Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
Pivotal role of nitric oxide in the control of blood pressure after leptin administration. (1/81)Leptin administration has been shown to increase renal, adrenal, and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity. However, this generalized sympathoexcitatory activity is not always followed by an increase in arterial pressure. The present study tested the hypothesis that leptin induces a release of nitric oxide (NO) that opposes the pressor effect of sympathoexcitation. The effect of intravenous administration of leptin (10, 100, and 1,000 microg/kg body wt) or vehicle on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and serum nitrite/nitrate concentrations of anesthetized Wistar rats was examined. At 90 min after injection, the three leptin doses tested increased serum NO concentrations 20.5, 33.1, and 89.5%, respectively (P < 0.001 vs. baseline). The effect of leptin on NO concentrations was significantly dose-dependent on linear trend testing (P = 0.0001). In contrast, leptin did not change serum nitrite/nitrate concentrations of fa/fa rats. Leptin administration to Wistar rats under NO synthesis inhibition (N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester [L-NAME]) produced a statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in both systolic BP and mean arterial pressure as well as in HR (P < 0.01). Injection of leptin into rats with pharmacologically induced ganglionic blockade (chlorisondamine) was followed by a decrease in BP and HR to values significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those observed with chlorisondamine treatment alone. The leptin-induced hypotension observed in the setting of ganglionic blockade was blocked by L-NAME. These findings raise the possibility that the leptin-induced release of NO may contribute to the homeostasis of BP. (+info)
Thermogenic effects of sibutramine and its metabolites. (2/81)1. The thermogenic activity of the serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor sibutramine (BTS 54524; Reductil) was investigated by measuring oxygen consumption (VO2) in rats treated with sibutramine or its two pharmacologically-active metabolites. 2. Sibutramine caused a dose-dependent rise in VO2, with a dose of 10 mg kg(-1) of sibutramine or its metabolites producing increases of up to 30% that were sustained for at least 6 h, and accompanied by significant increases (0.5-1.0 degrees C) in body temperature. 3. Based on the accumulation in vivo of radiolabelled 2-deoxy-[3H]-glucose, sibutramine had little or no effect on glucose utilization in most tissues, but caused an 18 fold increase in brown adipose tissue (BAT). 4. Combined high, non-selective doses (20 mg kg(-1)) of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, atenolol and ICI 118551, inhibited completely the VO2 response to sibutramine, but the response was unaffected by low, beta1-adrenoceptor-selective (atenolol) or beta2-adrenoceptor-selective (ICI 118551) doses (1 mg kg(-1)). 5. The ganglionic blocking agent, chlorisondamine (15 mg kg(-1)), inhibited completely the VO2 response to the metabolites of sibutramine, but had no effect on the thermogenic response to the beta3-adrenoceptor-selective agonist BRL 35135. 6. Similar thermogenic responses were produced by simultaneous injection of nisoxetine and fluoxetine at doses (30 mg kg(-1)) that had no effect on VO2 when injected individually. 7. It is concluded that stimulation of thermogenesis by sibutramine requires central reuptake inhibition of both serotonin and noradrenaline, resulting in increased efferent sympathetic activation of BAT thermogenesis via beta3-adrenoceptor, and that this contributes to the compound's activity as an anti-obesity agent. (+info)
AV3V lesions attenuate the cardiovascular responses produced by blood-borne excitatory amino acid analogs. (3/81)Systemic injections of the excitatory amino acid (EAA) analogs, kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), produce a pressor response in conscious rats that is caused by a centrally mediated activation of sympathetic drive and the release of arginine vasopressin (AVP). This study tested the hypothesis that the tissue surrounding the anteroventral part of the third ventricle (AV3V) plays a role in the expression of the pressor responses produced by systemically injected EAA analogs. Specifically, we examined whether prior electrolytic ablation of the AV3V region would affect the pressor responses to KA and NMDA (1 mg/kg iv) in conscious rats. The KA-induced pressor response was smaller in AV3V-lesioned than in sham-lesioned rats (11 +/- 2 vs. 29 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). After ganglion blockade, KA produced a pressor response in sham-lesioned but not AV3V-lesioned rats (+27 +/- 3 vs. +1 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). The KA-induced pressor response in ganglion-blocked sham-lesioned rats was abolished by a vasopressin V1-receptor antagonist. Similar results were obtained with NMDA. The pressor response to AVP (10 ng/kg iv) was slightly smaller in AV3V-lesioned than in sham-lesioned ganglion-blocked rats (45 +/- 3 vs. 57 +/- 4 mmHg; P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that the pressor responses to systemically injected EAA analogs are smaller in AV3V-lesioned rats. The EAA analogs may produce pressor responses by stimulation of EAA receptors in the AV3V region, or the AV3V region may play an important role in the expression of these responses. (+info)
