A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of ethane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Fluorinated hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting primarily of carbon and fluorine atoms, where hydrogen atoms may also be present, known for their high stability, chemical resistance, and various industrial applications, including refrigerants, fire extinguishing agents, and electrical insulation materials.
A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.

Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome following exposure to a fluorocarbon. (1/60)

This report describes the case of a 43-yr-old male who developed reactive airways dysfunction syndrome after exposure to a high level of bromotrifluoromethane (CF3Br, Halon 1301), a fluorocarbon widely used in automatic fire extinguishing systems. The patient was a previously healthy, nonatopic male, who developed wheezing and intermittent and reversible obstructive ventilatory impairment starting immediately after a large accidental nonfire-related release of CF3Br in a confined space.  (+info)

Induction of genetic damage in human lymphocytes and mutations in Salmonella by trihalomethanes: role of red blood cells and GSTT1-1 polymorphism. (2/60)

The brominated trihalomethanes (THMs) are mutagenic and carcinogenic disinfection by-products frequently found in chlorinated drinking water. They can be activated to mutagens by the product of the glutathione S-transferase-Theta (GSTT1++-1) gene in Salmonella RSJ100, which has been transfected with this gene. To evaluate this phenomenon in humans, we have examined the genotoxicity of a brominated THM, bromoform (BF), using the Comet assay in human whole blood cultures exposed in vitro. No differences were found in the comet tail length between cultures from GSTT1-1(+) versus GSTT1-1(-) individuals (1.67 +/- 0.40 and 0.74 +/- 0.54 microm/mM, respectively, P = 0.28). The high variability was due to the relatively weak induction of comets by BF. Combining the data from both genotypic groups, the genotoxic potency of BF was 1.20 +/- 0.34 microm/mM (P = 0.003). GSTT1-1 is expressed in red blood cells but not in the target cells (lymphocytes), and expression within the target cell (as in Salmonella RSJ100) may be necessary for enhanced mutagenesis in GSTT1-1(+) relative to GSTT1-1(-) cultures. To examine this, we exposed Salmonella RSJ100 and a control strain not expressing the gene (TPT100) to the most mutagenic brominated THM detected in Salmonella, dibromochloromethane (DBCM), either in the presence or absence of S9 or red blood cells from GSTT1-1(+) or GSTT1-1(-) individuals. S9 did not activate DBCM in the non-expressing strain TPT100, and it did not affect the ability of the expressing strain RSJ100 to activate DBCM. As with S9, red cells from either genotypic group were unable to activate DBCM in TPT100. However, red cells (whole or lysed) from both genotypic groups completely repressed the ability of the expressing strain RSJ100 to activate DBCM to a mutagen. Such results suggest a model in which exposure to brominated THMs may pose an excess genotoxic risk in GSTT1-1(+) individuals to those organs and tissues that both express this gene and come into direct contact with the brominated THM, such as the colon. In contrast, those organs to which brominated THMs would be transported via the blood might be protected by erythrocytes. Such a proposal is reasonably consistent with the organ specificity of drinking water-associated cancer in humans, which shows slightly elevated risks for cancer of the colon and bladder but not of the liver.  (+info)

Drinking water source and chlorination byproducts in Iowa. III. Risk of brain cancer. (3/60)

The authors conducted a population-based case-control study in Iowa of 375 brain cancer patients and 2,434 controls. A postal questionnaire was used to gather information on lifetime residential history, sources of drinking water, beverage intake, and other potential risk factors. Exposure to chlorination byproducts in drinking water was estimated by combining questionnaire data with historical information from water utilities and trihalomethane levels in recent samples. The analysis included 291 cases (77.6%) and 1,983 controls (81.5%), for whom water quality information was available for at least 70% of lifetime years. Proxies represented 74.4% of cases. The mean number and mean duration of places of residence were comparable between direct and proxy respondents, suggesting little contribution to bias. After multivariate adjustment, odds ratios for brain cancer were 1.0, 1.1, 1.6, and 1.3 for exposure to chlorinated surface water of 0, 1-19, 20-39, and > or =40 years (p trend = 0.1). Among men, odds ratios were 1.0, 1.3, 1.7, and 2.5 (p trend = 0.04), and among women, 1.0, 1.0, 1.6, and 0.7 (p trend = 0.7)). Similar findings were found with estimates of average lifetime level of trihalomethanes. The association was stronger among men with above-median tap water consumption. These observations deserve further attention, especially in view of increasing glioma rates.  (+info)

