Chlorobutanol: A colorless to white crystalline compound with a camphoraceous odor and taste. It is a widely used preservative in various pharmaceutical solutions, especially injectables. Also, it is an active ingredient in certain oral sedatives and topical anesthetics.Preservatives, Pharmaceutical: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.Bismuth: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.Salicylates: The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Antidiarrheals: Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.Dermatology: A medical specialty concerned with the skin, its structure, functions, diseases, and treatment.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Pharmaceutical Solutions: Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Medicare Assignment: Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Amino Acid Oxidoreductases: A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Esophageal Motility Disorders: Disorders affecting the motor function of the UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; the ESOPHAGUS body, or a combination of these parts. The failure of the sphincters to maintain a tonic pressure may result in gastric reflux of food and acid into the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX). Other disorders include hypermotility (spastic disorders) and markedly increased amplitude in contraction (nutcracker esophagus).Sulfisoxazole: A short-acting sulfonamide antibacterial with activity against a wide range of gram- negative and gram-positive organisms.Bambermycins: Antibiotic complex obtained from Streptomyces bambergiensis containing mainly Moenomycins A and C. They are used as feed additives and growth promoters for poultry, swine, and cattle.Cambendazole: A nematocide effective against a variety of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle, sheep, and horses.Bethanechol: A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Benzalkonium Compounds: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.Boswellia: A plant genus of the family BURSERACEAE used medicinally since ancient times. It is a source of salai guggal (the gum resin), boswellic acid (ursane type TRITERPENES), and FRANKINCENSE.PropylaminesHealth Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.Cephalopelvic Disproportion: A condition in which the HEAD of the FETUS is larger than the mother's PELVIS through which the fetal head must pass during a vaginal delivery.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Pelvimetry: Measurement of the dimensions and capacity of the pelvis. It includes cephalopelvimetry (measurement of fetal head size in relation to maternal pelvic capacity), a prognostic guide to the management of LABOR, OBSTETRIC associated with disproportion.Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Uterine Contraction: Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Vacuum Extraction, Obstetrical: Removal of the fetus from the uterus or vagina at or near the end of pregnancy with a metal traction cup that is attached to the fetus' head. Negative pressure is applied and traction is made on a chain passed through the suction tube. (From Stedman, 26th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Employee Discipline: Regulations or conditions imposed on employees by management in order to correct or prevent behaviors which are counterproductive to the organization.Oenothera: A plant genus of the family ONAGRACEAE. Members contain oenotheins.Death Certificates: Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.Professional Misconduct: Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations: A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Genista: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The common name of broom may be confused with Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM) or Brome (BROMUS).Pharmaceutic Aids: Substances which are of little or no therapeutic value, but are necessary in the manufacture, compounding, storage, etc., of pharmaceutical preparations or drug dosage forms. They include SOLVENTS, diluting agents, and suspending agents, and emulsifying agents. Also, ANTIOXIDANTS; PRESERVATIVES, PHARMACEUTICAL; COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS; OINTMENT BASES.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Quinoxalines

Mutations in Drosophila heat shock cognate 4 are enhancers of Polycomb. (1/22)

The homeotic genes controlling segment identity in Drosophila are repressed by the Polycomb group of genes (PcG) and are activated by genes of the trithorax group (trxG). An F(1) screen for dominant enhancers of Polycomb yielded a point mutation in the heat shock cognate gene, hsc4, along with mutations corresponding to several known PcG loci. The new mutation is a more potent enhancer of Polycomb phenotypes than an apparent null allele of hsc4 is, although even the null allele occasionally displays homeotic phenotypes associated with the PcG. Previous biochemical results had suggested that HSC4 might interact with BRAHMA, a trxG member. Further analyses now show that there is no physical or genetic interaction between HSC4 and the Brahma complex. HSC4 might be needed for the proper folding of a component of the Polycomb repression complex, or it may be a functional member of that complex.  (+info)

Rapid stimulation of free glucuronate formation by non-glucuronidable xenobiotics in isolated rat hepatocytes. (2/22)

Vitamin C synthesis in rat liver is enhanced by several xenobiotics, including aminopyrine and chloretone. The effect of these agents has been linked to induction of enzymes potentially involved in the formation of glucuronate, a precursor of vitamin C. Using isolated rat hepatocytes as a model, we show that a series of agents (aminopyrine, antipyrine, chloretone, clotrimazole, metyrapone, proadifen, and barbital) induced in a few minutes an up to 15-fold increase in the formation of glucuronate, which was best observed in the presence of sorbinil, an inhibitor of glucuronate reductase. They also caused an approximately 2-fold decrease in the concentration of UDP-glucuronate but little if any change in the concentration of UDP-glucose. Depletion of UDP-glucuronate with resorcinol or d-galactosamine markedly decreased the formation of glucuronate both in the presence and in the absence of aminopyrine, confirming the precursor-product relationship between UDP-glucuronate and free glucuronate. Most of the agents did not induce the formation of detectable amounts of glucuronides, indicating that the formation of glucuronate is not due to a glucuronidation-deglucuronidation cycle. With the exception of barbital (which inhibits glucuronate reductase), all of the above mentioned agents also caused an increase in the concentration of ascorbic acid. They had little effect on glutathione concentration, and their effect on glucuronate and vitamin C formation was not mimicked by glutathione-depleting agents such as diamide and buthionine sulfoximine. It is concluded that the stimulation of vitamin C synthesis exerted by some xenobiotics is mediated through a rapid increase in the conversion of UDP-glucuronate to glucuronate, which does not apparently involve a glucuronidation-deglucuronidation cycle.  (+info)

Epithelial activity of hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in cultured bovine lenses recovering from pharmaceutical-induced optical damage. (3/22)

PURPOSE: In a previous toxicological study, cultured bovine lenses exposed to three topical anesthetics displayed distinct patterns of optical damage and recovery. This work investigated the epithelial activity of the metabolic enzymes hexokinase (HK) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in lenses recovering from anesthetic-induced damage. METHODS: Cultured bovine lenses were exposed to the anesthetics Alcaine, Fluress and Fluoracaine for 2 h. An automated laser scanner was used to determine the focal length variability (FLV) of the lenses at time-points up to 24 h following their return to fresh culture medium. The epithelial enzyme activities for HK and G6PD were then assayed at the 24 h time-point. RESULTS: Lenses exposed to Alcaine displayed an abrupt increase in FLV, while Fluoracaine treated lenses exhibited optical damage at a slower rate. The FLV in these two groups recovered to near-control levels after 24 h. Fluress treated lenses did not differ in FLV from controls at any time. The activities of both HK and G6PD were significantly reduced in epithelial samples from each of the three anesthetic treatment groups, relative to controls. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that lens optical quality can recover despite a severe reduction in epithelial HK and G6PD activity, indicating that the optical function of the lens may not be directly related to epithelial metabolic activity. The ScanTox In Vitro Assay System provides an objective measure of lens optical quality, enabling a direct comparison of optical damage and recovery to lens biochemical changes.  (+info)

