Chlorobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.Catechol 1,2-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.1 and EC 1.99.2.2.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.PhenanthrenesAntarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Tetraoxanes: Compounds with two peroxide groups, that is, two pairs of adjacent OXYGEN atoms. They may have activity against PLASMODIUM similar to the ARTEMISININS.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Magnetometry: The measurement of various aspects of MAGNETIC FIELDS.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Salivary Duct Calculi: Presence of small calculi in the terminal salivary ducts (salivary sand), or stones (larger calculi) found in the larger ducts.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Programming, Linear: A technique of operations research for solving certain kinds of problems involving many variables where a best value or set of best values is to be found. It is most likely to be feasible when the quantity to be optimized, sometimes called the objective function, can be stated as a mathematical expression in terms of the various activities within the system, and when this expression is simply proportional to the measure of the activities, i.e., is linear, and when all the restrictions are also linear. It is different from computer programming, although problems using linear programming techniques may be programmed on a computer.Nigella sativa: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains alpha-hederin, a triterpene saponin in the seeds, and is the source of black seed oil.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.EthersEstrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Purine Nucleosides: Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.Pyrimidine Nucleosides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.Nucleoside Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Pteridophyta: An extremely diverse group of approximately 12,000 species of FERNS and so-called fern allies.Equisetum: The only living genus of the order Equisetales, class Equisetopsida (Sphenopsida), division Equisetophyta (Sphenophyta); distantly related to ferns. It grows in moist places. The hollow, jointed, ridged stems contain SILICATES.Tracheobionta: A subset of various vascular plants (also known as the Tracheophyta) which include seed-bearing and non seed-bearing species.Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Lycopodiaceae: The club-moss plant family of the order Lycopodiales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. The common name of clubmoss applies to several genera of this family. Despite the name this is not one of the true mosses (BRYOPSIDA).Selaginellaceae: A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.

Intestinal prokinesia by two esters of 4-amino-5-chloro-2- methoxybenzoic acid: involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 receptors and dissociation from cardiac effects in vivo. (1/180)

In five fasting, conscious dogs, we compared the prokinetic action of two selective 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 (5-HT4) receptor agonists with low affinity for 5-HT3 receptors ML10302 (2-piperidinoethyl 4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoate) and SR59768 (2-[(3S)-3-hydroxypiperidino]ethyl 4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoate) in the duodenum and jejunum, using cisapride as a reference compound. Heart rate and rate-corrected QT (QTc) also were monitored to assess whether or not the cardiac effects of cisapride are shared by other 5-HT4 receptor agonists. Both ML10302 and SR59768 dose-dependently stimulated spike activity in the duodenum with similar potencies (dose range, 3-300 nmol/kg i.v.; ED50 values: 24 and 23 nmol/kg i.v., respectively), mimicking the effect of cisapride (30-3000 nmol/kg i.v.). The maximal effect was achieved with the dose of 100 nmol/kg i.v. for both compounds. Similar findings were obtained in the jejunum. Atropine and GR125487 (1-[2-[(methylsulfonyl)amino]ethyl]-4-piperidinyl-methyl 5-fluoro-2-methoxy-1H-indole-3-carboxylate, selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist), at doses having no effect per se, antagonized intestinal prokinesia by maximal doses of ML10302 and SR59768. Neither ML10302 nor SR59768 had any effect on heart rate or QTc at any of the doses tested, whereas cisapride, at the highest dose (3000 nmol/kg), induced tachycardia and lengthened the QTC (p <.01). In conclusion, ML10302 and SR59768 share with cisapride a similar prokinetic action in the canine duodenum and jejunum in vivo. This effect is mediated by pathways involving activation of 5-HT4 and muscarinic receptors. Unlike cisapride, which induces tachycardia and prolongs the QTc by a mechanism probably unrelated to 5-HT4 receptor activation, ML10302 and SR59768 are devoid of cardiac effects in this model.  (+info)

Selection of clc, cba, and fcb chlorobenzoate-catabolic genotypes from groundwater and surface waters adjacent to the Hyde park, Niagara Falls, chemical landfill. (2/180)

The frequency of isolation of three nonhomologous chlorobenzoate catabolic genotypes (clc, cba, and fcb) was determined for 464 isolates from freshwater sediments and groundwater in the vicinity of the Hyde Park industrial landfill site in the Niagara watershed. Samples were collected from both contaminated and noncontaminated sites during spring, summer, and fall and enriched at 4, 22, or 32 degrees C with micromolar to millimolar concentrations of chlorobenzoates and 3-chlorobiphenyl (M. C. Peel and R. C. Wyndham, Microb. Ecol: 33:59-68, 1997). Hybridization at moderate stringency to restriction-digested genomic DNA with DNA probes revealed the chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase operon (clcABD), the 3-chlorobenzoate 3,4-(4,5)-dioxygenase operon (cbaABC), and the 4-chlorobenzoate dehalogenase (fcbB) gene in isolates enriched from all contaminated sites in the vicinity of the industrial landfill. Nevertheless, the known genes were found in less than 10% of the isolates from the contaminated sites, indicating a high level of genetic diversity in the microbial community. The known genotypes were not enriched from the noncontaminated control sites nearby. The clc, cba, and fcb isolates were distributed across five phenotypically distinct groups based on Biolog carbon source utilization, with the breadth of the host range decreasing in the order clc > cba > fcb. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns showed that the cba genes were conserved in all isolates whereas the clc and fcb genes exhibited variation in RFLP patterns. These observations are consistent with the recent spread of the cba genes by horizontal transfer as part of transposon Tn5271 in response to contaminant exposure at Hyde Park. Consistent with this hypothesis, IS1071, the flanking element in Tn5271, was found in all isolates that carried the cba genes. Interestingly, IS1071 was also found in a high proportion of isolates from Hyde Park carrying the clc and fcb genes, as well as in type strains carrying the clcABD operon and the biphenyl (bph) catabolic genes.  (+info)

Cloning, expression, and nucleotide sequence of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa 142 ohb genes coding for oxygenolytic ortho dehalogenation of halobenzoates. (3/180)

