Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.EthaneAerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chlorofluorocarbons, Ethane: A group of ethane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedDDT: A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane: An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)National Academy of Sciences (U.S.): A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.Institute of Medicine (U.S.): Identifies, for study and analysis, important issues and problems that relate to health and medicine. The Institute initiates and conducts studies of national policy and planning for health care and health-related education and research; it also responds to requests from the federal government and other agencies for studies and advice.Neuropsychology: A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cyanoacrylates: A group of compounds having the general formula CH2=C(CN)-COOR; it polymerizes on contact with moisture; used as tissue adhesive; higher homologs have hemostatic and antibacterial properties.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Enbucrilate: A tissue adhesive that is applied as a monomer to moist tissue and polymerizes to form a bond. It is slowly biodegradable and used in all kinds of surgery, including dental.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Tissue Adhesives: Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.Dental Impression Materials: Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.ButanesFluorocarbons: Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.HydrocarbonsHydrocarbons, HalogenatedFluorine: A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Astatine: Astatine. A radioactive halogen with the atomic symbol At, atomic number 85, and atomic weight 210. Its isotopes range in mass number from 200 to 219 and all have an extremely short half-life. Astatine may be of use in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Mobile Applications: Computer programs or software installed on mobile electronic devices which support a wide range of functions and uses which include television, telephone, video, music, word processing, and Internet service.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.West VirginiaSolvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.

The kidney as a novel target tissue for protein adduct formation associated with metabolism of halothane and the candidate chlorofluorocarbon replacement 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane. (1/7)

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) have been identified as chemical replacements of the widely used chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that are implicated in stratospheric ozone depletion. Many HCFCs are structural analogues of the anesthetic agent halothane and may follow a common pathway of biotransformation and formation of adducts to protein-centered and other cellular nucleophiles. Exposure of rats to a single dose of halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) or of the candidate CFC substitute HCFC 123 (2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) led to the formation of trifluoroacetylated protein adducts (CF3CO-proteins) not only in the liver, but also in the kidney as a novel target tissue for protein trifluoroacetylation. CF3CO-proteins in the kidney amounted to about 5% of those formed in the liver of the same animal. The amount of CF3CO-proteins formed within the kidney was roughly reflected by the capacity of metabolism of halothane or HCFC 123 by rat kidney microsomes in vitro which amounted to about 10% of that observed with liver microsomes. By immunohistochemistry, CF3CO-proteins in the kidney were mainly localized in the tubular segments of the cortex. In the liver, the density of CF3CO-proteins decreased from the central vein towards the portal triad. In vitro incubation of rat liver microsomes with halothane or HCFC 123 resulted in extensive formation of CF3CO-proteins and reproduced faithfully the pattern of liver CF3CO-proteins obtained in vivo. CF3CO-proteins generated in vitro were immunochemically not discernible from those generated in vivo. Glutathione (5 mM) and cysteine (5 mM) virtually abolished CF3CO-protein formation; the release of Br- from halothane and Cl- from HCFC 123 was reduced to much lesser a degree. S-Methyl-glutathione, N-acetyl-cysteine, methionine, and N-acetyl-methionine only slightly affected the formation of CF3CO-proteins or metabolism of either substrate. The data suggest that metabolism and concomitant CF3CO-protein formation of halothane or of candidate CFC replacements like HCFC 123 is not restricted to the liver but also takes place in the kidney. Furthermore, an in vitro system for CF3CO-protein formation has been developed and used to show that protein-centered and glutathione-centered nucleophilic sites compete for intermediates of metabolism of halothane or of HCFC 123.  (+info)

Tissue acylation by the chlorofluorocarbon substitute 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane. (2/7)

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are being developed as substitutes for ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); because widespread human exposure to HCFCs may be expected, it is important to evaluate their toxicities thoroughly. Here we report studies on the bioactivation of the CFC substitute 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123) to an electrophilic intermediate that reacts covalently with liver proteins. HCFC-123 and its analog halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) were studied in rats by 19F NMR spectroscopy, and we found that a trifluoroacetylated lysine adduct was formed with liver proteins. Also, the pattern of proteins immunoreactive with hapten-specific anti-trifluoroacetylprotein antibodies was identical in livers of HCFC-123- and halothane-exposed rats. Because halothane causes an idiosyncratic, and sometimes fatal, hepatitis that is associated with an immune response against several trifluoroacetylated liver proteins, the present findings raise the possibility that humans exposed to HCFC-123 or structurally related HCFCs may be at risk of developing an immunologically mediated hepatitis.  (+info)

Modified extraction procedure for gas-liquid chromatography applied to the identification of anaerobic bacteria. (3/7)

Chloroform and ether commonly are used as solvents to extract metabolic organic acids for analysis by gas-liquid chromatography in the identification of anaerobic bacteria. Because these solvents are potentially hazardous to personnel, modified extraction procedures involving the use of a safer solvent, methyl tert-butyl ether were developed which remained both simple to perform and effective for organism identification.  (+info)

Hepatotoxicity in guinea pigs following acute inhalation exposure to 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane. (4/7)

Groups of 10 male Hartley guinea pigs were exposed to 3.0, 2.0, 1.0, or 0.1% (v/v) 1,1-Dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123) or 1.0% (v/v) halothane by inhalation for 4 hr. A sixth group of 10 guinea pigs received only air. All animals were sacrificed 48 hr postexposure. Gross and histopathologic examination of the liver, heart, and kidney and routine hematology and clinical chemistry analyses [including isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH)] were done on all guinea pigs. Lesions related to HCFC-123 and halothane exposure were limited to the liver and included centrolobular vacuolar (fatty) change, multifocal random degeneration and necrosis, and centrolobular degeneration and necrosis. These lesions were observed in 90-100% of the exposed animals and were absent in the air-only controls. There was significant individual animal variation in susceptibility to both HCFC-123 and halothane, resulting in a spectrum of histologic lesions and clinical chemistry values within each exposure group. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and ICDH were the most significant predictors of hepatocellular damage. Similarities in the response between halothane and HCFC-123 in this guinea pig model suggests that humans susceptible to halothane-induced hepatitis may be susceptible to HCFC-123 by a common mechanism of toxicity.  (+info)

Microbial degradation of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (CHCl2F and CHCl2CF3) in soils and sediments. (5/7)

The ability of microorganisms to degrade trace levels of the hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFC-21 and HCFC-123 was investigated. Methanotroph-linked oxidation of HCFC-21 was observed in aerobic soils, and anaerobic degradation of HCFC-21 occurred in freshwater and salt marsh sediments. Microbial degradation of HCFC-123 was observed in anoxic freshwater and salt marsh sediments, and the recovery of 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-chloroethane indicated the involvement of reductive dechlorination. No degradation of HCFC-123 was observed in aerobic soils. In some experiments, HCFCs were degraded at low (parts per billion) concentrations, raising the possibility that bacteria in nature remove HCFCs from the atmosphere.  (+info)

Toxicology of chlorofluorocarbon replacements. (6/7)

