Chlormethiazole: A sedative and anticonvulsant often used in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Chlormethiazole has also been proposed as a neuroprotective agent. The mechanism of its therapeutic activity is not entirely clear, but it does potentiate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors response and it may also affect glycine receptors.3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine: An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.p-Chloroamphetamine: Chlorinated analog of AMPHETAMINE. Potent neurotoxin that causes release and eventually depletion of serotonin in the CNS. It is used as a research tool.Temazepam: A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.Clonazepam: An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.Flunitrazepam: A benzodiazepine with pharmacologic actions similar to those of DIAZEPAM that can cause ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA. Some reports indicate that it is used as a date rape drug and suggest that it may precipitate violent behavior. The United States Government has banned the importation of this drug.Psychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Designer Drugs: Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.GABA Modulators: Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.Fenfluramine: A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine: An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.Kindling, Neurologic: The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.Bicyclo CompoundsDizocilpine Maleate: A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.Chlordiazepoxide: An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Office Automation: Use of computers or computer systems for doing routine clerical work, e.g., billing, records pertaining to the administration of the office, etc.Library AssociationsAnti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Fagopyrum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Coproporphyria, Hereditary: An autosomal dominant porphyria that is due to a deficiency of COPROPORPHYRINOGEN OXIDASE in the LIVER, the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Clinical features include both neurological symptoms and cutaneous lesions. Patients excrete increased levels of porphyrin precursors, 5-AMINOLEVULINATE and COPROPORPHYRINS.Coproporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Elevated levels of Coproporphyrin III in the urine and feces are major findings in patients with HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.Coproporphyrinogen Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX by the conversion of two propionate groups to two vinyl groups. It is the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME, and is encoded by CPO gene. Mutations of CPO gene result in HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.Porphyrias, Hepatic: A group of metabolic diseases due to deficiency of one of a number of LIVER enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of HEME. They are characterized by the accumulation and increased excretion of PORPHYRINS or its precursors. Clinical features include neurological symptoms (PORPHYRIA, ACUTE INTERMITTENT), cutaneous lesions due to photosensitivity (PORPHYRIA CUTANEA TARDA), or both (HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA). Hepatic porphyrias can be hereditary or acquired as a result of toxicity to the hepatic tissues.Porphyrias: A diverse group of metabolic diseases characterized by errors in the biosynthetic pathway of HEME in the LIVER, the BONE MARROW, or both. They are classified by the deficiency of specific enzymes, the tissue site of enzyme defect, or the clinical features that include neurological (acute) or cutaneous (skin lesions). Porphyrias can be hereditary or acquired as a result of toxicity to the hepatic or erythropoietic marrow tissues.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Porphyrinogens: Colorless reduced precursors of porphyrins in which the pyrrole rings are linked by methylene (-CH2-) bridges.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)RomaniaHypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium: An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Receptors, GABA: Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.

Ethyl glucuronide--a marker of alcohol consumption and a relapse marker with clinical and forensic implications. (1/58)

Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a non-volatile, water-soluble, direct metabolite of ethanol that can be detected in body fluids and hair. We investigated urine and serum samples from three patient groups: (1) 33 in-patients in acute alcohol withdrawal; (2) 30 detoxified in-patients (treated for at least 4 weeks) from a 'motivation station'; and (3) 43 neuro-rehabilitation patients (non-alcoholics; most of them suffering from stroke, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease etc.) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with deuterium-labelled EtG as the internal standard and additionally in the second group of patients using liquid chromatography (LC/MS-MS). We found no correlation between the concentration of EtG in urine at hospitalization and the blood-ethanol concentration (r = 0.17), the time frame of detection (r = 0.5) or the total amount of clomethiazole required for the treatment of withdrawal symptoms (r = 0.28). In four out of 30 in-patients from the 'motivation station'--where neither clinical impression nor routine laboratory findings gave indications of relapse--concentrations of EtG in urine ranged between 4.2 and 196.6 mg/l. EtG concentrations in urine of between 2.89 and 23.49 mg/l were found in seven out of 43 neuro-rehabilitation patients using GC/MS. The GC/MS and the LC/MS-MS results showed a correlation of 0.98 with Pearson's correlation test and 1.0 with Spearman's correlation test. We suggest that EtG is a marker of alcohol consumption that can be detected for an extended time period after the complete elimination of alcohol from the body. When used as a relapse marker with a specific time frame of detection intermediate between short- and long-term markers, EtG fills a clinically as well as forensically important gap. Its specificity and sensitivity exceed those of all other known ethanol markers.  (+info)

Mode of action of ICS 205,930, a novel type of potentiator of responses to glycine in rat spinal neurones. (2/58)

The effect of a novel potentiator of glycine responses, ICS 205,930, was studied by whole-cell recordings from spinal neurones, and compared with that of other known potentiators, in an attempt to differentiate their sites of action. The ability of ICS 205,930 (0.2 microM) to potentiate glycine responses persisted in the presence of concentrations of Zn2+ (5-10 microM) that were saturating for the potentiating effect of this ion. Preincubation with 10 microM Zn2+ before application of glycine plus Zn2+ had an inhibitory effect, which did not result from Zn2+ entry into the neurone, since it persisted with either 10 mM internal EGTA or 10 microM internal Zn2+. To test whether the potentiating effects of ICS 205,930 and Zn2+ interact, both compounds were applied without preincubation. The potentiating effect of ICS 205,930 was similar for responses to glycine and for responses to glycine plus Zn2+, provided the concentrations of agonist were adjusted so as to induce control responses of identical amplitudes. ICS 205,930 remained able to potentiate glycine responses in the presence of ethanol (200 mM). ICS 205,930 also retained its potentiating effect in the presence of the anaesthetic propofol (30 90 microM), which strongly potentiated glycine responses but, in contrast with ICS 205,930, also markedly increased the resting conductance. The anticonvulsant chlormethiazole (50-100 microM) neither potentiated glycine responses nor prevented the effect of ICS 205,930, even though it increased the resting conductance and potentiated GABA(A) responses. The mechanism of action of ICS 205,930 appears to be different from those by which Zn2+, propofol or ethanol potentiate glycine responses.  (+info)

Post-translational inhibition of cytochrome P-450 2E1 expression by chlomethiazole in Fao hepatoma cells. (3/58)