We have cloned and characterized novel oxygenolytic ortho-dehalogenation (ohb) genes from 2-chlorobenzoate (2-CBA)- and 2,4-dichlorobenzoate (2,4-dCBA)-degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa 142. Among 3,700 Escherichia coli recombinants, two clones, DH5alphaF'(pOD22) and DH5alphaF'(pOD33), converted 2-CBA to catechol and 2,4-dCBA and 2,5-dCBA to 4-chlorocatechol. A subclone of pOD33, plasmid pE43, containing the 3,687-bp minimized ohb DNA region conferred to P. putida PB2440 the ability to grow on 2-CBA as a sole carbon source. Strain PB2440(pE43) also oxidized but did not grow on 2,4-dCBA, 2,5-dCBA, or 2,6-dCBA. Terminal oxidoreductase ISPOHB structural genes ohbA and ohbB, which encode polypeptides with molecular masses of 20,253 Da (beta-ISP) and 48,243 Da (alpha-ISP), respectively, were identified; these proteins are in accord with the 22- and 48-kDa (as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) polypeptides synthesized in E. coli and P. aeruginosa parental strain 142. The ortho-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase activity was manifested in the absence of ferredoxin and reductase genes, suggesting that the ISPOHB utilized electron transfer components provided by the heterologous hosts. ISPOHB formed a new phylogenetic cluster that includes aromatic oxygenases featuring atypical structural-functional organization and is distant from the other members of the family of primary aromatic oxygenases. A putative IclR-type regulatory gene (ohbR) was located upstream of the ohbAB genes. An open reading frame (ohbC) of unknown function that overlaps lengthwise with ohbB but is transcribed in the opposite direction was found. The ohbC gene codes for a 48,969-Da polypeptide, in accord with the 49-kDa protein detected in E. coli. The ohb genes are flanked by an IS1396-like sequence containing a putative gene for a 39,715-Da transposase A (tnpA) at positions 4731 to 5747 and a putative gene for a 45,247-Da DNA topoisomerase I/III (top) at positions 346 to 1563. The ohb DNA region is bordered by 14-bp imperfect inverted repeats at positions 56 to 69 and 5984 to 5997.  (+info)

Construction and characterization of two recombinant bacteria that grow on ortho- and para-substituted chlorobiphenyls. (4/180)

Cloning and expression of the aromatic ring dehalogenation genes in biphenyl-growing, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-cometabolizing Comamonas testosteroni VP44 resulted in recombinant pathways allowing growth on ortho- and para-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) as a sole carbon source. The recombinant variants were constructed by transformation of strain VP44 with plasmids carrying specific genes for dehalogenation of chlorobenzoates (CBAs). Plasmid pE43 carries the Pseudomonas aeruginosa 142 ohb genes coding for the terminal oxygenase (ISPOHB) of the ortho-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase, whereas plasmid pPC3 contains the Arthrobacter globiformis KZT1 fcb genes, which catalyze the hydrolytic para-dechlorination of 4-CBA. The parental strain, VP44, grew only on low concentrations of 2- and 4-CB by using the products from the fission of the nonchlorinated ring of the CBs (pentadiene) and accumulated stoichiometric amounts of the corresponding CBAs. The recombinant strains VP44(pPC3) and VP44(pE43) grew on, and completely dechlorinated high concentrations (up to 10 mM), of 4-CBA and 4-CB and 2-CBA and 2-CB, respectively. Cell protein yield corresponded to complete oxidation of both biphenyl rings, thus confirming mineralization of the CBs. Hence, the use of CBA dehalogenase genes appears to be an effective strategy for construction of organisms that will grow on at least some congeners important for remediation of PCBs.  (+info)

Cloning and sequencing of the fcbB gene encoding 4-chlorobenzoate-coenzyme A dehalogenase from Pseudomonas sp. DJ-12. (5/180)

Pseudomonas sp. DJ-12 degrades 4-chlorobenzoate through hydrolytic dechlorination to produce 4-hydroxybenzoate and a chloride ion. The fcbB gene encoding the 4-chlorobenzoate-coenzyme A (4CBA-CoA) dehalogenase which catalyzes the nucleophilic substitution reaction to convert 4CBA-CoA to 4-hydroxybenzoate-coenzyme A (4HBA-CoA) in the consecutive steps of dechlorination was cloned from the chromosome of the organism. A nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene showed an open reading frame consisting of 810 nucleotides, which can encode for a polypeptide of molecular mass 30 kDa, containing 269 amino acid residues. A promoter-like sequence (-35 and -10 region) and a putative ribosome-binding sequence were identified. A deduced amino acid sequence of the 4CBA-CoA dehalogenase showed 86%, 50%, and 50% identity with those of corresponding enzymes in the Pseudomonas sp. CBS3, Arthrobacter sp. SU, and Arthrobacter sp. TM1, respectively.  (+info)

Membrane tubule-mediated reassembly and maintenance of the Golgi complex is disrupted by phospholipase A2 antagonists. (6/180)

Although membrane tubules can be found extending from, and associated with, the Golgi complex of eukaryotic cells, their physiological function has remained unclear. To gain insight into the biological significance of membrane tubules, we have developed methods for selectively preventing their formation. We show here that a broad range of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) antagonists not only arrest membrane tubule-mediated events that occur late in the assembly of the Golgi complex but also perturb its normal steady-state tubulovesicular architecture by inducing a reversible fragmentation into separate "mini-stacks." In addition, we show that these same compounds prevent the formation of membrane tubules from Golgi stacks in an in vitro reconstitution system. This in vitro assay was further used to demonstrate that the relevant PLA2 activity originates from the cytoplasm. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Golgi membrane tubules, sensitive to potent and selective PLA2 antagonists, mediate both late events in the reassembly of the Golgi complex and the dynamic maintenance of its steady-state architecture. In addition, they implicate a role for cytoplasmic PLA2 enzymes in mediating these membrane trafficking events.  (+info)

Regiospecificity of dioxygenation of di- to pentachlorobiphenyls and their degradation to chlorobenzoates by the bph-encoded catabolic pathway of Burkholderia sp. strain LB400. (7/180)

Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 is one of the most potent aerobic polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-degrading microorganisms that have been characterized. Its PCB-dioxygenating activity originates predominantly or exclusively from the biphenyl dioxygenase encoded by its bph gene cluster. Analysis of the dioxygenation products of several di- to pentachlorinated biphenyls formed by this enzyme revealed a complex dependence of the regiospecificity and the yield of dioxygenation on the substitution patterns of both the oxidized and the nonoxidized rings. No dioxygenolytic attack involving chlorinated meta or para carbons was observed. Therefore, the ability of the enzyme to hydroxylate chlorinated carbons appears to be limited to the ortho position. However, it is not limited to monochlorinated rings, as evidenced by dioxygenation of the 2, 4-disubstituted ring at carbons 2 and 3. This site of attack is strikingly different from that of the 2,5-dichlorinated ring, which has been shown to be dihydroxylated at positions 3 and 4 (J. D. Haddock, J. R. Horton, and D. T. Gibson, J. Bacteriol. 177:20-26, 1995). These results demonstrate that a second substituent of ortho-chlorinated rings crucially influences the site of dioxygenation at this ring and thereby determines whether or not the initial chlorobiphenyl oxidation product is further metabolized through the bph-encoded pathway. The 2,4-dichlorinated ring can alternatively be attacked at carbons 5 and 6. The preferred site crucially depends on the substitution pattern of the other ring. The formation of more than a single dioxygenation product was found predominantly with congeners that contain two chlorinated rings, both of which are similarly prone to dioxygenation or one is substituted only at carbon 3.  (+info)