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are stable in the atmosphere and may reach the stratosphere. They are cleaved by UV-radiation in the stratosphere to yield chlorine radicals, which are thought to interfere with the catalytic cycle of ozone formation and destruction and deplete stratospheric ozone concentrations. Due to potential adverse health effects of ozone depletion, chlorofluorocarbon replacements with much lower or absent ozone depleting potential are developed. The toxicology of these compounds that represent chlorofluorohydrocarbons (HCFCs) or fluorohydrocarbons (HFCs) has been intensively studied. All compounds investigated (1, 1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane [HCFC-141b], 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane [HFC-134a], pentafluoroethane [HFC-125], 1-chloro- 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane [HCFC-124], and 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane [HCFC-123]) show only a low potential for skin and eye irritation. Chronic adverse effects on the liver (HCFC-123) and the testes (HCFC-141b and HCFC-134a), including tumor formation, were observed in long-term inhalation studies in rodents using very high concentrations of these CFC replacements. All CFC replacements are, to varying extents, biotransformed in the organism, mainly by cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of C-H bonds. The formed acyl halides are hydrolyzed to give excretable carboxylic acids; halogenated aldehydes that are formed may be further oxidized to halogenated carboxylic acids or reduced to halogenated alcohols, which are excretory metabolites in urine from rodents exposed experimentally to CFC replacements. The chronic toxicity of the CFC replacements studied is unlikely to be of relevance for humans exposed during production and application of CFC replacements.  (+info)

Metabolism of 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b) in human volunteers. (7/7)

Human subjects were exposed by inhalation to 250, 500, and 1000 ppm 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b) for 4 hr, and urine samples were collected from 0-4, 4-12, and 12-24 hr for metabolite analysis. 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from exposed subjects showed that 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethyl glucuronide and dichlorofluoroacetic acid were the major and minor metabolites, respectively, of HCFC-141b. Urinary 2, 2-dichloro-2-fluoroethyl glucuronide was hydrolyzed to 2, 2-dichloro-2-fluoroethanol by incubation with beta-glucuronidase, and the released 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethanol was quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Concentrations of 2, 2-dichloro-2-fluoroethanol were highest in the urine samples collected 4-12 hr after exposure, but 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethanol was also detected in the samples collected 0-4 and 12-24 hr after exposure. Exposure concentration-dependent excretion of 2, 2-dichloro-2-fluoroethanol, obtained by hydrolysis of 2, 2-dichloro-2-fluoroethyl glucuronide, was observed in seven of the eight subjects studied. In conclusion, HCFC-141b is metabolized in human subjects to 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethanol, which is conjugated with glucuronic acid and excreted as its glucuronide in urine in a time- and exposure concentration-dependent manner.  (+info)

