Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A widely used industrial solvent.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.1 and EC 1.99.2.2.
Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.2.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.
1,2-Dihydro-3,6-pyridazinedione. A herbicide and plant growth regulator; also used to control suckering of tobacco. Its residue in food and tobacco is highly toxic, causing CNS disturbances and liver damage.
A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.
Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.
A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.

Degradation of chlorobenzenes at nanomolar concentrations by Burkholderia sp. strain PS14 in liquid cultures and in soil. (1/211)

The utilization of 1,2,4,5-tetrachloro-, 1,2,4-trichloro-, the three isomeric dichlorobenzenes and fructose as the sole carbon and energy sources at nanomolar concentrations was studied in batch experiments with Burkholderia sp. strain PS14. In liquid culture, all chlorobenzenes were metabolized within 1 h from their initial concentration of 500 nM to below their detection limits of 0.5 nM for 1,2,4,5-tetrachloro- and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and 7.5 nM for the three dichlorobenzene isomers, with 63% mineralization of the tetra- and trichloroisomers. Fructose at the same initial concentration was, in contrast, metabolized over a 4-h incubation period down to a residual concentration of approximately 125 nM with 38% mineralization during this time. In soil microcosms, Burkholderia sp. strain PS14 metabolized tetrachlorobenzene present at 64.8 ppb and trichlorobenzene present at 54.4 ppb over a 72-h incubation period to below the detection limits of 0.108 and 0.09 ppb, respectively, with approximately 80% mineralization. A high sorptive capacity of Burkholderia sp. strain PS14 for 1,2,4, 5-tetrachlorobenzene was found at very low cell density. The results demonstrate that Burkholderia sp. strain PS14 exhibits a very high affinity for chlorobenzenes at nanomolar concentrations.  (+info)

Localization and comparative toxicity of methylsulfonyl-2,5- and 2,6-dichlorobenzene in the olfactory mucosa of mice. (2/211)

Several methylsulfonyl (MeSO2) metabolites formed from chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons have been identified in human milk, lung, and body fat, as well as in the tissues of Baltic grey seals and arctic polar bears. The tissue localization and nasal toxicity of two methylsulfonyl-substituted dichlorobenzenes (diCl-MeSO2-B), with the chlorine atoms in the 2,5-, and 2,6- positions, were investigated in female NMRI and C57B1 mice. Using tape-section autoradiography, animals dosed i.v. with 14C-labeled 2,5-, or 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B) showed a preferential uptake of radioactivity in the olfactory mucosa and the tracheobronchial epithelium. Histopathology showed that 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B) is a potent toxicant that induces necrosis in the olfactory mucosa following a single dose as low as 4 mg/kg (i.p. injection), whereas 2,5-(diCl-MeSO2-B) induced no signs of toxicity in the olfactory mucosa at doses as high as 130 mg/kg (i.p. injection). Necrosis of the Bowman's glands was the first sign of 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B)-induced toxicity followed by degeneration of the neuroepithelium, which implies that the Bowman's gland may be the primary site of toxicity and degeneration of the neuroepithelium may be a secondary effect. Administration of the parent compounds, 1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene, or the chlorinated analog 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (85, 85, and 105 mg/kg, respectively; i.p. injection), induced no signs of toxicity in the olfactory mucosa. These and previous results suggest that 2,6-positioned chlorine atoms and an electron withdrawing substituent in the primary position is an arrangement that predisposes for toxicity in the olfactory mucosa.  (+info)

Chronotropic, inotropic, dromotropic and coronary vasodilator effects of bisaramil, a new class I antiarrhythmic drug, assessed using canine isolated, blood-perfused heart preparations. (3/211)

The cardiovascular effects of a new class I antiarrhythmic drug, bisaramil, were examined using canine isolated, blood-perfused heart preparations. Bisaramil exerted negative chronotropic, inotropic and dromotropic effects as well as coronary vasodilator action, which are qualitatively the same as those of classical class I drugs. The selectivity of bisaramil for the intraventricular conduction vs the other cardiac variables was compared with that of disopyramide and flecainide. Bisaramil was the most selective for intraventricular conduction, while it was the least selective for ventricular muscle contraction. We conclude that bisaramil may become a useful antiarrhythmic drug with less cardiac adverse effects.  (+info)

A high-throughput digital imaging screen for the discovery and directed evolution of oxygenases. (4/211)

BACKGROUND: Oxygenases catalyze the hydroxylation of a wide variety of organic substrates. An ability to alter oxygenase substrate specificities and improve their activities and stabilities using recombinant DNA techniques would expand their use in processes such as chemical synthesis and bioremediation. Discovery and directed evolution of oxygenases require efficient screens that are sensitive to the activities of interest and can be applied to large numbers of crude enzyme samples. RESULTS: Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) couples the phenolic products of hydroxylation of aromatic substrates to generate colored and/or fluorescent compounds that are easily detected spectroscopically in high-throughput screening. Coexpression of the coupling enzyme with a functional mono- or dioxygenase creates a pathway for the conversion of aromatic substrates into fluorescent compounds in vivo. We used this approach for detecting the products of the toluene-dioxygenase-catalyzed hydroxylation of chlorobenzene and to screen large mutant libraries of Pseudomonas putida cytochrome P450cam by fluorescence digital imaging. Colors generated by the HRP coupling reaction are sensitive to the site of oxygenase-catalyzed hydroxylation, allowing the screen to be used to identify catalysts with new or altered regiospecificities. CONCLUSIONS: The coupled oxygenase-peroxidase reaction system is well suited for screening oxygenase libraries to identify mutants with desired features, including higher activity or stability and altered reaction specificity. This approach should also be useful for screening expressed DNA libraries and combinatorial chemical libraries for hydroxylation catalysts and for optimizing oxygenase reaction conditions.  (+info)

Comparative hepatocarcinogenicity of hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene: application of a medium-term liver focus bioassay and molecular and cellular indices. (5/211)

Of the twelve different chlorobenzene isomers, a thorough evaluation of carcinogenicity has only been assessed on monochlorobenzene, 1,2-, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene. In the studies presented here, we measured the ability of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) to promote glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1-1) positive preneoplastic foci formation in rat liver, following diethylnitrosamine (DEN) initiation. The results from these studies show that TeCB, PeCB, and HCB all promote the formation of GSTP1-1 positive foci and that DCB does not. The numbers and area of foci were greatest following HCB promotion, and TeCB and PeCB were approximately equal in their promoting ability. Levels of hepatic CYP1A2, CYP2B1/2, non-focal GSTP1-1, and c-fos were measured in response to treatment with the 4 chlorobenzene isomers, as were reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels. Results from these studies show that induction of CYP1A2 and CYP2B1/2 have correlation with both the presence and degree of GSTP1-1 foci promotion by the 4 chlorobenzenes. Alterations in GSH and GSSG levels were similar in PeCB- and TeCB-treated animals in that GSSG levels were significantly decreased, whereas HCB and DCB did not have this effect, although HCB treatment led to a significant increase in GSH levels. We conclude that induction of CYP1A2 or CYP2B1/2 by chlorobenzene isomers may indicate promotional ability, and that this property might be exploited to predict the hepatocarcinogenicity of other chlorobenzene isomers.  (+info)

Inhibition of NFkappaB-mediated pro-inflammatory gene expression in rat mesangial cells by the enolized 1,3-dioxane-4, 6-dione-5-carboxamide, CGP-43182. (6/211)

1. CGP-43182 has been described as a potent inhibitor of group IIA secreted phospholipase A(2) (group IIA sPLA(2)) activity in vitro. In rat mesangial cells, inhibition of group IIA sPLA(2) activity by CGP-43182 results in a 70% reduction of cytokine-stimulated prostaglandin E(2) biosynthesis, suggesting that group IIA sPLA(2) participates in arachidonic acid release and eicosanoid formation. Under these conditions the cytosolic phospholipase A(2) is not affected. 2. In mesangial cells, in addition to inhibition of catalytic activity, the membrane-permeant CGP-43182 completely blocked interleukin 1beta (IL1beta)-stimulated group IIA sPLA(2) gene expression. 3. A further action of CGP-43182 was a complete inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase-2 gene expression, resulting in a drastic reduction of prostaglandin formation in mesangial cells. 4. Moreover, CGP-43182 completely blocked IL1beta-induced gene expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase, leading to an inhibition of cytokine-stimulated nitric oxide formation. 5. In contrast, the stimulatory effect of the cell-permeant cyclic AMP-analogue, dibutyryl-cAMP, on the induction of these enzymes was not inhibited by CGP-43182. These data indicate that CGP-43182 interferes with IL1beta- but not cyclic AMP-activated transcriptional regulation. 6. By studying components of the upstream transcription machinery, we observed an inhibition of NFkappaB activation by CGP-43182 in IL1beta-treated cells. Moreover, we observed that CGP-43182 prevented the phosphorylation and proteolytic degradation of the endogenous NFkappaB inhibitor, IkappaB, a process necessary for NFkappaB activation. 7. From our data, we propose that CGP-43182 is a potent anti-inflammatory drug useful for preventing the consequences of a concerted action of cytokine-stimulated pro-inflammatory genes mediated by NFkappaB.  (+info)

A fusion inhibitor (FP-21399) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection: a phase I study. (7/211)

FP-21399 is a bis(disulfonaphthalene) derivative that prevents human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of uninfected cells by blocking entry of the virus. FP-21399 shows an affinity for lymph nodes. In this phase I study, FP-21399 was administered intravenously over 1 h as a single dose (0.9, 1.7, 2.8, and 4.2 mg/kg) or as a once-weekly infusion (1, 2, and 3 mg/kg) for 4 consecutive weeks to 34 HIV-1 infected patients with CD4(+) cell counts of 50-400 cells/microL. Concomitant antiretroviral therapy was permitted but not required. The most frequent adverse events involved the transient, dose-dependent appearance of drug- or metabolite-related color in the urine and skin. Plasma drug levels were linear with dose. The drug was cleared, with an elimination half-life of 4 h and a terminal half-life of 1.5-2 days; the terminal half-life represented redistribution and clearance from tissues. FP-21399 administered weekly for 4 weeks was well tolerated. Further studies are necessary to define the role of this fusion inhibitor in the treatment of HIV infection.  (+info)

Chlorocatechols substituted at positions 4 and 5 are substrates of the broad-spectrum chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase of Pseudomonas chlororaphis RW71. (8/211)

