A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of ethane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)
A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.
Identifies, for study and analysis, important issues and problems that relate to health and medicine. The Institute initiates and conducts studies of national policy and planning for health care and health-related education and research; it also responds to requests from the federal government and other agencies for studies and advice.
A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.
Sulfhydryl acylated derivative of GLYCINE.
The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.
Astatine. A radioactive halogen with the atomic symbol At, atomic number 85, and atomic weight 210. Its isotopes range in mass number from 200 to 219 and all have an extremely short half-life. Astatine may be of use in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A group of compounds having the general formula CH2=C(CN)-COOR; it polymerizes on contact with moisture; used as tissue adhesive; higher homologs have hemostatic and antibacterial properties.
A tissue adhesive that is applied as a monomer to moist tissue and polymerizes to form a bond. It is slowly biodegradable and used in all kinds of surgery, including dental.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.
Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.

The kidney as a novel target tissue for protein adduct formation associated with metabolism of halothane and the candidate chlorofluorocarbon replacement 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane. (1/7)

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) have been identified as chemical replacements of the widely used chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that are implicated in stratospheric ozone depletion. Many HCFCs are structural analogues of the anesthetic agent halothane and may follow a common pathway of biotransformation and formation of adducts to protein-centered and other cellular nucleophiles. Exposure of rats to a single dose of halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) or of the candidate CFC substitute HCFC 123 (2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) led to the formation of trifluoroacetylated protein adducts (CF3CO-proteins) not only in the liver, but also in the kidney as a novel target tissue for protein trifluoroacetylation. CF3CO-proteins in the kidney amounted to about 5% of those formed in the liver of the same animal. The amount of CF3CO-proteins formed within the kidney was roughly reflected by the capacity of metabolism of halothane or HCFC 123 by rat kidney microsomes in vitro which amounted to about 10% of that observed with liver microsomes. By immunohistochemistry, CF3CO-proteins in the kidney were mainly localized in the tubular segments of the cortex. In the liver, the density of CF3CO-proteins decreased from the central vein towards the portal triad. In vitro incubation of rat liver microsomes with halothane or HCFC 123 resulted in extensive formation of CF3CO-proteins and reproduced faithfully the pattern of liver CF3CO-proteins obtained in vivo. CF3CO-proteins generated in vitro were immunochemically not discernible from those generated in vivo. Glutathione (5 mM) and cysteine (5 mM) virtually abolished CF3CO-protein formation; the release of Br- from halothane and Cl- from HCFC 123 was reduced to much lesser a degree. S-Methyl-glutathione, N-acetyl-cysteine, methionine, and N-acetyl-methionine only slightly affected the formation of CF3CO-proteins or metabolism of either substrate. The data suggest that metabolism and concomitant CF3CO-protein formation of halothane or of candidate CFC replacements like HCFC 123 is not restricted to the liver but also takes place in the kidney. Furthermore, an in vitro system for CF3CO-protein formation has been developed and used to show that protein-centered and glutathione-centered nucleophilic sites compete for intermediates of metabolism of halothane or of HCFC 123.  (+info)

Tissue acylation by the chlorofluorocarbon substitute 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane. (2/7)

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are being developed as substitutes for ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); because widespread human exposure to HCFCs may be expected, it is important to evaluate their toxicities thoroughly. Here we report studies on the bioactivation of the CFC substitute 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123) to an electrophilic intermediate that reacts covalently with liver proteins. HCFC-123 and its analog halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) were studied in rats by 19F NMR spectroscopy, and we found that a trifluoroacetylated lysine adduct was formed with liver proteins. Also, the pattern of proteins immunoreactive with hapten-specific anti-trifluoroacetylprotein antibodies was identical in livers of HCFC-123- and halothane-exposed rats. Because halothane causes an idiosyncratic, and sometimes fatal, hepatitis that is associated with an immune response against several trifluoroacetylated liver proteins, the present findings raise the possibility that humans exposed to HCFC-123 or structurally related HCFCs may be at risk of developing an immunologically mediated hepatitis.  (+info)

Modified extraction procedure for gas-liquid chromatography applied to the identification of anaerobic bacteria. (3/7)

Chloroform and ether commonly are used as solvents to extract metabolic organic acids for analysis by gas-liquid chromatography in the identification of anaerobic bacteria. Because these solvents are potentially hazardous to personnel, modified extraction procedures involving the use of a safer solvent, methyl tert-butyl ether were developed which remained both simple to perform and effective for organism identification.  (+info)

Hepatotoxicity in guinea pigs following acute inhalation exposure to 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane. (4/7)

Groups of 10 male Hartley guinea pigs were exposed to 3.0, 2.0, 1.0, or 0.1% (v/v) 1,1-Dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123) or 1.0% (v/v) halothane by inhalation for 4 hr. A sixth group of 10 guinea pigs received only air. All animals were sacrificed 48 hr postexposure. Gross and histopathologic examination of the liver, heart, and kidney and routine hematology and clinical chemistry analyses [including isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH)] were done on all guinea pigs. Lesions related to HCFC-123 and halothane exposure were limited to the liver and included centrolobular vacuolar (fatty) change, multifocal random degeneration and necrosis, and centrolobular degeneration and necrosis. These lesions were observed in 90-100% of the exposed animals and were absent in the air-only controls. There was significant individual animal variation in susceptibility to both HCFC-123 and halothane, resulting in a spectrum of histologic lesions and clinical chemistry values within each exposure group. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and ICDH were the most significant predictors of hepatocellular damage. Similarities in the response between halothane and HCFC-123 in this guinea pig model suggests that humans susceptible to halothane-induced hepatitis may be susceptible to HCFC-123 by a common mechanism of toxicity.  (+info)

Microbial degradation of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (CHCl2F and CHCl2CF3) in soils and sediments. (5/7)

The ability of microorganisms to degrade trace levels of the hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFC-21 and HCFC-123 was investigated. Methanotroph-linked oxidation of HCFC-21 was observed in aerobic soils, and anaerobic degradation of HCFC-21 occurred in freshwater and salt marsh sediments. Microbial degradation of HCFC-123 was observed in anoxic freshwater and salt marsh sediments, and the recovery of 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-chloroethane indicated the involvement of reductive dechlorination. No degradation of HCFC-123 was observed in aerobic soils. In some experiments, HCFCs were degraded at low (parts per billion) concentrations, raising the possibility that bacteria in nature remove HCFCs from the atmosphere.  (+info)

Toxicology of chlorofluorocarbon replacements. (6/7)

