Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chlorofluorocarbons, Ethane: A group of ethane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedOzone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Ozone Depletion: A shift in the balance between production and destruction of STRATOSPHERIC OZONE that results in a decline of the amount of OZONE in the lower stratosphere.Stratospheric Ozone: Ozone in the Earth's stratosphere. It is produced continuously by the action of solar ULTRAVIOLET RAYS on oxygen in the stratosphere. The stratospheric ozone (especially at the ozone layer) blocks much of the solar UV radiation of wavelengths of 320 nanometers or less from being transmitted to lower ATMOSPHERE of the Earth.Chemical Processes: The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.Methyl Chloride: A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Bromochlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing BROMINE; CHLORINE and FLOURINE.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedFluorine: A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.Trifluoroacetic Acid: A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.Fluoroacetates: Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Sick Building Syndrome: A group of symptoms that are two- to three-fold more common in those who work in large, energy-efficient buildings, associated with an increased frequency of headaches, lethargy, and dry skin. Clinical manifestations include hypersensitivity pneumonitis (ALVEOLITIS, EXTRINSIC ALLERGIC); allergic rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL); ASTHMA; infections, skin eruptions, and mucous membrane irritation syndromes. Current usage tends to be less restrictive with regard to the type of building and delineation of complaints. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Copying Processes: Reproduction of data in a new location or other destination, leaving the source data unchanged, although the physical form of the result may differ from that of the source.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Hevea: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.Beds: Equipment on which one may lie and sleep, especially as used to care for the hospital patient.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Ceiba: A plant genus of the family BOMBACACEAE. The fine silky hairs covering the seeds have been used for floatation, stuffing, and insulation.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)MonacoMass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Self-Help Groups: Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Nurse Practitioners: Nurses who are specially trained to assume an expanded role in providing medical care under the supervision of a physician.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Ethylene Dichlorides: Toxic, chlorinated, saturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. The latter is considerably more toxic. It has a sweet taste, ethereal odor and has been used as a fumigant and intoxicant among sniffers. Has many household and industrial uses.Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Ethylene Dibromide: An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Structural consequences of anesthetic and nonimmobilizer interaction with gramicidin A channels. (1/62)

Although interactions of general anesthetics with soluble proteins have been studied, the specific interactions with membrane bound-proteins that characterize general anesthesia are largely unknown. The structural modulations of anesthetic interactions with synaptic ion channels have not been elucidated. Using gramicidin A as a simplified model for transmembrane ion channels, we have recently demonstrated that a pair of structurally similar volatile anesthetic and nonimmobilizer, 1-chloro-1,2,2-trifluorocyclobutane (F3) and 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane (F6), respectively, have distinctly different effects on the channel function. Using high-resolution NMR structural analysis, we show here that neither F3 nor F6 at pharmacologically relevant concentrations can significantly affect the secondary structure of the gramicidin A channel. Although both the anesthetic F3 and the nonimmobilizer F6 can perturb residues at the middle section of the channel deep inside the hydrophobic region in the sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles, only F3, but not F6, can significantly alter the chemical shifts of the tryptophan indole N-H protons near the channel entrances. The results are consistent with the notion that anesthetics cause functional change of the channel by interacting with the amphipathic domains at the peptide-lipid-water interface.  (+info)

Distinctly different interactions of anesthetic and nonimmobilizer with transmembrane channel peptides. (2/62)

Although it plays no clinical role in general anesthesia, gramicidin A, a transmembrane channel peptide, provides an excellent model for studying the specific interaction between volatile anesthetics and membrane proteins at the molecular level. We show here that a pair of structurally similar volatile anesthetic and nonimmobilizer (nonanesthetic), 1-chloro-1,2,2-trifluorocyclobutane (F3) and 1, 2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane (F6), respectively, interacts differently with the transmembrane peptide. With 400 microM gramicidin A in a vesicle suspension of 60 mM phosphatidylcholine-phosphatidylglycerol (PC/PG), the intermolecular cross-relaxation rate constants between (19)F of F3 and (1)H in the chemical shift regions for the indole and backbone amide protons were 0.0106 +/- 0.0007 (n = 12) and 0.0105 +/- 0.0014 (n = 8) s(-1), respectively. No cross-relaxation was measurable between (19)F of F6 and protons in these regions. Sodium transport study showed that with 75 microM gramicidin A in a vesicle suspension of 66 mM PC/PG, F3 increased the (23)Na apparent efflux rate constant from 149.7 +/- 7.2 of control (n = 3) to 191.7 +/- 12.2 s(-1) (n = 3), and the apparent influx rate constant from 182.1 +/- 15.4 to 222.8 +/- 21.7 s(-1) (n = 3). In contrast, F6 had no effects on either influx or efflux rate. It is concluded that the ability of general anesthetics to interact with amphipathic residues near the peptide-lipid-water interface and the inability of nonimmobilizer to do the same may represent some characteristics of anesthetic-protein interaction that are of importance to general anesthesia.  (+info)

Challenges in changing to non-chlorofluorocarbon inhalers in the treatment of asthma. (3/62)

The chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-based metered dose inhaler, which has been the mainstay of the management of obstructive lung diseases, will soon be phased out world wide and replaced by CFC-free devices. Patients will have to be changed to the devices in a co-ordinated manner to avoid any risk to their health and safety. The different shapes and aerosol delivery characteristics of the new inhalers, as well as their distinctive taste, could add to the levels of poor drug use already experienced in asthma. From previous change scenarios in disease management, the potential for unstable asthma control is a real possibility with all the attendant costs. By using the time available before CFC-based inhalers are withdrawn, there is an opportunity to enhance asthma management during this period of change.  (+info)

Review of therapeutically equivalent alternatives to short acting beta(2) adrenoceptor agonists delivered via chlorofluorocarbon-containing inhalers. (4/62)

BACKGROUND: To study the transition from metered dose inhalers using chlorofluorocarbons as propellants (CFC-MDIs) to non-CFC containing devices, a systematic review was conducted of clinical trials which compared the delivery of salbutamol and terbutaline via CFC-MDIs and non-CFC devices. METHODS: Papers were selected by searching electronic databases (Medline, Cochrane, and BIDS) and further information and studies were sought from pharmaceutical companies. The studies were assessed for their methodological quality. RESULTS: Fifty three relevant trials were identified. Most were scientifically flawed in terms of study design, comparison of inappropriate doses, and insufficient power for the determination of therapeutic equivalence. Differences between inhaler devices were categorised according to efficacy and potency. Most trials claimed to show therapeutic equivalence, usually for the same doses from the different devices. Two commercially available salbutamol metered dose inhalers using a novel hydrofluorocarbon HFC-134a as propellant were equally as potent and efficacious as conventional CFC-MDIs, as were the Rotahaler and Clickhaler dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Evidence suggests that a dose of 200 microg salbutamol via CFC-MDI may be substituted with 200 microg and 400 microg of salbutamol via Accuhaler and Diskhaler DPIs, respectively. Terbutaline delivered via a Turbohaler DPI is equally as potent and efficacious as terbutaline delivered via a conventional CFC-MDI. CONCLUSIONS: When substituting non-CFC containing inhalers for CFC-MDIs, attention must be given to differences in inhaler characteristics which may result in variations in pulmonary function.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of chlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluoroalkane metered-dose inhaler formulations of beclomethasone dipropionate. (5/62)

AIMS: To compare the pharmacokinetic profile of Beclazone (beclomethasone dipropionate) in its chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-based and CFC-free formulations. METHODS: Ten healthy adults received a single 1,000 microg nominal dose (ex-valve) of beclomethasone dipropionate from a CFC inhaler (BEC-CFC) or from a CFC-free inhaler containing hydrofluoroalkane (HFA)-134a (BEC-HFA) in an open-label, randomized, two-way, crossover study. Blood samples were collected predose and over 12 h after inhalation. Comparisons were made of maximum plasma concentration of beclomethasone 17-monopropionate (17-BMP) (Cmax), and area under the plasma concentration vs time curve (AUC). RESULTS: The tmax was significantly (P<0.05) earlier with BEC-HFA and plasma levels were significantly higher following administration of BEC-HFA than BEC-CFC. Geometric mean values for AUC were 1.5 fold greater (90% CI 1.3-1.9) and for Cmax were 1.9 fold greater (90% CI 1.6-2.6) following BEC-HFA than BEC-CFC. CONCLUSIONS: Our data in healthy volunteers would not be consistent with the manufacturers' recommendation for a microgram equivalent (1:1) nominal dose switch between these HFA and CFC formulations. Further well designed trials are required in asthmatic patients to properly define their respective dose-response relationships for antiasthmatic and systemic adverse effects.  (+info)

Global warming in the twenty-first century: an alternative scenario. (6/62)

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO(2) greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH(4), and N(2)O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO(2) and aerosols, the positive and negative climate forcings of which are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO(2) GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH(4) and O(3) precursors were reduced in the future, the change in climate forcing by non-CO(2) GHGs in the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO(2) emissions, this reduction of non-CO(2) GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition-specific long-term global monitoring of aerosol properties.  (+info)

Factors affecting the efficiency of aerosol therapy with pressurised metered-dose inhalers through plastic spacers. (7/62)

AIM: The main objective of this study was to compare the in vitro delivery of salbutamol from a chlorofluorocarbon(CFC)-propelled pressurised metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) versus a newly developed hydrofluoroalkane(HFA)-propelled pMDI through various spacers. In addition, we aimed to study the effect on bronchodilator response when using an optimal pMDI/spacer combination for aerosol delivery compared to a suboptimal combination. METHODS: Particle size distribution and output from salbutamol pMDIs containing either CFC propellants (Ventolin) or HFA propellants (Airomir) were measured using a multistage liquid impinger (MSLI) and compared to that through both detergent-coated (non-static) or untreated (static) large volume (Nebuhaler, Volumatic) and small volume (Aerochamber) plastic spacers. Flow-volume curves (FEV1) were obtained from twelve asthmatic children with known significant bronchodilator response (8 males), aged 13-17 years, randomly inhaling salbutamol from a CFC-pMDI through a static spacer (Nebuhaler) and from an HFA-pMDI through a non-static spacer (Nebuhaler). RESULTS: In vitro output of particles in the respirable range (< 6.8 microns) from HFA-pMDIs was significantly higher than that from CFC-pMDIs using various spacers. Removal of electrostatic charge increased output from CFC- and HFA-pMDIs through all spacers by 17-82%. The mean (SD) bronchodilator response after inhalation of salbutamol from a CFC-pMDI through a static spacer was 7.1% (6.3%) compared to 17.5% (7.9%) after inhalation from an HFA-pMDI through a non-static spacer (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Use of a newly developed HFA-propelled pMDI greatly improves drug delivery through spacers compared to a CFC-propelled pMDI. However, electrostatic charge in plastic spacers remains the key determinant limiting delivery of salbutamol from a pMDI through spacers, and can be reduced by soaking the spacer in a household detergent. Using an optimal pMDI/spacer combination leads to a significantly improved bronchodilator response.  (+info)