Chlomethiazole (CMZ) is a sedative and anticonvulsant drug that has been shown to be an efficient transcriptional inhibitor of expression of rat hepatic ethanol-inducible cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Recent results have shown that human CYP2E1 expression in vivo is almost completely inhibited in control subjects and in alcoholic patients treated with CMZ. In the present investigation, we evaluated the mode of action of CMZ on CYP2E1 expression in Fao rat hepatoma cells. Transcriptional activity of the CYP2E1 gene was monitored using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based quantification of CYP2E1 heterologous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) against a mimic DNA standard, mRNA was detected by Northern blotting, enzyme protein was detected by Western blotting, and CYP2E1-dependent catalytic activity was detected by assay of chlorzoxazone-6-hydroxylation. Six hours after CMZ treatment, the levels of both CYP2E1 protein and catalytic activity were concomitantly reduced at an IC50 value of about 5 microM. Ethanol treatment of the cells caused a 2-fold induction of CYP2E1 protein levels, which was inhibited by CMZ. Change of medium unexpectedly caused an increase in CYP2E1 gene transcription 4 h later, as monitored by quantitative determination of CYP2E1 hnRNA. However, CMZ failed to influence the expression of CYP2E1 hnRNA or mRNA both constitutively and after medium change, indicating no effect on gene transcription or mRNA synthesis/stability. Cycloheximide treatment of the cells did not abolish the inhibitory action of CMZ, further indicating an action at the post-translational level; in addition, CMZ inhibited CYP2E1 expression in V79 cells with stably expressed CYP2E1 under the control of the SV40 promoter. The data indicate that the CYP2E1 gene is transcriptionally activated in response to medium change and that CMZ, apart from a transcriptional inhibitor of CYP2E1 expression, acts in addition as an efficient high-affinity post-translational inhibitor of CYP2E1, probably due to an allosteric destabilization of the enzyme. This indicates a very rapid and effective CMZ-mediated inhibition of CYP2E1 in vivo.  (+info)

Results in 95 hemorrhagic stroke patients included in CLASS, a controlled trial of clomethiazole versus placebo in acute stroke patients. (4/58)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clomethiazole is a neuroprotective drug that enhances gamma-aminobutyrate type A (GABA(A)) receptor activity. Its efficacy and safety were tested in the CLomethiazole Acute Stroke Study (CLASS). The protocol allowed a CT scan to be done after randomization but within 7 days of stroke onset to minimize delays before start of treatment. Ninety-five of the 1360 patients randomized were diagnosed as having intracranial hemorrhage rather than ischemic stroke. Safety results for clomethiazole compared with placebo in this group are reported. METHODS: The study included patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute hemispheric cerebral infarction. Treatment was a 24-hour intravenous infusion of 75 mg/kg clomethiazole or placebo. Patients with intracranial hemorrhage discovered on a postrandomization CT were withdrawn from study treatment if treatment was ongoing, and all patients were followed up to 90 days. RESULTS: Ninety-four patients received treatment, 47 in each group. The hemorrhage was classified as intracerebral in 89 patients (94%). Mortality at 90 days was 19.1% in the clomethiazole group and 23.4% in the placebo group. Sedation was the most common adverse event, occurring at a higher incidence in clomethiazole-treated patients (clomethiazole 53%, placebo 17%), followed by rhinitis and coughing. The incidence and pattern of serious adverse events was similar between the treatment groups. The percentage of patients reaching relative functional independence on the Barthel Index (score >/=60) at 90 days was 59.6% in the clomethiazole group and 53.2% in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Clomethiazole appears safe to administer to hemorrhagic stroke patients compared with placebo. These results would obviate the need for a CT scan before therapy is initiated in acute stroke. The safety of clomethiazole in hemorrhagic stroke patients will be further evaluated in a prospective study that is under way in North America.  (+info)

The metabolism of clomethiazole in gerbils and the neuroprotective and sedative activity of the metabolites. (5/58)

A single dose of clomethiazole (600 micromol kg(-1) i.p.) has previously been shown to be neuroprotective in the gerbil model of global ischaemia. In gerbils, clomethiazole (600 micromol kg(-1)) injection produced a rapid appearance (peak within 5 min) of drug in plasma and brain and similar clearance (plasma t(1/2): 40 min) from both tissues. The peak brain concentration (226+/-56 nmol g(-1)) was 40% higher than plasma. One major metabolite, 5-(1-hydroxyethyl-2-chloro)-4-methylthiazole (NLA-715) and two minor metabolites 5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole (NLA-272) and 5-acetyl-4-methylthiazole (NLA-511) were detected in plasma and brain. Evidence suggested that clomethiazole is metabolized directly to both NLA-715 and NLA-272. Injection of NLA-715, NLA-272 or NLA-511 (each at 600 micromol kg(-1)) produced brain concentrations respectively 2.2, 38 and 92 times greater than seen after clomethiazole (600 micromol kg(-1)). Clomethiazole (600 micromol kg(-1)) injected 60 min after a 5 min bilateral carotid artery occlusion in gerbils attenuated the ischaemia-induced degeneration of the hippocampus by approximately 70%. The metabolites were not neuroprotective at this dose. In mice, clomethiazole (600 micromol kg(-1)) produced peak plasma and brain concentrations approximately 100% higher than in gerbils, drug concentrations in several brain regions were similar but 35% higher than plasma. Clomethiazole (ED(50): 180 micromol kg(-1)) and NLA-715 (ED(50): 240 micromol kg(-1)) inhibited spontaneous locomotor activity. The other metabolites were not sedative (ED(50) >600 micromol kg(-1)). These data suggest that the neuroprotective action of clomethiazole results from an action of the parent compound and that NLA-715 contributes to the sedative activity of the drug. British Journal of Pharmacology (2000) 129, 95 - 100  (+info)

On the regulation of ischaemia-induced glutamate efflux from rat cortex by GABA; in vitro studies with GABA, clomethiazole and pentobarbitone. (6/58)

Prisms of adult rat cortex were maintained in vitro in either aerobic conditions (control) or conditions simulating an acute ischaemic challenge (hypoxia with no added glucose). Endogenous glutamate efflux increased with time in ischaemic conditions, being 2.7 fold higher than control efflux at 45 min. Returning prisms to control solution after 20 min of simulated ischaemia resulted in glutamate efflux returning to near-control values. Endogenous GABA efflux in ischaemic conditions also increased, being 4.5 fold higher than control efflux at 45 min. Ischaemia-induced glutamate efflux was not accompanied by increased lactate dehydrogenase efflux and was unaltered by omitting calcium from the extra-cellular solution and adding EGTA (0.1 mM). Both GABA and the GABA-mimetic clomethiazole inhibited ischaemia-induced glutamate efflux, with IC(50) values of 26 and 24 microM respectively. The maximum inhibition by either drug was 60 - 70%. Bicuculline (10 microM) abolished the inhibitory effect of GABA (100 microM) but not clomethiazole (100 microM). Picrotoxin (100 microM) abolished the action of both GABA and clomethiazole. Pentobarbitone inhibited glutamate efflux at 100 - 300 microM (maximal inhibition: 39%). Bicuculline (10 microM) abolished this effect. These data suggest that ischaemia-induced glutamate efflux from rat cerebral cortex is calcium-independent and not due to cell damage up to 45 min. The inhibitory effect of GABA, clomethiazole and pentobarbitone on ischaemia-induced glutamate efflux appears to be mediated by GABA(A) receptors. The results suggest that clomethiazole, unlike pentobarbitone, is able to activate the GABAA receptor-linked chloride channel directly and not merely potentiate the effect of endogenous GABA.  (+info)

