Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chlorofluorocarbons, Ethane: A group of ethane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedMethylococcaceae: A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedAir: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.BaltimoreElectric Organ: In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.MarylandEnergy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Expert Systems: Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Household Articles: Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Phosgene: A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Carbonic Acid: Carbonic acid (H2C03). The hypothetical acid of carbon dioxide and water. It exists only in the form of its salts (carbonates), acid salts (hydrogen carbonates), amines (carbamic acid), and acid chlorides (carbonyl chloride). (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome following exposure to a fluorocarbon. (1/60)This report describes the case of a 43-yr-old male who developed reactive airways dysfunction syndrome after exposure to a high level of bromotrifluoromethane (CF3Br, Halon 1301), a fluorocarbon widely used in automatic fire extinguishing systems. The patient was a previously healthy, nonatopic male, who developed wheezing and intermittent and reversible obstructive ventilatory impairment starting immediately after a large accidental nonfire-related release of CF3Br in a confined space. (+info)
Induction of genetic damage in human lymphocytes and mutations in Salmonella by trihalomethanes: role of red blood cells and GSTT1-1 polymorphism. (2/60)The brominated trihalomethanes (THMs) are mutagenic and carcinogenic disinfection by-products frequently found in chlorinated drinking water. They can be activated to mutagens by the product of the glutathione S-transferase-Theta (GSTT1++-1) gene in Salmonella RSJ100, which has been transfected with this gene. To evaluate this phenomenon in humans, we have examined the genotoxicity of a brominated THM, bromoform (BF), using the Comet assay in human whole blood cultures exposed in vitro. No differences were found in the comet tail length between cultures from GSTT1-1(+) versus GSTT1-1(-) individuals (1.67 +/- 0.40 and 0.74 +/- 0.54 microm/mM, respectively, P = 0.28). The high variability was due to the relatively weak induction of comets by BF. Combining the data from both genotypic groups, the genotoxic potency of BF was 1.20 +/- 0.34 microm/mM (P = 0.003). GSTT1-1 is expressed in red blood cells but not in the target cells (lymphocytes), and expression within the target cell (as in Salmonella RSJ100) may be necessary for enhanced mutagenesis in GSTT1-1(+) relative to GSTT1-1(-) cultures. To examine this, we exposed Salmonella RSJ100 and a control strain not expressing the gene (TPT100) to the most mutagenic brominated THM detected in Salmonella, dibromochloromethane (DBCM), either in the presence or absence of S9 or red blood cells from GSTT1-1(+) or GSTT1-1(-) individuals. S9 did not activate DBCM in the non-expressing strain TPT100, and it did not affect the ability of the expressing strain RSJ100 to activate DBCM. As with S9, red cells from either genotypic group were unable to activate DBCM in TPT100. However, red cells (whole or lysed) from both genotypic groups completely repressed the ability of the expressing strain RSJ100 to activate DBCM to a mutagen. Such results suggest a model in which exposure to brominated THMs may pose an excess genotoxic risk in GSTT1-1(+) individuals to those organs and tissues that both express this gene and come into direct contact with the brominated THM, such as the colon. In contrast, those organs to which brominated THMs would be transported via the blood might be protected by erythrocytes. Such a proposal is reasonably consistent with the organ specificity of drinking water-associated cancer in humans, which shows slightly elevated risks for cancer of the colon and bladder but not of the liver. (+info)
Drinking water source and chlorination byproducts in Iowa. III. Risk of brain cancer. (3/60)The authors conducted a population-based case-control study in Iowa of 375 brain cancer patients and 2,434 controls. A postal questionnaire was used to gather information on lifetime residential history, sources of drinking water, beverage intake, and other potential risk factors. Exposure to chlorination byproducts in drinking water was estimated by combining questionnaire data with historical information from water utilities and trihalomethane levels in recent samples. The analysis included 291 cases (77.6%) and 1,983 controls (81.5%), for whom water quality information was available for at least 70% of lifetime years. Proxies represented 74.4% of cases. The mean number and mean duration of places of residence were comparable between direct and proxy respondents, suggesting little contribution to bias. After multivariate adjustment, odds ratios for brain cancer were 1.0, 1.1, 1.6, and 1.3 for exposure to chlorinated surface water of 0, 1-19, 20-39, and > or =40 years (p trend = 0.1). Among men, odds ratios were 1.0, 1.3, 1.7, and 2.5 (p trend = 0.04), and among women, 1.0, 1.0, 1.6, and 0.7 (p trend = 0.7)). Similar findings were found with estimates of average lifetime level of trihalomethanes. The association was stronger among men with above-median tap water consumption. These observations deserve further attention, especially in view of increasing glioma rates. (+info)
Investigation of an acute chemical incident: exposure to fluorinated hydrocarbons. (4/60)OBJECTIVES: To assess whether attendance at the site after an incident in a sewer was associated with symptoms in emergency personnel and whether the prevalence of symptoms was associated with estimated levels of exposure to any chemical hazard. METHODS: Symptoms experienced by people attending an incident involving two dead sewer workers suggested the presence of a chemical hazard, before environmental sampling confirmed any toxic agent. Self reported symptoms, estimated exposures, and biomarkers of exposure for likely agents from all 254 people who attended the incident and a referent occupational group matching the 83 emergency personnel who went to the Accident and Emergency department (A and E) in the first 48 hours were recorded. The prevalence of symptoms and concentrations of creatine phosphokinase in serum of the 83 early patients at A and E were compared with their referent occupational group. In all workers who attended the incident, the trends in symptom prevalences and concentrations of creatine phosphokinase in serum were examined by distance from the site and predefined exposure category. RESULTS: Among all workers who attended the incident, symptoms of shortness of breath and sore throat were significantly associated with indirect estimates of exposure but not associated with concentrations of creatine phosphokinase. Freon was detected in two blood samples. The early patients at A and E reported more symptoms than their matched reference group and their median concentrations of creatine phosphokinase were higher. CONCLUSIONS: The association between symptoms and concentrations of creatine phosphokinase with attendance at the site indicated the presence of a continuing hazard at the site and led to extra precautions being taken. Comparison values from the referent occupational group prevented unnecessary medical follow up. (+info)
Effect of dichlorodifluoromethane on the appearance, viability, and integrity of Escherichia coli. (5/60)Cultures of Escherichia coli H52 were treated with liquid dichlorodifluoromethane (fluorocarbon-12 [f-12]) for 2 h at 22 C and then examined microscopically. Treated cells tended to clump, and their cytoplasms were generally less dense and less uniform in appearance than those of control cells. E. coli ML30 was exposed to f-12 at a concentration of 1.25 X saturation for times up to 1,200 min at 22 C. Cells were examined for changes in viability (plate count), permeability (as measured by exit of alpha-[14-C]methylglucoside or uptake of omicron-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside), release of compounds absorbing at 260 nm, and lysis (changes in absorbance at 420 nm). Large losses of alpha-methylglucoside and of percentage of viability occurred after brief exposure to f-12. Release of compounds absorbing at 260 nm occurred more slowly than the aforementioned events, possibly because these molecules are larger than alpha-methylglucoside. During 1,200-min exposure to f-12, the number of survivors decreased from 10-9 to 10-4 organisms/ml, the loss of compounds absorbing at 260 nm amounted to 50 percent, and 32 percent lysis occurred. Most of these changes occurred during the first 300 min of treatment. Loss of alpha-methylglucoside was almost complete after 1-min exposure to f-12. These results suggest that death of the cell involves several stages, with a change of permeability, occurring first, followed by leakage of compounds of increasing size and, finally, lysis. (+info)
Comparative effects of anesthetics on the viability and integrity of Escherichia coli ML30. (6/60)Cells of Escherichia coli ML30 in a mineral salts medium were exposed to dichlorodifluoromethane (f-12), cyclopropane, halothane, or Ethrane at concentrations of 1.25, 0.2, 0.04, and 0.008 X saturation for times up to 1,200 min, and at temperatures in the range of 2 to 37 C. When any of these anesthetics were applied for 300 min at 1.25 X saturation, a substantial decrease in number of survivors occurred. Halothane was most bactericidal, cyclopropane and Ethrane were moderately bactericidal, and t-12 was least bactericidal. At saturation values of less than 1.0, none of the four anesthetics had an appreciable effect on viability of E. coli. Greatest increases in cell permeability occurred when anesthetics were used at saturation values of 1.25, and permeability changes generally decreased as the concentrations of the chemicals were reduced. In many instances, anesthetics in the vapor state caused significant increases in cell permeability but little or no loss of viability. This indicated that a close relationship did not exist between loss of viability and increased permeability. All four anesthetics caused E. coli to lose substantial and similar amounts of compounds absorbing at 260 nm. Release of compounds absorbing at 260 nm generally increased as the saturation value of a given chemical was increased. Halothane, Ethrane, and cyclopropane but not f-12 caused lysis of E. coli ML300. Considering all results, E. coli ML30 was damaged more by halothane or cyclopropane than by f-12 or Ethrane. When f-12 was applied at a saturation value of 1.25, the bactericidal effect on E. coli was much greater at 37 or 22 C than at 12 or 2 C. (+info)
Delivery of fenoterol via Respimat, a novel 'soft mist' inhaler. a randomised, double-blind (within device), placebo-controlled, cross-over, dose-ranging study in asthmatic patients. (7/60)BACKGROUND: The phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) for metered dose inhalers (MDIs) has prompted the development of alternative propellants and the design of propellant-free devices for inhalation therapy. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to determine the dose of fenoterol inhaled from Respimat (RMT), a new propellant-free soft mist inhaler, which is equivalent in terms of efficacy and safety to 1 puff of either 100 or 200 microg fenoterol inhaled from a conventional CFC-MDI (Berotec). METHODS: Sixty-two asthmatic patients (35 male, 27 female) with a mean baseline FEV(1) of 1.7 liters, corresponding to 55% of the predicted normal value, were randomized at two study centers to 4 of a total of 8 possible treatments: placebo; 12.5, 25, 50, 100, or 200 microg fenoterol via RMT, and 100 or 200 microg fenoterol delivered via the MDI. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients completed the study as planned. Results of the therapeutic equivalence test for the primary endpoint, average FEV(1) (AUC(0-6))/6 and for the secondary endpoint, peak FEV(1), showed that the 12.5- and 25-microg fenoterol doses administered via RMT were equivalent to the 100 microg fenoterol dose from the MDI. The 50-, 100- and 200-microg fenoterol doses delivered by RMT did not meet the criterion for therapeutic equivalence with the 100-microg dose from the MDI, and if tested for a difference would have been significantly different in favor of RMT. All 5 RMT fenoterol doses were therapeutically equivalent to the MDI 200-microg fenoterol dose. Headache, reported by 4 patients on test days and 2 patients between test days in those randomized to RMT, was the most common adverse event, but the active treatments were generally well tolerated with no dose-dependent increases in incidence or severity of adverse events observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the study suggest that safe and efficacious bronchodilation can be obtained from single-dose fenoterol administered via RMT. Use of lower absolute doses to obtain a clinically significant improvement in pulmonary function may be possible because of the increased lung deposition achievable with the novel soft mist inhaler. (+info)
Biotransformation and elimination of 14C-trichlorofluoromethane (FC-11) and 14C-dichlorodifluoromethane (FC-12) in man. (8/60)Radiocarbon-labeled trichlorofluoromethane (FC-11; 14CC13F) and dichlorodifluormethane (FC-12; 14CC12F2) were separately inhaled by a female subject and a male subject. A predetermined volume of fluorocarbon (1000 ppm; 100 muCi) in air was delivered through a nonrebreating system and a tight-fitting face mask for 7-17 minutes. Total expired gases were collected during fluorocarbon exposure and afterward until no radioactivity was detectable. Expired 14CO2 and 14C-fluorocarbon were assayed. Urine was collected for 72 hours and assayed for nonvolatile radioactivity. Total recoveries of FC-11 were 99.5 and 79.4 per cent in the woman and the man, respectively. Total recoveries of FC-12 were 95.4 and 103.2 per cent. Traces of radioactivity were found in urine (FC-11, 0.07 and 0.09 per cent; FC-12, 0.02 and 0.03 per cent) and in exhaled carbon dioxide (FC-11, 0.13 and 0.10 per cent; FC-12, 0.08 per cent in both subjects). Total metabolites were equal to or less than 0.2 per cent of the administered dose. The amount of radioactivity in urine was insufficient to permit identification of possible fluorocarbon metabolites. The trace of metabolites could be products of radiolabeled impurities. (Key words: Gases, non-anesthetic, dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon 12); Gases, non-anesthetic, trichlorofluoromethane (Freon 11); Pharmacology, fluorocarbons.) (+info)
Freon CAS 11126-05-9 Refrigerant R22 R134a R404a R406a R407c R410a R507 R600a from China manufacturer - MOSINTER GROUP LIMITED
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The chemical name of refrigerant R11 is trichloromonofluoromethane and its chemical formula is CCl3F. Refrigerant R11 is chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Among all the refrigerants commonly used for the refrigeration and air conditioning applications, R11 has the highest potential to cause the depletion of the ozone layer from the upper layers of the atmosphere and the greenhouse effect. R-11 is now being replaced by other environment friendly refrigerants, of which the most common is R-123.