Investigation of an acute chemical incident: exposure to fluorinated hydrocarbons. (4/60)

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether attendance at the site after an incident in a sewer was associated with symptoms in emergency personnel and whether the prevalence of symptoms was associated with estimated levels of exposure to any chemical hazard. METHODS: Symptoms experienced by people attending an incident involving two dead sewer workers suggested the presence of a chemical hazard, before environmental sampling confirmed any toxic agent. Self reported symptoms, estimated exposures, and biomarkers of exposure for likely agents from all 254 people who attended the incident and a referent occupational group matching the 83 emergency personnel who went to the Accident and Emergency department (A and E) in the first 48 hours were recorded. The prevalence of symptoms and concentrations of creatine phosphokinase in serum of the 83 early patients at A and E were compared with their referent occupational group. In all workers who attended the incident, the trends in symptom prevalences and concentrations of creatine phosphokinase in serum were examined by distance from the site and predefined exposure category. RESULTS: Among all workers who attended the incident, symptoms of shortness of breath and sore throat were significantly associated with indirect estimates of exposure but not associated with concentrations of creatine phosphokinase. Freon was detected in two blood samples. The early patients at A and E reported more symptoms than their matched reference group and their median concentrations of creatine phosphokinase were higher. CONCLUSIONS: The association between symptoms and concentrations of creatine phosphokinase with attendance at the site indicated the presence of a continuing hazard at the site and led to extra precautions being taken. Comparison values from the referent occupational group prevented unnecessary medical follow up.  (+info)

Effect of dichlorodifluoromethane on the appearance, viability, and integrity of Escherichia coli. (5/60)

Cultures of Escherichia coli H52 were treated with liquid dichlorodifluoromethane (fluorocarbon-12 [f-12]) for 2 h at 22 C and then examined microscopically. Treated cells tended to clump, and their cytoplasms were generally less dense and less uniform in appearance than those of control cells. E. coli ML30 was exposed to f-12 at a concentration of 1.25 X saturation for times up to 1,200 min at 22 C. Cells were examined for changes in viability (plate count), permeability (as measured by exit of alpha-[14-C]methylglucoside or uptake of omicron-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside), release of compounds absorbing at 260 nm, and lysis (changes in absorbance at 420 nm). Large losses of alpha-methylglucoside and of percentage of viability occurred after brief exposure to f-12. Release of compounds absorbing at 260 nm occurred more slowly than the aforementioned events, possibly because these molecules are larger than alpha-methylglucoside. During 1,200-min exposure to f-12, the number of survivors decreased from 10-9 to 10-4 organisms/ml, the loss of compounds absorbing at 260 nm amounted to 50 percent, and 32 percent lysis occurred. Most of these changes occurred during the first 300 min of treatment. Loss of alpha-methylglucoside was almost complete after 1-min exposure to f-12. These results suggest that death of the cell involves several stages, with a change of permeability, occurring first, followed by leakage of compounds of increasing size and, finally, lysis.  (+info)

Comparative effects of anesthetics on the viability and integrity of Escherichia coli ML30. (6/60)

