A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of ethane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.

Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome following exposure to a fluorocarbon. (1/60)

This report describes the case of a 43-yr-old male who developed reactive airways dysfunction syndrome after exposure to a high level of bromotrifluoromethane (CF3Br, Halon 1301), a fluorocarbon widely used in automatic fire extinguishing systems. The patient was a previously healthy, nonatopic male, who developed wheezing and intermittent and reversible obstructive ventilatory impairment starting immediately after a large accidental nonfire-related release of CF3Br in a confined space.  (+info)

Induction of genetic damage in human lymphocytes and mutations in Salmonella by trihalomethanes: role of red blood cells and GSTT1-1 polymorphism. (2/60)

The brominated trihalomethanes (THMs) are mutagenic and carcinogenic disinfection by-products frequently found in chlorinated drinking water. They can be activated to mutagens by the product of the glutathione S-transferase-Theta (GSTT1++-1) gene in Salmonella RSJ100, which has been transfected with this gene. To evaluate this phenomenon in humans, we have examined the genotoxicity of a brominated THM, bromoform (BF), using the Comet assay in human whole blood cultures exposed in vitro. No differences were found in the comet tail length between cultures from GSTT1-1(+) versus GSTT1-1(-) individuals (1.67 +/- 0.40 and 0.74 +/- 0.54 microm/mM, respectively, P = 0.28). The high variability was due to the relatively weak induction of comets by BF. Combining the data from both genotypic groups, the genotoxic potency of BF was 1.20 +/- 0.34 microm/mM (P = 0.003). GSTT1-1 is expressed in red blood cells but not in the target cells (lymphocytes), and expression within the target cell (as in Salmonella RSJ100) may be necessary for enhanced mutagenesis in GSTT1-1(+) relative to GSTT1-1(-) cultures. To examine this, we exposed Salmonella RSJ100 and a control strain not expressing the gene (TPT100) to the most mutagenic brominated THM detected in Salmonella, dibromochloromethane (DBCM), either in the presence or absence of S9 or red blood cells from GSTT1-1(+) or GSTT1-1(-) individuals. S9 did not activate DBCM in the non-expressing strain TPT100, and it did not affect the ability of the expressing strain RSJ100 to activate DBCM. As with S9, red cells from either genotypic group were unable to activate DBCM in TPT100. However, red cells (whole or lysed) from both genotypic groups completely repressed the ability of the expressing strain RSJ100 to activate DBCM to a mutagen. Such results suggest a model in which exposure to brominated THMs may pose an excess genotoxic risk in GSTT1-1(+) individuals to those organs and tissues that both express this gene and come into direct contact with the brominated THM, such as the colon. In contrast, those organs to which brominated THMs would be transported via the blood might be protected by erythrocytes. Such a proposal is reasonably consistent with the organ specificity of drinking water-associated cancer in humans, which shows slightly elevated risks for cancer of the colon and bladder but not of the liver.  (+info)

Drinking water source and chlorination byproducts in Iowa. III. Risk of brain cancer. (3/60)

The authors conducted a population-based case-control study in Iowa of 375 brain cancer patients and 2,434 controls. A postal questionnaire was used to gather information on lifetime residential history, sources of drinking water, beverage intake, and other potential risk factors. Exposure to chlorination byproducts in drinking water was estimated by combining questionnaire data with historical information from water utilities and trihalomethane levels in recent samples. The analysis included 291 cases (77.6%) and 1,983 controls (81.5%), for whom water quality information was available for at least 70% of lifetime years. Proxies represented 74.4% of cases. The mean number and mean duration of places of residence were comparable between direct and proxy respondents, suggesting little contribution to bias. After multivariate adjustment, odds ratios for brain cancer were 1.0, 1.1, 1.6, and 1.3 for exposure to chlorinated surface water of 0, 1-19, 20-39, and > or =40 years (p trend = 0.1). Among men, odds ratios were 1.0, 1.3, 1.7, and 2.5 (p trend = 0.04), and among women, 1.0, 1.0, 1.6, and 0.7 (p trend = 0.7)). Similar findings were found with estimates of average lifetime level of trihalomethanes. The association was stronger among men with above-median tap water consumption. These observations deserve further attention, especially in view of increasing glioma rates.  (+info)

Investigation of an acute chemical incident: exposure to fluorinated hydrocarbons. (4/60)

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether attendance at the site after an incident in a sewer was associated with symptoms in emergency personnel and whether the prevalence of symptoms was associated with estimated levels of exposure to any chemical hazard. METHODS: Symptoms experienced by people attending an incident involving two dead sewer workers suggested the presence of a chemical hazard, before environmental sampling confirmed any toxic agent. Self reported symptoms, estimated exposures, and biomarkers of exposure for likely agents from all 254 people who attended the incident and a referent occupational group matching the 83 emergency personnel who went to the Accident and Emergency department (A and E) in the first 48 hours were recorded. The prevalence of symptoms and concentrations of creatine phosphokinase in serum of the 83 early patients at A and E were compared with their referent occupational group. In all workers who attended the incident, the trends in symptom prevalences and concentrations of creatine phosphokinase in serum were examined by distance from the site and predefined exposure category. RESULTS: Among all workers who attended the incident, symptoms of shortness of breath and sore throat were significantly associated with indirect estimates of exposure but not associated with concentrations of creatine phosphokinase. Freon was detected in two blood samples. The early patients at A and E reported more symptoms than their matched reference group and their median concentrations of creatine phosphokinase were higher. CONCLUSIONS: The association between symptoms and concentrations of creatine phosphokinase with attendance at the site indicated the presence of a continuing hazard at the site and led to extra precautions being taken. Comparison values from the referent occupational group prevented unnecessary medical follow up.  (+info)

Effect of dichlorodifluoromethane on the appearance, viability, and integrity of Escherichia coli. (5/60)

Cultures of Escherichia coli H52 were treated with liquid dichlorodifluoromethane (fluorocarbon-12 [f-12]) for 2 h at 22 C and then examined microscopically. Treated cells tended to clump, and their cytoplasms were generally less dense and less uniform in appearance than those of control cells. E. coli ML30 was exposed to f-12 at a concentration of 1.25 X saturation for times up to 1,200 min at 22 C. Cells were examined for changes in viability (plate count), permeability (as measured by exit of alpha-[14-C]methylglucoside or uptake of omicron-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside), release of compounds absorbing at 260 nm, and lysis (changes in absorbance at 420 nm). Large losses of alpha-methylglucoside and of percentage of viability occurred after brief exposure to f-12. Release of compounds absorbing at 260 nm occurred more slowly than the aforementioned events, possibly because these molecules are larger than alpha-methylglucoside. During 1,200-min exposure to f-12, the number of survivors decreased from 10-9 to 10-4 organisms/ml, the loss of compounds absorbing at 260 nm amounted to 50 percent, and 32 percent lysis occurred. Most of these changes occurred during the first 300 min of treatment. Loss of alpha-methylglucoside was almost complete after 1-min exposure to f-12. These results suggest that death of the cell involves several stages, with a change of permeability, occurring first, followed by leakage of compounds of increasing size and, finally, lysis.  (+info)

Comparative effects of anesthetics on the viability and integrity of Escherichia coli ML30. (6/60)

Cells of Escherichia coli ML30 in a mineral salts medium were exposed to dichlorodifluoromethane (f-12), cyclopropane, halothane, or Ethrane at concentrations of 1.25, 0.2, 0.04, and 0.008 X saturation for times up to 1,200 min, and at temperatures in the range of 2 to 37 C. When any of these anesthetics were applied for 300 min at 1.25 X saturation, a substantial decrease in number of survivors occurred. Halothane was most bactericidal, cyclopropane and Ethrane were moderately bactericidal, and t-12 was least bactericidal. At saturation values of less than 1.0, none of the four anesthetics had an appreciable effect on viability of E. coli. Greatest increases in cell permeability occurred when anesthetics were used at saturation values of 1.25, and permeability changes generally decreased as the concentrations of the chemicals were reduced. In many instances, anesthetics in the vapor state caused significant increases in cell permeability but little or no loss of viability. This indicated that a close relationship did not exist between loss of viability and increased permeability. All four anesthetics caused E. coli to lose substantial and similar amounts of compounds absorbing at 260 nm. Release of compounds absorbing at 260 nm generally increased as the saturation value of a given chemical was increased. Halothane, Ethrane, and cyclopropane but not f-12 caused lysis of E. coli ML300. Considering all results, E. coli ML30 was damaged more by halothane or cyclopropane than by f-12 or Ethrane. When f-12 was applied at a saturation value of 1.25, the bactericidal effect on E. coli was much greater at 37 or 22 C than at 12 or 2 C.  (+info)

Delivery of fenoterol via Respimat, a novel 'soft mist' inhaler. a randomised, double-blind (within device), placebo-controlled, cross-over, dose-ranging study in asthmatic patients. (7/60)

BACKGROUND: The phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) for metered dose inhalers (MDIs) has prompted the development of alternative propellants and the design of propellant-free devices for inhalation therapy. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to determine the dose of fenoterol inhaled from Respimat (RMT), a new propellant-free soft mist inhaler, which is equivalent in terms of efficacy and safety to 1 puff of either 100 or 200 microg fenoterol inhaled from a conventional CFC-MDI (Berotec). METHODS: Sixty-two asthmatic patients (35 male, 27 female) with a mean baseline FEV(1) of 1.7 liters, corresponding to 55% of the predicted normal value, were randomized at two study centers to 4 of a total of 8 possible treatments: placebo; 12.5, 25, 50, 100, or 200 microg fenoterol via RMT, and 100 or 200 microg fenoterol delivered via the MDI. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients completed the study as planned. Results of the therapeutic equivalence test for the primary endpoint, average FEV(1) (AUC(0-6))/6 and for the secondary endpoint, peak FEV(1), showed that the 12.5- and 25-microg fenoterol doses administered via RMT were equivalent to the 100 microg fenoterol dose from the MDI. The 50-, 100- and 200-microg fenoterol doses delivered by RMT did not meet the criterion for therapeutic equivalence with the 100-microg dose from the MDI, and if tested for a difference would have been significantly different in favor of RMT. All 5 RMT fenoterol doses were therapeutically equivalent to the MDI 200-microg fenoterol dose. Headache, reported by 4 patients on test days and 2 patients between test days in those randomized to RMT, was the most common adverse event, but the active treatments were generally well tolerated with no dose-dependent increases in incidence or severity of adverse events observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the study suggest that safe and efficacious bronchodilation can be obtained from single-dose fenoterol administered via RMT. Use of lower absolute doses to obtain a clinically significant improvement in pulmonary function may be possible because of the increased lung deposition achievable with the novel soft mist inhaler.  (+info)

Biotransformation and elimination of 14C-trichlorofluoromethane (FC-11) and 14C-dichlorodifluoromethane (FC-12) in man. (8/60)

Radiocarbon-labeled trichlorofluoromethane (FC-11; 14CC13F) and dichlorodifluormethane (FC-12; 14CC12F2) were separately inhaled by a female subject and a male subject. A predetermined volume of fluorocarbon (1000 ppm; 100 muCi) in air was delivered through a nonrebreating system and a tight-fitting face mask for 7-17 minutes. Total expired gases were collected during fluorocarbon exposure and afterward until no radioactivity was detectable. Expired 14CO2 and 14C-fluorocarbon were assayed. Urine was collected for 72 hours and assayed for nonvolatile radioactivity. Total recoveries of FC-11 were 99.5 and 79.4 per cent in the woman and the man, respectively. Total recoveries of FC-12 were 95.4 and 103.2 per cent. Traces of radioactivity were found in urine (FC-11, 0.07 and 0.09 per cent; FC-12, 0.02 and 0.03 per cent) and in exhaled carbon dioxide (FC-11, 0.13 and 0.10 per cent; FC-12, 0.08 per cent in both subjects). Total metabolites were equal to or less than 0.2 per cent of the administered dose. The amount of radioactivity in urine was insufficient to permit identification of possible fluorocarbon metabolites. The trace of metabolites could be products of radiolabeled impurities. (Key words: Gases, non-anesthetic, dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon 12); Gases, non-anesthetic, trichlorofluoromethane (Freon 11); Pharmacology, fluorocarbons.)  (+info)