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are stable in the atmosphere and may reach the stratosphere. They are cleaved by UV-radiation in the stratosphere to yield chlorine radicals, which are thought to interfere with the catalytic cycle of ozone formation and destruction and deplete stratospheric ozone concentrations. Due to potential adverse health effects of ozone depletion, chlorofluorocarbon replacements with much lower or absent ozone depleting potential are developed. The toxicology of these compounds that represent chlorofluorohydrocarbons (HCFCs) or fluorohydrocarbons (HFCs) has been intensively studied. All compounds investigated (1, 1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane [HCFC-141b], 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane [HFC-134a], pentafluoroethane [HFC-125], 1-chloro- 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane [HCFC-124], and 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane [HCFC-123]) show only a low potential for skin and eye irritation. Chronic adverse effects on the liver (HCFC-123) and the testes (HCFC-141b and HCFC-134a), including tumor formation, were observed in long-term inhalation studies in rodents using very high concentrations of these CFC replacements. All CFC replacements are, to varying extents, biotransformed in the organism, mainly by cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of C-H bonds. The formed acyl halides are hydrolyzed to give excretable carboxylic acids; halogenated aldehydes that are formed may be further oxidized to halogenated carboxylic acids or reduced to halogenated alcohols, which are excretory metabolites in urine from rodents exposed experimentally to CFC replacements. The chronic toxicity of the CFC replacements studied is unlikely to be of relevance for humans exposed during production and application of CFC replacements.  (+info)

Metabolism of 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b) in human volunteers. (7/7)

Human subjects were exposed by inhalation to 250, 500, and 1000 ppm 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b) for 4 hr, and urine samples were collected from 0-4, 4-12, and 12-24 hr for metabolite analysis. 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from exposed subjects showed that 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethyl glucuronide and dichlorofluoroacetic acid were the major and minor metabolites, respectively, of HCFC-141b. Urinary 2, 2-dichloro-2-fluoroethyl glucuronide was hydrolyzed to 2, 2-dichloro-2-fluoroethanol by incubation with beta-glucuronidase, and the released 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethanol was quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Concentrations of 2, 2-dichloro-2-fluoroethanol were highest in the urine samples collected 4-12 hr after exposure, but 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethanol was also detected in the samples collected 0-4 and 12-24 hr after exposure. Exposure concentration-dependent excretion of 2, 2-dichloro-2-fluoroethanol, obtained by hydrolysis of 2, 2-dichloro-2-fluoroethyl glucuronide, was observed in seven of the eight subjects studied. In conclusion, HCFC-141b is metabolized in human subjects to 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethanol, which is conjugated with glucuronic acid and excreted as its glucuronide in urine in a time- and exposure concentration-dependent manner.  (+info)