A refrigerant cycling device is provided, wherein a compressor comprises an electric motor element, a first and a second rotary compression elements in a sealed container. The first and the second rotary compression elements are driven by the electric motor element. The refrigerant compressed and discharged by the first rotary compression element is compressed by absorbing into the second rotary compression element, and is discharged to the gas cooler. The refrigerant cycling device comprises an intermediate cooling loop for radiating heat of the refrigerant discharged from the first rotary compression element by using the gas cooler; a first internal heat exchanger, for exchanging heat between the refrigerant coming out of the gas cooler from the second rotary compression element and the refrigerant coming out of the evaporator; and a second internal heat exchanger, for exchanging heat between the refrigerant coming out of the gas cooler from the intermediate cooling loop and the refrigerant coming out
Freon leaks are a hazard for our environment, health, and budget. Find out which freon leak detector is the right one for your home.
One of the most common issues your air conditioning system can experience is a freon leak. Learn 4 signs your AC is leaking freon and what to do about it.
4-tert-butylpyridine/bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt-doped BTPA-TCNE-based perovskite solar cell
Page contains details about 4-tert-butylpyridine/bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt-doped BTPA-TCNE-based perovskite solar cell . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
EWGs Tap Water Database Chlorodifluoromethane results for Phoenixville Water Dept | Chlorodifluoromethane. Find out what is in your tap water
EWGs Tap Water Database Chlorodifluoromethane results for Gladstone | Chlorodifluoromethane. Find out what is in your tap water
An empirical correlation and rating charts for the performance of adiabatic capillary tubes with alternative refrigerants<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An empirical correlation and rating charts for the performance of adiabatic capillary tubes with alternative refrigerants. AU - Choi, Jongmin. AU - Kim, Yong Chan. AU - Chung, Jin Taek. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - With the phaseout of conventional refrigerants, refrigeration and air conditioning systems must be redesigned to improve system performance and reliability with alternative refrigerants. In this study, a generalized correlation for the prediction of refrigerant flow rate through adiabatic capillary tubes is developed by generating dimensionless parameters for operating conditions, capillary tube geometry, and refrigerant properties using the Buckingham Pi theorem. The database for the present correlation includes extensive experimental data for R12, R22, R134a, R152a, R407C, and R410A obtained from the open literature. The present correlation, which has a relatively simpler form to employ, yields a mean deviation of 5.4% and a standard deviation of 6.5% from the ...
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The "Global Ammonia Refrigerant Market 2019 Analysis Report " is a pervasive research study, which provides current as well as upcoming technical. The financial details of the Ammonia Refrigerant industry are analyzed that would help to run your business more effectively. The report presents crucial data such as key trends, growth factors, drivers, business threats, competitive landscape, market dynamics and opportunities for established players/newcomers in global Ammonia Refrigerant market. This market analysis of an industry is a crucial thing for various stakeholders like investors, CEOs, traders, suppliers, and others associated with the business.. The report section starts with an overview contains an objective study of the global Ammonia Refrigerant market followed by market definition, classification, market size assessment (2014-2025) in terms of value and volume (thousand units). The report analyzes the Ammonia Refrigerant market on the basis of key market segments ( product types, ...
0011]According to a second aspect of the present invention, an oil separator for a CO2 refrigerant cycle includes a separation part and an oil storage part. The separation part includes a separation cylinder having a bottom wall, an inner cylinder and an inlet pipe. The inner cylinder is disposed in the separation cylinder. The inlet pipe connects to the separation cylinder tangential to an inner surface of the separation cylinder. The separation part defines an inlet opening in the inner surface of the separation cylinder to allow CO2 refrigerant containing oil from the inlet pipe to the separation cylinder. The separation part separates the oil from the CO2 refrigerant by means of a centrifugal force while turning or whirling the CO2 refrigerant containing the oil along the inner surface of the separation cylinder. The inner cylinder having an end within the separation cylinder, and the end defines a discharge port for discharging separated CO2 refrigerant from the separation part. The bottom ...
Use of 18F labelled fluorocarbon-11 to investigate the fate of inhaled fluorocarbons in man and in the rat | Thorax
Williams, Faith M., Draffan, G. H., Dollery, C. T., Clark, J. C., Palmer, A. J., and Vernon, P. (1974).Thorax, 29, 99-103. Use of 18F labelled fluorocarbon-11 to investigate the fate of inhaled fluorocarbons in man and in the rat. The distribution and elimination of 18F labelled fluorocarbon-11 has been followed in a group of rats killed after air breathing following six minutes exposure to 18F fluorocarbon-11. Whole body and individual organ count rates were measured. In four volunteers the fate of 18F labelled fluorocarbon-11 was followed by both whole body counting and gamma camera measurement of the activity in the lung and mouth region after inhalation from a specially loaded aerosol dispenser.. In the rat there was a high initial level in high blood flow organs and in the adrenals and fat: the level in blood and high blood flow organs fell rapidly. Elimination from fat was slow but the adrenal level had fallen within one hour. The fall in whole body count rate was similar to that in ...
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Refrigerant gas supplier. R-22 is gas is used in a variety of maritime refrigeration applications for low, medium and high temperatures (-40 to +16° C). This colorless gas is better known as HCFC-22, or R-22. It is commonly used as a propellant and refrigerant. R22 refrigerant is one of the most commonly used refrigerants.
"Evaluation of R-410A refrigerant alternatives in a residential reversi" by Pierre Pardo, Louis Charbonnier et al.
Protocols and regulations such as the Montreal Protocol (1987), the Kyoto Protocol (1997), the European F-gas regulation (2006) and now its revision (2014) cause a shift toward refrigerants with both zero Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) and low Global Warming Potential (GWP). Alternative refrigerants with low-GWP are under investigation for residential heat pumps and air-conditioners as R-410A has a GWP of 2088. In this study, two promising alternative refrigerants with a low-GWP, DR-5A (R-454B) and L41-2 (R-447A), both HFC-HFO mixtures with a GWP of 466 and 583 respectively, have been tested in a residential heat pump. Â To assess and to compare the heat pump performances using R-410A, DR-5A and L41-2, drop-in tests have been carried out in a 10 kW air-to-water reversible heat pump. For each refrigerant, the heat pump performances have been assessed for 2 rating conditions and 2 operating limit conditions in the cooling mode and for 6 rating conditions and 3 operating limit conditions in the heating
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I kinda threw this together this morning with two things in mind regarding hydrocarbon (propane or isobutane-based) refrigerants: The legalities of its use Safety considerations The questions continue to arise here in this forum on the use of hydrocarbon refrigerants. The topic remains a dynamic one, albeit, with a snails pace in progression towards its use. It seems inevitable given the focus on the GWP (global warming potential) index of refrigerants. At any rate, you
The Robinair LD7 Premium Refrigerant Leak Detector features a new color graphic display that highlights leak sizes in two unique ways. Bar graph mode shows the amount of refrigerant detected in the air and changes colors as the sensor gets closer to the leak. Sweep mode allows the user to see the level of refrigerant detected in the air through a line graph that helps the user trace back and forth to pinpoint the exact source of the leak.
Among alternative refrigerants, ammonia with zero Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP) and Global Warming Potential (GWP), and favorable thermodynamic properties is a sensible choice as a replacement for the synthetic refrigerants, which are powerful greenhouse gases.. In this paper, the results of experiments done on a new ammonia water-to-water heat pump prototype at different evaporation temperatures and compressor speeds are reported. The heat pump is designed to deliver 7 kW heat at evaporation temperature of -5°C and condensation temperature of 40°C. The hot discharge gas from compressor is utilized to provide sanitary hot water, and the rest of the heat is used for preheating the tap water and space heating of a single-family house. The compact design of the heat pump helps reducing the refrigerant charge. To reduce the charge further and to prevent oil accumulation at the bottom of evaporator, a minichannel aluminum heat exchanger is used as evaporator.. ...
A method and apparatus for using a secondary refrigerant to precool and liquefy a primary refrigerant, then vaporizing and expanding the primary refrigerant to cool a cold tip of a cryosurgical instrument for ablation of biological tissue, such as cardiovascular tissue, in particular endocardiac tissue and tissue inside a cardiac blood vessel. The secondary refrigerant has a critical temperature above the critical temperature of the primary refrigerant, and a cooling temperature below the critical temperature of the primary refrigerant, thereby facilitating the use of the precooling step to provide liquid primary refrigerant in an operating room environment in which the primary refrigerant could not otherwise be provided in the liquid phase.
A method and apparatus for determining the sufficiency of refrigerant charge in an air conditioning system by the use of only two temperature measurements. The temperature of the liquid refrigerant leaving the condenser coil is sensed and the temperature of the condenser coil itself is sensed and the difference between these two measurements is calculated to provide an indication of the adequacy of refrigerant charge in the system. This process is refined by steps taken to eliminate measurements during transient operations and by filtering signals to eliminate undesirable noise. A permitted threshold of deviation is calculated by using probability theory.
Alibaba.com offers 62 refrigerant ball valve products. About 100% of these are valves. A wide variety of refrigerant ball valve options are available to you, such as brass, stainless steel, and plastic.
0071]Secondly, in the arrangement shown in FIG. 3, some of the cooling duty required for the first refrigerant is shifted from the third refrigerant stream 120 (passing through the first cooling stage 38), and passed to one or more cooler(s) represented in FIG. 3 by cooler 54. This reduces or `unloads` some of the cooling power or duty hitherto required of the third refrigerant stream 120 (to provide the same level or amount of condensed first refrigerant as conventionally provided), enabling the same cooling power of third refrigerant stream 120 to provide more cooling to the first refrigerant stream and/or to the hydrocarbon stream 10. Thus, the first refrigerant stream 20 either has more cooling power for the second cooling stage 12, which is usually the main cooling stage of a liquefaction plant, and/or the cooled hydrocarbon stream 10a is already cooler prior to entry in the second cooling stage 12 ...
China 630kg Liquid Chloride Steel Refrigerant Refillable Gas Cylinder - China Compressed Gas Cylinder, Liquified Gas Cylinder
China 630kg Liquid Chloride Steel Refrigerant Refillable Gas Cylinder, Find details about China Compressed Gas Cylinder, Liquified Gas Cylinder from 630kg Liquid Chloride Steel Refrigerant Refillable Gas Cylinder - Changzhou Lanyi Aircraft Equipment Manufacture Limited Company
China T50 Liquied Gas Tank Container for LPG, Ammonia, R134A, R22, Butune, Propene, Refrigerant - China Tailer Tank, Storage...