Neuroprotective agent chlomethiazole attenuates c-fos, c-jun, and AP-1 activation through inhibition of p38 MAP kinase. (7/58)

Recent evidence suggests that stress-activated protein kinases expressed in glial cells have very important roles during cerebral ischemia. The neuroprotective agent chlomethiazole, which is known to enhance the conductance at the GABA(A) receptor complex, is presently in clinical trials for the treatment of severe stroke. Here the authors suggested that chlormethiazole has anti-inflammatory properties because it potently and selectively inhibited p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in primary cortical glial cultures. The inhibition of p38 MAP kinase resulted in the attenuation of the induction of c-fos and c-jun mRNA and AP-1 DNA binding by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, chlomethiazole inhibited the activation of an AP-1-dependent luciferase reporter plasmid in SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells in response to glutamate. Chlomethiazole inhibited the p38 MAP kinase activity as revealed by the decrease in the LPS-induced phosphorylation of the substrates ATF-2 and hsp27, whereas the phosphorylation status of the p38 MAP kinase itself was unaffected. Interestingly, chlomethiazole exhibited an IC(50) of approximately 2 micromol/L for inhibition of c-fos mRNA expression, indicating 25 to 75 times higher potency than reported EC(50) values for enhancing GABA(A) chloride currents. The results indicated a novel mechanism of action of chlomethiazole, and provided support for a distinctive role of p38 MAP kinase in cerebral ischemia.  (+info)

Chlormethiazole: effectiveness against toxic effects of cocaine in mice. (8/58)

Chlormethiazole positively modulates the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor complex and is primarily used to treat certain life-threatening neurological events (e.g., refractory seizures and ethanol withdrawal syndrome). On account of several experimental and clinical studies reporting effectiveness against the toxic effects of heroin and methamphetamine, chlormethiazole was systematically tested in the present study for its effectiveness against cocaine-induced seizures and lethality in mice. The protective effects of chlormethiazole were evaluated against single, submaximal convulsive (75 mg/kg) or lethal (110 mg/kg) doses of cocaine. Chlormethiazole also was tested against the expression (anticonvulsant effect) and development (antiepileptogenic effect) of cocaine-kindled seizures, and against fully developed kindled seizures. Cocaine-kindled seizures were produced by a total of five daily treatments with 60 mg/kg cocaine. The inverted-screen test was used to assess behavioral side effects of chlormethiazole. Chlormethiazole protected against acute cocaine-induced convulsions (ED(50) = 7.0 mg/kg) and lethality (ED(50)= 21.8 mg/kg) with a robust separation [protective index (PI) = TD(50)/ED(50) = 22.3 and 7.2, respectively] from doses producing behavioral side effects (TD(50) = 156 mg/kg). Chlormethiazole suppressed the behavioral expression of cocaine-kindled seizures and prevented the development of sensitization to the convulsant effects of cocaine. It was also effective in suppressing fully developed kindled seizures. Relative to cocaine seizures in naive mice, chlormethiazole was equieffective, less potent (ED(50) = 22.3 mg/kg), and had a reduced protective index (PI = 3.7) against cocaine-induced seizures in kindled mice. The protective profile and protective index of chlormethiazole were superior to those of the benzodiazepines clonazepam and diazepam, which were of limited efficacy and had low protective indices (PI = approximately 1). The results of this study predict the potential utility of chlormethiazole for the treatment of life-threatening complications of cocaine abuse for which no specific treatment has yet been identified.  (+info)