Opposing adrenergic actions of intravenous metformin on arterial pressure in female spontaneously hypertensive rats. (4/81)OBJECTIVE: Intravenous (i.v.) injection of the antidiabetic drug metformin rapidly lowers mean arterial pressure (MAP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). However, if autonomic ganglia or alpha-adrenoceptors are first blocked then metformin rapidly raises MAP in SHR. This study was conducted to further characterize the adrenergic mechanisms of these opposing i.v. actions of the drug. METHODS: Conscious, undisturbed female SHR with indwelling vascular catheters were used to measure acute effects of i.v. metformin (100 mg/kg; before and after sustained ganglionic blockade, GB, with chlorisondamine, 5 mg/kg) on: (1) circulating levels of catecholamines, (2) MAP after pharmacologic modulation of beta- as well as alpha-adrenoceptors and (3) all the above in the absence as well as presence of the adrenal medulla. RESULTS: Plasma norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) levels (pg/ml) were rapidly increased by i.v. metformin (8 SHR, p < 0.05) both before GB (delta NE = +146 +/- 41; delta E = +119 +/- 31) and after GB (delta NE = +79 +/- 24; delta E = +120 +/- 32). Similar increases in plasma NE (though not E) were seen in SHR without adrenal medullae. Blockade of beta-adrenoceptors with propranolol (pro; 3 mg/kg, 8 SHR) enhanced the rapid depressor response to i.v. metformin before GB (delta MAP, mmHg: -38 +/- 4 with pro vs -17 +/- 3 without pro; p < 0.05) and attenuated the rapid pressor response to i.v. metformin after GB (delta MAP, mmHg: +8 +/- 3 with pro vs +30 +/- 4 without pro; p < 0.05). Results were similar in SHR without adrenal medullae. Finally, if baseline MAP under GB was raised back to hypertensive levels with i.v. infusion of either NE or phenylephrine then i.v. metformin did not raise but rather reduced MAP in SHR. CONCLUSION(S): The acute depressor action of i.v. metformin in female SHR (1) is most likely due to a direct vasodilator action which includes inhibition of alpha-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction and (2) is buffered by an acute beta-receptor-mediated pressor action likely due to a direct metformin-induced release of NE from postganglionic sympathetic nerve endings. (+info)
Reward and somatic changes during precipitated nicotine withdrawal in rats: centrally and peripherally mediated effects. (5/81)The negative affective aspects of nicotine withdrawal have been hypothesized to contribute to tobacco dependence. In the present studies in rats, brain stimulation reward thresholds, conditioned place aversions, and somatic signs of withdrawal were used to investigate the role of central and peripheral nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid receptors in nicotine withdrawal. Rats prepared with s.c. osmotic mini-pumps delivering 9.0 mg/kg/day nicotine hydrogen tartrate or saline were administered various doses of the nicotinic antagonists mecamylamine (s.c.), chlorisondamine (s. c. or i.c.v.), dihydro-beta-erythroidine (s.c.), or the opiate antagonist naloxone (s.c.). Nicotine-treated rats receiving mecamylamine or i.c.v. chlorisondamine exhibited elevated thresholds and more somatic signs than saline-treated rats. Nicotine-treated rats receiving s.c. chlorisondamine, at doses that do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier, exhibited more somatic signs than saline-treated rats with no threshold elevations. Naloxone administration produced threshold elevations and somatic signs only at high doses that induced similar magnitude effects in both nicotine- and saline-treated subjects. Mecamylamine or dihydro-beta-erythroidine administration induced conditioned place aversions in nicotine-treated rats but required higher doses than those needed to precipitate threshold elevations. In contrast, naloxone administration induced conditioned place aversions at lower doses than those required to precipitate threshold elevations and somatic signs. These data provide evidence for a dissociation between centrally mediated elevations in reward thresholds and somatic signs that are both centrally and peripherally mediated. Furthermore, threshold elevations and somatic signs of withdrawal appear to be mediated by cholinergic neurotransmission, whereas conditioned place aversions appear to be primarily mediated by the opioid system. (+info)
Effects of nicotine and chlorisondamine on cerebral glucose utilization in immobilized and freely-moving rats. (6/81)Chlorisondamine blocks central nicotinic receptors for many weeks via an unknown mechanism. Intracerebroventricular administration of [(3)H]-chlorisondamine in rats results in an anatomically restricted and persistent intracellular accumulation of radioactivity. The initial aim of the present study was to test whether nicotinic receptor antagonism by chlorisondamine is also anatomically restricted. Male adult rats were pretreated several times with nicotine to avoid the disruptive effects of the drug seen in drug-naive animals. They then received chlorisondamine (10 microg i. c.v.) or saline, and local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) was measured 4 weeks later after acute nicotine (0.4 mg kg(-1) s.c.) or saline administration. During testing, rats were partially immobilized. Nicotine significantly increased LCGU in the anteroventral thalamus and in superior colliculus. Chlorisondamine completely blocked the first of these effects. Chlorisondamine significantly reduced LCGU in the lateral habenula, substantia nigra pars compacta, ventral tegmental area, and cerebellar granular layer. The second experiment was of similar design, but the rats were not pre-exposed to nicotine, and were tested whilst freely-moving. Acute nicotine significantly increased LCGU in anteroventral thalamus, superior colliculus, medial habenula and dorsal lateral geniculate. Overall, however, nicotine significantly decreased LCGU. Most or all of the central effects of nicotine on LCGU were reversed by chlorisondamine given 4 weeks beforehand. These findings suggest that chlorisondamine blocks nicotinic effects widely within the brain. They also indicate that in freely-moving rats, nicotine can reduce or stimulate cerebral glucose utilization, depending on the brain area. British Journal of Pharmacology (2000) 129, 147 - 155 (+info)
