform shall have a clear appearance, free of sediments and suspended matters. Tests shall ... 1.1 This specification specifies chloroform (trichloromethane) that is suitable for use as feedstock for fluorocarbons. ...
Theft of Gigantic Reptiles from Shipboard--The Captain Stupefled with Chloroform.. AUG. 21, 1870. ... Archives,Theft of Gigantic Reptiles from Shipboard--The Captain Stupefled with Chloroform.. ... The Captain Stupefled with Chloroform. Order Reprints, Todays Paper,Subscribe ...
  • Useful search terms for chloroform include "methane trichloride" and "trichloromethane. (cdc.gov)
  • Other names for chloroform are trichloromethane and methyl trichloride. (cdc.gov)
  • Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroform (CHCl 3 ) , also called trichloromethane , nonflammable, clear, colourless liquid that is denser than water and has a pleasant etherlike odour . (britannica.com)
  • Chloroform is also called Trichloromethane , Methyl trichloride and Methane trichloride . (everything2.com)
  • Chloroform, also known as trichloromethane and methyl trichloride, is a chemical compound with the formula C H Cl 3 . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The output of this process is a mixture of the four chloromethanes, chloromethane, dichloromethane, chloroform (trichloromethane), and carbon tetrachloride, which are then separated by distillation . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chloroform is another name for the colorless, dense, liquid chemical compound trichloromethane. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This specification covers the requirements for trichloromethane chloroform intended for use as fluorocarbon feedstock. (astm.org)
  • 1.1 This specification specifies chloroform (trichloromethane) that is suitable for use as feedstock for fluorocarbons. (astm.org)
  • Chloroform is basically a colourless, volatile, liquid derivative of trichloromethane with an ether-like odour. (procurementresource.com)
  • At 400-500 °C, a free radical halogenation occurs, converting these precursors to progressively more chlorinated compounds: CH4 + Cl2 → CH3Cl + HCl CH3Cl + Cl2 → CH2Cl2 + HCl CH2Cl2 + Cl2 → CHCl3 + HCl Chloroform undergoes further chlorination to yield carbon tetrachloride (CCl4): CHCl3 + Cl2 → CCl4 + HCl The output of this process is a mixture of the four chloromethanes (chloromethane, dichloromethane, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride), which can then be separated by distillation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroform may also be produced on a small scale via the haloform reaction between acetone and sodium hypochlorite:[citation needed] 3 NaClO + (CH3)2CO → CHCl3 + 2 NaOH + CH3COONa Deuterated chloroform is an isotopologue of chloroform with a single deuterium atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In terms of scale, the most important reaction of chloroform is with hydrogen fluoride to give monochlorodifluoromethane (CFC-22), a precursor in the production of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon): CHCl3 + 2 HF → CHClF2 + 2 HCl The reaction is conducted in the presence of a catalytic amount of mixed antimony halides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroform is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CHCl3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vapor pressure of liquid chloroform, CHCl3, is 400.0 torr at 24.1 degrees Celsius and 100.0 torr at -6.3 degrees Celsius. (jiskha.com)
  • In nonurban environments, chloroform (CHCl3) is occasionally detected in the groundwater where no obvious anthropogenic source is present [2]. (witpress.com)
  • Chloroform (CHCl3) and adsorbable organohalogens (AOX) are part of the chlorine cycle. (cas.cz)
  • Chloroform was once widely used as a solvent, but safety and environmental concerns have reduced this use as well. (britannica.com)
  • Chloroform is a good Solvent for fats , oils , Rubber , waxes , and resins . (mfa.org)
  • Solvent effects from chloroform are included via the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM), and by performing tests on models including up two chloroform molecules. (rsc.org)
  • Dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) decomposes in chloroform as a solvent to yield NO2 and O2. (jiskha.com)
  • Chloroform is a solvent useful for cleaning up cements from tools and mixing equipment. (dentalproductshopper.com)
  • [11] , the adsorption of a chloroform molecule (CHCl 3 ) onto the surface of a cyclo[(1 R, 3 S)-g-Acc-D-Phe] 3 peptide nanotube in a solvent box of 100 CHCl 3 is studied by employing molecular dynamics simulations. (scirp.org)
  • Copolymer degradation was induced using chloroform as the solvent. (scielo.org.mx)
  • Earlier it was utilised as an inhaled anaesthetic during surgery, but the primary use of chloroform today is in industries, where it is widely utilised as a solvent. (procurementresource.com)
  • Chloroform has myriad uses as a reagent and a solvent . (chemeurope.com)