Cells of Escherichia coli ML30 in a mineral salts medium were exposed to dichlorodifluoromethane (f-12), cyclopropane, halothane, or Ethrane at concentrations of 1.25, 0.2, 0.04, and 0.008 X saturation for times up to 1,200 min, and at temperatures in the range of 2 to 37 C. When any of these anesthetics were applied for 300 min at 1.25 X saturation, a substantial decrease in number of survivors occurred. Halothane was most bactericidal, cyclopropane and Ethrane were moderately bactericidal, and t-12 was least bactericidal. At saturation values of less than 1.0, none of the four anesthetics had an appreciable effect on viability of E. coli. Greatest increases in cell permeability occurred when anesthetics were used at saturation values of 1.25, and permeability changes generally decreased as the concentrations of the chemicals were reduced. In many instances, anesthetics in the vapor state caused significant increases in cell permeability but little or no loss of viability. This indicated that a close relationship did not exist between loss of viability and increased permeability. All four anesthetics caused E. coli to lose substantial and similar amounts of compounds absorbing at 260 nm. Release of compounds absorbing at 260 nm generally increased as the saturation value of a given chemical was increased. Halothane, Ethrane, and cyclopropane but not f-12 caused lysis of E. coli ML300. Considering all results, E. coli ML30 was damaged more by halothane or cyclopropane than by f-12 or Ethrane. When f-12 was applied at a saturation value of 1.25, the bactericidal effect on E. coli was much greater at 37 or 22 C than at 12 or 2 C.  (+info)

Delivery of fenoterol via Respimat, a novel 'soft mist' inhaler. a randomised, double-blind (within device), placebo-controlled, cross-over, dose-ranging study in asthmatic patients. (7/60)

BACKGROUND: The phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) for metered dose inhalers (MDIs) has prompted the development of alternative propellants and the design of propellant-free devices for inhalation therapy. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to determine the dose of fenoterol inhaled from Respimat (RMT), a new propellant-free soft mist inhaler, which is equivalent in terms of efficacy and safety to 1 puff of either 100 or 200 microg fenoterol inhaled from a conventional CFC-MDI (Berotec). METHODS: Sixty-two asthmatic patients (35 male, 27 female) with a mean baseline FEV(1) of 1.7 liters, corresponding to 55% of the predicted normal value, were randomized at two study centers to 4 of a total of 8 possible treatments: placebo; 12.5, 25, 50, 100, or 200 microg fenoterol via RMT, and 100 or 200 microg fenoterol delivered via the MDI. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients completed the study as planned. Results of the therapeutic equivalence test for the primary endpoint, average FEV(1) (AUC(0-6))/6 and for the secondary endpoint, peak FEV(1), showed that the 12.5- and 25-microg fenoterol doses administered via RMT were equivalent to the 100 microg fenoterol dose from the MDI. The 50-, 100- and 200-microg fenoterol doses delivered by RMT did not meet the criterion for therapeutic equivalence with the 100-microg dose from the MDI, and if tested for a difference would have been significantly different in favor of RMT. All 5 RMT fenoterol doses were therapeutically equivalent to the MDI 200-microg fenoterol dose. Headache, reported by 4 patients on test days and 2 patients between test days in those randomized to RMT, was the most common adverse event, but the active treatments were generally well tolerated with no dose-dependent increases in incidence or severity of adverse events observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the study suggest that safe and efficacious bronchodilation can be obtained from single-dose fenoterol administered via RMT. Use of lower absolute doses to obtain a clinically significant improvement in pulmonary function may be possible because of the increased lung deposition achievable with the novel soft mist inhaler.  (+info)

Biotransformation and elimination of 14C-trichlorofluoromethane (FC-11) and 14C-dichlorodifluoromethane (FC-12) in man. (8/60)

Radiocarbon-labeled trichlorofluoromethane (FC-11; 14CC13F) and dichlorodifluormethane (FC-12; 14CC12F2) were separately inhaled by a female subject and a male subject. A predetermined volume of fluorocarbon (1000 ppm; 100 muCi) in air was delivered through a nonrebreating system and a tight-fitting face mask for 7-17 minutes. Total expired gases were collected during fluorocarbon exposure and afterward until no radioactivity was detectable. Expired 14CO2 and 14C-fluorocarbon were assayed. Urine was collected for 72 hours and assayed for nonvolatile radioactivity. Total recoveries of FC-11 were 99.5 and 79.4 per cent in the woman and the man, respectively. Total recoveries of FC-12 were 95.4 and 103.2 per cent. Traces of radioactivity were found in urine (FC-11, 0.07 and 0.09 per cent; FC-12, 0.02 and 0.03 per cent) and in exhaled carbon dioxide (FC-11, 0.13 and 0.10 per cent; FC-12, 0.08 per cent in both subjects). Total metabolites were equal to or less than 0.2 per cent of the administered dose. The amount of radioactivity in urine was insufficient to permit identification of possible fluorocarbon metabolites. The trace of metabolites could be products of radiolabeled impurities. (Key words: Gases, non-anesthetic, dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon 12); Gases, non-anesthetic, trichlorofluoromethane (Freon 11); Pharmacology, fluorocarbons.)  (+info)