The nucleotide sequence of a 10,528-bp region comprising the chlorocatechol pathway gene cluster tetRtetCDEF of the 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene via the tetrachlorocatechol-mineralizing bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis RW71 (T. Potrawfke, K. N. Timmis, and R.-M. Wittich, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:3798-3806, 1998) was analyzed. The chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase gene tetC was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant gene product was purified, and the alpha,alpha-homodimeric TetC was characterized. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements confirmed the presence of a high-spin-state Fe(III) atom per monomer in the holoprotein. The productive transformation by purified TetC of chlorocatechols bearing chlorine atoms in positions 4 and 5 provided strong evidence for a significantly broadened substrate spectrum of this dioxygenase compared with other chlorocatechol dioxygenases. The conversion of 4,5-dichloro- or tetrachlorocatechol, in the presence of catechol, displayed strong competitive inhibition of catechol turnover. 3-Chlorocatechol, however, was simultaneously transformed, with a rate similar to that of the 4,5-halogenated catechols, indicating similar specificity constants. These novel characteristics of TetC thus differ significantly from results obtained from hitherto analyzed catechol 1,2-dioxygenases and chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenases.  (+info)

Abstract : Para-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB) is widely used as a chemical intermediate in manufacturing of dyes, pharmaceuticals, polymers and other organic synthesis. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of p-dichlorobenzene. The p-dichlorobenzene sample was divided into two groups that served as treated and control. The treated group received Mr. Trivedis biofield treatment. Subsequently the control and treated samples were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. XRD result showed an increase in crystallite size (4.93%) along with alteration in peak intensity of treated sample as compared to control. Furthermore, DSC analysis results showed that the latent heat of fusion of treated p-dichlorobenzene was considerably reduced by 8.66% as compared to control. The reduction in melting point of treated sample ...
EWGs Tap Water Database p-Dichlorobenzene results for Paradise Estates Water Corporation | p-Dichlorobenzene. Find out what is in your tap water
EWGs Tap Water Database p-Dichlorobenzene results for Glen Devon Condominiums | p-Dichlorobenzene. Find out what is in your tap water
The Global Chlorobenzene Market Outlook 2019-2028′ offers detailed coverage of chlorobenzene industry and presents main market trends. The market research gives historical and forecast market size, demand, end-use details, price trends, and company shares of the leading chlorobenzene producers to provide exhaustive coverage of the market for chlorobenzene. The report segments the market and forecasts its size, by volume and value, on the basis of application, by products, and by geography.. Click Here to Get Sample Premium Report @ https://www.trendsmarketresearch.com/report/sample/3748. The report has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from key industry participants. The global chlorobenzene market has been segmented into five major regions, namely, North America (U.S., Canada, and others), Europe (U.K., France, Germany, Russia, and others), Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, India, Australia, and others), South America (Brazil, Argentina, and others), and Middle East & ...
Information relevant for assessing potential adverse health effects from occupational exposure to chlorobenzene (108907) was reviewed and summarized. Topics included physical properties, chemical properties, production levels, industrial uses, occupational exposure levels, toxicokinetics, acute and chronic toxicity, organ system toxicity, immunotoxicity, allergy, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, reproductive toxicity, dose/response relationships, and research needs. Studies have indicated that chlorobenzene is absorbed via respiratory and dermal routes and has resulted in headaches, dizziness, somnolence, and dyspeptic disorders in humans chronically exposed. There were no case reports or epidemiological studies available concerned with the potential carcinogenicity of chlorobenzene in humans. There was some limited evidence indicating that the compound is genotoxic and that it may induce hematopoietic toxicity at relatively moderate doses. Chlorobenzene was not classifiable as a ...
Article Effects of operation conditions on removal rate constant and quantum yield of gaseous chlorobenzene degradation in a photochemical reactor. A photochemical reactor with a low-pressure mercury ultraviolet (UV) lamp was established to treat was...
Fluticasone furoate/vilanterol versus fluticasone propionate in patients with asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction Academic Article ...
Chlorobenzene is a colorless, flammable liquid with an aromatic, almond-like odor. Some of it will dissolve in water, but it readily evaporates into air. It does not occur naturally in the environment. Chlorobenzene production in the United States has declined by more than 60% from its peak in 1960. It was used in the past to make other chemicals, such as phenol and DDT. Now chlorobenzene is used as a solvent for some pesticide formulations, to degrease automobile parts, and as a chemical intermediate to make several other chemicals.
Alfa Aesar™ 1-Bromo-2-chlorobenzene, 98+% 50g Alfa Aesar™ 1-Bromo-2-chlorobenzene, 98+% Bromochloroi to Bromodimethyl -Organics
Looking for tetrachlorobenzene? Find out information about tetrachlorobenzene. C6H2Cl4 Water-insoluble, combustible white crystals that appear in two forms: 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene which melts at 47°C and is used in chemical... Explanation of tetrachlorobenzene
This trial is compared the efficacy of vilanterol/fluticasone furoate delivered via a dry powder inhaler versus vilanterol alone and placebo in patients with
Shop HCL Chlorobenzene GHS Chemical Label, 4 x 7, Adhesive Vinyl, Yellow/Black, 25 Pack (GH316370047) at Staples. Choose from our wide selection of HCL Chlorobenzene GHS Chemical Label, 4 x 7, Adhesive Vinyl, Yellow/Black, 25 Pack (GH316370047) and get fast & free shipping on select orders.
Chlorobenzene definition is - a colorless flammable volatile toxic liquid C6H5Cl used in organic synthesis (as of DDT) and as a solvent.
Ön İşlem ve GC/MS ile Yarı Uçucu Organik Maddelerin (SVOC) Tayini. Phenols. (2,4-Dimethylphenol, 2,4-Dinitrophenol, 2-Methyl-4-Dinitrophenol, 2-Nitrophenol, 4-Nitrophenol, o-Cresol ( 2-Methylphenol ), m-Cresol ( 3-Methylphenol ), p-Cresol ( 4-Methylphenol ), Phenol). Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). (Acenaphthene, Acenaphthylene, Anthracene,Benzo (a) Antrcene, Benzo (a) Pyrene, Benzo (b) Fluoranthene, Benzo (g,h,i) Perylene, Benzo (k) Fluoranthene, Chrysene, Dibenz (a,h) Anthracene, Fluoranthene, Fluorene, Indone (1,2,3-cd) Pyrene, Naphthalene, Perylene, Phenanthrene, Pyrene). Halogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbons. (1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene, 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene, 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene, Hexachlorobenzene, Pentachloronitrobenzene, Pentachlorobenzene, Other Compounds Brominated-diphenylethers, Pentabromobiphenylethers). Other Compounds. (Brominated-diphenylethers, Pentabromobiphenylethers). Halogenated ...
2015 Global 1,4-Dichlorobenzene Industry Report is a professional and in-depth research report on the worlds major regional market conditions of the 1,4-Dichlorobenzene industry, focusing on the main regions (North America, Europe and Asia) and the main countries (United States, Germany, Japan and China).. The report firstly introduced the 1,4-Dichlorobenzene basics: definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain overview; industry policies and plans; product specifications; manufacturing processes; cost structures and so on. Then it analyzed the worlds main region market conditions, including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry growth rate etc. In the end, the report introduced new project SWOT analysis, investment feasibility analysis, and investment return analysis.. The report includes six parts, dealing with: 1.) basic information; 2.) the Asia 1,4-Dichlorobenzene industry; 3.) the North American ...
Other names: Benzene, p-dichloro-; p-Chlorophenyl chloride; p-Dichlorobenzene; Di-chloricide; Evola; Paradi; Paradow; Paramoth; Persia-Perazol; PDB; Santochlor; 1,4-Dichlorobenzene; p-Dichlorobenzol; Paradichlorobenzol; para-Dichlorobenzene; p-Dichloorbenzeen; p-Dichlorbenzol; p-Diclorobenzene; Dichlorobenzene; Dichlorobenzene, p-; NCI-C54955; para crystals; Paracide; Paranuggets; Parazene; 1,4-Dichloorbenzeen; 1,4-Dichlor-benzol; 1,4-Diclorobenzene; Dichlorobenzene, para; Globol; Paradichlorbenzol; Rcra waste number U070; Rcra waste number U071; Rcra waste number U072; UN 1592; Dichlorocide; Kaydox; p-Dichlorbenzene; NSC 36935; 1,4-chlorobenzene ...
This will be a Phase IIIb multicentre, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, 12-week parallel group study evaluating the effects of once daily in the morning treatment of FF/VI Inhalation Powder versus Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol Inhalation Powder twice daily on lung function in COPD subjects.. Subjects will be screened and will enter a 2-week, single-blind (placebo), Run-In Period to evaluate the subjects adherence with study treatment, study procedures and assessment of disease stability.. At the end of the Run-In Period, subjects will return to the Clinic and who meet all of the Randomization Criteria will be randomized to double-blind study medication (12-week treatment period). Subjects will be randomized to receive either FF/VI 100/25 via NDPI or Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol 250/50mcg via ACCUHALER/DISKUS. Matching placebos will be available in NDPI and ACCUHALER/DISKUS. Each morning (approximately 6-10 AM) subjects will take 1 inhalation from the NDPI followed by 1 ...
Mono Chloro Benzene exporters - Ultra Chemical Works suppliers of Mono Chloro Benzene Chemical india, indian Monochlorobenzene, wholesale Mono Chloro Benzene Chemical supplier, Mono Chloro Benzene exporter, Mono Chloro Benzene, Mono Chloro Benzene Chemical, Monochlorobenzene
Participants were instructed to take single-blind placebo twice a day (one inhalation from a multi-dose powder inhaler [MPI] and one inhalation from a dry powder inhaler [DPI] in the morning; one inhalation from an MPI in the evening). In addition, all participants received supplemental albuterol (salbutamol) (via a metered dose inhaler [MDI] and/or nebules) to be used on an as-needed basis. Ipratropium bromide alone was permitted, provided that the participant was on a stable dose from Visit 1 (Screening) and remained on the stable dose throughout the study; however, ipratropium must have been withheld for 4 hours prior to and during each clinic visit ...
This study investigated the effects of inhaled vilanterol/fluticasone furoate on breathing pattern, dyspnoea and respiratory muscle function in patients with