China T50 Liquied Gas Tank Container for LPG, Ammonia, R134A, R22, Butune, Propene, Refrigerant, Find details about China Tailer Tank, Storage Tank from T50 Liquied Gas Tank Container for LPG, Ammonia, R134A, R22, Butune, Propene, Refrigerant - Changzhou Lanyi Aircraft Equipment Manufacture Limited Company
In consideration of physical and chemical properties of pure substances, speed of sound is one of important quantity which can used to calculate many of other thermo-physical properties such as isothermal compressibility, Joule-Thomson coefficient, isobaric heat capacity and etc. These thermo-physical properties are the main parameters in industrial and chemical processes. Development of accurate models for thermodynamic properties computation such as speed of sound is well expected above all in those fields where very high performance calculations have to be reached. In this present work, a new generalized model as a function of reduced temperature and reduced density is proposed to correlate speed of sound of methane, ethane, propane and butane halogenated refrigerants. Speed of sounds have been calculated and compared with data reported in literatures for 5600 data points of 28 refrigerants, and the overall average absolute percentage deviation of 0.92%. The source of speed of sound data used in this
Refrigerant Management System Automatic for R-134a and R-1234yf - Yellow Jacket HVAC Supplies and Products
Designed to meet todays tough service standards, the YELLOW JACKET® Refrigerant Management System (RMS) 37840 for R-134a and 37860 for R-1234yf provide full cycle recovery/recycle/evacuate/recharge to bring the vehicle back to factory specifications. The easy-to-use, portable, full color interface walks you quickly through each step for easy operation and fast service.. Not ready for R-1234yf? Purchase the 37840 for R-134a today and we can update it to R-1234yf later with our optional (one time use) conversion kit.. To obtain pressure readings in a snap, each RMS unit comes with a YELLOW JACKET ManTooth™ Wireless Digital Pressure/Temperature Gauge so you can test the A/C system without losing refrigerant. The free downloadable app wirelessly calculates and displays the A/C systems actual pressures in an easy-to-read color format on the RMS tablet, as well as iOS or Android™ devices.. Real-time remote support, including set-up/start-up assistance. With the systems Windows-based control ...
Both assimilation and compressor refrigerators use a refrigerant with a actual low baking point (less than 0 °F/−18 °C). In both types, aback this refrigerant evaporates (boils), it takes some calefaction abroad with it, accouterment the cooling effect. The capital aberration amid the two types is the way the refrigerant is afflicted from a gas aback into a aqueous so that the aeon can repeat. An assimilation refrigerator changes the gas aback into a aqueous application a altered adjustment that needs alone heat, and has no affective parts1. The added aberration amid the two types is the refrigerant used. Compressor refrigerators about use an HCFC or HFC, while assimilation refrigerators about use ammonia or water ...
As discussed in chapter 3.4, compressor performance depends on the evaporating and condensing pressures. The saturation pressure of the evaporator determines the density of the refrigerant gas at the inlet of the compressor, thus affecting the refrigerant mass flow per compressor revolution. The total pressure difference between the evaporating and condensing sides also affects the required compressor power consumption.. The evaporator and condenser affect these pressure levels though their ability to transfer energy between the refrigerant and the secondary fluids. The evaporator operating point is the equilibrium point at which the performance of the evaporator matches the performance of the compressor. The refrigerant mass flow is determined by the compressor, and at the operating point the refrigerant is evaporated at a stable saturation temperature.. The compressor curve in Figure 6.24 has a positive slope, indicating that the available cooling capacity increases with higher evaporation ...
Patent US9283110 - Patient temperature control catheter with outer sleeve cooled by inner sleeve - Google Patents
A catheter has an inner sleeve through which refrigerant circulates to and from a source of refrigerant. The catheter also has an outer sleeve surrounding the inner sleeve, including a distal end thereof. The outer sleeve is filled with a frozen biocompatible substance. The refrigerant is separated from the biocompatible substance by one or more walls of the inner sleeve such that the refrigerant is isolated from a patient in whom the catheter is positioned by both the inner sleeve and the frozen biocompatible substance. The refrigerant circulates through the catheter when the catheter is positioned in the patient to maintain the biocompatible substance frozen as heat is transferred from the patient to the biocompatible substance.
MSDS HANDI-FOAM ONE-COMPONENT FOAM SEALANT higher oligomers of mdi, polymethylene polyphenylene ethane, 1-chloro-1,1-difluoro-,...
CAS 9016-87-9 75-68-3 75-45-6 101-68-8 HANDI-FOAM ONE-COMPONENT FOAM SEALANT higher oligomers of mdi, polymethylene polyphenylene
ethane, 1-chloro-1,1-difluoro-, chlorodifluoroethane (dot),
chlorodifluoromethane, freon 22, monochlorodifluoromethane
fluorocarbon (non-flammable compressed gas,
diphenylmethanediisocyanate (mdi), methylene bis
msds toxicity property
ethane, 1-chloro-1,1-difluoro-, chlorodifluoroethane (dot),
chlorodifluoromethane, freon 22, monochlorodifluoromethane
fluorocarbon (non-flammable compressed gas,
diphenylmethanediisocyanate (mdi), methylene bis
msds toxicity property
Soul singer TONY THOMPSON did not die from an illegal drug overdose but through inhaling toxic amounts of a hydrocarbon substance, according to an autopsy report. The body of the former Hi-Five star was found near an air-conditioning unit outside...
Mr. McClendon worked for Swift Transportation as a mechanic. In October 2004, he was working for Swift on a refrigerated trailer when he climbed up a ladder to check a Freon indicator on the trailer. The Freon indicator blew causing Mr. McClendon to fall off the ladder and onto a pile of iron tubing and other pieces of metal. He briefly attempted to return to work, but he experienced a black out and cognitive problems that interfered with his duties. Mr. McClendon filed a claim with the Labor Commission for permanent total disability compensation stemming from his work injuries. The ALJ held a hearing and referred the medical aspects of the claim to an impartial medical panel. The medical panel explained that Mr. McClendons head injury would result in "very few work restrictions." However, the panel also found the accident exacerbated certain of Mr. McClendons pre-existing cognitive difficulties and resulted in a few other restrictions. The ALJ relied on the panels opinion and found Mr. ...
The uses of carbon tetrachloride have diminished lately because it is known to be damage peoples health. People think it might damage the ozone layer. Today, it is rarely used for anything.. Previously, was used in fire extinguishers. It was also used to make freon, used in dry cleaning and as a refrigerant.. ...
|p|Gastec Detector Tubes indicate concentrations directly by way of a calibrated scale printed on the tubes. Gastec detector tubes are used for analysing airborne gases/vapours, as well as pollutants in soil and water.|/p|
Get information, facts, and pictures about Freons at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Freons easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
A dispersion in which a material is dissolved or suspended in a liquid which volatilizes to produce a fine spray when pressure is released. The spray carries the active material. Tn archival work, aerosols are used for dispersing deacidification solutions; in this case the propellant, which must be inert and nonflammable, is frequently a chlorofluorocarbon, e.g., freon 12, dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl 2 F 2 ). ...
Hydrocarbon refrigerants are are the exciting, new, and environmentally conscious replacement to CFCs and HCFCs. While they have been discussed as a replacement since the late 1980s they are only recently entering the market as a low cost, safe, and effective refrigerant. Because Hydrocarbon Refrigerants are natural, nontoxic, and have no ozone depleting properties, they are the perfect addition to your green friendly Refrigeration business. Contact our experts at Chem Penn if you or your company would like to learn more about these revolutionary refrigerants.. ...
Danfoss solenoid valve direct or servo operated for liquid, suction and hot gas lines with ammonia or fluorinated refrigerants. The coils for solenoid valves are specially designed to operate in the aggressive environment of high humidity and temperature fluctuations that are present in most industrial refrigeration systems.
New refrigeration systems will require HVACR equipment and component manufacturers to redesign their product portfolios, and use refrigerant gasses that currently may be unfamiliar to the code community.
Get the right tools for the job with this REFTEC TOTALINE TOUGH 115v 15A 60Hz CFC HFC HCFC HVAC REFRIGERANT RECOVERY UNIT ! Used, but in good shape! The proprietary
Europes food retail sector strives to improve its energy efficiency. Accelerate Europe compares how natural refrigerants are helping to reduce energy use.
Find and compare a variety of refrigerant gas monitoring (monitoring and testing) downloads on environmental xprt on the worlds largest environmental portal. View product and services catalogs, brochures, case studies, company news and more. ...
Water-natural, non toxic, low cost, environmentally friendly, and widely available-is widely used in water cooling, and if evaporated in the process may be called a "refrigerant". Water also commonly serves as a heat transfer and storage material ,and in large systems it may actually fill all of these roles.. The simplest and lowest cost open-cycle cooling systems, known as swamp coolers in the south-west United States, do not even need power for a compressor, merely a blower fan, so humidified cooled air is simply vented into the living space. Portable free-standing units can be obtained at discount stores for less than $200. However, if these systems are improperly implemented the drawbacks are multiple and severe.. The total cooling power of the unit is limited by the fact that neither coolant nor air can be recirculated. If the cooling unit does not have a supply of fresh dry air and the waste air is not effectively vented, stagnant humid air will make the space more uncomfortable than if it ...
In an ejector cycle system, high-pressure side refrigerant is decompressed by an ejector in cooling operation for cooling a compartment, and is decompressed by a fixed restrictor in heating operation for heating the compartment. Therefore, in the heating operation, the pressure of refrigerant to be sucked into a compressor can be made lower, and the temperature of refrigerant discharged from the compressor is increased. Alternatively, in the cooling operation, a flow direction of refrigerant flowing through at least one of an exterior heat exchanger and an interior heat exchanger is identical to that in the heating operation.
A direct exchange geothermal heating/cooling system has a self-adjusting expansion valve and a bypass flow path to improve efficiency when the system operates in a heating mode. The expansion valve may operate based solely on pressure from the vapor refrigerant transport line. The system may alternatively include an accumulator, a compressor, and an oil separator, wherein an oil return line returns oil from the oil separator to the accumulator. Additionally, a direct exchange geothermal heating/cooling system may include a hot-gas bypass valve for diverting heated vapor refrigerant to the liquid refrigerant line. Finally, a direct exchange geothermal heating/cooling system having a sub-surface heat exchanger extending to a depth of at least 300 feet may use a refrigerant particularly suited for such an application.
Refrigerants are substances used for heat transfer in a RACHP system which absorbs heat on evaporating at a low temperature and a low pressure, and rejects heat on condensing at a higher temperature and higher pressure.
H.R. 2269. To require the Administrator of General Services to issue guidance relating to the procurement of reclaimed refrigerants. In GovTrack.us, a database of bills in the U.S. Congress.
84 1984 Buick LeSabre A/C Refrigerant Discharge / Suction Hose Assembly - Climate Control - Four Seasons - PartsGeek
Buy a 1984 Buick LeSabre A/C Refrigerant Discharge / Suction Hose Assembly at discount prices. Choose top quality brands Four Seasons. Also fits 1983, 1981, 1980 & 1977.
OSHA comments from the January 19, 1989 Final Rule on Air Contaminants Project extracted from 54FR2332 et. seq. This rule was remanded by the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals and the limits are not currently in force.. CAS: 75-69-4; Chemical Formula: CCl3F. Fluorotrichloromethane (trichlorofluoromethane), also known as FC-11, is a member of a large family of chemicals, the chlorofluorocarbons. The former OSHA PEL was an 8-hour TWA of 1000 ppm. The proposed PEL was a ceiling of 1000 ppm and NIOSH (Ex. 8-47, Table N1) supported the proposal. The final rule establishes this limit. At ordinary temperatures, FC-11 is a noncombustible, colorless liquid or gas.. Inhalation of large doses of FC-11 has caused cardiac sensitization and death in humans. Experimental mice that inhaled aerosol containing 10 percent FC-11 exhibited cardiac arrhythmias. In the same study, dogs that inhaled aerosol containing 2.5 percent FC-11 had decreased myocardial function; monkeys that inhaled an aerosol containing 5 percent ...
CFC-113 was one of the many CFCs that were produced to eliminate toxic and flammable substances in the areas that they were used. It has been used as a cooling agent in refrigerants and air conditioners, aerosol propellant, and a cleansing agent for electrical and electronic components. CFC-113 is one of the three most popular CFCs, along with CFC-11 and CFC-12 and saw much use in its time. CFC-113 is a refrigerant used in cooling systems. When it is in a gas form and compressed, it heats up, when it is expanded, it cools. CFC-113 also is a very volatile and apolar molecule so it was used as a foaming agent in the production of packaging material, insulation, foams for cushioning, and things like shoe soles. CFC-113 has such a low flammability and low toxicity that it was also used as a cleaner for delicate electrical equipment, fabrics, and even metals. It would not harm the product it was cleaning, ignite with a spark or react with other chemicals. CFC-113 in laboratory analytics has ...
Let me give you an example. I was born in 1937 so I remember the revolution in refrigerators that happened in my childhood, the introduction of Freon and CFCs [chlorofluorocarbons]. The refrigerator gases that were used in my childhood were things like ammonia. Of course, if they leaked they were toxic, and therefore it was hailed as a breakthrough when these supposedly nontoxic gases, the CFCs, were introduced. They were tested and under earth conditions they appeared to be perfectly benign. What people couldnt predict was that under stratospheric conditions CFCs get broken down into substances that destroy the ozone layer, and it took 20 years to get that well established. And I see that as a metaphor for why technology alone wont solve our problems, namely that there are lots of technologies out there and they have unexpected side effects ...