Moving from CFC aerosol to HFA aerosol or dry powder inhalers: what do patients think? (8/62)

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Environmentally friendly hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) pressurised metered-dose inhalers are currently being marketed to replace chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-driven devices. It is uncertain whether these new formulations with different properties are acceptable to patients. Similarly, switching a patient to a dry powder inhaler (DPI) carries the risk of non-acceptance. METHODS: One hundred patients with obstructive airway disease on regular CFC aerosol inhaler medication underwent a standardised, structured interview. During the interview patients were asked to use a new HFA aerosol inhaler and three DPIs in random order. Patients' notions were recorded. RESULTS: Most patients (96) agreed to change from their CFC to the HFA inhaler, of those, only 12 did so with some reservation. Properties (taste, user-friendliness, design) of the HFA inhaler were rated favourably. DPIs represented an acceptable alternative to aerosol inhalers. In fact, 57 patients preferred a DPI over the HFA inhaler. Not all powder devices were equally acceptable. Replacing the CFC inhaler with patients' preferred alternative devices resulted in a more than 3-fold increase in costs. CONCLUSION: Concerns about the acceptability of reformulated CFC-free aerosol inhalers are ill founded. However, if given the choice, many patients prefer a DPI over the HFA inhaler. The transition offers an opportunity to review patients' current treatment and the proficiency of their inhaling technique. Moving to CFC-free inhalers will have revenue implications.  (+info)

*Chlorofluorocarbon

... chlorofluorocarbon-11 and chlorofluorocarbon-12 in seawater". Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. 55 (8): ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formulae CClmF4−m and C2ClmF6−m, ... Hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formula CClmFnH4−m−n and ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are anthropogenic compounds that have been released into the atmosphere since the 1930s in various ...

*1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane

CFC-113 is a very unreactive chlorofluorocarbon. It remains in the atmosphere about 90 years, sufficiently long that it will ... Trichlorotrifluoroethane, also called 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane or CFC-113 is a chlorofluorocarbon. It has the ... 1] "Chlorofluorocarbons". Columbia Encyclopedia. 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-28. Zumdahl, Steven (1995). Chemical Principles. ...

*List of environmental issues

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) • Cyanide • DDT • Endocrine disruptors • Explosives • Environmental impact of the coal industry • ...

*Radiative forcing

The table shows that CO2 dominates the total forcing, with methane and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) becoming relatively smaller ... chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) 12 and 11; and fifteen other minor, long-lived, halogenated gases. The table includes the ...

*Compounds of fluorine

As with fluorocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons and bromofluorocarbons are not flammable: they do not have carbon-hydrogen bonds to ... 7-8. Sukornick, B. (1989). "Potentially acceptable substitutes for the chlorofluorocarbons". International Journal of ... Substituting other halogens in combination with fluorine gives rise to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or bromofluorocarbons (BFCs) ...

*Fluoroantimonic acid

... some chlorofluorocarbons have also been used. Containers for HF-SbF5 are made of PTFE. HF-SbF5 is extremely corrosive, toxic, ...

*Vehicle emissions control

... for example chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and formaldehyde. Volatile organic compounds are a subsection of Hydrocarbons that are ...

*Greenhouse gas removal

Stix, T.H. (7-9 Jun 1993). "Removal of chlorofluorocarbons from the troposphere". 1993 IEEE International Conference on Plasma ... Atmospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) removal is an idea which suggests using lasers to break up CFCs, an important family of ...

*Air pollution

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - harmful to the ozone layer; emitted from products are currently banned from use. These are gases ...

*Veerabhadran Ramanathan

Ramanathan, V. (1975). "Greenhouse Effect Due to Chlorofluorocarbons: Climatic Implications". Science. 190: 50-51. Bibcode: ...

*Ozone depletion potential

Chlorofluorocarbons have ODPs roughly equal to 1. Brominated substances have usually higher ODPs in range 5-15, because of more ... Ozone-Depletion and Chlorine-Loading Potential of Chlorofluorocarbon Alternatives "Ozone depletion by hydrofluorocarbons". ...

*Technoscience

CFCs that deplete the ozone layer are chlorofluorocarbons. Industry actually manufactured the chemicals and consumers purchased ...

*Timeline of history of environmentalism

develops chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) as a non-toxic refrigerant. The first warnings of damage to stratospheric ozone were ... 1974 - Chlorofluorocarbons are first hypothesized to cause ozone thinning. - National Reserves Management Act. - World human ...

*Ammonia

It was commonly used before the popularisation of chlorofluorocarbons (Freons). Anhydrous ammonia is widely used in industrial ...

*Design for the Environment

Class II substances consist of 33 different hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). The EPA has already begun plans to decrease ... This regulation aims to decrease emission of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other chemicals that are destroying the ...

*Foaming agent

Carbon dioxide, pentane, and chlorofluorocarbons are examples of the former. Blowing agents that produce gas via chemical ...

*North Atlantic Deep Water

"Tracing the flow of North Atlantic Deep Water using chlorofluorocarbons." Journal of Geophysical Research 105.C6 (2000):14297- ... and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). CFCs are anthropogenic substances that enter the surface of the ocean from gas exchange with ...

*PhostrEx

Halons are chlorofluorocarbons which cause damage to the ozone layer. It is being phased out for environmentally friendlier ...

*Epistemic community (international relations)

Epistemic communities brought attention to chlorofluorocarbons and their polluting consequences. This realization led to the ...

*Spectroradiometer

McFarland, M and Kaye, J (1992) Chlorofluorocarbons and Ozone. Photochem. Photobiol. 55 (6) 911-929.. ...

*Very short-lived substances

In previous decades, people concluded that most factors that damage ozone are CFCs; chlorofluorocarbons, but currently VSLS are ...

*Dielectric gas

... and chlorofluorocarbons are the most common. The breakdown voltage of gases is roughly proportional to their density. Breakdown ...

*Bromofluorocarbon

BFCs attack the ozone layer even more aggressively than chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Nevertheless, BFCs are still used in some ...

*Atlantic Ocean

"Tracing the flow of North Atlantic Deep Water using chlorofluorocarbons" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 105 ( ...

