A genus of green nonsulfur bacteria in the family Chloroflexaceae. They are photosynthetic, thermophilic, filamentous gliding bacteria found in hot springs.
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
An order of photosynthetic bacteria representing a physiological community of predominantly aquatic bacteria.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Molecules that contain multiple active sites which are used to catalyze more than one enzymatic reaction. Proteins in this class generally contain multiple active sites within a single peptide chain and may also contain more than one enzymatically active subunit. They are distinguished from MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES in that their subunits are not found as distinct enzymes.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
Phylum of green nonsulfur bacteria including the family Chloroflexaceae, among others.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
The CHEMICAL PROCESSES that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism and related temporal, spatial, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.
Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.
A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.
An order of CRENARCHAEOTA consisting of aerobic or facultatively aerobic, chemolithotrophic cocci which are extreme thermoacidophiles. They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
An mRNA metabolic process that distinguishes a normal STOP CODON from a premature stop codon (NONSENSE CODON) and facilitates rapid degradation of aberrant mRNAs containing premature stop codons.
An amino acid-specifying codon that has been converted to a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR) by mutation. Its occurance is abnormal causing premature termination of protein translation and results in production of truncated and non-functional proteins. A nonsense mutation is one that converts an amino acid-specific codon to a stop codon.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Common name for many members of the FALCONIFORMES order, family Accipitridae, generally smaller than EAGLES, and containing short, rounded wings and a long tail.
A layer of acellular matrix that lies beneath the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM and above the CORNEAL STROMA. It consists of randomly arranged COLLAGEN fibers in a condensed bed of intercellular substance. It provides stability and strength to the cornea.
A genus of gram-negative, chemoorganotrophic bacteria in the family CYTOPHAGACEAE. In some species there is a cyclic change in cell morphology.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.

Arsenite oxidase, an ancient bioenergetic enzyme. (1/30)

Operons coding for the enzyme arsenite oxidase have been detected in the genomes from Archaea and Bacteria by Blast searches using the amino acid sequences of the respective enzyme characterized in two different beta-proteobacteria as templates. Sequence analyses show that in all these species, arsenite oxidase is transported over the cytoplasmic membrane via the tat system and most probably remains membrane attached by an N-terminal transmembrane helix of the Rieske subunit. The biochemical and biophysical data obtained for arsenite oxidase in the green filamentous bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus allow a structural model of the enzyme's membrane association to be proposed. Phylogenies for the two constituent subunits (i.e., the molybdopterin-containing and the Rieske subunit) of the heterodimeric enzyme and their respective homologs in DMSO-reductase, formate dehydrogenase, nitrate reductase, and the Rieske/cytb complexes were calculated from multiple sequence alignments. The obtained phylogenetic trees indicate an early origin of arsenite oxidase before the divergence of Archaea and Bacteria. Evolutionary implications of these phylogenies are discussed.  (+info)

Compound-specific isotopic fractionation patterns suggest different carbon metabolisms among Chloroflexus-like bacteria in hot-spring microbial mats. (2/30)

Stable carbon isotope fractionations between dissolved inorganic carbon and lipid biomarkers suggest photoautotrophy by Chloroflexus-like organisms in sulfidic and nonsulfidic Yellowstone hot springs. Where co-occurring, cyanobacteria appear to cross-feed Chloroflexus-like organisms supporting photoheterotrophy as well, although the relatively small 13C fractionation associated with cyanobacterial sugar biosynthesis may sometimes obscure this process.  (+info)

Exciton theory for supramolecular chlorosomal aggregates: 1. Aggregate size dependence of the linear spectra. (3/30)

The interior of chlorosomes of green bacteria forms an unusual antenna system organized without proteins. The steady-spectra (absorption, circular dichroism, and linear dichroism) have been modeled using the Frenkel Hamiltonian for the large tubular aggregates of bacteriochlorophylls with geometries corresponding to those proposed for Chloroflexus aurantiacus and Chlorobium tepidum chlorosomes. For the Cf. aurantiacus aggregates we apply a structure used previously (V. I. Prokhorenko., D. B. Steensgaard, and A. R. Holzwarth, Biophys: J. 2000, 79:2105-2120), whereas for the Cb. tepidum aggregates a new extended model of double-tube aggregates, based on recently published solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance studies (B.-J. van Rossum, B. Y. van Duhl, D. B. Steensgaard, T. S. Balaban, A. R. Holzwarth, K. Schaffner, and H. J. M. de Groot, Biochemistry 2001, 40:1587-1595), is developed. We find that the circular dichroism spectra depend strongly on the aggregate length for both types of chlorosomes. Their shape changes from "type-II" (negative at short wavelengths to positive at long wavelengths) to the "mixed-type" (negative-positive-negative) in the nomenclature proposed in K. Griebenow, A. R. Holzwarth, F. van Mourik, and R. van Grondelle, Biochim: Biophys. Acta 1991, 1058:194-202, for an aggregate length of 30-40 bacteriochlorophyll molecules per stack. This "size effect" on the circular dichroism spectra is caused by appearance of macroscopic chirality due to circular distribution of the transition dipole moment of the monomers. We visualize these distributions, and also the corresponding Frenkel excitons, using a novel presentation technique. The observed size effects provide a key to explain many previously puzzling and seemingly contradictory experimental data in the literature on the circular and linear dichroism spectra of seemingly identical types of chlorosomes.  (+info)