Clomethiazole (also called chlormethiazole) is a sedative and hypnotic originally developed by Hoffmann-La Roche in the 1930s. The drug is used in treating and preventing symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal. It is structurally related to thiamine (vitamin B1), but acts like a sedative, hypnotic, muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant, having the same mechanism of action as traditional barbiturates.. It is also rarely used for the management of agitation, restlessness, short-term insomnia and Parkinsons disease in the elderly, when all other treatment options have failed. In the UK, it is sold under the brand Heminevrin (AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals). Another brand name includes Nevrin in Romania, Distraneurin in Germany and Distraneurine in Spain. The drug is marketed either as a free base in an oily suspension containing 192 mg in capsule form, or as clomethiazole edisylate syrup. Due to its high toxicity compared to similar drugs it is not recommended as a first-line treatment for any indication ...
AIMS: This analysis was performed to investigate the population pharmacokinetics of clomethiazole and its effect on the natural course of sedation in acute stroke patients using a nonlinear mixed effects modelling approach. METHODS: One thousand five hundred and forty-six acute stroke patients (774 on active treatment) from 166 centres were included in three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III efficacy and safety studies. A total dose of 68 mg kg(-1) clomethiazole edisilate was given as a three-phase i.v.-infusion over 24 h. Three blood samples were drawn from all patients to characterize the pharmacokinetics. Sedation was monitored throughout the entire treatment period and the degree of sedation was measured on a discrete ordinal scale with six levels. Models were fitted to the data using the software NONMEM. RESULTS: Clomethiazole was characterized by a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with interindividual variability in all structural parameters. For a patient ...
Management and Treatment Guidelines For Acute Alcohol Withdrawal Policy Title Management and Treatment Guidelines for Acute Alcohol Withdrawal Policy Reference Number Acute10/001 Original Implementation
It is generally accepted that increased glutamatergic activity, resulting from the elevated extracellular glutamate which occurs in the brain during an ischaemic episode (Benveniste et al., 1984; Baldwin et al., 1994; Lee et al., 1999), is a crucial initiating event, leading to cell death (see Szatkowski & Attwell, 1994; Kristián & Siesjö, 1998; Green et al., 2000). It has previously been reported that exposing cerebral tissue to ischaemic conditions in vitro can induce glutamate release and this has been demonstrated using cerebral tissue from both rat (Taylor et al., 1995; Roettger & Lipton, 1996; Saransaari & Oja, 1997) and human (Hegstad et al., 1996). The results from the current study confirmed these findings in prisms of rat cortex, simulating ischaemia by use of a hypoxic medium, with no added glucose. Cortical tissue was used in the current study because this region is severely compromized by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in vivo both in animals and humans (e.g. ...
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Another name for Acute Alcohol Withdrawal is Alcohol Withdrawal. Home care for alcohol withdrawal includes: * Strict avoidance of alcohol. * Increase ...
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Librium (Chlordiazepoxide) belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines that is used for the treatment of anxiety disorder and acute alcohol withdrawal. L
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
It is assumed with Geniux that it improves intracellular utilization of glucose and oxygen and moderate rheological effect. It is used more as an auxiliary smart drug and geriatrikum in states of fatigue, weakness and exhaustion. In animal, it acts as an adaptogen and increases non-specific resistance of the organism against unfavorable environmental influences. Geniux is a xanthine derivatives with moderate vasodilatory effects, moreover, improves the rheological properties of blood (red cells improves plasticity, reduces blood viscosity, acting antiplatelet). It is used in disorders of the central and peripheral blood circulation (peripheral arterial disease, impaired vision and hearing, dementia, ischemic vascular origin). Among nootropic agents, it has been previously classified clomethiazole, a substance that potentates the inhibitory effects of the gamma-aminobutyric acid. Clomethiazole has significantly dampening effect, is mainly used in the treatment of delirium (delirium tremens ...
Most alcoholic beverages contain chemical compounds known as congeners. These chemicals contribute to the taste, smell and appearance of the drink. These compounds can play a role in aggravating the symptoms of a hangover. Research has shown that beverages which contain pure alcohol such as gin or vodka, cause fewer hangover effects. Beverages that contain more congeners, such as whiskey, brandy and red wine are more likely to cause hangover symptoms ...
If seizures continue or recur other names for ativan after a 10- ativan oral dose to 15- minute observation period, and hangover effects. For consumers what are the most common side effects (in more detail) ativan dosing information usual adult dose for status epilepticus long term effects of ativan use is respiratory depression (see warnings and precautions - pediatric use). Pediatric use status epilepticus was established in pediatric patients has not been adequately determined for lorazepam. Suicidality: benzodiazepines are most commonly observed adverse events in a feature how does ativan work in the body on is ativan and lorazepam the same the drug, such an abnormality ativan purchase must ativan abuse be diluted with an equal amount of compatible diluent what are the side effects of ativan (see dosage and administration). Lorazepam-probenecid interaction concurrent administration of an allergic reaction ativan mg to any of the face, lips, tongue, or other metabolic or toxic derangement, ...
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Librium 25mg is a safe and well-tolerated medicine used to alleviate the symptoms of anxiety trouble. This medicine also helps a person to quit alcohol by alleviating the symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal that appear after quitting alcohol. This medicine is also used to relieve pre-operative anxiety or fear in patients undergoing a surgical procedure. […]. ...
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Cochran, Kelly, "Neuroprotective drug treatment in DBA/2J glaucoma." (2015). Summer and Academic Year Student Reports. 2493 ...
Compare the utility of different models and approaches 2- Describe and explain the rationale behind the current pharmacological treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, Also, based on what is known about the pathophysiology of this condition, propose two additional mechanisms, not currently exploited, which might be targeted in order to treat it.. Type of service-Academic paper ...
Severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and alcohol withdrawal delirium (AWD) are frequent principal indication/s for admission to intensive care units. Additionally, unanticipated alcohol withdrawal complicates other critical illnesses and peri-operative states. Alcohol intoxication and withdrawal syndrome are characterized by classic symptoms of adrenergic activation, psychiatric agitation including seizures, as well as metabolic and respiratory dysfunction. The majority of patients with severe AWS are effectively managed with combinations of benzodiazepine (BZD) sedatives (e.g. lorazepam) and butyrophenone antipsychotics (e.g. haloperidol) and require intensive care admission for 2-3 days. However, almost 25% of patients with SAWS have a prolonged critical care course, often complicated by respiratory failure and associated with excessive sedation and risk for complications such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). AWS is frequently difficult to manage with usual care including ...
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a set of symptoms that can occur following a reduction in alcohol use after a period of excessive use. Symptoms typically include anxiety, shakiness, sweating, vomiting, fast heart rate, and a mild fever. More severe symptoms may include seizures, seeing or hearing things that others do not, and delirium tremens (DTs). Symptoms typically begin around six hours following the last drink, are worst at 24 to 72 hours, and improve by seven days. Alcohol withdrawal may occur in those who are alcohol dependent. This may occur following a planned or unplanned decrease in alcohol intake. The underlying mechanism involves a decreased responsiveness of GABA receptors in the brain. The withdrawal process is typically followed using the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale, revised (CIWA-Ar). The typical treatment of alcohol withdrawal is with benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam. Often the amounts given are based on a persons symptoms. ...
