A genus of phototrophic, obligately anaerobic bacteria in the family Chlorobiaceae. They are found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud and water environments.
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
An order of photosynthetic bacteria representing a physiological community of predominantly aquatic bacteria.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Keto acids that are derivatives of 4-oxopentanoic acids (levulinic acid).
A family of phototrophic bacteria, in the order Rhodospirillales, isolated from stagnant water and mud.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.8.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Photochemistry is the study of chemical reactions induced by absorption of light, resulting in the promotion of electrons to higher energy levels and subsequent formation of radicals or excited molecules that can undergo various reaction pathways.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.

On the energetics of the photosyntheses in green sulfur bacteria. (1/61)

The quantum efficiency of photosynthesis by the green sulfur bacterium, Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum, has been determined in systems in which thiosulfate, tetrathionate, and molecular hydrogen served as electron donors. It was found that about 10 +/- 1 quanta are used for the assimilation of 1 molecule of CO(2), and that the quantum number is independent of the nature of the electron donor. These results are considered as support for the view that also in the bacterial photosyntheses the primary photochemical reaction consists in the photolysis of H(2)O, and that the chemical energy released during the oxidation of the electron donor is not utilized for CO(2) assimilation. Hence the photosynthetic processes of the green sulfur bacteria are thermodynamically less efficient than is green plant photosynthesis.  (+info)

Characterization of Chlorobium tepidum chlorosomes: a calculation of bacteriochlorophyll c per chlorosome and oligomer modeling. (2/61)

The bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) c content and organization was determined for Chlorobium (Cb.) tepidum chlorosomes, the light-harvesting complexes from green photosynthetic bacteria, using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Single-chlorosome fluorescence data was analyzed in terms of the correlation of the fluorescence intensity with time. Using this technique, known as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, chlorosomes were shown to have a hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of 25 +/- 3.2 nm. This technique was also used to determine the concentration of chlorosomes in a sample, and pigment extraction and quantitation was used to determine the molar concentration of Bchl c present. From these data, a number of approximately 215,000 +/- 80,000 Bchl c per chlorosome was determined. Homogeneity of the sample was further characterized by dynamic light scattering, giving a single population of particles with a hydrodynamic radius of 26.8 +/- 3.7 nm in the sample. Tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM) was used to determine the x,y,z dimensions of chlorosomes present in the sample. The results of the TMAFM studies indicated that the average chlorosome dimensions for Cb. tepidum was 174 +/- 8.3 x 91.4 +/- 7.7 x 10.9 +/- 2.71 nm and an overall average volume 90,800 nm(3) for the chlorosomes was determined. The data collected from these experiments as well as a model for Bchl c aggregate dimensions was used to determine possible arrangements of Bchl c oligomers in the chlorosomes. The results obtained in this study have significant implications on chlorosome structure and architecture, and will allow a more thorough investigation of the energetics of photosynthetic light harvesting in green bacteria.  (+info)

Exciton theory for supramolecular chlorosomal aggregates: 1. Aggregate size dependence of the linear spectra. (3/61)

The interior of chlorosomes of green bacteria forms an unusual antenna system organized without proteins. The steady-spectra (absorption, circular dichroism, and linear dichroism) have been modeled using the Frenkel Hamiltonian for the large tubular aggregates of bacteriochlorophylls with geometries corresponding to those proposed for Chloroflexus aurantiacus and Chlorobium tepidum chlorosomes. For the Cf. aurantiacus aggregates we apply a structure used previously (V. I. Prokhorenko., D. B. Steensgaard, and A. R. Holzwarth, Biophys: J. 2000, 79:2105-2120), whereas for the Cb. tepidum aggregates a new extended model of double-tube aggregates, based on recently published solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance studies (B.-J. van Rossum, B. Y. van Duhl, D. B. Steensgaard, T. S. Balaban, A. R. Holzwarth, K. Schaffner, and H. J. M. de Groot, Biochemistry 2001, 40:1587-1595), is developed. We find that the circular dichroism spectra depend strongly on the aggregate length for both types of chlorosomes. Their shape changes from "type-II" (negative at short wavelengths to positive at long wavelengths) to the "mixed-type" (negative-positive-negative) in the nomenclature proposed in K. Griebenow, A. R. Holzwarth, F. van Mourik, and R. van Grondelle, Biochim: Biophys. Acta 1991, 1058:194-202, for an aggregate length of 30-40 bacteriochlorophyll molecules per stack. This "size effect" on the circular dichroism spectra is caused by appearance of macroscopic chirality due to circular distribution of the transition dipole moment of the monomers. We visualize these distributions, and also the corresponding Frenkel excitons, using a novel presentation technique. The observed size effects provide a key to explain many previously puzzling and seemingly contradictory experimental data in the literature on the circular and linear dichroism spectra of seemingly identical types of chlorosomes.  (+info)

Presence of exclusively bacteriochlorophyll-c containing substrain in the culture of green sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme strain NCIB 8327 producing bacteriochlorophyll-d. (4/61)