A cambialistic superoxide dismutase in the thermophilic photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus. (4/30)

Superoxide dismutase from the thermophilic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus was cloned, purified, and characterized. This protein is in the manganese- and iron-containing family of superoxide dismutases and is able to use both manganese and iron catalytically. This appears to be the only soluble superoxide dismutase in C. aurantiacus. Iron and manganese cofactors were identified by using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and were quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy. By metal enrichment of growth media and by performing metal fidelity studies, the enzyme was found to be most efficient with manganese incorporated, yet up to 30% of the activity was retained with iron. Assimilation of iron or manganese ions into superoxide dismutase was also found to be affected by the growth conditions. This enzyme was also found to be remarkably thermostable and was resistant to H2O2 at concentrations up to 80 mM. Reactive oxygen defense mechanisms have not been previously characterized in the organisms belonging to the phylum Chloroflexi. These systems are of interest in C. aurantiacus since this bacterium lives in a hyperoxic environment and is subject to high UV radiation fluxes.  (+info)

PentaPlot: a software tool for the illustration of genome mosaicism. (5/30)

BACKGROUND: Dekapentagonal maps depict the phylogenetic relationships of five genomes in a visually appealing diagram and can be viewed as an alternative to a single evolutionary consensus tree. In particular, the generated maps focus attention on those gene families that significantly deviate from the consensus or plurality phylogeny. PentaPlot is a software tool that computes such dekapentagonal maps given an appropriate probability support matrix. RESULTS: The visualization with dekapentagonal maps critically depends on the optimal layout of unrooted tree topologies representing different evolutionary relationships among five organisms along the vertices of the dekapentagon. This is a difficult optimization problem given the large number of possible layouts. At its core our tool utilizes a genetic algorithm with demes and a local search strategy to search for the optimal layout. The hybrid genetic algorithm performs satisfactorily even in those cases where the chosen genomes are so divergent that little phylogenetic information has survived in the individual gene families. CONCLUSION: PentaPlot is being made publicly available as an open source project at http://pentaplot.sourceforge.net.  (+info)

Properties of succinyl-coenzyme A:L-malate coenzyme A transferase and its role in the autotrophic 3-hydroxypropionate cycle of Chloroflexus aurantiacus. (6/30)

The 3-hydroxypropionate cycle has been proposed to operate as the autotrophic CO2 fixation pathway in the phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus. In this pathway, acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and two bicarbonate molecules are converted to malate. Acetyl-CoA is regenerated from malyl-CoA by L-malyl-CoA lyase. The enzyme forming malyl-CoA, succinyl-CoA:L-malate coenzyme A transferase, was purified. Based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of its two subunits, the corresponding genes were identified on a gene cluster which also contains the gene for L-malyl-CoA lyase, the subsequent enzyme in the pathway. Both enzymes were severalfold up-regulated under autotrophic conditions, which is in line with their proposed function in CO2 fixation. The two CoA transferase genes were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme was purified and studied. Succinyl-CoA:L-malate CoA transferase forms a large (alphabeta)n complex consisting of 46- and 44-kDa subunits and catalyzes the reversible reaction succinyl-CoA + L-malate --> succinate + L-malyl-CoA. It is specific for succinyl-CoA as the CoA donor but accepts L-citramalate instead of L-malate as the CoA acceptor; the corresponding d-stereoisomers are not accepted. The enzyme is a member of the class III of the CoA transferase family. The demonstration of the missing CoA transferase closes the last gap in the proposed 3-hydroxypropionate cycle.  (+info)

Functional differences between galactolipids and glucolipids revealed in photosynthesis of higher plants. (7/30)