91696-36-5 - Benzenamine, 3-methyl-, reaction products with chlorobenzene and 1-chloro-4-(trichloromethyl)benzene, disulfo derivs., sodium salts - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Convert benzene to chlorobenzene.........!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Answer : Making chlorobenzeneBenzene reacts with chlorine in the presence of a catalyst, replacing
Innovative Cavitand-Based Sol−Gel Coatings for the Environmental Monitoring of Benzene and Chlorobenzenes via Solid-Phase Microextraction
FMI s New Report, titled, Chlorobenzenes Market: Global Industry Analysis and Opportunity Assessment 2016-2026 offers 10-year forecast and analysis.
Flovent 110 mg, fluticasone propionate nasal dose, fluticasone furoate vilanterol trifenatate, can you take fluticasone propionate nasal spray while pregnant, fluticasone propionate nasal spray 50 mg dosage, how much does flovent cost in canada, fluticasone prop 50 mcg spray price
Symbicort or advair first. Symbicort contains a combination of budesonide and formoterol. But thanks to advair now i can run. They both combine a corticosteroid with another drug called a long acting beta 2 adrenergic agonist. Advair hfa from glaxosmithkline was first approved in 2006. Budesonide formoterol fumarate dihydrate such as symbicort fluticasone furoate vilanterol trifenatate such as breo ellipta 100 mcg 25 mcg fluticasone propionate salmeterol xinafoate such as advair 250 diskus advair 500 diskus asthma first line drug product s. But i found that when i sprinted i still felt chest tightness. Compare advair diskus vs symbicort head to head with other drugs for uses ratings cost side effects and interactions. Symbicort and advair are brand name combination drugs. It s available in a pressurized metered dose aerosol canister containing 60 or 120 metered inhalations and fitted with a counter. Answers 1 symbicort and advair hfa are similar in that they both contain a steroid and a ...
Shop a large selection of Benzene and substituted derivatives products and learn more about 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene, 99%, pure, ACROS Organics. 1L; Glass bottle.
4-(bromomethyl)-1,2-dichlorobenzene Catalog Id: MM18880041 IUPAC:3,4-Dichlorobenzylbromide CAS Number: 18880-04-1 Formula: C7H5BrCl2 SMILES: ClC1=C(Cl)C=C(CBr)C=C1 Molecular Weight: 239.92 Preferred IUPAC Name: 4-(bromomethyl)-1,2-dichlorobenzene InChIKey: InChIKey=XLWSBDFQAJXCQX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
This is not to be construed as a representation of non-infringement or as an offer to sell in those countries where such would constitute an infringement of third parties patent rights.. ...
Citation: Witt, K.L., Knapton, A., Wehr, C.M., Hook, G.J., Mirsalis, J., Shelby, M.D., and MacGregor, J.T. Micronucleated Erythrocyte Frequency in Peripheral Blood of B6C3F1 Mice from Short-Term, Prechronic, and Chronic Studies of the NTP Carcinogenesis Bioassay Program. Environ. Molec. Mutagen. Vol. 36 (2000) 163- ...
-Xylene; 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane; Mesitylene; 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene; 1,3-Dichlorobenzene; Benzyl chloride; 1,4-Dichlorobenzene; 1,2-Dichlorobenzene; 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene; Hexachloro-1,3-butadiene
1,2-Dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB), an industrial solvent, is a potent hepatotoxicant in Fischer-344 (F-344) rats. Bioactivation of 1,2-DCB by cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver and subsequent activation of Kupffer cells (KC), the resident liver macrophages, are required for the development and progression of liver damage. The mechanisms by which KC cells become activated in chemical induced liver injury are unknown. The studies described in this dissertation utilized 1,2-DCB as a model hepatotoxicant to test the hypothesis that KC activation following 1,2-DCB induced liver injury is triggered by molecular and cellular events in hepatocytes that lead to the expression of proteins known to activate inflammatory cells. The administration of 1,2-DCB (3.6mmol/kg, i.p.) to F-344 rats or incubation of 1,2-DCB (3.6 umol) with primary cultured hepatocytes of F-344 rats produces an intracellular oxidative stress as assessed by the production of glutathione disulfide. The binding activity of transcription ...
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 634-66-2 1,2,3,4-TETRACHLOROBENZENE (13C6, 99%) 100 UG/ML IN ISOOCTANE. We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
Publication year 1996. Abstract The oxidative biotransformation of 1, 2-dichlorobenzene (1, 2-DCB) was investigated using hepatic microsomes from male Wistar, Fischer-344 and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, phenobarbital (PB)- and isoniazid (ISO) pretreated male Wistar rats and from man. In addition, microsomes from cell lines selectively expressing one cytochrome P450 (P4502E1, 1A1, 1A2, 2B6, 2C9, 2D6, 2A6 and 3A4) were used. The rate of conversion was 0.09 nmol/min/mg, protein for both Wistar and Fischer-344 rat microsomes, 0.04 for SD-microsomes and 0.14 for human microsomes. Induction of Wistar rats with isoniazid (ISO, a P4502E1 inducer) or phenobarbital (PB, a P4502B1/2 inducer) resulted in an increased conversion rate of 0.20 and 0.42 nmol/min/mg, protein, respectively. Covalent binding of radioactivity to microsomal protein was similar for Wistar, Fischer and ISO-pretreated rats (16-17% of total metabolites), whereas induction with PB resulted in an increased covalent binding of 23% of total ...
licensed Whirlpool 4396841P PUR Push Button substitute fridge water filter-a part of the companys Whirlpool filtration -is the improved model of the Whirlpool 4396841P model, providing you and your loved ones cleaner, more healthy, and better-tasting ingesting water at house. By lowering contaminants like mercury, toxaphene, p-dichlorobenzene, carbofuran, alachlor, benzene, lead, cryptosporidium, giardia, cysts and Contaminants or different substances.. the Whirlpool 4396841P is a safe and affordable option to contribute to a wholesome life-style. Within the cooler months, fireplaces are almost the central function of each household. It is definitely a much wanted part of the survival strategy within the extended winter. Still in the age of electrical room heater, the traditional wooden fire has an distinctive appeal with the sensuous direct warmth and the sparkles. Fireplaces have a outstanding place within the conventional culture of Toronto and also in locations like Vaughan, Richmond Hill, ...
Lead, Cysts, Alachlor*, Lindane*, 2, 4-D*, Mercury, Toaxphene. Polystyrene, Chromium, III, Copper, Selenium, VOC. Chlorine Taste & Odor, P-Dichlorobenzene, Turbidity, Asbestos, Atrazine*, Benzene*. Arsenic, Chloramine, Cadmium, Barium. ...
Lead, Cysts, Alachlor*, Lindane*, 2, 4-D*, Mercury, Toaxphene. Polystyrene, Chromium, III, Copper, Selenium, VOC. Chlorine Taste & Odor, P-Dichlorobenzene, Turbidity, Asbestos, Atrazine*, Benzene*. Arsenic, Chloramine, Cadmium, Barium. ...
Lead, Cysts, Alachlor*, Lindane*, 2, 4-D*, Mercury, Toaxphene. Polystyrene, Chromium, III, Copper, Selenium, VOC. Chlorine Taste & Odor, P-Dichlorobenzene, Turbidity, Asbestos, Atrazine*, Benzene*. Arsenic, Chloramine, Cadmium, Barium. ...
Lead, Cysts, Alachlor*, Lindane*, 2, 4-D*, Mercury, Toaxphene. Polystyrene, Chromium, III, Copper, Selenium, VOC. Chlorine Taste & Odor, P-Dichlorobenzene, Turbidity, Asbestos, Atrazine*, Benzene*. Arsenic, Chloramine, Cadmium, Barium. ...
Lead, Cysts, Alachlor*, Lindane*, 2, 4-D*, Mercury, Toaxphene. Polystyrene, Chromium, III, Copper, Selenium, VOC. Chlorine Taste & Odor, P-Dichlorobenzene, Turbidity, Asbestos, Atrazine*, Benzene*. Arsenic, Chloramine, Cadmium, Barium. ...
Lead, Cysts, Alachlor*, Lindane*, 2, 4-D*, Mercury, Toaxphene. Polystyrene, Chromium, III, Copper, Selenium, VOC. Chlorine Taste & Odor, P-Dichlorobenzene, Turbidity, Asbestos, Atrazine*, Benzene*. Arsenic, Chloramine, Cadmium, Barium. ...
Lead, Cysts, Alachlor*, Lindane*, 2, 4-D*, Mercury, Toaxphene. Polystyrene, Chromium, III, Copper, Selenium, VOC. Chlorine Taste & Odor, P-Dichlorobenzene, Turbidity, Asbestos, Atrazine*, Benzene*. Arsenic, Chloramine, Cadmium, Barium. ...
Nayawax information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by BMW Pharmaco India, Nayawax indications, usages and related health products lists
The strong affinity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to environmental contaminants has raised serious concern that CNTs may function as a carrier of environmental pollutants and lead to contamination in places where the environmental pollutants are not expected. However, this concern will not be realized until the contaminants are desorbed from CNTs. It is well recognized that the desorption of environmental pollutants from pre-laden CNTs varies with the environmental conditions, such as the solution pH and ionic strength. However, comprehensive investigation on the influence of solution chemistry on the desorption process has not been carried out, even though numerous investigations have been conducted to investigate the impact of solution chemistry on the adsorption of environmental pollutants on CNTs. The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of solution chemistry (e.g., pH, ionic strength) and surface functionalization on the desorption of preloaded 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (1,3,5-TCB)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhanced reactivity of hydrophobic vitamin B12 towards the dechlorination of DDT in ionic liquid. AU - Jabbar, Md Abdul. AU - Shimakoshi, Hisashi. AU - Hisaeda, Yoshio. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - The electrolytic reductive dechlorination of 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2- trichloroethane (DDT) in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]) in the presence of a cobalamin derivative afforded 1,1′-(ethylidene)bis(4-chlorobenzene) (DDO) and 1,1′-(ethenylidene)bis(4-chlorobenzene) (DDNU) with 1,1′-(2- chloroethylidene)bis(4-chlorobenzene) (DDMS); the enhanced reactivity, as well as the recyclability of the cobalamin derivative catalyst in IL, makes the present system more efficient for the development of green technologies.. AB - The electrolytic reductive dechlorination of 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2- trichloroethane (DDT) in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]) in the presence of a ...
3,3,4,4-Tetrachloroazobenzene is not commercially manufactured but is present as a contaminant of 3,4-dichloroaniline and its herbicidal derivatives Propanil, Linuron, and Diuron (Sundstrom et al., 1978; Bunce et al., 1979; Carey et al., 1980; Hill et al., 1981). In addition, environmental contamination occurs when TCAB is formed by the photolysis and biolysis of 3,4-dichloroaniline. TCAB was nominated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for toxicity testing, based on concerns over the potential for human exposure, the structural resemblance to the potent immunotoxic and carcinogenic agent 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and reports that TCAB demonstrated dioxin-like effects (van Birgelen et al., 1999). The toxicity of TCAB was evaluated in 13-week gavage studies in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (van Birgelen et al., 1999; NTP, 1998). Results of these studies demonstrated decreased thymus weights, thymic atrophy, and macrocytic anemia in male and female rats ...