The light-dependent composition change of light harvesting bacteriochlorophyll(BChl)s in the present culture of a green sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobium (Chl.) vibrioforme f. sp. thiosulfatophilum strain NCIB 8327 was investigated by visible absorption spectroscopy and HPLC analyses. When the culture was repeatedly grown in liquid media under a low light condition, both the Soret and Qy absorption bands of the in vivo spectrum were shifted to longer wavelengths. Analysis of the extracted pigments by HPLC revealed that the ratio of the amount of BChl-c to that of BChl-d molecules gradually increased during repeated cultivation. In contrast, when the culture grown under a low light intensity was transferred to a high light condition and continued to be grown, the absorption bands were shifted to shorter wavelengths and the ratio of BChls-c/d decreased finally to the almost original value. Colonies were prepared on solid agar media from the liquid culture containing both BChls-c and d, which was grown under a low light intensity. Each colony obtained was found to contain either BChl-c or d, but not both of them. Two types of cells isolated in this study were derived from the same clone, judged from their genetic analyses. The variation of pigment composition in our liquid culture observed here could be ascribed to the difference of growth rates between two substrains containing BChl-c and BChl-d, respectively, depending on light conditions.  (+info)

Nine mutants of Chlorobium tepidum each unable to synthesize a different chlorosome protein still assemble functional chlorosomes. (5/61)

Chlorosomes of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum comprise mostly bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c), small amounts of BChl a, carotenoids, and quinones surrounded by a lipid-protein envelope. These structures contain 10 different protein species (CsmA, CsmB, CsmC, CsmD, CsmE, CsmF, CsmH, CsmI, CsmJ, and CsmX) but contain relatively little total protein compared to other photosynthetic antenna complexes. Except for CsmA, which has been suggested to bind BChl a, the functions of the chlorosome proteins are not known. Nine mutants in which a single csm gene was inactivated were created; these mutants included genes encoding all chlorosome proteins except CsmA. All mutants had BChl c contents similar to that of the wild-type strain and had growth rates indistinguishable from or within approximately 90% (CsmC(-) and CsmJ(-)) of those of the wild-type strain. Chlorosomes isolated from the mutants lacked only the protein whose gene had been inactivated and were generally similar to those from the wild-type strain with respect to size, shape, and BChl c, BChl a, and carotenoid contents. However, chlorosomes from the csmC mutant were about 25% shorter than those from the wild-type strain, and the BChl c absorbance maximum was blue-shifted about 8 nm, indicating that the structure of the BChl c aggregates in these chlorosomes is altered. The results of the present study establish that, except with CsmA, when the known chlorosome proteins are eliminated individually, none of them are essential for the biogenesis, light harvesting, or structural organization of BChl c and BChl a within the chlorosome. These results demonstrate that chlorosomes are remarkably robust structures that can tolerate considerable changes in protein composition.  (+info)

The bchU gene of Chlorobium tepidum encodes the c-20 methyltransferase in bacteriochlorophyll c biosynthesis. (6/61)

Bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) c and d, two of the major light-harvesting pigments in photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria, differ only by the presence of a methyl group at the C-20 methine bridge position in BChl c. A gene potentially encoding the C-20 methyltransferase, bchU, was identified by comparative analysis of the Chlorobium tepidum and Chloroflexus aurantiacus genome sequences. Homologs of this gene were amplified and sequenced from Chlorobium phaeobacteroides strain 1549, Chlorobium vibrioforme strain 8327d, and C. vibrioforme strain 8327c, which produce BChls e, d, and c, respectively. A single nucleotide insertion in the bchU gene of C. vibrioforme strain 8327d was found to cause a premature, in-frame stop codon and thus the formation of a truncated, nonfunctional gene product. The spontaneous mutant of this strain that produces BChl c (strain 8327c) has a second frameshift mutation that restores the correct reading frame in bchU. The bchU gene was inactivated in C. tepidum, a BChl c-producing species, and the resulting mutant produced only BChl d. Growth rate measurements showed that BChl c- and d-producing strains of the same organism (C. tepidum or C. vibrioforme) have similar growth rates at high and intermediate light intensities but that strains producing BChl c grow faster than those with BChl d at low light intensities. Thus, the bchU gene encodes the C-20 methyltransferase for BChl c biosynthesis in Chlorobium species, and methylation at the C-20 position to produce BChl c rather than BChl d confers a significant competitive advantage to green sulfur bacteria living at limiting red and near-infrared light intensities.  (+info)

Evolution of photosystem I - from symmetry through pseudo-symmetry to asymmetry. (7/61)

The evolution of photosystem (PS) I was probably initiated by the formation of a homodimeric reaction center similar to the one currently present in green bacteria. Gene duplication has generated a heterodimeric reaction center that subsequently evolved to the PSI present in cyanobacteria, algae and plant chloroplasts. During the evolution of PSI several attempts to maximize the efficiency of light harvesting took place in the various organisms. In the Chlorobiaceae, chlorosomes and FMO were added to the homodimeric reaction center. In cyanobacteria phycobilisomes and CP43' evolved to cope with the light limitations and stress conditions. The plant PSI utilizes a modular arrangement of membrane light-harvesting proteins (LHCI). We obtained structural information from the two ends of the evolutionary spectrum. Novel features in the structure of Chlorobium tepidum FMO are reported in this communication. Our structure of plant PSI reveals that the addition of subunit G provided the template for LHCI binding, and the addition of subunit H prevented the possibility of trimer formation and provided a binding site for LHCII and the onset of energy spillover from PSII to PSI.  (+info)

The impact of different intensities of green light on the bacteriochlorophyll homologue composition of the Chlorobiaceae Prosthecochloris aestuarii and Chlorobium phaeobacteroides. (8/61)