Galactolipids represent the most abundant lipid class in thylakoid membranes, where oxygenic photosynthesis is performed. The identification of galactolipids at specific sites within photosynthetic complexes by x-ray crystallography implies specific roles for galactolipids during photosynthetic electron transport. The preference for galactose and not for the more abundant sugar glucose in thylakoid lipids and their specific roles in photosynthesis are not understood. Introduction of a bacterial glucosyltransferase from Chloroflexus aurantiacus into the galactolipid-deficient dgd1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in the accumulation of a glucose-containing lipid in the thylakoids. At the same time, the growth defect of the dgd1 mutant was complemented. However, the degree of trimerization of light-harvesting complex II and the photosynthetic quantum yield of transformed dgd1 plants were only partially restored. These results indicate that specific interactions of the galactolipid head group with photosynthetic protein complexes might explain the preference for galactose in thylakoid lipids of higher plants. Therefore, galactose in thylakoid lipids can be exchanged with glucose without severe effects on growth, but the presence of galactose is crucial to maintain maximal photosynthetic efficiency.  (+info)

Properties of succinyl-coenzyme A:D-citramalate coenzyme A transferase and its role in the autotrophic 3-hydroxypropionate cycle of Chloroflexus aurantiacus. (8/30)

The phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus uses the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle for autotrophic CO(2) fixation. This cycle starts with acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and produces glyoxylate. Glyoxylate is an unconventional cell carbon precursor that needs special enzymes for assimilation. Glyoxylate is combined with propionyl-CoA to beta-methylmalyl-CoA, which is converted to citramalate. Cell extracts catalyzed the succinyl-CoA-dependent conversion of citramalate to acetyl-CoA and pyruvate, the central cell carbon precursor. This reaction is due to the combined action of enzymes that were upregulated during autotrophic growth, a coenzyme A transferase with the use of succinyl-CoA as the CoA donor and a lyase cleaving citramalyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA and pyruvate. Genomic analysis identified a gene coding for a putative coenzyme A transferase. The gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to code for succinyl-CoA:d-citramalate coenzyme A transferase. This enzyme, which catalyzes the reaction d-citramalate + succinyl-CoA --> d-citramalyl-CoA + succinate, was purified and studied. It belongs to class III of the coenzyme A transferase enzyme family, with an aspartate residue in the active site. The homodimeric enzyme composed of 44-kDa subunits was specific for succinyl-CoA as a CoA donor but also accepted d-malate and itaconate instead of d-citramalate. The CoA transferase gene is part of a cluster of genes which are cotranscribed, including the gene for d-citramalyl-CoA lyase. It is proposed that the CoA transferase and the lyase catalyze the last two steps in the glyoxylate assimilation route.  (+info)