The rate of biotransformation of toluene in unconsolidated subsurface material from sites at Lula, Oklahoma, USA and Conroe, Texas, USA was compared to the ATP (adenosine triphosphate) content of these materials. The rate of toluene degradation decreased with decreasing ATP content. When ATP contents were at or less than 0.05 ng/g, biotransformation of toluene could not be detected (less than 1% of the initial concentration was degraded per week). At intermediate concentrations of ATP, 0.37 and 0.16 ng/g, the rates of toluene degradation were 18 + or - 4.5% and 25 + or - 10% of the initial concentration per week. At ATP concentrations above 1 ng/g, the rates of toluene degradation exceeded 90% of the initial concentration per week. There was no simple relationship between ATP content and chlorobenzene degradation. Subsurface material that had been exposed to creosote wastes, and which degraded toluene rapidly, also degraded benzene, o-xylene, and m-xylene ...
Could you ask him to call me? ,a href= https://www.apprhs.org/fluticasone-propionate-cream-price.pdf#schoolboy ,fluticasone furoate/vilanterol inhalation powder 100/ 25mcg,/a, The supposed chain of consequences from American inaction is also being emphasized by some legislators who support tough U.S. action in Syria. I hope the president will address the American people, said Sen. Lindsey Graham, R-S.C., in an interview with CNN ...and talk about, does it really matter if Assad is in power a year from now? Are the Iranians really watching what were doing? And would it matter if they got a nuclear weapon? If we lose the King of Jordan, does it matter to us at all ...
Lead, Cysts, Alachlor*, Lindane*, 2, 4-D*, Mercury, Toaxphene. Polystyrene, Chromium, III, Copper, Selenium, VOC. Chlorine Taste & Odor, P-Dichlorobenzene, Turbidity, Asbestos, Atrazine*, Benzene*. Arsenic, Chloramine, Cadmium, Barium. ...
Each 7th Edition Documentation summarizes and evaluates the scientific data from which its TLV® or BEI® is derived. Knowing the basis of each TLV® and BEI®, as described in its Documentation, is essential to the application of that TLV® or BEI®. This Documentation is available for download in PDF format. Before downloading, ACGIH® requires that you read the Policy Statement on the Uses of TLVs® and BEIs®, Special Note to User, and the Introduction to the Chemical Substances TLVs®, available at https://www.acgih.org/Products/tlvintro.htm. This document is fully protected by copyright and no part of it may be reproduced in any form or by any means - graphic, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems - without written permission from ACGIH®, 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45240-1634.. ...
Use of this information is subject to copyright laws and may require the permission of the owner of the information, as described in the ECHA Legal Notice.. ...
Use of this information is subject to copyright laws and may require the permission of the owner of the information, as described in the ECHA Legal Notice.. ...
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) electric wires were subjected to dechlorination in subcritical water at three different temperatures in a high-pressure reactor. About 2.09, 73.08 and 95.96 wt. % of chlorine in PVC wires was removed during dechlorination at 200, 250 and 300 °C, respectively. The solid residues were analyzed and characterized by thermogravimetry, at three different heating rates (5, 10 and 20 °C/min) in inert and oxidizing atmosphere. With the purpose of studying the emission of chlorinated pollutants, pyrolysis experiments at 850 °C were also performed in a laboratory scale reactor with the dechlorinated materials, as well as with the original PVC electric wire. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation increased, but chlorobenzenes (ClBz) and chlorophenols (ClPh) formation decreased as the temperature of dechlorination increased; naphthalene was the most abundant PAH and monochlorobenzene and monochlorinated phenols (3-+4-) were the most abundant chlorinated compounds.
315.0 Kg o-Nitrotoluene was mixed with 1000 Lit Monochlorobenzene. To this mixture 275.0 Kg 3,5- Dibromo dimethylhydantoin & 26.0 Kg Azoisobutyronitrile (AIBN) was charged. The reaction mixture was digested for 10 hr at 60°C. After cooling, sodium carbonate solution (10%) charged to adjust pH 9.5. 175.0 Kg N-methylcyclohexylamine was added to the reaction mixture and the reaction mixture was digested for 8 hr at 85°C. Organic and aqueous layers were separated. Organic layer was charged with dilute hydrochloric acid solution. Monocholorobenzene layer was separated after complete formation of hydrochloride salt of the product. The aqueous acidic layer was then basified with caustic lye to yield 350.0 Kg of N-(2-nitrobenzyl)-N-methylcyclohexylamine of formula II. Organic layer was steam distilled to recover Monochlorobenzene, which is recycled in next batch ...
Any organic chemical which includes chlorine atoms. A class of water pollutants. Chlorinated organic compounds, along with other halogenated organics, are believed to cause health risks such as cancer, endocrine system disruption, birth defects, compromised immune systems, and reduced fertility. Examples of chlorinated organics include trichloroethylene, ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride, PCBs, chlorobenzene, and many chlorinated solvents and biocides ...
Segment 13, 14 and 15, Benzene and Its Derivatives deals channel, wholesalers, merchants, traders, Exploration Discoveries and End, appendix and data source.. Browse Full Global Benzene and Its Derivatives Market Report : www.intenseresearch.com/report/162993. Additionally, the global Benzene and Its Derivatives market is segmented on the basis of the region as well. It employs some practical tools to assess the expansion of the global Benzene and Its Derivatives market in the upcoming time. The global Benzene and Its Derivatives market report also offers a synopsis of the market on a global level that helps users in the decision-making processes, which in turn helps to boost their businesses. This synopsis incorporates the index growth as well as the competitive framework of the global Benzene and Its Derivatives market over the projected period.. The highlight of the global Benzene and Its Derivatives market research report is the in-depth market segmentation {Chlorobenzene, Toluene, ...
FF/VI (fluticasone and vilanterol) is a new drug in development for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). FF/VI (fluticasone and vilanterol) information includes news, clinical trial results and side effects.
Molecular oxygen was used to probe the mechanism of the phototransformation of chlorobenzene and 4-chloroanisole in organic solvents. Laser flash photolysis, electron paramagnetic resonance and product distribution studies clarified the reaction mechanisms of these compounds under a wide range of conditions. The main primary photochemical reaction step is the homolytic cleavage of the C-Cl bond to produce a triplet radical pair in the solvent cage. In non-polar solvents hydrogen abstraction, after radical diffusion, leads to reduction. In polar solvents, in addition to H-abstraction, electron transfer within the caged radical pair occurs and leads to an ion pair (phenyl cation and Cl-). In the presence of oxygen, phenyl radicals can form phenylperoxyl radicals which have a bathochromically shifted absorption, thus making the homolytic cleavage visible by flash photolysis. The peroxyl radicals can couple, leading to more polar compounds, or undergo back reaction to the phenyl radical. For concentrations
Theory options solvation -CAO sovSizer = EcceBoxSizer(self, label = Solvation, cols = 2) sovLeftSizer = EcceVBoxSizer() sovRightSizer = EcceVBoxSizer() #Use solvation self.useSCRF = EcceCheckBox(self, #useCosmo label = Use SCRF name = ES.Theory.SCF.UseSCRF, default = False) sovLeftSizer.AddWidget(self.useSCRF, border = EcceGlobals.BorderDefault) #SCRF type scrfChoice = [PCM, CPCM, IPCM, SCIPCM, SMD, Dipole] self.scrf = EcceComboBox(self, choices = scrfChoice, name = ES.Theory.SCF.SCRF, label = SCRF type:, default = 0) sovRightSizer.AddWidget(self.scrf, border = EcceGlobals.BorderDefault) #Solvent type solventChoice = [Water, Acetonitrile, Methanol, Ethanol, Manual, Benzene, Chloroform, Diethylether, Dichloromethane, Dichloroethane, Carbontetrachloride, Toluene, Chlorobenzene, Nitromethane, Heptane, Aniline, Acetone, Tetrahydrofuran, Dimethylsulfoxide, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, n-Octanol, 1-Butanol Cyclohexane, Isoquinoline, ...
4,4-Dichlorodiphenyl sulfone (DCDPS) is an organic compound with the formula (ClC6H4)2SO2. Classified as a sulfone, this white solid is most commonly used as a precursor to polymers that are rigid and temperature resistant such as PES or Udel. DCDPS is synthesized via sulfonation of chlorobenzene with sulfuric acid, often in the presence of various additives to optimize the formation of the 4,4-isomer: ClC6H5 + SO3 → (ClC6H4)2SO2 + H2O It can also be produced by chlorination of diphenylsulfone. DCDPS is the starting material in the polymerization of compounds such as Udel, PES and Radel R. The polymerization occurs through a nucleophilic substitution reaction of DCDPS with difunctional nucleophiles. With bisphenol A in dimethyl sulfoxide, DCDPS forms a material called Udel. This and related condensations adhere to the following stoichiometry: (ClC6H4)2SO2 + HO-X-OH → 1/n [(O-X-OC6H4)2SO2]n + 2 HCl Udel is a high performance amorphous sulfone polymer that can molded into a variety of ...
A passive sampling network would provide important information about the disrubution, long term trends, and wildife exposure to POPs. The authors believe that there are major benifits in starting global aquatic passive sampling (AQUA-GAPS) and propose the phased development of an AQUA-GAPS network of stations. The program could be started by initating monitioring with PE samples at accessible and relatively well studied key locations e.g. the Great lakes, U.S. east coast, baltic, North Seas, Mediterranean or South China Seas... The list of POPs thi be analyzed would be those redily detected by low resolutionGC-MS and for which analytical standards are readily avaailable (e.g. legacy chlorated pesticides, lindane, endosulfan, selected PCB congeners, chlorobenzene, tetra- and pentatBDEs).. ...
The goal of the present work was to optimize the solution and process parameters for the electrospinning of polyethylene to form a porous fiber mat,which was to be used as a membrane in pervaporation. For the first time,chlorobenzene combined with tetraoctyl ammonium bromide salt was used as asolvent for electrospinning polyethylene. Polyethylene fiber mat was generated by solution electrospinning technique, and by maintaining the solution temperature at 95 °C. The corresponding fiber mat is to be used as one of the membrane layers in a ternary membrane support system for pervaporative butanol separation from a fermentation broth. The polymer concentration, salt concentration, ratio of the electrospinning voltage to the distance between needle tip and collector, electrospinning voltage and distance between the needle tipand the collector, were optimized to get the best possible fiber mat. One parameter at a time was varied while keeping the others constant. The resultant fibers were beaded. Efforts