Members of the Chlorobiaceae and Chloroflexaceae are unique among the phototrophic micro-organisms in having a remarkably rich chlorophyll pigment diversity. The physiological regulation of this diversity and its ecological implications are still enigmatic. The bacteriochlorophyll composition of the chlorobiaceae Prosthecochloris aestuarii strain CE 2404 and Chlorobium phaeobacteroides strain UdG 6030 was therefore studied by both HPLC with photodiode array (PDA) detection and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). These strains were grown in liquid cultures under green light (480-615 nm) at different light intensities (0.2-55.7 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)), simulating the irradiance regime at different depths of the water column of deep lakes. The specific growth rates of Ptc. aestuarii under green light achieved a maximum of 0.06 h(-1) at light intensities exceeding 6 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1), lower than the maximum observed under white light (approx. 0.1 h(-1)). The maximal growth rates of Chl. phaeobacteroides under green light were slightly higher (0.07 h(-1)) than observed for Ptc. aestuarii and were achieved at 3.5 and 4.3 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1). LC-MS/MS analysis of pigment extracts revealed most (>90 %) BChl c homologues of Ptc. aestuarii to be esterified with farnesol. The homologues differed in mass by multiples of 14 Da, reflecting different alkyl subsituents at positions C-8 and C-12 on the tetrapyrrole macrocycle. The relative proportions of the individual homologues varied only slightly among different light intensities. The specific content of BChl c was maximal at 3-5 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) [400+/-150 nmol BChl c (mg protein)(-1)]. In the case of Chl. phaeobacteroides, the specific content of BChl e was maximal at 4.3 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) [115 nmol BChl e (mg protein)(-1)], and this species was characterized by high carotenoid (isorenieratene) contents. The major BChl e forms were esterified with a range of isoprenoid and straight-chain alcohols. The major isoprenoid alcohols comprised mainly farnesol and to a lesser extent geranylgeraniol. The straight-chain alcohols included C(15), C(15 : 1), C(16), C(16 : 1) and C(17). Interestingly, the proportion of straight alkyl chains over isoprenoid esterified side chains shifted markedly with increasing light intensity: the isoprenoid side chains dominated at low light intensities, while the straight-chain alkyl substituents dominated at higher light intensities. The authors propose that this phenomenon may be explained as a result of changing availability of reducing power, i.e. the highly reduced straight-chain alcohols have a higher biosynthetic demand for NADPH(2) than the polyunsaturated isoprenoid with the same number of carbon atoms.  (+info)

Chlorobium is a genus of photosynthetic bacteria that are primarily found in anaerobic environments, such as freshwater and marine sediments, and in the upper layers of microbial mats. These bacteria contain bacteriochlorophylls and use light energy to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds through a process called chemosynthesis. Chlorobium species are important contributors to the global carbon cycle and play a significant role in the ecology of anaerobic environments.

The medical relevance of Chlorobium is limited, as these bacteria do not typically interact with humans or animals in a way that causes disease. However, they may be of interest to researchers studying photosynthesis, carbon cycling, and microbial ecology.

Chlorobi, also known as green sulfur bacteria, are a group of anaerobic, phototrophic bacteria that contain chlorophylls a and b, as well as bacteriochlorophyll c, d, or e. They obtain energy through photosynthesis, using light as an energy source and sulfide or other reduced sulfur compounds as electron donors. These bacteria are typically found in environments with limited sunlight and high sulfide concentrations, such as in sediments of stratified water bodies or in microbial mats. They play a significant role in the global carbon and sulfur cycles.

Bacteriochlorophylls are a type of pigment that are found in certain bacteria and are used in photosynthesis. They are similar to chlorophylls, which are found in plants and algae, but have some differences in their structure and absorption spectrum. Bacteriochlorophylls absorb light at longer wavelengths than chlorophylls, with absorption peaks in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. This allows bacteria that contain bacteriochlorophylls to carry out photosynthesis in environments with low levels of light or at great depths in the ocean where sunlight is scarce.

There are several different types of bacteriochlorophylls, including bacteriochlorophyll a, bacteriochlorophyll b, and bacteriochlorophyll c. These pigments play a role in the capture of light energy during photosynthesis and are involved in the electron transfer processes that occur during this process. Bacteriochlorophylls are also used as a taxonomic marker to help classify certain groups of bacteria.

Rhodospirillales is an order of predominantly gram-negative, aerobic or anaerobic, motile bacteria that are found in various environments such as freshwater, marine habitats, and soil. Many species in this order are capable of photosynthesis, particularly those belonging to the family Rhodospirillaceae. These photosynthetic bacteria, called purple bacteria, use bacteriochlorophyll and can grow under anaerobic conditions using light as an energy source. The order Rhodospirillales belongs to the class Alphaproteobacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria.

It is important to note that medical definitions typically focus on bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms of clinical relevance. While Rhodospirillales does include some species that can be pathogenic in certain circumstances, it is not primarily a medical term and is more commonly used in the context of environmental or general microbiology.

Photosynthetic Reaction Center (RC) Complex Proteins are specialized protein-pigment structures that play a crucial role in the primary process of light-driven electron transport during photosynthesis. They are present in the thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants.

The Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins are composed of two major components: the light-harvesting complex (LHC) and the reaction center (RC). The LHC contains antenna pigments like chlorophylls and carotenoids that absorb sunlight and transfer the excitation energy to the RC. The RC is a multi-subunit protein complex containing cofactors such as bacteriochlorophyll, pheophytin, quinones, and iron-sulfur clusters.

When a photon of light is absorbed by the antenna pigments in the LHC, the energy is transferred to the RC, where it initiates a charge separation event. This results in the transfer of an electron from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule, creating a flow of electrical charge and generating a transmembrane electrochemical gradient. The energy stored in this gradient is then used to synthesize ATP and reduce NADP+, which are essential for carbon fixation and other metabolic processes in the cell.

In summary, Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins are specialized protein structures involved in capturing light energy and converting it into chemical energy during photosynthesis, ultimately driving the synthesis of ATP and NADPH for use in carbon fixation and other metabolic processes.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Levulinic acid is not specifically a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with the formula C5H8O2. It is a white crystalline solid that is used in the production of various chemicals and materials. However, I can provide you with some general information about levulinic acid:

Levulinic acid is a saturated carboxylic acid, which means it contains a carboxyl group (-COOH) and is fully saturated with hydrogen atoms. It is an alpha-beta unsaturated carboxylic acid due to the presence of a carbon-carbon double bond (C=C) between the second and third carbon atoms in its structure.

Levulinic acid can be found naturally in small amounts in various fruits, such as apples and grapes, and is also present in some fermented foods like beer and wine. It can be produced industrially from biomass sources, such as cellulose or lignocellulosic materials, through a process called acid hydrolysis.

In the medical field, levulinic acid may have potential applications as an antimicrobial agent due to its ability to inhibit the growth of certain bacteria and fungi. It is also used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other chemical products. However, it is not a substance that is typically directly associated with medical treatment or diagnosis.

Rhodospirillaceae is a family of purple bacteria within the class Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are characterized by their ability to perform anoxygenic photosynthesis, using bacteriochlorophyll and other pigments to capture light energy for use in metabolism. They typically contain one or more polar flagella and have a spiral or curved cell shape. Members of this family can be found in various environments such as freshwater, marine habitats, and soil, where they play important roles in carbon and nitrogen cycling. Some species are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, making them significant contributors to the global nitrogen cycle.

Sulfur is not typically referred to in the context of a medical definition, as it is an element found in nature and not a specific medical condition or concept. However, sulfur does have some relevance to certain medical topics:

* Sulfur is an essential element that is a component of several amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and is necessary for the proper functioning of enzymes and other biological processes in the body.
* Sulfur-containing compounds, such as glutathione, play important roles in antioxidant defense and detoxification in the body.
* Some medications and supplements contain sulfur or sulfur-containing compounds, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which is used topically for pain relief and inflammation.
* Sulfur baths and other forms of sulfur-based therapies have been used historically in alternative medicine to treat various conditions, although their effectiveness is not well-established by scientific research.

It's important to note that while sulfur itself is not a medical term, it can be relevant to certain medical topics and should be discussed with a healthcare professional if you have any questions or concerns about its use in medications, supplements, or therapies.

Light-harvesting protein complexes are specialized structures in photosynthetic organisms, such as plants, algae, and some bacteria, that capture and transfer light energy to the reaction centers where the initial chemical reactions of photosynthesis occur. These complexes consist of proteins and pigments (primarily chlorophylls and carotenoids) arranged in a way that allows them to absorb light most efficiently. The absorbed light energy is then converted into electrical charges, which are transferred to the reaction centers for further chemical reactions leading to the production of organic compounds and oxygen. The light-harvesting protein complexes play a crucial role in initiating the process of photosynthesis and optimizing its efficiency by capturing and distributing light energy.

Thiosulfates are salts or esters of thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3). In medicine, sodium thiosulfate is used as an antidote for cyanide poisoning and as a topical treatment for wounds, skin irritations, and certain types of burns. It works by converting toxic substances into less harmful forms that can be eliminated from the body. Sodium thiosulfate is also used in some solutions for irrigation of the bladder or kidneys to help prevent the formation of calcium oxalate stones.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "photochemistry" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Photochemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the chemical effects of light. It involves the absorption of light by a substance, which can lead to the promotion of an electron to a higher energy state, and subsequently result in various chemical reactions.

In a medical context, photochemical processes might be discussed in relation to certain therapies or diagnostic techniques, such as photodynamic therapy for cancer treatment, where a photosensitizing agent is used that reacts with light to produce singlet oxygen or other reactive species to destroy nearby cells. However, it's not a term used to define a specific medical condition or concept in the same way that one might define "inflammation" or "metabolism."

Photosynthesis is not strictly a medical term, but it is a fundamental biological process with significant implications for medicine, particularly in understanding energy production in cells and the role of oxygen in sustaining life. Here's a general biological definition:

Photosynthesis is a process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy, usually from the sun, into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds, such as glucose (or sugar), using water and carbon dioxide. This process primarily takes place in the chloroplasts of plant cells, specifically in structures called thylakoids. The overall reaction can be summarized as:

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2

In this equation, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) are the reactants, while glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2) are the products. Photosynthesis has two main stages: the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle). The light-dependent reactions occur in the thylakoid membrane and involve the conversion of light energy into ATP and NADPH, which are used to power the Calvin cycle. The Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts and involves the synthesis of glucose from CO2 and water using the ATP and NADPH generated during the light-dependent reactions.