Neurotoxicity of intra-arterial papaverine preserved with chlorobutanol used for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. (4/22)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Papaverine is used to vasodilate cerebral arteries undergoing vasospasm from subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, papaverine inhibits cellular respiration in vitro and could cause neurotoxicity in humans. METHODS: We studied 5 consecutive patients with cerebral vasospasm who were treated with intra-arterial papaverine preserved with chlorobutanol and imaged with MRI fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging after treatment. One patient had histological analysis of the brain at autopsy. RESULTS: All 5 patients exhibited marked neurological decline immediately after treatment, and this was sustained through hospital discharge. In all cases, MRI images showed selective gray matter-only signal changes within the vascular territory treated with papaverine. Histological analysis of 1 case brought to autopsy showed selective injury to islands of neurons with relative sparing of white matter. CONCLUSIONS: Intra-arterial delivery of papaverine preserved with chlorobutanol into vasospastic anterior cerebral arteries may result in marked neurological deterioration with selective gray matter changes on MRI imaging. This effect is consistent with a permanent toxic effect to human brain. It is unclear whether this toxicity is caused by papaverine or chlorobutanol, and its use in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm should be reserved for cases without alternatives.  (+info)

Comparative toxicity of preservatives on immortalized corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells. (5/22)

 (+info)

GC determination of acetone, acetaldehyde, ethanol, and methanol in biological matrices and cell culture. (6/22)

A gas chromatography with flame ionization detection method (GC-FID) with direct injection, using a capillary column, was validated to determine ethanol, acetaldehyde, methanol, and acetone in different human matrices, such as whole blood, vitreous humour, and urine, with clinical and forensic interest. This method was also employed to quantify these compounds in cell culture medium, thus being useful in basic research. A good peak resolution was achieved, with linear correlation between concentration and peak areas for all the compounds in all the matrices. The inter- and intra-day precisions of the method were always under 15% and 10%, respectively. The accuracy of the method, calculated as the percentage of the target concentration, was within the acceptable limits. The obtained limits of detection were below 0.85 mg/L for acetaldehyde and below 0.75 mg/L for the other considered compounds. The small injection volume and the high split ratios applied, allied to the high performance of the GC column, resulted in very good peak resolution and high sensitivities. This method is easy to perform, making it suitable for the routine of clinical biochemistry and forensic laboratories.  (+info)

Interactions at human ether-a-go-go-related gene channels. (7/22)

 (+info)

A non-bronchoconstrictor, bacteriostatic preservative for nebuliser solutions. (8/22)

We have studied the bacteriostatic and airways effects of the preservatives chlorocresol and chlorbutol, to assess if they may be safely used in nebuliser solutions. The bacteriostatic study was carried out according to standard techniques, and the preservatives were able to inhibit the growth of a range of bacteria and yeasts for a period of 28 days. The airways effects were studied in eight asthmatic subjects, who were challenged with either the preservatives or saline (as placebo). Pulmonary function was followed as FEV1 for 60 min after inhalation, and there was no change in FEV1 following inhalation. We conclude that these preservatives may be used safely in nebuliser solutions.  (+info)

*Doxapram

Injectable products have a pH from 3.5-5. Benzyl alcohol or chlorobutanol is added as a preservative agent in the commercially ...

*Caffeine

Brødbaek HB, Damkier P (May 2007). "[The treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum with chlorobutanol-caffeine rectal suppositories ... and chlorobutanol and caffeine (for the treatment of hyperemesis). However, rectal absorption is less efficient than oral: the ...

*Patulous Eustachian tube

Nasal medications containing diluted hydrochloric acid, chlorobutanol, and benzyl alcohol have been reported to be effective in ...

*Sedative

Methoxyflurane Desflurane Ethyl chloride Cyclopropane Chloral hydrate Ketamine Esketamine Etomidate Propofol Chlorobutanol ...

*ATC code A04

... combinations A04AD54 Chlorobutanol, combinations QA04AD90 Maropitant "ATC/DDD Index 2018: code A04". WHO Collaborating Centre ... combinations A04AD01 Scopolamine A04AD02 Cerium oxalate A04AD04 Chlorobutanol A04AD05 Metopimazine A04AD10 Dronabinol A04AD11 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... chlorobutanol MeSH D02.033.415.110.855 --- tert-butyl alcohol MeSH D02.033.415.220 --- dodecanol MeSH D02.033.415.220.720 --- ... chlorobutanol MeSH D02.033.260.335 --- ethchlorvynol MeSH D02.033.260.350 --- ethylene chlorohydrin MeSH D02.033.375.270 --- ...

*List of MeSH codes (D10)

... chlorobutanol MeSH D10.289.110.855 --- tert-butyl alcohol MeSH D10.289.220.720 --- sodium dodecyl sulfate MeSH D10.289.230.250 ...

*List of drugs: Cf-Ch

... chlorobutanol (INN) chlorocresol (INN) Chlorofair Chlorofon-A Tablet Chloromag Chloromycetin Chloromyxin chloroprednisone (INN ...

*Chloral hydrate

Chlorobutanol Disulfiram-like drug Trichloroethanol "Chemical Book: Chloral hydrate". Retrieved 27 February 2017. Gawron O, ...

*Chlorobutanol

... is highly toxic to the liver, is a skin irritant and a severe eye irritant. Chlorobutanol has proven effective at ... Chlorobutanol is typically used at a concentration of 0.5% where it lends long term stability to multi-ingredient formulations ... Chlorobutanol is formed by the simple nucleophilic addition of chloroform and acetone. The reaction is base driven by potassium ... Chlorobutanol (trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol) is a preservative, sedative, hypnotic and weak local anesthetic similar in nature ...

*Premazepam

The initial doses of premazepam given to human test subjects demonstrated similar psychological test results to those produced by diazepam. It was also demonstrated that initial dosing with premazepam produces similar sedative effects as compared with diazepam, although psychomotor impairments are greater with premazepam than with diazepam after initial dosing. However, with repeated dosing for more than one day premazepam causes less sedation and less psychomotor impairment than diazepam. Premazepam possesses sedative and anxiolytic properties. Premazepam produces more slow wave and less fast wave EEG changes than diazepam. Tests have shown that 7.5 mg of premazepam is approximately equivalent to 5 mg of diazepam.[2] ...

*GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator

Barbiturates have special uses and are organized into 4 classes: ultrashort-, short-, intermediate- and long-acting. Empirically SARs of barbiturants are based on thousands of (animal) tested compounds.They have shown that R and R´ may not be H in position 5 (see figure 8). Also, position 5 confer sedative-hypnotic properties.[10] Generally alkyl branching in position 5 means less lipid solubility and less activity. Unsaturation show less activity in position 5 and alicyclic and aromatic rings show less potency. Polar substiuents (-NH2, -OH, -COOH) will decrease lipid solubility but it will also eliminate activity. R´´ in position 1 is usually, H but CH3 in that position yields less lipid solubility and duration. Exchanging S for O atom in position 2 produces thiobarbiturates, which are more lipid-soluble than the oxybarbiturates. In general, the more lipid-soluble the barbiturate, the more rapid its onset, the shorter its duration and the greater the degree of hypnotic activity. Barbiturates ...