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are synthetic, volatile organic compounds that consist of carbon atoms, chlorine atoms, and fluorine atoms. They were widely used in various applications such as refrigerants, aerosol propellants, solvents, and fire extinguishing agents due to their non-toxicity, non-flammability, and chemical stability.

However, CFCs have been found to contribute significantly to the depletion of the Earth's ozone layer when released into the atmosphere. This is because they are stable enough to reach the upper atmosphere, where they react with ultraviolet radiation to release chlorine atoms that can destroy ozone molecules. As a result, the production and use of CFCs have been phased out under the Montreal Protocol, an international treaty aimed at protecting the ozone layer.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and methane are both greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming and climate change. However, they are distinct substances with different chemical structures and sources.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are synthetic compounds made up of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine atoms. They were commonly used in refrigerants, aerosol sprays, and foam blowing agents until they were phased out due to their harmful effects on the ozone layer. CFCs have high global warming potential, meaning that they trap heat in the atmosphere many times more effectively than carbon dioxide.

Methane, on the other hand, is a naturally occurring gas made up of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms (CH4). It is produced by the decomposition of organic matter, such as in landfills, wetlands, and the digestive tracts of animals like cattle. Methane is also released during the extraction and transportation of fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas. While methane has a shorter lifespan in the atmosphere than CFCs, it is an even more potent greenhouse gas, trapping heat at a rate 25 times greater than carbon dioxide over a 100-year period.

Therefore, while both CFCs and methane are harmful to the climate, they are distinct substances with different sources and impacts.

Aerosol propellants are substances used to expel aerosolized particles from a container. They are typically gases that are stored under pressure in a container and, when the container is opened or activated, the gas expands and forces the contents out through a small opening. The most commonly used aerosol propellants are hydrocarbons such as butane and propane, although fluorinated hydrocarbons such as difluoroethane and tetrafluoroethane are also used. Aerosol propellants can be found in various products including medical inhalers, cosmetics, and food products. It is important to handle aerosol propellants with care, as they can be flammable or harmful if inhaled or ingested.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are a group of synthetic chemicals that were commonly used in refrigerants, aerosol propellants, and foam blowing agents. They consist of carbon atoms bonded to chlorine and fluorine atoms. CFCs are known to contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer in the Earth's atmosphere.

CFC-12, also known as dichlorodifluoromethane, is a specific type of CFC with the chemical formula CF~2Cl2. It was widely used as a refrigerant and aerosol propellant before being phased out due to its ozone-depleting properties.

On the other hand, ethane (C2H6) is a hydrocarbon consisting of two carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms. It is a colorless gas with a faint sweet odor and is commonly found in natural gas. Ethane is not a CFC and does not contain chlorine or fluorine atoms.

Therefore, there is no medical definition for "Chlorofluorocarbons, Ethane" as it is a combination of two unrelated terms.

Methane is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is often mentioned in the context of medicine and health. Medically, methane is significant because it is one of the gases produced by anaerobic microorganisms during the breakdown of organic matter in the gut, leading to conditions such as bloating, cramping, and diarrhea. Excessive production of methane can also be a symptom of certain digestive disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).

In broader terms, methane is a colorless, odorless gas that is the primary component of natural gas. It is produced naturally by the decomposition of organic matter in anaerobic conditions, such as in landfills, wetlands, and the digestive tracts of animals like cows and humans. Methane is also a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 25 times greater than carbon dioxide over a 100-year time frame.

