A sedative and anticonvulsant often used in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Chlormethiazole has also been proposed as a neuroprotective agent. The mechanism of its therapeutic activity is not entirely clear, but it does potentiate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors response and it may also affect glycine receptors.
An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.
Chlorinated analog of AMPHETAMINE. Potent neurotoxin that causes release and eventually depletion of serotonin in the CNS. It is used as a research tool.
A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.
An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.
A benzodiazepine with pharmacologic actions similar to those of DIAZEPAM that can cause ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA. Some reports indicate that it is used as a date rape drug and suggest that it may precipitate violent behavior. The United States Government has banned the importation of this drug.
A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.
Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.
A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.
The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.
A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.
An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Use of computers or computer systems for doing routine clerical work, e.g., billing, records pertaining to the administration of the office, etc.
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)
A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
An autosomal dominant porphyria that is due to a deficiency of COPROPORPHYRINOGEN OXIDASE in the LIVER, the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Clinical features include both neurological symptoms and cutaneous lesions. Patients excrete increased levels of porphyrin precursors, 5-AMINOLEVULINATE and COPROPORPHYRINS.
Porphyrins with four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Elevated levels of Coproporphyrin III in the urine and feces are major findings in patients with HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX by the conversion of two propionate groups to two vinyl groups. It is the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME, and is encoded by CPO gene. Mutations of CPO gene result in HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.
A group of metabolic diseases due to deficiency of one of a number of LIVER enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of HEME. They are characterized by the accumulation and increased excretion of PORPHYRINS or its precursors. Clinical features include neurological symptoms (PORPHYRIA, ACUTE INTERMITTENT), cutaneous lesions due to photosensitivity (PORPHYRIA CUTANEA TARDA), or both (HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA). Hepatic porphyrias can be hereditary or acquired as a result of toxicity to the hepatic tissues.
A diverse group of metabolic diseases characterized by errors in the biosynthetic pathway of HEME in the LIVER, the BONE MARROW, or both. They are classified by the deficiency of specific enzymes, the tissue site of enzyme defect, or the clinical features that include neurological (acute) or cutaneous (skin lesions). Porphyrias can be hereditary or acquired as a result of toxicity to the hepatic or erythropoietic marrow tissues.
A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
Colorless reduced precursors of porphyrins in which the pyrrole rings are linked by methylene (-CH2-) bridges.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.

Ethyl glucuronide--a marker of alcohol consumption and a relapse marker with clinical and forensic implications. (1/58)

Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a non-volatile, water-soluble, direct metabolite of ethanol that can be detected in body fluids and hair. We investigated urine and serum samples from three patient groups: (1) 33 in-patients in acute alcohol withdrawal; (2) 30 detoxified in-patients (treated for at least 4 weeks) from a 'motivation station'; and (3) 43 neuro-rehabilitation patients (non-alcoholics; most of them suffering from stroke, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease etc.) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with deuterium-labelled EtG as the internal standard and additionally in the second group of patients using liquid chromatography (LC/MS-MS). We found no correlation between the concentration of EtG in urine at hospitalization and the blood-ethanol concentration (r = 0.17), the time frame of detection (r = 0.5) or the total amount of clomethiazole required for the treatment of withdrawal symptoms (r = 0.28). In four out of 30 in-patients from the 'motivation station'--where neither clinical impression nor routine laboratory findings gave indications of relapse--concentrations of EtG in urine ranged between 4.2 and 196.6 mg/l. EtG concentrations in urine of between 2.89 and 23.49 mg/l were found in seven out of 43 neuro-rehabilitation patients using GC/MS. The GC/MS and the LC/MS-MS results showed a correlation of 0.98 with Pearson's correlation test and 1.0 with Spearman's correlation test. We suggest that EtG is a marker of alcohol consumption that can be detected for an extended time period after the complete elimination of alcohol from the body. When used as a relapse marker with a specific time frame of detection intermediate between short- and long-term markers, EtG fills a clinically as well as forensically important gap. Its specificity and sensitivity exceed those of all other known ethanol markers.  (+info)

Mode of action of ICS 205,930, a novel type of potentiator of responses to glycine in rat spinal neurones. (2/58)

The effect of a novel potentiator of glycine responses, ICS 205,930, was studied by whole-cell recordings from spinal neurones, and compared with that of other known potentiators, in an attempt to differentiate their sites of action. The ability of ICS 205,930 (0.2 microM) to potentiate glycine responses persisted in the presence of concentrations of Zn2+ (5-10 microM) that were saturating for the potentiating effect of this ion. Preincubation with 10 microM Zn2+ before application of glycine plus Zn2+ had an inhibitory effect, which did not result from Zn2+ entry into the neurone, since it persisted with either 10 mM internal EGTA or 10 microM internal Zn2+. To test whether the potentiating effects of ICS 205,930 and Zn2+ interact, both compounds were applied without preincubation. The potentiating effect of ICS 205,930 was similar for responses to glycine and for responses to glycine plus Zn2+, provided the concentrations of agonist were adjusted so as to induce control responses of identical amplitudes. ICS 205,930 remained able to potentiate glycine responses in the presence of ethanol (200 mM). ICS 205,930 also retained its potentiating effect in the presence of the anaesthetic propofol (30 90 microM), which strongly potentiated glycine responses but, in contrast with ICS 205,930, also markedly increased the resting conductance. The anticonvulsant chlormethiazole (50-100 microM) neither potentiated glycine responses nor prevented the effect of ICS 205,930, even though it increased the resting conductance and potentiated GABA(A) responses. The mechanism of action of ICS 205,930 appears to be different from those by which Zn2+, propofol or ethanol potentiate glycine responses.  (+info)

Post-translational inhibition of cytochrome P-450 2E1 expression by chlomethiazole in Fao hepatoma cells. (3/58)