Product Details of Freon CAS 11126-05-9 Refrigerant R22 R134a R404a R406a R407c R410a R507 R600a, Freon CAS 11126-05-9 Refrigerant R22 R134a R404a R406a R407c R410a R507 R600a Chlorofluorocarbons Methane from China manufacturer on Hisupplier.com.
Other names: Arcton 63; Arklone P; F 113; Forane 113; Freon R 113; Freon TF; Freon 113; Freon 113 TR-T; Frigen 113; Frigen 113 TR; Frigen 113 TR-T; Frigen 113A; FC 113; Genetron 113; R 113; 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-Trifluoroethane; 1,1,2-Trifluoro-1,2,2-trichloroethane; 1,2,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane; CFCl2CF2Cl; 1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane; Fluorocarbon 113; R 113(Halocarbon); Refrigerant 113; LEDON 113; Asahifron 113; 1,2,2-Trifluorotrichloroethane; Daiflon S 3; Freon F113; Halocarbon 113; Isceon 113; Kaiser chemicals 11; Khladon 113; Refrigerant R 113; 1,1,2-Trifluorotrichloroethane; Arklone; CFC-113; Distillex DS5; FC 133; Freon TF (113); Genesolv D; Trichloro 1,2,2-trifluoroethane; Halon 113; Delifrene LS; 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113 ...
The chemical name of refrigerant R11 is trichloromonofluoromethane and its chemical formula is CCl3F. Refrigerant R11 is chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Among all the refrigerants commonly used for the refrigeration and air conditioning applications, R11 has the highest potential to cause the depletion of the ozone layer from the upper layers of the atmosphere and the greenhouse effect. R-11 is now being replaced by other environment friendly refrigerants, of which the most common is R-123.
Why monitor refrigerants? The top reasons to monitor refrigerants include the safety of building personnel, refrigerants having the potential to deplete the ozone along with federally-imposed environmental tax on those refrigerants, as well as the high replacement costs of refrigerant gases. That is why it is extremely important to detect refrigerants as soon as a leak occurs.. The Chillgard RT Monitor utilizes a very stable technology known as, photoacoustic infrared (PAIR) to sense refrigerant gases at levels as low as 1 part-per-million. This allows the user to be in compliance with ASHRAE 147 and ASHRAE 15 standards, not to mention detecting a leak early enough to prevent a major loss of refrigerant gas.. With PAIR technology, the Chillgard RT Monitor operates for months with virtually no zero drift. This stability eliminates the requirement of any auto-zeroing techniques which take the monitor off-line at regular intervals in addition to increased maintenance required for insuring a ...
A refrigerant cycling device is provided, wherein a compressor comprises an electric motor element, a first and a second rotary compression elements in a sealed container. The first and the second rotary compression elements are driven by the electric motor element. The refrigerant compressed and discharged by the first rotary compression element is compressed by absorbing into the second rotary compression element, and is discharged to the gas cooler. The refrigerant cycling device comprises an intermediate cooling loop for radiating heat of the refrigerant discharged from the first rotary compression element by using the gas cooler; a first internal heat exchanger, for exchanging heat between the refrigerant coming out of the gas cooler from the second rotary compression element and the refrigerant coming out of the evaporator; and a second internal heat exchanger, for exchanging heat between the refrigerant coming out of the gas cooler from the intermediate cooling loop and the refrigerant coming out
Freon leaks are a hazard for our environment, health, and budget. Find out which freon leak detector is the right one for your home.
Below is a picture of a pressure gauge mounted on a Freon (R-134a) cylinder for precise recharging of air conditioning systems. It clearly shows a relation between Pressure and Temperature. Is this relation between P and T always true or it applies only to vapor pressure? If the bottle is filled with gas only, no liquid phase present, would the relationship still valid?. Now lets suppose to fill half of my bottle with liquid Freon at a temperature of 70F, seal it and I cool it off to -15F (note -15F is the boiling point at 14.7 PSI). What happens to its volume, vapor pressure, and boiling point?. ...
One of the most common issues your air conditioning system can experience is a freon leak. Learn 4 signs your AC is leaking freon and what to do about it.
Page contains details about 4-tert-butylpyridine/bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt-doped BTPA-TCNE-based perovskite solar cell . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
EWGs Tap Water Database Chlorodifluoromethane results for Phoenixville Water Dept | Chlorodifluoromethane. Find out what is in your tap water
EWGs Tap Water Database Chlorodifluoromethane results for Gladstone | Chlorodifluoromethane. Find out what is in your tap water
R-11 is assigned an ozone depletion potential of 1.0, and U.S. production was ended on January 1, 1996. Prior to the knowledge of the ozone depletion potential of chlorine in refrigerants and other possible harmful effects on the environment, trichlorofluoromethane was sometimes used as a cleaning/rinsing agent for low-pressure systems.[4] Trichlorofluoromethane was formerly used in the drinking bird novelty, largely because it has a boiling point of 23.77℃ (74.79℉). The replacement, dichloromethane, boiling point 39.6℃ (103.3℉), requires a higher ambient temperature to work. The substance was included in the production moratorium agreed in the Montreal Protocol of 1987. However, in 2018, its atmospheric concentration was noted to be declining more slowly than expected,[5] and it subsequently emerged that it remains in widespread use as a blowing agent for polyurethane foam insulation in the construction industry of China.[6] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An empirical correlation and rating charts for the performance of adiabatic capillary tubes with alternative refrigerants. AU - Choi, Jongmin. AU - Kim, Yong Chan. AU - Chung, Jin Taek. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - With the phaseout of conventional refrigerants, refrigeration and air conditioning systems must be redesigned to improve system performance and reliability with alternative refrigerants. In this study, a generalized correlation for the prediction of refrigerant flow rate through adiabatic capillary tubes is developed by generating dimensionless parameters for operating conditions, capillary tube geometry, and refrigerant properties using the Buckingham Pi theorem. The database for the present correlation includes extensive experimental data for R12, R22, R134a, R152a, R407C, and R410A obtained from the open literature. The present correlation, which has a relatively simpler form to employ, yields a mean deviation of 5.4% and a standard deviation of 6.5% from the ...
Refrigerant Leak Detector, Wholesale Various High Quality Refrigerant Leak Detector Products from Global Refrigerant Leak Detector Suppliers and Refrigerant Leak Detector Factory,Importer,Exporter at Alibaba.com.
The Global Ammonia Refrigerant Market 2019 Analysis Report is a pervasive research study, which provides current as well as upcoming technical. The financial details of the Ammonia Refrigerant industry are analyzed that would help to run your business more effectively. The report presents crucial data such as key trends, growth factors, drivers, business threats, competitive landscape, market dynamics and opportunities for established players/newcomers in global Ammonia Refrigerant market. This market analysis of an industry is a crucial thing for various stakeholders like investors, CEOs, traders, suppliers, and others associated with the business.. The report section starts with an overview contains an objective study of the global Ammonia Refrigerant market followed by market definition, classification, market size assessment (2014-2025) in terms of value and volume (thousand units). The report analyzes the Ammonia Refrigerant market on the basis of key market segments ( product types, ...
0011]According to a second aspect of the present invention, an oil separator for a CO2 refrigerant cycle includes a separation part and an oil storage part. The separation part includes a separation cylinder having a bottom wall, an inner cylinder and an inlet pipe. The inner cylinder is disposed in the separation cylinder. The inlet pipe connects to the separation cylinder tangential to an inner surface of the separation cylinder. The separation part defines an inlet opening in the inner surface of the separation cylinder to allow CO2 refrigerant containing oil from the inlet pipe to the separation cylinder. The separation part separates the oil from the CO2 refrigerant by means of a centrifugal force while turning or whirling the CO2 refrigerant containing the oil along the inner surface of the separation cylinder. The inner cylinder having an end within the separation cylinder, and the end defines a discharge port for discharging separated CO2 refrigerant from the separation part. The bottom ...
Williams, Faith M., Draffan, G. H., Dollery, C. T., Clark, J. C., Palmer, A. J., and Vernon, P. (1974).Thorax, 29, 99-103. Use of 18F labelled fluorocarbon-11 to investigate the fate of inhaled fluorocarbons in man and in the rat. The distribution and elimination of 18F labelled fluorocarbon-11 has been followed in a group of rats killed after air breathing following six minutes exposure to 18F fluorocarbon-11. Whole body and individual organ count rates were measured. In four volunteers the fate of 18F labelled fluorocarbon-11 was followed by both whole body counting and gamma camera measurement of the activity in the lung and mouth region after inhalation from a specially loaded aerosol dispenser.. In the rat there was a high initial level in high blood flow organs and in the adrenals and fat: the level in blood and high blood flow organs fell rapidly. Elimination from fat was slow but the adrenal level had fallen within one hour. The fall in whole body count rate was similar to that in ...
Ammonia Vs Freon? Whether to choose an ammonia refrigerant or an alternative CFC refrigerant is an all too frequent debate. The question then becomes:
Freon gas detection equipment - Refrigerant Leak Detection System: freon/refrigerant gas detectors for industrial & cooling units gas detection compliance
Refrigerant gas supplier. R-22 is gas is used in a variety of maritime refrigeration applications for low, medium and high temperatures (-40 to +16° C). This colorless gas is better known as HCFC-22, or R-22. It is commonly used as a propellant and refrigerant. R22 refrigerant is one of the most commonly used refrigerants.
Protocols and regulations such as the Montreal Protocol (1987), the Kyoto Protocol (1997), the European F-gas regulation (2006) and now its revision (2014) cause a shift toward refrigerants with both zero Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) and low Global Warming Potential (GWP). Alternative refrigerants with low-GWP are under investigation for residential heat pumps and air-conditioners as R-410A has a GWP of 2088. In this study, two promising alternative refrigerants with a low-GWP, DR-5A (R-454B) and L41-2 (R-447A), both HFC-HFO mixtures with a GWP of 466 and 583 respectively, have been tested in a residential heat pump. Â To assess and to compare the heat pump performances using R-410A, DR-5A and L41-2, drop-in tests have been carried out in a 10 kW air-to-water reversible heat pump. For each refrigerant, the heat pump performances have been assessed for 2 rating conditions and 2 operating limit conditions in the cooling mode and for 6 rating conditions and 3 operating limit conditions in the heating
China Hc Refrigerant manufacturers - Select 2018 high quality Hc Refrigerant products in best price from certified Chinese Refrigerant R manufacturers, Refrigerant Can suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
Refrigerant Tank Factory - Select 2018 high quality Refrigerant Tank Factory products in best price from certified Chinese Fuel Tank manufacturers, China Refrigerant suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Phase behavior of water-insoluble simvastatin drug in supercritical mixtures of chlorodifluoromethane and carbon dioxide. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The US Environmental Protection Agency has finally lifted its restriction on the use of certain hydrocarbons as refrigerants in household and small commercial refrigerators and freezers. In GallonDailys opinion this approval for use of hydrocarbon refrigerants is long overdue. Hydrocarbon refrigerants for use in domestic refrigerators were popularized by Greenpeace in the former East Germany…
I kinda threw this together this morning with two things in mind regarding hydrocarbon (propane or isobutane-based) refrigerants: The legalities of its use Safety considerations The questions continue to arise here in this forum on the use of hydrocarbon refrigerants. The topic remains a dynamic one, albeit, with a snails pace in progression towards its use. It seems inevitable given the focus on the GWP (global warming potential) index of refrigerants. At any rate, you
The Robinair LD7 Premium Refrigerant Leak Detector features a new color graphic display that highlights leak sizes in two unique ways. Bar graph mode shows the amount of refrigerant detected in the air and changes colors as the sensor gets closer to the leak. Sweep mode allows the user to see the level of refrigerant detected in the air through a line graph that helps the user trace back and forth to pinpoint the exact source of the leak.
Among alternative refrigerants, ammonia with zero Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP) and Global Warming Potential (GWP), and favorable thermodynamic properties is a sensible choice as a replacement for the synthetic refrigerants, which are powerful greenhouse gases.. In this paper, the results of experiments done on a new ammonia water-to-water heat pump prototype at different evaporation temperatures and compressor speeds are reported. The heat pump is designed to deliver 7 kW heat at evaporation temperature of -5°C and condensation temperature of 40°C. The hot discharge gas from compressor is utilized to provide sanitary hot water, and the rest of the heat is used for preheating the tap water and space heating of a single-family house. The compact design of the heat pump helps reducing the refrigerant charge. To reduce the charge further and to prevent oil accumulation at the bottom of evaporator, a minichannel aluminum heat exchanger is used as evaporator.. ...
A method and apparatus for using a secondary refrigerant to precool and liquefy a primary refrigerant, then vaporizing and expanding the primary refrigerant to cool a cold tip of a cryosurgical instrument for ablation of biological tissue, such as cardiovascular tissue, in particular endocardiac tissue and tissue inside a cardiac blood vessel. The secondary refrigerant has a critical temperature above the critical temperature of the primary refrigerant, and a cooling temperature below the critical temperature of the primary refrigerant, thereby facilitating the use of the precooling step to provide liquid primary refrigerant in an operating room environment in which the primary refrigerant could not otherwise be provided in the liquid phase.