Activation of antigen-specific CD4+ Th2 cells and B cells in vivo increases norepinephrine release in the spleen and bone marrow. (7/81)The neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) binds to the beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) expressed on various immune cells to influence cell homing, proliferation, and function. Previous reports showed that NE stimulation of the B cell beta 2AR is necessary for the maintenance of an optimal primary and secondary Th2 cell-dependent Ab response in vivo. In the present study we investigated the mechanism by which activation of Ag-specific CD4+ Th2 cells and B cells in vivo by a soluble protein Ag increases NE release in the spleen and bone marrow. Our model system used scid mice that were reconstituted with a clone of keyhole limpet hemocyanin-specific Th2 cells and trinitrophenyl-specific B cells. Following immunization, the rate of NE release in the spleen and bone marrow was determined using [3H]NE turnover analysis. Immunization of reconstituted scid mice with a cognate Ag increased the rate of NE release in the spleen and bone marrow 18-25 h, but not 1-8 h, following immunization. In contrast, immunization of mice with a noncognate Ag had no effect on the rate of NE release at any time. The cognate Ag-induced increase in NE release was partially blocked by ganglionic blockade with chlorisondamine, suggesting a role for both pre- and postganglionic signals in regulating NE release. Thus, activation of Ag-specific Th2 cells and B cells in vivo by a soluble protein Ag increases the rate of NE release and turnover in the spleen and bone marrow 18-25 h after immunization. (+info)
Possible contribution of central gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors to resting vascular tone in freely moving rats. (8/81)Previous studies have shown that central administration of GABA (gamma -aminobutyric acid), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, preferentially reduces hindquarters and carotid vascular resistances but not renal and coeliac vascular resistances in conscious rats. This study tested the hypothesis that these preferential actions of central GABA receptors are related to differences between vessels in resting autonomic vascular tone in freely moving rats. Rats were chronically implanted with intracisternal cannulas and/or electromagnetic probes to measure regional blood flows. In response to GABA administration, the changes in vascular resistance (arterial blood pressure/regional blood flow) of the hindquarters (n = 23) and carotid (n = 12) vascular beds were significantly and negatively correlated with basal vascular resistance. No such relationship was found for the renal (n = 21), coeliac (n = 13) and superior mesenteric (n = 23) vascular beds. This finding indicates that the responsiveness to GABA of brainstem pathways controlling the hindquarters and carotid vascular beds co-varies with resting resistance in hindquarters and carotid vessels. A similar analysis was performed, correlating the ongoing vascular resistance of each vessel with its response to ganglionic blockade by chlorisondamine. In this case, a significant negative correlation was also found for the hindquarters (n = 26) and carotid (n = 15) vascular beds, but not for the coeliac (n = 17) or superior mesenteric (n = 19) vessels. Together, these findings suggest that central GABA receptors accessible from the cisterna magna preferentially affect two vascular beds which, in the freely moving rat, show resting autonomic vascular tone. (+info)
Chlorisondamine Chloride,4,5,6,7-Tetrachloro-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-2-[2-(trimethylammonio)ethyl]-2H-isoindolium dichloride,4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-2-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-2-methylisoindolinium chloride methochloride,4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-2-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)isoindoline dimethylchloride,N-[(2-dimethylammonium)ethyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrachloroisoindolinium dimethochloride,chlorisondamine dimethochloride,Ecolid
The possibility of differentiating between chromaffin vesicles with different catecholamine contents was tested by studying the distribution of rabbit adrenal dopamine β-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.21) and catecholamines, and the buoyant densities of the catecholamine storage vesicles after isopycnic centrifugation of crude storage vesicle fractions in sucrose density gradients. Catecholamine storage vesicles were prepared from adrenal glands of untreated rabbits, rabbits which had received chlorisondamine chloride (10/kg intraperitoneally) to block ganglionic transmission, and rabbits which had received both chlorisondamine chloride and reserpine (1 mg kg). Adrenal glands were examined 1 day after treatmenmt with chlorisondamine and 1 and 8 days after combined treatment with chlorisondamine and reserpine. Intact storage vesicles obtained from glands of untreated animals had a specific gravity of 1.27, while the membranes obtained from vesicles lysed in distilled water had a specific gravity of 1.12. ...