Chlomethiazole (CMZ) is a sedative and anticonvulsant drug that has been shown to be an efficient transcriptional inhibitor of expression of rat hepatic ethanol-inducible cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Recent results have shown that human CYP2E1 expression in vivo is almost completely inhibited in control subjects and in alcoholic patients treated with CMZ. In the present investigation, we evaluated the mode of action of CMZ on CYP2E1 expression in Fao rat hepatoma cells. Transcriptional activity of the CYP2E1 gene was monitored using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based quantification of CYP2E1 heterologous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) against a mimic DNA standard, mRNA was detected by Northern blotting, enzyme protein was detected by Western blotting, and CYP2E1-dependent catalytic activity was detected by assay of chlorzoxazone-6-hydroxylation. Six hours after CMZ treatment, the levels of both CYP2E1 protein and catalytic activity were concomitantly reduced at an IC50 value of about 5 microM. Ethanol treatment of the cells caused a 2-fold induction of CYP2E1 protein levels, which was inhibited by CMZ. Change of medium unexpectedly caused an increase in CYP2E1 gene transcription 4 h later, as monitored by quantitative determination of CYP2E1 hnRNA. However, CMZ failed to influence the expression of CYP2E1 hnRNA or mRNA both constitutively and after medium change, indicating no effect on gene transcription or mRNA synthesis/stability. Cycloheximide treatment of the cells did not abolish the inhibitory action of CMZ, further indicating an action at the post-translational level; in addition, CMZ inhibited CYP2E1 expression in V79 cells with stably expressed CYP2E1 under the control of the SV40 promoter. The data indicate that the CYP2E1 gene is transcriptionally activated in response to medium change and that CMZ, apart from a transcriptional inhibitor of CYP2E1 expression, acts in addition as an efficient high-affinity post-translational inhibitor of CYP2E1, probably due to an allosteric destabilization of the enzyme. This indicates a very rapid and effective CMZ-mediated inhibition of CYP2E1 in vivo.  (+info)

Results in 95 hemorrhagic stroke patients included in CLASS, a controlled trial of clomethiazole versus placebo in acute stroke patients. (4/58)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clomethiazole is a neuroprotective drug that enhances gamma-aminobutyrate type A (GABA(A)) receptor activity. Its efficacy and safety were tested in the CLomethiazole Acute Stroke Study (CLASS). The protocol allowed a CT scan to be done after randomization but within 7 days of stroke onset to minimize delays before start of treatment. Ninety-five of the 1360 patients randomized were diagnosed as having intracranial hemorrhage rather than ischemic stroke. Safety results for clomethiazole compared with placebo in this group are reported. METHODS: The study included patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute hemispheric cerebral infarction. Treatment was a 24-hour intravenous infusion of 75 mg/kg clomethiazole or placebo. Patients with intracranial hemorrhage discovered on a postrandomization CT were withdrawn from study treatment if treatment was ongoing, and all patients were followed up to 90 days. RESULTS: Ninety-four patients received treatment, 47 in each group. The hemorrhage was classified as intracerebral in 89 patients (94%). Mortality at 90 days was 19.1% in the clomethiazole group and 23.4% in the placebo group. Sedation was the most common adverse event, occurring at a higher incidence in clomethiazole-treated patients (clomethiazole 53%, placebo 17%), followed by rhinitis and coughing. The incidence and pattern of serious adverse events was similar between the treatment groups. The percentage of patients reaching relative functional independence on the Barthel Index (score >/=60) at 90 days was 59.6% in the clomethiazole group and 53.2% in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Clomethiazole appears safe to administer to hemorrhagic stroke patients compared with placebo. These results would obviate the need for a CT scan before therapy is initiated in acute stroke. The safety of clomethiazole in hemorrhagic stroke patients will be further evaluated in a prospective study that is under way in North America.  (+info)

The metabolism of clomethiazole in gerbils and the neuroprotective and sedative activity of the metabolites. (5/58)

A single dose of clomethiazole (600 micromol kg(-1) i.p.) has previously been shown to be neuroprotective in the gerbil model of global ischaemia. In gerbils, clomethiazole (600 micromol kg(-1)) injection produced a rapid appearance (peak within 5 min) of drug in plasma and brain and similar clearance (plasma t(1/2): 40 min) from both tissues. The peak brain concentration (226+/-56 nmol g(-1)) was 40% higher than plasma. One major metabolite, 5-(1-hydroxyethyl-2-chloro)-4-methylthiazole (NLA-715) and two minor metabolites 5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole (NLA-272) and 5-acetyl-4-methylthiazole (NLA-511) were detected in plasma and brain. Evidence suggested that clomethiazole is metabolized directly to both NLA-715 and NLA-272. Injection of NLA-715, NLA-272 or NLA-511 (each at 600 micromol kg(-1)) produced brain concentrations respectively 2.2, 38 and 92 times greater than seen after clomethiazole (600 micromol kg(-1)). Clomethiazole (600 micromol kg(-1)) injected 60 min after a 5 min bilateral carotid artery occlusion in gerbils attenuated the ischaemia-induced degeneration of the hippocampus by approximately 70%. The metabolites were not neuroprotective at this dose. In mice, clomethiazole (600 micromol kg(-1)) produced peak plasma and brain concentrations approximately 100% higher than in gerbils, drug concentrations in several brain regions were similar but 35% higher than plasma. Clomethiazole (ED(50): 180 micromol kg(-1)) and NLA-715 (ED(50): 240 micromol kg(-1)) inhibited spontaneous locomotor activity. The other metabolites were not sedative (ED(50) >600 micromol kg(-1)). These data suggest that the neuroprotective action of clomethiazole results from an action of the parent compound and that NLA-715 contributes to the sedative activity of the drug. British Journal of Pharmacology (2000) 129, 95 - 100  (+info)

On the regulation of ischaemia-induced glutamate efflux from rat cortex by GABA; in vitro studies with GABA, clomethiazole and pentobarbitone. (6/58)