Accomplish the following conversions. (i) Benzyl chloride to 2-phenylethanamine (ii) Chlorobenzene to p-chloroaniline (iii) Benzoic acid to aniline
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regenerable Radical-Trapping Tellurobistocopherol Antioxidants. AU - Poon, Jia Fei. AU - Yan, Jiajie. AU - Singh, Vijay P.. AU - Gates, Paul. AU - Engman, Lars. PY - 2016/12/16. Y1 - 2016/12/16. N2 - Tellurobistocopherols 9-11 were prepared by lithiation of the corresponding bromotocopherols, reaction with tellurium tetrachloride and reductive workup. Compounds 9-11 quenched linoleic-acid-derived peroxyl radicals much more efficiently than α-tocopherol in a chlorobenzene/water two-phase system. N-Acetylcysteine or tris(2-carboxylethyl)phosphine as co-antioxidants in the aqueous phase could regenerate the tellurobistocopherols and increase their inhibition times. Antioxidant 11 inhibited peroxidation for 7-fold longer than that recorded with α-tocopherol. Thiol consumption in the aqueous phase was monitored and found to be inversely related to the inhibition time.. AB - Tellurobistocopherols 9-11 were prepared by lithiation of the corresponding bromotocopherols, reaction with ...
Umeclidinium bromide (UMEC) is an inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist in development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over, incomplete block study to evaluate UMEC 15.6, 31.25, 62.5, and 125 μg administered once daily (QD), and UMEC 15.6 μg and 31.25 μg administered twice daily (BID), over 7 days in patients with COPD. Tiotropium was included as an open-label treatment arm. The primary efficacy endpoint was trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) on Day 8. Secondary efficacy endpoints included weighted mean FEV1 over 0-24 hours after morning dosing on Day 7, and serial FEV1 at each time point over 24 hours after morning dosing on Day 7. Safety and pharmacokinetics were also examined. One hundred and sixty-three patients (mean age 59.5 years, 52% female) were randomised. Based on the population dose-response model of trough FEV1 data, the geometric mean potency (ED50) of UMEC was 37
Rationale: The long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) umeclidinium (UMEC) and long-acting beta2 agonist vilanterol (VI) are in development as a combination treatment for COPD. Tiotropium (TIO) is a LAMA indicated for COPD.. Objective: To evaluate efficacy and safety of two doses of UMEC/VI vs TIO or UMEC in patients with COPD.. Methods: This was a 24-week, multicentre, double-blind, parallel-group, double-dummy study. Patients (N=869 [ITT]) were randomised 1:1:1:1 to once-daily UMEC/VI 125/25 mcg, UMEC/VI 62.5/25 mcg, UMEC 125 mcg or TIO 18 mcg via a dry powder inhaler. Primary endpoint was trough FEV1 at Day 169. Secondary endpoint was weighted mean (WM) FEV1 over 0-6 hours post-dose at Day 168. Safety evaluations included adverse events (AEs), vital signs, electrocardiography (ECG) and clinical laboratory measurements.. Results: UMEC/VI 125/25 mcg showed statistically significant improvement in LS mean change from baseline in trough FEV1 vs TIO (0.074 L, 95% CI: 0.025-0.123; p=0.003), but ...
Ive never had an issue with Kirklands quality, so for me, Ill always go with Kirkland. The Kirkland antiseptic wipes are leagues better than the Clorox or Lysol wipes. A savings of almost 12%. I cant compare every Kirkland product against its brand name competitor but from the 4 examples above, the Kirkland equivalent was always significantly less. Generally speaking, how does Kirkland compare with name-brands? Kirkland Fabric Softener Sheets vs. Today, I thought Id compare Costco Kirkland Versus Brand Names. Based on reports by Brita, the Longlast traps chlorine (taste and smell), benzene, asbestos, cadmium, and lead (up to 99%) from getting into your drinking water. The filters are tested and certified by WQA against NSF/ANSI 42, 53 and 401 for the reduction of: Chloramine (taste and odor); Clorine (taste and odor); Mercury; Copper; Cadmium; Benzene; Zinc; 1, 2, 4-Trichlorobenzene; Estrone; Meprobamate; Trimethoprim. $39.99. The handle is comfortable enough without any extra comfort ...
The log KOC of the three main components of the test item Reaction mass of N-butylphthalimide and N-propylphthalimide and N-sec-butylphthalimide was determined according to TG OECD 121. This determination is based upon a regression analysis of the log KOC values of reference items against their respective retention times as determined by HPLC analysis. The following reference items were used: Acetanilide, Phenol, Methyl benzoate, Naphthalene, 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene and Pyrazophos. The dead time of the HPLC system was determined with Sodium nitrate. This set of reference items yielded a calibration with log KOC values ranging from 1.25 to 3.65 and retention times ranging from 3.34 min to 36.2 min. The dead time of the HPLC system was 1.10 min. The log KOC value for the first test item component (N-propylphthalimide) was found to be 2.10 (95% confidence limits: 1.99-2.20) in both determinations. The log KOC value for the second test item component (N-sec-butylphthalimide) was found to be 2.40 ...
The gene cluster, coding for the chlorocatechol sp. of hereditary, biochemical, and ecological areas of the connections of several chloroaromatic substances with microorganisms in the biosphere within a broad work to comprehend the fate of the chemicals in the surroundings also to develop book bioremediation strategies (22, 33, 37). Among the principles to emerge out of this body of function is the department of biodegradative routes into higher and lower pathways that are linked with the central intermediate chlorocatechol (38). Hereditary research of chlorocatechol sp. stress P51 and sp. stress PS12: an entire mineralization pathway seems to have advanced through transposon-mediated recruitment of toluene or benzene dioxygenase and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase genes following to a gene cluster coding for an gene cluster, hereafter known as the gene cluster) in the trichlorobenzene-degrading stress sp. stress P51 (41) within a Tnchlorocatechol catabolic genes are organized within an operon and ...
Accepted name: benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase. Reaction: benzoate + NADH + H+ + O2 = (1R,6S)-1,6-dihydroxycyclohexa-2,4-diene-1-carboxylate + NAD+. For diagram click here (another example).. Other name(s): benzoate hydroxylase; benzoate hydroxylase; benzoic hydroxylase; benzoate dioxygenase; benzoate,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (1,2-hydroxylating, decarboxylating) [incorrect]. Systematic name: benzoate,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (1,2-hydroxylating). Comments: A system, containing a reductase which is an iron-sulfur flavoprotein (FAD), and an iron-sulfur oxygenase. Requires Fe2+.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 9059-18-1. References:. 1. Yamaguchi, M. and Fujisawa, H. Characterization of NADH-cytochrome c reductase, a component of benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase system from Pseudomonas arvilla C-1. J. Biol. Chem. 253 (1978) 8848-8853. [PMID: 214433]. 2. Yamaguchi, M. and Fujisawa, H. Purification and characterization of an oxygenase component in ...
Objective. To determine the effectiveness of asthma treatment using fluticasone furoate plus vilanterol in a setting that is closer to usual clinical practice.
Buy Lamotrigine Online! Lamotrigine is a member of the class of 1,2,4-triazines in which the triazene skeleton is substituted by amino groups at positions 3 and 5, and by a 2,3-dichlorophenyl group at position 6. It is a member of 1,2,4-triazines, a primary arylamine and a dichlorobenzene.
Figure 1. SMD(o-dichlorobenzene)/B3LYP-D3BJ/6-311+G-(d,p)//M06-2X/6-311+G(d,p) optimized geometries and relative energies (kcal mol-1).. The first thing to note is that the concerted TSC is higher in energy than the stepwise TS1. The wavefunction for TSC unstable towards moving from a restricted to unrestricted formalism. Reoptimization of some of these concerted TSs actually led to the stepwise TS.. The next item of note is that TS2 for this case is actually lower in energy than the intermediate (this is a true TS on the energy surface, but when zero-point energy and other thermal corrections are included, it becomes lower in energy than INT). For some of the cases the second TS lies above the intermediate, but typically by a small amount.. Therefore, the mechanism of this reaction is stepwise, but the second step might have such a small barrier (or even no barrier) that one might consider this to be concerted, though highly asymmetric and really bearing little resemblance to more traditional ...
Anoro Ellipta (umeclidinium bromide and vilanterol) is a new drug in development for the treatment of COPD. Anoro Ellipta information includes news, clinical trial results and side effects.
Here authors performed a comparative analysis of the efficacy of umeclidinium and vilanterol bronchodilator fixed-dose, when compared to other available dual-bronchodilator combinations, in treating patients with COPD.
Breo Ellipta: This medication contains two active ingredients: vilanterol and fluticasone. Vilanterol belongs to a group of medications called long acting bronchodilators (LABAs). These medications relax the muscles in the walls of the small air passages in the lung, keeping the air passage open and making it easier to breathe. Fluticasone belongs to a group of medications known as corticosteroids. Corticosteroids reduce inflammation in the lungs and help reduce the swelling and irritation in the walls of the small air passages in the lungs. This helps open the airways and improve breathing.
Breo Ellipta: This medication contains two active ingredients: vilanterol and fluticasone. Vilanterol belongs to a group of medications called long acting bronchodilators (LABAs). These medications relax the muscles in the walls of the small air passages in the lung, keeping the air passage open and making it easier to breathe. Fluticasone belongs to a group of medications known as corticosteroids. Corticosteroids reduce inflammation in the lungs and help reduce the swelling and irritation in the walls of the small air passages in the lungs. This helps open the airways and improve breathing.
Second and third shift considerations are important for production planning and scheduling in most manufacturing facilities. A careful literature survey revealed that multiple workshift considerations have not been previously discussed for general aggregate production planning models. In this paper, we propose a mixed integer logic for permitting the opening or closing of second and third shifts of production within a generic model having linear and quadratic cost components. We illustrate the results of the model on a hypothetical data set. The model permits different costs for opening and closing the extra shifts and provides for a minimum required work force size for the extra shifts.
BEVA® Now Offers ISO Certifications Training in Canada. Courses are Available in English and French in Partnership with Global Provider, PECB.
Operacijo delno financira Evropska unija iz Evropskega sklada za regionalni razvoj ter Ministrstvo za izobraževanje, znanost in šport. Operacija se izvaja v okviru Operativnega programa krepitve regionalnih razvojnih potencialov za obdobje 2007-2013, razvojne prioritete: Gospodarsko razvojna infrastruktura; prednostne usmeritve Informacijska družba ...