Others. At the beginning, the report covers the top Hydrochlorofluorocarbons manufacturing industry players from regions like United States, EU, Japan, and China. It also characterizes the market based on topographical regions.. Further, the Hydrochlorofluorocarbons report gives information on the company profile, market share and contact details along with value chain analysis of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons industry, Hydrochlorofluorocarbons industry rules and policies, circumstances driving the growth of the market and compulsion blocking the growth. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons Market development scope and various business strategies are also mentioned in this report.. To Buy Complete Report Click Here: http://qyresearch.us/report/global-hydrochlorofluorocarbonshcfcs-market-2017. The Hydrochlorofluorocarbons research report includes the products that are currently in demand and available in the market along with their cost breakup, manufacturing volume, import/export scheme and contribution to the ...
A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was used to determine the in vivo metabolic constants of the candidate chlorofluorocarbon replacement 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b). Rats were exposed by inhalation to HCFC-141b concentrations ranging from 1,000 to 10,000 ppm. Uptake studies of HCFC-141b in the rat indicated the involvement of saturable and first-order components. The in vivo metabolic constants for HCFC-141b were: KM = 7.0 mg liter-1 (59.9 mumol liter-1), Vmax = 0.2 mg kg-1 hr-1 (1.71 mumol kg-1 hr-1), and k = 0.5 hr-1. In rats exposed to HCFC-141b, 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethanol was excreted in the urine as its glucuronide conjugate, and the rate of 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethanol excretion increased linearly with increasing HCFC-141b exposure concentrations. Diallyl sulfide, a selective, mechanism-based inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 2E1, inhibited the metabolism of HCFC-141b, as indicated by a decreased uptake of HCFC-141b and by a lowered urinary excretion of ...
Measurements of saturated liquid viscosities and densities were performed on environmentally acceptable hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), CH3CCl2F (HCFC-141b), CH3CClF2(HCFC-142b; only for...
Foam Blowing Agents Market by Type (Hydrocarbons, Hydrofluorocarbons, Hydrochlorofluorocarbons and Others (Hydrofluoroolefins, Methyl Formate, Liquid CO2 and Water) and by Application (Polyurethane, Polystyrene, Polyolefins, and Others (Phenolic Foams and Polyvinyl Chloride) - Global Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecast, 2014-2022 Published by Allied Market Research at researchbeam.com [Report Price $5370] 98 Pages
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
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Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
This page contains information on the chemical 1,2-Dichloro-1,1,2,3,3-Pentafluoropropane(Hcfc-225bb) including: 2 synonyms/identifiers.
The invention includes a blowing agent composition useful in the production of insulating styrenic foams comprising ethylchloride, propane and a halogenated ethane selected from the group consisting of 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-fluoroethane, 1-chloro-1,1-difluoro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (FC-142b) and mixtures thereof. The invention further includes a method to produce dimensionally stable insulating styrenic foams using the blowing agent composition by confining operating temperatures within a narrow range. The blowing agent composition has a significantly reduced ozone reactivity potential compared to previous commercial styrenic foam blowing agents.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
JACC 047 : 1,1-Dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123)CAS No. 306-83-2 (Third Edition) , July 2005 This report has been produced as part of the ECETOC Joint […]. ...
During production of chemicals or pharmaceutical agents, solvent-containing exhaust gases often escape from the reaction vessels. The displacement air from petrochemical tank farms often contains gasoline fumes, and HCFCs (Hydrochlorofluorocarbons) are released in the recycling of refrigerators.
Oremland RS, Lonergan DJ, Culbertson CW, Lovley DR. 1996. Microbial degradation of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (CHCl2F and CHCl2CF3) in soils and sediments.. Appl Environ Microbiol. 62(5):1818-21. ...
BACKGROUND: Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are used increasingly in industry as substitutes for ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Limited studies in animals indicate potential hepatotoxicity of some of these compounds. We investigated an epidemic of liver disease in nine industrial workers who had had repeated accidental exposure to a mixture of 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC 123) and 1-chloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC 124). All nine exposed workers were affected to various degrees. Both compounds are metabolised in the same way as 1-bromo-1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (halothane) to form reactive trifluoroacetyl halide intermediates, which have been implicated in the hepatotoxicity of halothane. We aimed to test whether HCFCs 123 and 124 can result in serious liver disease. METHODS: For one severely affected worker liver biopsy and immunohistochemical stainings for the presence of trifluoroacetyl protein adducts were done. The serum of six affected workers and five ...
Under the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, new controls are being implemented to reduce emissions of HFC-23 (CHF$${}_{3}$$), a by-product during the manufacture of HCFC-22 (CHClF$${}_{2}$$). Starting in 2015, China and India, who dominate global HCFC-22 production (75% in 2017), set out ambitious programs to reduce HFC-23 emissions. Here, we estimate that these measures should have seen global emissions drop by 87% between 2014 and 2017. Instead, atmospheric observations show that emissions have increased and in 2018 were higher than at any point in history (15.9 $$\pm \ 0.9\ {\rm{{Gg}}\ {{{yr}}}^{-1}}$$). Given the magnitude of the discrepancy between expected and observation-inferred emissions, it is likely that the reported reductions have not fully materialized or there may be substantial unreported production of HCFC-22, resulting in unaccounted-for HFC-23 by-product emissions. The difference between reported and observation-inferred estimates suggests that an additional ~309 Tg $${{\rm
1. With reference to the post-operative dysfunction of the liver observed after halothane anaesthesia, the effects of the anaesthetic on some metabolic functions were studied in the isolated perfused rat liver. Oxygen uptake, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and urea synthesis were affected by halothane at a concentration (2.5% of the gas phase) within the range used in clinical anaesthesia. 2. At this concentration of halothane uptake of oxygen was inhibited in livers from both fed and starved rats. 3. In livers from fed rats there was a 16-fold increase in lactate production. This was accompanied by a fivefold decrease in the tissue content of 2-oxoglutarate and a more than twofold decrease in citrate. The calculated [free NAD+]/[free NADH] ratio in both cytoplasm and mitochondria was lower in the halothane-exposed livers than in controls. 4. In livers of starved rats the rate of gluconeogenesis from lactate was decreased by halothane to 30% of the control rate. 5. Halothane inhibited ...
Other names: Ethane, 2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoro-; Anestan; Fluktan; Fluorotane; Fluorothane; Fluothane; Ftorotan; Ftuorotan; Halan; Halotan; Halotano; Halothan; Halsan; Narcotan; Narcotane; Narkotan; CF3CHClBr; 1,1,1-Trifluoro-2-bromo-2-chloroethane; 2-Bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane; 1,1,1-Trifluoro-2-chloro-2-bromoethane; FREON 123B1; 1-Bromo-1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane; Bromochlorotrifluoroethane; 2,2,2-Trifluoro-1-chloro-1-bromoethane; Chalothane; Ethane, 1-bromo-1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoro-; Narcotann ne-spofa; Rhodialothan; (.+/-.))-Halothane; Alotano; NSC 143490 ...
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The primary approach industry has taken to fill the void resulting from the elimination of the most important CFCs (i.e., CFC-11 and CFC-12) has been to develop other single component refrigerants (i.e., HCFC-123 and
2,4-DICHLORO-3-PHENYLQUINOLINE chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of 2,4-DICHLORO-3-PHENYLQUINOLINE 108832-15-1, What are the physical properties of 2,4-DICHLORO-3-PHENYLQUINOLINE ect.