Prisms of adult rat cortex were maintained in vitro in either aerobic conditions (control) or conditions simulating an acute ischaemic challenge (hypoxia with no added glucose). Endogenous glutamate efflux increased with time in ischaemic conditions, being 2.7 fold higher than control efflux at 45 min. Returning prisms to control solution after 20 min of simulated ischaemia resulted in glutamate efflux returning to near-control values. Endogenous GABA efflux in ischaemic conditions also increased, being 4.5 fold higher than control efflux at 45 min. Ischaemia-induced glutamate efflux was not accompanied by increased lactate dehydrogenase efflux and was unaltered by omitting calcium from the extra-cellular solution and adding EGTA (0.1 mM). Both GABA and the GABA-mimetic clomethiazole inhibited ischaemia-induced glutamate efflux, with IC(50) values of 26 and 24 microM respectively. The maximum inhibition by either drug was 60 - 70%. Bicuculline (10 microM) abolished the inhibitory effect of GABA (100 microM) but not clomethiazole (100 microM). Picrotoxin (100 microM) abolished the action of both GABA and clomethiazole. Pentobarbitone inhibited glutamate efflux at 100 - 300 microM (maximal inhibition: 39%). Bicuculline (10 microM) abolished this effect. These data suggest that ischaemia-induced glutamate efflux from rat cerebral cortex is calcium-independent and not due to cell damage up to 45 min. The inhibitory effect of GABA, clomethiazole and pentobarbitone on ischaemia-induced glutamate efflux appears to be mediated by GABA(A) receptors. The results suggest that clomethiazole, unlike pentobarbitone, is able to activate the GABAA receptor-linked chloride channel directly and not merely potentiate the effect of endogenous GABA.  (+info)

Neuroprotective agent chlomethiazole attenuates c-fos, c-jun, and AP-1 activation through inhibition of p38 MAP kinase. (7/58)

Recent evidence suggests that stress-activated protein kinases expressed in glial cells have very important roles during cerebral ischemia. The neuroprotective agent chlomethiazole, which is known to enhance the conductance at the GABA(A) receptor complex, is presently in clinical trials for the treatment of severe stroke. Here the authors suggested that chlormethiazole has anti-inflammatory properties because it potently and selectively inhibited p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in primary cortical glial cultures. The inhibition of p38 MAP kinase resulted in the attenuation of the induction of c-fos and c-jun mRNA and AP-1 DNA binding by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, chlomethiazole inhibited the activation of an AP-1-dependent luciferase reporter plasmid in SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells in response to glutamate. Chlomethiazole inhibited the p38 MAP kinase activity as revealed by the decrease in the LPS-induced phosphorylation of the substrates ATF-2 and hsp27, whereas the phosphorylation status of the p38 MAP kinase itself was unaffected. Interestingly, chlomethiazole exhibited an IC(50) of approximately 2 micromol/L for inhibition of c-fos mRNA expression, indicating 25 to 75 times higher potency than reported EC(50) values for enhancing GABA(A) chloride currents. The results indicated a novel mechanism of action of chlomethiazole, and provided support for a distinctive role of p38 MAP kinase in cerebral ischemia.  (+info)

Chlormethiazole: effectiveness against toxic effects of cocaine in mice. (8/58)

Chlormethiazole positively modulates the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor complex and is primarily used to treat certain life-threatening neurological events (e.g., refractory seizures and ethanol withdrawal syndrome). On account of several experimental and clinical studies reporting effectiveness against the toxic effects of heroin and methamphetamine, chlormethiazole was systematically tested in the present study for its effectiveness against cocaine-induced seizures and lethality in mice. The protective effects of chlormethiazole were evaluated against single, submaximal convulsive (75 mg/kg) or lethal (110 mg/kg) doses of cocaine. Chlormethiazole also was tested against the expression (anticonvulsant effect) and development (antiepileptogenic effect) of cocaine-kindled seizures, and against fully developed kindled seizures. Cocaine-kindled seizures were produced by a total of five daily treatments with 60 mg/kg cocaine. The inverted-screen test was used to assess behavioral side effects of chlormethiazole. Chlormethiazole protected against acute cocaine-induced convulsions (ED(50) = 7.0 mg/kg) and lethality (ED(50)= 21.8 mg/kg) with a robust separation [protective index (PI) = TD(50)/ED(50) = 22.3 and 7.2, respectively] from doses producing behavioral side effects (TD(50) = 156 mg/kg). Chlormethiazole suppressed the behavioral expression of cocaine-kindled seizures and prevented the development of sensitization to the convulsant effects of cocaine. It was also effective in suppressing fully developed kindled seizures. Relative to cocaine seizures in naive mice, chlormethiazole was equieffective, less potent (ED(50) = 22.3 mg/kg), and had a reduced protective index (PI = 3.7) against cocaine-induced seizures in kindled mice. The protective profile and protective index of chlormethiazole were superior to those of the benzodiazepines clonazepam and diazepam, which were of limited efficacy and had low protective indices (PI = approximately 1). The results of this study predict the potential utility of chlormethiazole for the treatment of life-threatening complications of cocaine abuse for which no specific treatment has yet been identified.  (+info)