Looking for TCI AMERICAS 4-Chlorocatechol,25g (29LF61)? Graingers got your back. Price:$723.00. Easy ordering & convenient delivery. Log-in or register for your pricing.
The largest prospective, independently-adjudicated study of drug coated balloons (DCBs) confirms the safety and performance of the IN.PACT Admiral DCB.
The Biolux P-III two-year data show safe and effective outcomes with Passeo-18 Lux DCB, with no signs of paclitaxel-related mortality.
FP-β-CPPIT: | | FP-β-CPPIT | | | ||| | | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Two-year data on the Passeo-18 Lux drug-coated balloon (DCB; Biotronik) continue to validate its safety and effectiveness in intra-inguinal arteries. Gunnar Tepe from the ...
Feed Type Link http://www.venturedeal.com/Search/SearchResultTransactionDetail.aspx?TransactionId=fb93ea69-dcb6-496d-ae5f-53d28175a8df&Preview=1 Date 1
Like commodity chemicals, petrochemicals are made on a very large scale. Petrochemical manufacturing units differ from commodity chemical plants in that they often produce a number of related products. Compare this with specialty chemical and fine chemical manufacture where products are made in discrete batch processes. Petrochemicals are predominantly made in a few manufacturing locations around the world, for example in Jubail & Yanbu Industrial Cities in Saudi Arabia, Texas & Louisiana in the US, in Teesside in the Northeast of England in the United Kingdom, in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, in Jamnagar, Dahej in Gujarat, India and in Singapore. Not all of the petrochemical or commodity chemical materials produced by the chemical industry are made in one single location but groups of related materials are often made in adjacent manufacturing plants to induce industrial symbiosis as well as material and utility efficiency and other economies of scale. This is known in chemical engineering ...
4-chlorobenzene) Ethane, 1,1-. dichloro-2,2-bis(p-. chlorophenyl)- Benzene, 1,1'-(2,2-. dichloroethylidene)bis(4-chloro- 1,1- ...
3CHO) and chlorobenzene (C. 6H. 5Cl), in the presence of an acidic catalyst. DDT has been marketed under trade names including ... "Verbindungen von Chloral mit Brom- und Chlorbenzol" [Compounds of chloral with bromo- and chlorobenzene]. Berichte der ...
... the chloro derivative C6H5Cl is normally called chlorobenzene, although it could be called phenyl chloride. In special (and ...
Sommer, Claudia; Görisch, Helmut (20 May 1997). "Enzymology of the degradation of (di)chlorobenzenes by Xanthobacter ". ...
Chlorobenzene (or phenyl chloride), a solvent. Phenyl groups are found in many organic compounds, both natural and synthetic ( ... the chloro derivative C6H5Cl is normally called chlorobenzene, although it could be called phenyl chloride. In special (and ...
Since the C-I bond is weaker than C-Br or C-Cl, iodobenzene is more reactive than bromobenzene or chlorobenzene. Iodobenzene ... Fluorobenzene Chlorobenzene Bromobenzene Viswanath, D.S.; Natarajan, G. (1989), Data Book on the Viscosity of Liquids, ...
The compound is added to rubber (both natural and synthetic) to facilitate processing (mastication). Chlorobenzene ...
Its products are Phenol, Acetone, Nitrobenzene, Aniline, Nitrotoluenes, Chlorobenzenes & Nitrochlorobenzenes. Basic Organic ...
"Identification of a chlorobenzene reductive dehalogenase in Dehalococcoides sp. strain CBDB1" (PDF). Appl Environ Microbiol ...
chlorobenzene. "[L]ow to moderate" toxicity[31]. cresol§. dibutyl phthalate. Endocrine disruptor[citation needed]. ...
These chemicals included Benzene, toluene, Trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and chlorobenzene. All of which are ...
A chlorobenzene reductive dehalogenase has also been identified in the strain CBDB1. Several companies worldwide now use ... Adrian, Lorenz; Rahnenführer, Jan; Gobom, Johan; Hölscher, Tina (2007-12-01). "Identification of a Chlorobenzene Reductive ...
The Stoichiometry and Fate of Inhibitors in Benzene and Chlorobenzene". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 77 (12): 3233 ...
Furthermore, some concerning levels of chlorinated solvents such as chlorobenzene; 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (TCA); ...
Therefore, replacing any hydrogen by chlorine yields only one chlorobenzene. However, with that replacement, the atom ...
... the isomeric dichlorobenzenes and chlorobenzene melt well below room temperature. p-DCB is used to control moths, molds, and ...
Chlorobenzene Dichlorobenzene Pentachlorobenzene Hexachlorobenzene NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0627". National ... "Partial solubility parameters of chlorobenzene and chlorophenol compounds at equilibrium distribution in two immiscible phases ...
showed that the reaction of chlorobenzene-1-14C and potassium amide gave equal amounts of aniline with 14C incorporation at C-1 ... Roberts, John D. (1953). "Rearrangement in the Reaction of Chlorobenzene-1-C14With Potassium Amide1". Journal of the American ...
It is prepared from the reaction of chlorobenzene, PCl3, and sodium. Phosphines of a more specialized nature are usually ...
Dow's Process may also refer to the hydrolysis of chlorobenzene in the preparation of phenol. Benzene can be easily converted ... When 1-[14C]-1-chlorobenzene was subjected to aqueous NaOH at 395 °C, ipso substitution product 1-[14C]-phenol was formed in 54 ... to chlorobenzene by electrophilic aromatic substitution. It is treated with aqueous sodium hydroxide at 350 °C and 300 bar or ...
Chlorobenzene was once the precursor to phenol, which is now made by oxidation of cumene. At high temperatures, aryl groups ... Chlorobenzene and sodium amide react in liquid ammonia to give aniline by this pathway. Aryl halides react with metals, ... Gatterman reaction can also be used to convert diazonium salt to chlorobenzene or bromobenzene by using copper powder instead ... One major but discontinued application was the use of chlorobenzene as a solvent for dispersing the herbicide Lasso. Overall, ...
The Stoichiometry and Fate of Inhibitors in Benzene and Chlorobenzene». Journal of the American Chemical Society. 77 (12): 3233 ...
This included benzene, chlorobenzene, perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene, which are all known carcinogens. in 1993, The ...
The industrial synthesis involves the reaction between phosphorus trichloride, chlorobenzene, and sodium.: PCl3 + 3 PhCl + 6 Na ...
The cogenerated water is removed by azeotropic distillation using toluene or chlorobenzene). The polymerization is carried out ...
Products include: aniline, caustic soda, chlorine, chlorobenzene, nitrochlorobenzene, nitrobenzene, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM ...
... chlorobenzene, cyclopentanone, cyanocyclobutane, and cyclopentadienyl. Neon can form a very weak bond to a transition metal ... "The rotational spectrum and structure of the chlorobenzene-neon van der Waals dimer". Journal of Molecular Structure. 599 (1-3 ...
... chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, ethylene and ethylene mixtures. IR-100 Award, 3 awards Union Carbide, Corporate fellow American ... Chlorobenzene + Bromobenzene. Radiation Research. 22(1): 199. Hurst, G. S., Payne, Marvin G., & Wagner, Edward B. (1976). ...
High levels of chlorobenzene can damage the liver and kidneys and affect the brain. It has been found at 97 of the 1,177 ... Chlorobenzene is used as a solvent for some pesticide formulations, as a degreaser, and to make other chemicals. ... Chlorobenzene is used as a solvent and to produce other chemicals. How can I be exposed to chlorobenzene?. You can be exposed ... How can chlorobenzene affect my health?. The levels of chlorobenzene found in the environment are lower than levels known to ...
Chlorobenzene. CAS No: 108-90-7. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH references include ... Chlorobenzene. Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ...
Toxicological profile for Chlorobenzene. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
... considered most relevant for the assessment of the potential adverse health effects from occupational exposure to chlorobenzene ... Chlorobenzene is one of twelve possible chemical species in the group of chlorinated benzenes (36). At room temperature, the ... Criteria for a Recommended Standard: NIOH and NIOSH Basis for an Occupational Health Standard: Chlorobenzene pdf icon[PDF - ... Criteria for a Recommended Standard: NIOH and NIOSH Basis for an Occupational Health Standard: Chlorobenzene. ...
Chlorobenzene definition is - a colorless flammable volatile toxic liquid C6H5Cl used in organic synthesis (as of DDT) and as a ... Comments on chlorobenzene. What made you want to look up chlorobenzene? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including ... Post the Definition of chlorobenzene to Facebook Share the Definition of chlorobenzene on Twitter ... Examples of chlorobenzene in a Sentence. Recent Examples on the Web The company later said chemicals released to the air ...
... chlorobenzene). Find out what is in your tap water ...
... over an eight-hour time-weighted average for workers handling chlorobenzene. Chlorobenzene can persist in soil for several ... Chlorobenzene is manufactured by chlorination of benzene in the presence of a catalytic amount of Lewis acid such as ferric ... Chlorobenzene exhibits "low to moderate" toxicity as indicated by its LD50 of 2.9 g/kg. The Occupational Safety and Health ... Chlorobenzene is also used as a high-boiling solvent in many industrial applications as well as in the laboratory. ...
Chlorobenzenes Market: Global Industry Analysis and Opportunity Assessment 2016-2026 offers 10-year forecast and analysis. ... Chlorobenzenes Market Growth and Segments, 2016-2026. FMI s New Report, titled, Chlorobenzenes Market: Global Industry Analysis ... Chlorobenzenes Market: Region wise outlook. China is the largest consumer of chlorobenzene. It holds more than half of the ... Chlorobenzenes Market: Key market players. Some of the key players identified in the global chlorobenzenes market are:. Arkema ...
chlorobenzene synonyms, chlorobenzene pronunciation, chlorobenzene translation, English dictionary definition of chlorobenzene ... Chlorobenzene - definition of chlorobenzene by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/chlorobenzene ... chlorobenzene. Also found in: Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. chlo·ro·ben·zene. (klôr′ō-bĕn′zēn′, -bĕn-zēn′). n.. A ... Using chlorobenzene at 100 ppb in tap water, Figure 1 shows contaminant air concentrations as a function of time in each ...
... chlorobenzene). Find out what is in your tap water ...
This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of chlorobenzene in octan-1-ol at different concentrations measured using ... Winkelmann J. (2018) Diffusion coefficient of chlorobenzene in octan-1-ol. In: Lechner M.D. (eds) Diffusion in Gases, Liquids ... This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of chlorobenzene in octan-1-ol at different concentrations measured using ...
This page provides supplementary chemical data on Chlorobenzene. The handling of this chemical may incur notable safety ...
Title: Toxicological Profile for Chlorobenzene. Subject of Planned Report: The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly reviews ...