Others. At the beginning, the report covers the top Hydrochlorofluorocarbons manufacturing industry players from regions like United States, EU, Japan, and China. It also characterizes the market based on topographical regions.. Further, the Hydrochlorofluorocarbons report gives information on the company profile, market share and contact details along with value chain analysis of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons industry, Hydrochlorofluorocarbons industry rules and policies, circumstances driving the growth of the market and compulsion blocking the growth. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons Market development scope and various business strategies are also mentioned in this report.. To Buy Complete Report Click Here: http://qyresearch.us/report/global-hydrochlorofluorocarbonshcfcs-market-2017. The Hydrochlorofluorocarbons research report includes the products that are currently in demand and available in the market along with their cost breakup, manufacturing volume, import/export scheme and contribution to the ...
A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was used to determine the in vivo metabolic constants of the candidate chlorofluorocarbon replacement 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b). Rats were exposed by inhalation to HCFC-141b concentrations ranging from 1,000 to 10,000 ppm. Uptake studies of HCFC-141b in the rat indicated the involvement of saturable and first-order components. The in vivo metabolic constants for HCFC-141b were: KM = 7.0 mg liter-1 (59.9 mumol liter-1), Vmax = 0.2 mg kg-1 hr-1 (1.71 mumol kg-1 hr-1), and k = 0.5 hr-1. In rats exposed to HCFC-141b, 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethanol was excreted in the urine as its glucuronide conjugate, and the rate of 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethanol excretion increased linearly with increasing HCFC-141b exposure concentrations. Diallyl sulfide, a selective, mechanism-based inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 2E1, inhibited the metabolism of HCFC-141b, as indicated by a decreased uptake of HCFC-141b and by a lowered urinary excretion of ...
Measurements of saturated liquid viscosities and densities were performed on environmentally acceptable hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), CH3CCl2F (HCFC-141b), CH3CClF2(HCFC-142b; only for...
Foam Blowing Agents Market by Type (Hydrocarbons, Hydrofluorocarbons, Hydrochlorofluorocarbons and Others (Hydrofluoroolefins, Methyl Formate, Liquid CO2 and Water) and by Application (Polyurethane, Polystyrene, Polyolefins, and Others (Phenolic Foams and Polyvinyl Chloride) - Global Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecast, 2014-2022 Published by Allied Market Research at researchbeam.com [Report Price $5370] 98 Pages
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
ArtChemicals.com is a certified Green Company, supplying a wide variety of chemicals, tools, accessories, lab equipment, safety equipment, safety supplies, and chemical information. We supply chemicals in pre-set sizes or will custom package to fit your needs and minimize environmental impacts.
This page contains information on the chemical 1,2-Dichloro-1,1,2,3,3-Pentafluoropropane(Hcfc-225bb) including: 2 synonyms/identifiers.
The invention includes a blowing agent composition useful in the production of insulating styrenic foams comprising ethylchloride, propane and a halogenated ethane selected from the group consisting of 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-fluoroethane, 1-chloro-1,1-difluoro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (FC-142b) and mixtures thereof. The invention further includes a method to produce dimensionally stable insulating styrenic foams using the blowing agent composition by confining operating temperatures within a narrow range. The blowing agent composition has a significantly reduced ozone reactivity potential compared to previous commercial styrenic foam blowing agents.
JACC 047 : 1,1-Dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123)CAS No. 306-83-2 (Third Edition) , July 2005 This report has been produced as part of the ECETOC Joint […]. ...
During production of chemicals or pharmaceutical agents, solvent-containing exhaust gases often escape from the reaction vessels. The displacement air from petrochemical tank farms often contains gasoline fumes, and HCFCs (Hydrochlorofluorocarbons) are released in the recycling of refrigerators.
Oremland RS, Lonergan DJ, Culbertson CW, Lovley DR. 1996. Microbial degradation of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (CHCl2F and CHCl2CF3) in soils and sediments.. Appl Environ Microbiol. 62(5):1818-21. ...
BACKGROUND: Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are used increasingly in industry as substitutes for ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Limited studies in animals indicate potential hepatotoxicity of some of these compounds. We investigated an epidemic of liver disease in nine industrial workers who had had repeated accidental exposure to a mixture of 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC 123) and 1-chloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC 124). All nine exposed workers were affected to various degrees. Both compounds are metabolised in the same way as 1-bromo-1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (halothane) to form reactive trifluoroacetyl halide intermediates, which have been implicated in the hepatotoxicity of halothane. We aimed to test whether HCFCs 123 and 124 can result in serious liver disease. METHODS: For one severely affected worker liver biopsy and immunohistochemical stainings for the presence of trifluoroacetyl protein adducts were done. The serum of six affected workers and five ...
1. With reference to the post-operative dysfunction of the liver observed after halothane anaesthesia, the effects of the anaesthetic on some metabolic functions were studied in the isolated perfused rat liver. Oxygen uptake, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and urea synthesis were affected by halothane at a concentration (2.5% of the gas phase) within the range used in clinical anaesthesia. 2. At this concentration of halothane uptake of oxygen was inhibited in livers from both fed and starved rats. 3. In livers from fed rats there was a 16-fold increase in lactate production. This was accompanied by a fivefold decrease in the tissue content of 2-oxoglutarate and a more than twofold decrease in citrate. The calculated [free NAD+]/[free NADH] ratio in both cytoplasm and mitochondria was lower in the halothane-exposed livers than in controls. 4. In livers of starved rats the rate of gluconeogenesis from lactate was decreased by halothane to 30% of the control rate. 5. Halothane inhibited ...
Use of this information is subject to copyright laws and may require the permission of the owner of the information, as described in the ECHA Legal Notice.. ...
Use of this information is subject to copyright laws and may require the permission of the owner of the information, as described in the ECHA Legal Notice.. ...
The primary approach industry has taken to fill the void resulting from the elimination of the most important CFCs (i.e., CFC-11 and CFC-12) has been to develop other single component refrigerants (i.e., HCFC-123 and
2,4-DICHLORO-3-PHENYLQUINOLINE chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of 2,4-DICHLORO-3-PHENYLQUINOLINE 108832-15-1, What are the physical properties of 2,4-DICHLORO-3-PHENYLQUINOLINE ect.
Learn more about 2-4-dichloro-5-trifluoromethyl-pyrimidine. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
Lookchem Provide Cas No.55407-24-4 Basic information: Properties,Safety Data,Sds and Other Datebase. We also Provide Trading Suppliers & Manufacture for 55407-24-4 1,3-DICHLORO-2-M-TOLYLOXY-5-TRIFLUOROMETHYL-BENZENE.
CFC-113 was one of the many CFCs that were produced to eliminate toxic and flammable substances in the areas that they were used. It has been used as a cooling agent in refrigerants and air conditioners, aerosol propellant, and a cleansing agent for electrical and electronic components.[7] CFC-113 is one of the three most popular CFCs, along with CFC-11 and CFC-12 and saw much use in its time. CFC-113 is a refrigerant used in cooling systems. When it is in a gas form and compressed, it heats up, when it is expanded, it cools.[8] CFC-113 also is a very volatile and apolar molecule so it was used as a foaming agent in the production of packaging material, insulation, foams for cushioning, and things like shoe soles. CFC-113 has such a low flammability and low toxicity that it was also used as a cleaner for delicate electrical equipment, fabrics, and even metals. It would not harm the product it was cleaning, ignite with a spark or react with other chemicals.[2] CFC-113 in laboratory analytics has ...
This improved version of the Trends Analysis is based on an interactive Flash module using a map-based interface, and it provides more precise year-wise data to the user. Based on official data reported by Governments to the Ozone Secretariat under Article 7 of the Montreal Protocol, the module presents country-wise analyses for the main substances controlled under the Protocol, i.e. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride (CTC), methyl chloroform (MCF). The graphics can be exported by the user for use in publications and presentations. The graphs include some or all of the following lines or data points: Consumption level: This appears for all countries. Production level: This appears only if the country is or was a producer of the specific ODS. Montreal Protocol reduction targets: The respective freeze or reduction target dates are included on the graph for reference.. Note that for HCFCs, since Article 5 countries have not yet ...