Understanding photosynthesis is crucial for understanding various biological processes, including cellular respiration, plant metabolism, and the global carbon cycle. Additionally, research into artificial photosynthesis has potential applications in renewable energy production and environmental remediation.

"Energy transfer" is a general term used in the field of physics and physiology, including medical sciences, to describe the process by which energy is passed from one system, entity, or location to another. In the context of medicine, energy transfer often refers to the ways in which cells and organ systems exchange and utilize various forms of energy for proper functioning and maintenance of life.

In a more specific sense, "energy transfer" may refer to:

1. Bioenergetics: This is the study of energy flow through living organisms, including the conversion, storage, and utilization of energy in biological systems. Key processes include cellular respiration, photosynthesis, and metabolic pathways that transform energy into forms useful for growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
2. Electron transfer: In biochemistry, electrons are transferred between molecules during redox reactions, which play a crucial role in energy production and consumption within cells. Examples include the electron transport chain (ETC) in mitochondria, where high-energy electrons from NADH and FADH2 are passed along a series of protein complexes to generate an electrochemical gradient that drives ATP synthesis.
3. Heat transfer: This is the exchange of thermal energy between systems or objects due to temperature differences. In medicine, heat transfer can be relevant in understanding how body temperature is regulated and maintained, as well as in therapeutic interventions such as hyperthermia or cryotherapy.
4. Mechanical energy transfer: This refers to the transmission of mechanical force or motion from one part of the body to another. For instance, muscle contractions generate forces that are transmitted through tendons and bones to produce movement and maintain posture.
5. Radiation therapy: In oncology, ionizing radiation is used to treat cancer by transferring energy to malignant cells, causing damage to their DNA and leading to cell death or impaired function.
6. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This non-invasive diagnostic technique uses magnetic fields and radio waves to excite hydrogen nuclei in the body, which then release energy as they return to their ground state. The resulting signals are used to generate detailed images of internal structures and tissues.

In summary, "energy transfer" is a broad term that encompasses various processes by which different forms of energy (thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, etc.) are exchanged or transmitted between systems or objects in the context of medicine and healthcare.

In the context of medicine and toxicology, sulfides refer to inorganic or organic compounds containing the sulfide ion (S2-). Sulfides can be found in various forms such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), metal sulfides, and organic sulfides (also known as thioethers).

Hydrogen sulfide is a toxic gas with a characteristic rotten egg smell. It can cause various adverse health effects, including respiratory irritation, headaches, nausea, and, at high concentrations, loss of consciousness or even death. Metal sulfides, such as those found in some minerals, can also be toxic and may release hazardous sulfur dioxide (SO2) when heated or reacted with acidic substances.

Organic sulfides, on the other hand, are a class of organic compounds containing a sulfur atom bonded to two carbon atoms. They can occur naturally in some plants and animals or be synthesized in laboratories. Some organic sulfides have medicinal uses, while others may pose health risks depending on their concentration and route of exposure.

It is important to note that the term "sulfide" has different meanings in various scientific contexts, so it is essential to consider the specific context when interpreting this term.

Cytochrome c is a small protein that is involved in the electron transport chain, a key part of cellular respiration in which cells generate energy in the form of ATP. Cytochrome c contains a heme group, which binds to and transports electrons. The cytochrome c group refers to a class of related cytochromes that have similar structures and functions. These proteins are found in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells (such as those of plants and animals) and in the inner membranes of bacteria. They play a crucial role in the production of energy within the cell, and are also involved in certain types of programmed cell death (apoptosis).

Spectrophotometry is a technical analytical method used in the field of medicine and science to measure the amount of light absorbed or transmitted by a substance at specific wavelengths. This technique involves the use of a spectrophotometer, an instrument that measures the intensity of light as it passes through a sample.

In medical applications, spectrophotometry is often used in laboratory settings to analyze various biological samples such as blood, urine, and tissues. For example, it can be used to measure the concentration of specific chemicals or compounds in a sample by measuring the amount of light that is absorbed or transmitted at specific wavelengths.

In addition, spectrophotometry can also be used to assess the properties of biological tissues, such as their optical density and thickness. This information can be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions, including skin disorders, eye diseases, and cancer.

Overall, spectrophotometry is a valuable tool for medical professionals and researchers seeking to understand the composition and properties of various biological samples and tissues.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "spectrum analysis" is not a commonly used medical term. Spectrum analysis is a term that is more frequently used in the fields of physics, mathematics, and engineering to describe the process of breaking down a signal or a wave into its different frequencies and amplitudes, creating a visual representation called a spectrum.