The p53 tumor suppressor protein reduces point mutation frequency of a shuttle vector modified by the chemical mutagens (+/-)7, 8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene, aflatoxin B1 and meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid. (8/180)

p53 has been postulated to be the guardian of the genome. However, results supporting the prediction that point mutation frequencies are elevated in p53-deficient cells either have not been forthcoming or have been equivocal. To analyse the effect of p53 on point mutation frequency, we used the supF gene of the pYZ289 shuttle vector as a mutagenic target. pYZ289 was treated in vitro by ultraviolet irradiation, aflatoxin B1, (+/-)7,8-dihydroxy-9, 10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene and meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid and then transfected into p53-deficient cells with or without a p53 expression vector. p53 reduced the mutant frequency up to fivefold when pYZ289 was treated with aflatoxin B1, (+/-)7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene or meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid but not when it was ultraviolet-irradiated. The p53-dependent mutation frequency reduction was higher at a higher level of premutational lesions for aflatoxin B1 and (+/-)7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene and at a lower level of lesions for meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid. This suggests that the chemical mutagens produce, in a dose-dependent fashion, two kinds of DNA damage, one subject to p53-dependent mutation frequency reduction and the other not. These results indicate that p53 can reduce the point mutation frequency in a shuttle vector treated by chemical mutagens and suggest that p53 can act as guardian of the genome for at least some kinds of point mutations.  (+info)