Application of an ammonia/carbon dioxide refrigeration system in place of HCFC-22 for the medium-sized producer and retail store ...
THE DEPLETION of Earths protective layer of ozone by man-made chlorofluorocarbon compounds may be further along than realized, a NASA- coordinated study by scientists of 11 nations says. The
3,4-dichloro-5-chlorosulfonylbenzoic acid 151104-67-5 NMR spectrum, 3,4-dichloro-5-chlorosulfonylbenzoic acid H-NMR spectral analysis, 3,4-dichloro-5-chlorosulfonylbenzoic acid C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Learn more about 2-6-dichloro-3-nitropyridin-4-amine. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
Sigma-Aldrich offers Aldrich-235814, 2,4-Dichloro-5-nitrobenzotrifluoride for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
Gurje Community Health Service Centre In 2008 The Umbrella Foundation and our partners SolHimal France asked the poor rural communities of Gurje what were
Introduction. Eugine Whint 7/12/2005 Chemistry 5G Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) (also known as Freon) are non-toxic, non-flammable and non-carcinogenic. They contain fluorine atoms, carbon atoms and chlorine atoms. The 5 main CFCs include CFC-11 (trichlorofluoromethane - CFCl3), CFC-12 (dichloro-difluoromethane - CF2Cl2), CFC-113 (trichloro-trifluoroethane - C2F3Cl3), CFC-114 (dichloro-tetrfluoroethane - C2F4Cl2), and CFC-115 (chloropentafluoroethane - C2F5Cl). CFCs are widely used as coolants in refrigeration and air conditioners, as solvents in cleaners, particularly for electronic circuit boards, as a blowing agents in the production of foam (for example fire extinguishers), and as propellants in aerosols. Indeed, much of the modern lifestyle of the second half of the 20th century had been made possible by the use of CFCs. Man-made CFCs however, are the main cause of stratospheric ozone depletion. CFCs have a lifetime in the atmosphere of about 20 to 100 years, and ...
to manufacture groups of chemicals that can be used in refrigerators and air conditioners and as propellants in inhalers. Originally chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) such as CCl2F2 were made for these purposes but when these very stable compounds escaped into the atmosphere they ended up in the stratosphere where they were photolysed and released chlorine atoms which lead to the decomposition of ozone. This caused depletion of the ozone layer, thus reducing the protection it offers Earth from the suns harmful UV rays. Then hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) such as CHClF2 were made and used. These are less stable and so not as persitant in the atmosphere but some still did reach the stratosphere and damage the ozone layer. There are international agreements leading to the manufacture and use of CFCs and HCFCs being phased out. Now hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) such as CF3CH2F and CF3CHF2, which are not ozone depleting, are manufactured from hydrogen fluoride and used in refrigerators and air conditioners. ...
Chlorofluorocarbons are a family of halocarbons that contain only carbon, chlorine & fluorine. Used in blowing plastics & fridges. CFCs destroy the ozone layer
Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
Solvay, a Belgian chemicals and pharmaceuticals conglomerate, owns U.S. Patent No. 6,730,817 (817 patent), entitled "Method for preparing 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane". The 817 patent is directed to processes for making HFC-245fa, a hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) that does not deplete the earths ozone layer.. The processes claimed in the 817 patent are commercially important because HFC-245fa is one of a group of non-ozone depleting HFCs that were legislatively mandated in the 1990s to replace ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons.. In 2006 Solvay sued Honeywell in federal court in Wilmington, Delaware, accusing the chemicals, security systems and aviation instrument maker of infringing the 817 patent by making HFC-245fa at its Louisiana plant.. Recently both parties filed a flurry of summary judgment motions relating to both infringement and validity of the 817 patent. Last month, Honeywell prevailed when Judge Sue L. Robinson ruled that it, not Solvay, was the first ...
Honeywells low-global-warming solvent, Solstice Performance Fluid (PF), has received a favorable designation from a California regulatory agency.. Californias South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), which maintains some of the highest standards for air quality in the US, has determined that Solstice PF is not a volatile organic compound (VOC) that will contribute to smog and granted the new solvent an exemption from its VOC regulations.. Honeywell has introduced Solstice PF as an effective, environmentally preferable alternative to HCFC-225, a common solvent in use today that is being phased out by regulation beginning Jan. 1, 2015.. The EPA granted Solstice PF an exemption from federal VOC regulations last year.. Solstice PF solvent can be used to clean oils, greases and other substances from metal and plastic parts used in many cleaning applications, including electronics and aerospace manufacturing. Solstice PF also helps solvent users comply with increasingly strict ...
Refrigerant gas supplier. R-22 is gas is used in a variety of maritime refrigeration applications for low, medium and high temperatures (-40 to +16° C). This colorless gas is better known as HCFC-22, or R-22. It is commonly used as a propellant and refrigerant. R22 refrigerant is one of the most commonly used refrigerants.
This story struck me as a little over the top when I first heard about it. Actually I thought this particular medicine had already been pulled years ago due to related deaths using the product. Primatene mist along with a few others will be phased out because the propellent used in the products contain CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) which are bad for the environment. Read More. ...
Well, thats all well and good, and of course we can all agree that the government should make all of our decisions (major and minor) for us. But Im confused as to why this new proposal is so narrow in scope. Even though I accept that trans fats are the single greatest threat to human kind since chlorofluorocarbons, Im not sure they can be blamed for all of our ill health. There are all sorts of lifestyle choices that we know are good for us, and yet so many people are not making them. If Mayor Miller really cares for the people of this city he will take their health into his hands immediately. I propose that the following should become law within the city of Toronto ...
The solvate structure of 3,4-dichloro-1-nitro-benzene with 1,4-dioxane, C6H3Cl2NO2·0.25C4H8N2, is reported. The asymmetric unit comprises two independent 3,4-dichloro-1-nitro-benzene mol-ecules and half of a 1,4-dioxane mol-ecule, the solvent molecule being disposed about a centre of inversion. Double chains of 3,4-dichloro-1-nitro-benzene are linked by ClCl inter-actions and 1,4-dioxane mol-ecules via C - HO hydrogen bonds into a two-dimensional sheet.. ...
2,6-Dichloro-4-(tert-pentyl)-phenol/ACM75908779 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Abstract. The stratospheric degradation of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) releases chlorine, which is a major contributor to the destruction of stratospheric ozone (O3). A recent study reported strong chlorine isotope fractionation during the breakdown of the most abundant CFC (CFC-12, CCl2F2, Laube et al., 2010a), similar to effects seen in nitrous oxide (N2O). Using air archives to obtain a long-term record of chlorine isotope ratios in CFCs could help to identify and quantify their sources and sinks. We analyse the three most abundant CFCs and show that CFC-11 (CCl3F) and CFC-113 (CClF2CCl2F) exhibit significant stratospheric chlorine isotope fractionation, in common with CFC-12. The apparent isotope fractionation (ϵapp) for mid- and high-latitude stratospheric samples are respectively −2.4 (0.5) and −2.3 (0.4) ‰ for CFC-11, −12.2 (1.6) and −6.8 (0.8) ‰ for CFC-12 and −3.5 (1.5) and −3.3 (1.2) ‰ for CFC-113, where the number in parentheses is the numerical value of ...
Chlorofluorocarbons have been banned since 1996 because they destroy the ozone layer. From the U.S. National Library of Medicine. [ ]
New Low-Global-Warming Solvent Meets Both Cleaning and Environmental Regulatory Requirements at NASA Test FacilitiesMORRIS PLAINS, N.J.,Nov. 18, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- Honeywell (NYSE: HON) announced today that its new low-global-warming solvent, Solstice Performance Fluid (PF), has been identified as a replacement for a high-environmental-impact solvent currently used in NASA test facilities.NASA, which uses solvents to clean sensitive equipment, has determined that the new solvent can be substituted for HCFC-225, an ozone-depleting and higher-global-warming solvent the space agency uses today.* HCFC-225 is being phased out for many uses under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. Solstice PF is compatible with the sensitive systems used in aerospace applications, such as oxygen systems in rockets and aircraft.Solstice PF offers effective cleaning as well as compliance with safety and environmental requirements, saidDavid Cooper, global business director for Honeywell Fluorine ...