*Environment of South Korea

South Korea is the second-largest consumer of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons. Onsan illness 박건영 (2006-12-01). "골칫거리된 까치". ...
i) Cost-benefit analysis. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed the costs and benefits of this final rule. According to FDA, the benefits of this rule include environmental and public health improvements from protecting stratospheric ozone by reducing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) emissions. FDA also expect the benefits to include expectations of increased returns on investments in environmentally friendly technology and continued international cooperation to comply with the spirit of the Montreal Protocol, thereby potentially reducing future emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) throughout the world. FDA determined that the costs of the final rule would include increased spending for needed medicines used to treat asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). FDA determined that the social costs of the final rule include the health benefits lost through decreased use of medicines that may result from increased prices. FDA was unable to quantify the economic costs of ...
Paula Lombardi reviews a case where one of Canadas largest fastener distributers pled guilty to contravening the Ozone-Depleting Substances Regulations.
Introduction. Eugine Whint 7/12/2005 Chemistry 5G Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) (also known as Freon) are non-toxic, non-flammable and non-carcinogenic. They contain fluorine atoms, carbon atoms and chlorine atoms. The 5 main CFCs include CFC-11 (trichlorofluoromethane - CFCl3), CFC-12 (dichloro-difluoromethane - CF2Cl2), CFC-113 (trichloro-trifluoroethane - C2F3Cl3), CFC-114 (dichloro-tetrfluoroethane - C2F4Cl2), and CFC-115 (chloropentafluoroethane - C2F5Cl). CFCs are widely used as coolants in refrigeration and air conditioners, as solvents in cleaners, particularly for electronic circuit boards, as a blowing agents in the production of foam (for example fire extinguishers), and as propellants in aerosols. Indeed, much of the modern lifestyle of the second half of the 20th century had been made possible by the use of CFCs. Man-made CFCs however, are the main cause of stratospheric ozone depletion. CFCs have a lifetime in the atmosphere of about 20 to 100 years, and ...
in Liang, Qing; Newman, Paul A; Reimann, Stefan (Eds.) SPARC Report on the Mystery of Carbon Tetrachloride (2016). The Montreal Protocol (MP) controls the production and consumption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or CTC) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) for emissive uses. CCl4 is a major ODS, accounting for ... [more ▼]. The Montreal Protocol (MP) controls the production and consumption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or CTC) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) for emissive uses. CCl4 is a major ODS, accounting for about 12% of the globally averaged inorganic chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere, compared to 14% for CFC-12 in 2012. In spite of the MP controls, there are large ongoing emissions of CCl4 into the atmosphere. Estimates of emissions from various techniques ought to yield similar numbers. However, the recent WMO/UNEP Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion [WMO, 2014] estimated a 2007-2012 CCl4 bottom-up emission of 1-4 Gg/year (1-4 kilotonnes/year), based on ...
Phaseout of the fumigant methyl bromide has been a long process, with several delays and reassignment of target dates. The following overview of the impact of methyl bromide is adapted from the April 2001 issue of the USDA newsletter, Methyl Bromide Alternatives, available on the Internet at www.ars.usda.gov/is/np/mba/mebrhp.htm. To protect the earth from the detrimental effects of ozone depletion, an international treaty, the Montreal Protocol, was developed in the late 1980s. Since then, it has been controlling the production and trade of ozone-depleting substances on a global basis and has been signed by more than 160 nations. The treaty phases out chlorofluorocarbons and other ozone-depleting compounds, including methyl bromide. In 1995, Montreal Protocol signatory countries agreed to freeze production of methyl bromide at 1991 levels for developed countries. Total phaseout for developed countries will occur January 1, 2005, except for quarantine, critical, and emergency exemptions. ...
Phaseout of the fumigant methyl bromide has been a long process, with several delays and reassignment of target dates. The following overview of the impact of methyl bromide is adapted from the April 2001 issue of the USDA newsletter, Methyl Bromide Alternatives, available on the Internet at www.ars.usda.gov/is/np/mba/mebrhp.htm. To protect the earth from the detrimental effects of ozone depletion, an international treaty, the Montreal Protocol, was developed in the late 1980s. Since then, it has been controlling the production and trade of ozone-depleting substances on a global basis and has been signed by more than 160 nations. The treaty phases out chlorofluorocarbons and other ozone-depleting compounds, including methyl bromide. In 1995, Montreal Protocol signatory countries agreed to freeze production of methyl bromide at 1991 levels for developed countries. Total phaseout for developed countries will occur January 1, 2005, except for quarantine, critical, and emergency exemptions. ...
BACKGROUND: Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are used increasingly in industry as substitutes for ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Limited studies in animals indicate potential hepatotoxicity of some of these compounds. We investigated an epidemic of liver disease in nine industrial workers who had had repeated accidental exposure to a mixture of 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC 123) and 1-chloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC 124). All nine exposed workers were affected to various degrees. Both compounds are metabolised in the same way as 1-bromo-1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (halothane) to form reactive trifluoroacetyl halide intermediates, which have been implicated in the hepatotoxicity of halothane. We aimed to test whether HCFCs 123 and 124 can result in serious liver disease. METHODS: For one severely affected worker liver biopsy and immunohistochemical stainings for the presence of trifluoroacetyl protein adducts were done. The serum of six affected workers and five ...
The Montreal Protocol led to a global phase-out of most substances that deplete the ozone layer, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). A happy side-effect of the gradual ban of these products is that Earths climate has also benefited because CFCs are also potent greenhouse gases. However, now a "rebound effect" threatens to accelerate the rate of global warming.. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which have been used in recent years in increasing quantities as substitutes for CFCs, are also climatically very active and many are also extremely long-lived. In the journal Science an international team of researchers recommends that the most potent of these gases also be regulated. This could save the positive "side effect" of the Montreal Protocol for the global climate.. It is regarded as the most successful international environmental agreement and has, to date, been ratified by 196 countries - the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer. As a result, CFCs and ozone "killers" will ...
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Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
Ozone is a very important gas, because stratospheric ozone absorbs most harmful ultraviolet radiation, preventing it from reaching Earths surface. In the 1970s, researchers began to think that human activity could affect the ozone, even though they were focusing on the exhaust from supersonic airplanes and the space shuttle. However, after studying other possible causes for ozone depletion, the international community came to a consensus that certain manmade chemical compounds called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), were largely responsible for the ozone loss. As a result, the Montreal Protocol was adopted in 1987, calling for the worldwide elimination of CFCs and other ozone-destroying substances. So far, the Montreal Protocol has been signed by more than 160 nations. Image: Courtesy of NASA. The Protocol has been updated several times, most recently in 1995. Since knowledge of the ozone depletion problem continues to increase rapidly, the director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) ...
1990-26. Climate change is of key importance. We are committed to undertake common efforts to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide. We strongly support the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and look forward to the release of its full report in August.. 1990-27. We reiterate our support for the negotiation of a framework convention on climate change, under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).. 1990-28. The convention should be completed by 1992.. 1990-29. Work on appropriate implementing protocols should be undertaken as expeditiously as possible and should consider all sources and sinks.. 1990-30. We welcome the amendment of the Montreal Protocol to phase out the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by the year 2000 and to extend coverage of the Protocol to other ozone-depleting substances.. 1990-31. We acknowledge that enhanced levels of cooperation will be necessary with ...
Montréal Protocol Following the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in late 1985, various governments recognized the need for stronger measures to reduce the production and consumption of a number of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
Abstract. The stratospheric degradation of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) releases chlorine, which is a major contributor to the destruction of stratospheric ozone (O3). A recent study reported strong chlorine isotope fractionation during the breakdown of the most abundant CFC (CFC-12, CCl2F2, Laube et al., 2010a), similar to effects seen in nitrous oxide (N2O). Using air archives to obtain a long-term record of chlorine isotope ratios in CFCs could help to identify and quantify their sources and sinks. We analyse the three most abundant CFCs and show that CFC-11 (CCl3F) and CFC-113 (CClF2CCl2F) exhibit significant stratospheric chlorine isotope fractionation, in common with CFC-12. The apparent isotope fractionation (ϵapp) for mid- and high-latitude stratospheric samples are respectively −2.4 (0.5) and −2.3 (0.4) ‰ for CFC-11, −12.2 (1.6) and −6.8 (0.8) ‰ for CFC-12 and −3.5 (1.5) and −3.3 (1.2) ‰ for CFC-113, where the number in parentheses is the numerical value of ...
Chlorofluorocarbons have been banned since 1996 because they destroy the ozone layer. From the U.S. National Library of Medicine. [ ]
Chlorofluorocarbons are a family of halocarbons that contain only carbon, chlorine & fluorine. Used in blowing plastics & fridges. CFCs destroy the ozone layer
This improved version of the Trends Analysis is based on an interactive Flash module using a map-based interface, and it provides more precise year-wise data to the user. Based on official data reported by Governments to the Ozone Secretariat under Article 7 of the Montreal Protocol, the module presents country-wise analyses for the main substances controlled under the Protocol, i.e. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride (CTC), methyl chloroform (MCF). The graphics can be exported by the user for use in publications and presentations. The graphs include some or all of the following lines or data points: Consumption level: This appears for all countries. Production level: This appears only if the country is or was a producer of the specific ODS. Montreal Protocol reduction targets: The respective freeze or reduction target dates are included on the graph for reference.. Note that for HCFCs, since Article 5 countries have not yet ...
The stratospheric ozone layer is Earths "sunscreen" - protecting living things from too much ultraviolet radiation. The emission of ozone depleting substances has been damaging the ozone layer. But through domestic and international action, the ozone layer is healing and should fully recover by about 2065. This website addresses stratospheric ozone issues, including the science of ozone depletion, EPAs regulatory approach to protecting the ozone layer, EPA-approved alternatives to ozone-depleting substances, and sun safety.. ...
Ive just arrived in Bangkok, where negotiators from around the world will convene next week for the mid-year meeting of the Montreal Protocol, the worlds most successful environmental treaty. There they will look for common ground on whether use this treaty to tackle some of the most potent heat-trapping pollutants, the "super greenhouse gases" known as hydrofluorcarbons, or HFCs. To recap, the phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-destroying chemicals under the Montreal Protocol has brought huge climate side-benefits because these chemicals are also powerful heat-trapping pollutants. Scientists tell us that phasing out CFCs worldwide delivered a climate protection bonus equivalent to 11 billion tons of CO2 reductions in 2010 alone - more than five times the carbon reductions of the Kyoto Protocol. Another way to look at it: The CFC phase-out bought us a 10-year delay on warming. Imagine what this roaring-hot, extreme-weather summer would have been like with all that extra ...
SAGE III on ISS is the fourth generation of a series of NASA Earth-observing instruments, known as the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. The first SAGE III instrument was launched on the Russian Meteor (satellite) spacecraft. The recently revised SAGE III will be mounted to the International Space Station where it will use the unique vantage point of ISS to make long-term measurements of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, and other gases in Earths atmosphere. The first SAGE instrument was launched February 18, 1979, to collect data on the various gases in the atmosphere, including ozone. The data collected on SAGE I and the following instrument SAGE II, which began taking measurements in October 1984, were critical to the discovery of the Earths ozone hole and the creation of 1987 Montreal Protocol, which banned ozone-depleting substances, such as chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). SAGE III on ISS is a nearly exact replica of SAGE III Meteor-3M, sent into orbit in 2001 on a Russian satellite. SAGE ...
Main page of Environment Canadas website. Environment Canada works to preserve and enhance the quality of the natural environment; conserve Canadas renewable resources; conserve and protect Canadas water resources; carry out meteorology and provide weather forecasts; enforce rules relating to boundary waters; and, coordinate environmental policies and programs for the federal government.
Information on the environment for those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, and also the general public
NASA scientists say theres been a 20 percent reduction in ozone depletion over the Antarctic compared to 12 years ago. Theyre crediting a worldwide effort started in the 1980s to ban production of ozone-depleting chemicals.
Since the start of the Montreal Protocol, the use of CFCs for Metered dose inhalers (MDIs) for the treatment of respiratory illnesses, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has dropped from a 1997 peak of around 10,000 tonnes to about 300 tonnes in 2013.. According to IPAC (International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium), 2015 will be the final year of essential use exemptions for metered dose inhalers (MDIs).. MDIs were CFC based, but the Montreal Protocol Parties decided to leave them outside the CFC ban decisions and place them under the regime of Essential Use Exemptions CFCs have been replaced by HFCs (95 per cent HFC-134a, 5 per cent HFC-227ea) in new MDIs formulations. For an approximate 630 million HFC based MDIs manufactured annually worldwide, 9,400 tonnes HFCs were used in 2014.. By moving from CFC MDIs to HFC MDIs, besides the suppression of their action on the ozone layer, their climate impact has dropped by 90 %.. Alternatives to HFC based MDIs do exist ...