  • Chloroform (CHCl 3 ) is a colorless liquid that quickly evaporates into gas. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium hypochlorite solution (chlorine bleach) mixed with common household liquids such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, ethanol, or isopropyl alcohol can produce some chloroform, in addition to other compounds such as chloroacetone or dichloroacetone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once made from acetone and bleaching powder, chloroform is now prepared by the photochemical reaction of methane with chlorine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The adsorption performances of chloroform (TCM), carbon disulfide (CDS), and acetone (CP) were investigated and compared over self-prepared coconut shell-derived carbon (CDC) to study the adsorption behavior and mechanism of heteroatom (Cl, S, O)-containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). (springer.com)
  • Consider a non-ideal binary mixture composed of acetone and chloroform. (wolfram.com)
  • 2) if the initial composition is very rich in chloroform (respectively acetone) then this latter component will exit the column first, followed by the binary azeotrope. (wolfram.com)
  • Locator coordinates (i.e., the mole fractions of chloroform and acetone in the liquid phase) are displayed in the upper-right corner. (wolfram.com)
  • Soubeiran produced chloroform through the action of chlorine bleach powder (calcium hypochlorite) on acetone (2-propanone) as well as ethanol ). (chemeurope.com)
  • Chloroform was first produced industrially by the reaction of acetone (or ethanol ) with sodium hypochlorite or calcium hypochlorite , known as the haloform reaction . (chemeurope.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite solution (chlorine bleach) mixed with common household liquids such as acetone , methyl ethyl ketone , ethanol , or isopropyl alcohol will all produce chloroform. (chemeurope.com)
  • The isoamyl alcohol reduces foam, which is a problem with phenol:chloroform. (bionity.com)
  • Chloroform sometimes also comes as a 96% chloroform, 4% isoamyl alcohol solution that can be mixed with an equal volume of phenol to make 25:24:1. (bionity.com)
  • Whether to purchase isoamyl alcohol separately or mixed in with the phenol and chloroform stocks is largely an individual choice, although it is sensible to coordinate with the rest of the lab so reagents can be shared. (bionity.com)
  • Phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol will give a sharper interface, and 25:24:1 will show less foam. (bionity.com)
  • Extract the sample two times with an equal volume of chloroform:isoamyl alcohol to remove any trace phenol. (openwetware.org)
  • Chloroform:isoamyl alcohol in a 24:1 ratio (CHIZAM! (openwetware.org)
  • Phenol:Chloroform:Isoamyl alcohol usually has an upper layer of buffer saturated water in the bottle. (openwetware.org)
  • The density of pure phenol (unlike phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol) is almost 1.0. (openwetware.org)
  • Phenol/Chloroform/Isoamyl Alcohol (25:24:1 Mixture, pH 6.7/8.0, Liq. (fishersci.com)
  • Phenol:Chloroform pH 6.7/8.0 is premixed with isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1). (bioexpress.com)
  • 1989. Glutathione s-transferases and chloroform toxicity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (cdc.gov)
  • According to the draft European Union Risk Assessment Report (France 2007), no valid test on the toxicity of chloroform to terrestrial organisms is available. (europa.eu)
  • A number of questions precipitated the investigations into anesthetic deaths in the 19th century: was the death the result of the toxicity of the chloroform, the way or circumstances under which it was administered or was it owing to the patient's weakened constitution? (pbs.org)
  • An autopsy revealed 3-year-old Mariah Woods, who was the subject of a statewide Amber Alert and search, died from chloroform toxicity. (abc11.com)
  • Disulfiram, its metabolites, and a high carbohydrate diet appear to protect somewhat against chloroform toxicity. (exporterlabchemicals.com)
  • In the past, chloroform was used as an inhaled anesthetic during surgery, but it isn't used that way today. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1847, the Edinburgh obstetrician James Young Simpson experimented with chloroform narcosis on himself, then began using it as an anesthetic to assist women during childbirth. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In the United States, chloroform began to replace ether as an anesthetic at the beginning of the twentieth century. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chloroform was popular as an anesthetic from the mid-1800s to around 1900, but it was found to cause death from paralysis of the heart in one patient in about 3,000. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Frenchman Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens (1794-1867) noted the anesthetic, but toxic, effect of chloroform on animals in March 1847. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sir James Young Simpson, an eminent Scottish obstetrician, introduced the medical use of chloroform as an anesthetic in Edinburgh , Scotland , in November 1847. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This event quieted the clergy and made chloroform the most fashionable anesthetic - especially in England - for the next 50 years. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chloroform has been used as an anesthetic for about 150 years and the kind of misconception that you have from watching movies is that by breathing a chloroform soaked rag you'll knock someone out within a second or so. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Civil War administering anesthetic agent It is perhaps well known that with the introduction of general inhalation anesthesia using ether in 1846 followed by chloroform in 1847 that medical and surgical practice in the mid-19th century was transformed. (pbs.org)
  • Chloroform was the anesthetic of choice because it was easily inhaled, acted quickly and was thus seen to be more efficient than ether (though a mix of ether and chloroform was also used but not as often). (pbs.org)
  • From the first use of chloroform in the 1840s through to the twentieth century the question of anesthetic death was investigated by elite physicians across the globe, and though these investigations produced no clear consensus on what caused sudden death, these research questions were explored by elite physicians during the Civil War. (pbs.org)
  • While the cause of anesthetic death in the 1860s was not understood, we now know that when administered improperly, chloroform can cause cardiac arrest leading to sudden death. (pbs.org)
  • The prosecutor asserted that Bowers should have known the dangers posed by chloroform -- an anesthetic now rarely used by doctors -- because of its risks. (baltimoresun.com)
  • The environmental irritant chloroform, a naturally occurring small volatile organohalogen, briefly became the world's most popular volatile general anesthetic (VGA) before being abandoned because of its low therapeutic index. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Previous police reports suggested Adolphus Earl Kimrey II, who has been charged with her murder, used chloroform , - a liquid used as a general anesthetic - to kill Mariah before dumping her body in Pender County's Shelter Creek. (abc11.com)
  • One possible misdiagnosis is the failure to correctly diagnose Anesthetic agent-induced liver damage -- Chloroform leading to a person remaining with undiagnosed Anesthetic agent-induced liver damage -- Chloroform. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • In 1847, Scottish obstetrician James Y. Simpson was the first to demonstrate the anaesthetic properties of chloroform on humans and helped to popularise the drug for use in medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viscosity and surface tension are dramatically increased, yet all the denaturing and phase separating properties of chloroform are retained. (bio.net)
  • This very rare pamphlet was posted to Dr Fleetwood Churchill, a Dublin obstetrician, on 13 November 1847, 9 days after the 'dining room experiment' in Simpson' s home, when the anaesthetic properties of chloroform were dramatically demonstrated. (general-anaesthesia.com)
  • Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH) Value Profile: Chloroform -NIOSH reviews relevant scientific data and researches methods for developing IDLH values. (cdc.gov)
  • 1990. Plasma chloroform concentrations in swimmers using indoor swimming pools. (cdc.gov)
  • For eight weeks, INRS monitored chloroform and nitrogen trichloride concentrations in water from two pools equipped with low and medium pressure lamps respectively. (ilo.org)
  • 1990). Chloroform concentrations in exhaled breath were measured in six human subjects before and after a normal shower, and following inhalation-only shower exposure. (umn.edu)
  • Naturally produced chloroform is occasionally detected in soil and groundwater of non-urban areas in concentrations that can exceed the regulatory levels. (witpress.com)
  • The difference in chloroform concentrations in upper groundwater within the same distance is almost one order of magnitude. (witpress.com)
  • The formation of chloroform is affected by Cl− concentration, by concentrations and ratios of biogenic substrates (TOC and AOX), and by the ratios of the substrates and the product (feedback control by chloroform itself). (cas.cz)
  • Raman spectra of benzene and chloroform with different relative concentrations are measured. (iphy.ac.cn)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that chloroform may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
  • Chloroform is not a proven carcinogen , however it caused liver and kidney cancer in rats fed water or food containing chloroform. (everything2.com)
  • This technology results in the formation of undesired by-products such as chloroform (an IARC class 2B carcinogen). (ilo.org)
  • While little information is available in regards to a direct link to cancer, multiple research agencies list chloroform as a probable human carcinogen. (sentryair.com)