0012] The blowing agents comprise a hydrohaloolefin such as hydrofluoroolefin, hydrochlorofluoroolefin, and the like, in particular, predominately trans or E-1233zd, 1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene alone or in combination with other blowing agents including (I) hydrofluorocarbons including but not limited to: difluoromethane (HFC32); 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane (HFC125); 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC143a); 1,1,2,2-tetrafluorothane (HFC134); 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC134a); 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC152a), 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFC227ea); 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluopropane (HFC245fa); 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluobutane (HFC365mfc) and 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,5-decafluoropentane (HFC4310mee); (II) hydrofluoroolefins including but not limited to tetrafluoropropenes (HFO1234), trifluoropropenes (HFO1243), all tetrafluorobutenes (HFO 1345), all pentafluorobutene isomers (HFO1354), all hexafluorobutene isomers (HFO1336), all heptafluorobutene isomers (HFO1327), all heptafluoropentene isomers (HFO1447), all ...
Ive just arrived in Bangkok, where negotiators from around the world will convene next week for the mid-year meeting of the Montreal Protocol, the worlds most successful environmental treaty. There they will look for common ground on whether use this treaty to tackle some of the most potent heat-trapping pollutants, the "super greenhouse gases" known as hydrofluorcarbons, or HFCs. To recap, the phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-destroying chemicals under the Montreal Protocol has brought huge climate side-benefits because these chemicals are also powerful heat-trapping pollutants. Scientists tell us that phasing out CFCs worldwide delivered a climate protection bonus equivalent to 11 billion tons of CO2 reductions in 2010 alone - more than five times the carbon reductions of the Kyoto Protocol. Another way to look at it: The CFC phase-out bought us a 10-year delay on warming. Imagine what this roaring-hot, extreme-weather summer would have been like with all that extra ...
Back in the days of big ol lacquered hair, aka the 1980s, the United States led the charge on saving the ozone, responding to damage caused in part by the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) found in hairspray and other aerosols, as well as refrigerants.
Product Details of Freon CAS 11126-05-9 Refrigerant R22 R134a R404a R406a R407c R410a R507 R600a, Freon CAS 11126-05-9 Refrigerant R22 R134a R404a R406a R407c R410a R507 R600a Chlorofluorocarbons Methane from China manufacturer on Hisupplier.com.
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 49774-27-8(1,3,2,4-Diazadiphosphetidine, 2,4-dichloro-1,3-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, 2-sulfide) for price inquiry. where to buy 49774-27-8(1,3,2,4-Diazadiphosphetidine, 2,4-dichloro-1,3-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, 2-sulfide).Also offer free database of 49774-27-8(1,3,2,4-Diazadiphosphetidine, 2,4-dichloro-1,3-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, 2-sulfide) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: N-[(10S,13S,20R)-3,35-Dichloro-18,21-dihydroxy-10-isopropyl-12-oxo-8,22,39-trioxa-4,11,34,38-tet.
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 99-30-9 2,6-DICHLORO-4-NITROANILINE (RING-13C6, 99%) (DICHLORAN). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
BuyersGuideChem provides reliable information about 2,4-Dichloro-5-fluorouracil (2927-71-1) like chemical properties, structure, melting point boiling point, molecular formula, molecular weight, physical properties, toxicity information. Get global suppliers, vendor, prices, .
Define CFC. CFC synonyms, CFC pronunciation, CFC translation, English dictionary definition of CFC. abbr. chlorofluorocarbon abbreviation for chlorofluorocarbon chlorofluorocarbon. Abbreviation of chlorofluorocarbon See under fluorocarbon. Noun 1.
The stratospheric ozone layer, so important to life on earth, can be depleted by catalytic chemical processes. In recent years, man-made chemicals ha...
No single CAS number applies to this NPRI listing.. (1) CAS Registry Number denotes the Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number, as appropriate.. (2) "and its salts" - the CAS number corresponds to the weak acid or base. However, the substance includes the salts of these weak acids and bases. When calculating the weight of these substances and their salts, use the molecular weight of the acid or base, not the total weight of the salt.. (3) "fume or dust". (4) "fibrous forms". (5) "Ammonia (total)" means the total of both of ammonia (NH3 - CAS No. 7664-41-7) and the ammonium ion (NH4+) in solution.. (6) "an d its compounds" (7) "friable form" (8) "and its compounds" except hexavalent chromium compounds (9) "all isomers" including the individual isomers of cresol: m-cresol (CAS No. 108-39-4), o-cresol (CAS No. 95-48-7) and p-cresol (CAS No. 106-44-5). (10) "ionic". (11) "mixed isomers". (12) "all isomers" including, but not limited to, HCFC-122 (CAS No. 354-21-2).. (13) "all isomers" including, ...
Brochures. Global Expertise in Pipe Insulation. Insulation for Construction. Insulation Solutions. Pipe insulation, over 40,000 km of pipe success Fact sheets Cyclo-pentane blown foam systems for discontinuous filling of pipes: DALTOFOAM® TE 34201/ SUPRASEC® 5005 and DALTOFOAM® TE 34210/SUPRASEC® 5005. Flame retardant foam systems for pipe insulation: DALTOFOAM® TE 21200/SUPRASEC® 5005, DALTOFOAM® TE 22200/SUPRASEC® 5005 and DALTOFOAM® TE 42200/SUPRASEC® 5005. Fully water blown foam system for discontinuous filling of pipes providing improved processing properties: DALTOFOAM® TE 44204/SUPRASEC® 5005. HCFC-141b blown foam system for discontinuous filling of pipes providing improved processing properties: DALTOFOAM® TE 24201/SUPRASEC® 5005 Polyurethane foam systems for joints in district heating: DALTOFOAM® TE 24200/SUPRASEC® 5005, DALTOFOAM® TE 44205/SUPRASEC® 5005 and DALTOFOAM® TE 44214/SUPRASEC® 5005. Polyurethane foam systems for spray onto a rotating pipe: DALTOFOAM® TE ...
Complete the following table, then respond to the questions that follow: Issue Sources Health/Environmental Effects Carbon dioxide (CO2) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Ground-level ozone (O3) Sulfuric acid.
In the modern world, humans are responsible for many of the toxic chemicals that are now being dispersed into the environment. In some cases, human actions cause toxic damage by emitting large quantities of chemicals that also occur naturally, such as sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons, and metals. Release of these chemicals as the result of human activities only increases the severity of problems that may already exist because of the natural presence of these chemicals. Humans, however, also produce and release to the environment large quantities of chemicals that do not occur naturally. These synthetic (made in a lab) chemicals include thousands of different pesticides, medicines, and various kinds of industrial chemicals, all of them occurring in complex mixtures of various forms. Many of these chemicals affect humans and other organisms directly, as is the case with many pesticides. In other cases, toxicity occurs indirectly. An example is the class of compounds known as the chlorofluorocarbons ...
A dispersion in which a material is dissolved or suspended in a liquid which volatilizes to produce a fine spray when pressure is released. The spray carries the active material. Tn archival work, aerosols are used for dispersing deacidification solutions; in this case the propellant, which must be inert and nonflammable, is frequently a chlorofluorocarbon, e.g., freon 12, dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl 2 F 2 ). ...
2,4-dichlorotrifluoromethylbenzene; 2,4-dichlorbenzotrifluorid; 2,4,5-trimethylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxylic acid; 2,4-dcbtf; 2,4-dichloro-1-(trifluoromethyl)benzene; 2,4-dichlorobenzotri; 2,4-dichloro-trifluoromethyl; 1,3-dichloro-4-trifluoromethylbenzene; 2,4-dichloro-1-trifluoromethyl-benzene; 1,3-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene; 2,4-dichloro-α,α,α-trifluorotoluene; 4-dichlorobenzotrifluoride ...
3,5-Dichloro-2-[[[(2-naphthalenylcarbonyl)amino]thioxomethyl]amino]-benzoic acid/ACM532414974 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
This page contains information on the chemical 1-Piperazineacetic acid, 4-methyl-, (5,7-dichloro-2-oxo-3-indolinylidene)hydrazide, (Z)- including: 3 synonyms/identifiers.
(1-methylindol-5-yl)(2,3-dichloro-4-(((4-carboxypiperidin-1-yl)carbonyl)ethenyl)phenyl)sulfide: an LFA-1 and ICAM-1 antagonist; structure in first source
Business Manmade chemicals are proven to be the major cause of global climate change as such cause increased atmospheric temperature which can lead to unfavorable water patterns, growth patterns, and weather. Unfortunately, man cannot do away with such chemicals that easily as these are needed in producing and refrigerating goods, and in making lives easier. As such, the U.S. and international governments are establishing regulations to limit the usage of manmade chemical substances that deplete the ozone layer, have a high global warming potential, or increase the fugitive emissions related to Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). Refrigerant gas used to run commercial refrigeration units, as well as air-conditioning systems and heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, is a chief cause of climate change because it is made up of hydrochlorofluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons. These gases contribute to global warming and also deteriorate the ozone layer. Because of the great harm refrigerant gas ...
10% of the worldwide use of methyl bromide takes place in California. A statewide ban on the use of methyl bromide was to be implemented on March 1, 1996, but a special session of the legislature extended the deadline. While the use of methyl bromide was being extended in California, groups were pushing for the amendment of the Montreal Protocol in order to speed up the phaseout of methyl bromide. Since methyl bromide is a very effective pesticide and is used for a wide variety of purposes, scientists are searching for acceptable substitutes. Right now, methyl iodide (CH3I) looks promising. It has a short life and is not thought to be an ozone depletor.. [ Atmospheric Physics ] [ Atmospheric Chemistry: CFC Replacements ...