D. Hallucinations. 104. A 67-year-old man is brought to the emergency room by the police for exposing himself in the nude to school-children. There is no history of similar events in the past. Possible cause of this behavior includes: A. A petit mal seizure. B. Alzheimers disease. C. Digitalis intoxication. D. An intracranial tumor. 105. The usual causes of an inhibited female orgasm include: A. A lack of information. B. Major psychopathology. C. Trauma from the first relationship. D. The sedative side-effects of medications. 106. Which of the following agents have an important role in the therapy of alcohol withdrawal delirium? A. Meprobamate and benzodiazepines. B. Vitamin B complex. C. Chlormethiazole (Heminevrin). D. Potassium and magnesium ions. E. Benzodiazepine. 107. Patients suffering from a personality disorder: A. May occasionally lost touch with reality. B. Are frequently irritating tolerate stress poorly. C. Elicit strong negative reaction to physicians. 108. Characteristic features ...
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There are sporadic reports of AWS patients being benzodiazepine resistant and requiring extremely high doses of these agents for a prolonged time to control their symptoms[29,30,31,32]. While these patients can be managed using benzodiazepine as monotherapy, it can only be done at supratherapeutic doses, which have a propensity to accumulate, and then require a significantly prolonged wean. This often precipitates unnecessary neurologic workup, including brain imaging and prolonged mechanical ventilation. Clinicians often turn to additional agents to avoid supratherapeutic benzodiazepines and the predictable sequelae.. Intravenous ethanol, while still used in some centres, is not currently favoured by many clinicians and offers no advantages over benzodiazepine[33]. It is generally reserved for use in overdoses of methanol, isopropanol or ethylene glycol[34].. Barbiturates can be a reasonable agent in the setting of a severe AWS. Advantages include low cost and long half-life which can provide ...
Information about the syndrome, and what doctors, family, and friends can do to help. Provided by the American Academy of Family Physicians. ...
Mayo Clin Proc, July 2001, Vol 76 Alcohol Withdrawal in Inpatients 695 Original Article Symptom-Triggered Therapy for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Medical Inpatients THOMAS M. JAEGER, MD; ROBERT H. LOHR,
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Enzyme induction is a process whereby a molecule enhances the expression of enzymes. If the affected enzymes are involved in the elimination of a drug, this may result in a drug interaction. Induction is therefore of major concern during drug development and in clinical practice. The induction process depends on the half-life of the induced enzyme, the pharmacokinetics of the inducing agent, and the relationship between the inducers concentration and the induction stimulus. The aim of the conducted research was to investigate these key aspects of enzyme induction and the consequences that induction has for substrate elimination.. Successful investigations of the induction process presuppose the existence of appropriate methods for the estimation of the metabolic activity. Enzyme activity measurements can be conducted in tissues with low enzyme content using the analytical method presented here. A model was developed describing the changes in the pharmacokinetics of clomethiazole and its ...
Chemicals.d-Glucose-6-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NADP+, sulfaphenazole, quinidine, clomethiazole, furafylline, 8-methoxypsoralen, 3′-p-hydroxypaclitaxel, and paclitaxel were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). Ketoconazole was obtained from MP Biomedicals (Irvine, CA). S-Mephenytoin was purchased from Toronto Research Chemicals Inc. (North York, ON, Canada). 6α-Hydroxypaclitaxel was obtained from BD Gentest (Woburn, MA). Quercetin was purchased from Acros Organics (Geel, Belgium). Cephalomannine (96%) was purchased from Shanghai Jinhe Bio-Technology Co. (Shanghai, China). All other reagents were of HPLC-grade or of the highest grade commercially available. cDNA-expressed recombinant CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 derived from baculovirus-infected insect cells coexpressing NADPH-P450 reductase were obtained from BD Gentest. cDNA-expressed CYP2C8 and CYP2C19 in Escherichia coli coexpressing NADPH-P450 reductase were purchased from New England ...
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Are Campral Side Effects Putting Your Health at Risk? | Jan 20, 2018 Check these Campral side effect reports: A 45-year-old male patient was diagnosed with alcoholism, hypertension, treated with CAMPRAL and reported death,alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Dosage: 1998mg. Patient was hospitalized.
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Alcohol Withdrawal, Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome, Alcohol Detoxification, Delirium Tremens.
Wed like to welcome an excellent new blog, Philip Pilkingtons Fixing the Economists, which aims to provide a view of international economics from an Irish perspective to the Irish web-oh-sphere. Just cross-posting this from his blog today to give a flavour. In 1919, just after WWI, the great British economist John Maynard Keynes published a book entitled The Economic Consequences of Peace. The book was a response to the proposed reparations that were being imposed on post-war Germany. The general opinion in the Allied countries at the time - one, no doubt, fueled by the hangover effects of the greatest wartime propaganda campaign the world had, at that point, ever seen - was that Germany should bleed. No quarter should be given; the German economy should be cut down like those British and French men that were cut down by German machine-gun fire as they poured over the trenches.. Keynes argued that these reparations would be the beginning of the end for Europe. He argued - as any salient ...
20.66561 75.20064 ADA - An Ohio Northern University student found dead in his off-campus apartment last fall died from alcohol withdrawal syndrome, the Hardin County coroner has determined.. The unusual ruling comes five months after the body of Derek C. Falk, 21, of Harpster, Ohio, was discovered by his roommates in his bedroom on the first day of fall classes.. His death initially baffled investigators who found no evidence of foul play. An autopsy also did not point to any obvious cause of death.. Dr. Lawrence Kuk said yesterday that much research went into his ruling.. "These cases have been documented distinctively by coroners and medical examiners," he said. "In working with them very closely, that was the determination.". He said alcohol withdrawal is similar to withdrawal from any medication, in which symptoms can range from the shakes to hallucinations and seizures.. "Just like with any medication, the withdrawal symptoms can be wide, and unfortunately his were extreme," Dr. Kuk ...
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The acute phase, in the first few weeks of recovery, is what many people think of when they hear the word withdrawal. This phase is riddled with physical symptoms that can be anywhere from mildly uncomfortable, to intense, or even life-threatening. The symptoms vary and largely depend on the type of drugs someone used.. The second stage, known as Post-Acute Withdrawal Syndrome, or PAWS, is comprised mostly of mental and emotional symptoms. Most people experience similar symptoms, despite what substances they used during active addiction.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - (±)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy)-induced serotonin neurotoxicity. T2 - Neuropsychobiology. AU - Ricaurte,George A.. AU - Yuan,Jie. AU - McCann,Una D.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The popular recreational drug, (±)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; Ecstasy) is a potent and selective brain serotonin (5-HT) neurotoxin in animals. MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity can be demonstrated using a variety of neurochemical, neuroanatomical and, more recently, functional measures of 5-HT neurons. Although the neurotoxic effects of MDMA in animals are widely accepted, the relevance of the animal data to human MDMA users has been questioned, largely because dosages of drugs used in animals are perceived as being much higher than those used by humans. In the present paper, we review the extensive body of data demonstrating that MDMA produced toxic effects on brain 5-HT neurons in animals and present new data indicating that levels of the type 2 vesicular monoamine ...