These resins are alternatives to the corresponding chloromethylated resins (Merrifield resins) and ideal for the attachment of acids by esterification. Diacids can be attached with less crosslinking compared to Merrifield resins. Release of the carboxylic acid from the resin can be effected by treatment with HF, trifluoromethane sulfonic acid or hydrogenolysis ...
The Safety Authority of BC has released a case study of all refrigerant leaks in BC from 2007 to 2015. The document shows where and how much refrigerant was released. Of the 50 refrigerant release incidents reported to BCSA between 2007 and 2015, 40 resulted in the release of ammonia from the refrigeration system. However, only 10 incidents included reports of injuries resulting from the incident. It is important to note that BCSA receives its injury reports from operators or first responders immediately following the incident. Ammonia exposure-related injuries may develop or the negative effects resulting of exposure may increase sometime after the initial reports to BCSA ...
Patente US9599364 - Electrochemical compressor based heating element and hybrid hot water heater ... - Google Patentes
An electrochemical compressor type heat pump system is described. An electrochemical compressor compresses a mixed gas refrigerant whereby heat from the compression can be used to heat an object. The electrochemical compressor is capable of producing high pressure gas from a mixed fluid system including an electrochemically-active component, such as hydrogen, and at least one refrigerant fluid, for example water. Any suitable proton associable compound, such as any suitable ionic or polar solvent compound, may be used in the mixed gas refrigerant. The electrochemical compressor may be configured in a hot water heater along with a secondary type heating source to produce a hybrid hot water heater.
A Critical Review on Condensation Heat Transfer in Microchannels and Minichannels | Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering...
Fronk and Garimella  investigated experimentally heat transfer and pressure drop during condensation of ammonia in a single circular tube of d = 1.435 mm. The researchers chose NH3 as a working fluid because of its use in thermal systems was attractive due to its high latent heat, favorable transport properties, zero ozone depletion, and zero global warming potential (GWP) as well as there were few data on condensation of ammonia at the microscale while there was a growing body of research on condensation of conventional refrigerants (i.e., R134a, R404A, etc.) in microchannels. Ammonia has significantly different fluid properties than synthetic hydrofluorocarbon and hydrochlorofluorocarbon refrigerants. For example, at Ts = 60 °C, ammonia has a surface tension 3.2 times and an enthalpy of vaporization 7.2 times greater than those of R134a. Therefore, models validated with data for synthetic refrigerants might not predict condensation of ammonia with sufficient accuracy. Their test section ...
The conventional A/C cycle develops high pressure refrigerant that is throttled (via a small opening) to low pressure and temperature for cooling an evaporators airflow. This paper explores the conceptual and practical development of deriving useful work from that pressure potential by replacing the throttling device with an expander/motor. One key technical challenge is to maintain a large pressure drop across the expander/motor. This translates into a strict control requirement of the location of the refrigerant flows phase change within the motor. The cycles COP benefits from recovered work and the evaporators refrigerant energy content reduction while delivering conventional cooling performance ...
Essays DOI: 10.1002/anie.200702210 Organocatalysis Organocatalysis Lost: Modern Chemistry, Ancient Chemistry, and an Unseen Biosynthetic Apparatus Carlos F. Barbas III* aldolases · asymmetric synthesis · biosynthesis · catalytic antibodies · organocatalysis Since the year 2000 there has been explosive growth in an area of catalytic asymmetric synthesis now known as organocatalysis, catalysis mediated solely by small organic molecules. A large number of powerful asymmetric bondforming reactions and stunning cascade reactions have been reported that allow for the enantioselective synthesis of molecules with unprecedented ease. A substantial portion of this new work is founded on enamine and iminium ion based catalysis. Given the historically deep roots of this type of catalysis, why did decades pass before the basic concepts, hidden in the landmark work of Hajos and Parrish, were unveiled and exploited? I believe the answer is complex and unknowable with complete certainty, but likely ...
standards to take effect in 1998, Whirlpool launched a program to trim another couple of hundred kilowatt-hours annual consumption from models that already were under 700. Meanwhile, its competitors sought a delay from the Gingrich Congress and the Clinton White House, much to Whirlpools displeasure. "We felt a deal was a deal," sniffs Whirlpool spokesman Thompson. This spring, the American Home Appliance Manufacturers trade group lobbied successfully to have the new standards put off from 1998 to 2001. Whirlpool quit the association in protest. Effects on the ozone layer. Electricity use -- with its attendant air pollution, land disturbance and other impacts -- is just one of two principal effects refrigerators have on the environment. The other was the release of CFCs into the atmosphere, where they rose to great altitudes and damaged the Earths protective ozone layer. No one foresaw this hazard. When Freon and other CFCs were developed in the 1930s, they seemed like fabulous blessings of ...
non-txv metering devcices are all referred to as fixed because there is no feedback for regulation as is the case with a txv remote sensing bulb. a capillary tube feed is based upon internal diameter and length. a piston, as you pointed out, allows free flow in one direction, so the opposing forces provide some control, but basically is viewed as a fixed orifice. a fixed md system has to be charged by superheat because there is no control over feed into the coil. the presence of superheat (heat added to a gas) indicates all the freon boiled in the coil and is proof that saturation (presence of gas and liquid combined in the coil as air passes over it). interestingly, as ambient temperatures drop, superheat goes up because liquid pressure drops. this results in less feed and therefore less volume and less boiling ...
Hey guy new member here, just have a few questions. My ac is not working. My ac is not blowing any air at all. The fan will not turn on. I have a intertherm model p3ra030k system as I live in a mobile home. I also have a freon leak, and I normaly have the unit recharged every 5 to 6 months. Right now that fan that moves the air into the house is not moving at all. No air coming out of the vents. Even when I trun the ac system off and just set the fan to on at the thermostat i get
For those sentences that dont quite make cents or dollars, read it aloud. From the Boston College Chemical Bulletin from at least 15 years ago. Inspector Sherlock Ohms of Standard International Yard was driving across the Wheatstone Bridge in his 09 Maxwell, trying to remember Ava Gadros number, so he could call her and data for the Policemans Ball, when suddenly he blew a tire. "Oh Nernst!" said Sherlock, "I dont have a tire ion with me, but luckily, ammonia short distance from the Ideal Gas Station, run by my friend Sol Vent, who at the moment is freon bail." Just as Inspector Ohms emerged from the Ideal Gas Station, his tire all fixed, a rubber policeman whizzed by him with his Carnot Cycle going at full speed. Ohms knew he was deuteride by, but he wondered watt made him rush so. He shouted atom, but he was gone, His reaction was instantaneous as he whipped out after him. By radio activity, he learned that Mike Rofarad, Recipro Citys top-rankine rookie, was chasing a suspected joule ...
KAMI SAJIKAN FREON YG BETUL-BETUL TERBUKTI HASILNYA. SEBAGAI TEKNISI AC SEBELUMNYA MEMANG HRS TAHU KEADAAN POWER/LISTRIK DAN INSTALASI KABELRUMAH YG DIGUNAKAN SERTA KAPASITAS NYA.seperti 1pass /2pass /3pass.INI SANGATLAH PENTING SEKALI DEMI AWETNYA AC TERSEBUT. [himbauan bagipelanggan AC teliti menggunakan teknisiAC] BERBAHAYA SEKALI BILA seorang teknisi tidakpaham alurlistrik tersebut. GUNAKAN SERVICE YG BERGARANSI SLALU. GLOBAL SERVICE JUGA MENYIWAKAN AC STANDING 3PK -5PK untuk keperluan SEMINAR /PESTA. HUB: 082331863555. ...
The coils of ADF-M solenoid valve are hermetic by plastic.It features moisture proof,shock proof anti-corrosive.All parts are made by stainless steel.It can be used for ammonia and Freon refrigerating system.Also it can be used for pneumatic, hydraulic and water supply system. ...
... Questions including What is the probable cause of the check engine light on a 1998 Ford Explorer Sport and How can you get the AC clutch on a 1985 Pontiac that is low on freon to kick on
In Stock- Complete new DIGITAL CONTROLLED GLYCOL CHILLER UNITS COLOR TOUCH SCREEN DIGITAL CONTROLS. SELF CONTAINED UNITS UNITS COME PRE-CHARGED FROM THE FACTORY WITH FREON, RELIABLE AND QUIET Turnkey systems include: Brewhouses ( including Oversized Mash & Kettle with double sized Hot liquor tank), control panels, platform, all hard piping, Fermenters, Brites, glycol chillers, CIP, Pumps, and a complete accessorie set of tri-clamps, gaskets, valves and other essentials. All
Freeze Dry Systems - Benchtop, Freezone®, Labconco - 18-1900-01 18-1900-01 77500-00 4.5L Benchtop Model 18-1900-11 77520-00 6L Benchtop Model 18-1900-12 77580-00 6L Benchtop Model with Stoppering Tray D-F, Freeze Dryers FreeZone Freeze Dry Systems use a refrigerant, which is environmentally safe. The refrigerant is non-flammable and contains no ozone-damaging chlorfluorocarbons (CFCs). The upright stainless steel collector chamber efficiently removes water and simplifies the defrosting process. The CFC-free refrigeration system cools collector to -50°C (-58°F). Epoxy coated steel cabinet with work surface and leveling feet. The LCD readout indicates vacuum, collector temperature and alarm messages. The LCD vacuum and temperature waves illuminate amber when vacuum and temperature levels are out of range for adding samples. The illumination changes to green when conditions are right to add samples. Automatic start-up switch with manual override for collector cool down and vacuum pull down.
A filter drier in an air-conditioning or refrigeration system captures contaminants in the refrigerant. The suction lines filter drier, a single-direction refrigerant filter, prevents the contaminants from reaching the condensing units compressor.
The advent of the global warming crisis has brought about a viewpoint, in many governments, that the halogen family of refrigerants should be replaced, in part or in toto, by the so-called natural refrigerants. For this
Greenhouse Gas Legislation - Health & safety | Caring for the environment | Stepping up to the refrigerant challenge |...
Keeping your sights set on the various regulations and directives that have been issued to control emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG).
The Correlation of Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer Experimental Data for Vertical Falling Film Absorption (Conference) | SciTech...
Absorption chillers are gaining global acceptance as quality comfort cooling systems. These machines are the central chilling plants and the supply for cotnfort cooling for many large commercial buildings. Virtually all absorption chillers use lithium bromide (LiBr) and water as the absorption fluids. Water is the refrigerant. Research has shown LiBr to he one of the best absorption working fluids because it has a high affinity for water, releases water vapor at relatively low temperatures, and has a boiling point much higher than that of water. The heart of the chiller is the absorber, where a process of simultaneous heat and mass transfer occurs as the refrigerant water vapor is absorbed into a falling film of aqueous LiBr. The more water vapor absorbed into the falling film, the larger the chillers capacity for supporting comfort cooling. Improving the performance of the absorber leads directly to efficiency gains for the chiller. The design of an absorber is very empirical and requires ...
INVERTER-driven Split-ductless and ducted Comfort Systems M-Series Full-Line Catalog www.mitsubishicomfort.com Mitsubishi Electric Cooling and Heating Solutions Mitsubishi Electric HVAC products, available in the U.S. for thirty years, have provided exceptional, personalized comfort control while being very energy efficient. Mitsubishi Electrics INVERTER-driven compressor systems use refrigerant lines to connect an outdoor unit to one or more indoor air handlers. A homes or buildings energy efficiency increases when only the amount of cooling or heating needed for the space where the unit is installed. Advanced technologies are used to control the precise temperature in each room and have the capability to condition only the rooms in use. Using a wireless remote or wall-mounted controller for each space, Mitsubishi Electric systems allow a truly personal level of comfort. Environmentally friendly refrigerant (R410A), advanced filtration systems, and high efficiency ratings are standard on all ...
Minimise temperature shocks. If a refrigerant temperature of close to zero degrees Celsius is capable of controlling the fermentation process, it would certainly be of benefit to the growing yeast cells, which would not be subjected to temperature shock if the refrigerant were at a lower temperature. Similarly the cone temperature, which is often controlled at -4 degrees Celsius, could be contributing significantly to yeast autolysis at the interface. Consideration should also be given to a two-phase water chiller for reducing the temperature of recovered yeast, rather than the sudden reduction of temperature using propylene glycol or compressed ammonia at very low temperatures. The rate of chillback of the fermentation should also be prolonged to ensure that the possibility of temperature shock is minimised ...