If you have any concerns about a medical issue, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional for accurate information and guidance.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

"Chlorobium". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved 2022-09-09. Sayers; et al. "Chlorobium ... Of these 65 proteins, 8 are found only in Chlorobium luteolum and Chlorobium phaeovibrioides. These two species form a strongly ... Chlorobium species are thought to have played an important part in mass extinction events on Earth. If the oceans turn anoxic ( ... Chlorobium is a genus of green sulfur bacteria. They are photolithotrophic oxidizers of sulfur and most notably utilise a ...
... is a gram negative bacterial member of green sulfur bacteria genus found in freshwater hot springs. C. ... Chlorobium limicola reduces hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which could eliminate the use of chloroform for the extraction ... "Home - Chlorobium limicola DSM 245". Genome Portal of the Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute. Retrieved 2021-10-06. " ... "Chlorobium limicola DSM 245". Integrated Microbial Genomes database of the Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute. ...
... , originally known as Chlorobium aggregatum, is a symbiotic green sulfur bacteria that performs ... Chlorobium chlorochromatii prefer environments with low temperature and low sulfur concentrations. Chlorobium chlorochromatii, ... doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2004.01270.x. "Summary of Chlorobium chlorochromatii". Summary of Chlorobium chlorochromatii, Strain ... "Chlorobium chlorochromatii sp. nov., a symbiotic green sulfur bacterium isolated from the phototrophic consortium "Chlorobium ...
Vogl, Kajetan; Glaeser, Jens; Pfannes, Kristina R.; Wanner, Gerhard; Overmann, Jörg (2006-06-01). "Chlorobium chlorochromatii ...
Generally, Chlorobium are rod or vibroid shaped and some species contain gas vesicles. They can develop as single or aggregate ... Members of this genus used to be a part of the genus Chlorobium, but have formed a separate lineage. The genus Chloroherpeton ... Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Chew, Aline Gomez Maqueo; Li, Hui; Maresca, Julia A.; Bryant, Donald A. (2003). "Chlorobium Tepidum : ... Examples of green sulfur bacteria capable of nitrogen fixation include the genus Chlorobium and Pelodictyon, excluding P. ...
Chlorobium), Green non-sulfur bacteria (e.g., Chloroflexus), or the heliobacteria (Low %G+C Gram positives). In addition to ...
... the dominant species identified were Chlorobium vibrioforme and Chlorobium limicola. Thiocapsa roseopersicina and ... In the anoxic water zone (temperature range of −5 °C (23 °F) to −2.2 °C (28.0 °F)) of the lake, Chlorobium spp. and T. ... The dominance of the species Chlorobium spp. was attributed to "more efficient maintenance metabolism in winter and of their ... Other dominant varieties of bacteria found are Chlorobium vibrioforme and C. limicola. The minor species identified are ...
Chlorobium and Rhizobial species). The proteins are of about 480 aas with 12-14 putative TMSs. An open reading frame (ORF) from ...
Castenholz RW, Bauld J, Jørgenson BB (1990-12-01). "Anoxygenic microbial mats of hot springs: thermophilic Chlorobium sp". FEMS ...
Fenna, R. E.; Matthews, B. W. (1975). "Chlorophyll arrangement in a bacteriochlorophyll protein from Chlorobium limicola". ... "The reaction center complex from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum: a structural analysis by scanning transmission ...
Chlorobium tepidum) enzyme catalyses the final step in the de novo synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin from GTP. Cho SH, Na JU, ... Youn H, Hwang CS, Lee CH, Kang SO (June 1999). "Sepiapterin reductase producing L-threo-dihydrobiopterin from Chlorobium ... crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of sepiapterin reductase from Chlorobium tepidum". Acta Crystallographica ...
Fenna RE, Matthews BW (1975). "Chlorophyll arrangement in a bacteriochlorophyll protein from Chlorobium limicola". Nature. 258 ...
Examples of phototroph organisms are Rhodobacter capsulatus, Chromatium, and Chlorobium. Originally used with a different ...
"Chlorobium tepidum" at the Encyclopedia of Life v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ... Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Chew, Aline Gomez Maqueo; Li, Hui; Maresca, Julia A.; Bryant, Donald A. (2003). "Chlorobium Tepidum : ... Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Chew, Aline Gomez Maqueo; Li, Hui; Maresca, Julia A.; Bryant, Donald A. (2003). "Chlorobium Tepidum : ... Frigaard NU, Voigt GD, Bryant DA (June 2002). "Chlorobium tepidum mutant lacking bacteriochlorophyll c made by inactivation of ...
Kim W, Tabita FR (September 2006). "Both subunits of ATP-citrate lyase from Chlorobium tepidum contribute to catalytic activity ...
Chlorobium are the brown-colored strains of the family of green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae). Green sulfur bacteria are ... Isorenieratene /ˌaɪsoʊrəˈnɪərətiːn/ is a carotenoid light harvesting pigment produced exclusively by the genus Chlorobium. ...
July 2002). "The complete genome sequence of Chlorobium tepidum TLS, a photosynthetic, anaerobic, green-sulfur bacterium". ...
2002). "The complete genome sequence of Chlorobium tepidum TLS, a photosynthetic, anaerobic, green-sulfur bacterium". Proc. ...
Yamanaka, T.; Fukumori, Y.; Okunuki, K. (1979). "Preparation of subunits of flavocytochromes c derived from Chlorobium limicola ...