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The report generally describes 3-bromo-4-chlorobenzoic acid, examines its uses, production methods, patents. 3-Bromo-4-chlorobenzoic acid market situation
2-Methoxy-4-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid 2-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazino]ethyl ester | C20H23Cl2N3O3 | CID 10717193 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
2-Amino-3-chlorobenzoic acid | C7H6ClNO2 | CID 80807 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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The first high-valent iron oxo complex on the phthalocyanine platform has been prepared from iron tetra-tert-butyl-phthalocyanine and m-chloroperbenzoic acid and characterized by low temperature UV-vis, cryospray MS, EPR, X-ray absorption and high resolution X-ray emission methods. Porphyrins & Phthalocyanines
130 mg (0.09 mmol, 1 eq) of (12) are dissolved in 880 ^1 of anhydrous CH2C12. 20 mg (0.27 mmol, 3 eq) of 1H-tetrazole are then added, followed by 52 jil (0.17 mmol, 2 eq) of (A110) 2PN(iPr)2. After stirring for 4 h at ambient temperature, the reaction mixture is cooled to -60°C, 44 mg (0.17 mmol, 2 eq) of m-chloroperbenzoic acid are added, and the stirring is continued for 30 min at -60°C, 15 min at 0°C, and 45 min at ambient temperature. 0.5 ml of a 10% Na2S205 solution are added, at 0°C, to the reaction medium in order to destroy the excess oxidant, and then extraction is carried out with dichloromethane. The organic phase is washed with a 10% Na2S205 solution and the dichloromethane is then evaporated off under reduced vacuum. The residue is taken up in methyl tert-butyl ether and this organic phase is extracted with a 6% citric acid solution and a saturated NaCl solution, dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and filtered, and the solvent is evaporated off under reduced vacuum. The crude product ...
60g Piperonal was dissolved in 500ml DCM, and 90g MCPBA (m-Chloroperoxybenzoic acid) was added in portions, and the mixture stirred for 18h. The precipitate was filtered off and washed with DCM. The combined filtrates was then washed with cold saturated Na2CO3 solution, followed by H2O, dried over MgSO4 and evaporated to dryness. The resulting formate ester was dissolved in 250ml methanol and mixed with a solution of 30g KOH in 200ml methanol. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temp for 15h, evaporated to dryness, the residue dissolvd in 300ml water, neutralized with 6M HCl and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was washed with NaHCO3 followed by water, dried over MgSO4 and evaporated to dryness. The crude product (57g) was recrystallized from hexane to give colorless crystals of Sesamol (48g), mp 54-55 C.. 3,4-Methylenedioxyanisole. ...
Novel haloaromatic etheramines have been synthesized from halogenated benzene and polyphenyls and alkali metal salts of phenol-formaldehyde-anilineresins. The resultant etheramines are epoxy curing agents and intermediates for the preparation of thermosetting imides.
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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
In nature a significant part of the microbial activity is concentrated at or near oxic/anoxic interfaces, where oxygen concentrations are often low. Bacteria possessing different kinetic characteristics for oxygen and employing distinct metabolic pathways for the degradation of (halo)aromatic substrates for which oxygen is needed as co-substrate may have to compete with each other in such environments. In this study the competitiveness of Pseudomonas sp. strain A3 relative to Alcaligenes sp. strain L6 was tested in batch and in continuous cultures. While both of these strains are able to metabolise 3-chlorobenzoate (3CBA), the former was isolated under air saturating conditions and employs the catechol pathway, whereas the latter was isolated under reduced partial pressures of oxygen and was capable of metabolising 3CBA via the gentisate pathway. Competition experiments in batch culture resulted in pure cultures of Pseudomonas sp. strain A3 under air saturating conditions. However, if reduced ...
The cis-diol dehydrogenase cbaC gene of Tn5271 is required for growth on 3-chlorobenzoate but not 3,4-dichlorobenzoate.: The nucleotide sequence of cbaC, the 1-
The influence that organized assemblies (micelles, microemulsions) and semiconductor colloids exhibits on chemical reactions has been investigated. In particular electron transfer reactions induced by light in the presence of semiconductor particles have been shown to completely degrade several haloaromatic compounds. Phenol degradation has been investigated by carrying out experiments at different pH, phenol and TiO2 content, oxygen partial pressure. Intermediate compounds (quinol and catechol) were detected and quantitative formation of CO2 was assessed. Similarly, the photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol on TiO2 led to complete mineralization into CO2 and HCl. In the degradation of 2,4,5-T several intermediates were detected by GC-MS and a scheme for the photodegradation pathways was formulated. The applicability of this degradation process to other haloaromatic compounds was preliminarily assessed. Keywords: Oxidation; Photocatalysis;
The mission of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is to discover how the environment affects people in order to promote healthier lives.
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Advantages of meta-chloroperbenzoic acid are its handling because it is present as a powder (crystalline white solid), which can be kept in the refrigerator. Nevertheless, a material of purity ,75% is rarely available commercially, since the pure compound is not particularly stable. mCPBA is a strong oxidizing agent that may cause fire upon contact with flammable material.. MCPBA is versatile applicable as peracid for use in laboratories. The main areas of use are the conversion of ketones to esters (Baeyer-Villiger oxidation), epoxidation of alkenes, conversion of silyl enol ethers to silyl α-hydroxy ketones, oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides and sulfones, and oxidation of amines to produce amine oxides.. For reasons of the atomic economy, the use of MCPBA in production should be avoided. The research concentrates on this area rather on the use of hydrogen peroxide in connection with suitable catalysts or in situ generated, simpler peracids, such as peracetic acid or on potassium ...
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Kharat SS, Tripathi V, Damodaran AP, Priyadarshini R, Chandra S, Tikoo S, Nandhakumar R, Srivastava V, Priya S, Hussain M, Kaur S, Fishman JB, Sengupta S ...
3-Alkyl- and 3-aryl-3-hydroxyquinoline-2,4-diones have been prepared by oxidation of the corresponding 3-alkyl- or 3-arylquinolin-2-ones by means of oxygen under UV irradiation (Stadlbauer & Kappe, 1982), m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (Stadlbauer & Kappe, 1982), hydrogen peroxide (Stadlbauer & Kappe, 1982), nitric acid (Stadlbauer et al., 1992), or peracetic acid (Stadlbauer et al., 1992). Several 3-hydroxyquinoline-2,4-diones were isolated from bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Neuenhaus & Budzikiewicz, 1979) and from stem bark of Micromelum falcatum (Luo et al., 2009). Biological activity of several 3-hydroxyquinoline-2,4-diones has been investigated (Prisyazhnyuk et al., 1984; Luo et al., 2009). 3-Alkyl- and 3-aryl-3-hydroxyquinoline-2,4-diones are important synthetic intermediates for the preparation of new types of heterocyclic compounds.. The asymmetric unit of the title compound (I) consists of a single 3-ethyl-3-hydroxy-8-methoxyquinoline-2,4(1H,3H)-dione molecule and solvated water molecule ...
The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major mechanism used by bacteria for uptake of carbohydrates, particularly hexoses, hexitols, and disaccharides, where the source of energy is from PEP. The PTS consists of two general components, enzyme I (EI) and histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr), and of membrane-bound sugar specific permeases (enzymes II). Each enzyme II (EII) complex consists of one or two hydrophobic integral membrane domains (domains C and D) and two hydrophilic domains (domains A and B). EII complexes may exist as distinct proteins or as a single multidomain protein. The PTS catalyzes the uptake of carbohydrates and their conversion into their respective phosphoesters during transport. There are four successive phosphoryl transfers in the PTS. Initial autophosphorylation of EI, using PEP as a substrate, is followed by transfer of the phosphoryl group from EI to HPr. EIIA catalyzes the self-phosphoryl transfer from HPr after which the ...