Role of sympathetic nerve activity in the generation of vascular nitric oxide in urethane-anesthetized rats. | Hypertension
The aim of the present study was to examine the involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in the generation or release of vascular nitric oxide. In urethane-anesthetized rats, the administration of the novel nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor L-N-nitro arginine (LNA) (0.02 mmol/kg i.v.) increased mean arterial pressure and renal, mesenteric, and hindquarter vascular resistances. The intravenous administration of L-arginine (60 mg/kg plus 12 mg/kg/min i.v.) produced small reductions in arterial pressure and vascular resistances and abolished the hemodynamic effects of LNA. Pretreatment with the ganglion blocking agent chlorisondamine lowered mean arterial pressure and vascular resistances, abolished the LNA-induced pressor and renal vasoconstrictor response, and attenuated the increases in mesenteric and hindquarter resistances. In contrast, the vasodilator hydralazine lowered mean arterial pressure and vascular resistances to levels equivalent to that of ganglionic blockade; however, the ...
Autoregulation of the systemic circulation in conscious rats. | Hypertension
Autoregulation of blood flow in various organ systems is a well-documented phenomenon. However, the net effect of these regional autoregulatory responses on the systemic circulation has not been studied in conscious rats despite the now extensive use of rats in cardiovascular research. The ability of the systemic circulation to autoregulate cardiac output has been proposed to play an important role in the development of increased vascular resistance in volume-dependent forms of hypertension. To better understand these events, we characterized responses to acute increases and decreases in blood volume in conscious areflexic rats that were chronically instrumented with arterial and venous catheters and an electromagnetic flow probe around the ascending aorta. Neurohumoral blockade was achieved with chlorisondamine (10 mg/kg), methscopolamine (0.5 mg/kg), captopril (1.0 mg/kg), and d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)arginine vasopressin (10 micrograms/kg). Mean arterial pressure was restored to normal levels with a ...
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A04 Frog Heart - Cardiac Rate & Contractility | BIOPAC
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Elmhurst urges residents to help fight jet noise
With a social media campaign in full swing, Elmhurst continues to encourage residents to take a short online survey about concerns with airplane noise from OHare International Airport.
Infrasonic crackle and supersonic jet noise from the eruption of Nabro Volcano, Eritrea - Fee - 2013 - Geophysical Research...
7] We perform ray tracing to model infrasound propagation from Nabro to IS19 (Figure 1b). Sound energy propagates up to the thermosphere before it is refracted back down between ~110 and 130 km altitude. Rays are predicted to reach the ground just beyond Nabro at 274 km distance with a travel time of 1237 s (~20.6 min). Although the predicted rays do not directly reach the station, the modeling does not account for frequency-dependent propagation effects such as diffraction and the separation distance is within the accuracy limitations of the atmospheric specifications [Drob et al., 2003; Matoza et al., 2011; Assink et al., 2012]. Thermospheric propagation is consistent with the observed high trace velocities (mean 0.38 km/s, Figure S1b in the supporting information) and is expected at this range and equatorial location [Assink et al., 2012]..  Infrasound from the first few days of the eruption consists of high-amplitude signals lasting a few hours. Figure 1c displays 24 h of IS19 infrasound ...
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Browsing Mechanical & Manufacturing Eng (Scholarly Publications) by Title
This paper reports on an investigation of a novel approach to the cooling of brake discs, based on the application of impinging air jets. This has the capacity to enhance the heat transfer coefficients at the disc surface ...
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1 Radiation. Approximately 85 percent of the parathyroid glands are found within 1 cm of the junction of the inferior thyroid artery and recurrent laryngeal nerves. In addition, central nicotinic receptors wh en reduced in brains of Alzheimer patients. A.