In 1985, the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer was adopted and opened for signature. It entered into force on 22 Sep 1988 and established that secretariat functions would be carried out by the United Nations Environment Programme. Control of ozone-depleting substances was needed because ecological and health damage results from a depleted ozone layer due to more UV-B radiation reaching the Earths surface. Results include increased rates of skin cancers and eye cataracts, reduced plant and fishing yields from adverse effects on terrestrial and ocean ecosystems, weakened immune systems, and more damage to plastics. The subsequent Montreal Protocol established specific limits to production «[Image: the largest ozone hole ever recorded, Sep 2000, exposed all the Antarctic and reached the southern tip of Argentina.] ...
The atmosphere surrounding the earth is made up of several layers. These layers protect the earth and its inhabitants. The troposphere is the layer that we breathe. It goes about as high as the top of Mount Everest. The next atmospheric layer...
An Occupational Safety & Health Administration investigation into n-Propyl Bromide -- a chemical used as an adhesive and a solvent -- and recent publicity surrounding a furniture workers claim of illness due to nPB exposure may lead to heightened scrutiny of businesses and increased regulatory oversight of nPB and related chemicals.. Increased Use of nPB. In the mid-1980s, the United States and other countries moved to reduce and/or eliminate a number of chlorofluorocarbons and other chemicals that could damage the stratospheric ozone layer. In the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act, Congress established timetables for phasing out ozone-depleting substances (ODS) but also encouraged the use of alternative processes and product substitutes. 42 U.S.C. §7671c-e. In 1994, the EPA also established the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP), whereby companies could petition the Environmental Protection Agency for the inclusion of certain chemicals as safer ODS alternatives. 42 U.S.C. ...
I have asthma and I normally used albuterol its generic and cheap and now they are taking them off the market because they destroy the ozone.So now they are switching to HFA Inhalers I got my first one and just let me say they are useless.The meds. do spray out good you have to pratically hold it down your thoat to get any in your lungs I think i end up eating most of it lol. I was wondering if anyone else is having problems with these HFA inhalers?They have me on proventil which is basically suppose to be albuterol, It just is not workig for me I use to be able to take one puff of albuterol but find myself taking a few puffs of proventil and it still feels like iam suffocating it feels like it doesnt work at all.Is there anything else i can switch to.This sucks I get to suffocate but aleast our ozone is not getting depleted,I do care about the enviroment but what are we suppose to do here?
The TOMS images of the Antarctic ozone hole caused worldwide alarm and thus played a key role in the Montreal Protocol and other international agreements to phase out the offending chemicals from our environment," said Goddards Pawan Bhartia, project scientist for the mission. In addition, measurements from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment, along with the Microwave Limb Sounder and the Halogen Occultation Experiment aboard the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite, were important to scientists understanding of ozone ...
The Montreal Protocol in 1987 was one of those rare times in human history where we saw a problem and came together to implement a global solution. The problem was CFCs from aerosols and refrigerants that were chewing through atmospheric ozone. The Montreal Protocol was an agreement to phase-out the use of CFCs, and was recently lauded as a success by a NASA study using statellite data that showed the ozone hole over Antarctica recovering. ...
Significant reductions in stratospheric ozone occur inside the polar vortices each spring when chlorine radicals produced by heterogeneous reactions on cold particle surfaces in winter destroy ozone mainly in two catalytic cycles, the ClO dimer cycle and the ClO/BrO cycle. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are responsible for most of the chlorine currently present in the stratosphere, have been banned by the Montreal Protocol and its amendments, and the ozone layer is predicted to recover to 1980 levels within the next few decades. During the same period, however, climate change is expected to alter the temperature, circulation patterns and chemical composition in the stratosphere, and possible geo-engineering ventures to mitigate climate change may lead to additional changes. To realistically predict the response of the ozone layer to such influences requires the correct representation of all relevant processes. The European project RECONCILE has comprehensively addressed remaining questions in ...
The Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) is the nodal agency in the administrative structure of the Central Government for the planning, promotion, co-ordination and overseeing the implementation of Indias environmental and forestry policies and programmes.
Perhaps the single most successful international environmental agreement to date has been the Montreal Protocol Kofi Annan. Using atmospheric observations, we have monitored international progress on phasing out ozone depleting substances such as CFCs for over 30 years.. The Medusa Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry instrument, co-developed by the ACRG, provides high-precision measurements of more than 40 ozone depleting substances and other related gases. Using models, we have used these data to track how emissions of these substances continue to change in response to the Montreal Protocol.. Follow the links to the right for further information on individual projects involving the ACRG.. ...
International Relations theory (IR) involves the development of theoretical frameworks and theories to assist and make easy the comprehensio...
Find the blue Begin button to the right to start. Text of petition: The FDA, in compliance with the Montreal Protocol, has banned the use of life-saving CFC propellant albuterol asthma rescue inhalers in order to help restore the ozone layer, even though it has been widely acknowledged that these CFC inhaler emissions are too trivial to harm the ozone layer: Leslie Hendeles, University of Florida Professor of Pharmacy and Pediatrics, has noted that CFC inhalers release negligible amounts of the propellant and DO NOT POSE A THREAT TO OZONE DEPLETION. (LINK 1) The amount of CFCs in inhalers is minute, so BANNING THEM WONT MAKE ANY IMPROVEMENT (in the ozone layer). says Sallie Baliunas, an astrophysicist at Harvard University and the George Marshall Institute (LINK 2) CFC rescue inhalers have proven their safety, effectiveness, and reliability to tens of millions of asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, and other pulmonary patients for almost thirty years. Therefore, before the FDA could ...
HFC 134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) and HFC 227 (1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane) are used to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in refrigerant and aerosol applications, including medical use in metered-dose inhalers. Production and consumption of CFCs are being phased out under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The safety and pharmacokinetics of HFC 134a and HFC 227 were assessed in two separate double-blind studies. Each HFC (hydrofluorocarbon) was administered via whole-body exposure as a vapor to eight (four male and four female) healthy volunteers. Volunteers were exposed, once weekly for 1 h, first to air and then to ascending concentrations of HFC (1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 parts per million (ppm)), interspersed with a second air exposure and two CFC 12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) exposures (1000 and 4000 ppm). Comparison of either HFC 134a or HFC 227 to CFC 12 or air gave no clinically significant results for any of the measured laboratory parameters. ...
Freons (fluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs)) historically have been widely used as aerosol propellants, in refrigeration units, in the manufacture of plastics, in foam blowing, and as degreasing agents. Under provisions of the Montreal Protocol of 1987, the use of CFCs is being phased out to avoid further depletion of stratospheric ozone. Nevertheless, freons remain in older refrigeration
In 1987, many countries signed the Montreal Protocol. This was an international agreement that attempted to ban and/or limit the production of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). CFCs are industrial compounds that damage the ozone layer. They were found in most aerosol sprays and in many of the major asthma
Four new ozone-depleting gases have been detected in the atmosphere, despite a ban of similar compounds under an international treaty.
Industrial chlorofluorocarbons that cause ozone depletion have been phased out under the Montreal Protocol. A chemically-driven increase in polar ozone (or "healing") is expected in response to this historic agreement. Observations and model calculations taken together indicate that the onset of healing of Antarctic ozone loss has now emerged in September. Fingerprints of September healing since 2000 are identified through (i) increases in ozone column amounts, (ii) changes in the vertical profile of ozone concentration, and (iii) decreases in the areal extent of the ozone hole. Along with chemistry, dynamical and temperature changes contribute to the healing, but could represent feedbacks to chemistry. Volcanic eruptions episodically interfere with healing, particularly during 2015 (when a record October ozone hole occurred following the Calbuco eruption ...
One of the most well known class of compounds developed to replace CFCs are HFCs, also known as hydrofluorocarbons. HFCs were originally labeled as non threatening to the environment because they have more hydrogen atoms than CFCs, allowing most of them to break down before reaching the stratospheric ozone layer. Additionally, HFCs do not contain chlorine atoms, so even if some make it to the stratospheric ozone layer, they do not cause the same amount of harm (Empa, 2012). In an article published in Science Daily, Empa writes that by implementing the Montreal Protocol, the equivalent of 10 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide gas was prevented from getting released into the atmosphere (Empa). On the other hand, it can also be argued that HFCs are causing just as many problems as they were intended to solve. While HFCs are friendlier to the ozone layer, they are also harmful greenhouse gasses. For instance, HFCs are 12,000 times more powerful in causing climate change than carbon dioxide (Magill, ...
The stratospheric ozone layer, so important to life on earth, can be depleted by catalytic chemical processes. In recent years, man-made chemicals ha...
Get ready asthma sufferers: inhalers go "green" on Dec. 31. This forces patients that use the old-fashioned type to make a more expensive and even more perplexing change. The medicine that the inhalers use, the albuterol that swiftly unlocks airways in an asthma attack, will not change. However, the chemicals utilized to gust the drug into your lungs is.. There will be no more chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, that hurt Earths ozone layer. At the end of the year, all albuterol inhalers will be filled with the eco-friendly chemical HFA, or hydrofluoroalkane.. The bad news: The new inhalers are about $30 to $60 more than the $5 or $10 for the fading generic CFC inhalers.. Patients also have some learning to do. HFA inhalers are used differently than the old-fashioned ones. The medicines feel and taste unusual, sometimes startling users regardless of doctors guarantee that it is the same as the old.. "Theres still significant confusion," says Dr. Harvey Leo of the University of Michigans C.S. Mott ...
... , QVAR (beclomethasone dipropionate) HFA Inhalation Aerosol is an inhaled steroid for asthma and bronchitis for use in cats and dogs with chronic bronchitis or daily asthma symptoms. Available
WASHINGTON, DC, November 17, 2008 (ENS) - The emissions of ozone-depleting substances should have "a negligible effect on ozone in all regions beyond 2070," as long as governments continue to...
ODS may refer to: an Israeli corporation based in the north of Israel. Files-11 (On-Disk Structure), a DEC filesystem OpenDocument Spreadsheet file format Online dating service Operational data store, an intermediate data warehouse for databases OpenDNSSEC, a security extension of DNS Protocol Optical data storage a technology for storing information Octadecylsilane, also known as C18, a surface coating used in reversed-phase chromatography Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys Ozone-depleting substance, chemicals which contribute to ozone depletion Operation Defensive Shield Operation Desert Storm Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health (ods.od.nih.gov) The Civic Democratic Party (Czech: Občanská demokratická strana) Odessa Airport, an airport in Odessa, Ukraine (IATA code ODS) LOfficiel du jeu Scrabble, the reference dictionary for Scrabble in French-speaking countries One Day School, a gifted education program in New Zealand. Operating Deflection Shape, a method ...
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens. They are a subset of the general class of halocarbons, although the distinction is not often made. Haloalkanes are widely used commercially and, consequently, are known under many chemical and commercial names. They are used as flame retardants, fire extinguishants, refrigerants, propellants, solvents, and pharmaceuticals. Subsequent to the widespread use in commerce, many halocarbons have also been shown to be serious pollutants and toxins. For example, the chlorofluorocarbons have been shown to lead to ozone depletion. Methyl bromide is a controversial fumigant. Only haloalkanes which contain chlorine, bromine, and iodine are a threat to the ozone layer, but fluorinated volatile haloalkanes in theory may have activity as greenhouse gases. Methyl iodide, a naturally occurring substance, however, does not have ozone-depleting properties and the ...
Define CFC. CFC synonyms, CFC pronunciation, CFC translation, English dictionary definition of CFC. abbr. chlorofluorocarbon abbreviation for chlorofluorocarbon chlorofluorocarbon. Abbreviation of chlorofluorocarbon See under fluorocarbon. Noun 1.
Environment ministers of the European Community this week agreed to ban a range of ozone-depleting substances by the end of 1995, two years ahead of schedu
Description: In this USGRP Seminar, speakers answer the following questions: what is the status of the Earths ozone layer? Is the Montreal Protocol working? How much time will be necessary for nature to restore the ozone layer? What are the human health effects of increased ultraviolet radiation associated with depletion of the ozone layer? Who is at risk? ...
Remember the Ozone hole? Decades ago it was a big concern. It was getting bigger and bigger and our emissions of ozone-depleting substances was identified as the main reason. It continues to get smaller as anthropogenic emissions continue to be reduced. It was slightly smaller in 2013 than average in recent decades, according to NASA satellite data. The ozone hole is a seasonal phenomenon that starts to form during the Antarctic spring (August and September). The September-October 2013 average size of the hole was 8.1 million square miles (21 million square kilometers). For comparison, the average size measured since the mid-1990s when the annual maximum size stopped growing is 8.7 million square miles (22.5 million square kilometers). However, the size of the hole in any particular year is not enough information for scientists to determine whether a healing of the hole has begun ...