aacggcatag tgcgtgttta 6540tgcttaaatg cgtacttata tgcgtctatt tatgtaggat gaaaggtagt ctagtacctc 6600ctgtgatatt atcccattcc atgcggggta tcgtatgctt ccttcagcac taccctttag 6660ctgttctata tgctgccact cctcaattgg attagtctca tccttcaatg ctatcatttc 6720ctttgatatt ggatcatatg catagtaccg agaaactagt gcgaagtagt gatcaggtat 6780tgctgttatc tgatgagtat acgttgtcct ggccacggca gaagcacgct tatcgctcca 6840atttcccaca acattagtca actccgttag gcccttcatt gaaagaaatg aggtcatcaa 6900atgtcttcca atgtgagatt ttgggccatt ttttatagca aagattgaat aaggcgcatt 6960tttcttcaaa gctttattgt acgatctgac taagttatct tttaataatt ggtattcctg 7020tttattgctt gaagaattgc cggtcctatt tactcgtttt aggactggtt cagaattcct 7080caaaaattca tccaaatata caagtggatc gatcctaccc cttgcgctaa agaagtatat 7140gtgcctacta acgcttgtct ttgtctctgt cactaaacac tggattatta ctcccagata 7200cttattttgg actaatttaa atgatttcgg atcaacgttc ttaatatcgc tgaatcttcc 7260acaattgatg aaagtagcta ggaagaggaa ttggtataaa gtttttgttt ttgtaaatct 7320cgaagtatac tcaaacgaat ttagtatttt ctcagtgatc tcccagatgc tttcaccctc ...
2PIM: Crystal structure of Phenylacetic acid degradation-related protein (YP_298971.1) from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 at 2.20 A resolution
Compared with mCPBA, the advantages of using dioxiranes are neutral reaction conditions, easy workup (since the byproduct is only acetone), and low cost of the reagents. However, dioxirane reagents are unstable and have to be prepared freshly for each experiment. These reagents require purification by vacuum distillation and somewhat special handling.. For certain substrates, direct hydroxylation of unactivated aliphatic C-H bonds is possible.. ...
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By Stephen Simpson. At the risk of sounding a bit mean, CareFusion (NYSE:CFN) doesnt get all that much attention in the market. The company has a solid business between its operations in pharmaceutical dispensing, infusion, respiratory care, and procedural disposables, but it never really seems to get much attention unless/until theres another round of news about infusion pumps - a business where rivals like Baxter (NYSE:BAX) and Hospira (NYSE:HSP) have seen recalls that benefited CareFusion. That has changed very recently, though, as CareFusion seems to be a key potential acquirer for at least 2 medical device businesses known to be on the block - ICU Medical (NSDQ:ICUI) and Smiths Groups (LON:SMIN) Smith Medical. CareFusion has long been an active acquirer and recently not only reaffirmed its commitment to future deals, but a willingness to do larger deals than before. While both ICU Medical and Smiths Medical make solid sense for CareFusion, both deals have certain drawbacks as well. ICU ...
Sandro Rosell and Bill Gates neet in New York to discuss the first year of the alliance between the FC Barcelona Foundation and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Abstract. An operationally simple, tin-free reductive dehalogenation system allows the reduction of activated C-X bonds in good yields with excellent functional-group tolerance and chemoselectivity over aryl and vinyl C-X bonds in the presence of the well-known visible-light-activated photoredox catalyst Ru(bpy)3Cl2 in combination with iPr2NEt and HCO2H or Hantzsch ester as the hydrogen atom donor.. ...
article{1e3e8517-316c-47fb-8c15-58084740f5dd, abstract = {When 7-oxodesacetamidothiocolchicine ( 1) was treated with various peroxides in order to afford a Baeyer-Villiger rearrangement, a complex mixture of products was formed, which included the sulfoxide, ( 2) and sulfone, ( 3). When peracetic acid was used two additional products were formed; a C-ring lactone ( 4) and a ring-contracted allocolchicine derivative ( 5). The sulfoxide ( 2) was semi-preparatively resolved into enantiomers by chromatography on microcrystalline triacetylcellulose. Rotational barriers around the A - C pivot bond of 2, 4 and 5 were determined by dynamic H-1 NMR analysis. The compounds 2, 3, 4 and 7a exhibit moderate inhibition of tubulin polymerization, according to in vitro turbidity studies, whereas 5 was inactive.}, author = {Berg, Ulf and Bladh, Håkan and Mpampos, Konstantin}, issn = {1477-0539}, language = {eng}, number = {14}, pages = {2125--2130}, publisher = {Royal Society of Chemistry}, series = {Organic ...
aacactgcca gcgcatcaac 8880aatattttca cctgaatcag gatattcttc taatacctgg aatgctgttt tcccggggat 8940cgcagtggtg agtaaccatg catcatcagg agtacggata aaatgcttga tggtcggaag 9000aggcataaat tccgtcagcc agtttagtct gaccatctca tctgtaacat cattggcaac 9060gctacctttg ccatgtttca gaaacaactc tggcgcatcg ggcttcccat acaatcgata 9120gattgtcgca cctgattgcc cgacattatc gcgagcccat ttatacccat ataaatcagc 9180atccatgttg gaatttaatc gcggcctcga gcaagacgtt tcccgttgaa tatggctcat 9240aacacccctt gtattactgt ttatgtaagc agacagtttt attgttcatg atgatatatt 9300tttatcttgt gcaatgtaac atcagagatt tt 93322080DNAartificial sequencePrimer 20atgtcgcaac ataacgaaaa gaacccacat cagcaccagt caccactaca cgattccagc 60gtgtaggctg gagctgcttc 802182DNAartificial sequencePrimer 21ttacgccggg attttgtcaa tcttaggaat gcgtgaccac acgcggtgtg ctgtcatcag 60attccgggga tccgtcgacc tg 82221424DNAartificial sequenceSynthetic construct 22ttacgccggg attttgtcaa tcttaggaat gcgtgaccac acgcggtgtg ctgtcatcag 60attccgggga tccgtcgacc tgcagttcga agttcctatt ctctagaaag tataggaact 120tcagagcgct ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for Q04Q03 (FTSH_LEPBJ), ATP-dependent zinc metalloprotease FtsH. Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo-bovis (strain JB197)
activated-sludge method: Sewage-treatment process in which sludge, the accumulated, bacteria-rich deposits of settling tanks and basins, is seeded into incoming waste water and the mixture agitated for...
The six step synthesis of the new imidazole-like heterocycle 1,6-diazaphenalene (8) from readily available cyclohexane-1,3-dione 1 and dimethyl beta-ketoglutarate 2 is described. In addition, a six step synthesis of 9-methoxy-diazaphenalene (34) from ethylacetoacetate and p-ansidine has also been accomplished. An investigation of the chemistry of 8 has been carried out and resulted in several routes to key 7-substituted-1,6-diazaphenalenes such as 10, 15, 16, and 17, as well as conditions under which to N-alkylate 8. In fact, this alkylation sequence has resulted in the preparation of the target 17. The reaction of 1,6-diazaphenalene with singlet oxygen and peracids has also been determined as well as preparation of several key derivatives in the 9-methoxy-series.*Antimalarials
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The gene cluster, coding for the chlorocatechol sp. of hereditary, biochemical, and ecological areas of the connections of several chloroaromatic substances with microorganisms in the biosphere within a broad work to comprehend the fate of the chemicals in the surroundings also to develop book bioremediation strategies (22, 33, 37). Among the principles to emerge out of this body of function is the department of biodegradative routes into higher and lower pathways that are linked with the central intermediate chlorocatechol (38). Hereditary research of chlorocatechol sp. stress P51 and sp. stress PS12: an entire mineralization pathway seems to have advanced through transposon-mediated recruitment of toluene or benzene dioxygenase and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase genes following to a gene cluster coding for an gene cluster, hereafter known as the gene cluster) in the trichlorobenzene-degrading stress sp. stress P51 (41) within a Tnchlorocatechol catabolic genes are organized within an operon and ...
Magnesium monoperoxyphthalate (MMPP) is a water-soluble peroxy acid used as an oxidant in organic synthesis. Its main areas of use are the conversion of ketones to esters (Baeyer-Villiger oxidation), epoxidation of alkenes (Prilezhaev reaction), oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides and sulfones, oxidation of amines to produce amine oxides, and in the oxidative cleavage of hydrazones. Due to its insolubility in nonpolar solvents MMPP has seen less use than the more widely used meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mCPBA). Although work up procedures are more simply handled in polar solvents, usage of MMPP to oxidize nonpolar substrates in biphasic media combined with a phase transfer catalyst have been inefficient. Despite this MMPP has certain advantages over mCPBA including a lower cost of production and increased stability. MMPP is also used as the active ingredient in certain surface disinfectants such as Dismozon Pur. As a surface disinfectant MMPP exhibits a broad spectrum biocidal effect including ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