A method and apparatus for determining the sufficiency of refrigerant charge in an air conditioning system by the use of only two temperature measurements. The temperature of the liquid refrigerant leaving the condenser coil is sensed and the temperature of the condenser coil itself is sensed and the difference between these two measurements is calculated to provide an indication of the adequacy of refrigerant charge in the system. This process is refined by steps taken to eliminate measurements during transient operations and by filtering signals to eliminate undesirable noise. A permitted threshold of deviation is calculated by using probability theory.
Alibaba.com offers 62 refrigerant ball valve products. About 100% of these are valves. A wide variety of refrigerant ball valve options are available to you, such as brass, stainless steel, and plastic.
China Air-conditioning refrigerant r22 30LB cylinders with High-Quality, Leading Air-conditioning refrigerant r22 30LB cylinders Manufacturers & Suppliers, find Air-conditioning refrigerant r22 30LB cylinders Factory & Exporters.
0071]Secondly, in the arrangement shown in FIG. 3, some of the cooling duty required for the first refrigerant is shifted from the third refrigerant stream 120 (passing through the first cooling stage 38), and passed to one or more cooler(s) represented in FIG. 3 by cooler 54. This reduces or `unloads` some of the cooling power or duty hitherto required of the third refrigerant stream 120 (to provide the same level or amount of condensed first refrigerant as conventionally provided), enabling the same cooling power of third refrigerant stream 120 to provide more cooling to the first refrigerant stream and/or to the hydrocarbon stream 10. Thus, the first refrigerant stream 20 either has more cooling power for the second cooling stage 12, which is usually the main cooling stage of a liquefaction plant, and/or the cooled hydrocarbon stream 10a is already cooler prior to entry in the second cooling stage 12 ...
China 630kg Liquid Chloride Steel Refrigerant Refillable Gas Cylinder, Find details about China Compressed Gas Cylinder, Liquified Gas Cylinder from 630kg Liquid Chloride Steel Refrigerant Refillable Gas Cylinder - Changzhou Lanyi Aircraft Equipment Manufacture Limited Company
China T50 Liquied Gas Tank Container for LPG, Ammonia, R134A, R22, Butune, Propene, Refrigerant, Find details about China Tailer Tank, Storage Tank from T50 Liquied Gas Tank Container for LPG, Ammonia, R134A, R22, Butune, Propene, Refrigerant - Changzhou Lanyi Aircraft Equipment Manufacture Limited Company
In consideration of physical and chemical properties of pure substances, speed of sound is one of important quantity which can used to calculate many of other thermo-physical properties such as isothermal compressibility, Joule-Thomson coefficient, isobaric heat capacity and etc. These thermo-physical properties are the main parameters in industrial and chemical processes. Development of accurate models for thermodynamic properties computation such as speed of sound is well expected above all in those fields where very high performance calculations have to be reached. In this present work, a new generalized model as a function of reduced temperature and reduced density is proposed to correlate speed of sound of methane, ethane, propane and butane halogenated refrigerants. Speed of sounds have been calculated and compared with data reported in literatures for 5600 data points of 28 refrigerants, and the overall average absolute percentage deviation of 0.92%. The source of speed of sound data used in this
Designed to meet todays tough service standards, the YELLOW JACKET® Refrigerant Management System (RMS) 37840 for R-134a and 37860 for R-1234yf provide full cycle recovery/recycle/evacuate/recharge to bring the vehicle back to factory specifications. The easy-to-use, portable, full color interface walks you quickly through each step for easy operation and fast service.. Not ready for R-1234yf? Purchase the 37840 for R-134a today and we can update it to R-1234yf later with our optional (one time use) conversion kit.. To obtain pressure readings in a snap, each RMS unit comes with a YELLOW JACKET ManTooth™ Wireless Digital Pressure/Temperature Gauge so you can test the A/C system without losing refrigerant. The free downloadable app wirelessly calculates and displays the A/C systems actual pressures in an easy-to-read color format on the RMS tablet, as well as iOS or Android™ devices.. Real-time remote support, including set-up/start-up assistance. With the systems Windows-based control ...
Both assimilation and compressor refrigerators use a refrigerant with a actual low baking point (less than 0 °F/−18 °C). In both types, aback this refrigerant evaporates (boils), it takes some calefaction abroad with it, accouterment the cooling effect. The capital aberration amid the two types is the way the refrigerant is afflicted from a gas aback into a aqueous so that the aeon can repeat. An assimilation refrigerator changes the gas aback into a aqueous application a altered adjustment that needs alone heat, and has no affective parts1. The added aberration amid the two types is the refrigerant used. Compressor refrigerators about use an HCFC or HFC, while assimilation refrigerators about use ammonia or water ...
As discussed in chapter 3.4, compressor performance depends on the evaporating and condensing pressures. The saturation pressure of the evaporator determines the density of the refrigerant gas at the inlet of the compressor, thus affecting the refrigerant mass flow per compressor revolution. The total pressure difference between the evaporating and condensing sides also affects the required compressor power consumption.. The evaporator and condenser affect these pressure levels though their ability to transfer energy between the refrigerant and the secondary fluids. The evaporator operating point is the equilibrium point at which the performance of the evaporator matches the performance of the compressor. The refrigerant mass flow is determined by the compressor, and at the operating point the refrigerant is evaporated at a stable saturation temperature.. The compressor curve in Figure 6.24 has a positive slope, indicating that the available cooling capacity increases with higher evaporation ...
A catheter has an inner sleeve through which refrigerant circulates to and from a source of refrigerant. The catheter also has an outer sleeve surrounding the inner sleeve, including a distal end thereof. The outer sleeve is filled with a frozen biocompatible substance. The refrigerant is separated from the biocompatible substance by one or more walls of the inner sleeve such that the refrigerant is isolated from a patient in whom the catheter is positioned by both the inner sleeve and the frozen biocompatible substance. The refrigerant circulates through the catheter when the catheter is positioned in the patient to maintain the biocompatible substance frozen as heat is transferred from the patient to the biocompatible substance.
CAS 9016-87-9 75-68-3 75-45-6 101-68-8 HANDI-FOAM ONE-COMPONENT FOAM SEALANT higher oligomers of mdi, polymethylene polyphenyleneethane, 1-chloro-1,1-difluoro-, chlorodifluoroethane (dot),chlorodifluoromethane, freon 22, monochlorodifluoromethanefluorocarbon (non-flammable compressed gas,diphenylmethanediisocyanate (mdi), methylene bis msds toxicity property
Science News was founded in 1921 as an independent, nonprofit source of accurate information on the latest news of science, medicine and technology. Today, our mission remains the same: to empower people to evaluate the news and the world around them. It is published by Society for Science & the Public, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education.. ...
Soul singer TONY THOMPSON did not die from an illegal drug overdose but through inhaling toxic amounts of a hydrocarbon substance, according to an autopsy report. The body of the former Hi-Five star was found near an air-conditioning unit outside...
Mr. McClendon worked for Swift Transportation as a mechanic. In October 2004, he was working for Swift on a refrigerated trailer when he climbed up a ladder to check a Freon indicator on the trailer. The Freon indicator blew causing Mr. McClendon to fall off the ladder and onto a pile of iron tubing and other pieces of metal. He briefly attempted to return to work, but he experienced a black out and cognitive problems that interfered with his duties. Mr. McClendon filed a claim with the Labor Commission for permanent total disability compensation stemming from his work injuries. The ALJ held a hearing and referred the medical aspects of the claim to an impartial medical panel. The medical panel explained that Mr. McClendons head injury would result in very few work restrictions. However, the panel also found the accident exacerbated certain of Mr. McClendons pre-existing cognitive difficulties and resulted in a few other restrictions. The ALJ relied on the panels opinion and found Mr. ...
The uses of carbon tetrachloride have diminished lately because it is known to be damage peoples health. People think it might damage the ozone layer. Today, it is rarely used for anything.. Previously, was used in fire extinguishers. It was also used to make freon, used in dry cleaning and as a refrigerant.. ...
|p|Gastec Detector Tubes indicate concentrations directly by way of a calibrated scale printed on the tubes. Gastec detector tubes are used for analysing airborne gases/vapours, as well as pollutants in soil and water.|/p|
Introduction. Eugine Whint 7/12/2005 Chemistry 5G Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) (also known as Freon) are non-toxic, non-flammable and non-carcinogenic. They contain fluorine atoms, carbon atoms and chlorine atoms. The 5 main CFCs include CFC-11 (trichlorofluoromethane - CFCl3), CFC-12 (dichloro-difluoromethane - CF2Cl2), CFC-113 (trichloro-trifluoroethane - C2F3Cl3), CFC-114 (dichloro-tetrfluoroethane - C2F4Cl2), and CFC-115 (chloropentafluoroethane - C2F5Cl). CFCs are widely used as coolants in refrigeration and air conditioners, as solvents in cleaners, particularly for electronic circuit boards, as a blowing agents in the production of foam (for example fire extinguishers), and as propellants in aerosols. Indeed, much of the modern lifestyle of the second half of the 20th century had been made possible by the use of CFCs. Man-made CFCs however, are the main cause of stratospheric ozone depletion. CFCs have a lifetime in the atmosphere of about 20 to 100 years, and ...
An ice storage constant temperature air conditioning system having divided refrigerant has a refrigerant divider to divide refrigerant flow into two ducts. The first duct is connected to an evaporator
The Complete Worldwide Refrigeration Service - Harp International. Harp International Limited offers a range of speciality chemicals for use in the refrigeration, air conditioning, aerosol and foam blowing industries - www.harpintl.com
About this substance This section provides an overview of the calculated volume at which the substance is manufactured or imported to the European Economic Area (EU28 + Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). Additionally, if available, information on the use of the substance and how consumers and workers are likely to be exposed to it can also be displayed here.. The use information is displayed per substance life cycle stage (consumer use, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites or in manufacturing). The information is aggregated from the data coming from REACH substance registrations provided by industry.. For a detailed overview on identified uses and environmental releases, please consult the registered substance factsheet.. Use descriptors are adapted from ECHA guidance to improve readability and may not correspond textually to descriptor codes described in Chapter R.12: Use Descriptor system of ECHA Guidance on information ...
The reactions between lanthanide nitrates, Ln(NO3)3 and scandium and lanthanide trifluoromethane sulfonates, Ln(Tf)3 with trimesitylphosphine oxide, Mes3PO show that coordination to the metal ions does not lead to crystalline complexes. Investigation of the reactions by 31-P NMR spectroscopy shows that weak complexes are formed in solution. The crystal structures of Mes3PO·0.5CH3CN (1) and [Mes3PO]3H3O·2CH3CN·Tf (2), formed in the reaction between ScTf3 and Mes3PO, are reported. Trimesitylphosphine, Mes3P, is protonated by scandium and lanthanide trifluoromethane sulfonates and lanthanide nitrates in CD3CN and the structure of [Mes3PH]Cl·HCl·2H2O (3) is reported.. ...
The present invention is related to refrigerant and lubricant compositions containing performance-enhancing additives. The performance enhancing additives are found to improve the energy efficiency and capacity of vapor compression refrigeration and air conditioning systems, which utilize hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants (e.g. HFC-134a) and oxygenated refrigeration lubricants (e.g. POEs, PAGs and PVEs).
Abstract. The stratospheric degradation of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) releases chlorine, which is a major contributor to the destruction of stratospheric ozone (O3). A recent study reported strong chlorine isotope fractionation during the breakdown of the most abundant CFC (CFC-12, CCl2F2, Laube et al., 2010a), similar to effects seen in nitrous oxide (N2O). Using air archives to obtain a long-term record of chlorine isotope ratios in CFCs could help to identify and quantify their sources and sinks. We analyse the three most abundant CFCs and show that CFC-11 (CCl3F) and CFC-113 (CClF2CCl2F) exhibit significant stratospheric chlorine isotope fractionation, in common with CFC-12. The apparent isotope fractionation (ϵapp) for mid- and high-latitude stratospheric samples are respectively −2.4 (0.5) and −2.3 (0.4) ‰ for CFC-11, −12.2 (1.6) and −6.8 (0.8) ‰ for CFC-12 and −3.5 (1.5) and −3.3 (1.2) ‰ for CFC-113, where the number in parentheses is the numerical value of ...
A method of separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed.
Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
Freons (fluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs)) historically have been widely used as aerosol propellants, in refrigeration units, in the manufacture of plastics, in foam blowing, and as degreasing agents. Under provisions of the Montreal Protocol of 1987, the use of CFCs is being phased out to avoid further depletion of stratospheric ozone. Nevertheless, freons remain in older refrigeration
Fluorocarbons, sometimes referred to as perfluorocarbons or PFCs, are, strictly speaking, organofluorine compounds with the formula CxFy, i.e. they contain only carbon and fluorine, though the terminology is not strictly followed. Compounds with the prefix perfluoro- are hydrocarbons, including those with heteroatoms, wherein all C-H bonds have been replaced by C-F bonds. Fluorocarbons can be perfluoroalkanes, fluoroalkenes and fluoroalkynes and perfluoroaromatic compounds. Fluorocarbons and their derivatives are used as fluoropolymers, refrigerants, solvents, and anesthetics. Perfluorocarbons or PFCs are, strictly speaking, organofluorine compounds with the formula CxFy, i.e. they contain only carbon and fluorine, though the terminology is not strictly followed. Compounds with the prefix perfluoro- are hydrocarbons, including those with heteroatoms, wherein all C-H bonds have been replaced by C-F bonds. Fluorocarbons can be divided into perfluoroalkanes, fluoroalkenes and fluoroalkynes or ...