The chlorobenzenes category is comprised of four chemicals: monochlorobenzene (CAS# 108-90-7), 1,2-dichlorobenzene (CAS# 95-50- ... Questionable risk decisions under ChAMP: Chlorobenzenes Category. « Questionable risk decisions under ChAMP: Alkyl Nitriles ...
EINECS (European INventory of Existing Commercial chemical Substances) as published in O.J. C 146A, 15.6.1990. EINECS is an inventory of substances that were deemed to be on the European Community market between 1 January 1971 and 18 September 1981. EINECS was drawn up by the European Commission in the application of Article 13 of Directive 67/548/EEC, as amended by Directive 79/831/EEC, and in accordance with the detailed provisions of Commission Decision 81/437/EEC. Substances listed in EINECS are considered phase-in substances under the REACH Regulation ...
Use of this information is subject to copyright laws and may require the permission of the owner of the information, as described in the ECHA Legal Notice.. ...
As daphnids are the most sensitive aquatic organisms, the classification is based on the results obtained in Daphnia magna. Many studies on short term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates are summarised in the BUA report (BUA 1990). In table 55 in the BUA report either immobilisation or mortality data for Daphnia magna are reported from studies published between 1980 and 1987. Ten LC50/EC50 values were obtained in closed systems. One study resulted in an EC50 of 0.59 mg/L, nine studies showed LC50/EC50 values between 4.3 and 140 mg/L. The only test, in which the test concentrations were analytically verified, yielded an EC50 of 26 mg/L. Due to weight of evidence it is assumed that current classification with respect to the toxicity to aquatic organisms is R 51. This is in agreement to the discussions on the environmental effects classification in the Commission Working Group 3-5 April 1995 (European Commission (1995). Summary record ¿ Commission Working Group on the Classification and Labelling ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
China chlorobenzene manufacturer & factory list, find qualified Chinese chlorobenzene manufacturers, suppliers, factories, ...
This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of decane in chlorobenzene at infinite dilution for various temperature and ... Winkelmann J. (2018) Diffusion coefficient of decane in chlorobenzene at infinite dilution. In: Lechner M.D. (eds) Diffusion in ... This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of decane in chlorobenzene at infinite dilution for various temperature and ...
"Chlorobenzenes" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chlorobenzenes" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chlorobenzenes" by people in Profiles. ... and whether "Chlorobenzenes" was a major or minor topic of these publication. ...
3-chlorobenzene , C7H6BrCl , CID 69838 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
Chlorobenzene is used in organic synthesis and dyestuffs. It is also used as a solvent for adhesives, drugs, rubber, paints and ... Zhang, L.; Anderson, A. W. Effect of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide on the Photolytic Degradation of Chlorobenzene in Air. Ind. Eng. ... Liu, M.; Han, M. and Yu, W. W. Hydrogenation of Chlorobenzene to Cyclohexane over Colloidal Pt Nanocatalysts under Ambient ...
4-chlorobenzene-1-sulfinyl)acetate , C9H9ClO3S , CID 12554123 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
Convert: Chlorobenzene to Phenol. Determine the molar mass of an ideal gas B if 0.622 g sample of gas B occupies a volume of ... At one time, chlorobenzene was the main precursor for the manufacture of phenol: C 6 H 5 Cl + NaOH → C 6 H 5 OH + NaCl ... When chlorobenzene is fused with sodium hydroxide at 623K and 320 atm, sodium phenoxide is produced. Air oxidation of cumene. ... Chlorobenzene is fused with NaOH (at 623 K and 320 atm pressure) to produce sodium phenoxide, which gives phenol on ...
Similar words for Chlorobenzene. Definition: noun. a colorless volatile flammable liquid with an almond odor that is made from ... 1. chlorobenzene noun. a colorless volatile flammable liquid with an almond odor that is made from chlorine and benzene; used ...
air-water parition coefficient, aqueous solubility, chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, chlorinated dibenzofurans, chlorobenzenes, ...
  • Toxicological Profile for Chlorobenzene (PB91-180505, 1990) 100 pp. (drugfuture.com)
  • This chlorination process of benzene can ideally produce 12 different chlorobenzenes, however, world events and technology has decreased the chlorobenzene to production of three primary products such as monochlorobenzene, p-dichlorobenzene and o-dichlorobenzene. (pr.com)
  • Approximately 50% of total production of chlorobenzene is represented by monochlorobenzene that are used for production of nitrochlorobenzene. (pr.com)
  • The chlorobenzenes category is comprised of four chemicals: monochlorobenzene (CAS# 108-90-7), 1,2-dichlorobenzene (CAS# 95-50-1), 1,3-dichlorobenzene (CAS# 541-73-1) and 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (CAS# 87-61-6). (edf.org)
  • Only three of the many possible products resulting from the chlorination of benzene continue to have any large-volume applications-monochlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, and p-dichlorobenzene-combined they account for about 98% of the total chlorobenzenes market. (ihsmarkit.com)
  • Monochlorobenzene accounted for about 64% of total chlorobenzene consumption in the five major regions shown above. (ihsmarkit.com)
  • Monochlorobenzene represents about 70% of chlorobenzene consumption in Western Europe, 62% in India, and 51% of consumption in the United States, but only 8% in Japan, where p-dichlorobenzene is a larger factor than in the other regions. (ihsmarkit.com)
  • chlorobenzene is a colorless, volatile and aromatic liquid. (medium.com)
  • Mark Schleifstein, NOLA.com , "A look at the 25 Rubicon accidental releases over 10 years that potentially exposed 130 workers," 3 Jan. 2021 The observed barrels are falling apart, and the soil and groundwater around them tests high for related contaminants toluene, chlorobenzene , phenol and heavy metals, according to DEQ documents. (merriam-webster.com)
  • At one time, chlorobenzene was the main precursor for the manufacture of phenol: C6H5Cl + NaOH → C6H5OH + NaCl The reaction also has a byproduct of salt. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the markets for chlorobenzenes, except for high performance polymers are declining owing to substitution of alternative chemistry in manufacture of products such as phenol and moth control agents. (pr.com)
  • Chlorobenzene is fused with NaOH (at 623 K and 320 atm pressure) to produce sodium phenoxide, which gives phenol on acidification. (americans-world.org)
  • In the past, chlorobenzene was used as an intermediate in phenol and DDT production. (americans-world.org)
  • Guys, provide here the easiest and shortest way to convert Chlorobenzene to phenol. (americans-world.org)
  • Chlorobenzene was first prepared in 1851 by the reaction of phenol Popular Questions of Class 12th chemistry. (americans-world.org)
  • Most of the phenol used today is produced from benzene, through either hydrolysis of chlorobenzene or oxidation of isopropylbenzene (cumene). (americans-world.org)
  • Chlorobenzene-1-^(14)C, with 4 M sodium hydroxide solution at 340º, gave 58 ± 1% phenol-1-^(14)C and 42 ± 1% phenol-2-^(14)C, which indicates that under these conditions the benzyne mechanism predominates but is not the exclusive reaction path. (caltech.edu)
  • The conversion of p-nitro phenol from Chlorobenzene takes place in the following steps: a. (aramram.com)
  • At one time, chlorobenzene was the main precursor for the manufacture of phenol: This page was last edited on 15 Novemberat The heating would have triggered a reaction of organics in the Martian soil, which is known to contain perchlorate. (isrs2019.info)
  • Demand for chlorobenzenes in more industrialized regions has been on the decline for the past few decades as a result of the substitution of alternative chemistry in the production of such products as phenol, rubber chemicals, and moth control agents. (ihsmarkit.com)
  • phenol is obtained by heating chlorobenzene with aqueous NaOH at about 300°C. (medium.com)
  • However, you can force the transformation of chlorobenzene to phenol at ~ 450 °C when streaming mixtures of water and chlorobenzene (in the vapour phase) over oxidic catalysts. (stackexchange.com)
  • These workers were probably exposed to high levels of chlorobenzene. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers exposed to high levels of chlorobenzene or working in the vicinity of hazardous waste sites complained of headaches, numbness, sleepiness, if emissions to water, air, and soil are not nausea, and vomiting. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorobenzene is used as a solvent and to produce other chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorobenzene has nature, but is manufactured for use as a solvent (a been found at 97 of these sites. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorobenzene is also used as a high-boiling solvent in many industrial applications as well as in the laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The organic solvent film formed in a microsyringe barrel was used as an extraction interface in headspace liquidphase microextraction (HS-LPME) of chlorobenzenes. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Catalytic degradation of chlorobenzene in aqueous solution with microwave and waste metals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Anderson, A. W. Effect of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide on the Photolytic Degradation of Chlorobenzene in Air. (alfa.com)
  • The combination resulted in the transformation of chlorobenzene via benzene to the nontoxic degradation products, CO2 and CH4. (aramram.com)
  • Chlorocyclohexane and chlorobenzene degradation - Jannaschia sp. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Chlorobenzene is an aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5Cl. (wikipedia.org)
  • Valley Cottage, NY, May 29, 2016 --( PR.com )-- Chlorobenzene is an aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C?H?Cl. (pr.com)
  • Chlorobenzene is an aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C 6 H 5 Cl. (isrs2019.info)
  • My question is - considering electrophilic aromatic substitution is chlorobenzene or benzene more reactive? (stackexchange.com)
  • Headaches, dizziness, and sleepiness were also reported in workers breathing chlorobenzene. (cdc.gov)
  • In this work, a multi-active center catalytic system was prepared, and the catalytic removal of chlorobenzene (CB) was investigated. (rsc.org)
  • The experimental results indicated that the removal of chlorobenzene by UV irradiation in the gas phase followed a first-order kinetic model at inlet chlorobenzene concentrations ranging from 200 to 2500 mg m 3. (environmental-expert.com)
  • With the exception of high-performance polymers, the markets for chlorobenzenes are mature. (ihsmarkit.com)
  • Recent Examples on the Web The company later said chemicals released to the air included 0.62 pounds of phosgene and 0.1 pound of chlorobenzene . (merriam-webster.com)