Gambar produk CO-1686 menengah 2,4-Dichloro-5-trifluoromethylpyrimidine 3932-97-6, dengan definisi tinggi & kualitas foto CO-1686 menengah 2,4-Dichloro-5-trifluoromethylpyrimidine 3932-97-6 - Conbott Pharmtech Co.,Ltd.
Lookchem Provide Cas No.55407-24-4 Basic information: Properties,Safety Data,Sds and Other Datebase. We also Provide Trading Suppliers & Manufacture for 55407-24-4 1,3-DICHLORO-2-M-TOLYLOXY-5-TRIFLUOROMETHYL-BENZENE.
Learn more about 2-4-dichloro-5-trifluoromethyl-pyrimidine. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
Other names: Arcton 63; Arklone P; F 113; Forane 113; Freon R 113; Freon TF; Freon 113; Freon 113 TR-T; Frigen 113; Frigen 113 TR; Frigen 113 TR-T; Frigen 113A; FC 113; Genetron 113; R 113; 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-Trifluoroethane; 1,1,2-Trifluoro-1,2,2-trichloroethane; 1,2,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane; CFCl2CF2Cl; 1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane; Fluorocarbon 113; R 113(Halocarbon); Refrigerant 113; LEDON 113; Asahifron 113; 1,2,2-Trifluorotrichloroethane; Daiflon S 3; Freon F113; Halocarbon 113; Isceon 113; Kaiser chemicals 11; Khladon 113; Refrigerant R 113; 1,1,2-Trifluorotrichloroethane; Arklone; CFC-113; Distillex DS5; FC 133; Freon TF (113); Genesolv D; Trichloro 1,2,2-trifluoroethane; Halon 113; Delifrene LS; 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113 ...
CFC-113 was one of the many CFCs that were produced to eliminate toxic and flammable substances in the areas that they were used. It has been used as a cooling agent in refrigerants and air conditioners, aerosol propellant, and a cleansing agent for electrical and electronic components.[7] CFC-113 is one of the three most popular CFCs, along with CFC-11 and CFC-12 and saw much use in its time. CFC-113 is a refrigerant used in cooling systems. When it is in a gas form and compressed, it heats up, when it is expanded, it cools.[8] CFC-113 also is a very volatile and apolar molecule so it was used as a foaming agent in the production of packaging material, insulation, foams for cushioning, and things like shoe soles. CFC-113 has such a low flammability and low toxicity that it was also used as a cleaner for delicate electrical equipment, fabrics, and even metals. It would not harm the product it was cleaning, ignite with a spark or react with other chemicals.[2] CFC-113 in laboratory analytics has ...
This improved version of the Trends Analysis is based on an interactive Flash module using a map-based interface, and it provides more precise year-wise data to the user. Based on official data reported by Governments to the Ozone Secretariat under Article 7 of the Montreal Protocol, the module presents country-wise analyses for the main substances controlled under the Protocol, i.e. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride (CTC), methyl chloroform (MCF). The graphics can be exported by the user for use in publications and presentations. The graphs include some or all of the following lines or data points: Consumption level: This appears for all countries. Production level: This appears only if the country is or was a producer of the specific ODS. Montreal Protocol reduction targets: The respective freeze or reduction target dates are included on the graph for reference.. Note that for HCFCs, since Article 5 countries have not yet ...
A facile synthesis of structurally diverse 1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl sulfides from readily available 1-bromo-1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (Halothane®) and various aliphatic and aromatic thiols in the presence of sodium dithionite/sodium bicarbonate is described. The synthetic utility of the prepared sulfides is illustrated by the synthesis of biologically potent heterocycles and by their electrophilic reactions with thiophene.. ...
Application of an ammonia/carbon dioxide refrigeration system in place of HCFC-22 for the medium-sized producer and retail store ...
THE DEPLETION of Earths protective layer of ozone by man-made chlorofluorocarbon compounds may be further along than realized, a NASA- coordinated study by scientists of 11 nations says. The
3,4-dichloro-5-chlorosulfonylbenzoic acid 151104-67-5 NMR spectrum, 3,4-dichloro-5-chlorosulfonylbenzoic acid H-NMR spectral analysis, 3,4-dichloro-5-chlorosulfonylbenzoic acid C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Learn more about 2-6-dichloro-3-nitropyridin-4-amine. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
Sigma-Aldrich offers Aldrich-235814, 2,4-Dichloro-5-nitrobenzotrifluoride for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
Gurje Community Health Service Centre In 2008 The Umbrella Foundation and our partners SolHimal France asked the poor rural communities of Gurje what were
Introduction. Eugine Whint 7/12/2005 Chemistry 5G Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) (also known as Freon) are non-toxic, non-flammable and non-carcinogenic. They contain fluorine atoms, carbon atoms and chlorine atoms. The 5 main CFCs include CFC-11 (trichlorofluoromethane - CFCl3), CFC-12 (dichloro-difluoromethane - CF2Cl2), CFC-113 (trichloro-trifluoroethane - C2F3Cl3), CFC-114 (dichloro-tetrfluoroethane - C2F4Cl2), and CFC-115 (chloropentafluoroethane - C2F5Cl). CFCs are widely used as coolants in refrigeration and air conditioners, as solvents in cleaners, particularly for electronic circuit boards, as a blowing agents in the production of foam (for example fire extinguishers), and as propellants in aerosols. Indeed, much of the modern lifestyle of the second half of the 20th century had been made possible by the use of CFCs. Man-made CFCs however, are the main cause of stratospheric ozone depletion. CFCs have a lifetime in the atmosphere of about 20 to 100 years, and ...
to manufacture groups of chemicals that can be used in refrigerators and air conditioners and as propellants in inhalers. Originally chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) such as CCl2F2 were made for these purposes but when these very stable compounds escaped into the atmosphere they ended up in the stratosphere where they were photolysed and released chlorine atoms which lead to the decomposition of ozone. This caused depletion of the ozone layer, thus reducing the protection it offers Earth from the suns harmful UV rays. Then hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) such as CHClF2 were made and used. These are less stable and so not as persitant in the atmosphere but some still did reach the stratosphere and damage the ozone layer. There are international agreements leading to the manufacture and use of CFCs and HCFCs being phased out. Now hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) such as CF3CH2F and CF3CHF2, which are not ozone depleting, are manufactured from hydrogen fluoride and used in refrigerators and air conditioners. ...
to manufacture groups of chemicals that can be used in refrigerators and air conditioners and as propellants in inhalers. Originally chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) such as CCl2F2 were made for these purposes but when these very stable compounds escaped into the atmosphere they ended up in the stratosphere where they were photolysed and released chlorine atoms which lead to the decomposition of ozone. This caused depletion of the ozone layer, thus reducing the protection it offers Earth from the suns harmful UV rays. Then hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) such as CHClF2 were made and used. These are less stable and so not as persitant in the atmosphere but some still did reach the stratosphere and damage the ozone layer. There are international agreements leading to the manufacture and use of CFCs and HCFCs being phased out. Now hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) such as CF3CH2F and CF3CHF2, which are not ozone depleting, are manufactured from hydrogen fluoride and used in refrigerators and air conditioners. ...
Chlorofluorocarbons are a family of halocarbons that contain only carbon, chlorine & fluorine. Used in blowing plastics & fridges. CFCs destroy the ozone layer
Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
Solvay, a Belgian chemicals and pharmaceuticals conglomerate, owns U.S. Patent No. 6,730,817 (817 patent), entitled Method for preparing 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane. The 817 patent is directed to processes for making HFC-245fa, a hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) that does not deplete the earths ozone layer.. The processes claimed in the 817 patent are commercially important because HFC-245fa is one of a group of non-ozone depleting HFCs that were legislatively mandated in the 1990s to replace ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons.. In 2006 Solvay sued Honeywell in federal court in Wilmington, Delaware, accusing the chemicals, security systems and aviation instrument maker of infringing the 817 patent by making HFC-245fa at its Louisiana plant.. Recently both parties filed a flurry of summary judgment motions relating to both infringement and validity of the 817 patent. Last month, Honeywell prevailed when Judge Sue L. Robinson ruled that it, not Solvay, was the first ...