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Exploring the Mechanism of CYP3A4 Inactivation by Lapatinib Through In Vitro Metabolite Char. | SEKISUI XenoTech
Presented by: Joanna Barbara, Ph.D.. Metabolism-dependent inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes has the potential to cause clinically-relevant drug-drug interactions. Alkylamine drugs are known for their propensity to cause CYP inhibition by formation of a metabolite that binds quasi-irreversibly to the ferrous heme iron of the enzyme. The secondary alkylamine drug lapatinib has been linked both to drug-induced liver injury and quasi-irreversible inhibition of CYP3A4. In the present study, in vitro techniques to probe reversibility of enzyme inactivation were combined with metabolite profiling by high-resolution liquid chromatography with accurate mass spectrometry to explore the mechanism of CYP3A4 inactivation associated with lapatinib metabolism.. Key concepts discussed in this webinar will include:. ...
THE USE OF CROSS CORRELATION IN STUDYING THE RESPONSE OF LIGHTLY DAMPED STRUCTURES TO NOISE.
It is the purpose of this note to study the application of cross - correlation techniques to determine the overall frequency response to random forces of a typical aerospace vehicle structure. The effect of truncation of the cross correlation function in the estimated cross spectrum is discussed with reference to a single degree of freedom system excited by white noise. Application to multi degree of freedom systems is discussed and an ullustration is given of the use of the technique in the analysis of panel vibration in a typical rear fuselage excited by jet noise. (Author)(*JET ENGINE NOISE
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Mecamylamine (3-methylaminoisocamphane hydrochloride) is a nicotinic parasympathetic ganglionic blocker, originally utilized |...
Mecamylamine (3-methylaminoisocamphane hydrochloride) is a nicotinic parasympathetic ganglionic blocker, originally utilized like a therapeutic agent to take care of hypertension. than those utilized to take care of hypertension, which diminishes the likelihood of peripheral side-effects. This review targets the pharmacological properties of mecamylamine, the differential ramifications of its stereoisomers, S(+)- and R(?)-mecamylamine, as well as the potential for performance in treating CNS disorders, including nicotine and alcoholic beverages addiction, feeling disorders, cognitive impairment and interest deficit hyperactivity disorder. oocytes expressing either rat or human being nAChR subtypes, possess shown that mecamylamine inhibits both neuromuscular and neuronal nAChRs (Chavez-Noriega et al., GNF-5 supplier 1997; Francis and Papke, 1996; Luetje and Patrick, 1991; Papke et al., 2008), offering additional proof its non-selective nAChR antagonist actions. Open in another windowpane Fig. 1 ...
Benzenesulfonamides act as open-channel blockers on KV3.1 potassium channel | Springer for Research & Development
KV3.1 blockers can serve as modulators of the rate of action potential firing in neurons with high rates of firing such as those of the auditory system. We studied the effects of several bioisosteres...
Effect of reserpine on learning and performance. - Oxford Neuroscience
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Search - SAE International
Without available direct measurements, the only method of assessing the impact of a completely new aircraft or power-plant design is to utilize a reliable prediction procedure. Such a procedure may be able to make use if a limited amount of directly relevant data, for instance, engine test data, or may have to rely entirely upon empirical component prediction procedures. Traditional aircraft noise prediction procedures based on engine static noise data are generally costly in time, since the engine source separation process is not a straightforward task, demanding several side routines to make it feasible. This paper attempts to present a new and simplified approach to assess community noise levels of a new aircraft design based on static engine noise data. The simplified procedure proposes an alternative to the complete engine source separation process, based on the definition of master parameters like jet noise cut-off frequencies, tonal frequencies and resultant broadband spectra ...
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Norepinephrine, Levo-[ring-2,5,6-3H]-, 1mCi (37MBq) | PerkinElmer
1 mCi quantities of Levo-[ring-2, 5, 6-3H]-Norepinephrine are available for your research. Application of [3H]Norepinephrine can be found in: paroxetine binding to the rat transporter in vivo in neuropsychopharmacology; endobain E decreasing uptake in rat hypothalamus in life science research, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated release in neuropharmacolgy, effect of (-)-BPAP, a selective enhancer of the impulse propagation mediated release of catecholamines and serotonin in neuropsychopharmacology, etc.. ...