Chloroflexus aurantiacus is a photosynthetic bacterium isolated from hot springs, belonging to the green non-sulfur bacteria. This organism is thermophilic and can grow at temperatures from 35 °C to 70 °C. Chloroflexus aurantiacus can survive in the dark if oxygen is available. When grown in the dark, Chloroflexus aurantiacus has a dark orange color. When grown in sunlight it is dark green. The individual bacteria tend to form filamentous colonies enclosed in sheaths, which are known as trichomes. As a genus, Chloroflexus spp. are filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic (FAP) organisms that utilize type II photosynthetic reaction centers containing bacteriochlorophyll a similar to the purple bacteria, and light-harvesting chlorosomes containing bacteriochlorophyll c similar to green sulfur bacteria of the Chlorobi. Like other members of its phylum (cf. Chloroflexi), the species stains Gram negative, yet has a single lipid layer (monoderm), but with thin peptidoglycan, which is compensated for by ...
Summary: Four strains of the thermophilic phototrophic green bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus were tested for nitrogenase activity under a variety of nutritional conditions consistent with nitrogenase derepression in anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. Although all strains of C. aurantiacus could grow with various amino acids as sole nitrogen sources, no growth on N2 was observed; acetylene reduction was undetectable in cells grown under any nutritional conditions. The inability of Chloroflexus to fix N2 is discussed in connection with its thermophilic character.
Chloroflexus aurantiacus ATCC ® 29366D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Chloroflexus aurantiacus strain J-10-fl TypeStrain=True Application:
Primary photochemistry in the facultatively aerobic green photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus: Photochemical activity was examined in membrane fra
Shop L-malyl-CoA/beta-methylmalyl-CoA lyase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and L-malyl-CoA/beta-methylmalyl-CoA lyase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
6RHF: A thermostable flavin-based fluorescent protein from Chloroflexus aggregans: a framework for ultra-high resolution structural studies.
Photosynthetic organisms have evolved diverse antennas to harvest light of various qualities and intensities. Anoxygenic phototrophs can have bacteriochlorophyll Qy antenna absorption bands ranging from about 700-1100 nm. This broad range of usable wavelengths has allowed many organisms to thrive in unique environments. Roseiflexus castenholzii is a niche-adapted, filamentous anoxygenic phototroph: FAP) that lacks chlorosomes, the dominant antenna found in all green bacteria. Light-harvesting is realized only in the membrane with BChl a and a variety of carotenoids. Through biochemical and spectroscopic methods, a model for the size and organization of the photosynthetic antenna is presented. Despite the wide distribution of antennas, photochemistry occurs in the reaction center: RC), which can be separated into two groups distinguishable by the identity of the terminal electron acceptor. These are the Fe-S type or type-I and the quinone-type or type -II RCs. All known anoxygenic phototrophs have
en] alpha-Amylases are present in all kingdoms of the living world. Despite strong conservation of the tertiary structure, only a few amino acids are conserved in interkingdom comparisons. Animal alpha-amylases are characterized by several typical motifs and biochemical properties. A few cases of such alpha-amylases have been previously reported in some eubacterial species. We screened the bacterial genomes available in the sequence databases for new occurrences of animal-like alpha-amylases. Three novel cases were found, which belong to unrelated bacterial phyla: Chloroflexus aurantiacus, Microbulbifer degradans, and Thermobifida fusca. All the animal-like alpha-amylases in Bacteria probably result from repeated horizontal gene transfer from animals. The M. degradans genome also contains bacterial-type and plant-type alpha-amylases in addition to the animal-type one. Thus, this species exhibits alpha-amylases of animal, plant, and bacterial origins. Moreover, the similarities in the extra ...
DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a highly conserved biological pathway that plays a key role in maintaining genomic stability. MMR corrects DNA mismatches generated during DNA replication, thereby preventing mutations from becoming permanent in dividing cells. MMR also suppresses homologous recombination and was recently shown to play a role in DNA damage signaling. Defects in MMR are associated with genome-wide instability, predisposition to certain types of cancer including HNPCC, resistance to certain chemotherapeutic agents, and abnormalities in meiosis and sterility in mammalian systems. The Escherichia coli MMR pathway has been extensively studied and is well characterized. In E. coli, the mismatch-activated MutS-MutL-ATP complex licenses MutH to incise the nearest unmethylated GATC sequence. UvrD and an exonuclease generate a gap. This gap is filled by pol III and DNA ligase. The GATC sites are then methylated by Dam. Several human MMR proteins have been identified based on their homology to ...