  • Chloroform is a suspected human carcinogen. (exporterlabchemicals.com)
  • Chloroform used for industrial purposes is usually made by the action of iron and acid on carbon tetrachloride. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Abiotic degradation rates for carbon tetrachloride and chloroform: Final report. (unt.edu)
  • Further, as Chloroform undergoes chlorination to produce carbon tetrachloride, this process finally produces a mixture of four chloromethanes (chloromethane, dichloromethane, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride), and thus, Chloroform is finally separated via distillation. (procurementresource.com)
  • Introduced in 1847 by Sir James Young Simpson, chloroform was first used, though very rarely, during the Mexican-American War (1846-47). (pbs.org)
  • In 1847, the Edinburgh obstetrician James Young Simpson first used chloroform for general anesthesia during childbirth. (chemeurope.com)
  • Today, chloroform is used to make other chemicals and can also be formed in small amounts when chlorine is added to water. (cdc.gov)
  • In industry production, chloroform is produced by heating a mixture of chlorine and either chloromethane (CH3Cl) or methane (CH4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroform is formed by the reaction of chlorine with organic substances present in water and thus can occur in drinking water that has been chlorinated. (britannica.com)
  • As suggested by its chemical formula, each chloroform molecule has three chlorine (halogen) atoms attached to a central carbon atom. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Industrially, chloroform is produced by heating a mixture of chlorine and either chloromethane or methane . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chloroform, one of the total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), is formed when chlorine or other disinfectants are used to treat drinking water. (ewg.org)
  • The chloroform found in tap water is one of the trihalomethanes, a class of contaminants that form as byproducts when chlorine or other disinfectants are added to drinking water," EWG reported. (wateronline.com)
  • Chloroform can decompose when exposed to heat, moisture and UV light forming highly toxic fumes (phosgene, chlorine gas and hydrogen chloride). (mfa.org)
  • In order to produce Chloroform, a mixture of chlorine and either chloromethane or methane is heated, which produces a free radical halogenation at 400-500 °C, transforming the precursors to more chlorinated compounds. (procurementresource.com)
  • We determine the encapsulation of a chloroform molecule into a D,L-Ala cyclopeptide nanotube by investigating the interaction energy between the two molecular structures. (scirp.org)
  • If located near the edge of the nanotube, then it is unlikely that the chloroform molecule will enter the nanotube. (scirp.org)
  • Rahmat, F. and Thamwattana, N. (2014) Encapsulation of a Chloroform Molecule in a Peptide Nanotube. (scirp.org)
  • Two scenarios are considered, namely: 1) an on-axis chloroform molecule and 2) a chloroform molecule located near the edge of the peptide nanotube. (scirp.org)
  • We employ the Lennard-Jones potential and the continuum approach to derive an analytical expression for the interaction energy between a chloroform molecule and a peptide nanotube. (scirp.org)
  • This model can be used to determine the condition under which the chloroform molecule will be encapsulated into a peptide nanotube. (scirp.org)
  • In Sections 3 and 4, we derive analytical expressions for the potential energy for the two assumed locations of the chloroform molecule interacting with a peptide nanotube. (scirp.org)
  • The chloroform will be stabilized with small quantities of amylene or ethanol because storage of pure chloroform solutions in oxygen and ultraviolet light will produce phosgene gas. (bionity.com)
  • [ citation needed ] The chloroform can be removed from the attendant acetate salts (or formate salts if ethanol is the starting material) by distillation. (chemeurope.com)
  • The EPA drinking water limit for total trihalomethanes, a class of chemicals that includes chloroform, is 100 micrograms per liter of water (100 µg/L). (cdc.gov)
  • Total trihalomethanes have a maximum contaminant level of .08 mg/L, per the U.S. EPA's National Primary Drinking Water Regulations , though EWG reported that chloroform itself doesn't have a maximum federal legal limit that utilities must adhere to. (wateronline.com)
  • Some utilities have detected chloroform, as part of the federally regulated trihalomethanes class, at levels that exceed the federal maximum legal limit of 80 parts per billion for the entire group of chemicals," per EWG. (wateronline.com)
  • Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. (nih.gov)
  • N. (1987) Single-step me-thod of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocya-nate-phenol-chloroform extraction. (scirp.org)