Clomethiazole (also called chlormethiazole) is a sedative and hypnotic originally developed by Hoffmann-La Roche in the 1930s. The drug is used in treating and preventing symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal. It is structurally related to thiamine (vitamin B1), but acts like a sedative, hypnotic, muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant, having the same mechanism of action as traditional barbiturates.. It is also rarely used for the management of agitation, restlessness, short-term insomnia and Parkinsons disease in the elderly, when all other treatment options have failed. In the UK, it is sold under the brand Heminevrin (AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals). Another brand name includes Nevrin in Romania, Distraneurin in Germany and Distraneurine in Spain. The drug is marketed either as a free base in an oily suspension containing 192 mg in capsule form, or as clomethiazole edisylate syrup. Due to its high toxicity compared to similar drugs it is not recommended as a first-line treatment for any indication ...
AIMS: This analysis was performed to investigate the population pharmacokinetics of clomethiazole and its effect on the natural course of sedation in acute stroke patients using a nonlinear mixed effects modelling approach. METHODS: One thousand five hundred and forty-six acute stroke patients (774 on active treatment) from 166 centres were included in three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III efficacy and safety studies. A total dose of 68 mg kg(-1) clomethiazole edisilate was given as a three-phase i.v.-infusion over 24 h. Three blood samples were drawn from all patients to characterize the pharmacokinetics. Sedation was monitored throughout the entire treatment period and the degree of sedation was measured on a discrete ordinal scale with six levels. Models were fitted to the data using the software NONMEM. RESULTS: Clomethiazole was characterized by a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with interindividual variability in all structural parameters. For a patient ...
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It is generally accepted that increased glutamatergic activity, resulting from the elevated extracellular glutamate which occurs in the brain during an ischaemic episode (Benveniste et al., 1984; Baldwin et al., 1994; Lee et al., 1999), is a crucial initiating event, leading to cell death (see Szatkowski & Attwell, 1994; Kristián & Siesjö, 1998; Green et al., 2000). It has previously been reported that exposing cerebral tissue to ischaemic conditions in vitro can induce glutamate release and this has been demonstrated using cerebral tissue from both rat (Taylor et al., 1995; Roettger & Lipton, 1996; Saransaari & Oja, 1997) and human (Hegstad et al., 1996). The results from the current study confirmed these findings in prisms of rat cortex, simulating ischaemia by use of a hypoxic medium, with no added glucose. Cortical tissue was used in the current study because this region is severely compromized by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in vivo both in animals and humans (e.g. ...
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Another name for Acute Alcohol Withdrawal is Alcohol Withdrawal. Home care for alcohol withdrawal includes: * Strict avoidance of alcohol. * Increase ...
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Librium (Chlordiazepoxide) belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines that is used for the treatment of anxiety disorder and acute alcohol withdrawal. L
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
It is assumed with Geniux that it improves intracellular utilization of glucose and oxygen and moderate rheological effect. It is used more as an auxiliary smart drug and geriatrikum in states of fatigue, weakness and exhaustion. In animal, it acts as an adaptogen and increases non-specific resistance of the organism against unfavorable environmental influences. Geniux is a xanthine derivatives with moderate vasodilatory effects, moreover, improves the rheological properties of blood (red cells improves plasticity, reduces blood viscosity, acting antiplatelet). It is used in disorders of the central and peripheral blood circulation (peripheral arterial disease, impaired vision and hearing, dementia, ischemic vascular origin). Among nootropic agents, it has been previously classified clomethiazole, a substance that potentates the inhibitory effects of the gamma-aminobutyric acid. Clomethiazole has significantly dampening effect, is mainly used in the treatment of delirium (delirium tremens ...
Most alcoholic beverages contain chemical compounds known as congeners. These chemicals contribute to the taste, smell and appearance of the drink. These compounds can play a role in aggravating the symptoms of a hangover. Research has shown that beverages which contain pure alcohol such as gin or vodka, cause fewer hangover effects. Beverages that contain more congeners, such as whiskey, brandy and red wine are more likely to cause hangover symptoms ...
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also termed the hangover effect of drinking. In most cases, the fermentation of the foods and beverages we consume occurs outside of the body. syndrome is characterized by mental confusion, poor memory, poor neuromuscular This remains, however, speculative, since we did not investigate the underlying genetic events, e.g., the formation of certain DNA-base adducts or the inactivation or mutation of tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. Also, depending on a persons genes, acetaldehyde can promote alcoholism. free radicals also form. The combined expression of the pairs 4/13, 5/14, and 6/16 has been described for squamous nonstratifying epithelia ( 40 - 42 ). Acetaldehyde is a small compound that occurs naturally in coffee, bread, and even fruit. molecule. parts of the body such as the brain.3 Research has also shown that AH can then fold or deform. Naphtol as-bi-phosphate (50 mg) (Sigma Chemical Co.), dissolved in 600 μL N , N -dimethylformamide (Merck), was then added. This was observed in nine ...
In the American League, the Yankees were in the 4th of 5 straight pennant winning years, and, led by MVP Elston Howard, cruised to the American League title by 10.5 games over the 2nd place White Sox. In the National League, most experts figured the San Francisco Giants and Los Angeles Dodgers would be locked in another battle for the pennant, much like 1962 when the Giants came from behind and beat the Dodgers in a playoff. The Dodgers started slowly, perhaps feeling the hangover effect from blowing the pennant the year before. They were 2 games under .500 in early May, and trailed the surprising St. Louis Cardinals by 4.5 games. Then their pitching asserted itself, and on August 28, the Dodgers led the Giants by 5.5 games and the Cardinals by 6.5 games. The Cardinals proceeded to win 19 of their next 20 games and, while the Dodgers didnt exactly slump, they went only 14-7 during that same period. Thus, the Dodgers went into St. Louis on September 16 to play the Cardinals in a 3-game series ...