A new species of bacteria was discovered from Brownie Lake in 2021 and named "Candidatus Chlorobium masyuteum". This organism ... "Candidatus Chlorobium masyuteum," a Novel Photoferrotrophic Green Sulfur Bacterium Enriched From a Ferruginous Meromictic Lake ...
... chlorobium vesicles) and of their membrane attachment sites in Chlorobium Limicola". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ...
Example genera: Chlorobium Pelodictyon Prostecochloris Phylum Chloroflexota, class Chloroflexia ("green non-sulfur bacteria"), ... Molecular Contacts for Chlorosome Envelope Proteins Revealed by Cross-Linking Studies with Chlorosomes from Chlorobium tepidum ...
Desulfuromonas acetooxidans is able to grow in cocultures with green sulfur bacteria such as Chlorobium (vibrioforme and ... "Exemplar Abstract for Chlorobium vibrioforme Pelsh 1936 (Approved Lists 1980) and Prosthecochloris vibrioformis (Pelsh 1936) ...
Kusai K, Yamanaka T (November 1973). "The oxidation mechanisms of thiosulphate and sulphide in Chlorobium thiosulphatophilum: ...
... can also work as electron donor for growth of bacteria oxidizing sulfur, such as Chlorobium limicola forma ...
It was discovered by Evans, Buchanan and Arnon in 1966 working with the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium ...
Chlorobium tepidum and proteobacteria): implications regarding the origin of photosynthesis". Molecular Microbiology. 32 (5): ...
Some PPases from Anaerostipes caccae, Chlorobium limicola, Clostridium tetani, and Desulfuromonas acetoxidans have been ...
Chlorobium tepidum and proteobacteria): Implications regarding the origin of photosynthesis". Mol Microbiol. 32 (5): 893-906. ...
Chlorobium tepidum TLS and Pelodictyon phaeoclathratiforme BU-1". BMC Research Notes. 8 (565): 565. doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1535 ...
"Chlorobium". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved 2022-09-09. Sayers; et al. "Chlorobium ... Of these 65 proteins, 8 are found only in Chlorobium luteolum and Chlorobium phaeovibrioides. These two species form a strongly ... Chlorobium species are thought to have played an important part in mass extinction events on Earth. If the oceans turn anoxic ( ... Chlorobium is a genus of green sulfur bacteria. They are photolithotrophic oxidizers of sulfur and most notably utilise a ...
Crystal structure of thiol:disulfide interchange protein, thioredoxin family protein from Chlorobium tepidum TLS. *PDB DOI: ... Crystal structure of thiol:disulfide interchange protein, thioredoxin family protein from Chlorobium tepidum TLS. Bagaria, A., ... thioredoxin family protein from Chlorobium tepidum TLS ...
name=SAM regulon. species= Chlorobium phaeobacteroides DSM 266. (optional)size=1. ...
Dive into the research topics of A refined model of the chlorosomal antennae of the green bacterium chlorobium tepidum from ... A refined model of the chlorosomal antennae of the green bacterium chlorobium tepidum from proton chemical shift constraints ... A refined model of the chlorosomal antennae of the green bacterium chlorobium tepidum from proton chemical shift constraints ... title = "A refined model of the chlorosomal antennae of the green bacterium chlorobium tepidum from proton chemical shift ...
AAS73112; putative methylase of Chlorobium tepidum, accession no. AAM72273; hypothetical protein of Nanoarchaeum equitans, ...
... and Chlorobium) as predictive bioindicators for ecological risk assessment for metal pollution. ... For example, Chlorobium was observed to be intolerant to the exposure of heavy metals such as Pb and Cu in the microcosms ( ... Chlorobium, Exiguobacterium, Psychrobacter. Aquicella, Agrobacterium, Gemmata, Sphingomonas, Nitrospira, Balneimonas, ... Chlorobium was identified as intolerant as this genus disappeared in the treatment microcosms relative to the controls as the ...
Species Chlorobium tepidum [TaxId:1097] [117975] (2 PDB entries). Uniprot Q8KBL4 1-428. ... d1telb2 d.58.9.1 (B:2001-2145) Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase {Chlorobium tepidum [TaxId: 1097]} ... PDB Description: crystal structure of a rubisco-like protein from chlorobium tepidum ...
Their partner organisms, green photosynthetic bacteria (Chlorobium), use the provided hydrogen sulfide for photosynthesis, ...
PDB Description: the x-ray structure of chlorobium vibrioforme 5-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase complexed with a diacid ...
Electromagnetic study of the chlorosome antenna complex of Chlorobium-tepidum" ACS Nano: 8, 3884 (2014) ...
Crystal structure of photosystem I. Structure and function of FeS-type centers of Chlorobium and Heliobacteria, comparison with ...
Ca. Chlorobium masyuteum. Reported in. Lambrecht et al., 2021 and Lambrecht et al., 2021 Status. Automated discovery Registered ...
Chlorobium limicola DSM 245 Bacteria hitchhiker 0.0000000000152188 n/a -. NC_011059 Paes_R0024 tRNA-Met 97.3 ...
Chlorobium phaeobacteroides DSM 266 Bacteria normal 0.383518 n/a -. NC_007796 Mhun_2782 putative transcriptional regulator ... Chlorobium phaeobacteroides DSM 266 Bacteria decreased coverage 0.00960244 n/a -. NC_013422 Hneap_0615 putative transcriptional ...
Therefore, although Chlorobium spp. was present at a higher percentage as in the 30 d pioneer trial, the removal of COD and ... Chlorobium spp. was dominant, followed by Magnetospirillum spp. and Ornithobacterium spp. The liquid content changed to a dark ... Chlorobium spp. was dominant, gevolg deur Magnetospirillum spp. en Ornithobacterium spp. Die vloeistof inhoud het na n donker ... Die effek van n reeds bestaande biofilm in die bioreaktore het gewys dat Chlorobium spp. ook gedomineer het teen n relatiewe ...
... named Chlorobium chlorochromatii, was shown to be similar to other green sulfur bacteria: it is obligately anaerobic, possesses ...