The DABCO-catalyzed reaction of propargyl alcohols with methyl 2-perfluoroalkynoate to give trifluoromethylated furans in up to 98% yield under mild conditions has been developed. The established allene-enol and control experiments indicate that the reaction should proceed through a Michael addition and Claisen rearrangement/cyclization process ...
Power consumption of a home refrigerator can be cut by 29% while improving cooling capacity. Researchers replaced widely-used, but environmentally unfriendly, R134a refrigerant with the more energy-efficient R600a. They dosed R600a with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanoparticles. Drop-in refrigerant replacement in the field by trained technicians is possible, says an engineer from the University of Johannesburg. This test of nanoparticle-dosed refrigerants is a first of its kind and recently published in Energy Reports, an open-access journal. The results can help make home refrigeration more accessible for low-income families. R134a is one of the most widely-used refrigerants in domestic and industrial refrigerators. It is safe for many applications because it is not flammable. However, it has high global warming potential, contributing to climate change. It also causes fridges, freezers and air-conditioning equipment to consume a lot of electrical energy. The energy consumption ...
The GreenChill Advanced Refrigeration Partnership is an EPA cooperative alliance with the supermarket industry and other stakeholders to promote the adoption of technologies, strategies, and practices that reduce emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) and increase refrigeration system energy efficiency. Working with EPA, GreenChill Partners: transition to non-ozone depleting refrigerants; lower refrigerant charge sizes and eliminate leaks; and adopt green refrigeration technologies, strategies and practices.. GreenChill promotes food retailers/supermarkets adoption of advanced refrigeration technologies that will reduce ODS/GHG emissions (e.g., reduced refrigerant charges and leak rates), improve energy efficiency; while at the same time reducing maintenance and refrigerant costs, extending the shelf life of perishable food products, and offering improved system design, operations, and maintenance. The GreenChill Partnership has three main programmes that help ...
History Of Refrigeration Refrigeration relates to the cooling of air or liquids, thus providing lower temperature to preserve food, cool beverages, make ice and for many other . Most evidence indicate that the Chinese were the first to store natural ice and snow to cool wine and other delicacies. Ancient people of India and Egypt cooled liquids in porous earthen jars. In 1834, Jacob Perkins, an American, developed a closed refrigeration system using liquid expansion and then compression to produce cooling. He used Ether as refrigerant, in a hand- operated compressor, a water-cooled condenser and an evaporator in liquid cooler.
Chlorofluorocarbons are a family of halocarbons that contain only carbon, chlorine & fluorine. Used in blowing plastics & fridges. CFCs destroy the ozone layer
Chlorofluorocarbons have been banned since 1996 because they destroy the ozone layer. From the U.S. National Library of Medicine. [ ]
Friedrich SS12N10 12,000 BTU Room Air Conditioner with 10.8 EER, R-410A Refrigerant, 300 CFM, 24-Hour Timer, Carbon Filtration, Automatic Fan and Digital Remote Control
Want to cut energy cost for your compressed air system while producing air at a constant low dew point? Use a refrigerant dryer with Variable Speed Drive.
Amana PTC093G35AXXX 9,000 BTU Packaged Terminal Air Conditioner with 3.5 kW Electric Heater, R410A Refrigerant, 11.2 Energy Efficiency Ratio and DigiSmart Controls
R32 / R290 / R600A / R600 Metal Explosion Proof HC Refrigerant / Butane Recovery Pump Nanjing Wonfulay Precision Machinery Co.,Ltd Last Login:6 hours 14 mins ago ...
HFC 134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) and HFC 227 (1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane) are used to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in refrigerant and aerosol applications, including medical use in metered-dose inhalers. Production and consumption of CFCs are being phased out under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The safety and pharmacokinetics of HFC 134a and HFC 227 were assessed in two separate double-blind studies. Each HFC (hydrofluorocarbon) was administered via whole-body exposure as a vapor to eight (four male and four female) healthy volunteers. Volunteers were exposed, once weekly for 1 h, first to air and then to ascending concentrations of HFC (1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 parts per million (ppm)), interspersed with a second air exposure and two CFC 12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) exposures (1000 and 4000 ppm). Comparison of either HFC 134a or HFC 227 to CFC 12 or air gave no clinically significant results for any of the measured laboratory parameters. ...
Phosgene is an extremely powerful choking agent, powerful enough to be used as a chemical weapon. The lethal dose is 0.01-0.03 g/l. There is no known antidote. It is believed that one Sciencemadness member might have died from pulmonary edema that might of been caused by phosgene, as in his last post he expressed his desire to try and make the said compound. However, this hasnt been officially confirmed. If youre a smoker, its a very good lab practice to chain-smoke when experimenting with phosgene. Even very small, otherwise undetectable amounts of phosgene in the air react with smoldering tobacco and change the taste of the smoke to something revoltingly bad. This should give you an early warning in case of a phosgene leak. ...
In this study, chiral ionic liquid (CIL) solvents were prepared and tested for their chiral discrimination ability by probing with luminescence quenching. The CILs were also tested for their impurities, viscosity and density. These experiments will help to determine the ability of CILs to act as solvents in asymmetric catalysis. The chiral ionic liquids in this study were composed of amino acid methyl ester cations and bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonimide or bistri flimide anions (i.e. I-alanine methyl ester bistriflimid e, d-alanine methyl ester bistr iflim ide and I-leuci ne methyl ester bistriflimde). Circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) and its quenching in the chiral ionic liq uid solvent was probed using a racemic mi xture of Eu(dpa)/ (where dpa = 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylate) and (+)-cobalt complexes as quencher molecules. CPL measurements of the europium complex dissolved in each of the three CILs resulted in dissymmetry factors not equal to zero, illustrating that the CIL solvent was
A simple and straightforward method using non-polluting solvents and a single thermal treatment step at moderate temperature was investigated as an environmentally-friendly process to recycle lithium from organic electrode materials for secondary lithium batteries. This method, highly dependent on the choice of electrolyte, gives up to 99% of sustained capacity for the recycled materials used in a second life-cycle battery when compared with the original. The best results were obtained using a dimethyl carbonate/lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide electrolyte that does not decompose in presence of water. The process implies a thermal decomposition step at a moderate temperature of the extracted organic material into lithium carbonate, which is then used as a lithiation agent for the preparation of fresh electrode material without loss of lithium.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hybrid membranes based on ionic-liquid-functionalized poly(vinyl benzene chloride) beads for CO2 capture. AU - Lim, Jung Yup. AU - Lee, Jae Hun. AU - Park, Min Su. AU - Kim, Jeong Hoon. AU - Kim, Jong Hak. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the Center for Advanced Meta-Materials (CAMM) ( NRF-2014M3A6B3063716 ) and grants ( NRF-2017R1D1A1B06028030 , NRF-2017M1A2A2043448 ) from the National Research Foundation (NRF) of South Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning . Publisher Copyright: © 2018 Elsevier B.V.. PY - 2019/2/15. Y1 - 2019/2/15. N2 - Efficient hybrid composite membranes for CO2 capture were prepared using poly(vinyl benzene chloride) (PVBC) beads functionalized with an ionic liquid, butylimidazole bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (BITFSI). The PVBC-BITFSI beads were synthesized by a mass-producible method involving self-crosslinking polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, and ion exchange. The structure and ...
Recently interest has been increasing in these cycles because of their potential use as part of energy-saving plants and also because they use more environmentally friendly refrigerants than vapor-compression cycles. A basic vapor-absorption system is shown schematically in Figure 6. The condenser, throttling valve and evaporator are essentially the same as in the vapor compression system (Figure 3). The major difference is the replacement of the compressor with an absorber, a generator, and a solution pump. A second throttling valve is also used to maintain the pressure difference between the absorber (at the evaporator pressure) and the generator (at the condenser pressure).. The refrigerant on leaving the evaporator is absorbed in a low-temperature absorbing medium, some heat, QA, being rejected in the process. The refrigerant-absorbent solution is then pumped to the higher pressure and is heated in the generator, QG. Refrigerants vapor then separates from the solution due to the high ...
In China, fluorine refrigerants mainly refer to R22, R134a, R125 and R32, whose aggregate capacity in 2011 up to 964,000 tons, of which, R22 is the most widely used type for the present, but due to its destruction of the ozone layer, a step-by-step elimination will be inevitable; R134a is primarily employed as the automotive air-conditioning refrigerant, and Zhejiang Juhua Co., Ltd. as the leading company makes capacity of 58kt/a; R32 and R125 have found wide application in production of R410a and other mixed refrigerants (significant alternatives of R22), key enterprises are Jiangsu Meilan Chemical Co., Ltd. with 16k/a R32 and Sinochem Lantian Co., Ltd. with 11kt/a R125. ...
Looking forward to the change to ammonia refrigeration systems. They used ammonia refrigeration systems on the brine systems on the salmon tenders in Alaska. One time there was a large venting of ammonia off the stern of a boat, and I was pretty much trapped on the other side. Felt I had to get past that leak and did. Not pleasant but no trip to the hospital. If I had been older and wiser, I would have just walked around to the bow and exited that way. Age and wisdom is a good thing. Most, if not all, travel trailers use ammonia systems for refrigeration, without negative repercussions. Freons are extremely strong green house gasses, 1000s of time stronger than CO2, and take 1000s of years to break down in the atmosphere (the carbon cycle for CO2 is in the order of two decades or less). Ammonia has no green house potential and is a fertilizer for plant growth, especially when mixed with atmospheric water, for which it has a strong affinity. ...
Looking forward to the change to ammonia refrigeration systems. They used ammonia refrigeration systems on the brine systems on the salmon tenders in Alaska. One time there was a large venting of ammonia off the stern of a boat, and I was pretty much trapped on the other side. Felt I had to get past that leak and did. Not pleasant but no trip to the hospital. If I had been older and wiser, I would have just walked around to the bow and exited that way. Age and wisdom is a good thing. Most, if not all, travel trailers use ammonia systems for refrigeration, without negative repercussions. Freons are extremely strong green house gasses, 1000s of time stronger than CO2, and take 1000s of years to break down in the atmosphere (the carbon cycle for CO2 is in the order of two decades or less). Ammonia has no green house potential and is a fertilizer for plant growth, especially when mixed with atmospheric water, for which it has a strong affinity. ...
And continued…. Get Sample PDF @. http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/10366345. Water-Based Personal Lubricant Market Drivers:. • Increase in customer acceptance. • For a full, detailed list, view our report. Water-Based Personal Lubricant Market Challenges:. • Side effects. • For a full, detailed list, view our report Water-Based Personal Lubricant Market Trends:. • Rise in awareness among consumers. • For a full, detailed list, view our report. Global Water-Based Personal Lubricant Market report delivers detailed study on the major drivers and restraints for the key players & their impact.. Key Vendors of Water-Based Personal Lubricant Market:. • BioFilm. • Church & Dwight. • Reckitt Benckiser. • Topco Sales. And many more…. Water-Based Personal Lubricant market report provides key statistics on the market status of the Water-Based Personal Lubricant manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals ...
You may also wish to search for items by Bruno, T. and Bruno. 22 matching references were found. McLinden, M.O.; Gallagher, J.S.; Weber, L.A.; Morrison, G.; Ward, D.; Goodwin, A.R.H.; Moldover, M.R.; Schmidt, J.W.; Chae, H.B.; Bruno, T.J.; Ely, J.F.; Huber, M.L., Measurement and formulation of the thermodynamic properties of refrigerants 134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) and 123 (1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane), ASHRAE Trans., 1989, 95, 2, 263-283. [all data] Magee, J.W.; Bruno, T.J., Isochoric (p,«rho»,T) Measurements for Liquid Toluene from 180 K to 400 K at Pressures to 35 MPa, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1996, 41, 900-905. [all data] Hansen, B.N.; Lagalante, A.F.; Sievers, R.E.; Bruno, T.J., High-pressure equilibrium cell for solubility measurements in supercritical fluids, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 1994, 65, 2112-14. [all data] Bruno, T.J.; Wood, M.A.; Hansen, B.N., Refractive Indices of Fluids Related to Alternative Refrigerants, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol., 1994, 99, 263-6. [all data] ...
Ammonia is the refrigerant of choice in the industrial refrigeration sector due to its unmatched thermodynamic properties. Belonging to a group of natural refrigerants, ammonia is also favored because of its environmental friendliness. Ammonia, however, is not without hazards. This course will teach you how to utilize ammonia refrigeration while ensuring safety and preventing future risks.
Now they are just cold. Really cold. Im talking freeze your toothpaste when you leave it in the car cold. (Speaking of which, should such an emergency rise dont - I repeat DONT - thaw the paste in a motel sink of hot water. The tube of paste becomes a watery liquid. And if you happen to be in Fargo, ND in the winter and you remember to bring your suitcase into the hotel room and not leave it overnight in the trunk no matter how drunk you are, that is even better.). But here is what we need to do.. When these bitterly cold reverse warming events occur, dont panic, burn something. The more carbon the better. Coal, charcoal, lighter fluid, heck, drink soda or beer and burp away. Remember, we need warmth!. So let those industries belch out the carbon infused smoke and gasses. Release as much freon as possible. (Or was that the Ozone Hole we fixed a while back?). Release the methane bloated cattle. And breed baby breed! (Al Gore said meat causes warming.). Wood stoves and charcoal grills are ...