Let me give you an example. I was born in 1937 so I remember the revolution in refrigerators that happened in my childhood, the introduction of Freon and CFCs [chlorofluorocarbons]. The refrigerator gases that were used in my childhood were things like ammonia. Of course, if they leaked they were toxic, and therefore it was hailed as a breakthrough when these supposedly nontoxic gases, the CFCs, were introduced. They were tested and under earth conditions they appeared to be perfectly benign. What people couldnt predict was that under stratospheric conditions CFCs get broken down into substances that destroy the ozone layer, and it took 20 years to get that well established. And I see that as a metaphor for why technology alone wont solve our problems, namely that there are lots of technologies out there and they have unexpected side effects ...
Refreshing Citrus fragrance. Multipurpose product suitable for all water washable non-food contact surfaces. Cuts through grease and grime. Active foam assists thorough cleaning. Effective sanitising action leaves all surfaces hygienically safe and clean. Ozone friendly. Does not contain chlorofluorocarbons ...
The chemical name of refrigerant R11 is trichloromonofluoromethane and its chemical formula is CCl3F. Refrigerant R11 is chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Among all the refrigerants commonly used for the refrigeration and air conditioning applications, R11 has the highest potential to cause the depletion of the ozone layer from the upper layers of the atmosphere and the greenhouse effect. R-11 is now being replaced by other environment friendly refrigerants, of which the most common is R-123.
Transient tracers are substances that have a time-dependent concentration that can be explored to learn about circulation and ventilation time-scales. Our working group is mainly working with the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds 12 and 11, and the compound sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). These compounds are released to the atmosphere and enter the ocean through air-sea exchange. Accurate measurements of these compounds in the ocean interior is the focus of our practical work, and we use this information to calculate properties like the mean age of a water mass, or the concentration of anthropogenic CO2. In addition to measuring transient tracers, we are conducting deliberately released tracer experiments. This means that we inject an artificial tracer (CF3SF5) on a well-defined density layer in the interior ocean. By measuring the dispersion of the tracer over time we can draw conclusions on the lateral and vertical mixing rates, as well as the large scale transport (advection) of the tracer. We ...
11. A process for producing 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene, which comprises: a hydrogenation step of reacting 1,1-dichloro-2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst to produce 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene, which is separated from the reaction product, and to obtain a mixture-comprising unreacted 1,1-dichloro-2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene, 1-chloro-2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene as an intermediate product and 1-chloro-2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropane as a by-product; a mixing step of mixing dichloropentafluoropropane including 1,1-dichloro-2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropane and at least one of its-isomers, and the mixture obtained in the above hydrogenation step to obtain a raw material composition comprising 1,1-dichloro-2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropane and 1-chloro-2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropane, and a dehydrohalogenation step of contacting the raw material composition with an alkali aqueous solution in the presence of a phase-transfer catalyst to produce 1,1-dichloro-2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene ...
Name: 2,6-Dichioro-4-nitroaniline CA Name: Benzenamine,2,6-dichloro-4-nitro- Molecular Structure: 2,6-Dichioro-4-nitroaniline,Benzenamine,2,6-dichloro-4-nitro-,CAS 99-30-9,207.00,C6H4Cl2N2O2 2,6-Dichioro-4-nitroaniline,Benzenamine,2,6-dichloro-4-nitro-,CAS 99-30-9,207.00,C6H4Cl2N2O2 Molecular Formula:C6H4Cl2N2O2 Molecular Weight: 207.00 CAS Registry Number: 99-30-9
Ozone is a triatomic allotropic type of oxygen that is unsteady. It is available in the climate for around 20 kilometers above ocean level.. It is framed from the oxygen that is present there, in the presence of ultraviolet light from the sun. Ozone is of imperative significance in shielding the worlds surface from exposure to harmful ultraviolet radiations.. The utilization of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigerators and aerosols and their ensuing discharge into the air is responsible for making gaps in the ozone layer over the Antarctic and Arctic areas. It is expected that this will permit intemperate UV light to achieve the earth, which can bring about skin malignancy in people.. ...
In 1987, many countries signed the Montreal Protocol. This was an international agreement that attempted to ban and/or limit the production of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). CFCs are industrial compounds that damage the ozone layer. They were found in most aerosol sprays and in many of the major asthma
Montréal Protocol Following the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in late 1985, various governments recognized the need for stronger measures to reduce the production and consumption of a number of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
Environmental Chemistry, Eighth Edition builds on the same organizational structure validated in previous editions tosystematically develop the principles, tools, and techniques of environmental chemistry to provide students and professionals with a clear understanding of the science and its applications. Revised and updated since the publication of the best-selling Seventh Edition, this text continues to emphasize the major concepts essential to the practice of environmental science, technology, and chemistry while introducing the newest innovations to the field. The author provides clear explanations to important concepts such as the anthrosphere, industrial ecosystems, geochemistry, aquatic chemistry, and atmospheric chemistry, including the study of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons. The subject of industrial chemistry and energy resources is supported by pertinent topics in recycling and hazardous waste. Several chapters review environmental biochemistry and toxicology, and the final chapters
Environmental and medical surveys were conducted on December 12 and 13, 1977, and February 22 to 24, 1978, to evaluate employee exposure to chlorofluorocarbons at Allied Chemical Corporation (SIC-2869) in Danville, Illinois. The evaluation was requested by an authorized representative of the International Chemical Workers Union, Local 617, on behalf of the approximately 45 affected employees. Seve
Kimble designs, manufactures and distributes reusable, disposable and specialty laboratory glassware+ for edu lifesci gov pharma enviro petro and chroma
Azeotropic mixtures of 1,1-difluoro-2,2-dichloroethane (HCFC-132a) with acetone, the azeotropic mixture being useful in solvent cleaning applications.
HFC 134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) and HFC 227 (1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane) are used to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in refrigerant and aerosol applications, including medical use in metered-dose inhalers. Production and consumption of CFCs are being phased out under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The safety and pharmacokinetics of HFC 134a and HFC 227 were assessed in two separate double-blind studies. Each HFC (hydrofluorocarbon) was administered via whole-body exposure as a vapor to eight (four male and four female) healthy volunteers. Volunteers were exposed, once weekly for 1 h, first to air and then to ascending concentrations of HFC (1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 parts per million (ppm)), interspersed with a second air exposure and two CFC 12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) exposures (1000 and 4000 ppm). Comparison of either HFC 134a or HFC 227 to CFC 12 or air gave no clinically significant results for any of the measured laboratory parameters. ...
Alfa Aesar™ 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone, 98+% 10g Alfa Aesar™ 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone, 98+% Dichlorotol to...
The report generally describes 5,6-dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, examines its uses, production methods, patents. 5,6-Dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole
The report generally describes 2,6-dichloro-3-fluoropyridine, examines its uses, production methods, patents. 2,6-Dichloro-3-fluoropyridine market situation
3114-64-5 - KAZVEJBQIOEVSZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Phenol, 3,6-dichloro-2-nitro- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Phenol, 2,4-dichloro-6-[(methylimino)methyl]- | C8H7Cl2NO | CID 71361495 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
2-{3,5-Dichloro-4-[3-(3-ethylphenyl)-4-hydroxyphenoxy]phenyl}acetic acid | C22H18Cl2O4 | CID 23648101 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