Lactarius aurantiacus Lactarius mitissimus Lactarius aurantiofulvus oranssirousku brandriska Orange milkcap enyhe tejelőgomba aranys rga tejelőgomba narancssz nű tejelőgomba oranž riisikas Milder Milchling Orangebrauner Milchling oranje melkzwam Orangebrauner Milchling Orange M lkehat mleczaj delikatny branngul riske Švelnusis piengrybis mleczaj pomarańczowy ...
Why do you persist in spelling it bi-lingualism, when the correct spelling is bilingualism? Do you also write bi-cycle, bi-sexual, and bi-fid? Most people, when as clearly obsessed with a subject as you are with bilingualism, make the effort to learn how to spell it. Is this an attempt to show us the money would have been better spent in tutoring you? Parizeau, incidentally, was a provincial politician. He doesnt enter into a discussion of federal policy, although if Manning, Day or Harper had the command of the English language he does, they, like he did, might have overcome the stench of their innate bigotry at least long enough to hold office for a while before being forced out in disgrace.. ...
Why do you persist in spelling it bi-lingualism, when the correct spelling is bilingualism? Do you also write bi-cycle, bi-sexual, and bi-fid? Most people, when as clearly obsessed with a subject as you are with bilingualism, make the effort to learn how to spell it. Is this an attempt to show us the money would have been better spent in tutoring you? Parizeau, incidentally, was a provincial politician. He doesnt enter into a discussion of federal policy, although if Manning, Day or Harper had the command of the English language he does, they, like he did, might have overcome the stench of their innate bigotry at least long enough to hold office for a while before being forced out in disgrace.. ...
Where, they are often digging through the sediment trying to find goodies to eat, such as this clam. But really whatever they find, they will swallow and devour. Note that Astropecten and its relatives LACK an eversible stomach (that you might see in other starfish). So they literally can ONLY swallow their prey.. This image is fr. A. aurantiacus in the N. Atlantic somewhere ...
id:9706,bid:32581,uid:0,title:Good time,username:BabyBlueDad,rating:4,pros:dog loved his visit,cons:got muddy while we were there,description:We visited a couple times, the dog loved it. Lots of new friends to meet.,date_added:1236578502,date_modified:null,is_external:1,external_site_name:zootoo,external_site_url:null,external_user_profile:null,status:1},{id:9705,bid:32581,uid:0,title:Good,username:ajswanny,rating:5,pros:Good,cons:None,description:Love it. There are two seperate enclosures, and the people that you see there are always very friendly.,date_added:1235513829,date_modified:null,is_external:1,external_site_name:zootoo,external_site_url:null,external_user_profile:null,status:1},{id:9704,bid:32581,uid:0,title:Enjoyable dog park!,username:Daneroo,rating:4,pros:Split for small or large dogs.,cons:Sometimes muddy.,description:My dog always ...
Investors are rewarding Bluebird Bio for wracking up accolades with its experimental gene therapies for serious genetic diseases. The Cambridge, MA-based b
To search for genetic clues to carbon and energy metabolism in Crenarchaeota, the researchers extracted C. symbiosum DNA from its host sponge and constructed a DNA library for sequencing the symbiont s genome. Hallam et al. then searched for representative genes linked to pathways associated with autotrophic carbon assimilation. They found many components of two pathways: the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (citric acid) pathway (TCA). Both cycles involve a multistep series of chemical reactions that convert inorganic compounds in this case, carbon dioxide into organic carbon molecules. Though some components of the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle were missing in C. symbiosum, enough elements (including core proteins) were found to support a modified version of this pathway for carbon assimilation, using carbon dioxide ...
Role of the middle residue in the triple tryptophan electron transfer chain of DNA photolyase: Ultrafast spectroscopy of a Trp --> Phe mutant
The structure, composed of a monolayer of glycolipids with embedded proteins, that encloses the pigments and other contents of the chlorosome. [PMID:14507718, PMID:14729689, PMID:17303128]
This Forum contains Member Profiles. These members have achieved Hall of Fan Status (5000 posts) and as such have demonstrated their commitment to the CFL and 13thman.com. Hall of Fan Members will of course receive respect and admiration from your peers and have the opportunity to place your profile here ...
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Recommended standards for the description of new species of the anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are proposed in accordance with Recommendation 30b of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. These standards include information on the natural habitat, ecology and phenotypic properties including morphology, physiology and pigments and on genetic information and nucleic acid data. The recommended standards were supported by the Subcommittee on the taxonomy of phototrophic bacteria of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. They are considered as guidelines for authors to prepare descriptions of new species.
From genomic libraries of purple sulphur bacteria, fragments were cloned that encoded for proteins involved in the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoic acids), PHA. A 12.5- and a 15.0- plus a 15.6-kbp