The milling step of the present invention optionally uses grinding media, which is added to the milling device prior to milling. Grinding media is generally comprised of any material of greater hardness and rigidity than the particle to be ground. The grinding media can be comprised of almost any hard, tough material including, for example, ceramics such as zirconia; nylon and polymeric resins; metals, and a range of naturally occurring substances, such as sand, silica, or chitin obtained from crab shells. Further, grinding media may either consist entirely of a single material that is tough and resilient or in the alternative, be comprised of more than one material, i.e., comprise a core portion having a coating of tough resilient material adhered thereon. Additionally, the grinding media may be comprised of mixtures of any materials that are suitable for grinding. Any size of grinding media suitable to achieve the desired particle size can be utilized. However, in many applications the ...
Centrifugal compressors are used in ethylene plants for cracked-gas compression and refrigeration services. This article describes the basic design and operation of these compressors.
Global Water-based Inks Market to Reach US$ 8,951.8 Mn by 2027; Rise in Popularity of Water-based Inks in Packaging Drives Water-based Inks Market: Transparency Market Research
Direction of Kinetically versus Thermodynamically Controlled Organocatalysis and Its Application in Chemoenzymatic Synthesis
Rulli, G., Duangdee, N., Baer, K., Hummel, W., Berkessel, A., & Gröger, H. (2011). Direction of Kinetically versus Thermodynamically Controlled Organocatalysis and Its Application in Chemoenzymatic Synthesis. ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION, 50(34), 7944-7947. doi:10.1002/anie. ...
The primary approach industry has taken to fill the void resulting from the elimination of the most important CFCs (i.e., CFC-11 and CFC-12) has been to develop other single component refrigerants (i.e., HCFC-123 and
For the recycling of refrigerators we have developed a totally new process under the name IC process, which will be presented to the market at IFAT ENTSORGA 2010 for the first time. The appliances are first crushed in the BHS Rotorshredder. It operates continuously and with very low wear. The refrigerants and foam agents are treated by means of catalytic hydrolysis and converted into harmless substances. Compared to conventional cryocondensation or activated carbon filtration cost saving of about 50 % can be achieved. A throughput of up to 150 units/h is possible. ...
In the report, EIA states: The F-Gas Regulation is the most ambitious HFC legislation in the world and will quickly reduce HFC consumption throughout Europe. Those companies that get ahead of the curve by installing state-of-the-art natural refrigerant systems in all new builds and refurbishments will avoid massive price hikes in HFCs and reap significant energy efficiency benefits as well. There is a huge gap between the Paris climate goals and current pledges from the worlds governments. Eliminating HFCs in the near future is absolutely vital to get closer to the goal of limiting temperature rise to 1.5°C ...
0028-8000 - Bacharach Tru Pointe Ultra Ultrasonic Leak Detector for all type of gases including Nitrogen (N) and Refrigerants. Based on the detection of inaudible high frequency sounds produced by flow gases. LED Bar graph. Includes folding Headset. Optional Soundblaster.
When engineers at Mercedes-Benz tasked with field-testing a revolutionary new refrigerant watched it ignite in a ball of fire before their eyes, it took a while for the significance of their discovery to sink in.
BOC supplies a wide range of products including Industrial Gases, Healthcare Gases, Safety Products, Industrial Equipment, Refrigerant Gases, Balloon Gas & Equipment and Drinks Dispense Gas.
Update: Since this article was first published in 2011, R-12 has been phased out and new refrigerants have been introduced in an effort to reduce depletion of the earths ozone layer and to minimize climate change caused by these chemical compounds. Story and photography by Jim Marotta What was once a basic system to heat… Read more. ...
Material dataTechnical information on our range of refrigerant gasesWe know that it is important for you to understand a range of technical information a...
Patent US5817147 - Hypothermic envelope and apparatus for providing cooled air thereto - Google Patents
A new Hypothermic Envelope and Apparatus for Providing Cooled Air Thereto for the emergency medical treatment of accident and other trauma victims whereby the victims body temperature is lowered to induce a state of controlled hypothermia in order to slow the victims body metabolism and thereby decrease the adverse effects of the victims injuries. The inventive device includes coextensive top and bottom portion, the top portion and the bottom portion being sealingly connectable at their peripheries and forming an envelope therebetween and a microcontroller operably connected to a fan motor for producing a burst of cool air by means of passing air over a refrigerants cooling coil and thereby providing a controlled amount of cool air to the envelope.
Alfa Laval finned coil air heat exchangers have been designed to achieve an optimized exchange of thermal energy between air and a refrigerant or fluid. The heart of our air heat exchangers is the finned coil, built up from a circuit of interconnected tube serpentines and fins to increase the heat exchanging surface. Thanks to the combination of key design variables (coil materials, coil geometry, casing design, fan type), air units are very versatile heat exchangers with a great variety of applications in many industries. Alfa Laval supplies finned coil air heat exchanger products for a wide variety of applications.. ...
Product Tags: HVAC: Heating Ventilation & AC, Unit of Sale: Each. Additional Information and Specifications: Uses heat to create cooling.. Saves 70 to 90 percent of cooling cost vs. conventional. Only uses water as refrigerant.. Water turns to vapor which gets absorbed by the sorbent, causing evaporative cooling.. Only heat is required to dry the sorbent (could be solar heat). Higher outside temperatures require special sorbent materials to reject heat better. Zeolyte is the latest material for high ambient temperatures. Sapo 43 (Alumnum Phosphate). Works well in testing up to 45 degree C ambient (113F). Low maintenance: every 2 years, re-evacuate the tubes that require a vacuum. Clean leaves off the re-cooler. More expensive than a heat pump. Most often used for a base load in the building. Classic chiller as a backup.. Solar thermal systems are not only suitable for space and water heating purposes. Due to necessary overdimensioning in designing the systems, in the summer they produce much ...
In the report, EIA states: The F-Gas Regulation is the most ambitious HFC legislation in the world and will quickly reduce HFC consumption throughout Europe. Those companies that get ahead of the curve by installing state-of-the-art natural refrigerant systems in all new builds and refurbishments will avoid massive price hikes in HFCs and reap significant energy efficiency benefits as well. There is a huge gap between the Paris climate goals and current pledges from the worlds governments. Eliminating HFCs in the near future is absolutely vital to get closer to the goal of limiting temperature rise to 1.5°C ...
Property Model and Correlations for Calculation of Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Carbon Dioxide in the...
2005 (English)In: Proc. IIR Conf on Thermophysical Properties and Transfer Processes of Refrigerants, Vicenza, Italy, Aug./Sept. 2005., Vicenza, Italy: Academic Conferences Publishing, 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed) ...
Pipe Penetration Assemblies are designed to allow refrigerant and plumbing piping to safely penetrate the roofing membrane of a building with out creating a potential leak point. ...
... is a next-generation cleaning solvent that can replace HCFC 141b, refrigerants, or compressed nitrogen in straight flush (open flush)
Economical Value Lab Upright Freezer #20LFEETSA by Thermo Fisher Scientific in 20.6 cu. ft. capacity size has CFC-free refrigerant, a durable enameled steel interior and includes four fixed shelves and six fixed door shelves; click for pricing and product details
In methods and apparatus for cooling surfaces, a pressurized liquid refrigerant is dispensed through a shaped member composed of an open celled foam. The method is particularly useful for localized freezing of a wart or other growth prior to its removal from skin of a human being or another animal.
... (D. S. P. lO%). Tonic, refrigerant, antiseptic, and to counteract phosphatic deposits in urine. The symptomatic indications usually calling for this acid are the deep ...
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A fridge compressor works by raising the pressure of the refrigerant by constricting the vapor, then pushing it through coils on the outside of the unit. The compressor is one of five basic parts to...
The go-to pomade of some of the most talented barbers and stylists in the hair industry, Bona Fide Pomade, Superior Hold is a water-based product with a traditional feel.
Introduction. Eugine Whint 7/12/2005 Chemistry 5G Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) (also known as Freon) are non-toxic, non-flammable and non-carcinogenic. They contain fluorine atoms, carbon atoms and chlorine atoms. The 5 main CFCs include CFC-11 (trichlorofluoromethane - CFCl3), CFC-12 (dichloro-difluoromethane - CF2Cl2), CFC-113 (trichloro-trifluoroethane - C2F3Cl3), CFC-114 (dichloro-tetrfluoroethane - C2F4Cl2), and CFC-115 (chloropentafluoroethane - C2F5Cl). CFCs are widely used as coolants in refrigeration and air conditioners, as solvents in cleaners, particularly for electronic circuit boards, as a blowing agents in the production of foam (for example fire extinguishers), and as propellants in aerosols. Indeed, much of the modern lifestyle of the second half of the 20th century had been made possible by the use of CFCs. Man-made CFCs however, are the main cause of stratospheric ozone depletion. CFCs have a lifetime in the atmosphere of about 20 to 100 years, and ...
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Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets Global Market 2017 by Manufacturers - Contitech, WARCO BILTRITE, Hanna, Aero, Semperflex, PATEL,...
Global Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets Market 2017, presents a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets market globally, providing basic overview of Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets market including Definitions, Classifications, Applications and Industry chain structure, Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets Market report provides development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures. Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets market size, share and end users are analyzed as well as segment markets by types, applications and companies.. Download Free Sample Report @ http://www.fiormarkets.com/report-detail/34409/request-sample. Global market research report of Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets 2017 mainly focuses on Production, means the output of Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets and Revenue, means the sales value of Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets in market. Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets market research report studies Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets in Global market, ...
AT LEGACY FIRE our goal is to assist our clients by providing KNOWLEDGE, EQUIPMENT; MAINTENANCE and SUPPORT with respect to their life safety and property protection needs, keeping your facility in compliance with local and national code requirements. PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS are one of the best and most cost effective devices you can install for localized fire suppression. When used properly a portable fire extinguisher can extinguish a small fire or keep the fire contained until the fire department can respond. Always notify the fire department at the onset of a fire; dont wait to see if the extinguisher can do the job.. We offer the following services:. SALES & INSTALLATION Whether you are in the process of a building a new project or moving into an existing facility, let our extinguisher specialist use their expertise to determine the best location & equipment for your extinguisher needs. Please contact us for property specific requirements or to have us complete a site survey. We also ...
Effect of inhaled procaterol on cough receptor sensitivity to capsaicin in patients with asthma or chronic bronchitis and in...
BACKGROUND--To evaluate the effect of inhaled beta 2 adrenergic agonists on the sensitivity of airway cough receptors, the effect of inhaled procaterol on cough induced by aerosolised capsaicin, a stimulant of C fibres, was studied in patients with asthma or chronic bronchitis and in normal subjects. METHOD--Eleven patients with asthma and 10 with chronic bronchitis and 14 normal subjects participated. Increasing concentrations of capsaicin solution were inhaled for 15 seconds by tidal breathing through the mouth at one minute intervals until five or more coughs were elicited, before and 30 minutes after inhalation of 20 micrograms procaterol or placebo (freon gas alone) through a metered dose inhaler. Cough threshold was defined as the lowest concentration of capsaicin that elicited five or more coughs. To evaluate the bronchodilator effect of procaterol and the bronchoconstrictor effect of inhaled capsaicin, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured before and one minute after ...
The CERT Training for community groups is usually delivered in 2 1/2 hour sessions, one evening a week over a 7 week period. The training consists of the following:. Session 1 - DISASTER PREPAREDNESS: Addresses hazards to which people are vulnerable in their community. Materials cover actions that participants and their families take before, during and after a disaster. As the sessions progresses, the instructor begins to explore an expanded response role for civilians in that they should begin to consider themselves disaster workers. Since they will want to help their family members and neighbors, this training can help them operate in a safe and appropriate manner. the CERT concept and organization are discussed as well as applicable laws governing volunteers in that jurisdiction.. Session 2 - DISASTER FIRE SUPPRESSION: Briefly covers fire chemistry, hazardous materials, fire hazards and fire suppression strategies. However, the thrust of this session is the safe use of fire extinguishers, ...