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Cochran, Kelly, Neuroprotective drug treatment in DBA/2J glaucoma. (2015). Summer and Academic Year Student Reports. 2493 ...
Compare the utility of different models and approaches 2- Describe and explain the rationale behind the current pharmacological treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, Also, based on what is known about the pathophysiology of this condition, propose two additional mechanisms, not currently exploited, which might be targeted in order to treat it.. Type of service-Academic paper ...
Severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and alcohol withdrawal delirium (AWD) are frequent principal indication/s for admission to intensive care units. Additionally, unanticipated alcohol withdrawal complicates other critical illnesses and peri-operative states. Alcohol intoxication and withdrawal syndrome are characterized by classic symptoms of adrenergic activation, psychiatric agitation including seizures, as well as metabolic and respiratory dysfunction. The majority of patients with severe AWS are effectively managed with combinations of benzodiazepine (BZD) sedatives (e.g. lorazepam) and butyrophenone antipsychotics (e.g. haloperidol) and require intensive care admission for 2-3 days. However, almost 25% of patients with SAWS have a prolonged critical care course, often complicated by respiratory failure and associated with excessive sedation and risk for complications such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). AWS is frequently difficult to manage with usual care including ...
Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome is the set of symptoms you experience when you reduce or stop drinking cold turkey after binge drinking or long term drinking. Any excessive use of alcohol can lead to tolerance, physical dependence, and alcohol abuse. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome occurs because, once alcohol is no longer in your system, your central nervous system goes into and over-active state. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome may include seizures and delirium tremens and may lead to nerve cell damage and death.. Kindling. Some people who have repeatedly gone through cold turkey withdrawal without tapering off become more and more likely to have bad withdrawals from even small amounts of alcohol. This phenomenon is referred to as kindling. The way to avoid kindling is to taper off.. Holistic Drug Treatment. You may not want to go to a traditional drug treatment facility. Take comfort in knowing that there are holistic drug treatment programs that do things a bit differently ...
Thomas Hell, Dirk Martens, Klaus Eyrlch; A254 POSTOPERATIVE ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME PROPHYLAXIS VERSUS THERAPY. Anesthesiology 1990; 73:NA doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-199009001-00250. Download citation file:. ...
D. Hallucinations. 104. A 67-year-old man is brought to the emergency room by the police for exposing himself in the nude to school-children. There is no history of similar events in the past. Possible cause of this behavior includes: A. A petit mal seizure. B. Alzheimers disease. C. Digitalis intoxication. D. An intracranial tumor. 105. The usual causes of an inhibited female orgasm include: A. A lack of information. B. Major psychopathology. C. Trauma from the first relationship. D. The sedative side-effects of medications. 106. Which of the following agents have an important role in the therapy of alcohol withdrawal delirium? A. Meprobamate and benzodiazepines. B. Vitamin B complex. C. Chlormethiazole (Heminevrin). D. Potassium and magnesium ions. E. Benzodiazepine. 107. Patients suffering from a personality disorder: A. May occasionally lost touch with reality. B. Are frequently irritating tolerate stress poorly. C. Elicit strong negative reaction to physicians. 108. Characteristic features ...
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Valium contains diazepam, which belongs to the class of benzodiazepine medications. People buy Valium Online for the short-term relief of moderate symptoms of anxiety or acute alcohol withdrawal. It is also helpful in reducing muscle spasms.Valium is a... moreValium contains diazepam, which belongs to the class of benzodiazepine medications. People buy Valium Online for the short-term relief of moderate symptoms of anxiety or acute alcohol withdrawal. It is also helpful in reducing muscle spasms.Valium is a benzo that works by works by slowing down the brain nerves or the central nervous system. The injection form of diazepam can also be useful in controlling prolonged seizures.The medication is available as the generic drug as diazepam and in several brand names. Your health care provider may suggest Valium for other conditions not mentioned in this post.Do not give Valium pills to anyone else, even if they seem to have the same condition or similar symptoms as you. It can be very harmful to ...
There are sporadic reports of AWS patients being benzodiazepine resistant and requiring extremely high doses of these agents for a prolonged time to control their symptoms[29,30,31,32]. While these patients can be managed using benzodiazepine as monotherapy, it can only be done at supratherapeutic doses, which have a propensity to accumulate, and then require a significantly prolonged wean. This often precipitates unnecessary neurologic workup, including brain imaging and prolonged mechanical ventilation. Clinicians often turn to additional agents to avoid supratherapeutic benzodiazepines and the predictable sequelae.. Intravenous ethanol, while still used in some centres, is not currently favoured by many clinicians and offers no advantages over benzodiazepine[33]. It is generally reserved for use in overdoses of methanol, isopropanol or ethylene glycol[34].. Barbiturates can be a reasonable agent in the setting of a severe AWS. Advantages include low cost and long half-life which can provide ...
Information about the syndrome, and what doctors, family, and friends can do to help. Provided by the American Academy of Family Physicians. ...
Mayo Clin Proc, July 2001, Vol 76 Alcohol Withdrawal in Inpatients 695 Original Article Symptom-Triggered Therapy for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Medical Inpatients THOMAS M. JAEGER, MD; ROBERT H. LOHR,
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Enzyme induction is a process whereby a molecule enhances the expression of enzymes. If the affected enzymes are involved in the elimination of a drug, this may result in a drug interaction. Induction is therefore of major concern during drug development and in clinical practice. The induction process depends on the half-life of the induced enzyme, the pharmacokinetics of the inducing agent, and the relationship between the inducers concentration and the induction stimulus. The aim of the conducted research was to investigate these key aspects of enzyme induction and the consequences that induction has for substrate elimination.. Successful investigations of the induction process presuppose the existence of appropriate methods for the estimation of the metabolic activity. Enzyme activity measurements can be conducted in tissues with low enzyme content using the analytical method presented here. A model was developed describing the changes in the pharmacokinetics of clomethiazole and its ...