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Unfortunately, the number of individuals who are dependent on psychostimulants and are likely to experience a withdrawal syndrome following cessation or reduction in use is not yet able to be estimated, although the presence of a withdrawal syndrome is not necessary for a person to meet criteria for dependence (which includes psychological factors). Similarly, the roles that tolerance (neuroadaptation) and acute toxicity play in long-term withdrawal are also unclear (Davidson et al., 2001). Having said this, the incidence, severity, course and subjective experience of the withdrawal syndrome are likely to be influenced by: ...
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Cardiovascular drugs attenuated myocardial resistance against ischaemia-induced and reperfusion-induced injury in a rat model of repetitive occlusion ...
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Alcohol abuse is an exceedingly common problem and alcohol-related ED visits are encountered daily across the country. Annually, around 500,000 episodes of acute alcohol withdrawal require treatment. The symptoms typically begin to manifest within hours to days after cessation of alcohol and typically peak at 2 - 3 days. The clinical course of alcohol withdrawal varies widely among patients. Chronic alcohol use leads to down-regulation of GABA receptors and up-regulation of NMDA glutamate receptors. Additionally, GABA receptor expression is suppressed. In the active drinker, this allows patients to maintain a normal level of consciousness despite blood alcohol levels that would incapacitate a nondrinker. Withdrawal is therefore, associated with a decrease in GABAergic activity and an increase in glutaminergic activity. The increase in excitatory activity and loss of inhibitory activity results in the symptom complex of alcohol withdrawal. Symptoms include autonomic hyperactivity, tremor, ...
The neurotoxic actions of quinolinic acid in the central nervous system. Article date: 1986/3/1 PubMed ID: 2939936 Journal name: Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology (ISSN: 0008-4212) ABSTRACT Excitotoxins such as kainic acid, ibotenic acid, and quinolinic acid are a group of molecules structurally related to glutamate or aspartate. They are capable of exciting neurons and producing axon sparing neuronal degeneration. Quinolinic acid (QUIN), an endogenous metabolite of th…
How to Stop Alcohol Withdrawal Shakes. Tremors, or the shakes, are a common symptom of alcohol withdrawal. While these tremors usually occur in the hands, they can happen anywhere in the body. Alcohol withdrawal shakes can be...
A 63 year old woman was admitted to the ICU from the Emergency Department with acute alcohol withdrawal, severe hyponatraemia (serum sodium level 114mmol/L), rhabdomyolysis (creatine kinase 46930u/L) and acute kidney injury (serum creatinine 262umol/L, urea 8.7mmol/L, potassium 4.6mmol/L, base excess -6.8 and anuric from the point of admission). Her corrected calcium level was 1.92mmol/L. She…
With no form of additional treatment and assuming the alcoholic quits drinking entirely-quite a feat when not seeking professional treatment, by the way-the typical alcohol withdrawal symptoms duration can last anywhere from six months to two years. The worst of the physical alcohol dependence withdrawal symptoms occur in the first two weeks and the alcoholic may experience them immediately after they stop drinking or after a couple of days. The more emotional side effects, such as depression, anxiety and mood swings, start taking over after two weeks and last anywhere from six months to two years.. The more an alcoholic drank on an average day and the longer they struggled with alcohol addiction, the worse each alcohol withdrawal symptom is likely to be. An addicts health history can also impact the severity of symptoms, as can previous failed attempts to quit. ...
Author: Damian McNamara Patients with head and neck cancers who develop alcohol withdrawal syndrome perioperatively experience significantly more complications after undergoing surgery, a large database analysis indicates.. The presence of withdrawal symptoms was associated with a 25% incidence of postoperative complications, compared with 14% among patients who abused alcohol and 7% among those without alcohol abuse, Dr. Dane J. Genther said at the Triological Societys Combined Sections Meeting. The risk for wound complications was nearly double in this population (odds ratio, 1.9).. Dr. Genther, a resident in otolaryngologyhead and neck surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, and his associates used ICD-9 codes in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample discharge database to identify more than 92,000 patients who underwent an ablative procedure for head and neck cancer in 2003-2008. The retrospective, cross-sectional study included patients with malignant oral cavity, laryngeal, ...
This collection features AFP content on alcohol abuse and dependence and related issues, including alcoholism, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, and detoxification.
Alcohol withdrawal symptoms, Shows symptoms of alcohol withdrawal which can occur when a person who drinks a lot of alcohol regularly drinks.
Amy Winehouses family has reportedly said the singer may have died from alcohol withdrawal. Although its not common, it is possible to die from alcohol withdrawal.
There is no question that there are many reasons why alcohol is one of the most damaging additions that a person can have. There are too many cases and tragic events that have unfolded all over the world because of the irresponsible consumption of alcohol. In this article, we are going to be talking about the many withdrawal symptoms that a person can experience and the best way to deal with them.. Unlike other withdrawal symptoms, alcohol withdrawal can be very difficult to handle for those who have a high level of addiction to alcohol. Most people can be given the right kind of guidance to handle the withdrawal and successfully cleaning their system, but some people have a harder time than others accomplishing this.. Some people can be so addicted to alcohol that they can begin to experience withdrawal symptoms after just a few hours of their last drink. Most people will experience the most notable symptoms for around 48 to 72 hours and then the process will progressively become easier as they ...
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Natural Detoxification - What Is It? http://www.yourhealthy.we.bs/Natural-Detoxification.html Alcohol Detox Programs: Do They Stop Alcohol Withdrawal? http://www.yourhealthy.we.bs/Alcohol-Detox-Programs.html --~--~---------~--~----~------------~-------~--~----~ You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups zilliontechnologies group. To post to this group, send email to [email protected] To unsubscribe from this group, send email to [email protected] For more options, visit this group at http://groups.google.com/group/zilliontechnologies?hl=en ...
Headache. Jitters. Upset stomach. Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal can be worse than a hangover-but help is available. According to research or other evidence, the following steps may be helpful. Seek supportJoin a community support group like Alcoholics Anonymous to support recovery from alcohol abuseWork with a...
Regularly consuming large amounts of alcohol and binge drinking can lead to alcohol withdrawals; these can be pretty painful and uncomfortable to go through.
In this short book Adetutu Ijose continues her work of educating everyone about the health effects of computer She opens the eyes of the reader to the little understood danger of computer use addiction and withdrawal syndromes explaining how and why addiction happens. She also provides practical solutions on how to reverse the addition and how to prevent addiction..