Refrigerant gas supplier. R-22 is gas is used in a variety of maritime refrigeration applications for low, medium and high temperatures (-40 to +16° C). This colorless gas is better known as HCFC-22, or R-22. It is commonly used as a propellant and refrigerant. R22 refrigerant is one of the most commonly used refrigerants.
Honeywells low-global-warming solvent, Solstice Performance Fluid (PF), has received a favorable designation from a California regulatory agency.. Californias South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), which maintains some of the highest standards for air quality in the US, has determined that Solstice PF is not a volatile organic compound (VOC) that will contribute to smog and granted the new solvent an exemption from its VOC regulations.. Honeywell has introduced Solstice PF as an effective, environmentally preferable alternative to HCFC-225, a common solvent in use today that is being phased out by regulation beginning Jan. 1, 2015.. The EPA granted Solstice PF an exemption from federal VOC regulations last year.. Solstice PF solvent can be used to clean oils, greases and other substances from metal and plastic parts used in many cleaning applications, including electronics and aerospace manufacturing. Solstice PF also helps solvent users comply with increasingly strict ...
This story struck me as a little over the top when I first heard about it. Actually I thought this particular medicine had already been pulled years ago due to related deaths using the product. Primatene mist along with a few others will be phased out because the propellent used in the products contain CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) which are bad for the environment. Read More. ...
Well, thats all well and good, and of course we can all agree that the government should make all of our decisions (major and minor) for us. But Im confused as to why this new proposal is so narrow in scope. Even though I accept that trans fats are the single greatest threat to human kind since chlorofluorocarbons, Im not sure they can be blamed for all of our ill health. There are all sorts of lifestyle choices that we know are good for us, and yet so many people are not making them. If Mayor Miller really cares for the people of this city he will take their health into his hands immediately. I propose that the following should become law within the city of Toronto ...
The solvate structure of 3,4-dichloro-1-nitro-benzene with 1,4-dioxane, C6H3Cl2NO2·0.25C4H8N2, is reported. The asymmetric unit comprises two independent 3,4-dichloro-1-nitro-benzene mol-ecules and half of a 1,4-dioxane mol-ecule, the solvent molecule being disposed about a centre of inversion. Double chains of 3,4-dichloro-1-nitro-benzene are linked by ClCl inter-actions and 1,4-dioxane mol-ecules via C - HO hydrogen bonds into a two-dimensional sheet.. ...
1,3-Dichloro-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)benzene; CAS Number: 1099597-55-3; Linear Formula: C9 H7 Cl2 F3; find Manchester Organics-MAN238928919 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
2,6-Dichloro-4-(tert-pentyl)-phenol/ACM75908779 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Abstract. The stratospheric degradation of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) releases chlorine, which is a major contributor to the destruction of stratospheric ozone (O3). A recent study reported strong chlorine isotope fractionation during the breakdown of the most abundant CFC (CFC-12, CCl2F2, Laube et al., 2010a), similar to effects seen in nitrous oxide (N2O). Using air archives to obtain a long-term record of chlorine isotope ratios in CFCs could help to identify and quantify their sources and sinks. We analyse the three most abundant CFCs and show that CFC-11 (CCl3F) and CFC-113 (CClF2CCl2F) exhibit significant stratospheric chlorine isotope fractionation, in common with CFC-12. The apparent isotope fractionation (ϵapp) for mid- and high-latitude stratospheric samples are respectively −2.4 (0.5) and −2.3 (0.4) ‰ for CFC-11, −12.2 (1.6) and −6.8 (0.8) ‰ for CFC-12 and −3.5 (1.5) and −3.3 (1.2) ‰ for CFC-113, where the number in parentheses is the numerical value of ...
Chlorofluorocarbons have been banned since 1996 because they destroy the ozone layer. From the U.S. National Library of Medicine. [ ]
1,1 dichloro-1-fluoroethane. These fluorinated solvents will not react with PFPE oils, but the oils will be carried away from the lubricating point. PFPEs are freely soluble in supercritical CO2.. Krytox™ lubricants have also been tested and used in the presence of gaseous, liquid oxygen and chlorine with no reactivity noted.. Krytox™ lubricants are safe for use with rubber, elastomers, plastics, and metals commonly used as seals and bearings.. A type of chemical known as a Lewis acid (electron pair acceptor) can react with PFPE oils and will limit the temperature at which they can be used. Typical Lewis acids are boron trifluoride, aluminum chloride, iron (III) chloride, and titanium tetrachloride. At elevated temperatures, these materials can lead to decomposition of any PFPE.. Caution should be taken with metallic alkalai, such as sodium and lithium metals, as reactions could occur readily.. Some grease grades contain additives for anti-corrosion or extreme pressure, and these additives ...
New Low-Global-Warming Solvent Meets Both Cleaning and Environmental Regulatory Requirements at NASA Test FacilitiesMORRIS PLAINS, N.J.,Nov. 18, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- Honeywell (NYSE: HON) announced today that its new low-global-warming solvent, Solstice Performance Fluid (PF), has been identified as a replacement for a high-environmental-impact solvent currently used in NASA test facilities.NASA, which uses solvents to clean sensitive equipment, has determined that the new solvent can be substituted for HCFC-225, an ozone-depleting and higher-global-warming solvent the space agency uses today.* HCFC-225 is being phased out for many uses under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. Solstice PF is compatible with the sensitive systems used in aerospace applications, such as oxygen systems in rockets and aircraft.Solstice PF offers effective cleaning as well as compliance with safety and environmental requirements, saidDavid Cooper, global business director for Honeywell Fluorine ...
0012] The blowing agents comprise a hydrohaloolefin such as hydrofluoroolefin, hydrochlorofluoroolefin, and the like, in particular, predominately trans or E-1233zd, 1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene alone or in combination with other blowing agents including (I) hydrofluorocarbons including but not limited to: difluoromethane (HFC32); 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane (HFC125); 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC143a); 1,1,2,2-tetrafluorothane (HFC134); 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC134a); 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC152a), 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFC227ea); 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluopropane (HFC245fa); 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluobutane (HFC365mfc) and 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,5-decafluoropentane (HFC4310mee); (II) hydrofluoroolefins including but not limited to tetrafluoropropenes (HFO1234), trifluoropropenes (HFO1243), all tetrafluorobutenes (HFO 1345), all pentafluorobutene isomers (HFO1354), all hexafluorobutene isomers (HFO1336), all heptafluorobutene isomers (HFO1327), all heptafluoropentene isomers (HFO1447), all ...
Ive just arrived in Bangkok, where negotiators from around the world will convene next week for the mid-year meeting of the Montreal Protocol, the worlds most successful environmental treaty. There they will look for common ground on whether use this treaty to tackle some of the most potent heat-trapping pollutants, the super greenhouse gases known as hydrofluorcarbons, or HFCs. To recap, the phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-destroying chemicals under the Montreal Protocol has brought huge climate side-benefits because these chemicals are also powerful heat-trapping pollutants. Scientists tell us that phasing out CFCs worldwide delivered a climate protection bonus equivalent to 11 billion tons of CO2 reductions in 2010 alone - more than five times the carbon reductions of the Kyoto Protocol. Another way to look at it: The CFC phase-out bought us a 10-year delay on warming. Imagine what this roaring-hot, extreme-weather summer would have been like with all that extra ...