Verapamil preserves myocardial contractility in the hereditary cardiomyopathy of the Syrian hamster. | Circulation Research
We attempted to alter the inherited myocardial damage and loss of contractility of the cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster (strain U-MX7-1) by giving cardiac drugs that altered intracellular calcium and myocardial workload. Thirty-seven 21-day-old cardiomyopathic and thirty-seven 21-day-old normal hamsters were divided into five groups each: verapamil-, propranolol-, digoxin-, hydralazine-, and saline-injected. On their 90th day of life, the hamsters were killed. Of the five cardiomyopathic groups, only verapamil reduced myocardial damage. When both control and cardiomyopathic hamsters were treated with saline, digoxin, or propranolol, the cardiomyopathic hamsters had significantly less contractile force, maximal rate of force development, and maximum velocity of unloaded shortening. When both groups were treated with verapamil or hydralazine, there were no significant group differences in the indices of contractility. However, when saline-treated cardiomyopathic hamsters were compared with ...
1. The threshold pain stimulus was elevated in cats after doses of 3.0-15.0 mgm. per kilogram of body weight of 2-amino-6-methylheptane hydrochloride intraperitoneally.. 2. Local anesthesia was produced by tropical application of solutions of the hydrochloride or free base of 2-amino-6-methylheptane to rabbits eyes.. 3. Intravenously in dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, 2-amino-6-methylheptane hydrochloride exhibited 1/500-1/1000 the pressor activity of epinephrine.. 4. As determined with a Cushny Myocardiograph, 2-amino-6-methylheptane hydrochloride was found to cause an increase in cardiac rate and amplitude of contraction.. 5. Intravenously in dogs, anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, doses of 0.5 to 1.0 mgm. per kilogram of body weight of 2-amino-6-methylheptane hydrochloride had no detectable effect on the small intestine, detrusor of the urinary bladder, urine secretion or respiration.. 6. In general, concentrations of 1:10,000 to 1:200,000 of 2-amino-6-methylheptane ...
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Vibrissae were cut ∼2.5 cm from the skin, and the whisker that most effectively drove a cell [the principal whisker (PW)] was identified by manual deflection under a dissecting microscope. Then, the PW was deflected in the ventrocaudal direction with a 50 ms air jet generated by a Picospitzer (40 psi; interstimulus interval, 1 s; General Valve, Brooshire, TX) connected to a glass capillary (tip diameter, ∼500 μm). The tip of the capillary was positioned at a distance of 4-5 cm of the vibrissae, and the air jet was directed away from the rats face to avoid as much as possible stimulating other orofacial afferents. This created a cone-shaped air puff that deflected six to seven whiskers about the PW. The delay between the command voltage and the actual motion of vibrissae was measured by placing a piezoelectric film (Measurement Specialties, Fairfield, NJ) at the same distance from the tip of the capillary. This delay was subtracted from the recordings to build poststimulus time histograms ...
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The s-Jet 174 System patent pending is a new innovation in a line of consistent developments being made in the area of air jet milling. Final finenesses in the submicron range example d 50 0.2 181m can now be achieved with fluidized bed jet mills. As opposed to conventional dry grinding processes with fluidized bed jet mills, the s-Jet 174 System uses superheated steam as its milling gas. Get A Quote ...
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ASTM D6653 PDF - observations as described in ASTM. D • Cargo air jets are typically pressurized to about 75 kPa, which is normal atmospheric pressure at an altitude of.
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No-Needle Vasectomy | The Doctors TV Show
Urologist Dr. Aaron Spitz explains the no-needle, no-scalpel vasectomy procedure: Instead of using a needle to numb the scrotum, an air jet device is used to spray anesthesia directly into the scrotum and vas deferens; instead of using a scalpel to...
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Trimetaphan camsilate - Wikipedia
Trimetaphan is a sulfonium compound and therefore carries a positive charge. Being charged, it cannot cross lipid cell membranes, such as those that comprise the blood-brain barrier. Due to this, trimethaphan does not have any effect on the central nervous system. The ciliary muscle of the eye functions to round the lens for accommodation and is controlled mainly by parasympathetic system input. With administration of a ganglion-blocking drug, the ciliary muscle cannot contract (cycloplegia) and the patient loses the ability to focus their eyes. Trimetaphan has a strong effect on the cardiovascular system. The size of blood vessels is primarily controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. Loss of sympathetic system input to the blood vessels causes them to get larger (vasodilation) which has the effect of lowering blood pressure. Postural hypotension is a common side effect of such drugs. Trimethaphan causes a histamine release which further lowers blood pressure. Effects on the heart include a ...