Chemicals.d-Glucose-6-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NADP+, sulfaphenazole, quinidine, clomethiazole, furafylline, 8-methoxypsoralen, 3′-p-hydroxypaclitaxel, and paclitaxel were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). Ketoconazole was obtained from MP Biomedicals (Irvine, CA). S-Mephenytoin was purchased from Toronto Research Chemicals Inc. (North York, ON, Canada). 6α-Hydroxypaclitaxel was obtained from BD Gentest (Woburn, MA). Quercetin was purchased from Acros Organics (Geel, Belgium). Cephalomannine (96%) was purchased from Shanghai Jinhe Bio-Technology Co. (Shanghai, China). All other reagents were of HPLC-grade or of the highest grade commercially available. cDNA-expressed recombinant CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 derived from baculovirus-infected insect cells coexpressing NADPH-P450 reductase were obtained from BD Gentest. cDNA-expressed CYP2C8 and CYP2C19 in Escherichia coli coexpressing NADPH-P450 reductase were purchased from New England ...
Must-Do Markers Of Quality Emergency: Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Improving Outcomes Through Early Identification And Aggressive Treatment Strategies
Are Campral Side Effects Putting Your Health at Risk? | Jan 20, 2018 Check these Campral side effect reports: A 45-year-old male patient was diagnosed with alcoholism, hypertension, treated with CAMPRAL and reported death,alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Dosage: 1998mg. Patient was hospitalized.
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Alcohol Withdrawal, Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome, Alcohol Detoxification, Delirium Tremens.
Wed like to welcome an excellent new blog, Philip Pilkingtons Fixing the Economists, which aims to provide a view of international economics from an Irish perspective to the Irish web-oh-sphere. Just cross-posting this from his blog today to give a flavour. In 1919, just after WWI, the great British economist John Maynard Keynes published a book entitled The Economic Consequences of Peace. The book was a response to the proposed reparations that were being imposed on post-war Germany. The general opinion in the Allied countries at the time - one, no doubt, fueled by the hangover effects of the greatest wartime propaganda campaign the world had, at that point, ever seen - was that Germany should bleed. No quarter should be given; the German economy should be cut down like those British and French men that were cut down by German machine-gun fire as they poured over the trenches.. Keynes argued that these reparations would be the beginning of the end for Europe. He argued - as any salient ...
20.66561 75.20064 ADA - An Ohio Northern University student found dead in his off-campus apartment last fall died from alcohol withdrawal syndrome, the Hardin County coroner has determined.. The unusual ruling comes five months after the body of Derek C. Falk, 21, of Harpster, Ohio, was discovered by his roommates in his bedroom on the first day of fall classes.. His death initially baffled investigators who found no evidence of foul play. An autopsy also did not point to any obvious cause of death.. Dr. Lawrence Kuk said yesterday that much research went into his ruling.. These cases have been documented distinctively by coroners and medical examiners, he said. In working with them very closely, that was the determination.. He said alcohol withdrawal is similar to withdrawal from any medication, in which symptoms can range from the shakes to hallucinations and seizures.. Just like with any medication, the withdrawal symptoms can be wide, and unfortunately his were extreme, Dr. Kuk ...
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Feeling DRUG WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME while using Celexa? DRUG WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Celexa Reports and Side Effects.
The acute phase, in the first few weeks of recovery, is what many people think of when they hear the word withdrawal. This phase is riddled with physical symptoms that can be anywhere from mildly uncomfortable, to intense, or even life-threatening. The symptoms vary and largely depend on the type of drugs someone used.. The second stage, known as Post-Acute Withdrawal Syndrome, or PAWS, is comprised mostly of mental and emotional symptoms. Most people experience similar symptoms, despite what substances they used during active addiction.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - (±)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy)-induced serotonin neurotoxicity. T2 - Neuropsychobiology. AU - Ricaurte,George A.. AU - Yuan,Jie. AU - McCann,Una D.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The popular recreational drug, (±)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; Ecstasy) is a potent and selective brain serotonin (5-HT) neurotoxin in animals. MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity can be demonstrated using a variety of neurochemical, neuroanatomical and, more recently, functional measures of 5-HT neurons. Although the neurotoxic effects of MDMA in animals are widely accepted, the relevance of the animal data to human MDMA users has been questioned, largely because dosages of drugs used in animals are perceived as being much higher than those used by humans. In the present paper, we review the extensive body of data demonstrating that MDMA produced toxic effects on brain 5-HT neurons in animals and present new data indicating that levels of the type 2 vesicular monoamine ...
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Unfortunately, the number of individuals who are dependent on psychostimulants and are likely to experience a withdrawal syndrome following cessation or reduction in use is not yet able to be estimated, although the presence of a withdrawal syndrome is not necessary for a person to meet criteria for dependence (which includes psychological factors). Similarly, the roles that tolerance (neuroadaptation) and acute toxicity play in long-term withdrawal are also unclear (Davidson et al., 2001). Having said this, the incidence, severity, course and subjective experience of the withdrawal syndrome are likely to be influenced by: ...
Post-Acute Withdrawal Syndrome. Post-Acute Withdrawal Syndrome and Addiction Treatment: The Complex and Little Known Obstacle to Recovery. 1-800-706-9190
Cardiovascular drugs attenuated myocardial resistance against ischaemia-induced and reperfusion-induced injury in a rat model of repetitive occlusion ...
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... p-chloroamphetamine and fenfluramine administration and effects of chlormethiazole and dizocilpine". British Journal of ...