EXTRACT: Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs), which can be collectively described as Kyoto Protocol synthetic GHGs (KP-SGGs). HFCs are used extensively in Australia, largely in air conditioning and refrigeration, initially as ozone-friendly replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). Minor uses of HFCs in Australia are as aerosol propellants, including metered dose inhalers (MDIs), as foam blowing agents and in fire extinguishers. PFCs are a by-product of the production of aluminium in Australia and overseas and, in addition, are used overseas in the electronics industry during the manufacture of integrated circuits and plasma screens. Refrigeration represents a very minor use of PFCs in Australia and overseas. Sulfur hexafluoride is used extensively in the electricity distribution industry, both in Australia and overseas, for dielectric insulation ...
Arctic ozone hole research. NASA scientist examining laser ozone mapping experiment data gathered over the Arctic by a DC-8 flying laboratory in January & February 1989. Initial results from DC-8 and high-altitude ER-2 flights showed a marked increase in concentrations of chemicals known to destroy ozone. Ozone protects us from the Suns harmful ultraviolet rays. In Antarctica, satellite data has revealed an ozone hole that has been growing in size & severity since 1980. Antarctic research in 1987, including ER-2 flights, confirmed that the hole is probably caused by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), man-made chemicals used in aerosols & refrigerants. - Stock Image E180/0045
Industrial chlorofluorocarbons that cause ozone depletion have been phased out under the Montreal Protocol. A chemically-driven increase in polar ozone (or "healing") is expected in response to this historic agreement. Observations and model calculations taken together indicate that the onset of healing of Antarctic ozone loss has now emerged in September. Fingerprints of September healing since 2000 are identified through (i) increases in ozone column amounts, (ii) changes in the vertical profile of ozone concentration, and (iii) decreases in the areal extent of the ozone hole. Along with chemistry, dynamical and temperature changes contribute to the healing, but could represent feedbacks to chemistry. Volcanic eruptions episodically interfere with healing, particularly during 2015 (when a record October ozone hole occurred following the Calbuco eruption ...
But shouldnt Earth now, or at some point, be headed into the next ice age? No. Another ice age will not occur, unless humans go extinct. Orbital conditions now are, indeed, conducive (albeit weakly6) to initiation of ice sheet growth in the Northern Hemisphere But only a small amount of human-made GHGs are needed to overwhelm any natural tendency toward cooling. The long lifetime of human-made CO2 perturbations assures that no human generation that we can imagine will need to be concerned about global cooling. Even after fossil fuel use ceases and its effect is drained from the system an ice age could be averted by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced in a single CFC factory. It is a trivial task for humanity to avert an ice age ...
Freons (fluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs)) historically have been widely used as aerosol propellants, in refrigeration units, in the manufacture of plastics, in foam blowing, and as degreasing agents. Under provisions of the Montreal Protocol of 1987, the use of CFCs is being phased out to avoid further depletion of stratospheric ozone. Nevertheless, freons remain in older refrigeration
The U.S. government-mandated switch to CFC-free inhalers is causing problems for millions of people with asthma and other lung diseases, according to The New York Times. CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), used as propellants in the inhalers, damage the Earths ozone layer. As of Jan.
A little nit picking. CFC molecules dont deplete ozone. Chlorofluorocarbon is very stable. Only if it breaks down and frees a Cl atom (not molecule) does that chlorine atom act as a catalyst. Therein lies the problem. Where does the energy come from to break down CFCs? Turns out UV energy isnt enough to break them down at the rate required. A recent theory suggests that cosmic rays are involved. Perhaps its both. Perhaps there is an additional culprit thats being overlooked ...
Hydrocarbon refrigerants are are the exciting, new, and environmentally conscious replacement to CFCs and HCFCs. While they have been discussed as a replacement since the late 1980s they are only recently entering the market as a low cost, safe, and effective refrigerant. Because Hydrocarbon Refrigerants are natural, nontoxic, and have no ozone depleting properties, they are the perfect addition to your green friendly Refrigeration business. Contact our experts at Chem Penn if you or your company would like to learn more about these revolutionary refrigerants.. ...
ChemicalBook provide Chemical industry users with 3,7-dichloro-8-dichloro methyl quinoline(84086-97-5) Boiling point Melting point,3,7-dichloro-8-dichloro methyl quinoline(84086-97-5) Density MSDS Formula Use,If You also need to 3,7-dichloro-8-dichloro methyl quinoline(84086-97-5) Other information,welcome to contact us.
23957-55-3 - PJDCTXYVMRMNGR-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Benzoic acid, 3,5-dichloro-4-methoxy-, 2-phenethylhydrazide, monohydrochloride - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Nominated Substances: 1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol. Nomination Date: 06/09/2004 Nominator: NIEHS Rationale: High production volume and use; occurrence in foods; reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity demonstrated but not adequately characterized NTP Principles: 1, 3, 6, 7. Status: Selected ...
Ethane is readily available, particularly on the U.S. gulf coast. Ethylene is made from ethane by cracking ethane and then ... Vinyl chloride can also be obtained as byproducts in the synthesis of chlorofluorocarbons when saturated chlorofluorocarbons ... Many such ethane-based processes have been and are being developed. Vinyl chloride is stored as a liquid. The presently ... Ethane sulfochlorination has been proposed as a route to produce vinyl chloride using sulfur instead of oxygen. About 85% of ...
Ethane, 1-chloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoro- (R124) in Linstrom, Peter J.; Mallard, William G. (eds.); NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST ... is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon used as a component in refrigerants offered as replacements for chlorofluorocarbons. HCFC-124 is ...
... due to chlorofluorocarbons' impact on the ozone layer. Methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6) are gaseous at ambient temperatures and ... Lakes of liquid methane and ethane have been found on Titan, Saturn's largest moon, confirmed by the Cassini-Huygens Mission. ... Mixtures of volatile hydrocarbons are now used in preference to the chlorofluorocarbons as a propellant for aerosol sprays, ...
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formulae CClmF4−m and C2ClmF6−m, ... Hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formula CClmFnH4−m−n and ... chlorofluorocarbon-11 and chlorofluorocarbon-12 in seawater". Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. 55 (8): ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are anthropogenic compounds that have been released into the atmosphere since the 1930s in various ...
The Freon produced back then was chlorofluorocarbon, a moderately toxic gas causing ozone depletion. All refrigeration ... ethane, propane, isobutane and n-butane). HCR188C is used today in commercial refrigeration applications (supermarket ... its impact upon the use greenhouse gases besides the efforts made to reduce ozone depletion caused by the chlorofluorocarbons. ...
Kampbell, Don H.; Vandegrift, Steve A., Analysis of Dissolved Methane, Ethane, and Ethylene in Ground Water by Standard Gas ... Examples of volatile anthropogenic chemicals include the refrigerants chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs ... Natural gas extracted from the earth also contains many low molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds such as methane, ethane, ... This method has been used to quantify dissolved hydrogen, methane, ethylene, ethane, propane, butane, acetylene, nitrogen, ...
For example, the chlorofluorocarbons have been shown to lead to ozone depletion. Methyl bromide is a controversial fumigant. ... For example, ethane with bromine becomes bromoethane, methane with four chlorine groups becomes tetrachloromethane. However, ... Chlorofluorocarbons were used almost universally as refrigerants and propellants due to their relatively low toxicity and high ... Several classes of widely used haloalkanes are classified in this way chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons ( ...
It is increasingly used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant, replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage ... while natural gas is composed of the lighter methane and ethane. LPG, vaporised and at atmospheric pressure, has a higher ... R-134a and other chlorofluorocarbon or hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants in conventional stationary refrigeration and air ...
A second large source are marine algae which produce several chlorinated methane and ethane containing compounds. There are ... the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), would accumulate in the upper atmosphere and destroy protective ozone (Molina & Rowland 1974). ... ethane), herbicides such as 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), askarel dielectrics (mixed with PCBs, no longer used in ... leading to bans on production and use of chlorofluorocarbons in many countries. In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ...