In accordance with a determination by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) that the direct final rule (``Use of Ozone Depleting Substances) published on October 26, 2016, is excluded from the memorandum of January 20, 2017, from the Assistant to the President and Chief of...
PBC - Coroners and Justice Bill. PBC - Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Bill. EC A - EU Document No. 12832/08 and Addenda 1 to 3 relating to the Control of Ozone-Depleting Substances. 3rd DLC - Social Security (Incapacity Benefit Work-focused Interviews) Regulations 2008 (S.I., 2008, No. 2928). 4th DLC - Draft Child Support (Miscellaneous and Consequential Amendments) Regulations 2009. ...
This investigation compares changes in ozone above the Arctic and the Antarctic. Students use text, tables, diagrams, images and photos to investigate the human-caused effects, the populations most at risk, and the different international perspectives on solutions. To emphasize the effectual differences between the Arctic and Antarctic, groups of students argue positions at a "mock" meeting of a Montreal Protocol committee. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. This is Investigation 2 of three found in the Grades 9-12 Module 3 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the three investigations in Module 3, while related, can be done independently.. ...
Beyond its effects across the standard spectrum of activity, Basamids® effectiveness against soil-borne bacterial plant diseases is a feature that cannot be overlooked. Some of the common bacterial diseases that Basamid® can bring under control are Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Clavibacter michiganense, Corynebacterium fascians, Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas solanacearum and Xanthomonas campestris.. Basamid® provides an excellent alternative means of soil disinfestation in view of the phasing out of methyl bromide according to the provisions of the Montreal protocol for the protection of the stratospheric ozone layer. Depending on the nature of the soil-borne pest or disease problem to be treated, Basamid® can readily be applied in combination with DD® (1,3-dichloropropene) or some other fumigants.. ...
Environmental Chemistry, Eighth Edition builds on the same organizational structure validated in previous editions tosystematically develop the principles, tools, and techniques of environmental chemistry to provide students and professionals with a clear understanding of the science and its applications. Revised and updated since the publication of the best-selling Seventh Edition, this text continues to emphasize the major concepts essential to the practice of environmental science, technology, and chemistry while introducing the newest innovations to the field. The author provides clear explanations to important concepts such as the anthrosphere, industrial ecosystems, geochemistry, aquatic chemistry, and atmospheric chemistry, including the study of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons. The subject of industrial chemistry and energy resources is supported by pertinent topics in recycling and hazardous waste. Several chapters review environmental biochemistry and toxicology, and the final chapters
The U.S. government-mandated switch to CFC-free inhalers is causing problems for millions of people with asthma and other lung diseases, according to The New York Times. CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), used as propellants in the inhalers, damage the Earths ozone layer. As of Jan.
I mean non-organic strawberries here. Strawberry production, as well as some grape, tomato, and other fruit production still uses Methyl Bromide as a pesticide and fungicide. Methyl Bromide (MB) is one of the most damaging chemicals to the ozone layer destroying ozone molecules 50 times faster than other ozone depleting compounds. While outlawed in 1987 as a part of the Montreal Protocol, a loophole called the "critical-use exemption" allows countries to continue to use the chemical if they decide that there is no suitable replacement. That exemption has prompted the Environmental Protection Agency to approve the use of 4,813.5 metric tonnes of the stuff for 2008. As an added benefit, the fruits and vegetables that are often produced using consistently rank at the top of the "most contaminated" list each year. See the "foodnews" link below for more information.. Drink Your Water. You should know this one already. The government suggests that you drink eight glasses of water per day, but why not ...
By integrating our knowledge about chemistry over the polar regions, which we get from aircraft-based in situ measurements, with the global pictures of ozone and other atmospheric molecules, which we get from research satellites, NASA can improve the models that scientists use to forecast the future evolution of ozone amounts and how they will respond to the decreasing atmospheric levels of halocarbons, resulting from the implementation of the Montreal Protocol," Kurylo added.. These results were acquired during a joint U.S.-European science mission, the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment/Third European Stratospheric Experiment on Ozone 2000. The mission was conducted in Kiruna, Sweden, from November 1999 to March 2000.. During the campaign, scientists used computer models for stratospheric meteorology and chemistry to direct the ER-2 aircraft to the regions of the atmosphere where chlorine peroxide was expected to be present. The flexibility of the ...
WETLANDS MAY BE HAZARDOUS TO YOUR HEALTH. They are breeding grounds for disease-carrying mosquitoes. But they also present a problem for the Montreal Protocol and the folks that are trying so hard to ban the production and use of methyl bromide, the most effective fungicide used in agriculture and for the protection of stored grain. MeBr is supposed to destroy ozone in the stratosphere - so the theory says. According to the latest researches, as reported in Nature (Jan 20), MeBr is copiously produced by plants in salt marshes, in tropical coastal ecosystems, and even in the breakdown of organic matter in soil.. FROGS AGAIN. And talking of swamps, not long ago, Oregon State University ecologist Prof Andrew Blaustein was blaming the disappearance of amphibians on --of all things-ozone depletion and increased levels of UV. When faced with the fact that there was no observed increasing UV trend, he retreated to a fungus. Now the evidence is strong that parasitic worms produce strange deformities of ...
Report (2011). We live in an era in which human activities are causing significant changes to the atmospheric environment which result in local to global consequences on the ecosystems. Changes in the atmospheric ... [more ▼]. We live in an era in which human activities are causing significant changes to the atmospheric environment which result in local to global consequences on the ecosystems. Changes in the atmospheric composition impact our climate via chemical and dynamical feedback mechanisms; in many instances they also affect air quality, and the health of the biosphere. Monitoring and understanding those changes and their consequences is fundamental to establish adequate actions for adaptation to and mitigation of the environmental changes. Furthermore, after implementation of regulatory measures like the Montreal Protocol, it is necessary to verify whether the measures are effective. This can only be achieved if we have adequate detection methods and a reliable long record of a series ...
Cameron Davis, right, began working on behalf of the Great Lakes more than 20 years ago as a volunteer for the Alliance for the Great Lakes. Today he heads the Alliance as its President and CEO. Under his leadership, the Alliance won the American Bar Associations Distinguished Award for Environmental Law & Policy, making it the first citizens nonprofit to ever receive such recognition. Prior to leading the Alliance for the Great Lakes, he spent time as an adjunct clinical assistant professor of law at the University of Michigan Law School. He was also part of the United Nations Environment Programme in Nairobi, Kenya, where he assisted efforts on the Montreal protocol, and served in the EPAs Office of Regional Counsel in Chicago ...
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It also cause discomfort to animals fur. How Humans Effect the Environment Humans have affected the environment in many different ways. One of them is because of industry consistently polluting the Ozone layer, damaging its structure and letting more radiation affect to us. Another problem is we use too much aerosols. Chlorofluorocarbons in these aerosols damage the ozone layer. We also depend on fossil fuels too much to accomplish our basic needs. Cite: http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/globalwarmA4.html Weather Global warming makes weather patterns hotter. It can cause stronger hurricanes and heavier rainfall. Global warming can cause heat waves and increases the temperature between 4 and 11 degrees Fahrenheit every century. Floods, worse allergies, and droughts will also happen more often because of global warming. Global warming will cause climate change over time. Ethics,Politics, and Economics There are many issues when it comes to global warming. There are economic issues such as ...
MODEL RELEASED. Eight year old boy using an inhaler to treat an asthma attack. Asthma causes breathing difficulties due to the contraction of the airways in the lungs. The pump dispenses 100 micrograms of the bronchodilator drug salbutamol (salbutamol sulphate BP) per dose to giving rapid relief from wheezing and breathlessness. This pump uses a non-CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) propellant. - Stock Image C033/6253
Lets set the record straight. The depletion of the atmospheric ozone layer and the climate change often referred to as "global warming" are separate, largely unrelated processes. I remember a comedian maybe 10 years ago making (or should I say attempting) a joke about about discharging aerosol cans during especially cold winter days to hasten the anthropogenic effect on worldwide temperature increases. Far be it from me to step on a punchline, but there are a couple things wrong with that. First, the loss of ozone catalyzed by the chlorine atoms from chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), the propellants once used in spray cans, does not accelerate the Earths greenhouse effect; its the enormous amounts of carbon dioxide gas (and, less directly, methane) we introduce into the environment that pulls off that trick. In fact, man-made ozone can actually act as a greenhouse gas itself when present in the troposphere, the lowest level of our atmosphere, although its impact in that regard is much, much ...
In a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, active- and placebo-controlled study, 565 adult patients with asthma were evaluated for the bronchodilator efficacy of a non-CFC (norflurane) salbutamol pressurised inhaler (193 patients) in comparison to a CFC salbutamol pressurised inhaler (186 patients). Serial FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume) measurements demonstrated that two inhalations of a non-CFC (norflurane) salbutamol pressurised inhaler produced significantly greater improvement in pulmonary function than placebo and produced outcomes which were clinically comparable to a CFC salbutamol pressurised inhaler. The mean time to onset of a 15% increase in FEV1 was 6 minutes and the mean time to peak effect was 50 minutes. The mean duration of effect as measured by a 15% increase in FEV1 was 3 hours. No statistically significant or clinical meaningful differences were seen in the safety parameters, including the overall adverse event rates, heart rate, blood pressure, serum potassium or ...
The EPA has banned over-the-counter asthma inhalers as part of an agreement with other nations to avoid using chlorofluorocarbons, a substance once used in aerosol sprays. Alternative albuterol inhalers cost almost three times as much as the $20 epinephrine inhalers sold by online retailers....
This story struck me as a little over the top when I first heard about it. Actually I thought this particular medicine had already been pulled years ago due to related deaths using the product. Primatene mist along with a few others will be phased out because the propellent used in the products contain CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) which are bad for the environment. Read More. ...
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Cases of skin cancer would quadruple by 2100 if ozone-depleting chemicals called CFCs were not restricted, according to European scientists. Even with current agreements to reduce production of
Complete the following table, then respond to the questions that follow: Issue Sources Health/Environmental Effects Carbon dioxide (CO2) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Ground-level ozone (O3) Sulfuric acid.
Back in the days of big ol lacquered hair, aka the 1980s, the United States led the charge on saving the ozone, responding to damage caused in part by the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) found in hairspray and other aerosols, as well as refrigerants.
That agreement was a success, but a misleading one in the context of climate. It led, Mr. Benedick now says, to "years wasted in these annual shindigs designed to generate sound bites instead of sober contemplation of difficult issues.". While it was relatively easy to phase out ozone-harming chemicals, called chlorofluorocarbons, which were made by a handful of companies in a few countries, taking on carbon dioxide, the main climate threat, was a completely different matter, he said.. Carbon dioxide is generated by activities as varied as surfing the Web, driving a car, burning wood or flying to Montreal. Its production is woven into the fabric of an industrial society, and, for now, economic growth is inconceivable without it.. Developing countries -- China and India being only the most dramatic examples -- want to burn whatever energy they need, in whatever form available, to grow their economies and raise the living standard of their people.. And the United States -- by far the worlds ...
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In the modern world, humans are responsible for many of the toxic chemicals that are now being dispersed into the environment. In some cases, human actions cause toxic damage by emitting large quantities of chemicals that also occur naturally, such as sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons, and metals. Release of these chemicals as the result of human activities only increases the severity of problems that may already exist because of the natural presence of these chemicals. Humans, however, also produce and release to the environment large quantities of chemicals that do not occur naturally. These synthetic (made in a lab) chemicals include thousands of different pesticides, medicines, and various kinds of industrial chemicals, all of them occurring in complex mixtures of various forms. Many of these chemicals affect humans and other organisms directly, as is the case with many pesticides. In other cases, toxicity occurs indirectly. An example is the class of compounds known as the chlorofluorocarbons ...
Environmental and medical surveys were conducted on December 12 and 13, 1977, and February 22 to 24, 1978, to evaluate employee exposure to chlorofluorocarbons at Allied Chemical Corporation (SIC-2869) in Danville, Illinois. The evaluation was requested by an authorized representative of the International Chemical Workers Union, Local 617, on behalf of the approximately 45 affected employees. Seve
Well, thats all well and good, and of course we can all agree that the government should make all of our decisions (major and minor) for us. But Im confused as to why this new proposal is so narrow in scope. Even though I accept that trans fats are the single greatest threat to human kind since chlorofluorocarbons, Im not sure they can be blamed for all of our ill health. There are all sorts of lifestyle choices that we know are good for us, and yet so many people are not making them. If Mayor Miller really cares for the people of this city he will take their health into his hands immediately. I propose that the following should become law within the city of Toronto ...