Back in the days of big ol lacquered hair, aka the 1980s, the United States led the charge on saving the ozone, responding to damage caused in part by the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) found in hairspray and other aerosols, as well as refrigerants.
Product Details of Freon CAS 11126-05-9 Refrigerant R22 R134a R404a R406a R407c R410a R507 R600a, Freon CAS 11126-05-9 Refrigerant R22 R134a R404a R406a R407c R410a R507 R600a Chlorofluorocarbons Methane from China manufacturer on Hisupplier.com.
The SND is a quick-drying cleaning solvent that has been designed to degrease, field weakening effectively the electrical and electronic equipment. The SND is harmless to the ozone layer. It effectively replaces solvents CFCs, HCFCs, and T111.
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 49774-27-8(1,3,2,4-Diazadiphosphetidine, 2,4-dichloro-1,3-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, 2-sulfide) for price inquiry. where to buy 49774-27-8(1,3,2,4-Diazadiphosphetidine, 2,4-dichloro-1,3-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, 2-sulfide).Also offer free database of 49774-27-8(1,3,2,4-Diazadiphosphetidine, 2,4-dichloro-1,3-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, 2-sulfide) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
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Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: N-[(10S,13S,20R)-3,35-Dichloro-18,21-dihydroxy-10-isopropyl-12-oxo-8,22,39-trioxa-4,11,34,38-tet.
Ethane, 1-chloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoro- (R124) in Linstrom, Peter J.; Mallard, William G. (eds.); NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST ... is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon used as a component in refrigerants offered as replacements for chlorofluorocarbons. HCFC-124 is ...
Ethane is readily available, particularly on the U.S. gulf coast. Ethylene is made from ethane by cracking ethane and then ... Vinyl chloride can also be obtained as a byproduct in the synthesis of chlorofluorocarbons when saturated chlorofluorocarbons ... Many such ethane-based processes have been and are being developed. Vinyl chloride is stored as a liquid. The presently ... The conversion of ethane to vinyl chloride can be performed by various routes: High-temperature chlorination: C2H6 + 2 Cl2 → ...
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formulae CClmF4−m and C2ClmF6−m, ... Hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formula CClmFnH4−m−n and ... chlorofluorocarbon-11 and chlorofluorocarbon-12 in seawater". Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. 55 (8): ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are anthropogenic compounds that have been released into the atmosphere since the 1930s in various ...
The Freon produced back then was chlorofluorocarbon, a moderately toxic gas causing ozone depletion. All refrigeration ... ethane, propane, isobutane and n-butane). HCR188C is used today in commercial refrigeration applications (supermarket ... its impact upon the use greenhouse gases besides the efforts made to reduce ozone depletion caused by the chlorofluorocarbons. ...
In addition, ethylene is separated from methane and ethane for industrial purposes using multi-component distillation. ... and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) have on the ozone layer and global warming. Researchers have focused on using new mixtures that ... For example, nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane, and isobutane constitute a zeotropic mixture. Individual substances within the ...
"Testing for Methane, Ethane and Ethene in Water by Headspace Analysis Utilizing Method 3810 - Modified" (PDF). Retrieved 16 ... Examples of volatile anthropogenic chemicals include the refrigerants chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs ... Natural gas extracted from the earth also contains many low molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds such as methane, ethane, ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Kampbell, D.H.; Vandergrift, S.A. (1998). "Analysis of Dissolved Methane, Ethane, and ...
Chlorofluorocarbons Chlorofluorocarbons were used almost universally as refrigerants and propellants due to their relatively ... For example, ethane with bromine becomes bromoethane, methane with four chlorine groups becomes tetrachloromethane. However, ... For example, the chlorofluorocarbons have been shown to lead to ozone depletion. Methyl bromide is a controversial fumigant. ... Several classes of widely used haloalkanes are classified in this way chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons ( ...
It is increasingly used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant, replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage ... while natural gas is composed of the lighter methane and ethane. LPG, vaporised and at atmospheric pressure, has a higher ... R-134a and other chlorofluorocarbon or hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants in conventional stationary refrigeration and air ...
A second large source are marine algae which produce several chlorinated methane and ethane containing compounds. There are ... the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), would accumulate in the upper atmosphere and destroy protective ozone (Molina & Rowland 1974). ... ethane), herbicides such as 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), askarel dielectrics (mixed with PCBs, no longer used in ... leading to bans on production and use of chlorofluorocarbons in many countries. In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ...
Kraeutler, B; Bard, AJ (1977). "Photoelectrosynthesis of ethane from acetate ion at an n-type TiO2 electrode - the photo-Kolbe ... Tanaka, K; Hisanaga, T (1994). "Photodegradation of chlorofluorocarbon alternatives on metal oxide". Solar Energy. 52 (5): 447- ...
Hydrocarbons used as refrigerants include: Methane (CH4) [R-50] Ethane (CH3CH3) [R-170] Propane (CH3CH2CH3) [R-290] Ethylene ( ... They are alternatives to synthetic refrigerants such as chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC), and ...
Due to the ready homolytic fission of the C-Cl bond to create chlorine radicals in the upper atmosphere, chlorofluorocarbons ... ethanes, vinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), aluminium trichloride for catalysis, the chlorides of magnesium, titanium, ... In the upper atmosphere, chlorine-containing organic molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons have been implicated in ozone ... They are important because they are produced when chlorofluorocarbons undergo photolysis in the upper atmosphere and cause the ...
... chlorofluorocarbons MeSH D02.455.526.439.220.300 - chlorofluorocarbons, methane MeSH D02.455.526.439.224 - chloroform MeSH ... ethane MeSH D02.455.326.146.379.350 - ethylene dichlorides MeSH D02.455.326.146.432 - fumonisins MeSH D02.455.326.146.485 - ... chlorofluorocarbons MeSH D02.455.526.510.140.300 - chlorofluorocarbons, methane MeSH D02.455.526.510.432 - fluorobenzenes MeSH ...
For example, ethane with bromine becomes bromoethane, methane with four chlorine groups becomes tetrachloromethane. However, ... Chlorofluorocarbons were used almost universally as refrigerants and propellants due to their relatively low toxicity and high ... For example, the chlorofluorocarbons have been shown to lead to ozone depletion. Methyl bromide is a controversial fumigant. ... Several classes of widely used haloalkanes are classified in this way chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons ( ...
Chlorofluorocarbon 142B. *Ethane, 1-chloro-1,1-difluoro-. *FC 142B. *FC142B. *Freon 142 ...
Make research projects and school reports about chlorofluorocarbons easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... Commercially, the most important CFCs were derivatives of methane and ethane. These included trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), ... Chlorofluorocarbons Encyclopedia of Public Health COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS. Chlorofluorocarbons ... Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). A chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound typically consisting of chlorine, fluorine, carbon ...
Containing methane, ethane or propane chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), whether or not containing hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) ... Containing methane, ethane or propane hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), but not containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) ... Mixtures containing halogenated derivatives of methane, ethane or propane: - Containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), whether or ... Means a chlorofluorocarbon. Critical use Means a use of methyl bromide that conforms to Decision IX/6 set out in the document ...