Fluorinated hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain fluorine and carbon atoms. These compounds can be classified into two main groups: fluorocarbons (which consist only of fluorine and carbon) and fluorinated aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons (which contain hydrogen in addition to fluorine and carbon).

Fluorocarbons are further divided into three categories: fully fluorinated compounds (perfluorocarbons, PFCs), partially fluorinated compounds (hydrochlorofluorocarbons, HCFCs, and hydrofluorocarbons, HFCs), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). These compounds have been widely used as refrigerants, aerosol propellants, fire extinguishing agents, and cleaning solvents due to their chemical stability, low toxicity, and non-flammability.

Fluorinated aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain fluorine, carbon, and hydrogen atoms. Examples include fluorinated alcohols, ethers, amines, and halogenated compounds. These compounds have a wide range of applications in industry, medicine, and research due to their unique chemical properties.

It is important to note that some fluorinated hydrocarbons can contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer and global warming, making it essential to regulate their use and production.

Methylococcaceae is a family of bacteria that have the ability to oxidize methane as their source of carbon and energy. These bacteria are also known as methanotrophs. They are gram-negative, aerobic, and typically occur in freshwater and marine environments. The family includes several genera such as Methylococcus, Methylomonas, and Methylothermus. These bacteria play an important role in the global carbon cycle by converting methane, a potent greenhouse gas, into carbon dioxide.