IN NOVEMBER OF 1984 THE PRESIDENT SIGNED INTO LAW A SET OF FAR-REACHING AMENDMENTS TO THE RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT OF 1976. UNDER THE NEW LAW, LAND DISPOSAL OF ALL HAZARDOUS WASTES IS TO BE BANNED OVER THE NEXT FIVE YEARS. WASTE REDUCTION, RECYCLE, AND INCINERATION ARE EMPHASIZED. PARTICULARLY TARGETED ARE WASTE STREAMS CONTAINING HALOG ENATED SOLVENTS AND ARSENIC DUE TO THE THREATS THESE MA MATERIALS POSE TO HUMAN HEALTH AND TO THE ENVIRONMENT. PRESENT TECHNOLOGY FOR RECOVERY AND RECYCLE OR FOR THE INCINERATION OF HAZARDOUS HALOGENATED ORGANIC WASTES CANNOT BE APPLIED TO ALL SUCH MATERIALS. STREAMS WHICH CONTAIN COMPLEXAZEOTROPIC MIXTURES OR ARE CORROSIVE, HIGHLY REACTIVE, OR ACIDIC ARE NOT COMPATIBLE WITH CURRENT DISTILLATION/SEPAR ARATION OR INCINERATION EQUIPMENT. THE SPENT CATALYST FROM FLUOROCARBON MANFUCTURING PROCESSES IS AN EXCELLENT EXAMPLE OF A HAZARDOUS AND TOXIC WASTE STREAM WHICH WILL BE TARGETEDEARLY BY THE NEW ACT AND FOR WHICH CURRENT DISPOSAL TECHNO NOLOGY IS ...
Get ready asthma sufferers: inhalers go "green" on Dec. 31. This forces patients that use the old-fashioned type to make a more expensive and even more perplexing change. The medicine that the inhalers use, the albuterol that swiftly unlocks airways in an asthma attack, will not change. However, the chemicals utilized to gust the drug into your lungs is.. There will be no more chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, that hurt Earths ozone layer. At the end of the year, all albuterol inhalers will be filled with the eco-friendly chemical HFA, or hydrofluoroalkane.. The bad news: The new inhalers are about $30 to $60 more than the $5 or $10 for the fading generic CFC inhalers.. Patients also have some learning to do. HFA inhalers are used differently than the old-fashioned ones. The medicines feel and taste unusual, sometimes startling users regardless of doctors guarantee that it is the same as the old.. "Theres still significant confusion," says Dr. Harvey Leo of the University of Michigans C.S. Mott ...
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is present in air, about 0.03 percent by volume.. Caron dioxide is prepared in the laboratory by the action of dilute hydrochloric acid on marble chips (calcium carbonate). Carbon dioxide is colorless, odorless, denser than air, and slightly soluble in water. It freezes at 78 degree C to form dry ice.. Carbon dioxide does not burn and does nor support combustion.. Carbon dioxide is an acidic oxide. It dissolves in water to form carbonic acid. It reacts with alkalis to give salts (carbonates) and water.. Carbon dioxide turns lime water milky by forming insoluble calcium carbonate.. Carbon dioxide is used in aerated drinks, in fire extinguishers, in refrigeration (in the form of dry ice), during photosynthesis by plants, in the manufacture of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate, and urea.. Carbon monoxide (CO) is formed when fuels containing carbon burn in an insufficient supply of air.. In the laboratory carbon monoxide is prepared by the action of concentrated sulphuric ...
Methane (CH. 4). *Nitrous oxide (N. 2O). *Ozone (O. 3). *Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) ... Methane has indirect effects in addition to forming CO. 2. The main chemical that reacts with methane in the atmosphere is the ... For example, methane and carbon monoxide (CO) are oxidized to give carbon dioxide (and methane oxidation also produces water ... 2 from the oxidation of methane is not included in the methane Global warming potential). Other chemical reactions include ...
Greenhouse gas removal
Lockley, A. (2012). "Comment on "Review of Methane Mitigation Technologies with Application to Rapid Release of Methane from ... Stix, T.H. (7-9 Jun 1993). "Removal of chlorofluorocarbons from the troposphere". 1993 IEEE International Conference on Plasma ... Reeburgh, William S.; David T. Heggie (1977). "Microbial methane consumption reactions and their effect on methane ... "Review of Methane Mitigation Technologies with Application to Rapid Release of Methane from the Arctic". Environmental Science ...
estimate that globally, methane accounts for 30.2 percent. Like other greenhouse gases, methane contributes to global warming ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are emitted from mechanical refrigerating and freezing mechanisms - both staples in food shipment ... This is because there has been relatively little increase in atmospheric methane concentration in recent years  ... 2011). "Global atmospheric methane: budget, changes and dangers". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 369 (1943): 2058-2072. Bibcode:2011RSPTA ...
Headspace gas chromatography for dissolved gas measurement
For example, methane has been found in many water wells in West Virginia. Chromatographic techniques are often useful when ... Examples of volatile anthropogenic chemicals include the refrigerants chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs ... Kampbell, Don H.; Vandegrift, Steve A., Analysis of Dissolved Methane, Ethane, and Ethylene in Ground Water by Standard Gas ... Natural gas extracted from the earth also contains many low molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds such as methane, ethane, ...
The table shows that CO2 dominates the total forcing, with methane and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) becoming relatively smaller ... This index is a measure of the inter-annual changes in conditions that affect carbon dioxide emission and uptake, methane and ... A different formula might apply for other greenhouse gases such as methane and N2O (square-root dependence) or CFCs (linear), ... The table includes the contribution to radiative forcing from carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH 4), nitrous oxide (N 2O); ...
Arctic resources race
The gases that have a role in the greenhouse effect are mainly carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons ... The acceleration of ice depletion will contribute to climate change as a whole: melting ice releases methane, ice reflects ...
Breeding for heat stress tolerance
... methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxides. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) has predicted a rise of ...
Atmospheric carbon cycle
Other gases with effects on the climate containing carbon in the atmosphere are methane and chlorofluorocarbons (the latter is ... The amount of methane produced and absorbed yearly varies widely. Large stores of methane can be found in the form of methane ... Natural methane production accounts 10-30% of global methane sources. Anthropogenic methane is produced in various ways, e.g. ... Methane levels have risen gradually since the onset of the industrial era, from ~700 ppb in 1750 to ~1775 ppb in 2005. Methane ...
... due to chlorofluorocarbons' impact on the ozone layer. Methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6) are gaseous at ambient temperatures and ... Lakes of liquid methane and ethane have been found on Titan, Saturn's largest moon, confirmed by the Cassini-Huygens Mission. ... The simplest hydrocarbon, methane, burns as follows: CH4 + 2 O2 → 2 H2O + CO2 + energy In inadequate supply of air, carbon ... At the opposite extreme from methane lie the heavy tars that remain as the lowest fraction in a crude oil refining retort. They ...
The name stems from the fact that it is methane (CH4) with a fluorine atom substituted for one of the hydrogen atoms. The ... These are related to the Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)s, but since they do not contain chlorine, are not destructive to the ozone ...
... methane, chlorofluorocarbons etc. The ecocide we are witnessing is a symptom of the disregard and reward for accounting for the ...
... mainly methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons) emitted since that time is about 2.6 W/m2. Neglecting other forcings ...
Like methane itself, halomethanes are tetrahedral molecules. The halogen atoms differ greatly in size and charge from hydrogen ... Many, including the chlorofluorocarbons, have attracted wide attention because they become active when exposed to ultraviolet ... Free radical chlorination of methane: CH4 + Cl2 (+ UV) → CH3Cl + HCl This method is useful for the production of CH4−xClx (x = ... Halomethane compounds are derivatives of methane (CH4) with one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced with halogen atoms (F, ...
In 1967, Bickel and Hogeveen showed that 2HF·SbF5 will remove H2 from isobutane and methane from neopentane to form carbenium ... Materials compatible with fluoroantimonic acid as a solvent include SO2ClF, and sulfur dioxide; some chlorofluorocarbons have ...
... such as methane and chlorofluorocarbons. However, even then he wrote "the future balance of forcings is likely to shift toward ...
List of MeSH codes (D02)
... chlorofluorocarbons MeSH D02.455.526.439.220.300 --- chlorofluorocarbons, methane MeSH D02.455.526.439.224 --- chloroform MeSH ... chlorofluorocarbons MeSH D02.455.526.510.140.300 --- chlorofluorocarbons, methane MeSH D02.455.526.510.432 --- fluorobenzenes ... methane MeSH D02.455.326.146.571.850 --- tetranitromethane MeSH D02.455.326.146.672 --- nitroparaffins MeSH D02.455.326.146. ...
Climate change in South Korea
... methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11 and CFC-12). The Anmyeon-do station is located in a ...
... such as methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. Early in that decade, carbon dioxide was the only widely studied human ...
Climate change acronyms
CDR - Carbon dioxide removal CER - Certified emission reductions CFC - Chlorofluorocarbon CF4 - Tetrafluoromethane CH4 - ... Methane COP - Conference of the Parties CO2 - Carbon dioxide C2F6 - Hexafluoroethane ENSO - El Niño-Southern Oscillation GCM - ...
Economics of global warming
The 2011 estimate of CO2-eq concentrations (the long-lived GHGs, made up of CO2, methane (CH 4), nitrous oxide (N 2O), ... chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12), CFC-11, and fifteen other halogenated gases) is 473 ppm CO2-eq (NOAA, 2012). The NOAA (2012) ... methane, and CO2, measured in CO2-eq) of between 25% and 90%, relative to the 2000 level. For CO2 only, two-thirds to three- ... such as methane) as between a 3% decrease in global GDP to a small increase, relative to baseline. This was for an emissions ...
Ozone depletion and climate change
Chlorofluorocarbons, in contrast, are insoluble and long-lived, allowing them to reach the stratosphere. In the lower ... As with carbon dioxide and methane, there are some natural sources of tropospheric chlorine, such as sea spray. Chlorine from ... in fact ozone and chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other halocarbons, which are held responsible for ozone ...
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formulae CClmF4−m and C2ClmF6−m, ... Hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formula CClmFnH4−m−n and ... chlorofluorocarbon-11 and chlorofluorocarbon-12 in seawater". Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. 55 (8): ... Thus, methane boils at −161 °C whereas the fluoromethanes boil between −51.7 (CF2H2) and −128 °C (CF4). The CFCs have still ...
The targets apply to the four greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO 2), methane (CH 4), nitrous oxide (N 2O), sulphur ... These reduction targets are in addition to the industrial gases, chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, which are dealt with under the ... Emission savings include cuts in methane, HFC, and N2O emissions. As noted earlier on, the first-round Kyoto emissions ... CO2 was the largest proportion of emissions (63%), followed by methane (26%) and nitrous oxide (N2O) (11%). The energy sector ...
Finally, chlorofluorocarbon molecules are photolysed in the stratosphere releasing chlorine atoms that react with ozone giving ... While the stratosphere is dry, additional water vapor is produced in situ by the photochemical oxidation of methane (CH4). The ...
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other halogenated ozone depleting substances (ODS) are mainly responsible for man-made chemical ... However, fluorine atoms react rapidly with water and methane to form strongly bound HF in the Earth's stratosphere, while ... These elements are found in stable organic compounds, especially chlorofluorocarbons, which can travel to the stratosphere ... This fact plus the amount of chlorine released into the atmosphere yearly by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and ...
Greenhouse gas emissions by the United States
EPA estimates that methane reductions in 2002 were 9 Tg CO2 Eq.,[clarification needed] and reductions for 2012 may remain about ... and cost-effective transition away from chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, and other ozone- ... Biomass and Biorefinery Systems Program Methane Programs High-GWP Programs : The United States is one of the first nations to ... methane emissions were underestimated by the EPA since at least a decade, on the order of 30 to 50 percent. U.S. carbon dioxide ...
They are categorized as either methane (CH4) or non-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - harmful to the ozone layer; emitted from products are currently banned from use. These are gases ... Methane is highly flammable and may form explosive mixtures with air. Methane is also an asphyxiant and may displace oxygen in ... Methane, emitted by the digestion of food by animals, for example cattle ...
They are categorized as either methane (CH4) or non-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - harmful to the ozone layer; emitted from products are currently banned from use. These are gases ... which generate methane. Methane is highly flammable and may form explosive mixtures with air. Methane is also an asphyxiant and ... Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land with little or no vegetation Methane, emitted by the digestion of food ...