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BACKGROUND: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB or sodium oxybate) is both an exogenous and endogenous molecule with neuromodulator properties. In the United States, GHB is an approved drug for the treatment of narcolepsy and narcolepsy with cataplexy in adults. In some European Union countries, sodium oxybate is applied for the treatment of opioid and alcohol withdrawal. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review was to describe the state of art of the pre-clinical research and the clinical evidence related to GHB used alone or in combination with other treatments in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and alcohol abstinence maintenance ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Brain Blood Flow Modulates the Neurotoxic Action of Hyperbaric Oxygen via Neuronal and Endothelial Nitric Oxide. AU - Moskvin, A. N.. AU - Zhilyaev, S. Yu. AU - Sharapov, O. I.. AU - Platonova, T. F.. AU - Gutsaeva, Diana Raisovna. AU - Kostkin, V. B.. AU - Demchenko, I. T.. PY - 2003/11/1. Y1 - 2003/11/1. N2 - Studies on conscious rats with inhibition of NO synthase were used to assess the dynamics of brain blood flow and EEG traces during hyperbaric oxygenation at 4 or 5 atm. Oxygen at a pressure of 4 atm induced cerebral vasoconstriction in intact animals and decreased blood flow by 11-18% (p , 0.05) during 60-min exposure to hyperbaric oxygenation. Paroxysmal EEG activity and oxygen convulsions did not occur in rats at 4 atm of O2. At 5 atm, convulsive activity appeared on the EEG at 41 ± 1.9 min, and blood flow decreased significantly during the first 20 min; blood flow increased by 23 ± 9%, as compared with controls, (p , 0.01) before the appearance of convulsions on the ...
Other diazepam is desmethyldiazepam (also known as nordazepam or nordiazepam). Elimination the initial distribution phase is followed by a prolonged time. 2 to 2 times a day parenteral: -initial dose: 1 to 2. References" product information. valium dosage anxiety Cimetidine, omeprazole, oxcarbazepine, ticlopidine, topiramate, ketoconazole, fluvoxamine, orlistat, sodium oxybate. Do not take this medicine to a child younger than 6 months. Precautions general if diazepam is stopped abruptly; discontinue slowly on a mg/m? Basis) for 80 and 104 weeks, respectively, the elderly, debilitated or severely ill patients can possibly suffer apnea or cardiac arrest frequency not reported: angioedema hepatic rare (0. diazepam mgs Antacids diazepam peak concentrations to about 2. Foods that alkalinize the urine, predominantly as their glucuronide conjugates. 01% to 0 2 mg, 1 dna way, south san francisco, ca 94080-4990. 75 diazepam tablets are contraindicated in acute alcohol withdrawal symptoms, euphoria, ...
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling has been shown to modulate stress responses and to be involved in regulation of alcohol intake and dependence. The present study explores the possibility that blockade of NPY Y2 autoreceptors using a novel, blood-brain barrier penetrant NPY Y2 receptor antagonist, JNJ-31020028 (N-(4-{4-[2-(diethylamino)-2-oxo-1-phenylethyl]piperazin-1-yl}-3-fluorophenyl)-2-pyridin-3-ylbenzamide), may achieve a therapeutically useful activation of the NPY system in alcohol- and anxiety-related behavioral models. We examined JNJ-31020028 in operant alcohol self-administration, stress-induced reinstatement to alcohol seeking, and acute alcohol withdrawal (hangover)-induced anxiety. Furthermore, we tested its effects on voluntary alcohol consumption in a genetic animal model of alcohol preference, the alcohol-preferring (P) rat. Neither systemic (0, 15, 30, and 40 mg/kg, subcutaneously [s.c.]) nor intracerebroventricular (0.0, 0.3, and 1.0 nmol/rat) administration of JNJ-31020028 ...
Another name for Seizures due to Alcohol Withdrawal is Alcohol Withdrawal. A person with alcohol withdrawal may benefit from the following diet. Strategies ...
Purpose: Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are the drugs of choice to prevent the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Various treatment protocols are published and have been shown to be effective in both office-managed and facility-managed treatment of AWS. The aim of this scientific commentary is to demonstrate the differences in the expected exposure to BDZs during AWS treatment using different treatment regimens available in the literature, in patients with or without alcoholic liver cirrhosis.. Methods: Diazepam and lorazepam AWS protocols were examined and reviewed in the literature, and blood plasma levels were examined and compared, respectively.. Results: Considerable variation in the blood levels with the different dosing schedules was found. Because the drugs are metabolized differently, we have also shown that liver disease affects the blood levels of diazepam, but not of lorazepam.. Conclusions: Differences in treatment regimens, the choice of BDZ, as well as the presence of liver ...
Generally speaking, the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal is considered addicted to alcohol. So your developing a alcohol spirit in their life that is you and others. Realizing the affects persons physical strength which affects your energy production by lower it which changes the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal is part of their victims had been married to or shared a close relationship with an alcoholic is not reasonable to drink. What would you lose as an expression and receive warmth. To recover is bring the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal and motivation. A big part of getting the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal and each died at the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal as their parents.. Not only is alcohol consumption increases blood levels of anti-clotting factors and decreases the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal of the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal in identified alcoholics, 20% are due to suicide another 22% are alcohol-dependent. A recent study indicated that more than 17,000 lives are being promoted ...
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Eating may be the furthest thing from your mind when your body is withdrawing from alcohol, but alcohol affects how your body metabolizes and utilizes nutrients, making eating an important part of your recovery.
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Alcohol withdrawal can cause anxiety on its own. When a person drinks often, their minds and bodies start to depend on alcohol. Chemicals in the body have adapted to alcohols presence. If they go without alcohol for too long - often about 2 to 4 days, but the exact time frame varies - their bodies start to experience withdrawal - a series of symptoms that come from your body trying to adapt to the absence of alcohol. Alcohol withdrawal can lead to many different symptoms, some of which are very physical, such as nausea, headache, changes in heart rate, and more. One such symptom is anxiety - and your anxiety can be worsened due to the presence of these physical symptoms. There are actually several reasons that alcohol withdrawal can lead to extreme anxiety symptoms. Causes include:. ...
A full discussion of inpatient management of patients with alcohol dependence is beyond the scope of this review, but it is important to identify patients with problem alcohol use. SBIRT (Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment) is a strategy used to determine those with risky drug use and to guide early intervention. It has become one of the major tools recommended for use in primary care by governments and expert panels, including the Joint Commission on Accreditation for Health Care Organizations (JCAHO), the major accrediting body for hospitals in the United States, which uses SBIRT as a quality indicator for general hospital care. The American Society of Addiction Medicine provides detailed guidance on managing acute alcohol withdrawal19 and has been updated by Makdissi et al in 2013.17 The summary of alcohol and acute pain in Acute Pain Management: Scientific Evidence reports no cross-tolerance between alcohol and opioids in animal studies and states that effective ...
the treatment of alcoholics at the physiological level.Today on the market there is a wide variety of drugs that promise to completely get rid of alcohol addiction.. To get rid of alcohol dependence, above all, necessary to remove the pain caused by the developing alcohol withdrawal syndrome.Next you need to remove the painful craving for alcohol, cure mental complications, and disorders that have arisen as a result of excessive alcohol consumption.All this can be achieved by using drugs.From alcohol addiction help Esperal, Korda, Polyvidone, glycine, magnesium sulfate, Disulfiram.. Polyvidone is a low molecular weight polymeric compound that helps the human body to detoxify.Toxic substances are derived through the urinary system, and the body is completely cleared in 24 hours.This drug is usually taken together with magnesium sulfate, which has a sedative effect (weak tranquilizer).These drugs can relieve dysphoria and mental stress, normalize the balance of electrolytes in the blood.Polyvidone ...
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The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (often called CIWA or CIWA-Ar (an updated version)), is a scale used to measure alcohol withdrawal symptoms.[1] The scale lists ten common symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Based on how bad a persons symptoms are, each of these is assigned a number. All ten numbers are added up to make one final score. The highest possible score is 67. Higher scores are a sign of more severe alcohol withdrawal: ...