  • Active chloroform extract of O. stamineus was fractionated into three fractions using a dry flash column chromatography method. (mdpi.com)
  • The flavonoid rich chloroform extract fraction (CF2) [containing sinensetin (2.86% w/w), eupatorin (5.05% w/w) and 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (1.101% w/w)], significantly reduced rat hind paw edema, NO and decreased dye leakage to peritoneal cavity at p (mdpi.com)
  • Asmawi, M.Z. HPLC and Anti-Inflammatory Studies of the Flavonoid Rich Chloroform Extract Fraction of Orthosiphon Stamineus Leaves. (mdpi.com)
  • Thereafter, the chloroform extract which showed the highest activity in both in vitro and in vivo assessments was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation. (niscair.res.in)
  • The crude extracts and the fractions of the chloroform extract of A. maciverae were screened for phytochemicals and secondary metabolites. (niscair.res.in)
  • It can be inferred that fraction 54-57 contains the active component responsible for the high antitrypanosomal activity of the chloroform extract of A. maciverae . (niscair.res.in)
  • PDF] Treatment of natural ovine malignant theileriosis with a chloroform extract of the plant Peganum harmala. (semanticscholar.org)
  • One hundred sheep naturally infected with Theileria lestoquardi were treated with a chloroform extract of the plant Peganum harmala. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The chloroform extract showed good antibacterial activity against Shigella boydii and Escherichia coli with 19 mm and 17 mm zone of inhibition respectively. (pharmatutor.org)
  • Breathing air, eating food, or drinking water containing high levels of chloroform for long periods of time may damage your liver and kidneys. (cdc.gov)
  • Breath levels measured at 5 minutes following either exposure correlated with tap water levels of chloroform. (umn.edu)
  • In postmortem samples from eight humans, the highest levels of chloroform were detected in the body fat (5 68 g/kg), with lower levels (1 10 g/kg) detected in the kidney, liver, and brain.9 Studies in animals indicate rapid uptake of chloroform by the liver and kidney. (umn.edu)
  • As we know today, both ether and chloroform have properties that make them undesirable for analgesia during labor, but we are grateful for Simpson's early experiements which provided the impetus and foundation for modern obstetric anesthesia. (soap.org)
  • No adequate data were available on the genetic and related effects of chloroform in humans. (inchem.org)
  • Additionally, we transiently expressed wild-type or specifically mutated TRP channels in human embryonic kidney cells and used calcium imaging or whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology to assess the effects of chloroform or the VGA isoflurane on TRP channel activation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Phenol and chloroform are both hazardous and inconvenient materials, and the extraction is laborious, so in recent years many many companies now offer many alternative ways to isolate DNA. (bionity.com)
  • Phenol and chloroform should be used in a hood if possible. (openwetware.org)
  • There are also commercial sources of phenol and chloroform mixed together and equilibrated. (openwetware.org)
  • Phenol is naturally somewhat water-soluble, and gives a 'fuzzy' interface that is sharpened by the presence of chloroform. (bionity.com)
  • Thus, this article describes a degradation study of poly(lactic-L(+)-co-glycolic acid), or PLGA, in the presence of chloroform. (scielo.org.mx)
  • Equal volumes of a phenol:chloroform mixture and the aqueous DNA sample are mixed, forming a biphasic mixture. (bionity.com)
  • A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. (nih.gov)
  • A Phenol : Chloroform mixture is ideal for the extraction of protein from DNA preparations. (bioexpress.com)
  • On the evening of November 4,1847, Simpson and two doctor friends inhaled some chloroform and, after feeling very happy and talkative, promptly passed out. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chloroform is a colorless liquid with a pleasant, nonirritating odor and a slightly sweet taste. (cdc.gov)
  • 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol (trichlorobutanol, herein referred to as 'TCB') has a melting point of 77*C. I dissolved 25 grams of it in 100 mL of chloroform (at room temp). (bio.net)
  • The frequencies of C-H stretching vibration in chloroform shift to lower wave number with the increase of benzene concentration, which can be explained by C/H··· π interaction. (iphy.ac.cn)
  • Taking the chloroform volume fraction of 70% chloroform and benzene mixed solution as the research object, the Raman spectra of binary solution and pure liquid are measured at different pressures and temperatures. (iphy.ac.cn)
  • The effects of liquid chloroform on Simpson and his friends. (wikimedia.org)
  • Many kinds of seaweed produce chloroform, and fungi are believed to produce chloroform in soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • The haloform process is now obsolete for the production of ordinary chloroform. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ citation needed ] Deuterochloroform may be prepared by the reaction of sodium deuteroxide with chloral hydrate , [ citation needed ] or from ordinary chloroform. (chemeurope.com)