Ganglionic blocker - Wikipedia
A ganglionic blocker (or ganglioplegic) is a type of medication that inhibits transmission between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons in the Autonomic Nervous System, often by acting as a nicotinic receptor antagonist. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are found on skeletal muscle, but also within the route of transmission for the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (which together comprise the autonomic nervous system). More specifically, nicotinic receptors are found within the ganglia of the autonomic nervous system, allowing outgoing signals to be transmitted from the presynaptic to the postsynaptic cells. Thus, for example, blocking nicotinic acetylcholine receptors blocks both sympathetic (excitatory) and parasympathetic (calming) stimulation of the heart. The nicotinic antagonist hexamethonium, for example, does this by blocking the transmission of outgoing signals across the autonomic ganglia at the postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Because ganglionic ...
Calcium transport properties of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum from cardiomyopathic Syrian hamsters (BIO 53.58 and 14.6):...
Calcium uptake was measured in homogenates and microsomal preparations enriched in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from hearts of hypertrophic (BIO 14.6) and dilated (BIO 53.58) cardiomyopathic as well as control (F1B) Syrian hamsters at 3, 7, 9, and 11 months of age. Calcium uptake studies were done using the Millipore filtration technique under conditions known to restrict transport to the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Steady-state calcium uptake capacity was used as a measure of the relative amounts of sarcoplasmic reticulum in homogenates prepared from individual hearts. At 3 months of age, there were no differences in calcium uptake in homogenates from control or myopathic hearts. However, by 9 months, although calcium uptake of homogenates from control and hypertrophic hearts was the same, calcium uptake by homogenates from dilated hearts was significantly depressed both in initial rate and capacity. Similar trends were seen in the microsomal vesicle preparations, but the decrease in ...
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CHICAGO) City aviation officials said Wednesday that OHare Airport will end a six-month test of a new night runway rotation plan on Christmas morning, as originally scheduled, despite pleas by Schiller Park and Harwood Heights to extend it, the Chicago Sun-Times is reporting.. Mayors of both suburban towns east of the airport said the temporary plan to better distribute night jet noise has lessened the heavy overnight air traffic their communities shouldered after a dramatic change in OHare flight plans in 2013.. As a result, they said, they would like to see it continue while test results are being analyzed. The plan, launched July 6, rotates night runways every week, on a 12-week schedule, and alternates between diagonal cross wind runways and parallel east-west runways.. Schiller Park got some relief from this and I hate to see it end, Schiller Park Mayor Barbara Piltaver told fellow members of the Ad Hoc Fly Quiet committee of the OHare Noise Compatibility Commission.. The plan has ...
Frontiers | The Autonomic Nervous System Regulates the Heart Rate through cAMP-PKA Dependent and Independent Coupled-Clock...
Sinoatrial nodal cells (SANCs) generate spontaneous action potentials (APs) that control the cardiac rate. The brain modulates SANC automaticity, via the autonomic nervous system, by stimulating membrane receptors that activate (adrenergic) or inactivate (cholinergic) adenylyl cyclase (AC). However, these opposing afferents are not simply additive. We showed that activation of adrenergic signaling increases AC-cAMP/PKA signaling, which mediates the increase in the SANC AP firing rate (i.e., positive chronotropic modulation). However, there is a limited understanding of the underlying internal pacemaker mechanisms involved in the crosstalk between cholinergic receptors and the decrease in the SANC AP firing rate (i.e., negative chronotropic modulation). We hypothesize that changes in AC-cAMP/PKA activity are crucial for mediating either decrease or increase in the AP firing rate and that the change in rate is due to both internal and membrane mechanisms. In cultured adult rabbit pacemaker cells infected
Electrical and Dynamic Responses of the Human Hyperkinetic Heart to Sympathetic Stimuli | Clinical Science
1. The elevated beta-receptor responsiveness to adrenergic stimuli makes subjects with the primary hyperkinetic cardiac syndrome ideal for studying the electrical and dynamic responses of the heart to sympathetic activation.. 2. In twelve men presenting with the syndrome, the effects of mental arithmetic and painful (cold) stress on the cardiac inotropic state were tested and correlated with the concomitant electrocardiographic changes.. 3. Arithmetic and cold evoked responses opposite and divergent from the base-line state: The former induced vasodilatation, enhancement of cardiac rate, output, contractility and deep T wave inversion; the latter caused vasoconstriction, cardiac depression and full restoration of repolarization.. 4. The sympathetic outflow elicited by stress is not generalized, but selectively directed to different circulatory levels in relation to the stimulus at work; cardiac sympathetic stimulation or inhibition has opposite effects on the repolarization phase.. ...
Cockpit voice recorder of doomed Lion Air jet depicts pilots frantic search for fix - FlightAware
The pilots of a doomed Lion Air Boeing 737 MAX scoured a handbook as they struggled to understand why the jet was lurching downwards, but ran out of time before it hit the water, three people with knowledge of the cockpit voice recorder contents said.