*Scutellaria

The main compounds responsible for the biological activity of skullcap are flavonoids.[9] Baicalein, one of the important Scutellaria flavonoids, was shown to have cardiovascular effects in in vitro.[14] Research also shows that Scutellaria root modulates inflammatory activity in vitro to inhibit nitric oxide (NO), cytokine, chemokine and growth factor production in macrophages.[15] Isolated chemical compounds including wogonin, wogonoside, and 3,5,7,2',6'-pentahydroxyl flavanone found in Scutellaria have been shown to inhibit histamine and leukotriene release.[16] Other active constituents include baicalin, apigenin, oroxylin A, scutellarein, and skullcapflavone.[17] Some Scutellaria species, including S. baicalensis and S. lateriflora, have demonstrated anxiolytic activity in both animals and humans.[17][18][19] A variety of flavonoids in Scutellaria species have been found to bind to the benzodiazepine site and/or a non-benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor, including baicalin, baicalein, ...

*Paraldehyde

... is the cyclic trimer of acetaldehyde molecules.[2] Formally, it is a derivative of 1,3,5-trioxane. The corresponding tetramer is metaldehyde. A colourless liquid, it is sparingly soluble in water and highly soluble in ethanol. Paraldehyde slowly oxidizes in air, turning brown and producing an odour of acetic acid. It quickly reacts with most plastics and rubber. Paraldehyde was first observed in 1835 by the German chemist Justus Liebig; its empirical formula was determined in 1838 by Liebig's student Hermann Fehling.[3][4] Paraldehyde was first synthesized in 1848 by the German chemist Valentin Hermann Weidenbusch (1821-1893), another student of Liebig; he obtained paraldehyde by treating acetaldehyde with acid (either sulfuric or nitric acid).[5][6] It has uses in industry and medicine. ...

*1,1,1-Trichloroethane

Positive modulators: Alcohols (e.g., brometone, chlorobutanol (chloretone), ethanol (alcohol), tert-butanol (2M2P), ...

*Ivermectin

Positive modulators: Alcohols (e.g., brometone, chlorobutanol (chloretone), ethanol (alcohol), tert-butanol (2M2P), ...

*Carisbamate

... (YKP 509, proposed trade name Comfyde) is an experimental anticonvulsant drug under development by Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development. In 1998, the compound was in-licensed from SK Corp. (currently Life Science Business Division of SK Holdings), a South Korean company. A phase II clinical trial in the treatment of partial seizures demonstrated that the compound has efficacy in the treatment of partial seizures and a good safety profile. Since late 2006, the compound has been undergoing a large multicenter phase III clinical trial for the treatment of partial seizures. Its mechanism of action is unknown.[1][2]. On October 24, 2008, Johnson & Johnson announced that it had submitted a New Drug Application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for carisbamate.[3] Carisbamate has received provisional approval by the FDA to be marketed under the brand name of Comfyde. However, on August 21, 2009, Johnson & Johnson reported that the FDA had failed to give ...

*Carbamazepine

... (CBZ), sold under the trade name Tegretol among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.[1] It is not effective for absence or myoclonic seizures.[1] It is used in schizophrenia along with other medications and as a second-line agent in bipolar disorder.[3][1] Carbamazepine appears to work as well as phenytoin and valproate for focal and generalised seizures.[4] Common side effects include nausea and drowsiness.[1] Serious side effects may include skin rashes, decreased bone marrow function, suicidal thoughts, or confusion.[1] It should not be used in those with a history of bone marrow problems.[1] Use during pregnancy may cause harm to the baby; however, stopping the medication in pregnant women with seizures is not recommended.[1] Its use during breastfeeding is not recommended.[1] Care should be taken in those with either kidney or liver problems.[1] Carbamazepine was discovered in 1953 by Swiss chemist Walter ...

*Cyclobarbital

... , also known as cyclobarbitol or cyclobarbitone, is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative.[1] It is primarily available in fixed-dose combination with diazepam under the brand name Reladorm (100 mg cyclobarbital + 10 mg diazepam) and is used to treat insomnia in Russia.[2] ...

*Diethyl ether

Positive modulators: Alcohols (e.g., brometone, chlorobutanol (chloretone), ethanol (alcohol), tert-butanol (2M2P), ...

*Pregnanolone

Positive modulators: Alcohols (e.g., brometone, chlorobutanol (chloretone), ethanol (alcohol), tert-butanol (2M2P), ...

*Zolpidem

... has potential for either medical misuse when the drug is continued long term without or against medical advice, or for recreational use when the drug is taken to achieve a "high".[53][54] The transition from medical use of zolpidem to high-dose addiction or drug dependence can occur with use, but some believe it may be more likely when used without a doctor's recommendation to continue using it, when physiological drug tolerance leads to higher doses than the usual 5 mg or 10 mg, when consumed through inhalation or injection, or when taken for purposes other than as a sleep aid.[53] Recreational use is more prevalent in those having been dependent on other drugs in the past, but tolerance and drug dependence can still sometimes occur in those without a history of drug dependence. Chronic users of high doses are more likely to develop physical dependence on the drug, which may cause severe withdrawal symptoms, including seizures, if abrupt withdrawal from zolpidem occurs.[55] Other ...

*Androstanolone

... is a potent agonist of the AR. It has an affinity (Kd) of 0.25 to 0.5 nM for the human AR, which is about 2- to 3-fold higher than that of testosterone (Kd = 0.4 to 1.0 nM)[39] and the dissociation rate of androstanolone from the AR is also about 5-fold slower than that of testosterone.[40] The EC50 of androstanolone for activation of the AR is 0.13 nM, which is about 5-fold stronger than that of testosterone (EC50 = 0.66 nM).[41] In bioassays, androstanolone has been found to be 2.5- to 10-fold more potent than testosterone.[39] Unlike testosterone and various other AAS, androstanolone cannot be aromatized, and for this reason, poses no risk of estrogenic side effects like gynecomastia at any dosage.[42] In addition, androstanolone cannot be metabolized by 5α-reductase (as it is already 5α-reduced), and for this reason, is not potentiated in so-called "androgenic" tissues like the skin, hair follicles, and prostate gland, thereby improving its ratio of anabolic to androgenic ...

*alpha-Pinene

The four-membered ring in α-pinene 1 makes it a reactive hydrocarbon, prone to skeletal rearrangements such as the Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement. For example, attempts to perform hydration or hydrogen halide addition with the alkene functionality typically lead to rearranged products. With concentrated sulfuric acid and ethanol the major products are terpineol 2 and its ethyl ether 3, while glacial acetic acid gives the corresponding acetate ester 4. With dilute acids, terpin hydrate 5 becomes the major product. With one molar equivalent of anhydrous HCl, the simple addition product 6a can be formed at low temperature in the presence of ether, but it is very unstable. At normal temperatures, or if no ether is present, the major product is bornyl chloride 6b, along with a small amount of fenchyl chloride 6c.[5] For many years 6b (also called "artificial camphor") was referred to as "pinene hydrochloride", until it was confirmed as identical with bornyl chloride made from camphene. If more HCl is ...

*Clonazolam

... (also known as clonitrazolam) is a benzodiazepine that has had very little research done about its effects and metabolism, and has been sold online as a designer drug.[1][2][3][4][5] The synthesis of clonazolam was first reported in 1971 and the drug was described as the most active compound in the series tested.[6][7] Clonazolam is reported to be highly potent, and concerns have been raised that clonazolam and flubromazolam in particular may pose comparatively higher risks than other designer benzodiazepines, due to their ability to produce strong sedation and amnesia at oral doses of as little as 0.5 mg.[8] ...