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A little nit picking. CFC molecules dont deplete ozone. Chlorofluorocarbon is very stable. Only if it breaks down and frees a Cl atom (not molecule) does that chlorine atom act as a catalyst. Therein lies the problem. Where does the energy come from to break down CFCs? Turns out UV energy isnt enough to break them down at the rate required. A recent theory suggests that cosmic rays are involved. Perhaps its both. Perhaps there is an additional culprit thats being overlooked ...
Article Pollution abatement for improving air quality of Tangshan municipality, China: a perspective of urban-airshed carrying-capacity concept. This paper presents a perspective of Urban-Airshed Carrying-Capacity (UACC) concept for air pollution aba...
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PI: Wade H. Jeffrey. One of the most challenging questions in environmental biology is how human-accelerated changes in multiple environmental variables are influencing natural communities and ecosystems. One of the more pervasive of these changes is the increase in ultraviolet radiation (UV) related to stratospheric ozone depletion. In aquatic ecosystems, changes in chromophoric (color-absorbing) dissolved organic matter (CDOM) related to changes in climate, land use, and hydrology, are also of key importance in regulating changes in the exposure of aquatic organisms to UV. Complex environmental gradients in temperature and UV combine with concerns about future trends toward increasing regional and global UV and temperature to argue for the need to understand the interactive effects of temperature and UV in natural ecosystems. The fact that DNA is the primary target for UV damage argues for the need for studies of UV effects to be integrated across levels of biological organization from the ...
So the polar shift is "caused by a combination" of GHGs which cause polar shift, and fewer ozone-depleting chemicals which counteract the shift. Despite the counteraction, the actual change is ten times what the models predict. Real clear message there.. "Weve noticed a lot of farmers in Victoria comment that autumn breaks, or autumn rainfall, is something that in the last 20 years have become much less predictable," he said. "Theres no resistance to that message because its sort of matching their observations.". Cockies whinge about unpredictable rain. Now that really is news, never heard of that happening before. As a result, they dont resist the message that models predict less rain, despite the fact that the models are out by a factor of 10. Oh, and despite the fact that…rainfall has now been higher than average three years running!. ...
The European Commission has upheld a complete EU ban from the end of this year on the ozone-depleting chemical halon in ship fire fighting systems. Several member states had requested a three-year extension to the end of 2006. Halon production was banned in all industrialised countries in 1994. Filling of existing halon fire protection systems also became illegal in the EU on 1 January. Meanwhile, the Commission has announced an agreement with the USA, Japan and China for joint research on transport emissions and vehicle testing. See press releases on halon and traffic pollution.
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In middle-income countries, new production of CFC MDIs has now been completely phased out. In the majority of low-income countries too, manufacturers have made rapid progress, with conversion to HFC MDI and DPI manufacturing plants. This has ensured that locally made and affordable inhalers are available for poorer patients worldwide. Some countries, such as India and Iran, completed their CFC-MDI phase out ahead of schedule. In 2012, three further countries (Argentina, Bangladesh and Pakistan) announced that they would not request CFCs. This leaves China and Russia, who together will likely receive an allocation of ∼600 tonnes of CFCs in 2012. This is less than 5% of the volume requested in the first year of essential use allocations for MDIs in 1997. Russia will complete its MDI plant conversion next year and will not request CFCs in 2013.. China will be the last producer of CFC MDIs, but is making significant progress, with a plan to phase out by 2016 and maybe sooner. China has 23 domestic ...
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THE DEPLETION of Earths protective layer of ozone by man-made chlorofluorocarbon compounds may be further along than realized, a NASA- coordinated study by scientists of 11 nations says. The
People with asthma who've been relying on cheap, over-the-counter inhalers to get a soothing blast will have to look elsewhere for relief beginning in
Others. At the beginning, the report covers the top Hydrochlorofluorocarbons manufacturing industry players from regions like United States, EU, Japan, and China. It also characterizes the market based on topographical regions.. Further, the Hydrochlorofluorocarbons report gives information on the company profile, market share and contact details along with value chain analysis of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons industry, Hydrochlorofluorocarbons industry rules and policies, circumstances driving the growth of the market and compulsion blocking the growth. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons Market development scope and various business strategies are also mentioned in this report.. To Buy Complete Report Click Here: http://qyresearch.us/report/global-hydrochlorofluorocarbonshcfcs-market-2017. The Hydrochlorofluorocarbons research report includes the products that are currently in demand and available in the market along with their cost breakup, manufacturing volume, import/export scheme and contribution to the ...
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Following the publication of the findings of a British Antarctic Survey article in May 1985, the phenomenon of ozone depletion over Antarctica was referred to as the ozone hole, a phrase first attributed to Nobel Prize winner Sherwood Rowland. The satellite image of the Ozone Hole has become a global symbol of this environmental threat that has helped mobilize public support for the Montreal Protocol. The work of atmospheric scientists and environmental researchers continues to play a paramount role in informing the policymaking under the Montreal Protocol. Images and scientific bulletins about ozone depletion are useful communication tools to the public about progress made and challenges ahead. Information about this topic. ...
I would like to share with you some impressions from a remarkable event taking place today and tomorrow in Potsdam: 15 Nobel laureates are meeting with top climate and energy experts and politicians to discuss global sustainability. You can follow the event with its presentations here, with a couple of hours of delay.. After opening remarks by PIK director John Schellnhuber, the IPCC chairman Rajendra Pachauri presented an overview over the main findings of the latest IPCC report. Nobel laureate Mario Molina drew interesting parallels of the current situation with the ozone hole issue and the Montreal Protocol to protect the ozone layer, that came into force in 1986. "The scientific findings are clear: climate is changing, and it is a response to human activities," Molina said. He also noted that the Montreal Protocol, as a side effect, has bought us about 10 years time in the climate issue, because the now banned CFCs also have a greenhouse effect in addition to damaging the ozone ...
The websites railing against HFA inhalers are full of comments that basically tell the same story. My inhaler doesnt work anymore. My daughter changed to an HFA inhaler and she died of an asthma attack a few months later. I changed to an HFA inhaler and now I have a huge long list of health problems I didnt have before. The government and the FDA are ripping us off and lying about the safety and efficacy of HFA inhalers. Heres a list of doctors that dont believe the HFA inhalers work as well. The American Lung Association is full of shit. Etc. I actually got into an "argument" of sorts with a coworker over this one day--not someone that works in the pharmacy. He was convinced that albuterol had been taken off the market completely and that you simply couldnt get it anymore, and when I informed him otherwise he seemed incredulous--but I didnt get an opportunity to talk to him about it further ...
The websites railing against HFA inhalers are full of comments that basically tell the same story. My inhaler doesnt work anymore. My daughter changed to an HFA inhaler and she died of an asthma attack a few months later. I changed to an HFA inhaler and now I have a huge long list of health problems I didnt have before. The government and the FDA are ripping us off and lying about the safety and efficacy of HFA inhalers. Heres a list of doctors that dont believe the HFA inhalers work as well. The American Lung Association is full of shit. Etc. I actually got into an "argument" of sorts with a coworker over this one day--not someone that works in the pharmacy. He was convinced that albuterol had been taken off the market completely and that you simply couldnt get it anymore, and when I informed him otherwise he seemed incredulous--but I didnt get an opportunity to talk to him about it further ...
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Increased UV-B through stratospheric ozone depletion leads to an increased chemical activity in the lower atmosphere (the troposphere). The effect of stratospheric ozone depletion on tropospheric ozone is small (though significant) compared to the ozone generated anthropogenically in areas already experiencing air pollution. Modeling and experimental studies suggest that the impacts of stratospheric ozone depletion on tropospheric ozone are different at different altitudes and for different chemical regimes. As a result the increase in ozone due to stratospheric ozone depletion may be greater in polluted regions. Attributable effects on concentrations are expected only in regions where local emissions make minor contributions. The vertical distribution of NOx (NO + NO2), the emission of volatile organic compounds and the abundance of water vapor, are important influencing factors. The long-term nature of stratospheric ozone depletion means that even a small increase in tropospheric ozone ...
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: People who have lung conditions like asthma or COPD often take their medications using a handheld device called a metered-dose inhaler or MDI. A metered-dose inhaler sprays medicine through your mouth so that it can reach your airways. If youre inhaler is not used the right way, some medicine may not enter your mouth or some may remain in the back of your mouth, either way it may not reach your airways where it is needed. This video will show you the general steps for using an inhaler correctly. Its important to follow the instructions that came with your metered-dose inhaler. A metered-dose inhaler has three main parts, the mouthpiece cover, the plastic sleeve with the mouthpiece, and the medicine container. Before using your metered-dose inhaler, remove the mouthpiece cap and shake the inhaler. If this is the first time you are using your inhaler or if you havent used it in a while, you may need to prime it. Check the instructions for how and when to do this with
Since the early 1970s, the National Cancer Institute, in collaboration with other federal and nonfederal sources, has conducted special epidemiologic surveys of nonmelanoma skin cancer and monitored ground level UV-B measurements at various geographic locations within the United States.. These studies responded to the need for basic data to be used in measuring the extent of certain human health effects that may result from stratospheric ozone depletion.. We focus on solar ultraviolet radiation in the range of 280 to 320 nanometers, called mid-UV or UV-B (see Figure 1). Under experimental conditions, UV-B has been shown to produce skin erythema (sunburn) in man and skin cancer in animals, and it is effective in altering DNA. Cumulative exposure to UV-B is also believed to be partially responsible for the "aging" process of the skin in humans. Except for preventing vitamin D deficiency rickets, which is now confined to populations with inadequate nutrition, UV-B is basically considered ...
Salbutamol metered-dose inhaler with spacer for hyperkalemia: how fast? How safe?: Salbutamol inhalation of 1,200 microg, using an MDI-S, has a relatively rapid
CFC-113 was one of the many CFCs that were produced to eliminate toxic and flammable substances in the areas that they were used. It has been used as a cooling agent in refrigerants and air conditioners, aerosol propellant, and a cleansing agent for electrical and electronic components.[7] CFC-113 is one of the three most popular CFCs, along with CFC-11 and CFC-12 and saw much use in its time. CFC-113 is a refrigerant used in cooling systems. When it is in a gas form and compressed, it heats up, when it is expanded, it cools.[8] CFC-113 also is a very volatile and apolar molecule so it was used as a foaming agent in the production of packaging material, insulation, foams for cushioning, and things like shoe soles. CFC-113 has such a low flammability and low toxicity that it was also used as a cleaner for delicate electrical equipment, fabrics, and even metals. It would not harm the product it was cleaning, ignite with a spark or react with other chemicals.[2] CFC-113 in laboratory analytics has ...
The pulmonary drug delivery systems market has split into three major segments: metered dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs) and nebulizers. An MDI is a device that delivers a measured amount of medication to the lungs in the form of a mist. A DPI is a device that delivers a measured amount of medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder. A nebulizer is a device that delivers a measured amount of medication to the lungs in the form of a fine spray. All of these devices are made up of micro sized components. You can see an example of a dry powder inhaler on our Micro Molding/Projects page.. ...
First, we simply cannot mix the air in the troposphere and the stratosphere. The troposphere is the layer of the atmosphere at the earths surface. The troposphere contains 75% of all the air found in our atmosphere and 99% of the water vapor. The air in the troposphere is in constant motion, with both horizontal and vertical air currents. The combination of vigorous air movement and water vapor creates weather. The troposphere is capped by a thin layer known as the tropopause, which is a region of stable temperature that helps to confine most weather phenomena and "bad" ozone to the troposphere. The stratosphere is the second layer in the atmosphere from the earths surface. The lower part of the stratosphere contains the ozone layer. The ozone layer prevents harmful ultraviolet radiation from reaching the earths surface by absorbing the rays, causing the ozone layer and the air above it to warm. The warm air tends to remain in the upper stratosphere, and cool air remains lower. The layering ...
article{4fd55fb7-7b86-4444-bb0c-163aac43869b, abstract = {Two studies are presented, with the aim of establishing the dose potency ratio for salbutamol given via Turbuhaler and via a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI). Both studies were of a double-blind, randomized design. Outpatients with mild-to-moderate chronic reversible airway obstruction were given single doses of salbutamol administered via Turbuhaler and via pMDI. Efficacy and safety variables were measured before and during 6 h after each dose. The first study was a four-way crossover study including 12 patients. The salbutamol doses given were: 50, 100 and 2x100 microg via Turbuhaler and 2x100 microg via pMDI (Ventolin). The study showed that 2x100 microg of salbutamol inhaled via Turbuhaler is more potent than 2x100 microg salbutamol inhaled via a pMDI, and that 100 microg salbutamol via Turbuhaler is at least as potent as 2x100 microg salbutamol inhaled via a pMDI. The second study including 50 patients was a placebo-controlled ...