  • Exposure to chloroform may also cause cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to chloroform. (cdc.gov)
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to chloroform. (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSH Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Chloroform -DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 75-114. (cdc.gov)
  • Occupational Health Guideline for Chloroform -This guideline is intended as a source of information for employees, employers, and those in the health professions who need more information on exposure to chloroform. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to chloroform can occur when breathing contaminated air or when drinking or touching the substance or water containing it. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, the terrestrial compartment is unlikely to be of concern with regard to exposure to chloroform. (europa.eu)
  • In animals, studies involving chloroform have shown increased incidence of liver and kidney tumors in several species by several exposure routes. (umn.edu)
  • Chloroform is readily absorbed following oral, dermal, and inhalation exposure. (umn.edu)
  • The most common route of exposure to chloroform is via inhalation. (sentryair.com)
  • This means that if you are able to smell chloroform in the room air, you have surpassed the exposure limit guideline. (sentryair.com)
  • Breathing chloroform or ingesting chloroform over long periods of time may damage your liver and kidneys. (cdc.gov)
  • Rats and mice that ate food or drank water with chloroform developed cancer of the liver and kidneys. (cdc.gov)
  • Human studies show that chloroform damages the kidneys, liver and central nervous system. (ewg.org)
  • Chloroform produced benign and malignant tumours of the liver and kidney in mice following oral gavage [ref: 17,18]. (inchem.org)
  • Oral administration of chloroform did not enhance the incidences of liver and lung tumours induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of N -ethyl- N -nitrosourea [ref: 22], but it enhanced the incidence of liver preneoplastic foci in rats treated with a single dose of N -nitrosodiethylamine [ref: 23]. (inchem.org)
  • Chloroform did not induce micronuclei in bone-marrow cells of mice or DNA damage in liver or kidney cells of rats treated in vivo . (inchem.org)
  • Chloroform doses of 15 mg/kg/day resulted in an increase in the severity of fatty cysts in liver. (umn.edu)
  • In mice receiving chloroform via gavage in either corn oil or water, the uptake of chloroform was achieved within 10 minutes in the liver and within 1 hour in the kidney. (umn.edu)
  • Chloroform is metabolized mainly in the liver, but metabolism also occurs in other tissues such as the kidney. (umn.edu)
  • NOPR: Antitrypanosomal effects of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Artemisia maciverae Linn. (niscair.res.in)
  • Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of A. maciverae were studied in vitro and in vivo for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei in Swiss albino mice. (niscair.res.in)
  • The vapor of chloroform, when inhaled for some time, produces a temporary insensibility to pain. (everything2.com)
  • The vapor pressure of chloroform is 173.11 mm Hg at 25 degrees celsius. (jiskha.com)
  • Calculate the vapor pressure of the solution at 25 degrees celsius when 6.243g of aspirin (180.1g/mol) are dissolved in 244.5g of chloroform. (jiskha.com)
  • A source capture chemical fume extractor equipped with activated granule carbon filtration, is an excellent solution for chloroform vapor control. (sentryair.com)
  • Phenol-chloroform extraction is a liquid-liquid extraction technique in biochemistry and molecular biology for purifying DNA contaminated by histones and other proteins. (bionity.com)
  • Chloroform was first prepared in July 1831, by the American physician Samuel Guthrie, when he mixed whiskey with chlorinated lime. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chloroform was synthesized in 1831 by Liebig and Soubeiran. (mfa.org)
  • Chloroform volatilizes readily from soil and surface water and undergoes degradation in air to produce phosgene, dichloromethane, formyl chloride, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxygen-gas mixtures (oxygen with nitrous oxide, for example) regained use in anesthesia after 1900, and chloroform was replaced by safer compounds after about 1940. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency recently promulgated interim regulations requiring the reduction of trihalomethane compounds to 100 μg/I as chloroform or below in many public drinking water supplies. (asce.org)
  • Chloroform has a relatively narrow margin of safety and has been replaced by better inhalation anesthetics. (britannica.com)