*U-90042

... is a sedative and hypnotic drug used in scientific research. It has similar effects to sedative-hypnotic benzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic. U-90042 is a GABAA agonist acting primarily at the α1, α3 and α6 subtypes, with a Ki of 7.8nM at α1, 9.5nM at α3 and 11.0nM at α6. It produces sedation and ataxia and prolongs sleeping time in mice, rats and monkeys, but does not produce amnesia and blocks the amnestic effect of diazepam, reflecting its different subtype affinity compared to benzodiazepine drugs.[1] It was developed by a team at Novo Nordisk in the 1980s.[2] ...
This study was undertaken to ascertain whether the addition of chlorobutanol to a suspension of bismuth subsalicylate in oil would produce any untoward effect w
Nayawax information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by BMW Pharmaco India, Nayawax indications, usages and related health products lists
acidifying agents (examples include but are not limited to acetic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid); alkalinizing agents (examples include but are not limited to ammonia solution, ammonium carbonate, diethanolamine, monoethanolamine, potassium hydroxide, sodium borate, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, triethanolamine, trolamine); adsorbents (examples include but are not limited to powdered cellulose and activated charcoal); aerosol propellants (examples include but are not limited to carbon dioxide, CCl2F2, F2ClC-CClF2 and CClF3) air displacement agents (examples include but are not limited to nitrogen and argon); antifungal preservatives (examples include but are not limited to benzoic acid, butylparaben, ethylparaben, methylparaben, propylparaben, sodium benzoate); antimicrobial preservatives (examples include but are not limited to benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, benzyl alcohol, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorobutanol, phenol, phenylethyl ...
111718 - Eficacia terapéutica del clorobutanol (Verruex®) en el tratamiento de papilomatosis bovina. Estudio en cuatro predios en Caquetá, Colombia - Therapeutic efficacy of chlorobutanol (Verruex®) in the treatment of bovine papillomatosis. Study on | Veterinaria.org . La primera comunidad veterinaria de habla hispana con presencia en Espa a y Am rica del Sur.
MORENO, Andréia de Haro; SILVA, Maria Fernanda Conz da and SALGADO, Hérida Regina Nunes. Stability study of azithromycin in ophthalmic preparations. Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. [online]. 2009, vol.45, n.2, pp.219-226. ISSN 2175-9790. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-82502009000200005.. A stability study of azithromycin in ophthalmic preparations was developed by submission to different types of light, temperature and pH, using the biodiffusion assay (cylinder 3 x 3) for the quantifications. Bacillus subtilis, ATCC 9372, was used as test organism. The used concentration range was of 50 to 200 µg/mL. The study demonstrated that the drug suffered degradation when submitted to the ultraviolet light, germicide light, solar luminosity, acid solution, basic solution and hydrogen peroxide solution. The results were analyzed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA).. Keywords : Azithromycin [stability study]; Bioassay; Photodegradation; Ophthalmic preparations. ...
Examination of postoperative pain management programs indicates that nearly 100% of patients are treated with opioids; of these patients, 15% experience opioid-related adverse events (Kessler et al., 2013). More concerning is that although opioids are becoming less common, they continue to be prescribed for outpatient management of chronic pain, a setting that is less likely to be extensively monitored and represents a higher risk for mortality (Labianca et al., 2012). Obesity, a condition closely linked with NAFLD (McCullough, 2011), is one identified risk factor for these toxicities. NASH, the later stage of NAFLD, is characterized not only by histopathologic consequences but also by alterations in the expression and function of vital phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes and transport proteins (Fisher et al., 2009; Hardwick et al., 2010, 2013; Lake et al., 2011). Previous studies have confirmed corresponding shifts in the disposition of certain xenobiotics in rodent models of NASH (Canet ...
Doxapram hydrochloride (marketed as Dopram, Stimulex or Respiram) is a respiratory stimulant. Administered intravenously, doxapram stimulates an increase in tidal volume, and respiratory rate. Doxapram stimulates chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies of the carotid arteries, which in turn, stimulates the respiratory centre in the brain stem. Doxapram is a white to off-white, odorless, crystalline powder that is stable in light and air. It is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in alcohol and practically insoluble in ether. Injectable products have a pH from 3.5-5. Benzyl alcohol or chlorobutanol is added as a preservative agent in the commercially available injections. Doxapram is used in intensive care settings to stimulate the respiratory rate in patients with respiratory failure. It may be useful for treating respiratory depression in patients who have taken excessive doses of drugs such as buprenorphine or fentanyl analogues which may fail to respond adequately to treatment with naloxone. It ...
The human CYP1A1 gene codes for an inducible enzyme system involved in biotransformation of certain xenobiotics, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; some of the metabolites are carcinogenic and mutagenic. Effects of environmental exposures (smoking, air pollution, and diet) on CYP1A1 gene induction in placental tissue and the modulation of induction by the CYP1A1 MspI RFLP were evaluated in two groups from Poland: 70 mother-child pairs from Krakow, a city with elevated air pollution; and 90 pairs from Limanowa, a less polluted area. Compared to placentas from nonsmoking women, CYP1A1 mRNA levels were significantly increased in placentas from current smokers (P , 0.001). Ex-smokers also had significantly higher placental mRNA levels, including women who quit smoking prior to pregnancy (P , 0.01). A marginal increase in CYP1A1 mRNA with environmental tobacco smoke exposure was evident. Within Krakow, there was an increase in CYP1A1 mRNA with ambient pollution at the place of residence for ...
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Samson, A. L., Nevin, S. T. and Medcalf, R. L. (2008) Low molecular weight contaminants in commercial preparations of plasmin and t-PA activate neurons. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 6 12: 2218-2220. doi:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2008.03174.x ...
SUSER_ID returns an identification number only for logins that have been explicitly provisioned inside SQL Server. This ID is used within SQL Server to track ownership and permissions. This ID is not equivalent to the SID of the login that is returned by SUSER_SID. If login is a SQL Server login, the SID maps to a GUID. If login is a Windows login or Windows group, the SID maps to a Windows security identifier.. SUSER_SID returns a SUID only for a login that has an entry in the syslogins system table.. System functions can be used in the select list, in the WHERE clause, and anywhere an expression is allowed, and must always be followed by parentheses, even if no parameter is specified.. In SQL Server version 7.0, the security identification number (SID) replaced the server user identification number (SUID).. ...
The AAP (2010b) does not plug the put of infant walkers, because the walker may warning upwards and the toddler may collapse out of it or the infant may call on down the stairs in it. In those women whose tumors were less than 2 cm, a 5-year complete survival of 82 % was famous when they were treated with concurrent chemo- therapy and shedding compared to a 77 % when treated with radiation alone. org: From choosing and victimization repellents to protecting yourself from insect-borne diseases, DeetOnline cardizem 120mg low price prehypertension weight loss. Preservative Assay Multidose ophthalmic preparations essential seat antimicrobial agents unless equal of the following conditions exists: (1) the offshoot consists of a radionuclide with a half-life of ,24 h, (2) the lively ingredient(s) is antimicrobial, and (3) mechanism allows fitting preservation. Systems object of organizing screening, including the timing of inducement and comparable with letters, and disincentives repayment for ...
Visit your doctor for regular check ups. Tell your doctor or health care professional if your symptoms do not get better. If your symptoms get worse or if you need your short-acting inhalers more often, call your doctor right away. Do not use this medicine more than every 12 hours.. If you have asthma, be aware that using this medicine may increase your risk of dying from asthma related problems. Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of taking this medicine. NEVER use this medicine for an acute asthma attack.. If you are going to have surgery tell your doctor or health care professional that you are using this medicine.. ...