These data show that CO2 dominates the total forcing, with methane and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) becoming relatively smaller ... methane, and nitrous oxide: A significant revision of the methane radiative forcing". Geophysical Research Letters. 43 (24): 12 ... This index is a measure of the inter-annual changes in conditions that affect carbon dioxide emission and uptake, methane and ... A year 2016 study suggests a significant revision to the methane IPCC formula. Forcings by the most influential trace gases in ...
... which includes forcing from the much larger concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane. Chlorofluorocarbons also cause ... Methane produces a larger greenhouse effect per volume as compared to carbon dioxide, but it exists in much lower ... Methane production is also typically high in the anoxic sediments of floodplains, lakes, and reservoirs. Primary production is ... Arctic methane emissions indirectly caused by anthropogenic global warming also affect the carbon cycle and contribute to ...
For example, methane has been found in many water wells in West Virginia. One of the most widely used methods for headspace ... Examples of volatile anthropogenic chemicals include the refrigerants chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs ... "Testing for Methane, Ethane and Ethene in Water by Headspace Analysis Utilizing Method 3810 - Modified" (PDF). Retrieved 16 ... USGS (January 2006). "Methane in West Virginia Ground Water". Fact Sheet 2006-3011. Retrieved 16 April 2019. Pace Analytical. " ...
Stratospheric ozone depletion is caused by air pollution, chiefly from chlorofluorocarbons and other ozone-depleting substances ... methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Besides argon, already mentioned, other noble gases, neon, helium, krypton, and xenon are ... methane and ammonia. Outgassing from volcanism, supplemented by gases produced during the late heavy bombardment of Earth by ... methane and nitrous oxide. This increase has caused an observed rise in global temperatures. Global average surface ...
The gases that have a role in the greenhouse effect are mainly carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons ... The acceleration of ice depletion will contribute to climate change as a whole: melting ice releases methane, ice reflects ...
... methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxides. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) has predicted a rise of ...
"Global Methane Emissions and Mitigation Opportunities" (PDF). Global Methane Initiative. 2020. "Sources of methane emissions". ... Use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in refrigeration systems, and use of CFCs and halons in fire suppression systems and ... "Methane and climate change - Global Methane Tracker 2022 - Analysis". IEA. Retrieved 2023-07-14. Prather, Michael J.; Hsu, Juno ... The powerful greenhouse gas, methane accounts for a quarter of global heating. The major source of methane is the leaks from ...
Like methane itself, halomethanes are tetrahedral molecules. The halogen atoms differ greatly in size and charge from hydrogen ... Many, including the chlorofluorocarbons, have attracted wide attention because they become active when exposed to ultraviolet ... Halomethane compounds are derivatives of methane (CH4) with one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced with halogen atoms (F, ... In general, halomethanes are volatile but less so than methane because of the polarizability of the halides. The polarizability ...
Methane is mainly produced by livestock and agricultural practices. Methane was estimated to make up 10% of emitted greenhouse ... Another area of concern is that of ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs ... The blowout lasted 20 days, releasing more than 50,000 tons of methane into the atmosphere. The blowout leaked more methane ... The Coalbed Methane Outreach Program (CMOP) works to reduce methane released into the atmosphere as a result of coal mining by ...
... methane and chlorofluorocarbons), particulates (both organic and inorganic), and biological molecules. Air pollution can cause ... They are categorized as either methane (CH4) or non-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): Emitted from goods that are now prohibited from use; harmful to the ozone layer. These are gases ... "Cracking down on methane 'ultra emitters' is a quick way to combat climate change, researchers find". The Washington Post. ...
... such as methane and chlorofluorocarbons. However, even then he wrote "the future balance of forcings is likely to shift toward ...
... chlorofluorocarbons MeSH D02.455.526.439.220.300 - chlorofluorocarbons, methane MeSH D02.455.526.439.224 - chloroform MeSH ... chlorofluorocarbons MeSH D02.455.526.510.140.300 - chlorofluorocarbons, methane MeSH D02.455.526.510.432 - fluorobenzenes MeSH ... methane MeSH D02.455.326.146.571.850 - tetranitromethane MeSH D02.455.326.146.672 - nitroparaffins MeSH D02.455.326.146.672.800 ...
... methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11 and CFC-12). The Anyone-do station is located in a ... The 2018 methane concentration in the Anmyeon-do is 113 ppb higher than in 1999, when observations first began. During the ... Methane, another prominent greenhouse gas in the Korean Peninsula's atmosphere, also shows a clear increase in atmospheric ... The 2018 annual average concentration of methane observed in the Anmyeon-do was 1974 ppb, which is 115 ppb higher than the ...
Methane (CH 4) Nitrous oxide (N 2O) Ozone (O 3) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs and HCFCs) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Perfluorocarbons ... Methane has indirect effects in addition to forming CO2. The main chemical that reacts with methane in the atmosphere is the ... "Understanding methane emissions". International Energy Agency. The concentration of methane in the atmosphere is currently over ... Negative emissions approaches are also being studied for atmospheric methane, called atmospheric methane removal. In the late ...
... such as methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. Early in that decade, carbon dioxide was the only widely studied human ...