Alcohol, marijuana, and opiates are often drugs that teens turn to in high school. Some schools, families, and employers have decided to implement a drug test Ontario CA in order to determine whether or not someone is under the influence of drugs which will then advise a decision on what the next best course of action to take with them is. Its considered dangerous behavior and so it could result in being kicked out of school or the loss of a job. Some are now choosing to inhale toxic household products they can easily obtain such as computer air dusters, gasoline, butane, Freon, paint thinner, glues, whipped cream, and anything else in an aerosol can. This is called huffing. Some youths first use inhalants when they are around 11 or 12. For some, it is the first or second drug kids try (even before alcohol or cigarettes). About 2.6 million children ages 12 to 17 uses an inhalant each year to get high. If youre worried your child may be huffing or partaking in the consumption of other ...
Here are some common terms relevant to home ownership. A/C: An abbreviation for air conditioner or air conditioning.. A/C Circuit: Alternating Current. The flow of current through a conductor first in one direction, then in reverse. It is used exclusively in residential and commercial wiring because it provides greater flexibility in voltage selection and simplicity of equipment design. A/C Condenser: The outside fan unit of the air conditioning system. It removes the heat from the Freon gas and turns the gas back into a liquid and pumps the liquid back to the coil in the furnace.. A/C Disconnect: The main electrical ON-OFF switch near the A/C condenser.. ABS: (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) Rigid black plastic pipe used only for drain lines.. Absolute Humidity: Amount of moisture in the air, indicated in grains per cubic foot. Accelerator: Any material added to stucco, plaster or mortar which speeds up the natural set.. Access Panel: An opening in the wall or ceiling near the fixture that ...
Respiratory gas exchange was investigated in human subjects immersed up to the shoulders in water at different temperatures (Tw = 25, 34, and 40 degrees C). Cardiac output (Qc) and pulmonary tissue volume (Vti) were measured by a rebreathing technique with the inert gas Freon 22, and O2 consumption …
Homeowners who choose Payne Heating and Cooling Products are delighted in their decision because it is such a sensible choice that saves money at the purchase, and keeps performing season after season. Most of this debris ends up in the condenser where it can block tubes and interfere with efficient cooling. Perhaps a piece of insulation has come loose inside the return or supply air plenums and is blocking the duct. Freon leaks, dirty coils, oiling fan motors that still need to be oiled. To break the conduction of sound, you can have a heating contractor insert flexible insulation ductwork between the heat pump and the ductwork runs. Subject: is this a good price?So I shut the unit off for the night. Fix Your Furnace and Air Conditioning System. Parts changers, not real technicians. Aside from heating and AC repairs in West Palm Beach , we also offer maintenance and installations, which can help resolve many of your temperature issues. For an in-depth look at residential HVAC systems, check out ...
HVAC duct cleaning services in Elgin, IL by AC contractor, technicians for air conditioning installer in Illinois for furnace repair. Find local professionals for troubleshooting compressor, thermostats, vents, freon recharge, leak inspections, cooling and heating systems.
The radical cation and the two lowest excited singlet Rydberg states of DABCO (1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane) are studied. Experimentally, the radical cation of DABCO is generated by either laser flash photolysis in solution at room temperature or by gamma-irradiation in a Freon glass at 77 K, and its electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra in these two media are reported. The present resonance Raman spectra differ substantially from previous reports given in the Literature, and it is concluded that a number of bands attributed previously to the DABCO radical cation are due to other species. Theoretically, the absorption and resonance Raman spectra are interpreted on the basis of density functional theory (DFT; B3LYP/6-31G(d)) calculations and wave packet propagation methods. The same DFT calculations are used to interpret excitation and multiphoton ionization spectra of the two lowest singlet Rydberg states, making use of the close similarity between a Rydberg state and its ionic ...
Air conditioners on sale near me Ashland, MA for HVAC systems installed by top AC repair technicians, local heat & cool repairmen in Massachusetts. Free home estimates from top 10 licensed contractors for high efficiency gas furnace replacements, system tune-ups & freon recharge.
1. Glassy Anomalies in the Low-Temperature Thermal Properties of a Minimally Disordered Crystalline Solid, J. F. Gebbia, M. A. Ramos, D. Szewczyk, A. Jezowski, A. I. Krivchikov, Y. V. Horbatenko, T. Guidi, F. J. Bermejo, and J. Ll. Tamarit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 215506 (2017). [URL]. 2. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Fragility of Freon 113: The Most Fragile Plastic Crystal, A. Vispa, M. Romanini, M. A. Ramos, L. C. Pardo, F. J. Bermejo, M. Hassaine, A. I. Krivchikov, J. W. Taylor, and J. Ll. Tamarit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 105701 (2017). [URL]. 3. Lattice damage in 9-MeV-carbon irradiated diamond and its recovery after annealing, F. Agulló-Rueda, N. Gordillo, M. D. Ynsa, A. Maira, J. Cañas, and M. A. Ramos, Carbon 123, 334-343 (2017). [URL]. 4. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of near-surface damage in diamond irradiated with 9-MeV boron ions, F. Agulló-Rueda, M. D. Ynsa, N. Gordillo, A. Maira, D. Moreno-Cerrada, and M. A. Ramos, Diamond & Related Materials 72, 94-98 (2017). [URL]. 5. Suppression of ...
The whey and cream man stopped his truck in front of the alms mans house and eased himself out onto the sideways. The freezing-mechanism had broken, leaking Freon and bubo-gas in through the hatchback window behind the drivers seat. He planted his two feet on the pavement and shook his left arm then his right, wiggled his legs to and fro and then craned his neck as far back as it would go. At that exact moment, 27 ½ minutes past eight, the Mercury Fish truck came caroming round the corner, the back doors flapping madly, the drivers loader hanging off the door-latch, one hand wrapped around the inside of the door, the other flailing wildly, his eyes bigger than goose eggs. A peg-blue sky scurried on above the whey and cream mans head, reminding him of less timely times, times when time mattered little, and what of it did, mattered for a short time then went scurrying away. The only time that mattered to him was whey-and-milk time which occurred each and every morning at exactly 27 ½ minutes ...
Painless 808nm laser hair removal treatment for full body Main Features: Germany imported laser bar Real 6 bars high power micro channel laser stack Freon Com...
Continuous-flow processing has become one of the fastest-growing research areas in chemistry in the last 10 years. Herein we disclose an automated and scalable continuous-flow route for the quick introduction of trifluoromethyl groups on a variety of heterocycles, with application in drug discovery and manufacturing. This involves the direct alkylation-cyclization of amines in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid or anhydride, cheap and readily available CF3-containing building blocks ...
These data show that CO 2 dominates the total forcing, with methane and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) becoming relatively smaller ... methane, and nitrous oxide: A significant revision of the methane radiative forcing". Geophysical Research Letters. 43 (24): 12 ... This index is a measure of the inter-annual changes in conditions that affect carbon dioxide emission and uptake, methane and ... While recently a study suggests a significant revision of methane IPCC formula. Radiative forcing can be a useful way to ...
For example, methane has been found in many water wells in West Virginia. One of the most widely used methods for headspace ... Examples of volatile anthropogenic chemicals include the refrigerants chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs ... "Testing for Methane, Ethane and Ethene in Water by Headspace Analysis Utilizing Method 3810 - Modified" (PDF). Retrieved 16 ... USGS (January 2006). "Methane in West Virginia Ground Water". Fact Sheet 2006-3011. Retrieved 16 April 2019. CS1 maint: ...
... which includes forcing from the much larger concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane. Chlorofluorocarbons also cause ... Methane produces a larger greenhouse effect per volume as compared to carbon dioxide, but it exists in much lower ... Methane production is also typically high in the anoxic sediments of floodplains, lakes, and reservoirs. Primary production is ... Arctic methane emissions indirectly caused by anthropogenic global warming also affect the carbon cycle and contribute to ...
The gases that have a role in the greenhouse effect are mainly carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons ... The acceleration of ice depletion will contribute to climate change as a whole: melting ice releases methane, ice reflects ...
... methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxides. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) has predicted a rise of ...
Methane: In 1859, John Tyndall determined that coal gas, a mix of methane and other gases, strongly absorbed infrared radiation ... Chlorofluorocarbon: In 1973, British scientist James Lovelock speculated that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) could have a global ... Methane was subsequently detected in the atmosphere in 1948, and in the 1980s scientists realized that human emissions were ... He found that water vapor, hydrocarbons like methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) strongly block the radiation. Some ...
Other gases with effects on the climate containing carbon in the atmosphere are methane and chlorofluorocarbons (the latter is ... The amount of methane produced and absorbed yearly varies widely. Large stores of methane can be found in the form of methane ... Natural methane production accounts 10-30% of global methane sources. Anthropogenic methane is produced in various ways, e.g. ... Methane levels have risen gradually since the onset of the industrial era, from ~700 ppb in 1750 to ~1775 ppb in 2005. Methane ...
Methane (CH. 4). *Nitrous oxide (N. 2O). *Ozone (O. 3). *Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) ... "Global Methane Emissions and Mitigation Opportunities" (PDF). Global Methane Initiative. 2020.. *^ "Sources of methane ... Methane has indirect effects in addition to forming CO. 2. The main chemical that reacts with methane in the atmosphere is the ... For example, methane and carbon monoxide (CO) are oxidized to give carbon dioxide (and methane oxidation also produces water ...
... methane, chlorofluorocarbons, free radicals/electrons, radiation, among others). The resultant hydrogen gas was then burned to ...
"Global Methane Emissions and Mitigation Opportunities" (PDF). Global Methane Initiative. 2020. "Sources of methane emissions". ... use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in refrigeration systems, and use of CFCs and halons in fire suppression systems and ... In comparison, methane has not increased appreciably, and N 2O by 0.25% y−1. Using different base years for measuring emissions ... 2007) carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride IPCC AR4 WG1 (2007), Solomon, S.; Qin, D.; Manning, M.; Chen ...
... methane, chlorofluorocarbons etc. Criminologists argue this is a symptom of ever-growing demand from consumers associated with ...
Like methane itself, halomethanes are tetrahedral molecules. The halogen atoms differ greatly in size and charge from hydrogen ... Many, including the chlorofluorocarbons, have attracted wide attention because they become active when exposed to ultraviolet ... Free radical chlorination of methane: CH4 + Cl2 (+ UV) → CH3Cl + HCl This method is useful for the production of CH4−xClx (x = ... Halomethane compounds are derivatives of methane (CH4) with one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced with halogen atoms (F, ...
Methane is mainly produced by livestock and agricultural practices. Methane was estimated to take up 10% of emitted greenhouse ... Another area of concern is that of ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs ... The blowout lasted 20 days, releasing more than 50,000 tons of methane into the atmosphere. The blowout leaked more methane ... The Coalbed Methane Outreach Program (CMOP) works to reduce methane released into the atmosphere as a result of coal mining by ...
... methane and chlorofluorocarbons), particulates (both organic and inorganic), and biological molecules. Air pollution may cause ... They are categorized as either methane (CH4) or non-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which ... Methane is highly flammable and may form explosive mixtures with air. Methane is also an asphyxiant and may displace oxygen in ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - harmful to the ozone layer; emitted from products are currently banned from use. These are gases ...
These include the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrofluororcarbons (HFC and HCFCs). As discussed below, a major reason that ... methane CH 4 and nitrous oxide N 2O. The concentration of the least common of these, N 2O, is about 400 ppbV. Other gases which ... ISBN 978-0-495-55573-5. Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; 'Greenhouse Effect Due to Chlorofluorocarbons: Climatic Implications'; ... one year after Roland and Molina's much-more-celebrated paper on the ability of chlorofluorocarbons to destroy stratospheric ...
... such as methane and chlorofluorocarbons. However, even then he wrote "the future balance of forcings is likely to shift toward ...
In 1967, Bickel and Hogeveen showed that 2HF·SbF5 will remove H2 from isobutane and methane from neopentane to form carbenium ... Materials compatible with fluoroantimonic acid as a solvent include SO2ClF, and sulfur dioxide; some chlorofluorocarbons have ...
... methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11 and CFC-12). The Anmyeon-do station is located in a ...
... methane, nitrous oxides and chlorofluorocarbons going into the atmosphere, but Third World energy use and deforestation ...
... mainly methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons - emitted since the eighteenth century was roughly 2.8 W/m2. The climate ... as well as increased concentrations of other greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Increasing temperatures have ...
... such as methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. Early in that decade, carbon dioxide was the only widely studied human ...