Decongestants Available ophthalmic decongestants include phenylephrine, naphazoline, oxymetazoline, and tetrahydrolozine. Individuals should be informed that overuse of ophthalmic decongestants can lead to rebound congestion of the conjunctiva. Patients with narrow anterior chamber angles or narrow-angle glaucoma should not use these products.1 Antihistamines Pheniramine maleate is the antihistamine agent available in nonprescription ophthalmic preparations. The most common adverse reactions associated with its use include stinging, burning, and discomfort upon instillation. Role of the Pharmacist Prior to suggesting any OTC ophthalmic products, pharmacists should thoroughly assess the nature and extent of patients ophthalmic problems and recommend that they seek medical care when needed. Patients also should be advised not to exceed the recommended dosages of these products and to immediately seek medical attention if symptoms persist after a few days. Although adverse effects are considered ...
Precursors of neuroactive substances can be obtained from dietary sources, which can affect the resulting production of such substances in the brain. In social species, an intake of the precursor in food could be controlled by social interactions. To test the effects of dietary tyrosine on the brain dopamine levels in social insect colonies, male and worker honeybees were fed tyrosine or royal jelly under experimental conditions and the brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite were then measured. The results showed that the levels of dopamine and its metabolite in the brains of 4- and 8-day-old workers and 8-day-old males were significantly higher in tyrosine-fed bees than in control bees, but the levels in 4-day-old males were not. The brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite in 4- and 8-day-old males and workers were significantly higher in royal jelly-fed bees than in control bees, except for one group of 4-day-old workers. Food exchanges with workers were observed in males during 1-3 ...
Patient information for ATROVENT UDVS 500 MICROGRAMS/2ML NEBULISER SOLUTION Including dosage instructions and possible side effects.
Viscosity is a critical component of ophthalmic preparations. There have been many viscosity enhancing agents used for drug delivery, but HPMC stands out quite clearly as being extremely efficacious and pliable [20-23]. There are various HPMC grades, and the grade and viscosity of HPMC are dependent on the differences in molecular weight (chain length) and the extent of hydroxypropyl and methyl substitutions [24]. We could possibly manipulate two properties of HPMCs viscosity: concentration and grade. In a study of isoniazid (MW ∼137 Da) release from HPMC tablets [25], it was found that higher viscosity grades of HPMC decreased the rate of drug release from the tablet. They theorized this is due to the intra-polymer matrix interactions, particularly the disentanglement of polymer chains, which prevent effective drug release. These drug-polymer matrix interactions become greater with more branching present in higher grades of HPMC. Our expectation was that the higher HPMC grades, accompanied ...
Hydrocortisone acetate exerts a marked anti-inflammatory action at the tissue level and effectively suppresses inflammation in many disorders of the anterior segment of the eye. Local application to the eye often gives rapid relief of pain and photophobia, particularly in lesions of the cornea.. The combined anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity of Bacitracin-Neomycin-Polymyxin-Hydrocortisone Acetate 1% Veterinary Ophthalmic Ointment permits effective management of many disorders of the anterior segment of the eye in which combined activity is needed.. Doasage & Administration: Apply a thin film over the cornea three or four times daily in dogs and cats. The area should be properly cleansed prior to the use of bacitracin-neomycin-polymyxin-HC veterinary ophthalmic ointment. Foreign bodies, crusted exudates, and debris should be carefully removed. Contraindications: Ophthalmic preparations containing corticosteroids are contraindicated in the treatment of those deep, ulcerative lesions of ...
Electronic devices are susceptible to damage from radiation, potentially cosmic radiation and even ultraviolet radiation. A study using spectroscopy reveals that the amount of optical damage, as opposed to structural damage, that can be caused may be more than ten times greater than studies suggested.. "These are somewhat new ideas, especially in my opinion the concept of optical damage versus structural damage where as people normally focus on the later, I believe the former is a very much unexplored area with important implications for actual, real, operating nanodevices," research leader Andrew Steigerwald of Vanderbilt University told me.. "Considering that, I hope in the future that our results can be extended to other materials (e.g. silicon) and perhaps coupled with a sensitive microscopy technique so that we can compare spectroscopy results with mapping of electronic states.". Damaged goods: Probing the depths - Ezine - spectroscopyNOW.com.. ...
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If you use this products in your scientific publication, it should be cited in the publication as: Creative Bioarray cat no. If your paper has been published, please click here to submit the Pub Med ID of your paper to get a coupon. ...
Combination therapy using nebulized amiloride hydrochloride and uridine-5-triphosphate (UTP) trisodium salt aerosols has been investigated for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF). Amiloride in aqueous solution precipitates in the presence of UTP, reducing drug concentrations. Interactions between these drugs and NaCl in solution were studied using phase-solubility techniques monitored by UV spectrophotometry. Elemental analyses were employed for precipitate characterization. Amiloride solubility was reduced by more than 85% in saline.
or [email protected] -----Original Message----- From: HSRL [mailto:[email protected]] Sent: Thursday, July 10, 2003 8:49 AM To: [email protected] Subject: Controls for human spleen liver placenta Does anyone have a good supplier of human tissue or prepared slides. We are mainly interested in spleen, liver and placenta. Thanks in advance for your help. Beth Poole HSRL- A GLP Compliant Laboratory 137 South Main Street Woodstock, Virginia 22664 (540)459-8211 Fax: (540)459-8217 [email protected] www.hsrl.org ...
Light micrograph (LM) of a section of human spleen, showing red pulp. Magnification unknown. The spleen removes debris from blood, produces immunological responses, and removes defective red cells. - Stock Image C022/2196
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Quest for photo-stable amorphous thin films in ternary GexAsySe100-x-y chalcogenide system is reported. Studied layers were fabricated using pulsed laser deposition technique. Scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer, Raman scattering spectroscopy, transmittance measurements, variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, and non-linear imaging technique with phase object inside the 4f imaging system were employed to characterize prepared thin films. Their photo-stability/photo-induced phenomena in as-deposited and relaxed states were also investigated, respectively. In linear regime, we found intrinsically photo-stable relaxed layers within Ge20As20Se60 composition. This composition presents also the highest optical damage threshold under non-linear optical conditions.. ©2010 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Crichton R. R., Millar J. A., Cumming R. L. C., Bryce C. F. A., The organ-specificity of ferritin in human and horse liver and spleen, 10.1042/bj1310051 ...
Loss of effectiveness of preservative systems of mascaras with age.: The preservative systems of unused, anhydrous mascaras were challenged periodically with mi
A substance that is added to a product in order to prevent decomposition or undesirable chemical changes. Preservatives can be natural, such as sugar or salt used to preserve food. Or they can be synthetic compounds, as in the case of preservatives that extend the shelf life of medicines, and biological samples.. ...
Preservative Blends Market offered an opportunity worth US$133.5 mn in 2015. Progressing at a CAGR of 5.60% between 2016 and 2024, the market is estimated to reach US$215.9 mn by the end of 2024.
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Preservatives are chemicals added to pharmaceutical, hygiene and food products to prevent and delay their decomposition. Fruit preservatives are commonly used in juices, jellies, canned fruit and dried fruit.
A new British study finds the clearest evidence yet that common food colorings and preservatives can trigger hyperactivity in normal children
Leflein JG, Szefler SJ, Murphy KR, Fitzpatrick S, Cruz-Rivera M, Miller CJ, Smith JA. Nebulized budesonide inhalation suspension compared with cromolyn sodium nebulizer solution for asthma in young children: results of a randomized outcomes trial. Pediatrics. 2002 May; 109(5):866-72 ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Mineral Preservatives in the Wood of Stradivari and Guarneri. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