Chlorofluorocarbons - FactbitesChlorofluorocarbons - Factbites

PRODUCT MATRIX - Chlorofluorocarbons (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07). Chlorofluorocarbons are highly volatile ... FDA Consumer: Chlorofluorocarbons and the incredible shrinking ozone. Chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, have been at the center of ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) are haloalkanes with both chlorine and fluorine. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) were developed by the ... Chlorofluorocarbons, fully halogenated (EHC 113, 1990). Throughout this monograph, percentages of chlorofluorocarbons in air ...
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chlorofluorocarbons facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chlorofluorocarbonschlorofluorocarbons facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chlorofluorocarbons

Make research projects and school reports about chlorofluorocarbons easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... Chlorofluorocarbons Encyclopedia of Public Health COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS. Chlorofluorocarbons ... Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). A chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound typically consisting of chlorine, fluorine, carbon ... chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Chemical compound in which hydrogen atoms of a hydrocarbon, such as an alkane, are replaced by atoms ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/chemistry/compounds-and-elements/chlorofluorocarbons

Chlorofluorocarbon - WikipediaChlorofluorocarbon - Wikipedia

... chlorofluorocarbon-11 and chlorofluorocarbon-12 in seawater". Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. 55 (8): ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formulae CClmF4−m and C2ClmF6−m, ... Hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formula CClmFnH4−m−n and ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are anthropogenic compounds that have been released into the atmosphere since the 1930s in various ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorofluorocarbon

Chlorofluorocarbons
     Summary Report | CureHunterChlorofluorocarbons Summary Report | CureHunter

Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, ... Chlorofluorocarbons. Subscribe to New Research on Chlorofluorocarbons A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and ... 06/01/1995 - "Metered dose inhalers for the treatment of asthma use chlorofluorocarbons as propellants. ". 12/01/1998 - "The ... 09/01/2005 - "This expansion has been driven by the Montreal protocol and the need to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD017402-Chlorofluorocarbons.do

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) | Blausen MedicalChlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) | Blausen Medical

Among the most important of these are chlorofluorocarbons, or freons, for example, Freon 12. Chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, are ...
more infohttps://blausen.com/en/video/chlorofluorocarbons-cfcs/

CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons) facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons)CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons) facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons)

Make research projects and school reports about CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons) easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons). Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), once described as "miracle chemicals," cause the breakdown of the ozone ... CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons) Pollution A to Z COPYRIGHT 2004 The Gale Group Inc. ... "CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons)." Pollution A to Z. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Feb. 2018 ,http://www.encyclopedia.com,. ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/chemistry/organic-chemistry/cfcs-chlorofluorocarbons

Chlorofluorocarbons in the environment : the aerosol controversy (Book, 1980) [WorldCat.org]Chlorofluorocarbons in the environment : the aerosol controversy (Book, 1980) [WorldCat.org]

Chlorofluorocarbons in the environment : the aerosol controversy. [T M Sugden; T F West; Society of Chemical Industry (Great ... Chlorofluorocarbons in the environment : the aerosol controversy. Author:. T M Sugden; T F West; Society of Chemical Industry ( ... schema:name "Chlorofluorocarbons in the environment : the aerosol controversy"@en ;. schema:productID "7737942" ;. schema: ... Chlorofluorocarbons in the environment.. Chichester, Eng. : Ellis Horwood for the Society of Chemical Industry ; New York : ...
more infohttps://www.worldcat.org/title/chlorofluorocarbons-in-the-environment-the-aerosol-controversy/oclc/7737942

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - GCSE Science - Marked by Teachers.comChlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - GCSE Science - Marked by Teachers.com

Eugine Whint 7/12/2005 Chemistry 5G Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) (also known as Freon) are non-toxic, ...
more infohttp://www.markedbyteachers.com/gcse/science/chlorofluorocarbons-cfcs.html

Drug Treatments for Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease that Do Not Use ChlorofluorocarbonsDrug Treatments for Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease that Do Not Use Chlorofluorocarbons

... * Share ... Many inhalers that do not use chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) are already available for the treatment of asthma and chronic ...
more infohttps://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/InformationbyDrugClass/ucm082370.htm

6632908 9 Endangered Ecosystem | Chlorofluorocarbon | Greenhouse Effect6632908 9 Endangered Ecosystem | Chlorofluorocarbon | Greenhouse Effect

Main cause - chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). CFC man made gases used as. refrigerant (substance that make things. cold or freeze) and ... chlorofluorocarbon, nitrogen oxides and,. methane. The layer of gases trap the Suns heat. around the world. Greenhouse effect ...
more infohttps://pt.scribd.com/presentation/270137145/6632908-9-Endangered-Ecosystem

DK0588897T3 -   Aerosol formulations which are substantially free of chlorofluorocarbons   - Google PatentsDK0588897T3 - Aerosol formulations which are substantially free of chlorofluorocarbons - Google Patents

Non-chlorofluorocarbon aerosol formulations DE69231991D1 (en) * 1991-06-10. 2001-09-13. Schering Corp. Chlorofluorocarbons ... Non-chlorofluorocarbon aerosol formulations US5314682A (en) * 1992-09-21. 1994-05-24. Great Lakes Chemical Corp.. Ozone ... Chlorofluorocarbon-free mometasone furoate aerosol formulations US6068832A (en) * 1996-08-29. 2000-05-30. Schering Corporation ... Chlorofluorocarbon-free mometasone furoate aerosol formulations US6039932A (en) * 1996-09-27. 2000-03-21. 3M Innovative ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/DK0588897T3/en