... (also called chlormethiazole) is a sedative and hypnotic originally developed by Hoffmann-La Roche in the 1930s. ... chlormethiazole". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 128 (4): 375-378. doi:10.1192/bjp.128.4.375. PMID 1260235. Reith, D. M.; ...
Chlormethiazole. *D12-116. *Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine). *Etomidate. *Ginseng constituents (e.g., ginsenosides (e.g., ...
Chlormethiazole. *D12-116. *Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine). *Etomidate. *Ginseng constituents (e.g., ginsenosides (e.g., ...
Chlormethiazole. *D12-116. *Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine). *Etomidate. *Ginseng constituents (e.g., ginsenosides (e.g., ...
Chlormethiazole. *D12-116. *Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine). *Etomidate. *Ginseng constituents (e.g., ginsenosides (e.g., ...
Chlormethiazole. *D12-116. *Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine). *Etomidate. *Ginseng constituents (e.g., ginsenosides (e.g., ...
Chlormethiazole. *D12-116. *Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine). *Etomidate. *Ginseng constituents (e.g., ginsenosides (e.g., ...
Chlormethiazole. *D12-116. *Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine). *Etomidate. *Ginseng constituents (e.g., ginsenosides (e.g., ...
Chlormethiazole. *D12-116. *Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine). *Etomidate. *Ginseng constituents (e.g., ginsenosides (e.g., ...
Clomethiazole (also called chlormethiazole) is a sedative and hypnotic originally developed by Hoffmann-La Roche in the 1930s. ... chlormethiazole". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 128 (4): 375-378. doi:10.1192/bjp.128.4.375. PMID 1260235. Reith, D. M.; ...
CROSS, A.J., STIRLING, J.M., ROBINSON, T.N., BOWEN, D.M., FRANCIS, P.T. & GREEN, A.R. (1989). The modulation by chlormethiazole ... BALDWIN, H.A., WILLIAMS, J.L., SNARES, M., FERRIERA, T., CROSS, A.J. & GREEN, A.R. (1994). Attenuation by chlormethiazole of ... HALES, T.G. & LAMBERT, J.J. (1992). Modulation of GABAA and glycine receptors by chlormethiazole. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 210, 239- ... CROSS, A.J., JONES, J.A., BALDWIN, H.A. & GREEN, A.R. (1991). Neuroprotective activity of chlormethiazole following transient ...
... chlormethiazole explanation free. What is chlormethiazole? Meaning of chlormethiazole medical term. What does chlormethiazole ... Looking for online definition of chlormethiazole in the Medical Dictionary? ... chlormethiazole. chlormethiazole. Clomethiazole, a sedative and anticonvulsant drug related to vitamin B1 used in the ... A study of the psychometric effects of chlormethiazole in healthy young and elderly subjects.. Validity and sensitivity of ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about BJPsych Bulletin.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
... zonal differences of cytokine expression in rat liver and how these are affected by alcohol exposure and by chlormethiazole ( ... Zonated expression of cytokines in rat liver: effect of chronic ethanol and the cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibitor, chlormethiazole. ... chlormethiazole.}, author={Che Fang and Kai O. Lindros and T M Badger and Martin J. J. Ronis and Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg}, ... zonal differences of cytokine expression in rat liver and how these are affected by alcohol exposure and by chlormethiazole ( ...
Chlormethiazole and temazepam. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981; 282 :475 (Published 07 February 1981) ...
Chlormethiazole] [Chloroquine] [Chlorothiazide] Chlorpheniramine Chlorpromazine Ciprofloxacin Cisapride Cisplatin Clavulanic ...
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is one of the porphyrias, a group of diseases involving defects in heme metabolism and that results in excessive secretion of porphyrins and porphyrin precursors. AIP manifests itself by abdomen pain, neuropathies, and constipation, but, unlike most types of porphyria, patients with AIP do not have a rash.
chlormethiazole. *clozapine. *CYP 3A4 inducers, such as phenobarbital, phenytoin, rifampicin, St. Johns Wort or ...
The purpose of this multicenter-study is to investigate safety of psychopharmacological treatment and rates of adverse drug reactions in gerontopsychiatric inpatients. Elderly people are at higher risk for developing side effects under pharmacological treatment due to an altered metabolic situation, higher comorbidity rates and often polypharmacy. Furthermore gerontopsychiatric patients can often not articulate their symptoms clearly, for example due to pronounced cognitive impairment.. The aim of the study is to gain valid data of possible adverse drug reaction rates, their potential risk factors and outcome, as well as medical prescription practises.. To assess these outcomes an intensive pharmacovigilance-monitoring will be conducted at the five participating study sites.. At Baseline demographic data, previous and present disorders, use of drugs, previous and present medication, quality of life, cognitive function, physical examination results, laboratory results and ECG will be ...
Severe poisoning with chlormethiazole. Br Med J 1979; 2 :902 (Published 13 October 1979) ...
Plasma level of chlormethiazole and two metabolites after oral administration to young and aged human subjects. R. L. Nation, J ... Plasma level of chlormethiazole and two metabolites after oral administration to young and aged human subjects. / Nation, R. L. ... Absorption of chlormethiazole was rapid in the subjects of both groups as assessed by the time taken to reach the peak plasma ... Absorption of chlormethiazole was rapid in the subjects of both groups as assessed by the time taken to reach the peak plasma ...
Severe toxic hepatitis related to chlormethiazole.. Gallardo-Caballero E, Lucena MI, Andrade RJ, Rodrigo L, Pérez-Martínez J, ...
Chlormethiazole hydrochloride. 6001-74-7. CI 966 hydrochloride. 110283-66-4. CL 218872. 66548-69-4. ...
Hu Y, Mishin V, Johansson I, von Bahr C, Cross A, Ronis MJ, Badger TM, and Ingelman-Sundberg M (1994) Chlormethiazole as an ... Pretreatment with chlormethiazole, an inhibitor of ethanol-inducible CYP2E1, significantly lowered the CYP2E1 enzyme activity ... Chlormethiazole (CMZ) was kindly provided by Dr. Joong-Ick Yang at Dong-A Pharmaceutical Company, Seoul, Korea. ... chlormethiazole; PAGE, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; RT-PCR, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; GAPDH, ...
... p-chloroamphetamine and fenfluramine administration and effects of chlormethiazole and dizocilpine". British Journal of ...
GLATT, M. M., GEORGE, H. R., and FRISCH, E. P. Controlled trial of chlormethiazole in treatment of the alcoholic withdrawal ... Drummond, L. M. and Chalmers, L. Prescribing chlormethiazole reducing regimes in an emergency clinic. Br J Addict. 1986;81:247- ... Palsson, A. The efficacy of early chlormethiazole medication in the prevention of delirium tremens. A retrospective study of ... Tubridy, P. Alprazolam versus chlormethiazole in acute alcohol withdrawal. Br J Addict. 1988;83:581-585. View abstract. ...