More than 2,000 reports of dicamba damage are now under investigation; an estimated 3.1 million acres has been damaged by dicamba drift this season.
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for Q04Q93 (NADD_LEPBJ), Probable nicotinate-nucleotide adenylyltransferase. Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo-bovis (strain JB197)
Methyl 3-amino-4-methylbenzoate CAS No.:18595-18-1 Purity: 99.0% Package: on request Shanghai EverChem is ready to be of your service,we can assure you of very competitive prices and high quality products. Your kind inquires will be highly...
Topically: apply directly to cankers, or other sores. Tea Tree Oil - apply 1 drop directly on sore 2-3 times per day. Silver Gel - apply a dab directly on sore 2-3 times per day. Internally:. Drink at least 3 tsp. of Chlorophyll to help alkalinize the system. Chlorophyll can also be gargled straight, then swallowed.. Liquid Silver Guard can also be swished and held in mouth, if possible, for 6 minutes, then swallowed. (Do not be put off by the label of mouthwash; this is necessary for approval by a government branch which protects pharmaceuticals in the guise of protecting the publics health.). It is useful to support the entire immune system when working with canker sores. Sometimes it is necessary to implement the Candida diet also. Because of this, we have noted good results when we include Bifidophilus Flora Force with the program.. HRP-C Liquid or HRP-C Capsules are beneficial for many people, especially if there is viral or bacterial involvement. This combination of herbs stimulates the ...
Games like this evenings should be experienced at least once in a lifetime. When winning at home is a must, Barça Regal does it. When a response to a particular style of play needs to be found, Barça Regal finds it. The Palau Blaugrana experienced a magical night, although it didnt end in a title celebration, it felt like Barça had won the league. The 73-62 scoreline in favour of Barça Regal over Real Madrid in the fourth match of the final playoff series for the title leaves the Catalans with a chance to make history on Wednesday. No one should doubt a championship winning team ...
By Nick Meyer On August 14, 2017 The Monsanto Company has often said that its work is done with the best interests of the farmer in mind, but as many have discovered, there are plenty of examples where the results end up having the complete opposite effect, to say the very least. Recently, a spate of incidents linked to one controversial Monsanto. ...
Award-winning producer Deborah Sullivan has enjoyed a wide-ranging career - leading advertising production departments for DDB NY, FCB and others, holding
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SUMMARY: Plasmid pEST4011 enables Pseudomonas putida PaW85 to degrade 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA). This new 2,4-D degradative plasmid has considerable homology with the regions of pJP4 containing the 2,4-D degradative genes (tfd). Restriction fragment BamHI-B of plasmid pEST4011, which has homology with this region, was cloned into the broad-host-range vector pKT240 and studied in P. putida PaW85. Restriction mapping, hybridization analysis and enzyme assays established the location of the genes for 2,4-D monooxygenase (tfdA), 2,4-dichlorophenol hydroxylase (tfdB), chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase (tfdC) and the tfdR and tfdS regulatory genes on this fragment. Plasmid pEST4012 is a derivative of pEST4011 derived through the spontaneous deletion of a 42 kbp DNA fragment, which results in the loss of the 2,4-D+ and 3-CBA+ phenotype. We present here the physical maps of pEST4011 and pEST4012. In spite of the similarities in functions, the size (70 kbp), order of
2-Aminobenzenesulphonic acid (2AS) is degraded by Alcaligenes sp. strain O-1 via a previously detected but unidentified intermediate. A mutant of strain O-1 was found to excrete this intermediate, which was isolated and identified by m.s., 1H- and 13C-n.m.r. as 3-sulphocatechol (3SC). Proteins from cell extracts of strain O-1 were separated by anion-exchange chromatography. A multicomponent oxygenase was observed to convert 1 mol each of NADH, O2 and 2AS into 1 mol each of 3SC, NH3 and NAD+. The enzyme presumably catalysed formation of the ring of a 2-amino-2,3-diol moiety, and elimination in the amino group led to a rearomatization. 3SC was further degraded via meta ring cleavage, which could be prevented by inactivation of the 3-sulphocatechol-2,3-dioxygenase (3SC23O) with 3-chlorocatechol. In Tris buffer, the separated 3SC23O catalysed the reaction of 1 mol each of 3SC and O2 involving a transient yellow intermediate, and release of 1 mol of sulphite and two organic products. The major ...
propan-2-yl 3-amino-4-methylbenzoate 21447-47-2 NMR spectrum, propan-2-yl 3-amino-4-methylbenzoate H-NMR spectral analysis, propan-2-yl 3-amino-4-methylbenzoate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Article Cometabolism Of Pharmaceutical, Personal Care Products By Nitrifiers: Introducing A Simple Cometabolic Flux-Based Framework. A simplified cometabolic flux analysis (CoMFA) framework is introduced to explore the effect of the ATP:ADP ratio on ...
Process for the purifying of waters for human consumption by means of a treatment with organic peracids, such as peracetic acid, performic acid, perpropionic acid.
Prof. David Phillips, Director of the Ultrafast Laser Facility at The University of Hong Kong, will present the following seminar from the Pacific Rim Conference in Nanoscience (7-11 September 2004). The seminar will be available for viewing and discussion through the internanotech Community at http://nanotech.colayer.net/ Water-catalyzed dehalogenation reactions: building a nanoscale water solvated reaction system one molecule at a time
Tthe Financial Control Board (FCB) certified New York Citys Adopted Budget for Fiscal Year 2014 is balanced. As the FCB mentions in its report, the 2014 budget is balanced with $2.8 billion in surplus funds from fiscal year 2013 and $1 billion withdrawn from the Retiree Health Benefits Insurance Trust Fund ...
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China 6-Chloro-1-Hydroxibenzotriazol (Cl-HOBt) [26198-19-6], Find details about China Cl-Hobt, 26198-19-6 from 6-Chloro-1-Hydroxibenzotriazol (Cl-HOBt) [26198-19-6] - Shanghai Medpep Co., Ltd.
Methyl ricinoleate 4 and methyl 13(S)-hydroxyoctadeca-9(Z),11(E)-dienoate 7 were subjected to epoxidation using mCPBA, or tert-butyl hydroperoxide in the presence of vanadyl acetylacetonate or titanium (IV) isopropoxide with D-(-)- or L-(+)-diisopropyl tartrate. Epoxidations using mCPBA gave equal quantities of the disatereoisomeric epoxides 5/6 and 8/9 from 4 and 7 respectively. Other methods gave preferentially epoxides 5 or 8, except for treatment of 7 with tert-butyl hydroperoxide in the presence of titanium (IV) isopropoxide and L-(+)-diisopropyl tartrate which gave preferentially epoxide 9. Hydroxy-derivative 4, 7, 5, 6, 8 and 9 were converted into the fluoro-derivatives 16 - 21 by trimethylsilylation and treament with diethylaminosulphur trifluoride. Epoxides 6 and 9 were converted into 2-oxazolines 22 and 23 respectively by reaction with acetamide.. ...
chemical used in genetically engineered (GE) fields. Dicamba, a toxic pesticide prone to drift off the target site, has been used in agriculture for decades. However, new GE crops developed by Monsanto must be paired with specific formulations of dicamba, and until now many believed these drift incidents were the result of illegal formulations of dicamba being applied to fields. But the extent of damage now being observed, covering over 2.5 million acres, is casting doubt on this theory, and raising more questions as to whether the new dicamba formulation is actually the cause of the widespread drift damage.. Fruits and vegetables, as well as other crops that are not genetically engineered to tolerate dicamba are often left cupped and distorted when exposed to the chemical. Monsanto, DuPont Co. and BASF SE sell new formulations of the herbicide for use on dicamba-tolerant soybeans and cotton, and state enforcement officials and farmers have attributed last years damage incidents to off-label ...