The 2011 estimate of CO 2-eq concentrations (the long-lived GHGs, made up of CO 2, methane (CH 4), nitrous oxide (N 2O), ... chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12), CFC-11, and fifteen other halogenated gases) is 473 ppm CO 2-eq (NOAA, 2012). The NOAA (2012) ... methane, and CO 2, measured in CO 2-eq) of between 25% and 90%, relative to the 2000 level. For CO 2 only, two-thirds to three- ... such as methane) as between a 3% decrease in global GDP to a small increase, relative to baseline. This was for an emissions ...
Methane CINC - Interdepartmental Committee of Climate Negotiators CLP - Carbon Literacy Project CMA - Meeting of the Parties to ... Chlorofluorocarbon CFRF - Climate Financial Risk Forum (UK) CF4 - Carbon tetrafluoride or tetrafluoromethane (greenhouse gas) ...
CDR - Carbon dioxide removal CER - Certified emission reductions CFC - Chlorofluorocarbon CF4 - Tetrafluoromethane CH4 - ... Methane COP - Conference of the Parties CO2 - Carbon dioxide C2F6 - Hexafluoroethane ENSO - El Niño-Southern Oscillation GCM - ...
estimate that globally, methane accounts for 30.2 percent. Like other greenhouse gases, methane contributes to global warming ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are emitted from mechanical refrigerating and freezing mechanisms - both staples in food shipment ... This is because there has been relatively little increase in atmospheric methane concentration in recent years [12][13][14][15] ... 2011). "Global atmospheric methane: budget, changes and dangers". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 369 (1943): 2058-2072. Bibcode:2011RSPTA ...
Kim, Ki-Hyun; Shon, Zang-Ho; Nguyen, Hang Thi; Jeon, Eui-Chan (2011). "A review of major chlorofluorocarbons and their ... where it interacts with UV-C radiation and forms highly reactive chloride ions that interact with methane. These highly ... Chlorine plays a large role in atmospheric cycling and climate, including, but not limited to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The ... signalling in the brain and regulate many other essential functions in biology The depleting effects of chlorofluorocarbons ( ...
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formulae CClmF4−m and C2ClmF6−m, ... Hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formula CClmFnH4−m−n and ... chlorofluorocarbon-11 and chlorofluorocarbon-12 in seawater". Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. 55 (8): ... Thus, methane boils at −161 °C whereas the fluoromethanes boil between −51.7 (CF2H2) and −128 °C (CF4). The CFCs have still ...
The name stems from the fact that it is methane (CH4) with a fluorine atom substituted for one of the hydrogen atoms. It is ... These compounds are related to the chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), but since they do not contain chlorine, are not destructive to ...
However, like ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4) is a relatively light gas. It is in fact even less dense than ammonia and so would ... Especially powerful greenhouse gases, such as sulfur hexafluoride, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), or perfluorocarbons (PFCs), have ... Even if a method could be found to prevent it escaping into space, methane can exist in the Martian atmosphere for only a ... Another way to create a Martian atmosphere would be to import methane (CH4) or other hydrocarbons, which are common in Titan's ...
Gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, etc.;. *Emulsions such as paints, adhesives, mayonnaise, hair ...
"chlorofluorocarbons". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved March 28, 2011.. *^ Laube, Johannes C.; Newland, Mike J.; Hogan, Christopher ... However, fluorine atoms react rapidly with water and methane to form strongly bound HF in the Earth's stratosphere, while ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other halogenated ozone-depleting substances (ODS) are mainly responsible for man-made chemical ... These elements are found in stable organic compounds, especially chlorofluorocarbons, which can travel to the stratosphere ...
They are categorized as either methane (CH4) or non-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - harmful to the ozone layer; emitted from products are currently banned from use. These are gases ... Methane is highly flammable and may form explosive mixtures with air. Methane is also an asphyxiant and may displace oxygen in ... Methane, emitted by the digestion of food by animals, for example cattle ...
Liquid ammonia has a very high standard enthalpy change of vaporization (23.35 kJ/mol, cf. water 40.65 kJ/mol, methane 8.19 kJ/ ... It was commonly used before the popularisation of chlorofluorocarbons (Freons). Anhydrous ammonia is widely used in industrial ... Ammonia has been detected in the atmospheres of the gas giant planets, including Jupiter, along with other gases like methane, ... The latter has the shape of a regular tetrahedron and is isoelectronic with methane. ...
Chlorofluorocarbons and chlorocarbonsEdit. Chlorofluorocarbons, which are banned or highly regulated, were widely used cleaning ... Not counting methane, biological sources emit an estimated 1150 teragrams of carbon per year in the form of VOCs.[21] The ... "ACTRIS non-methane hydrocarbon intercomparison experiment in Europe to support WMO GAW and EMEP observation networks" ...
Chlorofluorocarbons were used almost universally as refrigerants and propellants due to their relatively low toxicity and high ... For example, ethane with bromine becomes bromoethane, methane with four chlorine groups becomes tetrachloromethane. However, ... For example, the chlorofluorocarbons have been shown to lead to ozone depletion. Methyl bromide is a controversial fumigant. ... Several classes of widely used haloalkanes are classified in this way chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons ( ...
Prior to the development of chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur dioxide was used as a refrigerant in home refrigerators. ...
Free radical chlorination of methane:. CH4 + Cl2 (+ UV) → CH3Cl + HCl. This method is useful for the production of CH4−xClx (x ... Freon is a trade name for a group of chlorofluorocarbons used primarily as a refrigerant. The main chemical used under this ... Reaction of methane with hypochlorous acid, producing water.. CH4 + ClOH → CH3Cl + H2O. *Reaction of methanol with hypochlorous ... Halomethane compounds are derivatives of methane (CH4) with one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced with halogen atoms (F, ...
Chlorofluorocarbon. G. *Greenhouse effect. M. *Methane. *Methane hydrate. N. *Nitrous oxide. O. *Ozone ...
... , also called freon-11, CFC-11, or R-11, is a chlorofluorocarbon. It is a colorless, faint ethereal, and ... Trichloro(fluoro)methane. Other names Trichlorofluoromethane. Fluorotrichloromethane. Fluorochloroform. Freon 11. CFC 11. R 11 ...
Such measures could be undertaken in the energy sector and by reducing nitrous oxide and methane from agriculture, methane from ... The 1987 Montreal Protocol banned Chlorofluorocarbon (CFO) and the ozone layer recovered by 2000. The Council's 9 October ... This involves deep reductions in emissions of methane and black carbon: at least 35% of both by 2050, relative to 2010, to ... They also assume that other measures are simultaneously undertaken: e.g. non-CO2 emissions (such as methane, black carbon, ...
water 40.65 kJ/mol, methane 8.19 kJ/mol, phosphine 14.6 kJ/mol) and can therefore be used in laboratories in uninsulated ... It was commonly used before the popularisation of chlorofluorocarbons (Freons). Anhydrous ammonia is widely used in industrial ... The latter has the shape of a regular tetrahedron and is isoelectronic with methane. The ammonia molecule readily undergoes ...
Because CH 4 (methane) is produced in lakes and wetlands, the amount in the atmosphere is correlated with the strength of ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which contribute to the greenhouse effect and also cause ozone loss in the stratosphere, can be ... Ruddiman, William F.; Raymo, Maureen E. (2003). "A methane-based time scale for Vostok ice" (PDF). Quaternary Science Reviews. ... methane) can be used to connect the chronology of a Greenland core (for example) with an Antarctic core. In cases where ...
The problem was traced back to a chlorofluorocarbon used to clean parts after soldering. It had been absorbed, and was then ... The NIMS was employed to look for mesospheric clouds, which are believed to be caused by methane released by industrial ... of methane in Earth's atmosphere (a gas which must be replenished by either volcanic or biological activity), and modulated ...
There is an interest in a potential release of methane gas, a potent greenhouse gas, from methane clathrates present in the ... Developed nations ceased the production and use of chlorofluorocarbons and the atmospheric abundance and consequent ozone ...
... methane emission is currently contributing relatively little to global warming. Although reduction of methane emissions would ... Andino, Jean M. (October 21, 1999). "Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are heavier than air, so how do scientists suppose that these ... Methane mitigation in ruminants: from microbe to the farm scale. Animal 4 : 351-365. Eckard, R. J.; et al. (2010). "Options for ... Dlugokencky, E. J., E. G. Nisbet, R. Fisher and D. Lowry (2011). "Global atmospheric methane: budget, changes and dangers". ...
Chlorofluorocarbons Chlorofluorocarbons were used almost universally as refrigerants and propellants due to their relatively ... For example, methane (CH 4) has a melting point of -182.5 °C whereas tetrafluoromethane (CF 4) has a melting point of -183.6 °C ... For example, the chlorofluorocarbons have been shown to lead to ozone depletion. Methyl bromide is a controversial fumigant. ... For example, ethane with bromine becomes bromoethane, methane with four chlorine groups becomes tetrachloromethane. However, ...
Although structurally similar to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tetrafluoromethane does not deplete the ozone layer because the ... tetrafluoromethane is the perfluorinated counterpart to the hydrocarbon methane. It can also be classified as a haloalkane or ...
In a 2014 paper, Ramanathan and co-authors suggested that mitigating methane, soot, ozone and hydrofluorocarbons in the ... Ramanathan, V. (1975). "Greenhouse Effect Due to Chlorofluorocarbons: Climatic Implications". Science. 190 (4209): 50-51. ...
The targets apply to the four greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO 2), methane (CH 4), nitrous oxide (N 2O), sulphur ... These reduction targets are in addition to the industrial gases, chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, which are dealt with under the ... Emission savings include cuts in methane, HFC, and N2O emissions. As noted earlier on, the first-round Kyoto emissions ... CO2 was the largest proportion of emissions (63%), followed by methane (26%) and nitrous oxide (N2O) (11%). The energy sector ...
Make research projects and school reports about chlorofluorocarbons easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... Commercially, the most important CFCs were derivatives of methane and ethane. These included trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), ... Chlorofluorocarbons Encyclopedia of Public Health COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS. Chlorofluorocarbons ... Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). A chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound typically consisting of chlorine, fluorine, carbon ...
Chlorofluorocarbons, partially halogenated (methane derivatives) (EHC 126, 1991). Chlorofluorocarbons are very stable compounds ... PRODUCT MATRIX - Chlorofluorocarbons (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07). Chlorofluorocarbons are highly volatile ... Chlorofluorocarbons are numbered as follows: the first digit = number of C atoms minus 1 for methane derivatives it is ... FDA Consumer: Chlorofluorocarbons and the incredible shrinking ozone. Chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, have been at the center of ...
Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane * Carbon Dioxide * Oxygen ...
CFC: Chlorofluorocarbons. CFP: EU Common Fisheries Policy. CH4: Methane. CO: Carbon monoxide ...
CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons. CH4 Methane. CO2 Carbon dioxide. HFC Hydrofluorocarbons. NMHCs Nonmethane hydrocarbons ...
Methane (CH4). *Nitrous oxide (N2O). *Ozone (O3). *Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). *Hydrofluorocarbons (includes HCFCs and HFCs) ... Methane is 23x more damaging than Carbon Dioxide which is why people are encouraged to reduce their red meat intake. ...
CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons): CFCs account for 23% of the gases contributing to global warming. Sources include cooling devices, ... methane: It accounts for 11% of the gases contributing to global warming. Sources include landfill sites, cattle, termites, ...
Others include methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. The atmospheric increase of one particular greenhouse gas- ...
CFC chlorofluorocarbon. CFR Code of Federal Regulations. CH4 methane. CO2 carbon dioxide ... If the MSHA data for methane flow is provided in the units of actual cubic feet of methane per day, the methane flow data is ... 1) The annual methane emissions (i.e., the methane generation (MG), adjusted for oxidation, calculated using Equation TT-6 of ... and calculate the non-methane organic carbon correction factor as the ratio of the average methane concentration to the average ...
These data show that CO 2 dominates the total forcing, with methane and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) becoming relatively smaller ... methane, and nitrous oxide: A significant revision of the methane radiative forcing". Geophysical Research Letters. 43 (24): 12 ... This index is a measure of the inter-annual changes in conditions that affect carbon dioxide emission and uptake, methane and ... While recently a study suggests a significant revision of methane IPCC formula. Radiative forcing can be a useful way to ...
... which includes forcing from the much larger concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane. Chlorofluorocarbons also cause ... Methane produces a larger greenhouse effect per volume as compared to carbon dioxide, but it exists in much lower ... Methane production is also typically high in the anoxic sediments of floodplains, lakes, and reservoirs. Primary production is ... Arctic methane emissions indirectly caused by anthropogenic global warming also affect the carbon cycle and contribute to ...
The topical vapocoolant Fluori-Methane is an effective, quick, preferred, inexpensive agent for reducing vaccine-associated ... EMLA cream is expensive and requires a 60-min application, while Fluori-Methane (FM) is immediate in onset of action and ... Skin anesthesia begins at 10 degrees C. Fluori-Methane can briefly cool the skin to 0 degrees C. ... Conclusion: The topical vapocoolant Fluori-Methane is an effective, quick, preferred, inexpensive agent for reducing vaccine- ...
... chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide and low-level ozone. See greenhouse effect. Dictionary of Unfamiliar Words by Diagram Group ... Carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide and low-level ozone. See greenhouse effect. ...
Chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs: Chlorofluorocarbons, known as CFCs, are compounds that contain carbon, chlorine, bromine, fluorine ... Methane from swampy areas and released from animal excrement and solid waste. iii. Nitrous oxide produced by vehicle motor ... This effect is caused by using substances known as chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs. Contaminant gases: i. Chlorofluorocarbons, or ... methane and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere. The increase in air contamination from, among other things, burning fossil fuels ...
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE , ATMOSPHERE , ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY , HALOCARBONS AND HALOGENS , CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS Theme_ ... Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE , ATMOSPHERE , ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY , CARBON AND HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS , NON-METHANE HYDROCARBONS ...
Parameter: Atmospheric Composition , Methane Parameter: Atmospheric Composition , Nitric Acid Parameter: Atmospheric ... Parameter: Atmospheric Composition , Chlorofluorocarbons Parameter: Atmospheric Composition , Clouds Parameter: Atmospheric ...
Parameter: Atmospheric Composition , Methane Parameter: Atmospheric Composition , Nitric Acid Parameter: Atmospheric ... Parameter: Atmospheric Composition , Chlorofluorocarbons Parameter: Atmospheric Composition , Clouds Parameter: Atmospheric ...
... chlorofluorocarbons, methane, and nitrous oxide.. (2012) ... Methane. A hydrocarbon gas produced both through natural ... On a molecule-for-molecule basis, methane is a far more active greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, but also one which is much ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Synthetic compounds of entirely of industrial origin used in a number of applications, but now ... Because of the low atmospheric pressure, and with little to no methane or water vapor to reinforce the weak greenhouse effect, ...
Gases like carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide naturally occur in the atmosphere. Others, such as chlorofluorocarbons ( ... For example, animals produce methane, which is 30 times more powerful than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas. The nitrous ...
Chemicals/CAS: Aerosol Propellants; Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane; dichlorodifluoromethane, 75-71-8; HFA 134a, 431-89-0; ... Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane · Dose-Response Relationship, Drug · Double-Blind Method · Electrocardiography · Female · Half- ... Nutrition · Apaflurane · Cfc 12 · Chlorofluorocarbon · Dichlorodifluoromethane · Hfc 227 · Norflurane · Unclassified drug · ... HFC 134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) and HFC 227 (1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane) are used to replace chlorofluorocarbons ( ...
Greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and water vapor. Carbon dioxide, methane ... Common fluorocarbons include chlorofluorocarbons and related compounds (also know as ozone depleting substances). ... and nitrous oxide have significant natural and human sources while only industries produce chlorofluorocarbons. Water vapor has ...
These gases consist of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons. These gases are what cause global warming ...
Natural sources of methane include wetlands and termite mounds.. *Nitrous oxide is emitted during agricultural and industrial ... Examples of greenhouse gases not included in the inventory are ozone and selected chlorofluorocarbons. The most notable sources ... Methane comes from many sources, including human activities such as coal mining, natural gas production and distribution, waste ... For carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, the historical context provided by ice cores shows that present atmospheric ...
The emissions of the other greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) show some decrease between 1990 and 1994. ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and their substitutes (HCFCs) are other relevant greenhouse gases. These pollutants furthermore ... Regarding climate change there have been reductions in the production and consumption of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and its ...
CFC____________chlorofluorocarbon, e.g., ClCF3. CH4____________Methane. CI, 95%CI______Confidence Interval, 95% Confidence ... AGW believers still think model B or slightly higher is were temperatures should go (CO2 up, methane down since 1990).. ...
CH4 - methane. NO3 - nitrate radical. CFCs - chlorofluorocarbons. O & O2 - oxygen; O is less stable than O2 and more inclined ... Indeed, methane oxidation is the dominant source of CO in the pristine atmosphere, bolstered by incomplete combustion of ... One example is the man-made chlorofluoro carbons (CFCs), which have no known sinks in the troposphere and therefore can reach ... For example, OH reacts with methane (CH4), the simplest hydrocarbon, to produce water and a methyl radical (CH3). ...
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) , Primary (mobile and stationary) , Varies from no effect to breathing problems, to cancer.Breaks ... All contribute to smog except Methane, which links to global warming. ,. Ground-level ozone (O3) , Secondary , Like previous, ...
Methane (CH4). Nitrous oxide (N2O). Ozone (O3). Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)". Maybe you should tell the Wikipedia editors they ... Of course we know we have been pumping CO2 (and Methane) into the atmosphere (since the industrial revolution). What we dont ... 1) Efforts to reduce methane release from the oil/natural gas industry. ...
Hydrogen fluoride and silicon tetrafluoride Ozone Methane Nitrous oxides Chlorofluorocarbons Aluminum and phosphate fertilizer ...
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are a class of chemicals that contain only atoms of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Commercially, the most important CFCs were derivatives of methane and ethane. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The invention of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the late 1920s and early 1930s stemmed from the call for safer alternatives to the sulfur dioxide and ammonia refrigerants used at the time. (factbites.com)
  • Chlorofluorocarbons , or CFCs, have been at the center of an intense debate for nearly 15 years over scientific uncertainties and the conflict between environmental protection and economic interests. (factbites.com)
  • Others, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), are only produced by human activity. (metoffice.gov.uk)
  • Regarding climate change there have been reductions in the production and consumption of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and its substitutes and some reduction of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions (partly due to short-term effects) although in the same period further economic and industrial growth occurred. (europa.eu)
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are emitted from mechanical refrigerating and freezing mechanisms - both staples in food shipment and storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the late 1920s, we started adding man-made fluorinated gases like chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, to the mix. (nrdc.org)
  • The gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect include water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrous oxides, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). (nasa.gov)
  • Those that are man-made include the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), as well as sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). (jazzledazzlecrafts.com)
  • The hair spray sold today is far less damaging than hair sprays in the past, because today's products do not contain chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, said Steven Maguire, a research associate at SNOLAB, an underground physics research facility in Ontario, Canada. (jazzledazzlecrafts.com)
  • Summary: Shredded foam insulation from junked refrigerators is releasing substantial amounts of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, into the earth's atmosphere - and the more finely shredded the foam, the faster the release, a Danish researcher reports. (jazzledazzlecrafts.com)
  • The ozone layer had been damaged by man-made chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). (jazzledazzlecrafts.com)
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and halons destroy the earth's protective ozone layer, which shields the earth from harmful ultraviolet (UV-B) rays generated from the sun. (jazzledazzlecrafts.com)
  • Modern additions to these gases are tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). (eco-web.com)
  • Air pollution is caused by the deposits of harmful gases into the atmosphere that include carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, sulfur and chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs. (reference.com)
  • However, despite EPF's popularity and unique features, it has recently come under attack because of the gaseous methane derivatives-chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)-used to foam it. (madehow.com)
  • Man-made greenhouse gases also include compounds that contain chlorine and bromine such as sulphur hexafluoride and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). (niwa.co.nz)
  • After water vapor, the four most prevalent greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons, CFCs, ozone-damaging chemicals once widely used as refrigerants. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • Others are synthetic chemicals that are emitted only as a result of human activity, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ). (learner.org)
  • In the meanwhile, levels of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) continue to slowly decrease, a result of emission reductions under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. (abelard.org)
  • But the issue of environmental impacts on stratospheric ozone opened up a large amount of federal funding for basic research that eventually led to the finding that manmade chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs, commercially named "Freons") would deplete the ozone layer. (americanthinker.com)
  • [10] [11] The leading source of anthropogenic methane emissions is agriculture, closely followed by gas venting and fugitive emissions from the fossil-fuel industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • [12] [13] Traditional rice cultivation is the second biggest agricultural methane source after livestock, with a near-term warming impact equivalent to the carbon-dioxide emissions from all aviation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bhatia A, Kumar A, Das TK, Singh J, Jain N, Pathak H (2013b) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from soils under direct seeded rice. (springer.com)
  • With the model, the team calculated both the average global temperature and sea-level rise, in response to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, and hydrofluorocarbons. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • In one particular climate modeling scenario, the team evaluated sea level's response to various methane emissions scenarios, in which the world would continue to emit the gas at current rates, until emissions end entirely in three different years: 2050, 2100, and 2150. (phys.org)
  • What's more, they found that the longer the world waits to reduce methane emissions, the longer seas will stay elevated. (phys.org)
  • Developed countries account for most of the carbon dioxide, as well as aerosol and chlorofluorocarbon emissions. (un.org)
  • New Zealand's methane emissions come mostly from sheep and cattle burping - in fact, this makes up around a third of our total greenhouse gas emissions. (niwa.co.nz)
  • The White House-EPA plan to control methane emissions is but the latest effort against our domestic energy industry and would simply raise costs to consumers. (americanthinker.com)
  • There is concern that halons are being broken down in the atmosphere to bromine, which reacts with ozone, leading to depletion of the ozone layer (this is similar to the case of chlorofluorocarbons such as freon ). (factbites.com)
  • Chlorofluorocarbon effects and regulations: hearing before the Subcommittee on the Upper Atmosphere of the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, United States Senate, Ninety-fourth Congress, second session, December 15, 1976. (factbites.com)
  • As the chlorofluorocarbons break down, they release a chlorine atom which is capable of destroying tens of thousands of ozone molecules before being washed out of the atmosphere. (factbites.com)
  • In combination with effects predicted to occur as a result of increased combustion of fossil fuels, continued release of chlorofluorocarbons at current levels could also contribute to a potentially dangerous warming of the earth's atmosphere, altering climate and possible even partially melting the polar icecaps. (factbites.com)
  • Carbon in the Earth's atmosphere exists in two main forms: carbon dioxide and methane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gases like carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide naturally occur in the atmosphere. (metoffice.gov.uk)
  • Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and certain synthetic chemicals, trap some of the Earth's outgoing energy, thus retaining heat in the atmosphere. (epa.gov)
  • Huge quantities of carbon dioxide, methane and chlorofluorocarbons dumped in the atmosphere have trapped heat and raised global temperatures. (nytimes.com)
  • [1] Carbon dioxide (0.04%), nitrous oxide, methane and ozone are trace gases that account for almost 0.1% of Earth's atmosphere and have an appreciable greenhouse effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall results from their studies suggested that hydrogen would disrupt methane and ozone in the atmosphere. (ipl.org)
  • Others, such as carbon monoxide and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's), enter the atmosphere as a result of human activities, especially industry. (scholastic.com)
  • Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons are the abundant greenhouses gases in the atmosphere. (springer.com)
  • Through warming effects, methane and other gases impact rising seas long after leaving the atmosphere. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • In a paper published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , the researchers report that warming from short-lived compounds - greenhouse gases such as methane, chlorofluorocarbons, or hydrofluorocarbons, that linger in the atmosphere for just a year to a few decades - can cause sea levels to rise for hundreds of years after the pollutants have been cleared from the atmosphere. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • Many greenhouse gases occur naturally in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and nitrous oxide, while others are synthetic. (jazzledazzlecrafts.com)
  • In all three scenarios, methane gas quickly cleared from the atmosphere, and its associated atmospheric warming decreased at a similar rate. (phys.org)
  • Carbon dioxide and other gases (Methane) in the atmosphere lower the reflection rate of the earth, they trap the energy (heat) the sun shines onto earth within the atmosphere just like the glass of a greenhouse traps the heat inside. (moonofalabama.org)