Mould, B., 1994. A world list of rays. The scientific nomenclature and distribution of the recent Batoidea (Batoidea, Elasmobranchii, Chondrichthyes). University of Nottingham, [UK]. 82 p. (Ref. 8630 ...
I am a professor of economics at Santa Clara University. I like to write; hence this blog. Views expressed are mine and mine alone. Thanks for visiting. (Photo above: Mimulus aurantiacus, one of our lovely California native monkeyflowers ...
I am a professor of economics at Santa Clara University. I like to write; hence this blog. Views expressed are mine and mine alone. Thanks for visiting. (Photo above: Mimulus aurantiacus, one of our lovely California native monkeyflowers ...
Studies on the Constituents of Osmanthus Species. I. On the Components of the Leaves of Osmanthus fragrans LOUR. var. aurantiacus MAKINO (1) (1984 ...
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The aerial surface of plants, the phyllosphere, is colonized by numerous bacteria displaying diverse metabolic properties that enable their survival in this specific habitat. Recently, we reported on the presence of microbial rhodopsin harbouring bacteria on the top of leaf surfaces. Here, we report on the presence of additional bacterial populations capable of harvesting light as a means of supplementing their metabolic requirements. An analysis of six phyllosphere metagenomes revealed the presence of a diverse community of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, including the previously reported methylobacteria, as well as other known and unknown phototrophs. The presence of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria was also confirmed in situ by infrared epifluorescence microscopy. The microscopic enumeration correlated with estimates based on metagenomic analyses, confirming both the presence and high abundance of these microorganisms in the phyllosphere. Our data suggest that the phyllosphere contains a ...
2-Oxocarboxylic acids, also called 2-oxo acids and alpha-keto acids, are the most elementary set of metabolites that includes pyruvate (2-oxopropanoate), 2-oxobutanoate, oxaloacetate (2-oxosuccinate) and 2-oxoglutarate. This diagram illustrates the architecture of chain extension and modification reaction modules for 2-oxocarboxylic acids. The chain extension module RM001 is a tricarboxylic pathway where acetyl-CoA derived carbon is used to extend the chain length by one. The chain modification modules RM002 (including RM032) and RM033, together with a reductive amination step (RC00006 or RC00036), generate basic and branched-chain amino acids, respectively. The modification module RM030 is used in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, a class of plant secondary metabolites, for conversion to oxime followed by addition of thio-glucose moiety. Furthermore, the chain extension from 2-oxoadipate to 2-oxosuberate is followed by coenzyme B biosynthesis in methonogenic archaea ...
Green photosynthetic bacteria adjust the structure and functionality of the chlorosome - the light absorbing antenna complex - in response to environmental stress factors. The chlorosome is a natural self-assembled aggregate of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. In this study we report the regulation of the biogenesis of the Chlorobaculum tepidum chlorosome by carbon assimilation in conjunction with temperature changes. Our studies indicate that the carbon source and thermal stress culture of Cba. tepidum grows slower and incorporates less BChl c in the chlorosome. Compared with the chlorosome from other cultural conditions we investigated, the chlorosome from the carbon source and thermal stress culture displays: (a) smaller cross-sectional radius and overall size; (b) simplified BChl c homologues with smaller side chains; (c) blue-shifted Qy absorption maxima and (d) a sigmoid-shaped circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Using a theoretical model we analyze how the observed spectral ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Although ovarian cancer implants can be targeted using an avidin-3 rhodamineX complex, there are several reasons to consider alternative complexes. GmSA-20ROX is substantially less immunogenic compared with avidin, and GmSA has been used as the basis for a technetium-99m-labeled radiopharmaceutical to assess hepatic reserve in humans. Additionally, GmSA-20ROX binds target cells more rapidly and more efficiently than avidin due to its multivalency (7, 16). Because GmSA synthesis involves the conjugation of 23 d-galactosamines reacted with carboxyl groups rather than amino groups on an albumin molecule (7), there are multiple binding sites for the d-galactose receptor and the molecule has a favorably high isoelectric point (7, 16). Moreover, activation via dequenching of the rhodamineX after cellular internalization provides a generalizable platform for targeted fluorescent probes by exchanging the targeting moiety (5). We used the d-galactose receptor as a target in this study because it is ...
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This methylase recognizes the double-stranded sequence GRCGYC, causes specific methylation on C-? on both strands, and protects the DNA from cleavage by the HgiDI endonuclease.