Adopt-A-Pond - Wetland Curriculum
CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons): CFCs account for 23% of the gases contributing to global warming. Sources include cooling devices, ... methane: It accounts for 11% of the gases contributing to global warming. Sources include landfill sites, cattle, termites, ...http://www.torontozoo.com/adoptapond/wetland-Curr/e1-environ-background.asp
El Nino-southern Oscillation | Encyclopedia.com
Others include methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. The atmospheric increase of one particular greenhouse gas- ...https://www.encyclopedia.com/earth-and-environment/atmosphere-and-weather/weather-and-climate-terms-and-concepts/el-nino-southern-oscillation
Federal Register :: Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases
CFC chlorofluorocarbon. CFR Code of Federal Regulations. CH4 methane. CO2 carbon dioxide ... If the MSHA data for methane flow is provided in the units of actual cubic feet of methane per day, the methane flow data is ... 1) The annual methane emissions (i.e., the methane generation (MG), adjusted for oxidation, calculated using Equation TT-6 of ... and calculate the non-methane organic carbon correction factor as the ratio of the average methane concentration to the average ...https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2011/11/29/2011-29742/mandatory-reporting-of-greenhouse-gases
chlorofluorocarbons facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chlorofluorocarbons
Make research projects and school reports about chlorofluorocarbons easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... Commercially, the most important CFCs were derivatives of methane and ethane. These included trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), ... Chlorofluorocarbons Encyclopedia of Public Health COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS. Chlorofluorocarbons ... Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). A chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound typically consisting of chlorine, fluorine, carbon ...https://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/chemistry/compounds-and-elements/chlorofluorocarbons
Greenhouse gas - Wikipedia
Methane (CH. 4). *Nitrous oxide (N. 2O). *Ozone (O. 3). *Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) ... Methane has indirect effects in addition to forming CO. 2. The main chemical that reacts with methane in the atmosphere is the ... For example, methane and carbon monoxide (CO) are oxidized to give carbon dioxide (and methane oxidation also produces water ... 2 from the oxidation of methane is not included in the methane Global warming potential). Other chemical reactions include ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_gas
Let's learn a Sustainable Lifestyle; children's workbook by Earth Charter International - Issuu
Chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs: Chlorofluorocarbons, known as CFCs, are compounds that contain carbon, chlorine, bromine, fluorine ... Methane from swampy areas and released from animal excrement and solid waste. iii. Nitrous oxide produced by vehicle motor ... This effect is caused by using substances known as chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs. Contaminant gases: i. Chlorofluorocarbons, or ... methane and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere. The increase in air contamination from, among other things, burning fossil fuels ...https://issuu.com/earthcharter/docs/ec_cr_books_children_final
"HIRIS: High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer: Science
Parameter: Atmospheric Composition , Methane Parameter: Atmospheric Composition , Nitric Acid Parameter: Atmospheric ... Parameter: Atmospheric Composition , Chlorofluorocarbons Parameter: Atmospheric Composition , Clouds Parameter: Atmospheric ...http://www.gcrio.org/DifHolding/GCRIO022.html
"NASA's Mission to Planet Earth: Earth Observing System (EOS)
Parameter: Atmospheric Composition , Methane Parameter: Atmospheric Composition , Nitric Acid Parameter: Atmospheric ... Parameter: Atmospheric Composition , Chlorofluorocarbons Parameter: Atmospheric Composition , Clouds Parameter: Atmospheric ...http://www.gcrio.org/DifHolding/GCRIO069.html
Climate Change and Global Warming Encyclopedia: Sweeping Coverage of All Aspects of Carbon Dioxide and Greenhouse Gases, Sea...
... chlorofluorocarbons, methane, and nitrous oxide.. (2012) ... Methane. A hydrocarbon gas produced both through natural ... On a molecule-for-molecule basis, methane is a far more active greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, but also one which is much ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Synthetic compounds of entirely of industrial origin used in a number of applications, but now ... Because of the low atmospheric pressure, and with little to no methane or water vapor to reinforce the weak greenhouse effect, ...https://www.scribd.com/book/194994755/Climate-Change-and-Global-Warming-Encyclopedia-Sweeping-Coverage-of-All-Aspects-of-Carbon-Dioxide-and-Greenhouse-Gases-Sea-Levels-Ecosystems-Compu
Causes of climate change - Met Office
Gases like carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide naturally occur in the atmosphere. Others, such as chlorofluorocarbons ( ... For example, animals produce methane, which is 30 times more powerful than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas. The nitrous ...https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/weather/climate-change/causes-of-climate-change
TNO Repository search for: subject:'Electrocardiography'
Chemicals/CAS: Aerosol Propellants; Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane; dichlorodifluoromethane, 75-71-8; HFA 134a, 431-89-0; ... Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane · Dose-Response Relationship, Drug · Double-Blind Method · Electrocardiography · Female · Half- ... Nutrition · Apaflurane · Cfc 12 · Chlorofluorocarbon · Dichlorodifluoromethane · Hfc 227 · Norflurane · Unclassified drug · ... HFC 134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) and HFC 227 (1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane) are used to replace chlorofluorocarbons ( ...https://repository.tudelft.nl/search/tno/?q=subject%3A%22Electrocardiography%22
Chlorofluorocarbons - Factbites
Chlorofluorocarbons, partially halogenated (methane derivatives) (EHC 126, 1991). Chlorofluorocarbons are very stable compounds ... PRODUCT MATRIX - Chlorofluorocarbons (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07). Chlorofluorocarbons are highly volatile ... Chlorofluorocarbons are numbered as follows: the first digit = number of C atoms minus 1 for methane derivatives it is ... FDA Consumer: Chlorofluorocarbons and the incredible shrinking ozone. Chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, have been at the center of ...http://www.factbites.com/topics/Chlorofluorocarbon
Greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and water vapor. Carbon dioxide, methane ... Common fluorocarbons include chlorofluorocarbons and related compounds (also know as ozone depleting substances). ... and nitrous oxide have significant natural and human sources while only industries produce chlorofluorocarbons. Water vapor has ...https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Glossary/?mode=alpha&seg=f&segend=h
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD)
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE , ATMOSPHERE , ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY , HALOCARBONS AND HALOGENS , CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS Theme_ ... Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE , ATMOSPHERE , ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY , CARBON AND HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS , NON-METHANE HYDROCARBONS ...https://gcmd.nasa.gov/KeywordSearch/MetadataTransformation.do?Portal=GCMD&KeywordPath=Parameters%7CAGRICULTURE&EntryId=CIESIN_SEDAC_ESI_2001&MetadataType=0&lbnode=mdlb5
"Detergent of the atmosphere" |...
CH4 - methane. NO3 - nitrate radical. CFCs - chlorofluorocarbons. O & O2 - oxygen; O is less stable than O2 and more inclined ... Indeed, methane oxidation is the dominant source of CO in the pristine atmosphere, bolstered by incomplete combustion of ... One example is the man-made chlorofluoro carbons (CFCs), which have no known sinks in the troposphere and therefore can reach ... For example, OH reacts with methane (CH4), the simplest hydrocarbon, to produce water and a methyl radical (CH3). ...https://www.niwa.co.nz/publications/wa/vol16-no1-march-2008/detergent-of-the-atmosphere
Urban and Community Forestry: Improving Our Quality of Life By Lindon Wiebe | Carbon Dioxide | Greenhouse Effect
Hydrogen fluoride and silicon tetrafluoride Ozone Methane Nitrous oxides Chlorofluorocarbons Aluminum and phosphate fertilizer ...https://www.scribd.com/document/114628486/Urban-and-Community-Forestry-Improving-Our-Quality-of-Life-By-Lindon-Wiebe
Geotimes October 2005 Greenhouse gases revisited
... methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons. In this way the index is similar to the Consumer Price Index, which includes ...http://www.geotimes.org/oct05/WebExtra100705.html
KTH, Stockholm Conference « Climate Audit
... methane [CH4]; and chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs]) and amounts to 2.4 W mà ⣃ 2. The greatest uncertainty in Figure 2-1 is ... He showed that quartz sand had very large surface area and acted as a catalyst in the oxidation of methane. Because of the ... The values of D13C/12C for coal, petroleum and methane are around -26, -25 and -28 respectively. ... enormous amount of quartz sand, he argued that this previously undesrcribed effect had a material impact on the methane balance ...https://climateaudit.org/2006/09/19/kth-stockholm-conference/?like=1&_wpnonce=34114a6dfa
Low-carbon diet - Wikipedia
estimate that globally, methane accounts for 30.2 percent. Like other greenhouse gases, methane contributes to global warming ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are emitted from mechanical refrigerating and freezing mechanisms - both staples in food shipment ... This is because there has been relatively little increase in atmospheric methane concentration in recent years  ... 2011). "Global atmospheric methane: budget, changes and dangers". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 369 (1943): 2058-2072. Bibcode:2011RSPTA ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low-carbon_diet
Prepare For Warming - tribunedigital-baltimoresun
They are methane, nitrous oxides, carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons.. The 1980s produced four of the warmest years on ...http://articles.baltimoresun.com/1991-05-05/news/9113004701_1_ringger-nuclear-power-greenhouse-effect
Development of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for the Biomass Fired Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Power Plant
... and to develop the emission factors of Methane (CH,sub,4,/sub,), Nitrous oxide (N,sub,2,/sub,O). The fuels used as energy ... GC-ECD is a widely used detector for N2O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). ... S. Korhonen, M. Fabritius, and H. Hoffren, Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions in the Finnish Energy Production. Fortum Power ... As for non-CO2 emission, the global warming potential (GWP) of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) is 21 and 310 times that ...https://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2012/989242/
An Ecological Kristallnacht. Listen. - The New York Times
Huge quantities of carbon dioxide, methane and chlorofluorocarbons dumped in the atmosphere have trapped heat and raised global ... A worldwide ban in five years on chlorofluorocarbons, which simultaneously destroy the protective ozone layer and cause up to ... a comprehensive waste minimization program and aggressive efforts to control emissions of methane from landfills and other ...https://www.nytimes.com/1989/03/19/opinion/an-ecological-kristallnacht-listen.html
24 Energy Supply Systems | Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base | The...
Methane leakage could increase if natural gas consumption increased. The rate of this leakage is very uncertain, and better ... K Cost-Effectiveness of Chlorofluorocarbon Phaseout United States and Worldwide 792-797 ... In The Methane Age, Thomas Lee et al., eds. Boston, Mass.: Kluwer Academic Publishers. ... Methane emissions from coal mining also constitute a factor to be considered. ...https://www.nap.edu/read/1605/chapter/29
G Nuclear Energy | Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base | The National...