  • Chlorobenzene has been found at 97 out of 1,177 exposed to other chemicals at the same time. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorobenzenes are widely used in manufacture of various pesticides, insecticides and chemicals. (pr.com)
  • The key driving factors of chlorobenzenes market are the growing demand for chlorobenzene from the chemical industry for manufacture of various chemicals. (pr.com)
  • Western Europe and the U.S. also consume chlorobenzene on large scale for production of various chemicals. (pr.com)
  • Advantages of combined UV photodegradation and biofiltration processes to treat gaseous chlorobenzene. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A combined ultraviolet photodegradation and biofiltration (UV-BF) process was developed to treat gaseous chlorobenzene. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Stimulative effects of ozone on a biofilter treating gaseous chlorobenzene. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Aniline is obtained by heating chlorobenzene with ammonia at high pressure and around 250°C in the presence of Cu2O. (medium.com)
  • Aniline is also obtained when chlorobenzene is reacted with NaNH2 or KNH2 in a fluid ammonia solution. (medium.com)
  • Chlorobenzene came into existence in 1851 and at present is produced by benzene chlorination in the existence of catalyst, acids such as sulfur dichloride, ferric chloride and anhydrous aluminium chloride. (pr.com)
  • Chlorobenzene is manufactured by chlorination of benzene in the presence of a catalytic amount of Lewis acid such as ferric chloride, sulfur dichloride, and anhydrous aluminium chloride: The catalyst enhances the electrophilicity of the chlorine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorobenzene is manufactured by chlorbenzene of benzene in the presence of a catalytic amount of Lewis acid such as ferric chloridesulfur dichlorideand anhydrous aluminium chloride: LC Lo lowest published. (isrs2019.info)
  • Chlorobenzene is producible from aniline via benzenediazonium chloride, otherwise known as the Sandmeyer reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • H C l, we have to convert aniline into benzene diazonium chloride, which then converts into chlorobenzene in the presence of C uC l. (aramram.com)
  • Chlorobenzene can be produced by from aniline via benzenediazonium chloridethe route being clorobenzene as the Sandmeyer reaction. (isrs2019.info)
  • Benzenediazonium chloride is obtained by replicating aniline with a mixture of NaNO2 and HCl at 0-5°C. Chlorobenzene is obtained by heating benzenediazonium chloride in the presence of cupreous chloride and hydrochloric acid. (medium.com)
  • Chlorobenzene persists in soil (several months), in more sites, the number of sites at which air (3.5 days), and water (less than 1 day). (cdc.gov)
  • There is potential for humans to be exposed to chlorobenzene by breathing contaminated air, by When a chemical is released from a large area, such drinking water or eating food contaminated with as an industrial plant, or from a container, such as a chlorobenzene, or by getting chlorobenzene drum or bottle, it enters the environment as a contaminated soil on the skin. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorobenzene can persist in soil for several months, in air for about 3.5 days, and in water for less than one day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behavior and Fate of Chlorobenzenes in Spiked and Sewage Sludge-Amended Soil. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The procedure with respect to repeatability and limits of detection was evaluated by soil spiked with chlorobenzenes. (nus.edu.sg)
  • It was first described in Chlorobenzene can persist in soil for several months, in air for about 3. (isrs2019.info)
  • Other chlorobenzenes that are not produced on a large scale include m-dichlorobenzene, tetrachlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes and hexachlorobenzene. (pr.com)
  • Chlorobenzene is used in organic synthesis and dyestuffs. (alfa.com)
  • Information relevant for assessing potential adverse health effects from occupational exposure to chlorobenzene (108907) was reviewed and summarized. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorobenzene once was used in the manufacture of certain pesticides, most notably DDT, by reaction with chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde), but this application has declined with the diminished use of DDT. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of chlorobenzene as herbicides, pesticides and solvents, with environmental problems related to them has declined the market for chlorobenzene. (pr.com)
  • A mixture of ortho and para chloro nitrobenzene is obtained by the reaction of chlorobenzene with concentrated HNO3 and concentrated H2SO4. (medium.com)
  • Spectral parameters, order parameters, and structural parameters, including the vibrationally corrected r(alpha) structure of the partially oriented solutes p-xylene, p-chlorotoluene, p-dichlorobenzene, toluene, and chlorobenzene dissolved in three liquid crystal mixtures, are reported. (ubc.ca)
  • Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/chlorobenzene. (merriam-webster.com)
  • The major use of chlorobenzene is as an intermediate in the production of commodities such as herbicides, dyestuffs, and rubber. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other continuous outcome, autism severity measured by the CSS, was positively associated with carbon disulfide (with an estimated increase of 0.88 points on the 10-point CSS scale) and chlorobenzene (0.73 point increase), whereas less severe autism was associated with 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1.41 points lower on the CSS), after accounting for the FDR (Table 2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of decane in chlorobenzene at infinite dilution for various temperature and pressure conditions measured using Taylor dispersion technique. (springer.com)
  • Air near factories that make or use chlorobenzene or near hazardous waste sites that contain chlorobenzene may have higher levels of chlorobenzene in the air. (cdc.gov)
  • This reaction is used for the industrial manufacture of chlorobenzene. (medium.com)
  • On the reaction of chlorobenzene with Na - Hg and water, it is reduced and benzene is obtained. (medium.com)
  • Benzenamine, 3-methyl-, reaction products with chlorobenzene and 1-chloro-4-(trichloromethyl)benzene, disulfo derivs. (nih.gov)
  • Chlorobenzene is less reactive than benzene towards electrophilic substitution reaction. (stackexchange.com)
  • This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of chlorobenzene in octan-1-ol at different concentrations measured using Taylor dispersion technique. (springer.com)
  • Because chlorobenzene leaves the body quickly, these tests have to be taken within a few days after exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers involved in the production or use of chlorobenzene should take protective measures to limit inhalation and dermal exposure to chlorobenzene. (cdc.gov)
  • The present document summarizes and evaluates information that has been considered most relevant for the assessment of the potential adverse health effects from occupational exposure to chlorobenzene. (cdc.gov)
  • because these sites are potential or actual sources of human exposure to chlorobenzene. (cdc.gov)
  • to severe depression of functions of parts of the Thus, federal and state surveys suggest that nervous system is a common response to exposure chlorobenzene is not a widespread environmental to a wide variety of industrial solvents (a substance contaminant. (cdc.gov)
  • surface water, although a few ground water systems have been found with chlorobenzene levels in the In animals, exposure to high concentrations of parts per billion (ppb) range. (cdc.gov)
  • The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set a permissible exposure limit at 75 ppm (350 mg/m3) over an eight-hour time-weighted average for workers handling chlorobenzene. (wikipedia.org)
  • A review of data on sources of environmental exposure notes that release to the environment occurs primarily during manufacture and that incineration of chlorobenzenes may lead to the emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. (who.int)
  • In 2015, the SAM science team announced that the Curiosity rover reported evidence of higher concentrations of chlorobenzene in a sedimentary rock, named "Cumberland", on Mars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using chlorobenzene at 100 ppb in tap water, Figure 1 shows contaminant air concentrations as a function of time in each compartment throughout the day. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • While ambient concentrations are expected to reach toxic levels only in the case of accidental spills or uncontrolled industrial discharge, the report notes the need to avoid discharge of chlorobenzenes into the aquatic environment, as this can result in the build up of persistent residues in sediment or ground water. (who.int)
  • This report includes data on excess volumes of some binary mixtures containing chlorobenzene. (unt.edu)
  • Chlorobenzene exhibits "low to moderate" toxicity as indicated by its LD50 of 2.9 g/kg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorobenzene exhibits "low to moderate" toxicity as indicated by its LD 50 of 2. (isrs2019.info)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chlorobenzenes" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Chlorobenzenes" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • The kinetics of the hydrodechlorination (HDC) of chlorobenzene has been measured over Ni supported on a range of substrates (MgO, SiO2, Al2O3, Ta2O5, MgO, activated carbon (AC) and graphite) of varying BET area (9-843 m(2) g(-1)) where the Ni loading was in the range 1.5-20.3% (w/w) with catalyst preparation by impregnation and deposition-precipitation. (lu.se)
  • article{a0e65865-e046-4ba8-94d2-8b3b6e701ff0, abstract = {The kinetics of the hydrodechlorination (HDC) of chlorobenzene has been measured over Ni supported on a range of substrates (MgO, SiO2, Al2O3, Ta2O5, MgO, activated carbon (AC) and graphite) of varying BET area (9-843 m(2) g(-1)) where the Ni loading was in the range 1.5-20.3% (w/w) with catalyst preparation by impregnation and deposition-precipitation. (lu.se)
  • Chlorobenzene is o b tained by mixing a mixture of benzene vapors, hydrogen chloride gas and oxygen (oxygen) at 250°C on a copper oxide catalyst. (medium.com)
  • Because of weaknesses in available studies, the report was unable to predict the environmental impact of low-level contamination with chlorobenzenes, or to identify the mechanisms by which these compounds might enter the food chain. (who.int)
  • Hence chlorobenzene is ortho para deactivator and is less reactive than benzene. (stackexchange.com)
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considered chlorobenzene to be not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity. (cdc.gov)
  • When chlorobenzene is fused with sodium hydroxide at 623K and 320 atm, sodium phenoxide is produced. (americans-world.org)
  • You can be exposed to very low levels of chlorobenzene in the air, water, and some foods. (cdc.gov)
  • Th.E.M. ten Hulscher, B.A. Vrind, P.C.M. van Noort, and H.A.J. Govers, 2004, Temperature effects on very slow desorption of native chlorobenzenes from sediment to water, Environ Toxicol Chem, 23: 1634-1639. (eugris.info)