  • The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • Climate change is refers to the rise in average surface temperatures on earth, mostly due to the burning of the fossil fuels such as oil and coal, which emits greenhouse gases into the atmosphere which are primarily carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons (#02). (ipl.org)
  • Most of them are compounds of chlorofluorocarbons, which are derivatives of methane and ethane. (homewarrantyreviews.com)
  • [3] [4] Other greenhouse gases include, but are not limited to, nitrous oxide , sulfur hexafluoride, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons (see IPCC list of greenhouse gases). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • [6] Anthropogenic methane emission sources include agriculture (ruminants, manure management, wetland rice production), various other industries and landfills. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although methane emission from agriculture and other anthropogenic sources has contributed substantially to past warming, it is of much less significance for current and recent warming. (wikipedia.org)
  • has since been attributed principally to anomalous methane flux from natural wetlands, mostly in the tropics, rather than to anthropogenic sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human activities have increased the atmospheric concentrations of many naturally occurring gases and have also added new ones.Anthropogenic sources of chlorofluorocarbons are adding to the greenhouse effect and are gradually destroying the ozone layer. (un.org)
  • Methane produces a larger greenhouse effect per volume as compared to carbon dioxide, but it exists in much lower concentrations and is more short-lived than carbon dioxide, making carbon dioxide the more important greenhouse gas of the two. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is estimated that between 1750 and 2011, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide increased by 40 percent, methane by 150 percent, and nitrous oxide by 20 percent. (nrdc.org)
  • To a lesser extent, the clearing of land for agriculture, industry, and other human activities have increased the concentrations of other greenhouse gases like methane (CH4), and further increased (CO2). (nasa.gov)
  • For example, methane is a much stronger greenhouse gas than CO 2 , but present in much smaller concentrations. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • We discover considerable temporal variability in methane concentrations in deeper horizons of freshwater aquifers and attribute this to persistent shifts in aquifer recharge that influence mixing between shallow freshwater and comparatively saline and methane-rich deep groundwater. (pnas.org)
  • Overall, methane concentrations ([CH 4 ]) ranged from detection limit to 70 mg/L, increased with aquifer depth, and, at several sites, exhibited considerable temporal variability. (pnas.org)
  • Methane concentrations in valley monitoring wells located above gas well laterals increased in conjunction with SGD, but CH 4 isotopic composition and hydrocarbon composition (CH 4 /C 2 H 6 ) are inconsistent with Marcellus origins for this gas. (pnas.org)
  • While the atmospheric concentrations of other gases are increasing steadily, the growth rate of methane concentrations has slowed over the past decade. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • Concentrations of nitrous oxide also reached record highs in 2007, up 0.25 er cent from the year before, while methane increased 0.34 per cent, exceeding the highest value so far, which was recorded in 2003. (abelard.org)
  • While the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and N2O are increasing steadily, the growth rate of methane concentrations has slowed over the past decade with some variations from one year to the next. (abelard.org)
  • Chlorofluorocarbons are compounds, similar to hydrocarbons, in which most, or all, of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by various combinations of fluorine and chlorine atoms. (factbites.com)
  • It also reacts with and destroys the powerful greenhouse gas methane and air pollutants including hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide. (noaa.gov)
  • These include the chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). (chemieonline.de)
  • They are methane, nitrous oxides, carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Refers to the gaseous components at and above the world's surface including the important gases oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and ozone. (greenbuildingpages.com)
  • Chlorofluorocarbons are highly volatile compounds, contributing to air pollution. (factbites.com)
  • That hot, rocky core is the original protoplanet seed from the solar system s primeval time, the nucleus around which those awesome layers of hydrogen and helium and ammonia, methane, sulphur compounds and water have wrapped themselves. (todayinsci.com)
  • For example, a carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms, coming out of the breaking cellulose, may lock together and form methane, natural gas. (todayinsci.com)
  • HCFC comprises inert compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and fluorine, and it is used instead of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) as it is less destructive to the ozone layer. (jazzledazzlecrafts.com)
  • those gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons. (geotimes.org)
  • along with other trace gases such as water vapor, chlorofluorocarbons, methane and nitrous oxide. (noaa.gov)
  • Ozone and trace gases such as methane, nitrous oxide, and the chlorofluorocarbons profoundly influence Earth's habitability. (nasa.gov)
  • Chlorofluorocarbons are implicated in two major threats to the global environment: the greenhouse effect and the reduction of the ozone layer . (factbites.com)
  • The increase in levels of pollutants such as carbon dioxide, methane and chlorofluorocarbons are causing a thickening of the ozone layer creating a negative effect of trapping too much radiation from the sun and not allowing the normal release of excess radiation. (ipl.org)
  • For example, animals produce methane, which is 30 times more powerful than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas. (metoffice.gov.uk)
  • Greenhouse Gas Mitigation - Transformative, high-risk/high-reward approaches are sought to economically and sustainably capture, contain, and/or convert greenhouse gases, such as CO2, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons, from industrial process streams or directly from air. (asme.org)
  • There is a glimmer of good news concerning the greenhouse gas methane. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) were developed by the American engineer Thomas Midgley in 1928 as a replacement for ammonia (NH chloromethane (CH Cl), and sulfur dioxide (SO), toxic but in common use at the time as refrigerants . (factbites.com)
  • Common fluorocarbons include chlorofluorocarbons and related compounds (also know as ozone depleting substances). (nasa.gov)
  • The rate of methane (CH4) oxidation by OH is also very slow, between 100 and 1000 times slower than other organic compounds. (chemieonline.de)
  • This is generally attributed to the greenhouse effect, and is caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and other pollutants. (prezi.com)
  • Natural sources of methane include wetlands and termite mounds. (epa.gov)
  • Human activities, such as fossil fuel exploitation, rice agriculture, biomass burning, landfills and ruminant farm animals, account for some 60 percent of atmospheric methane, with natural sources, for example wetlands and termites, responsible for the remaining 40 percent, the WMO report says. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • Methane levels increased 0.34 percent, exceeding the highest value so far, which was recorded in 2003. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • It is still too early to state with certainty, the scientists said, that this latest increase is the start of a new upward trend in methane levels. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • Incidences of drinking water contamination by methane (CH 4 ) and other contaminants emerged as resource development by HVHF spread from the US gulf coast states into other unconventional oil and gas (UOG) plays. (pnas.org)
  • Cattle and the rice paddies form important sources of methane. (aeronomie.be)
  • Chlorofluorocarbons are usually characterized by high vapour pressure (low boiling point ) and density and low viscosity, surface tension, refractive index, and solu- bility in water. (factbites.com)
  • For example, OH reacts with methane (CH 4 ), the simplest hydrocarbon, to produce water and a methyl radical (CH 3 ). (niwa.co.nz)
  • The main gases responsible for the greenhouse effect include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapor (which all occur naturally), and fluorinated gases (which are synthetic). (nrdc.org)
  • The methane, burning (combining with oxygen), turns into carbon dioxide and water, which also go up the flue. (todayinsci.com)
  • Some greenhouse gases including CO 2 , methane, water vapour and nitrous oxide are found naturally in the environment. (niwa.co.nz)
  • Specifically, OH is responsible for oxidising carbon monoxide (CO) and other carbon-based molecules, such as methane (CH 4 ). (niwa.co.nz)
  • Selected monoterpenes inhibited methane oxidation by methanotrophs ( Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, Methylobacter luteus ), denitrification by environmental isolates, and aerobic metabolism by several heterotrophic pure cultures. (asm.org)
  • Complete inhibition of methane oxidation by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b with 1.1 mM (−)-α-pinene lasted for more than 2 days with a culture of optical density of 0.05 before activity resumed. (asm.org)
  • The inhibitory effect of monoterpenes on methane oxidation was greatest with unsaturated, cyclic hydrocarbon forms [e.g., (−)-α-pinene, ( S )-(−)-limonene, ( R )-(+)-limonene, and γ-terpinene]. (asm.org)
  • Methane comes from many sources, including human activities such as coal mining, natural gas production and distribution, waste decomposition in landfills, and digestive processes in livestock and agriculture. (epa.gov)
  • Pediatric studies with routine vaccines have shown topical anesthetic EMLA cream (lidocaine and prilocaine, Astra Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) and the topical vapocoolant Fluori-Methane (dichlorodifluoromethane and trichlorodifluoromethane, Gebauer Co.) to be equally effective in reducing pain from vaccinations. (nih.gov)
  • Chlorofluorocarbons are a group of chemicals discovered around 1930 that contain varying numbers of chlorine , fluorine, carbon and, sometimes, bromine atoms. (factbites.com)
  • Concern persists over the potential for unconventional oil and gas development to contaminate groundwater with methane and other chemicals. (pnas.org)
  • The rise of six parts per billion from 2006 to 2007 is the highest annual methane increase observed since 1998. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • Some gases, such as methane and nitrous oxide, rise from the Earth's surface largely as a result of biological processes in plants and animals. (scholastic.com)
  • But human activities such as burning fossil fuels for industry or transport, and methane from farm animals, are responsible for producing greater quantities of greenhouse gases than occur naturally. (niwa.co.nz)
  • Collectively, our observations suggest that SGD was an unlikely source of methane in our valley wells, and that naturally occurring methane in valley settings, where regional flow systems interact with local flow systems, is more variable in concentration and composition both temporally and spatially than previously understood. (pnas.org)
  • Sweden and Norway have banned the use of chlorofluorocarbons as aerosol propellants. (factbites.com)
  • EPA is apparently unaware that the generally believed greenhouse (GH) effectiveness of methane (when compared to a molecule of CO2) is too high by a factor of about 100. (americanthinker.com)
  • Methane comes from agriculture, especially rice growing and the digestive processes of cattle, from coal mining, natural gas and from the breakdown of waste. (informaction.org)
  • To complicate matters, when scientists tried to measure the concentration of hydroxyl radical levels compared to other gases, such as methane, they were seeing only small variations from year to year. (noaa.gov)
  • Of the 682 million kilograms of chlorofluorocarbons consumed globally during 1991, the DuPont Corporation estimates the use for various applications as follows: 32 percent for refrigerants , 28 percent for blowing agents, 20 percent for cleaning agents, and 18 percent for propellants. (factbites.com)
  • estimate that globally, methane accounts for 30.2 percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] Methane and nitrous oxide are also emitted in large amounts from natural sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural sources for Methane and CO2 are well known , and have been around for millennia. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • Release of chlorofluorocarbons into the global environment during use, disposal of wastes, transport, and storage are an increasing concern because of the potential impact such uncontrolled releases may have on the future health of mankind, mainly through the depletion of stratospheric ozone. (factbites.com)
  • Since then, concern over the chlorofluorocarbon propellants recommended for aerosols to be used for disinsection of aircraft has led to a reconsideration of their use. (who.int)
  • Like other greenhouse gases, methane contributes to global warming when its atmospheric concentration rises. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration of important gases, like carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are measured continuously since a few decades. (aeronomie.be)
  • They are currently of interest industrially as replacements for chlorofluorocarbons and halogenated solvents ( 21 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • NOAA's Patricia Lang prepares to measure methane levels inside a flask that is part of NOAA's global air sampling network. (noaa.gov)
  • Methane levels were a key point of comparison in the new study, published in Science. (noaa.gov)
  • In addition, atmospheric methane levels are roughly 200 times less than those of CO2 - yielding a GH overestimate of about 20,000. (americanthinker.com)
  • I figured that it should increase at the rate of population growth and estimated that atmospheric methane levels should rise roughly 1% annually -- the first such prediction. (americanthinker.com)
  • As for non-CO 2 emission, the global warming potential (GWP) of methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is 21 and 310 times that of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), respectively, which should not be overlooked in developing the inventory. (hindawi.com)
  • and that carbon dioxide and methane and other greenhouse gases are producing global warming, a steady trend amidst fluctuations produced by volcanic eruptions and other sources. (todayinsci.com)
  • All contribute to smog except Methane, which links to global warming. (antiessays.com)
  • The 100-year global warming potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are recently estimated at 25 and 298 carbon dioxide equivalents, respectively. (wikipedia.org)