Host Lineage: Chlorobium limicola; Chlorobium; Chlorobiaceae; Chlorobiales; Chlorobi; Bacteria. General Information: Isolated ... Query: NC_010803:242705:261146 Chlorobium limicola DSM 245, complete genome. Start: 261146, End: 261472, Length: 327. ...
Query: NC_010803:242705 Chlorobium limicola DSM 245, complete genome. D: 41.3642. Host Lineage: Chlorobium limicola; Chlorobium ... Chlorobium phaeobacteroides DSM 266, complete genome. 77.6134 %. Subject ←→ Query. 36.2623. NC_008639:2460033. Chlorobium ... Chlorobium limicola DSM 245, complete genome. 82.8309 %. Subject ←→ Query. 44.7864. NC_011979:1590432*. Geobacter sp. FRC-32, ... Chlorobium phaeobacteroides DSM 266, complete genome. 77.6838 %. Subject ←→ Query. 38.2214. NC_016048:751000*. Oscillibacter ...
Chlorobium. *Bacterioplankton, floating bacteria, use dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) as a source of sulfur for their ... they belong to photolithotrophs group which includes Chromatium and Chlorobium. ...
4) Chlorobium. 16. Fruiting body is characteristic of…. (A) Algae. (B) Lichens ...
Chlorobium limicola. Atypical 2-Cysteine peroxiredoxin (type BCP). complete. Filippo Passardi. 5058. CliDiHCcP Bacteroidetes/ ...
Chlorobium chlorochromatii. Bacteria. -. - -. SLCC_CHRSD. (S)-sulfolactate dehydrogenase. SERA. Chromohalobacter salexigens. ...
Characterization of Chlorobium tepidum chlorosomes: A calculation of bacteriochlorophyll c per chlorosome and oligomer modeling ...
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Chlorobium tepidum); SFE89490 (Alteribacillus iranensis); YBGE_BACSU (Bacillus subtilis); ILVE_SALTY (Salmonella typhimurium); ...
Chlorobium tepidum TLS. Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Clostridium perfringens str. 13. Clostridium tetani E88. ...
Photosynthetic (also called phototrophs)- which grow due to sunlight e.g. Rhodospirillium, Chlorobium, Chromatium. ...
Number of sequences belonging to cluster in the Chlorobium limicola DSM 245 sequence. ... Number of sequences belonging to cluster in the Chlorobium phaeobacteroides DSM 266 sequence. ... Number of sequences belonging to cluster in the Chlorobium chlorochromatii CaD3 sequence. ...
3. Appears to be some Chlorobium growth - MEDIUM WORKS! - the next step is to make plates and see if they work - making the ... 3. Appears to be some ,b,Chlorobium growth,/b, - MEDIUM WORKS! - the next step is to make plates and see if they work - making ... 1 - make Chlorobium plates with and without antibiotics and put them in Capital Health anaerobic chamber,br,. ... 5-made Chlorobium plates - 7 amp/7 non-selective and they are in anaerobic chamber (capital health),br,. ...
  • Heteronuclear 2-D and 3-D magic-angle spinning NMR dipolar correlation spectroscopy was applied to determine solid-state 1H shifts for aggregated bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c) in uniformly 13C-enriched light harvesting chlorosomes of the green photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. (wur.nl)
  • putative methylase of Chlorobium tepidum , accession no. (cdc.gov)
  • From the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum , we have purified three factors indispensable for the thiosulfate-dependent reduction of the small, monoheme cytochrome c554. (kanagawa-u.ac.jp)
  • Diplomonad FBAs share a most recent common ancestor, while FBAs of the three other protist species are part of a lineage that also includes sequences from a few eubacteria (Clostridium difficile, Treponema pallidum, Chlorobium tepidum). (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Chlorobium is a genus of green sulfur bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorobium aggregatum is a species which exists in a symbiotic relationship with a colorless, nonphotosynthetic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group of bacteria which carry out aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis in deep water zone, also are sulfur oxidizers, they belong to photolithotrophs group which includes Chromatium and Chlorobium . (microbiologynotes.org)
  • If the oceans turn anoxic (due to the shutdown of ocean circulation) then Chlorobium would be able to out compete other photosynthetic life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of these 65 proteins, 8 are found only in Chlorobium luteolum and Chlorobium phaeovibrioides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorobium species are thought to have played an important part in mass extinction events on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the 30 d trials a white precipitant formed at the top of the bioreactors, consisting primarily of sulphate and carbon that was also indicative of the presence of Chlorobium spp. (ndltd.org)
  • in a Winogradsky column, the green layer often observed is composed of Chlorobium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence for abundant Chlorobium populations is provided by chemical fossils found in sediments deposited at the Cretaceous mass extinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystal structure of photosystem I. Structure and function of FeS-type centers of Chlorobium and Heliobacteria, comparison with photosystem I. FeS-type centers containing chlorophyll d. (elte.hu)
  • 12) The Synechocystis 6803 amino acid sequence shows significant similarity upon alignment with HemA sequences from E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhimurium, and Chlorobium vibrioforme but does not contain the amino acid sequence derived from the N terminus of the previously purified GluTR protein (Rieble, S., and Beale, S. I. (comparewords.com)