We are studying a representative of a large group of chlorobenzoate degrading bacteria active in uncontaminated systems - Burkholderia phytofirmans OLGA172. Now we know that anthropogenic chemicals have not always been the driving selective force behind the evolution of chloro-organic degradative genes, we are looking for the natural selectors for these capabilities, initially by looking at the environmental triggers and mobile genetic elements that affect chloroaromatic degradative gene expression. The recent genome sequencing of OLGA172 in the lab has expanded this endeavour.. In addition, my lab carries out research on the species composition of bacterial communities in both natural and contaminated systems. These include waste water treatment systems, contaminated soils, rhizospheric communities and the hyporheic zones of streams.. The UTSC campus is heavily infested with an invasive species known as Dog Strangling Vine. My lab has recently begun research into the microbial associations of ...
Swainsonine (SW) is a toxin produced by locoweeds and harmful to the livestock industry. Degrading SW by Arthrobacter sp. HW08 was demonstrated as a promising way to deal with SW poisoning. However, it is unknown which part of the subcellular enzymes in Arthrobacter sp. HW08 is responsible for biodegrading SW and whether the metabolites are atoxic. In this study, intracellular and extracellular enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 were isolated and their enzyme activity was evaluated. The metabolites were fed to mice, and physiological and histological properties of the treated mice were investigated. The results showed that only intracellular enzyme of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 (IEHW08) could degrade SW efficiently. Compared with mice in SW treatment group, mice in SW + IEHW08 treatment group (1) increased their body weights; (2) showed higher number of platelets and lower number of white blood cells; (3) decreased the levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase in
Caution! Reactions and subsequent operations involving peracids and peroxy compounds should be run behind a safety shield. For relatively fast reactions, the rate of addition of the peroxy compound should be slow enough so that it reacts rapidly and no significant unreacted excess is allowed to build up. The reaction mixture should be stirred efficiently while the peroxy compound is being added, and cooling should generally be provided since many reactions of peroxy compounds are exothermic. New or unfamiliar reactions, particularly those run at elevated temperatures, should be run first on a small scale. Reaction products should never be recovered from the final reaction mixture by distillation until all residual active oxygen compounds (including unreacted peroxy compounds) have been destroyed. Decomposition of active oxygen compounds may be accomplished by the procedure described in Korach, M.; Nielsen, D. R.; Rideout, W. H. Org. Synth. 1962, 42, 50 (Org. Synth. 1973, Coll. Vol. 5, 414). ...
Data on 6,500 pesticides, insecticides and herbicides including toxicity, water pollution, ecological toxicity, uses and regulatory status.
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File www/delta1.gif - part of check-in [5fcb36c8] at 2007-08-26 01:32:11 on branch trunk - Added documentation of the delta format (user: aku size: 1843) [more...] ...
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Endo-1,5-alpha-L-arabinanase involved in degradation of pectin. Its preferred substrate is linear 1,5-alpha-L-arabinan (By similarity).
Time-course of the mean plasma con-centration of OPB-51602 after single administration (a) and multiple administrations on day 28 (b). Plasma concentrations bel
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How is 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid abbreviated? 24-D stands for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid. 24-D is defined as 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid frequently.
Frozen carbonated beverages (FCB) offer an exciting way to add maximum profit into your existing beverage program without sacrificing valuable space. Available in 2, 3 and 4-barrel models, Taylor® frozen drink machines are available with a variety of options to send your beverage sales soaring. Similar to slush, FCB is infused with carbonated air to create a fluffy, light frozen drink with a taste that kids of all ages love. Popular in Convenience Stores, Cinemas and Theme Parks, FCB products can generate fun and interest for any foodservice program by mixing multiple flavors, or by creating fun package deals for even more profitable options. With easy-to-use operation, Taylor foodservice equipment delivers consistent quality products draw after draw. Your local authorized Taylor distributor can assist you with planning and customizing options to best suit your foodservice operational goals.. For more information contact us today ...
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Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; FCB group; Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi group; Bacteroidetes; Cytophagia; Cytophagales; Hymenobacteraceae; Rufibacter; unclassified ...
Mazzolini, Guillermo; Alfaro, Carlos; Sangro, Bruno; Feijoó, Esperanza; Ruiz, Juan; Benito, Alberto; Tirapu, Iñigo; Arina, Ainhoa; Sola, Josu; Herraiz, Maite; Lucena, Felipe; Olagüe, Cristina; Subtil, José; Quiroga, Jorge; Herrero, Ignacio; Sádaba, Belén; Bendandi, Maurizio; Qian, Cheng; Prieto, Jesús; Melero, Ignacio (Universidad Austral- FCB, 2005) ...
In a project that began about a dozen years ago, University of Nebraska-Lincoln scientists discovered a gene that has been used to create broadleaf crops that tolerate spraying with the popular herbicide dicamba. Now, even as an industry partner is working to bring dicamba-resistant crops to market, these plant scientists are continuing to explore new and expanded uses for the technology they discovered.
When it comes to working out, body building or growing muscles, many bodybuilders resort to using energy boosters that provide them with an instant boost of energy, increased strength and vitality. These energy boosters can be particularly useful when you are training hard and need a strong kick for an intense work out session.. From natural boosters like caffeine to supplement boosters like Allmax, they can come in very handy for your training sessions. However, just like other fitness-related products, these also come with their own set of pros and cons and the question of whether bodybuilders should use energy boosters is debatable.. Different kinds with various benefits and risks. Energy boosters come in different forms and types. For instance, some bodybuilders prefer taking energy drinks and beverages, which are probably the most common energy boosters. Others resort to the old-school stimulants like caffeine to increase energy, endurance and focus. And lastly, many choose to take energy ...
Chlorophenols are a group of chemicals in which chlorines (between one and five) have been added to phenol.� Phenol is an aromatic compound derived from benzene, the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon, by adding a hydroxy group to a carbon� to replace a hydrogen.� There are five basic types of chlorophenols:� mono[one]chlorophenols, di[two]chlorophenols, tri[three]chlorophenols, tetra[four]chlorophenols, and penta[five]chlorophenols.� In all, there are 19 different chlorophenols.� Eight are discussed in this document:� 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, and 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol.� Pentachlorophenol is discussed in another document.
In this work, we examined the profile of metabolites produced from the doubly para-substituted biphenyl analogs 4,4-dihydroxybiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl, 3-hydroxy-4,4-dichlorobiphenyl, and 3,3-dihydroxy-4,4-chlorobiphenyl by biphenyl-induced Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 and by its biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO). 4-Hydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl was hydroxylated principally through a 2,3-dioxygenation of the hydroxylated ring to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl and 3,4-dihydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl after the removal of water. The former was further oxidized by the biphenyl dioxygenase to produce ultimately 3,4,5-trihydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl, a dead-end metabolite. 3-Hydroxy-4,4-dichlorobiphenyl was oxygenated on both rings. Hydroxylation of the nonhydroxylated ring generated 2,3,3-trihydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl with concomitant dechlorination, and 2,3,3-trihydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl was ultimately metabolized to 2-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate, but hydroxylation of the ...