Drummond, L. M. and Chalmers, L. Prescribing chlormethiazole reducing regimes in an emergency clinic. Br J Addict. 1986;81(2): ... Palsson, A. The efficacy of early chlormethiazole medication in the prevention of delirium tremens. A retrospective study of ... Tubridy, P. Alprazolam versus chlormethiazole in acute alcohol withdrawal. Br J Addict. 1988;83(5):581-585. View abstract. ...
Moore, R.G.; Triggs, E.J.; Shanks, C.A. and Thomas, J.: Pharmacokinetics of chlormethiazole in humans. European Journal of ... Effect of cirrhosis of the liver on the pharmacokinetics of chlormethiazole. British Medical Journal 2: 861-863 (1978).PubMed ...
Ranitidine does not affect chlormethiazole or indocyanine green disposition. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 34: 231-233 ...
Gebhardt AC, Lucas D, Menez JF, Seitz HK . Chlormethiazole inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 as assessed by chlorzoxazone ...
This updated edition in the long standing series provides the latest information on many individual drugs, including the most complete coverage of their adverse reactions and interactions.
The chlormethiazole labeling states that an appropriately reduced dose should be used if such a combination must be used. ... Chlormethiazole: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Monitor closely for evidence of ...
CHLORMETHIAZOLE chlorogenic acid chlorprothixene chrysophanol CINANSERIN cirazoline cisapride CITCO clofenotane clomipramine ...
Wilby, M.J.; Hutchinson, P.J. The pharmacology of chlormethiazole: A potential neuroprotective agent? CNS Drug Rev 2004, 10, ...
Chlormethiazole: Effectiveness against Toxic Effects of Cocaine in Mice Maciej Gasior, Jesse T. Ungard and Jeffrey M. Witkin ... Chlormethiazole: Effectiveness against Toxic Effects of Cocaine in Mice Maciej Gasior, Jesse T. Ungard and Jeffrey M. Witkin ... Chlormethiazole: Effectiveness against Toxic Effects of Cocaine in Mice Maciej Gasior, Jesse T. Ungard and Jeffrey M. Witkin ...
A short course of shorter-acting minor tranquillisers may be tried, eg chlormethiazole, buspirone, lorazepam, oxazepam or ...
... or chlormethiazole. Delirium tremens may be treated using oral lorazepam, escalating to parenteral lorazepam, haloperidol, or ...
Pharmacokinetics of lignocaine and chlormethiazole in the elderly; with some preliminary observations on other drugs ...
  • Clomethiazole (also called chlormethiazole) is a sedative and hypnotic originally developed by Hoffmann-La Roche in the 1930s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use clomethiazole (chlormethiazole) for alcohol withdrawal. (hscni.net)
  • CYP2A6 is also one of the major enzymes involved in human nicotine metabolism (see below) and the major enzyme responsible for the metabolism of the platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist SM-12502 [(+)- cis -3,5-dimethyl-2-(3-pyridyl)thiazolidin-4-one hydrochloride] and the neuroprotective drug chlormethiazole. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Is chlormethiazole neuroprotective in experimental global cerebral ischemia? (termsreign.ga)
  • A study of the psychometric effects of chlormethiazole in healthy young and elderly subjects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The time course of the plasma concentration of chlormethiazole and metabolites showed wide inter-subject variation, particularly between the young and elderly subjects. (monash.edu)
  • Zonated expression of cytokines in rat liver: effect of chronic ethanol and the cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibitor, chlormethiazole. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pretreatment with chlormethiazole, an inhibitor of ethanol-inducible CYP2E1, significantly lowered the CYP2E1 enzyme activity and the rate of APAP-induced cell death while it prevented the reduction of p53 and p21 in C6 glioma cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The mean peak plasma level of chlormethiazole was more than five times greater in the elderly (2.90±1.56 μg/ml) than in the young (0.55±0.58 μg/ml) subjects. (monash.edu)
  • The distribution of chlormethiazole in whole blood from six young and six elderly human subjects was investigated in vitro. (monash.edu)
  • The unbound fraction of chlormethiazole in plasma increased significantly from 0.308±0.035 in young subjects to 0.403±0.067 in the elderly. (monash.edu)
  • A double-blind controlled study of chlormethiazole and triazolam as hypnotics in the elderly. (cf.ac.uk)
  • The Forum warned doctors against doling out the drug chlormethiazole - commonly prescribed - because it could cause respiratory failure when combined with alcohol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • La manifestación clínica más grave y potencialmente fatal de la abstinencia de alcohol es el delirium tremens , cuadro observado en aproximadamente el 5% al 10% de los pacientes con trastorno por consumo de alcohol que requieren hospitalización. (siicsalud.com)
  • Chlormethiazole treatment of abstinence symptoms after drug withdrawal. (faintpower.gq)
  • Compared to chlormethiazole, thioridazine was significantly inferior when assessed on some items of the CAPE and the Crichton Geriatric Behavioural Rating Scales. (cochrane.org)
  • The plasma concentration of chlormethiazole and two of its metabolites has been measured in three young and three aged human subjects following administration of a single oral dose of chlormethiazole. (monash.edu)
  • The chlormethiazole labeling states that dose. (forumlogopedyczne.pl)
  • Oral chlormethiazole in childhood epilepsy. (naver.com)
  • GABA receptor agonists (chlormethiazole or diazepam) appear not to be effective for the treatment of acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. (essentialevidenceplus.com)
  • Thioridazine has minimal or no effect on global ratings, while other drugs such as chlormethiazole are superior to it on behavioural ratings. (cochrane.org)
  • Een groot probleem is echter dat rt-PA binnen de 4,5 uur na het begin van de beroerte moet toegediend worden om enig effect te hebben en dikwijls is niet bekend hoe lang de klonter het bloedvat afsluit. (scriptiebank.be)
  • Afkoeling van het lichaam, en van de hersenen in het bijzonder, heeft een effect op een hele waaier aan stapjes in de ischemische cascade en kan dus op verschillende niveaus de uitkomst beïnvloeden. (scriptiebank.be)
  • Chlormethiazole, amobarbital, lidocaine and PLT 101 in spasticity and rigidity: a study of clinical and EMG-Registrable effects on intravenous injection. (nih.gov)
  • The plasma level of chlormethiazole was consistently higher in the aged subjects and this was reflected by the larger area under the plasma curve in aged (7.62±5.37 μg.h/ml) than in young (0.94±0.66 μg.h/ml) individuals. (monash.edu)
  • Inhibition of ethanol-induced liver disease in the intragastric feeding rat model by chlormethiazole," Experimental Biology and Medicine , vol. 224, no. 4, pp. 302-308, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • Absorption of chlormethiazole was rapid in the subjects of both groups as assessed by the time taken to reach the peak plasma concentration. (monash.edu)