Ethane, 1-chloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoro- (R124) in Linstrom, Peter J.; Mallard, William G. (eds.); NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST ... is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon used as a component in refrigerants offered as replacements for chlorofluorocarbons. HCFC-124 is ...
Ethane is readily available, particularly on the U.S. gulf coast. Ethylene is made from ethane by cracking ethane and then ... Vinyl chloride can also be obtained as a byproduct in the synthesis of chlorofluorocarbons when saturated chlorofluorocarbons ... Many such ethane-based processes have been and are being developed. Vinyl chloride is stored as a liquid. The presently ... The conversion of ethane to vinyl chloride can be performed by various routes: High-temperature chlorination: C2H6 + 2 Cl2 → ...
Aliphatic hydrocarbons include methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, isobutane, n-pentane, isopentane, neopentane. Aliphatic ... Partially halogenated chlorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons for use in this invention include methyl chloride, methylene ... Fully and partially halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons include fluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and chlorofluorocarbons. Examples ... Fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons include trichloromonofluoromethane (CFC-11), dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), ...
Most of them are compounds of chlorofluorocarbons, which are derivatives of methane and ethane. Most common form of freon is R- ...
Chlorofluorocarbon. A chlorofluorocarbon is an organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a ... volatile derivative of methane and ethane. A common subclass are the hydrochlorofluorocarbons , which contain hydrogen, as well ... ozone by chlorofluorocarbons. Although there are a few areas of linkage, the relationship between the two is not strong. ...
... ethane, a wide range of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), hydrochloroflourocarbons (HCFC), and a few others, e.g., acetone. A complete ...
di chi orodifluorom ethane, dichlorotetrafluoroethanol, and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, or combinations thereof. Suitable ... The propellant may be any conventional material employed for this purpose, such as a chlorofluorocarbon, a ...
... ethane, propane, butane, pentane, dimethyl ether, xenon, sulfur hexafluoride, halogenated and partially halogenated materials ... such as chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons (such as perfluoromethane and ...
... chlorofluoro carbons, or hydrochlorofluoro carbons), hydrocarbons for example alkanes (including methane, ethane, propane, ...
AC 240 Wastes arising from the production of aliphatic halogenated hydrocarbons (such as chloromethanes, dichloro-ethane, vinyl ... AC 150 Chlorofluorocarbons. - AC 160 Halons. - AC 190 Fluff-light fraction from automobile shredding ...
Haloalkanes (also known as Halogenoalkanes) are a group of chemical compounds, consisting of alkanes, such as methane or ethane ... The most widely known family within this group are the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The haloalkanes have the general formula R-X ...
derived from methane, ethane, etc., as bases. With fluorine, chlorine sometimes. bromine in their molecules, these form a ... The fully halogenated ones with chlorine in their molecule are chlorofluorocarbons, referred to as CFCs. Those containing H ...
The Ethane,1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro-, with the CAS registry number 76-13-1, is also known as Freon-113. It belongs to ... It is a very unreactive chlorofluorocarbon, that will stay in the atmosphere for a great deal of time if it is released. It was ... Uses of Ethane,1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro-: it can be used to produce 1,1-dichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro-octane at the ... Physical properties of Ethane,1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro- are: (1)ACD/LogP: 3.20; (2)# of Rule of 5 Violations: 0; (3)ACD/ ...
Any hydrocarbon (except methane and ethane) which is able to change quickly to a gas. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are an example ... chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). A chemical compound containing chlorine, fluorine, and carbon, used in cooling systems and aerosols. ...
HQ SERIAL Partially halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (ethane derivatives / HQ SERIAL Health of the elderly : HQ SERIAL Effective ...
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Harmful chemicals released as a derivative of ethane and methane. Chlorofluorocarbons contain ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Harmful chemicals released as a derivative of ethane and methane. Chlorofluorocarbons contain ...
The chlorofluorocarbon compounds of methane and ethane are collectively known as Freon. ...
The chlorofluorocarbon compounds of methane and ethane are collectively known as freons. They are extremely stable, unreactive ... Dichlorodiphenyl trichloro ethane (DDT). *DDT, the first chlorinated organic insecticides, was originally prepared in 1873, but ... It is also used as feedstock in the synthesis of chloro- fluorocarbons and other chemicals, pharmaceutical manufacturing, and ...
They do not include photo-chemically non-reactive compounds such as methane, ethane and the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Their ... ethane the! Proper structure to the cells as methane, organic molecules list and the chlorofluorocarbons ( CFCs ) subunits ... Biolipid 8. Compounds like methane, CH 4, and ethane, CH 3 CH 3, are members of a family of compounds called alkanes.If you ... An organism in cells is stored in nucleic acids are called nucleotides with this, you! The chlorofluorocarbons ( CFCs ), nom et ...
Aliphatic hydrocarbons include methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, isobutane, n-pentane, isopentane, and neopentane. Aliphatic ... Partially halogenated chlorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons for use in this disclosure include methyl chloride, methylene ... Fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons include trichloromonofluoromethane (CFC-11), dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), ... Fully and partially halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons include fluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons and ...
Chlorofluorocarbons are a family of halocarbons that contain only carbon, chlorine & fluorine. Used in blowing plastics & ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formulae CClmF4-m and C2ClmF6-m, ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC). What are Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)?. Chlorofluorocarbons are a family of halocarbons that contain ... Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formulae CClmFnH4-m-n and C2Clx ...
Chlorofluorocarbons, CFCs, were used as refrigerants. These are usually methane or ethane molecules where several of the ...
Other mixtures containing chlorofluorocarbons of methane, ethane or propane, whether or not containing HCFCs, PFCs, HFCs of ... Other mixtures containing halogenated derivatives of methane, ethane or propane. 3824810000. 含环氧乙烷(氧化乙烯)的混合物. 0:品牌类型;1:出口享惠情况;2 ... Other HCFCs mixtures containing methane, ethane or propane (perfluorocarbons or hydrofluorocarbons whether or not containing ... Mixtures containing perfluorocarbons (PFCs)or hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), but not containing chlorofluorocarbons
Preferred propellants are from the methane gas series and include, for example, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, and their ... chloro-fluorocarbons, or mixtures thereof. These solvents additionally should not be deleterious to or damage the objects being ...
Examples of hydrocarbons include methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8), butane (C4H10), pentane (C5H12), benzene (C6H6 ... Examples include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluoricarbons (HCFCs), HFC, R-21, R-22, R-134A, etc. Halocarbons may ...
  • Commercially, the most important CFCs were derivatives of methane and ethane. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Most of them are compounds of chlorofluorocarbons, which are derivatives of methane and ethane. (homewarrantyreviews.com)
  • The chlorofluorocarbon compounds of methane and ethane are collectively known as Freon. (gradeup.co)
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formulae CClmF 4-m and C2Cl m F6- m , where m is nonzero. (greenspec.co.uk)
  • Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formulae CClmFnH 4-m-n and C 2 Cl x F y H 6-x-y , where m, n, x, and y are nonzero. (greenspec.co.uk)
  • Chlorofluorocarbon - A chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a volatile derivative of methane and ethane. (academic.ru)
  • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs): when derived from methane, ethane, propane, and butane, these compounds have the respective formulae CF m H 4-m , C 2 F m H 6-m , C 3 F m H 8-m , and C 4 F m H 10-m , where m is nonzero. (greenspec.co.uk)
  • Hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane , and butane emerged as the favored choice of propellants due to superior characteristics such as better spray quality, higher stability and no interaction with the main product. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are a class of chemicals that contain only atoms of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The most widely known family within this group are the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). (3rd1000.com)
  • What are Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)? (greenspec.co.uk)
  • CFCs and HCFCs are usually produced by halogen exchange starting from chlorinated methanes and ethanes. (greenspec.co.uk)
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are gases formed synthetically by replacing all hydrogen atoms in the methane [CH4(g)] or ethane [C2H6(g)] with chlorine and/or fluorine atoms. (blogspot.com)
  • Mixed compounds are also possible, the best-known examples being the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which are mainly responsible for ozone depletion. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • They are used primarily as chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) substitutes, as the ozone depleting effects are only about 10% of the CFCs. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The market witnessed high substitution of the propellant gasses containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) with hydrocarbons, Dimethyl ether (DME) and other advanced products such as Solstice Propellant. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • And for more than fifty years, the best chemicals for the job were chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, made of chlorine atoms, fluorine atoms and carbon atoms. (study.com)
  • An important class of alkyl halides are the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which have been used in air conditioners, etc., as refrigerants. (factbites.com)
  • Haloalkanes (also known as Halogenoalkanes ) are a group of chemical compounds, consisting of alkanes, such as methane or ethane, with one or more halogens linked, fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine, forming an organic halide. (3rd1000.com)
  • To measure sulfuryl fluoride's atmospheric lifetime, the chemists put it inside a Pyrex chamber with compounds that are well understood in the atmosphere, such as ethane. (digitaljournal.com)
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) are compounds containing chlorine , fluorine and carbon only, that is they contain no hydrogen. (wikidoc.org)
  • The mixed halides of carbon, that is, chlorofluorocarbons make a significant class of compounds. (tutorsglobe.com)
  • If two carbon atoms happen to come out of the wood with six hydrogen atoms, they are, agglomerately, ethane, which bums to become, also, carbon dioxide and water. (todayinsci.com)
  • CFC substitutes, hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), contain hydrogen and are also commonly called "Freon" a trade name that is generally used to cover a broad range of refrigerants. (emeraldet.com)
  • Freon is a trade name for a group of chlorofluorocarbons used primarily as a refrigerant . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The brominated derivatives are generated by free-radical reactions of the chlorofluorocarbons, replacing C-H bonds with C-Br bonds. (greenspec.co.uk)
  • Numerous attempts have been made to convert ethane directly to vinyl chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vinyl chloride can also be obtained as a byproduct in the synthesis of chlorofluorocarbons when saturated chlorofluorocarbons are catalytically dechlorinated by ethylene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethane sulfochlorination has been proposed as a route to produce vinyl chloride using sulfur instead of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mixtures of volatile hydrocarbons are now used in desire to the chlorofluorocarbons as a propellant for aerosol sprays, because of chlorofluorocarbons' effect on the ozone layer. (geologyscience.com)
  • Chlorofluorocarbons are serious threat to the ozone layer. (hindigk50k.com)
  • This group discovered that chlorofluorocarbons in aerosol cans and other products damage the ozone layer. (digitaljournal.com)
  • 5 Gases like CFC's (chlorofluorocarbons) destroy the ozone layer. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • The name ethanedioic acid communicates that the molecule has two carbon atoms (as in ethane) and two acid groups (COOH). (jrank.org)
  • Methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6) are gaseous at ambient temperatures and cannot be effortlessly liquefied by means of strain alone. (geologyscience.com)
  • 1,2-Dichloroethane, ClCH2CH2Cl (also known as ethylene dichloride, EDC), can be prepared by halogenation of ethane or ethylene, inexpensive starting materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • American engineer Thomas Midgley developed chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) in 1928 as a replacement for ammonia (NH 3 ), chloromethane (CH 3 Cl), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), which are toxic but were in common use at the time as refrigerants. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • 1-Chloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, C2HClF4, is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon used as a component in refrigerants offered as replacements for chlorofluorocarbons. (wikipedia.org)
  • These refrigerants are halogen derivates of saturated hydrocarbon i.e., of methane, ethane etc. 3. (spek.gr)
  • While data for air solubility in R-113 is difficult to find, Henry's law constants $k_\text{H}$ are available for $\ce{N2}$ in a series of related refrigerants (Ref. 1) comprised of variously halogenated ethanes. (stackexchange.com)
  • Notoriously chlorofluorocarbons were also widely used as aerosol propellants, cleansing agents for electrical and electronic components, and blowing agents in plastic insulation. (greenspec.co.uk)
  • Thomas Midgley and his assistants in Ohio, USA, invented chlorofluorocarbons in 1928. (blogspot.com)
  • When Thomas Midgley Jr. developed his infamous Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-12), the issue of toxic refrigeration techniques appeared to be solved. (azocleantech.com)
  • It is a very unreactive chlorofluorocarbon, that will stay in the atmosphere for a great deal of time if it is released. (lookchem.com)
  • 2018. Zinc promoted alumina catalysts for the fluorination of chlorofluorocarbons . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Midgley's first commercial refrigerant was the chlorofluorocarbon CCl 2 F 2 . (azocleantech.com)
  • Harmful chemicals released as a derivative of ethane and methane. (nelhydrogen.com)
  • Since then, concern over the chlorofluorocarbon propellants recommended for aerosols to be used for disinsection of aircraft has led to a reconsideration of their use. (who.int)
  • Preparation: this chemical can be prepared by 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro-1,2-difluoro-ethane at the temperature of 20 - 25 °C. This reaction will need reagents BrF 3 , SbCl 5 and solvent 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro-ethane. (lookchem.com)
  • Every possible mixture of fluorine, chlorine, and hydrogen-based on methane and ethane has been studied, and the majority of them have been commercialized. (vedantu.com)
  • Harmful chemicals released as a derivative of ethane and methane. (nelhydrogen.com)
  • Domestic general refrigerant is defined as saturated hydrocarbons ( Mainly refers to methane, ethane and propane) The floorboard of the halogen content, according to this definition, can be divided into three classes of CFC, as, HFC, etc. (ecmrefrigerant.com)
  • CFC stands for chlorofluorocarbon, which is an organic compound made up of carbon, fluorine, and chlorine. (vedantu.com)
  • The second generation of refrigerant HFC say - Four fluorine ethane ( CF3CH2F, HFC - 134a) , which are widely used in automotive air conditioning, household appliances and industrial and commercial refrigeration equipment, can also be applied to the foam, fire-fighting, aerosols and cleaning, etc. (ecmrefrigerant.com)
  • 1, 1 - Two fluorine ethane ( CH3CHF2, HFC - 152a) , natural working substance (CO2 R744) And 2,3,3,3 - Four fluorine propylene ( CF3CF = CH2,高频振荡器 1234。 ) And become a hot topic now. (ecmrefrigerant.com)
  • These components mainly include ethane, propane and butane and few other heavier hydrocarbons. (lpg.in)
  • CFCs and HCFCs are usually made from chlorinated methanes and ethanes by halogen exchange. (vedantu.com)