Igor Kolomitsyn is an engineer in chemistry by training, with a Ph.D. in organic chemistry. He has over 15 years of experience in organic chemistry and technology, which includes the following directions of organic chemistry: organic chemistry of cage structures and terpenes, fatty acids, synthesis of biologically active compounds, chemical modification of natural products, and chemistry of chemical extractives, chemistry of peracids and peresters and mechanisms of organic reactions. He has authored 13 papers for publication in national and international organic chemistry journals and has 7 United States patents.. ...
WWTP SBR - Math procedure SBRs are a variation of the activated-sludge process. They differ from activated-sludge plants because they combine all of the treatment steps and processes into a single basin, or tank, whereas conventional facilities rely on multiple basins. According to a 1999 U.S. EPA report, an SBR is no more than an activated-sludge plant that operates…
The 3EMOTION project will provide policymakers and financing institutions with the necessary arguments to invest in Fuel Cell Buses (FCB) as a cost effective strategy to accelerate the reduction of harmful local emissions while offering attractive co-modality options for commuters. By leveraging the experiences of earlier FCB demonstrations in overcoming the last technical and economic barriers, as well as significantly increasing the number of bus operators involved with FCBs, the project will support the achievements anticipated in the upcoming FCH-JU Bus Commercialisation Study, 2014. More specifically, the project will: • Lower H2 consumption for FCBs to less than 9kg/100km (a 30% improvement over the FCH JU targets) • Integrate latest drive train, fuel cells & battery technologies to lower the TCO and increase their actual lifetime • Ensure Availability ,90% without the need of permanent technical support, a major advance compared to that achieved under current FCH-JU projects • ...
Wet air oxidation of hazardous wastes; cometabolism of hazardous organics; nutrient removal; biological process control; biological nitrate, sulfate, chromium(VI) and selenium(IV) reduction ...
I am performing a radioactive in situ hybridization study and have come to the point of developing my slides. Two tester slides have me quite confused. Is the NTB-2 emulsion supposed to stay on the slide, effectively covering the sections, or is it supposed to come off to reveal the silver grains? All protocols I have seen neglect to mention this detail, and I have one slide with a emulsion layer which wont come off and one whose emulsion layer is coming off in pieces. Thanks for your advice. Rachel Geddy McGill University ...
Mazzolini, Guillermo; Alfaro, Carlos; Sangro, Bruno; Feijoó, Esperanza; Ruiz, Juan; Benito, Alberto; Tirapu, Iñigo; Arina, Ainhoa; Sola, Josu; Herraiz, Maite; Lucena, Felipe; Olagüe, Cristina; Subtil, José; Quiroga, Jorge; Herrero, Ignacio; Sádaba, Belén; Bendandi, Maurizio; Qian, Cheng; Prieto, Jesús; Melero, Ignacio (Universidad Austral- FCB, 2005) ...
JRF Ortho specializes in providing orthopedic surgeons with the highest viability, most widely available cartilage solutions in the industry. Through innovation and a commitment to clinical results and positive outcomes, JRF Ortho is redefining the standard for allograft joint repair.. ...
Study Vehicle Fires flashcards from Phillip Celaya's TFD class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Zvonarevas meltdown against Pannetta was the strangest choke-job Ive seen in a while. Zvonareva lost 6 match point, but played each of them very well. (She might have been the tiniest bit tentative, but not by much. She just got outplayed on them. But the strain of having blown 6 of them caused her to have a total freak out. She took a bathroom break and was crying. She came back out and started talking to herself. She smashed her racquet. She tore bandages off of her knees. At one point she sat on the ground hitting herself. I was a little worried shed take her shoes off, Bomber-style ...
strain NK8 involved in the catabolism of chlorobenzoates. Francisco, P., Ogawa, N., Suzuki, K. & Miyashita, K., 2001, In : ...
Iron-catalyzed C(sp2)-C(sp3) cross-coupling of aryl chlorobenzoates with alkyl grignard reagents. Bisz, E. & Szostak, M., Jan 6 ...
D2.705.400.120 Chlorobenzoates D2.241.223.100.140.100.250 D2.241.223.100.200 D2.455.426.559.389.127.250 Chlorogenic Acid D2.241 ...
Chlorobenzoates / therapeutic use Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
... of Klebsiella oxytoca have been demonstrated to degrade chlorobenzoic acid in liquid medium and use mono and di-chlorobenzoates ...
Sasazuki, T., Kaneoka, H., Nishimura, Y., Kaneoka, R., Hayama, M. & Ohkuni, H., Dec 1 1980, In : Journal of Experimental Medicine. 152, 2 II, p. 297-311 15 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Chlorobenzoates/metabolism. *DNA Transposable Elements/genetics*. *DNA Transposable Elements/physiology. *Environmental ...
... chlorobenzoates, methylbenzoates, dinitrobenzoates, hydroxybenzoates, methoxybenzoates, phthalates, sulfonates, ...
Bacterial dehalogenation of chlorobenzoates and coculture biodegradation of 4,4-dichlorobiphenyl. P Adriaens, H P Kohler, D ...
Krooneman, J. (1999). Ecophysiological studies on bacterial degradation of chlorobenzoates. Groningen: s.n. ...
D02.455.426.559.389.127.250 Chlorobenzoates .. D02.455.426.559.389.127.250.875 Moclobemide .. Terms. Synonyms & ... D02.241.223.100.200 Chlorobenzoates .. D02.241.223.100.200.875 Moclobemide .. D02.455 Hydrocarbons .. D02.455.426 Hydrocarbons ...
strain NK8 arc involved in chlorobenzoate degradation and induced by chlorobenzoates and chlorocatechols. Gene 268: 207- 214.. ... strain NK8 involved in the catabolism of chlorobenzoates. Microbiology 147: 121- 133.. ...
1 hexyne-l,6-dioates, benzoates, chlorobenzoates, methylbenzoates, dinitrobenzoates,. hydroxybenzoates, methoxybenzoates, ...
0 (Chemotactic Factors); 0 (Chlorobenzoates); 0 (Cinnamates); 0 (Cyclohexanones); 0 (Enzyme Inhibitors); 0 (ortho- ...
Duncan DR, Chen PY, Patterson JT, Lee YU, Hibino N, Cleary M, Naito Y, Yi T, Gilliland T, Kurobe H, Church SN, Shinoka T, Fahmy TM, Simons M, Breuer CK. TGFßR1 inhibition blocks the formation of stenosis in tissue-engineered vascular grafts. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Feb 10; 65(5):512-4 ...
The initial attack on chlorobenzoates was oxygen dependent and most likely mediated by dioxygenases. Although plasmids were not ... a halobenzoate dioxygenase that was necessary for the degradation of chlorobenzoates substituted in the ortho position. ...
Chlorobenzoates, Isomerases, Molecular Weight,... ...
... to pentachlorobiphenyls and their degradation to chlorobenzoates by the bph-encoded catabolic pathway of Burkholderia sp. ...
Above Room Temperature Organic Ferroelectrics: Diprotonated 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane Shifts between Two 2-Chlorobenzoates. ...
... chlorobenzoates, methyl benzoates, dinitrobenzoates, hydroxybenzoates, methoxybenzoates, phthalates, sulfonates, ...
This is achieved by frequent, A. 2002, Enhancement of microbial PCB dechlorination by chlorobenzoates, chlorophenols and ...
B4 towards polychlorobiphenyls and chlorobenzoates. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2007, 60: 322-328. 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2007.00293.x. ...
Caffeine , Chlorobenzoates , chlorsulfuron , Cotinine , Fyrol PCF , hippuric acid , meobal , octylphenol , pirimicarb , Styrene ... Caffeine , Chlorobenzoates , chlorsulfuron , Cotinine , Fyrol PCF , hippuric acid , meobal , octylphenol , pirimicarb , Styrene ...
... chlorobenzoates, methylbenzoates, dinitrobenzoates, hydroxybenzoates, methoxybenzoates, phthalates, xylenesulfonates, ...
Chlorobenzoates. *Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 Inhibitors. *Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Substrates. *Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors ...
  • The initial attack on chlorobenzoates was oxygen dependent and most likely mediated by dioxygenases. (asm.org)