CDC - NIOSH Publications and Products - Preventing Death from Excessive Exposure to Chlorofluorocarbon 113 (CFC-113) (89-109)CDC - NIOSH Publications and Products - Preventing Death from Excessive Exposure to Chlorofluorocarbon 113 (CFC-113) (89-109)

WARNING! Working with chlorofluorocarbon 113 (CFC-113) or other chlorofluorocarbons in confined spaces may cause death by ... EPA [1983]. Health assessment document for 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2- trifluoromethane (chlorofluorocarbon CFC-113), final report. ... Preventing Death from Excessive Exposure to Chlorofluorocarbon 113(CFC-113). ... Fluorocarbons are halogenated hydrocarbons; fluorocarbons that contain chlorine are called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). These ...
more infohttp://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/89-109/default.html

Tox Town - Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - Toxic chemicals and environmental health risks where you live and work - Text VersionTox Town - Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - Toxic chemicals and environmental health risks where you live and work - Text Version

p>Chlorofluorocarbons have been banned since 1996 because they destroy the ozone layer. From the U.S. National Library of ... What are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)?. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are a group of manufactured chemical compounds that contain ... Chlorofluorocarbons have been banned since 1996 because they destroy the ozone layer. ... Chlorofluorocarbons. Haz-Map (National Library of Medicine) How to Keep Your Cool and Protect the Ozone Layer (Environmental ...
more infohttps://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/chemicals.php?id=9

On January 23, 1978, Sweden became the first country to ban the use of aerosol sprays which use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as...On January 23, 1978, Sweden became the first country to ban the use of aerosol sprays which use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as...

Sweden became the first country to ban the use of aerosol sprays which use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as their propellants. ...
more infohttps://www.pinterest.com/pin/167970261086330614/?showsignup=1

Age dating of shallow groundwater with chlorofluorocarbons, tritium/helium: 3, and flow path analysis, southern New Jersey...Age dating of shallow groundwater with chlorofluorocarbons, tritium/helium: 3, and flow path analysis, southern New Jersey...

... chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and tritium/helium 3 (3H/3He)) and groundwater flow path analysis is useful for investigating ... Groundwater age dating through the combination of transient tracer methods (chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and tritium/helium 3 (3H ... Age dating of shallow groundwater with chlorofluorocarbons, tritium/helium: 3, and flow path analysis, southern New Jersey ... Age dating of shallow groundwater with chlorofluorocarbons, tritium/helium: 3, and flow path analysis, southern New Jersey ...
more infohttps://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018666

ACP - Abstract - Chlorine isotope composition in chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 in firn, stratospheric and...ACP - Abstract - Chlorine isotope composition in chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 in firn, stratospheric and...

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are man-made compounds which act to destroy this barrier. This paper presents (1) the first ... Chlorine isotope composition in chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 in firn, stratospheric and tropospheric air S. J ... Abstract. The stratospheric degradation of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) releases chlorine, which is a major contributor to the ... Chlorine isotope composition in chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 in firn, stratospheric and tropospheric air, ...
more infohttps://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/15/6867/2015/

Toxic Chemistry: Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), Health & EnvironmentToxic Chemistry: Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), Health & Environment

Chlorofluorocarbons are a family of halocarbons that contain only carbon, chlorine & fluorine. Used in blowing plastics & ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC). What are Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)?. Chlorofluorocarbons are a family of halocarbons that contain ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formulae CClmF4-m and C2ClmF6-m, ... Notoriously chlorofluorocarbons were also widely used as aerosol propellants, cleansing agents for electrical and electronic ...
more infohttp://dev.greenspec.co.uk/building-design/chlorofluorocarbons-cfcs-insulation-blowing-agent-ozone-depletion/

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC113), nutrients, dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity and other measurements...Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC113), nutrients, dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity and other measurements...

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC113), nutrients, dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity and other measurements ... title: Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC113), nutrients, dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity and other measurements ... 2019). Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC113), nutrients, dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity and other measurements ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC113), nutrients, dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity and other measurements ...
more infohttps://data.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/iso?id=gov.noaa.nodc:0186205

BRIEF CERAFLOUR 1000 EN.pdf | Chlorofluorocarbon | EtherBRIEF CERAFLOUR 1000 EN.pdf | Chlorofluorocarbon | Ether

... chlorofluorocarbons) HCFCS (hydrogenated chlorofluorocarbons) Halons Methyl bromide HBFCs (hydrobromofluorocarbons) ...
more infohttps://de.scribd.com/document/324642681/BRIEF-CERAFLOUR-1000-EN-pdf

Chlorofluorocarbon Alternative Solvent Expert for Consulting, Expert WitnessChlorofluorocarbon Alternative Solvent Expert for Consulting, Expert Witness

Experts available for chlorofluorocarbon alternative solvent consulting, expert witness, or analyst services for business, ... Definition: Chlorofluorocarbon Alternative Solvent - A non-chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-based solvent used to replace a CFC solvent ... Chlorofluorocarbon Alternative Solvent Experts. The following experts are available as chlorofluorocarbon alternative solvent ... Expert in CFC Alternatives, Electronics; Circuit Board; Circuit Board Solvents; Chlorofluorocarbon. Expert was responsible for ...
more infohttp://www1.orcexperts.com/experts.asp?strSearchType=all&strQuery=chlorofluorocarbon+alternative+solvent

Indian Patents. 193848:A PROCESS FOR THE GAS-PHASE HYDROGENOLYSIS OF CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS OR OF CHLOROFLUOROHYDROCARBONSIndian Patents. 193848:A PROCESS FOR THE GAS-PHASE HYDROGENOLYSIS OF CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS OR OF CHLOROFLUOROHYDROCARBONS

According to the invention there is provided a process for the gas-phase hydrogenolysis of chlorofluorocarbons or of ... 1. A process for the gas-phase hydrogenolysis of chlorofluorocarbons or of chlorofluorohydrocarbons in the presence of a ... The present invention relates to a process for the gas-phase hydrogenolysis chlorofluorocarbons or of chlorofluorohydrocarbons. ... ABSTRACT PROCESS FOR THE HYDROGENOLYSIS OF CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS AND OF CHLOROFLUOROHYDROCARBONS The invention relates to the gas ...
more infohttp://www.allindianpatents.com/patents/193848-a-process-for-the-gas-phase-hydrogenolysis-of-chlorofluorocarbons-or-of-chlorofluorohydrocarbons

Epidemic of liver disease caused by hydrochlorofluorocarbons used as ozone-sparing substitutes of chlorofluorocarbons.

 | DIAL...Epidemic of liver disease caused by hydrochlorofluorocarbons used as ozone-sparing substitutes of chlorofluorocarbons. | DIAL...

Biological Markers - analysis ; Biopsy ; Chlorofluorocarbons - adverse effects ; Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane - adverse effects ... Epidemic of liver disease caused by hydrochlorofluorocarbons used as ozone-sparing substitutes of chlorofluorocarbons.. In: ... Epidemic of liver disease caused by hydrochlorofluorocarbons used as ozone-sparing substitutes of chlorofluorocarbons. Primary ... Home» Epidemic of liver disease caused by hydrochlorofluorocarbons used as ozone-sparing substitutes of chlorofluorocarbons. ...
more infohttps://dial.uclouvain.be/pr/boreal/object/boreal:24251

A Review on Refrigerants, And Effects on Global Warming For Making Green Environment | Chlorofluorocarbon | Liquefied Petroleum...A Review on Refrigerants, And Effects on Global Warming For Making Green Environment | Chlorofluorocarbon | Liquefied Petroleum...

This review report eventually set grounds for the phase out of chlorofluorocarbons and hydro chlorofluorocarbons (through ... In first phase, this review report thoroughly study chlorofluorocarbons and hydro chlorofluorocarbons (through Montreal ... the family of chemicals that included chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydro fluorocarbons (HCFCs) became the most dominant types ...
more infohttps://de.scribd.com/document/261434050/A-Review-on-Refrigerants-And-Effects-on-Global-Warming-For-Making-Green-Environment
  • Among the most important of these are chlorofluorocarbons, or freons, for example, Freon 12. (blausen.com)
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) were developed by the American engineer Thomas Midgley in 1928 as a replacement for ammonia (NH chloromethane (CH Cl), and sulfur dioxide (SO), toxic but in common use at the time as refrigerants . (factbites.com)
  • Of the 682 million kilograms of chlorofluorocarbons consumed globally during 1991, the DuPont Corporation estimates the use for various applications as follows: 32 percent for refrigerants , 28 percent for blowing agents, 20 percent for cleaning agents, and 18 percent for propellants. (factbites.com)
  • ABSTRACT PROCESS FOR THE HYDROGENOLYSIS OF CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS AND OF CHLOROFLUOROHYDROCARBONS The invention relates to the gas-phase hydrogenolysis of chlorofluorocarbons or of chlorofluorohydrocarbons in the presence of a palladixim based catalyst deposited on a support. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The present invention relates to a process for the gas-phase hydrogenolysis chlorofluorocarbons or of chlorofluorohydrocarbons. (allindianpatents.com)
  • According to the invention there is provided a process for the gas-phase hydrogenolysis of chlorofluorocarbons or of chlorofluorohydrocarbons in the presence of a palladium-based catalyst on a support, wherein sulphur is incorporated into the catalyst. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Illustrative is the synthesis of chlorodifluoromethane from chloroform: HCCl3 + 2 HF → HCF2Cl + 2 HCl The brominated derivatives are generated by free-radical reactions of the chlorofluorocarbons, replacing C-H bonds with C-Br bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The brominated derivatives are generated by free-radical reactions of the chlorofluorocarbons, replacing C-H bonds with C-Br bonds. (greenspec.co.uk)
  • Chlorofluorocarbon effects and regulations: hearing before the Subcommittee on the Upper Atmosphere of the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, United States Senate, Ninety-fourth Congress, second session, December 15, 1976. (factbites.com)
  • In combination with effects predicted to occur as a result of increased combustion of fossil fuels, continued release of chlorofluorocarbons at current levels could also contribute to a potentially dangerous warming of the earth's atmosphere, altering climate and possible even partially melting the polar icecaps. (factbites.com)
  • Chlorofluorocarbons were chosen for their safety and for their advantageous chemical properties. (factbites.com)