In an effort to develop safe products for skin, while also remaining cost-friendly and staying green, INOLEX featured a number of alternative preservatives at NYSCC Suppliers Day 2017.
Hi Susan. Thanks for all the helpful information you provide. It is most appreciated. I have a question about a particular product. It is called Fig and Yarrow Underarm Lotion. I noticed that this product didnt have any preservative listed. I am sensitive to certain things so I emailed to ask them if their product had any preservatives. They replied saying it was naturally preserved. Given what you have written, I am not sure what they could mean by this. Is it a law or rule that you must have ALL ingredients in a product listed? Could they simply be leaving out this information? I also read on another site some time back that many companies hide the fact that their products have preservatives in aloe gel. The article said that aloe gel cannot be produced without using a preservative, therefor any product that has aloe gel likely already has enough preservative and you may not need to add additional preservatives due to this. Could it be that they are getting their aloe gel from a supplier ...
Hi Susan. Thanks for all the helpful information you provide. It is most appreciated. I have a question about a particular product. It is called Fig and Yarrow Underarm Lotion. I noticed that this product didnt have any preservative listed. I am sensitive to certain things so I emailed to ask them if their product had any preservatives. They replied saying it was naturally preserved. Given what you have written, I am not sure what they could mean by this. Is it a law or rule that you must have ALL ingredients in a product listed? Could they simply be leaving out this information? I also read on another site some time back that many companies hide the fact that their products have preservatives in aloe gel. The article said that aloe gel cannot be produced without using a preservative, therefor any product that has aloe gel likely already has enough preservative and you may not need to add additional preservatives due to this. Could it be that they are getting their aloe gel from a supplier ...
Before Its News). The Global Cosmetic Preservatives Market report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the Cosmetic Preservatives for 2016-2020. To calculate the market size, the report considers both the direct revenue and the indirect revenue of the vendors. The Cosmetic Preservatives Market to grow at a CAGR of 5.77% during the period 2016-2020. Cosmetic preservatives are substances added to cosmetic formulations to avoid spoilage caused by the growth of micro-organisms.. Browse more detail information about Cosmetic Preservatives Market Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/global-cosmetic-preservatives-market-2016-2020-10365304. The report provides a basic overview of the Cosmetic Preservatives including definitions, classifications, applications and market Sales chain structure. The Cosmetic Preservatives report enlists several important factors, starting from the basics to advanced market intelligence which play a crucial part in strategizing.. Cosmetic ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. An all-inclusive study on Preservative Free Cosmetics market, this global 2017 Preservative Free Cosmetics report helps examine historical facts and forecasts to next few years with actual data. Starting with coverage of Preservative Free Cosmetics market industry overview, the quantitative analysis spreads across manufacturing cost, capacity, production, revenue and more.. A set of data focusing on consumption volume, consumption value and sales price analysis helps manufacturers and Preservative Free Cosmetics market players plan their strategy by regions, types as well as based on competition numbers. The supply and consumption part of the report offers regional insights on the Preservative Free Cosmetics market with global data as well as statistics for leading geographies across the world.. The research compiles profiles of small and big Preservative Free Cosmetics market companies covering their product ...
Tandonnet, C and Burle, B and Vidal, F and Hasbroucq, T (2003) The influence of time preparation on motor processes assessed by surface Laplacian estimation. The influence of time preparation on motor processes assessed by surface Laplacian estimation, 114. pp. 2376-2384. ISSN 1388-2457 ...
Quantitative evaluation of the myocardial preservative characteristics of nifedipine during hypothermic myocardial ischemia.: Nifedipine, a slow calcium-channel
A new blood preservative discovered by physicians at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center may speed the recoveries of heart attack and stroke victims and lengthen the shelf life of donated
Our food testing & analysis laboratory has state-of-the-art instrumentation to analyze preservatives in food products. We also provide consultation on labeling requirements
Scientists have stumbled on a basic property of preservatives that might extend the shelf life of vaccines, food and library books - and save money while doing it. Besides jams, sugars are often used to preserve pharmaceuticals and similar
A slide of reticular connective tissue from a human spleen.. N- Nucleus, CT- connective tissue, RT- reticular fibers. *Font labels changed to red for easier visualization because the slide was stained dark. ...
This app is a combination of sets, containing practice questions, study cards, terms & concepts for self learning & exam preparation on the topic of Dialysis
Alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) is a tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme inhibitor. Alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) is a non-endogenous drug involved in the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway. AMPT inhibits tyrosine hydroxylase whose enzymatic activity is regulated through the phosphorylation of different serine residue regulatory domain sites. Catecholamine biosynthesis starts with dietary tyrosine, which is hydroxylated by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. It is hypothesized that AMPT competes with tyrosine at the tyrosine-binding site, causing inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase. It has been used in the treatment of pheochromocytoma. It has been demonstrated to inhibit the production of melanin. AMPT inhibits catecholamine biosynthesis at the first step-the hydroxylation of tyrosine. Reduction in catecholamines and their metabolites (normetanephrine, metanephrine, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid) result from the inhibition of tyrosine using AMPT. AMPT doses of 600 to 4,000 mg per day cause a 20 to ...
Despite the debatable application of phenoxyethanol in cosmetic sector, phenoxyethanol preservatives market has experienced an appreciable growth in past years, accounting for a valuation of USD 100 million in 2016. Quite a number of restrictions have ramped up of late pertaining to the usage of synthetic preservatives in cosmetic manufacturing, claiming that these preservatives cause skin irritation, allergic reactions, and dermatitis. Phenoxyethanol being one of the most renowned preservatives in beauty product formulations, it goes without saying that the overall phenoxyethanol preservatives market dynamics is significantly influenced by the changing regulatory landscape. For instance, the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) of European Commission considers 2-phenoxyethanol safe to be used as a preservative in cosmetic formulations with up to 1% concentration level. While on the contrary, FDA has also issued a warning regarding the detrimental effect of these preservatives on ...
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Processed Food and Beverage Preservative Market is expected to be worth US$2.5 bn by the end of 2024 as compared to US$1.7 bn in 2015; will rise at a CAGR of 4.9% between 2016 and 2024
years ago we used to add a tiny amount of sodium azide to our diluent, but you have to be careful as it can inhibit ihc reactions. i will try and find the concentration used.. patsy ruegg Laura Bliven wrote: , I would like to add a preservative to our Tris Buffered Saline Buffer, pH 7.6, but am unsure as to what chemical and how much. The staining will be immunohistochemistries and I know some chemicals are incompatible.. , Thanks, ...
We have an old wooden house and whenever, I remove/repair clapboards or trim, I would like to be able to apply via either spray or brush some type of long-lasting wood preservative. I would apply this both to any old wood exposed and any new wood added.
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EFFECT OF ADDING CHLOROBUTANOL TO BISMUTH SUBSALICYLATE IN OIL INJECTED INTRAMUSCULARLY | JAMA Dermatology | JAMA NetworkEFFECT OF ADDING CHLOROBUTANOL TO BISMUTH SUBSALICYLATE IN OIL INJECTED INTRAMUSCULARLY | JAMA Dermatology | JAMA Network