This paper deals with mechanical fault monitoring in induction machines from stator current measurements. The considered faults lead to amplitude and/or phase modulations of the measured stator current. The different faults can be characterized by their time-frequency signatures via the Wigner distribution. The time-frequency representations apply to complex signals that may be obtained through the Hilbert transform of the real measured signal. In case of high frequency modulations, it can not be taken advantage of the time frequency signatures. This study proposes an alternative complex signal representation for modulated stator currents. The so-called space vector is obtained through the Concordia transform. From three stator current measurements, the Concordia transform builds a complex vector which conveniently carries the information about phase and amplitude modulations. This paper applies and compares the Wigner distribution computed with the Hilbert and Concordia transforms in case of simulated
TORONTO - Twenty-six years after being released by the Calgary Stampeders, Dwayne (The Rock) Johnson is looking at re-establishing his CFL ties. Both the CFL and XFL revealed Wednesday theyre poised to begin serious discussions about a potential partnership. Neither side would say who initiated talks first, only that theyve agreed to collaborating on ways to grow football. Johnson, an actor and former pro wrestler, is a co-owner of the American-based XFL. Its an exciting moment for us to really start talking about how do we collaborate, CFL commissioner Randy Ambrosie said. Thats a great word and its at the heart of this. Where that leads we dont know, but its going to be exciting. Sometimes we over-use the phrase world class but they are world-class people. In a statement Wednesday, the XFL put its plans to return in the spring of 2022 on hold, pending the outcome of our conversations with the CFL. The timing of the talks is curious, given the CFL has a bigger, more immediate challenge
ALL CFL Semi-Auto Closet Project (FirstGrow) (Flower strain seed) **ENDED ABRUPTLY: SEIZED & DESTROYED BY COPS ** Critical Update Date: May 2, 2010 Early this morning, my living plant, only 2 weeks
Ladies, and gentleman, I would like to present the winner of the Grey Cup, this year... Buffalo! Although the idea of a CFL commissioner making such a statement in the future seems far fetched, ...
Ive updated this post from 2010 to include the correct link and new information! Also, please do not leave your address or account number in the comments below!
Carbon metabolism is the most basic aspect of life. This map presents an overall view of central carbon metabolism, where the number of carbons is shown for each compound denoted by a circle, excluding a cofactor (CoA, CoM, THF, or THMPT) that is replaced by an asterisk. The map contains carbon utilization pathways of glycolysis (map00010), pentose phosphate pathway (map00030), and citrate cycle (map00020), and six known carbon fixation pathways (map00710 and map00720) as well as some pathways of methane metabolism (map00680). The six carbon fixation pathways are: (1) reductive pentose phosphate cycle (Calvin cycle) in plants and cyanobacteria that perform oxygenic photosynthesis, (2) reductive citrate cycle in photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria and some chemolithoautotrophs, (3) 3-hydroxypropionate bi-cycle in photosynthetic green nonsulfur bacteria, two variants of 4-hydroxybutyrate pathways in Crenarchaeota called (4) hydroxypropionate-hydroxybutyrate cycle and (5) ...
Carbon metabolism is the most basic aspect of life. This map presents an overall view of central carbon metabolism, where the number of carbons is shown for each compound denoted by a circle, excluding a cofactor (CoA, CoM, THF, or THMPT) that is replaced by an asterisk. The map contains carbon utilization pathways of glycolysis (map00010), pentose phosphate pathway (map00030), and citrate cycle (map00020), and six known carbon fixation pathways (map00710 and map00720) as well as some pathways of methane metabolism (map00680). The six carbon fixation pathways are: (1) reductive pentose phosphate cycle (Calvin cycle) in plants and cyanobacteria that perform oxygenic photosynthesis, (2) reductive citrate cycle in photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria and some chemolithoautotrophs, (3) 3-hydroxypropionate bi-cycle in photosynthetic green nonsulfur bacteria, two variants of 4-hydroxybutyrate pathways in Crenarchaeota called (4) hydroxypropionate-hydroxybutyrate cycle and (5) ...
The mutations identified thus generic cialis india far in human patients with tooth agenesis also affect these pathways. The principle of the test is a qualitative in-vitro-assay that contains test strips coated with parallel lines of 14 highly purified antigens. Mortality benefit of statin use in traumatic spinal cord injury: a retrospective analysis. Advanced imaging techniques as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are increasingly performed in the diagnostic workup of patients. Pathological findings in patients suffering from transitory ischemic attacks by means of using neuroradiological methods (CCT included) are a rare condition.. Cultivation and genomic, nutritional, and lipid biomarker characterization of Roseiflexus strains closely related to predominant in situ populations inhabiting Yellowstone hot spring microbial mats. The resulting relative alkylation indices (RAIs) were calculated in order to correlate these indices with the results of the guinea pig sensitization test data. ...