Methane, Nitrous oxide and the fluorinated gases bromofluorocarbon, chlorofluorocarbon, hydrochlorofluorocarbon, ... Power Sector Climate Trace github.com/ p.20 Retrieved Jun 14, 2023 Allen, D (19 July 2016). "Attributing Atmospheric Methane to ... "Enteric fermentation Improving food security and livelihoods by reducing enteric methane emissions". www.ccacoalition.org. ... for Methane: Monte Carlo Analysis of the Uncertainties in Global Tropospheric Model Predictions Atmosphere 2020, 11(5), 486; ...
Methane CINC - Interdepartmental Committee of Climate Negotiators CLP - Carbon Literacy Project CMA - Meeting of the Parties to ... Chlorofluorocarbon CFRF - Climate Financial Risk Forum (UK) CF4 - Carbon tetrafluoride or tetrafluoromethane (greenhouse gas) ...
CDR - Carbon dioxide removal CER - Certified Emission Reduction CFC - Chlorofluorocarbon CF4 - Carbon tetrafluoride CH4 - ... Methane COP - Conference of the Parties CO2 - Carbon dioxide C2F6 - Hexafluoroethane DER - Distributed Energy Resources is a ...
... mainly methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbon) that have been emitted since the 18th century was roughly 2.8 W/m2. The ... as well as increased concentrations of other greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. The increasing temperatures ...
These include the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC and HCFCs). As discussed below, a major reason ... methane CH 4 and nitrous oxide N 2O. The concentration of the least common of these, N 2O, is about 400 ppbV.[clarification ... Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; 'Greenhouse Effect Due to Chlorofluorocarbons: Climatic Implications'; Science, vol. 190, no. 4209 ( ... one year after Roland and Molina's much-more-celebrated paper on the ability of chlorofluorocarbons to destroy stratospheric ...
Methane is not directly toxic, but is more difficult to break down in fuel vent lines and a charcoal canister is meant to ... for example chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and formaldehyde. Carbon monoxide (CO) - A product of incomplete combustion, inhaled ... Technology for one application (to meet a non-methane hydrocarbon standard) may not be suitable for use in an application that ... Regulations governing hydrocarbons vary according to type of engine and jurisdiction; in some cases, "non-methane hydrocarbons ...
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formulae CClmF4−m and C2ClmF6−m, ... Hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formula CClmFnH4−m−n and ... chlorofluorocarbon-11 and chlorofluorocarbon-12 in seawater". Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. 55 (8): ... Thus, methane boils at −161 °C whereas the fluoromethanes boil between −51.7 (CF2H2) and −128 °C (CF4). The CFCs have still ...
Kim, Ki-Hyun; Shon, Zang-Ho; Nguyen, Hang Thi; Jeon, Eui-Chan (2011). "A review of major chlorofluorocarbons and their ... where it interacts with UV-C radiation and forms highly reactive chloride ions that interact with methane. These highly ... Chlorine plays a large role in atmospheric cycling and climate, including, but not limited to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The ... signalling in the brain and regulate many other essential functions in biology The depleting effects of chlorofluorocarbons ( ...
Greenhouse gas concentrations changed as follows from 1750 to 2019: Carbon dioxide (CO2), 278.3 to 409.9 ppm, up 47%; Methane ( ... chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).: AVII-60 These gases are mostly produced ... The presence of nitrogen (N2), methane (CH4), and hydrogen (H2) in the atmosphere contribute to a greenhouse effect, increasing ... Methane (CH4), 4~9%; Tropospheric ozone (O3), 3~7%. It is not practical to assign a specific percentage to each gas because the ...
Chlorofluorocarbons, in contrast, are insoluble and long-lived, allowing them to reach the stratosphere. In the lower ... As with carbon dioxide and methane, there are some natural sources of tropospheric chlorine, such as sea spray. Chlorine from ... in fact ozone and chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other halocarbons, which are held responsible for ozone ...
He found that water vapor, hydrocarbons like methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) strongly block the radiation. He ... In 1973 James Lovelock speculated that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) could have a global warming effect. In 1975 V. Ramanathan ... by 1985 Ramanathan and others showed that CFCs together with methane and other trace gases could have nearly as important a ...
The name stems from the fact that it is methane (CH4) with a fluorine atom substituted for one of the hydrogen atoms. It is ... These compounds are related to the chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), but since they do not contain chlorine, are not destructive to ...
However, like ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4) is a relatively light gas. It is in fact even less dense than ammonia and so would ... Especially powerful greenhouse gases, such as sulfur hexafluoride, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), or perfluorocarbons (PFCs), have ... Even if a method could be found to prevent it escaping into space, methane can exist in the Martian atmosphere for only a ... Another way to create a Martian atmosphere would be to import methane (CH4) or other hydrocarbons, which are common in Titan's ...
Methane can be monitored and measured from irrigated rice fields and can be measured by the seedling growing up to harvest. ... These reduction targets are in addition to the industrial gases, chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, which are dealt with under the ... Emission savings include cuts in methane, HFC, and N2O emissions. As noted earlier on, the first-round Kyoto emissions ... Carbon dioxide, Methane, Nirous oxide, Hydroflurocarbons, Sulfur hexafluouride and Perfluorocarbons. Monitoring these gases can ...
methane A greenhouse gas released by enteric fermentation in livestock, rice production, and fossil fuel extraction. ... Freon The trade name for a group of proprietary odorless, colorless, nonflammable, and noncorrosive chlorofluorocarbon and ... clathrate gun hypothesis The hypothesis that melting methane clathrates could trigger runaway or very severe global warming. ... one of the causes of methane emissions. environmental crime Crime against environmental legislation that is liable for ...

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