This study was undertaken to ascertain whether the addition of chlorobutanol to a suspension of bismuth subsalicylate in oil ... EFFECT OF ADDING CHLOROBUTANOL TO BISMUTH SUBSALICYLATE IN OIL INJECTED INTRAMUSCULARLY. Arch Derm Syphilol. 1940;41(2):380-381 ... of olive oil with the addition of 3 per cent chlorobutanol was used, and as a control, bismuth subsalicylate, 0.13 Gm., ... of olive oil without chlorobutanol or any other addition.. Seven hundred and twenty injections were given of each preparation. ...
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Chlorobutanol - WikipediaChlorobutanol - Wikipedia

Chlorobutanol is highly toxic to the liver, is a skin irritant and a severe eye irritant. Chlorobutanol has proven effective at ... Chlorobutanol is typically used at a concentration of 0.5% where it lends long term stability to multi-ingredient formulations ... Chlorobutanol is formed by the simple nucleophilic addition of chloroform and acetone. The reaction is base driven by potassium ... Chlorobutanol (trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol) is a preservative, sedative, hypnotic and weak local anesthetic similar in nature ...
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Chlorhexidine/Chlorobutanol Biogaran - Drugs.comChlorhexidine/Chlorobutanol Biogaran - Drugs.com

A list of US medications equivalent to Chlorhexidine/Chlorobutanol Biogaran is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Chlorhexidine/Chlorobutanol Biogaran is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Chlorobutanol. Chlorobutanol hemihydrate (a derivative of Chlorobutanol) is reported as an ingredient of Chlorhexidine/ ... Chlorhexidine/Chlorobutanol Biogaran. Chlorhexidine/Chlorobutanol Biogaran may be available in the countries listed below. ...
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Capsules; Inhalation; Chlorobutanol 30 mg; Menthol 35.9 mg; Pine Oil 85.5 mg; Pumilio Pine Oil 12.3 mg; Terpineol 67.4 mg; ... A04AD54 - Chlorobutanol, combinations. Pharmaceutical companies: manufacturers, researchers, developers, local distributors and ...
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... www.sciencelab.com/xMSDS-Chlorobutanol-9923417 Chlorobutanol MSDS] *{{ATC,A04,AD04}} {{Antiemetics and antinauseants}} [[ ... Chembox new , Chlorobutanol , ImageFileL1 = Chlorobutanol2d.png , ImageSizeL1 = 120px , ImageFileR1 = Chlorobutanol3d.png , ... Chlorobutanol is formed by the simple nucleophilic addition of [[chloroform]] and [[acetone]]. The reaction is base driven by ... Chlorobutanol, or 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol, is a chemical preservative, sedative hypnotic and weak local ...
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Nayawax (Benzocaine; Chlorobutanol; P-Dichlorobenzene...) BMW Pharmaco IndiaNayawax (Benzocaine; Chlorobutanol; P-Dichlorobenzene...) BMW Pharmaco India

A04AD54 - Chlorobutanol, combinations*D04AB54 - Benzocaine, combinations. Pharmaceutical companies: manufacturers, researchers ... Drops; Ophthalmic; Benzocaine 2.7%; Chlorobutanol 5%; P-Dichlorobenzene 2%; Turpentine Oil 15%. ...
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chlorobutanol | Tabers Medical Dictionarychlorobutanol | Taber's Medical Dictionary

chlorobutanol answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, ... chlorobutanol is a topic covered in the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view the entire topic, please sign in or purchase a ... "Chlorobutanol." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Tabers Online, www.tabers.com/tabersonline/ ... view/Tabers-Dictionary/734699/all/chlorobutanol. Chlorobutanol. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. ...
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Biological Liquid Chlorobutanol Cas 57 15 8 China Manufacturers & Suppliers & FactoryBiological Liquid Chlorobutanol Cas 57 15 8 China Manufacturers & Suppliers & Factory

We are Professional Manufacturer of Biological Liquid Chlorobutanol Cas 57 15 8 company, Factory & Exporters specialize in ... Find Biological Liquid Chlorobutanol Cas 57 15 8 Manufacturers & Suppliers from China. ... Home > Tags > Biological Liquid Chlorobutanol Cas 57 15 8(Total 24 Products for Biological Liquid Chlorobutanol Cas 57 15 8) ... Biological liquid biological alkaline solution preservative Chlorobutanol Cellulose ester and ether plasticizer chlorobutanol ...
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Chlorobutanol in Telugu (చ్లోరోబుతనోల్) - ఉపయోగాలు, ప్రయోజనాలు, మరియు పనిచేయు విదానం | all4insure.ruChlorobutanol in Telugu (చ్లోరోబుతనోల్) - ఉపయోగాలు, ప్రయోజనాలు, మరియు పనిచేయు విదానం | all4insure.ru

Chlorobutanol ను క్రిందున్న వ్యాధులు, పరిస్థితులు మరియు లక్షణాలను చికిత్స, నియంత్రణ, నివారణ & మెరుగుదల కొరకు ఉపయోగిస్తారు: ... Chlorobutanol in Telugu (చ్లోరోబుతనోల్) - ఉపయోగాలు మరియు ప్రయోజనాలు Chlorobutanol (చ్లోరోబుతనోల్) ను క్రిందున్న వ్యాధులు, ... Chlorobutanol in Telugu (చ్లోరోబుతనోల్) పనితనం, పనిచేసే తీరు మరియు ఫార్మకాలజీ Chlorobutanol (చ్లోరోబుతనోల్) రోగి పరిస్థితిని ... నివేదికలు - Chlorobutanol in Telugu (చ్లోరోబుతనోల్) ఉపయోగాలు Chlorobutanol ...
more infohttp://all4insure.ru/medicine-te/chlorobutanol/uses-benefits-working

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

Benzocaine, chlorobutanol, chloroxylenol, dibucaine, tannic acid, and urea have been present as ingredients in such products. ...
more infohttps://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm?cfrpart=310&showfr=1

Wiley: HPLC Methods for Recently Approved Pharmaceuticals - George LunnWiley: HPLC Methods for Recently Approved Pharmaceuticals - George Lunn