  • A study on dermal and inhalation absorption of chloroform by humans during showering was conducted by Jo et al. (umn.edu)
  • These data indicate that humans absorb chloroform by both the dermal and inhalation routes (U.S. EPA, 1994d). (umn.edu)
  • Melvin Robert Bowers went on trial yesterday for a second time on a manslaughter charge in the 1993 chloroform-inhalation death of his 20-year-old girlfriend. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Equipped with a carbon pre-filter and activated granule carbon main filter, these systems protect the operator from the inhalation hazards of chloroform. (sentryair.com)
  • Granule carbon has an intricate porous structure that adsorbs hazardous chloroform molecules before they become airborne and potentially inhaled. (sentryair.com)
  • Chloroform dissolves easily in water and some of it may break down to other chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • A nonvolatile, nonelectrolyte that dissolves in chloroform is aspirin. (jiskha.com)
  • Vous y trouverez leurs propriétés dangereuses, leur classification et leur mode d'étiquetage, ainsi que des informations sur la façon de les utiliser en toute sécurité. (europa.eu)
  • M. J. Dumas of Paris described the composition of the new liquid and gave it the name "chloroform" in 1834 or 1835. (encyclopedia.com)
  • French chemist, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, formally named and characterized chloroform in 1834. (sentryair.com)
  • Chloroform was named and chemically characterised in 1834 by Jean-Baptiste Dumas . (chemeurope.com)
  • It isn't known whether chloroform causes reproductive effects or birth defects in people. (cdc.gov)
  • Offspring of rats and mice that breathed chloroform during pregnancy had birth defects. (cdc.gov)
  • In animals, chloroform causes infertility, birth defects and cancer. (ewg.org)
  • Today, chloroform - along with dichloromethane - is prepared exclusively and on a massive scale by the chlorination of methane and chloromethane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Il s'agit d';une source d'informations unique sur les substances chimiques fabriquées et importées en Europe. (europa.eu)
  • The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) developed a ToxFAQs sheet on chloroform, where it states that most of the chloroform in air eventually breaks down, but it is a slow process. (sentryair.com)
  • Regnault prepared chloroform by chlorination of chloromethane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroform is prepared by the chlorination of methane . (britannica.com)
  • 1. Hogan, M.D., Chi, P.-Y., Hoel, D.G. & Mitchell, T.J. (1979) Association between chloroform levels in finished drinking water supplies and various site-specific cancer mortality rates. (inchem.org)
  • 1979 study, dogs were exposed to chloroform in toothpaste base for 7.5 years. (umn.edu)
  • To further our understanding of the interaction between chloroform molecules and peptide nanotubes, this paper develops mathematical models to describe the interaction between the two structures, aiming to elucidate the encapsulation behaviour of the chloroform molecules into peptide nanotubes. (scirp.org)
  • The EWG Health Guideline of 0.4 ppb for chloroform was proposed in 2018 by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a one-in-a-million lifetime risk of cancer. (ewg.org)
  • Transtutors is the best place to get answers to all your doubts regarding Riemann Tiemann reaction, carbylamine reaction and reactions of chloroform with examples . (transtutors.com)
  • The reactions between phenyl chloroform and the sodio derivatives of ethyl malonate. (canterbury.ac.nz)
  • Animal studies have shown that miscarriages occurred in rats and mice that breathed air containing 30 to 300 ppm chloroform during pregnancy and also in rats that ate chloroform during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • The structures and intermolecular interactions in the halogen bonded complexes of anaesthetics ( chloroform , halothane , enflurane and isoflurane ) with formaldehyde were studied by ab initio MP2 and CCSD(T) methods. (rsc.org)
  • Chloroform and other disinfection byproducts increase the risk of cancer and may cause problems during pregnancy. (ewg.org)
  • In addition to tap water disinfection, chloroform pollution in the environment also comes from industrial discharges from pulp and paper mills, and from urban wastewater effluent. (ewg.org)
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on chloroform -NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • Chloroform evaporate s easily and will break down into many products including phosgene and hydrogen chloride , both of which are toxic . (everything2.com)
  • To use the chloroform solution, aliquot a known amount of lipid (using stainless steel, glass, or teflon - DO NOT USE PLASTIC TUBES OR PIPET TIPS) into a glass vial and evaporate the chloroform using nitrogen or argon. (avantilipids.com)
  • citation needed] In 1842, Robert Mortimer Glover in London discovered the anaesthetic qualities of chloroform on laboratory animals. (wikipedia.org)