K Cost-Effectiveness of Chlorofluorocarbon Phaseout United States and Worldwide 792-797 ... M Landfill Methane Reduction 808 * N Population Growth and Greenhouse Gas Emissions 809-811 ...https://www.nap.edu/read/1605/chapter/51
EmissionsHydrocarbonsAtmosphereGases include carbon dioxideConcentrationsOxidesHydrofluorocarbonsCarbon dioxide and methaneNitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbonsCFC'sOxidationGreenhouse effectWetlandsProduce methaneHydrogenEthyleneCompoundsRefrigerantsDigestive processesLandfillsVolatile0.34Upward trendContaminantsHFCsDecompositionGloballyChemicals1998HydrocarbonEarth'sNaturalClimate changeAerosol propellantsMoleculeFreshwaterHydroxyl radicalContributesReductionConcernGlobal WarmingIndustriallyLevels
- Bhatia A, Kumar A, Das TK, Singh J, Jain N, Pathak H (2013b) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from soils under direct seeded rice. (springer.com)
- With the model, the team calculated both the average global temperature and sea-level rise, in response to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, and hydrofluorocarbons. (wattsupwiththat.com)
- In one particular climate modeling scenario, the team evaluated sea level's response to various methane emissions scenarios, in which the world would continue to emit the gas at current rates, until emissions end entirely in three different years: 2050, 2100, and 2150. (phys.org)
- What's more, they found that the longer the world waits to reduce methane emissions, the longer seas will stay elevated. (phys.org)
- Developed countries account for most of the carbon dioxide, as well as aerosol and chlorofluorocarbon emissions. (un.org)
- The White House-EPA plan to control methane emissions is but the latest effort against our domestic energy industry and would simply raise costs to consumers. (americanthinker.com)
- Other air emissions include emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) given as quantities of SO 2 and NO 2 , emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), and emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), excluding methane. (oecd-ilibrary.org)
- Methane emissions also result from livestock and other agricultural practices and by the decay of organic waste in municipal solid waste landfills. (idaho.gov)
- The EIOLCA model was then applied to estimate the carbon intensity of each dollar of commodity produced by the health care industry, based on emissions of various greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons. (healthcanal.com)
- Our statistical analysis suggests that the reduction in the emissions of ozone-depleting substances under the Montreal Protocol, as well as a reduction in methane emissions, contributed to the lower rate of warming since the 1990s. (wattsupwiththat.com)
- Chlorofluorocarbons are compounds, similar to hydrocarbons, in which most, or all, of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by various combinations of fluorine and chlorine atoms. (factbites.com)
- It also reacts with and destroys the powerful greenhouse gas methane and air pollutants including hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide. (noaa.gov)
- For example, fuel hydrocarbons will break down into methane. (wikipedia.org)
- Carbon tetrachloride is produced by exhaustive chlorination of a variety of low molecular weight hydrocarbons such as carbon disulfide, methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene dichloride (HSDB 2004). (cdc.gov)
- There is concern that halons are being broken down in the atmosphere to bromine, which reacts with ozone, leading to depletion of the ozone layer (this is similar to the case of chlorofluorocarbons such as freon ). (factbites.com)
- Chlorofluorocarbon effects and regulations: hearing before the Subcommittee on the Upper Atmosphere of the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, United States Senate, Ninety-fourth Congress, second session, December 15, 1976. (factbites.com)
- As the chlorofluorocarbons break down, they release a chlorine atom which is capable of destroying tens of thousands of ozone molecules before being washed out of the atmosphere. (factbites.com)
- In combination with effects predicted to occur as a result of increased combustion of fossil fuels, continued release of chlorofluorocarbons at current levels could also contribute to a potentially dangerous warming of the earth's atmosphere, altering climate and possible even partially melting the polar icecaps. (factbites.com)
- The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor , carbon dioxide , methane , nitrous oxide and ozone . (wikipedia.org)
- Gases like carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide naturally occur in the atmosphere. (metoffice.gov.uk)
- Huge quantities of carbon dioxide, methane and chlorofluorocarbons dumped in the atmosphere have trapped heat and raised global temperatures. (nytimes.com)
- Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and certain synthetic chemicals, trap some of the Earth's outgoing energy, thus retaining heat in the atmosphere. (epa.gov)
- Others, such as carbon monoxide and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's), enter the atmosphere as a result of human activities, especially industry. (scholastic.com)
- Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons are the abundant greenhouses gases in the atmosphere. (springer.com)
- Through warming effects, methane and other gases impact rising seas long after leaving the atmosphere. (wattsupwiththat.com)
- In a paper published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , the researchers report that warming from short-lived compounds - greenhouse gases such as methane, chlorofluorocarbons, or hydrofluorocarbons, that linger in the atmosphere for just a year to a few decades - can cause sea levels to rise for hundreds of years after the pollutants have been cleared from the atmosphere. (wattsupwiththat.com)
- In all three scenarios, methane gas quickly cleared from the atmosphere, and its associated atmospheric warming decreased at a similar rate. (phys.org)
- Carbon dioxide and other gases (Methane) in the atmosphere lower the reflection rate of the earth, they trap the energy (heat) the sun shines onto earth within the atmosphere just like the glass of a greenhouse traps the heat inside. (moonofalabama.org)
- Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ozone (O3) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) are being added to the atmosphere largely as a result of burning fossil fuels, tropical deforestation and other human activities. (whoi.edu)
- Global warming is driven by the increased capture of solar energy due to the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide and methane) in the atmosphere, caused mainly by human activities. (whoi.edu)
- It is estimated that between 1750 and 2011, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide increased by 40 percent, methane by 150 percent, and nitrous oxide by 20 percent. (nrdc.org)
- To a lesser extent, the clearing of land for agriculture, industry, and other human activities have increased the concentrations of other greenhouse gases like methane (CH4), and further increased (CO2). (nasa.gov)
- For example, methane is a much stronger greenhouse gas than CO 2 , but present in much smaller concentrations. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Human activities have increased the atmospheric concentrations of many naturally occurring gases and have also added new ones.Anthropogenic sources of chlorofluorocarbons are adding to the greenhouse effect and are gradually destroying the ozone layer. (un.org)
- We discover considerable temporal variability in methane concentrations in deeper horizons of freshwater aquifers and attribute this to persistent shifts in aquifer recharge that influence mixing between shallow freshwater and comparatively saline and methane-rich deep groundwater. (pnas.org)
- Overall, methane concentrations ([CH 4 ]) ranged from detection limit to 70 mg/L, increased with aquifer depth, and, at several sites, exhibited considerable temporal variability. (pnas.org)
- Methane concentrations in valley monitoring wells located above gas well laterals increased in conjunction with SGD, but CH 4 isotopic composition and hydrocarbon composition (CH 4 /C 2 H 6 ) are inconsistent with Marcellus origins for this gas. (pnas.org)
- While the atmospheric concentrations of other gases are increasing steadily, the growth rate of methane concentrations has slowed over the past decade. (nbcbayarea.com)
- Concentrations of nitrous oxide also reached record highs in 2007, up 0.25 er cent from the year before, while methane increased 0.34 per cent, exceeding the highest value so far, which was recorded in 2003. (abelard.org)
- While the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and N2O are increasing steadily, the growth rate of methane concentrations has slowed over the past decade with some variations from one year to the next. (abelard.org)
- They are methane, nitrous oxides, carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons. (baltimoresun.com)
- While most scientists now studying climate believe that the 1988 events were short-run phenomenon, some scientists and many policy makers in the U.S. Congress and Administration suggest that this weather was linked to global warming caused by a build-up of the so-called greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, methane and chlorofluorocarbons. (iaee.org)
- and that carbon dioxide and methane and other greenhouse gases are producing global warming, a steady trend amidst fluctuations produced by volcanic eruptions and other sources. (todayinsci.com)
- Because organisms are affected by climate, the latter has an influence on the recycling, while some of the molecules involved in the recycling, such as carbon dioxide and methane, influence the climate through the greenhouse effect. (noaa.gov)
- The buildup of greenhouse gases-primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons-is changing the radiation balance of the planet. (unt.edu)
- About half of the gases are carbon dioxide and the rest is a mixture of methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons. (informaction.org)
- The rate of methane (CH4) oxidation by OH is also very slow, between 100 and 1000 times slower than other organic compounds. (chemieonline.de)
- Selected monoterpenes inhibited methane oxidation by methanotrophs ( Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, Methylobacter luteus ), denitrification by environmental isolates, and aerobic metabolism by several heterotrophic pure cultures. (asm.org)
- Complete inhibition of methane oxidation by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b with 1.1 mM (−)-α-pinene lasted for more than 2 days with a culture of optical density of 0.05 before activity resumed. (asm.org)
- The inhibitory effect of monoterpenes on methane oxidation was greatest with unsaturated, cyclic hydrocarbon forms [e.g., (−)-α-pinene, ( S )-(−)-limonene, ( R )-(+)-limonene, and γ-terpinene]. (asm.org)
- 2018. Low temperature selective methane oxidation to methanol utilizing molecular oxygen with gold palladium colloidal catalysts . (cardiff.ac.uk)
- Chlorofluorocarbons are implicated in two major threats to the global environment: the greenhouse effect and the reduction of the ozone layer . (factbites.com)
- The main gases responsible for the greenhouse effect include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapor (which all occur naturally), and fluorinated gases (which are synthetic). (nrdc.org)
- This is generally attributed to the greenhouse effect, and is caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and other pollutants. (prezi.com)
- Notably, the team identified non-condensing greenhouse gases-such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and chlorofluorocarbons-as providing the core support for the terrestrial greenhouse effect. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Natural sources of methane include wetlands and termite mounds. (epa.gov)
- Human activities, such as fossil fuel exploitation, rice agriculture, biomass burning, landfills and ruminant farm animals, account for some 60 percent of atmospheric methane, with natural sources, for example wetlands and termites, responsible for the remaining 40 percent, the WMO report says. (nbcbayarea.com)
- That hot, rocky core is the original protoplanet seed from the solar system s primeval time, the nucleus around which those awesome layers of hydrogen and helium and ammonia, methane, sulphur compounds and water have wrapped themselves. (todayinsci.com)
- For example, a carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms, coming out of the breaking cellulose, may lock together and form methane, natural gas. (todayinsci.com)
- Refers to the gaseous components at and above the world's surface including the important gases oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and ozone. (greenbuildingpages.com)
- Chlorofluorocarbons are highly volatile compounds, contributing to air pollution. (factbites.com)
- Common fluorocarbons include chlorofluorocarbons and related compounds (also know as ozone depleting substances). (nasa.gov)
- Natural gas extracted from the earth also contains many low molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds such as methane, ethane, propane and butane. (wikipedia.org)
- Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) were developed by the American engineer Thomas Midgley in 1928 as a replacement for ammonia (NH chloromethane (CH Cl), and sulfur dioxide (SO), toxic but in common use at the time as refrigerants . (factbites.com)
- Of the 682 million kilograms of chlorofluorocarbons consumed globally during 1991, the DuPont Corporation estimates the use for various applications as follows: 32 percent for refrigerants , 28 percent for blowing agents, 20 percent for cleaning agents, and 18 percent for propellants. (factbites.com)
- Methane comes from many sources, including human activities such as coal mining, natural gas production and distribution, waste decomposition in landfills, and digestive processes in livestock and agriculture. (epa.gov)
- Methane comes from agriculture, especially rice growing and the digestive processes of cattle, from coal mining, natural gas and from the breakdown of waste. (informaction.org)
- Natural sources of methane include termites, bodies of water, wildfires, and digestive processes of animals. (nih.gov)
- To these, other gases with similar properties, such as methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), were added resulting, respectively, from anaerobic decomposition of organic matter and biomass burning. (eco-web.com)
- Methane is released from coal deposits during underground and surface mining and from decomposition of waste. (nih.gov)
- Chlorofluorocarbons are a group of chemicals discovered around 1930 that contain varying numbers of chlorine , fluorine, carbon and, sometimes, bromine atoms. (factbites.com)
- Concern persists over the potential for unconventional oil and gas development to contaminate groundwater with methane and other chemicals. (pnas.org)
- Methane and nitrous oxide are also emitted in large amounts from natural sources. (wikipedia.org)
- Methane is removed by several natural processes, which can be enhanced. (wikipedia.org)
- Natural sources for Methane and CO2 are well known , and have been around for millennia. (wattsupwiththat.com)
- Methane is emitted during the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil. (idaho.gov)
- Sweden and Norway have banned the use of chlorofluorocarbons as aerosol propellants. (factbites.com)
- Carbon tetrachloride is a feedstock for chlorofluorocarbon gases, such as dichlorodifluoromethane (F-12) and trichlorofluoro methane (F-11), which were used as aerosol propellants in the 1950s and 1960s (Holbrook 1991). (cdc.gov)
- Release of chlorofluorocarbons into the global environment during use, disposal of wastes, transport, and storage are an increasing concern because of the potential impact such uncontrolled releases may have on the future health of mankind, mainly through the depletion of stratospheric ozone. (factbites.com)
- Since then, concern over the chlorofluorocarbon propellants recommended for aerosols to be used for disinsection of aircraft has led to a reconsideration of their use. (who.int)
- All contribute to smog except Methane, which links to global warming. (antiessays.com)
- The 100-year global warming potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are recently estimated at 25 and 298 carbon dioxide equivalents, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
- As for non-CO 2 emission, the global warming potential (GWP) of methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is 21 and 310 times that of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), respectively, which should not be overlooked in developing the inventory. (hindawi.com)
- NOAA's Patricia Lang prepares to measure methane levels inside a flask that is part of NOAA's global air sampling network. (noaa.gov)
- Methane levels were a key point of comparison in the new study, published in Science. (noaa.gov)
- In addition, atmospheric methane levels are roughly 200 times less than those of CO2 - yielding a GH overestimate of about 20,000. (americanthinker.com)
- I figured that it should increase at the rate of population growth and estimated that atmospheric methane levels should rise roughly 1% annually -- the first such prediction. (americanthinker.com)
- Everyone is exposed to low levels of methane in outdoor air. (nih.gov)