Acknowledgements. About This Book.. Abacavir.. Acarbose.. Acetyl sulfisoxazole.. Acrivastine.. Adapalene.. Adefovir dipivoxil.. Adrenocorticotropic hormone.. Afloqualone.. Alacepril.. Alclometasone 17,21-dipropionate.. Alitretinoin.. Allethrin.. Almotriptan.. Alosetron.. Amcinonide.. Aminolevulinic acid.. Amprenavir.. Anagrelide.. Anakinra.. Apraclonidine.. Aprepitant.. Aranidipine.. Arotinolol.. Arteether.. Articaine.. Asparaginase.. Atazanavir sulfate.. Atipamezole.. Atomoxetine hydrochloride.. Atorvastatin.. Atosiban.. Balofloxacin.. Bambermycins.. Befunolol.. Benzalkonium chloride.. Betaine.. Bethanechol chloride.. Bexarotene.. Biapenem.. Bimatoprost.. Bioresmethrin.. Bivalirudin.. Boldenone.. Bosentan.. β-Boswellic acid.. Brimonidine.. Bromfenac.. Brovincamine.. Bucillamine.. Budipine.. Bulaquine.. Butacaine.. Butamben.. Butoconazole.. Butyl flufenamate.. Cambendazole.. Candesartan cilexetil.. Capecitabine.. Casanthranol.. Caspofungin.. Castor ...
more infohttp://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0471711675.html

§ 310.545§ 310.545

the Act), for which an approved new drug application under section 505 of the Act and part 314 of this chapter is required for marketing. In the absence of an approved new drug application, such product is also misbranded under section 502 of the Act. (c) Clinical investigations designed to obtain evidence that any drug product labeled, represented, or promoted for the OTC uses and containing any active ingredient(s) as specified in paragraph (a) of this section is safe and effective for the purpose intended must comply with the requirements and procedures governing the use of investigational new drugs set forth in part 312 of this chapter. (d) Any OTC drug product that is not in compliance with this section is subject to regulatory action if initially introduced or initially delivered for introduction into interstate commerce after the dates specified in paragraphs (d)(1) through (d)(41) of this section. (1) May 7, 1991, for products subject to paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(2)(i), (a)(3)(i), ...
more infohttps://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/21/310.545

Delatestryl - FDA prescribing information, side effects and usesDelatestryl - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses

... colorless to pale yellow solution provides 200 mg testosterone enanthate in sesame oil with 5 mg chlorobutanol (chloral ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/pro/delatestryl.html

Method of treating the symptoms of menopause and osteoporosis - Richardson-Merrell Inc.Method of treating the symptoms of menopause and osteoporosis - Richardson-Merrell Inc.

Anhydrous Chlorobutanol. 5.0 mg. Aluminum Monostearate. 50.0 mg. Peanut Oil qs ad 1.0 ml. ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/4096254.html

Patent US8053427 - Brimonidine gel composition - Google PatentsPatent US8053427 - Brimonidine gel composition - Google Patents

... chlorobutanol; antibacterial esters, such as esters of parahydroxybenzoic acid; and other anti-microbial agents such as ...
more infohttps://www.google.co.uk/patents/US8053427

Application Notes for Karl Fischer Titration | Sigma-AldrichApplication Notes for Karl Fischer Titration | Sigma-Aldrich

Chlorobutanol-Hemihydrate. Halogenated hydrocarbons. Chloroform, Trichloromethane. Halogenated hydrocarbons. 3-Chlorophenol. ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/technical-documents/articles/analytical-applications/karl-fischer.html

DailyMed - OXYTOCIN injectionDailyMed - OXYTOCIN injection

to 10 USP Oxytocin Units; Chlorobutanol 0.5%;. Water for Injection q.s. Acetic Acid may have. been added for pH adjustment.. ... possesses an oxytocic activity equivalent to 10 USP Oxytocin Units and contains chlorobutanol (chloral derivative) 0.5%. This ...
more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d16a48c5-6b71-40a0-bcda-204f043fe832

Patent US5112804 - Pharmaceutical composition and method of intranasal administration - Google PatentsPatent US5112804 - Pharmaceutical composition and method of intranasal administration - Google Patents

Nasal calcitonin formulations containing chlorobutanol. US8138149. 9 Sep 2010. 20 Mar 2012. Par Pharmaceutical, Inc.. Nasal ... Nasal calcitonin formulations containing chlorobutanol. US20110275982 *. 8 Jan 2010. 10 Nov 2011. Mitsubishi Gas Chemical ... Nasal calcitonin formulations containing chlorobutanol. US8940714. 22 Jul 2011. 27 Jan 2015. Par Pharmaceutical, Inc.. ... calcitonin formulations containing chlorobutanol. US8486891. 10 Feb 2012. 16 Jul 2013. Par Pharmaceutical, Inc.. ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US5112804

Patente US5204108 - Transmucosal formulations of low molecular weight peptide drugs - Google PatentesPatente US5204108 - Transmucosal formulations of low molecular weight peptide drugs - Google Patentes

Nasal calcitonin formulations containing chlorobutanol. US20110082076 *. 14 Dic 2010. 7 Abr 2011. Novartis Ag. Stable metal ion ... Nasal calcitonin formulations containing chlorobutanol. US7842310. 19 Nov 2002. 30 Nov 2010. Becton, Dickinson And Company. ... Nasal calcitonin formulations containing chlorobutanol. US8168223. 21 Jun 2001. 1 May 2012. Novartis Pharma Ag. Engineered ... Nasal calcitonin formulations containing chlorobutanol. US8617613. 15 Abr 2004. 31 Dic 2013. Alkermes Pharma Ireland Limited. ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US5204108
  • The preparation is similar to the one of dimenoxadol, but insted of ethanol there is 4-chlorobutanol (available commercially) used in the etherifying step. (erowid.org)
  • This single, available dose of epinephrine injection, USP contains either 0.15 mg or 0.3 mg l-epinephrine, sodium chloride, chlorobutanol and sodium bisulfite, all sealed under nitrogen. (nih.gov)
  • Peanut oil works to soften and lubricate hard plugs or deposits of earwax, while chlorobutanol helps to loosen the softened wax. (healthexpress.co.uk)
  • Chloretone is 1, 1, 1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol, or chlorobutanol, and is available from Ward's Natural Science Establishment. (photomacrography.net)
  • Therapeutic efficacy of chlorobutanol (Verruex®) in the treatment of bovine papillomatosis. (veterinaria.org)
  • Estudio en cuatro predios en Caquetá, Colombia - Therapeutic efficacy of chlorobutanol (Verruex®) in the treatment of bovine papillomatosis. (veterinaria.org)
  • The compounds are: Chlorobutanol, Ether, Blackberry Root and Ethyl Alcohol. (si.edu)
  • Find Chlorobutanol suppliers from China, and select TNJ Chemical as the top Chlorobutanol suppliers, factory and manufacturers. (tnjchem.com)
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  • Chlorobutanol has proven effective at stimulating parthenogenesis in sea urchin eggs up to the pluteus stage, possibly by increasing irritability to cause stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taber's Online , www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/734699/all/chlorobutanol. (tabers.com)
  • This study was undertaken to ascertain whether the addition of chlorobutanol to a suspension of bismuth subsalicylate in oil would produce any untoward effect when the preparation was administered by intramuscular injection. (jamanetwork.com)