Senecioylcholine (β,β-dimethylacrylylcholine, SCh) was synthesized from choline bromide and senecioyl chloride.. Senecioylcholine was found to be a ganglion stimulant. A number of its actions are described: 1. SCh produced a pressor response in the absence of atropine. This effect was partially blocked by adrenalectomy and almost completely abolished by ganglionic blockade. 2. The pressor response to SCh was reversed by adrenergic blockade. 3. SCh produced a contraction of the nictitating membrane. This action was antagonized by ganglionic blockade. 4. SCh produced contractions of the isolated frog rectus abdominis.. The results are discussed in terms of known structure-activity relationships.. ...
Ganglionic Blockade Improves Neurologic Outcome from Incomplete Ischemia in Rats:Partial Reversal by Exogenous Catecholamines |...
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... has been shown to form noncovalent complexes with various biomolecules including sphingomyelin and other ... Chlorisondamine is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist that produces both neuronal and ganglionic blockade. ... Woods AS, Moyer SC, Wang HY, Wise RA (2003). "Interaction of chlorisondamine with the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ...
List of drugs: Cf-Ch
... chlorisondamine chloride (INN) chlormadinone (INN) chlormerodrin (197 Hg) (INN) chlormerodrin (INN) chlormethine (INN) ...
List of MeSH codes (D03)
... chlorisondamine MeSH D03.438.473.231 - cytochalasins MeSH D03.438.473.231.370 - cytochalasin b MeSH D03.438.473.231.450 - ...
List of MeSH codes (D02)
... chlorisondamine MeSH D02.092.877.883.277 - chlormequat MeSH D02.092.877.883.333 - choline MeSH D02.092.877.883.333.100 - ... chlorisondamine MeSH D02.675.276.207 - chlormequat MeSH D02.675.276.210 - (4-(m-chlorophenylcarbamoyloxy)-2-butynyl) ...
... hexamethonium pentolinium mecamylamine trimetaphan tubocurarine pempidine benzohexonium chlorisondamine pentamine Nicotinic ...
Cardiovascular effects of nicotine, chlorisondamine, and mecamylamine in the pigeon | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental...
Cardiovascular effects of nicotine, chlorisondamine, and mecamylamine in the pigeon. Kathryn K. Chadman and James H. Woods ... Cardiovascular effects of nicotine, chlorisondamine, and mecamylamine in the pigeon. Kathryn K. Chadman and James H. Woods ... Cardiovascular effects of nicotine, chlorisondamine, and mecamylamine in the pigeon. Kathryn K. Chadman and James H. Woods ... Cardiovascular effects of nicotine, chlorisondamine, and mecamylamine in the pigeon Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2008 MeSH
Find Research outputs - Discovery - the University of Dundee Research Portal
Chlorisondamine Entry term(s):. Chloride, Chlorisondamine. Chlorisondamine Chloride. Chlorisondamine Dichloride. Dichloride, ... Chlorisondamine - Preferred Concept UI. M0004145. Scope note. A nicotinic antagonist used primarily as a ganglionic blocker in ... Chlorisondamine Chloride Entry term(s). Chloride, Chlorisondamine Chlorisondamine Dichloride Dichloride, Chlorisondamine Ecolid ... Chlorisondamine Chloride - Narrower Concept UI. M0004146. Preferred term. ...
Code System Concept
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2008 MeSH
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2008 MeSH
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2008 MeSH
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2008 MeSH
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2008 MeSH
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2008 MeSH
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2008 MeSH
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2008 MeSH
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2008 MeSH
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2008 MeSH
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2008 MeSH
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2008 MeSH
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2008 MeSH
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
Peripheral changes above and below injury level lead to prolonged vascular responses following high spinal cord injury | Read...
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Feld JJ, Jacobson IM, Jensen DM, Foster GR, Pol S, Tam E, Jablkowski M, Berak H, Vierling JM, Yoshida EM, Perez-Gomez HR, Scalori A, Hooper GJ, Tavel JA, Navarro MT, Shahdad S, Kulkarni R, Le Pogam S, Nájera I, Eng S, Lim CY, Shulman NS, Yetzer ES. Randomized study of danoprevir/ritonavir-based therapy for HCV genotype 1 patients with prior partial or null responses to peginterferon/ribavirin. J Hepatol. 2015 Feb; 62(2):294-302 ...
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- Non-nicotinic transmission during ganglionic block with chlorisondamine and nicotine. (wikidata.org)
- Blockade of the reward-potentiating effects of nicotine on lateral hypothalamic brain stimulation by chlorisondamine. (nih.gov)