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Im just going through this now. Its been rough to say the least. I have been awake for 4 days. I cant sleep and over the counter medicines for sleep dont work. The 1st and 2nd days were ***l! I would feel this sensation of weak arms and my hands trembled BADLY. All i could do was sit there in agony. I feel better today but the insomnia is driving me crazy. It makes you jumpy and your eyes become wide open. I also feel an odd feeling in my skull. If I didnt have my girlfriend here I would have RUN to the liquor store. Any one else have these symptoms? PLEASE SHARE ...
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Chlormethiazole. *D12-116. *Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine). *Etomidate. *Ginseng constituents (e.g., ginsenosides (e.g., ...
Chlormethiazole. *D12-116. *Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine). *Etomidate. *Ginseng constituents (e.g., ginsenosides (e.g., ...
Chlormethiazole. *D12-116. *Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine). *Etomidate. *Ginseng constituents (e.g., ginsenosides (e.g., ...
Chlormethiazole. *D12-116. *Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine). *Etomidate. *Ginseng constituents (e.g., ginsenosides (e.g., ...
Chlormethiazole. *D12-116. *Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine). *Etomidate. *Ginseng constituents (e.g., ginsenosides (e.g., ...
Chlormethiazole. *D12-116. *Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine). *Etomidate. *Ginseng constituents (e.g., ginsenosides (e.g., ...
Chlormethiazole. *D12-116. *Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine). *Etomidate. *Ginseng constituents (e.g., ginsenosides (e.g., ...
... chlormethiazole MeSH D02.886.675.188 --- dithiazanine MeSH D02.886.675.197 --- ethoxzolamide MeSH D02.886.675.215 --- ...
Paraldehyde, chlormethiazole, and lidocaine for treatment of status epilepticus. In: Delgado-Escueta AV, Wasterlain CG, Treiman ...
... chlormethiazole MeSH D03.383.129.708.215 --- famotidine MeSH D03.383.129.708.250 --- fanft MeSH D03.383.129.708.298 --- firefly ...
... p-chloroamphetamine and fenfluramine administration and effects of chlormethiazole and dizocilpine". British Journal of ...
Barbiturates Chlormethiazole Etomidate Loreclezole Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry: Volume 16. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 1981 ...
... (also called chlormethiazole) is a sedative and hypnotic originally developed by Hoffmann-La Roche in the 1930s. ... chlormethiazole". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 128 (4): 375-378. doi:10.1192/bjp.128.4.375. PMID 1260235. Reith, D. M.; ...
Chlormethiazole. *D12-116. *Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine). *Etomidate. *Ginseng constituents (e.g., ginsenosides (e.g., ...
Chlormethiazole] [Chloroquine] [Chlorothiazide] Chlorpheniramine Chlorpromazine Ciprofloxacin Cisapride Cisplatin Clavulanic ...
Temazepam (Euhypnos) and chlormethiazole: a comparative study in geriatric patients. A significant difference existed between ...
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There were daytime withdrawal effects with triazolam, but none with chlormethiazole. It was found that when rates of ...
Accidental chlormethiazole overdose (disorder) {296153001 , SNOMED-CT } Accidental chlormezanone overdose (disorder) {296025004 ...
Intentional chlormethiazole overdose (disorder) {296154007 , SNOMED-CT } Intentional chlormezanone overdose (disorder) { ...
Is chlormethiazole neuroprotective in experimental global cerebral ischemia? Surgery was necessary in only 2 cases after the ...
Chlormethiazole/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Excitatory Amino Acid ...
Chlormethiazole is an alternative but is not as well tolerated as benzodiazepines and may have more risks associated with it ...
Recently, chlormethiazole a sedative drug, is reported to be an efficient inhibitor of CYP2E1 activity in human beings. In this ... Chlormethiazole (60 mg/kg) or 5% dextrose water was given 30 min before or 2 h after acetaminophen. Serum aminotransferase ... 15,330 U/L, range 13,920 to 15,940 for ALT). In mice receiving chlormethiazole 2 h after acetaminophen, the mean AST and ALT ... Whereas more than 50% of mice died at 500 mg/kg of acetaminophen, all the mice pretreated with chlormethiazole survived at the ...
GLATT, M. M., GEORGE, H. R., and FRISCH, E. P. Controlled trial of chlormethiazole in treatment of the alcoholic withdrawal ... Drummond, L. M. and Chalmers, L. Prescribing chlormethiazole reducing regimes in an emergency clinic. Br J Addict. 1986;81:247- ... Palsson, A. The efficacy of early chlormethiazole medication in the prevention of delirium tremens. A retrospective study of ... Tubridy, P. Alprazolam versus chlormethiazole in acute alcohol withdrawal. Br J Addict. 1988;83:581-585. View abstract. ...
The chlormethiazole labeling states that an appropriately reduced dose should be used if such a combination must be used. ... Chlormethiazole: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Monitor closely for evidence of ...
1997) Interactions between loreclezole, chlormethiazole and pentobarbitone at GABAA receptors: functional and binding studies. ...
CHLORMETHIAZOLE CAS:533-45-9 CHLORMEZANONE CAS:80-77-3 CHLORO(1,5-CYCLOOCTADIENE)RHODIUM(1) DIMER CAS:12092-47-6 ...
Chlormethiazole. *D12-116. *Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine). *Etomidate. *Ginseng constituents (e.g., ginsenosides (e.g., ...
... chlormethiazole midazolam alone or intravenous injection, the situation can be stronger disease in the lower their way of ...
... chlormethiazole, chlorpromazine, clobazam, clozapine, diazepam, droperidol, ethinamate, fluanisone, flunitrazepam, ...
... chlormethiazole and tiapride (a dopamine receptor antagonist) for alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Most drugs (other than calcium ... received chlormethiazole, an alternative to neuroleptic BZDs. BZDs were however being taken for other indications, including ...
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Chlormethiazole. *Choice of catheter. *Choice of empirical therapy. *Choice of fluid. *Choice of fluid therapy ...
Other exercises cranbery the formation of the developmental anomalies chapter 8). Crxnberry Chlormethiazole ethane-di- ...
Do not use zopiclone or chlormethiazole; they have cross-dependency with benzodiazepines. ...
The pharmacokinetics of chlormethiazole following intravenous administration in the aged. Nation, R. L., Learoyd, B., Barber, J ...
Chlormethiazole Hydrochloride[6001-74-7] Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride[69-09-0] Citalopram Hydrobromide [59729-32-7] (S)- ...
Wilby, M.J.; Hutchinson, P.J. The pharmacology of chlormethiazole: A potential neuroprotective agent? CNS Drug Rev 2004, 10, ...
  • You never the tissue toxicity, but in graded activities are too short range, and skeletal muscle tone d1, d2, or intrathecal and activity is regarded as nsaid sulindac (clinoril), and are unlikely explanation for vital signs, especially some patients, chlormethiazole midazolam alone or intravenous injection, the situation can be stronger disease in the lower their way of hypertension. (coveringthecorridor.com)
  • Los proveedores de salud dan inyecciones de tiamina para un trastorno de la memoria llamado síndrome de encefalopatía de Wernicke, para otros síndromes de deficiencia de tiamina en enfermos críticos, para la abstinencia de alcohol y para el coma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The groundss of aws and dt container be regimented using thecombination of a minor tranquilizer (in collection acknowledged as chlormethiazole) with neuroleptic drug or dexmedetomidine/clonidine. (trentoncycling.org)
  • Chlormethiazole: May enhance the therapeutic effect of time. (rcracer.com.au)
  • The chlormethiazole labeling states that an appropriately reduced dose is 50 mg tramadol tablets in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may enhance the sedative effect of MetyroSINE. (forumlogopedyczne.pl)
  • Chlormethiazole: May enhance the U.S. Food and set up your healthcare provider about 12 hours and attributions, please refer to our editorial policy. (forumlogopedyczne.pl)
  • Temazepam (Euhypnos) and chlormethiazole: a comparative study in geriatric patients. (termsreign.cf)
  • All patients subsequently underwent a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and measurements were repeated at six weeks and three months following surgery. (fullbench.top)
  • Zonated expression of cytokines in rat liver: effect of chronic ethanol and the cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibitor, chlormethiazole. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Inhibition of ethanol-induced liver disease in the intragastric feeding rat model by chlormethiazole," Experimental Biology and Medicine , vol. 224, no. 4, pp. 302-308, 2000. (hindawi.com)