Natural photosynthetic pigments bacteriochlorophyllsc, d and e in green bacteria undergo self-assembly to create an organized antenna system known as the chlorosome, which collects photons and funnels the resulting excitation energy toward the reaction centers. Mimicry of chlorosome function is a central pro
Quiescence (G0) represents an assortment of reversible, cell cycle-arrested states that are resistant to unfavorable conditions and associated with cancer persistence. G0 involves regulated gene expression with selective mRNA expression and decreased canonical translation. Low mTOR activity in G0 activates the cap complex inhibitor, eIF4EBP, and impairs canonical translation. The alternative translation mechanisms in G0 remain to be uncovered. Our data show that microRNAs, regulatory, non-coding RNAs that target distinct mRNAs to alter gene expression, can associate with alternative complexes and translation factors to regulate specific mRNA translation in G0. One subset of transcripts expressed in G0 includes specific mRNAs recruited by an FXR1a-associated microRNP (microRNA-protein complex) for translation activation in G0 mammalian cells. MicroRNPs predominantly mediate repression and downregulation; however, FXR1a-microRNP lacks conventional microRNP repressors, and instead, contains a ...
Matt planted five yellow iceplants (Lampranthus aurantiacus)around the base of the Agave scabra we planted yesterday. I tidied the Calla lilies (entering summer dormancy unless they get more water!) and watered the steps area and back slope plants thoroughly. Deadheaded the Kniphofias and roses. And sold several plants to Mark who came to us via Craigslist. He came back later for more plants and gave me a few too! One was a Dudleya cutting I think - mmm, I like Dudleyas ...
www.MOLUNA.de Chlorophylls and Bacteriochlorophylls [4093768] - The first dedicated new work since 1991, this book reviews recent progress and current studies in the chemistry, metabolism and spectroscopy of chlorophylls, bacteriochlorophylls and their protein complexes. Also discussed is progress on the applications of chlorophylls as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy of cancerous tumours, and as molecular probes in
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Gentaurs CFL1 ELISA kit utilizes the Sandwich-ELISA principle. The micro ELISA plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Human CFL1. Standards or samples are added to the micro ELISA plate wells and combined with ...
Bacteriochlorophyll cs, a new bacteriochlorophyll from Chloroflexus aurantiacus. Gloe, A., Risch, N. Arch. Microbiol. (1978) [ ... Unlike the bacteriochlorophylls c, d, and e of the Chlorobiaceae, bacteriochlorophyll cs of Chloroflexus is not a mixture of ...
Investigation of the pathway of autotrophic CO2 fixation in the phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus and in the ... The findings indicate that the autotrophic carbon fixation cycles in Chloroflexus and in the Sulfolobales evolved independently ... The autotrophic pathway in Chloroflexus and Sulfolobaceae has evolved convergently and that these taxonomic groups have ... Enzymes of a novel autotrophic CO2 fixation pathway in the phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus, the 3- ...
Chloroflexus aggregans DSM 9485 Bacteria normal 1 normal 1 -. NC_011725 BCB4264_A4017 penicillin-binding protein 32.61 ...
Chloroflexus aggregans DSM 9485 Bacteria normal 0.498805 normal 1 -. NC_010505 Mrad2831_3443 TetR family transcriptional ...
Chloroflexus aggregans DSM 9485 Bacteria unclonable 0.00308042 normal 1 -. NC_009943 Dole_3254 hypothetical protein 28.64 ...
Chloroflexus aggregans DSM 9485 Bacteria normal 0.641192 normal 0.908857 -. NC_008698 Tpen_1453 extracellular solute-binding ... Chloroflexus aggregans DSM 9485 Bacteria hitchhiker 0.00219397 normal 1 -. NC_013743 Htur_2649 extracellular solute-binding ...
Chloroflexus aggregans DSM 9485 Bacteria decreased coverage 0.000390342 hitchhiker 0.00283274 -. NC_011831 Cagg_2081 glycosyl ...
Chloroflexus aggregans DSM 9485 Bacteria normal 1 normal 1 -. NC_007298 Daro_0106 stage II sporulation E 29.25 ...
Chloroflexus aggregans DSM 9485 Bacteria normal 0.305311 hitchhiker 0.00000703503 -. NC_013131 Caci_3115 AMP-dependent ...
Chloroflexus aggregans DSM 9485 Bacteria normal 1 normal 1 -. NC_008578 Acel_1029 isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase 42.51 ...
Chloroflexus aggregans DSM 9485 Bacteria normal 1 hitchhiker 0.000436515 -. NC_007005 Psyr_3098 GCN5-related N- ...
Chloroflexus aggregans DSM 9485 Bacteria hitchhiker 0.00614189 hitchhiker 0.00317709 -. NC_011138 MADE_03853 transcriptional ...
Chloroflexus aggregans DSM 9485 Bacteria normal 1 normal 1 -. NC_009523 RoseRS_1909 light-independent protochlorophyllide ... Chloroflexus aggregans DSM 9485 Bacteria hitchhiker 0.00549555 normal 1 -. NC_010172 Mext_2732 chlorophyllide reductase subunit ...
Chloroflexus aggregans DSM 9485 Bacteria normal 0.511555 normal 1 -. NC_008048 Sala_2572 MerR family transcriptional regulator ...
Chloroflexus aggregans DSM 9485 Bacteria hitchhiker 0.00753008 hitchhiker 0.00000253482 -. NC_011832 Mpal_0923 GntR domain ...
CHLOROFLEXUS AURANTIACUS _entity_src_gen.pdbx_gene_src_ncbi_taxonomy_id 1108 _entity_src_gen.pdbx_gene_src_variant ? _entity_ ...
... the main light-harvesting antenna of the green nonsulphur bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus. Yakovlev, A. G.; Taisova, A. S.; ...

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