The processing of natural gas involves removal of butane, propane, and large amounts of ethane from the raw gas, in order to ... and other chlorofluorocarbon or hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants in conventional stationary refrigeration and air conditioning ... Part 8.-Methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and 2-methylpropane". Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 1: ... This is the HD-5 standard, (Heavy Duty-5% maximum allowable propylene content, and no more than 5% butanes and ethane) defined ...
... chlorofluorocarbons MeSH D02.455.526.439.220.300 --- chlorofluorocarbons, methane MeSH D02.455.526.439.224 --- chloroform MeSH ... ethane MeSH D02.455.326.146.379.350 --- ethylene dichlorides MeSH D02.455.326.146.432 --- fumonisins MeSH D02.455.326.146.485 ... chlorofluorocarbons MeSH D02.455.526.510.140.300 --- chlorofluorocarbons, methane MeSH D02.455.526.510.432 --- fluorobenzenes ...
In the upper atmosphere, chlorine-containing organic molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons have been implicated in ozone ... including such diverse compounds as chlorinated methanes and ethanes, vinyl chloride and its polymer polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ... chlorofluorocarbons have been phased out due to the harm they do to the ozone layer.[46] ... They are important because they are produced when chlorofluorocarbons undergo photolysis in the upper atmosphere and cause the ...
For example, ethane with bromine becomes bromoethane, methane with four chlorine groups becomes tetrachloromethane. However, ... Chlorofluorocarbons were used almost universally as refrigerants and propellants due to their relatively low toxicity and high ... For example, the chlorofluorocarbons have been shown to lead to ozone depletion. Methyl bromide is a controversial fumigant. ... Several classes of widely used haloalkanes are classified in this way chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons ( ...
Chlorofluorocarbon 142B. *Ethane, 1-chloro-1,1-difluoro-. *FC 142B. *FC142B. *Freon 142 ...
Make research projects and school reports about chlorofluorocarbons easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... Commercially, the most important CFCs were derivatives of methane and ethane. These included trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), ... Chlorofluorocarbons Encyclopedia of Public Health COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS. Chlorofluorocarbons ... Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). A chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound typically consisting of chlorine, fluorine, carbon ...
Containing methane, ethane or propane chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), whether or not containing hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) ... Containing methane, ethane or propane hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), but not containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) ... Mixtures containing halogenated derivatives of methane, ethane or propane: - Containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), whether or ... Means a chlorofluorocarbon. Critical use Means a use of methyl bromide that conforms to Decision IX/6 set out in the document ...
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formulae CClmF4−m and C2ClmF6−m, ... Hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formula CClmFnH4−m−n and ... chlorofluorocarbon-11 and chlorofluorocarbon-12 in seawater". Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. 55 (8): ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are anthropogenic compounds that have been released into the atmosphere since the 1930s in various ...
Ethane is readily available, particularly on the U.S. gulf coast. Ethylene is made from ethane by cracking ethane and then ... Vinyl chloride can also be obtained as byproducts in the synthesis of chlorofluorocarbons when saturated chlorofluorocarbons ... Many such ethane-based processes have been and are being developed. Vinyl chloride is stored as a liquid. The presently ... Ethane sulfochlorination has been proposed as a route to produce vinyl chloride using sulfur instead of oxygen. About 85% of ...
Ethane, 1-chloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoro- (R124) in Linstrom, Peter J.; Mallard, William G. (eds.); NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST ... is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon used as a component in refrigerants offered as replacements for chlorofluorocarbons. HCFC-124 is ...
Aliphatic hydrocarbons include methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, isobutane, n-pentane, isopentane, neopentane. Aliphatic ... Partially halogenated chlorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons for use in this invention include methyl chloride, methylene ... Fully and partially halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons include fluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and chlorofluorocarbons. Examples ... Fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons include trichloromonofluoromethane (CFC-11), dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), ...
... due to chlorofluorocarbons impact on the ozone layer. Methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6) are gaseous at ambient temperatures and ... Lakes of liquid methane and ethane have been found on Titan, Saturns largest moon, confirmed by the Cassini-Huygens Mission. ... Mixtures of volatile hydrocarbons are now used in preference to the chlorofluorocarbons as a propellant for aerosol sprays, ...
Chlorofluorocarbon. A chlorofluorocarbon is an organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a ... volatile derivative of methane and ethane. A common subclass are the hydrochlorofluorocarbons , which contain hydrogen, as well ... ozone by chlorofluorocarbons. Although there are a few areas of linkage, the relationship between the two is not strong. ...
... ethane, a wide range of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), hydrochloroflourocarbons (HCFC), and a few others, e.g., acetone. A complete ...
... ethane, propane, butane, pentane, dimethyl ether, xenon, sulfur hexafluoride, halogenated and partially halogenated materials ... such as chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons (such as perfluoromethane and ...
... chlorofluoro carbons, or hydrochlorofluoro carbons), hydrocarbons for example alkanes (including methane, ethane, propane, ...
AC 240 Wastes arising from the production of aliphatic halogenated hydrocarbons (such as chloromethanes, dichloro-ethane, vinyl ... AC 150 Chlorofluorocarbons. - AC 160 Halons. - AC 190 Fluff-light fraction from automobile shredding ...
Haloalkanes (also known as Halogenoalkanes) are a group of chemical compounds, consisting of alkanes, such as methane or ethane ... The most widely known family within this group are the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The haloalkanes have the general formula R-X ...
derived from methane, ethane, etc., as bases. With fluorine, chlorine sometimes. bromine in their molecules, these form a ... The fully halogenated ones with chlorine in their molecule are chlorofluorocarbons, referred to as CFCs. Those containing H ...
... ethane, propane, butane, pentane, dimethyl ether, xenon, sulfur hexafluoride, halogenated and partially halogenated materials ... such as chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons (such as perfluoromethane and ...
The Ethane,1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro-, with the CAS registry number 76-13-1, is also known as Freon-113. It belongs to ... It is a very unreactive chlorofluorocarbon, that will stay in the atmosphere for a great deal of time if it is released. It was ... Uses of Ethane,1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro-: it can be used to produce 1,1-dichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro-octane at the ... Physical properties of Ethane,1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro- are: (1)ACD/LogP: 3.20; (2)# of Rule of 5 Violations: 0; (3)ACD/ ...
Any hydrocarbon (except methane and ethane) which is able to change quickly to a gas. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are an example ... chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). A chemical compound containing chlorine, fluorine, and carbon, used in cooling systems and aerosols. ...
HQ SERIAL Partially halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (ethane derivatives / HQ SERIAL Health of the elderly : HQ SERIAL Effective ...
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Harmful chemicals released as a derivative of ethane and methane. Chlorofluorocarbons contain ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Harmful chemicals released as a derivative of ethane and methane. Chlorofluorocarbons contain ...
The Freon produced back then was chlorofluorocarbon, a moderately toxic gas causing ozone depletion. All refrigeration ... ethane, propane, isobutane and n-butane). HCR188C is used today in commercial refrigeration applications (supermarket ... its impact upon the use greenhouse gases besides the efforts made to reduce ozone depletion caused by the chlorofluorocarbons. ...
Chlorofluorocarbons, fully halogenated (EHC 113, 1990) *Chlorofluorocarbons, partially halogenated (ethane derivatives) (EHC ... Chlorofluorocarbons, partially halogenated (methane derivatives) (EHC 126, 1991) *Chloroform (EHC 163, 1994) *Chlorophenols ( ...
  • Since then, concern over the chlorofluorocarbon propellants recommended for aerosols to be used for disinsection of aircraft has led to a reconsideration of their use. (who.int)
  • Preparation: this chemical can be prepared by 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro-1,2-difluoro-ethane at the temperature of 20 - 25 °C. This reaction will need reagents BrF 3 , SbCl 5 and solvent 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro-ethane. (lookchem.com)