A nicotinic antagonist used primarily as a ganglionic blocker in animal research. It has been used as an antihypertensive agent but has been supplanted by more specific drugs in most clinical applications.
Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.
Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.
A nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, is more often used now as a research tool.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
A quinone fungicide used for treatment of seeds and foliage.
Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.
Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Porphyrins with four methyl and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
1,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-4,5-dicarboxyethyl-2,8-divinylbilenone. Biosynthesized from hemoglobin as a precursor of bilirubin. Occurs in the bile of AMPHIBIANS and of birds, but not in normal human bile or serum.
A subfamily of ligand-gated ion channel receptors that share a characteristic loop which is formed by a disulfide bond between two CYSTEINE residues. These receptors typically contain five subunits with the cysteine-loop occurring near an N-terminal extracellular domain.
A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.
Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
The mulberry plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have milky latex and small, petalless male or female flowers.
Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.
A pathological condition manifested by failure to perfuse or oxygenate vital organs.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).
The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Metastatic lesion of the UMBILICUS associated with intra-abdominal neoplasms especially of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or OVARY.
A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
The pit in the center of the ABDOMINAL WALL marking the point where the UMBILICAL CORD entered in the FETUS.

Pivotal role of nitric oxide in the control of blood pressure after leptin administration. (1/81)

Leptin administration has been shown to increase renal, adrenal, and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity. However, this generalized sympathoexcitatory activity is not always followed by an increase in arterial pressure. The present study tested the hypothesis that leptin induces a release of nitric oxide (NO) that opposes the pressor effect of sympathoexcitation. The effect of intravenous administration of leptin (10, 100, and 1,000 microg/kg body wt) or vehicle on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and serum nitrite/nitrate concentrations of anesthetized Wistar rats was examined. At 90 min after injection, the three leptin doses tested increased serum NO concentrations 20.5, 33.1, and 89.5%, respectively (P < 0.001 vs. baseline). The effect of leptin on NO concentrations was significantly dose-dependent on linear trend testing (P = 0.0001). In contrast, leptin did not change serum nitrite/nitrate concentrations of fa/fa rats. Leptin administration to Wistar rats under NO synthesis inhibition (N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester [L-NAME]) produced a statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in both systolic BP and mean arterial pressure as well as in HR (P < 0.01). Injection of leptin into rats with pharmacologically induced ganglionic blockade (chlorisondamine) was followed by a decrease in BP and HR to values significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those observed with chlorisondamine treatment alone. The leptin-induced hypotension observed in the setting of ganglionic blockade was blocked by L-NAME. These findings raise the possibility that the leptin-induced release of NO may contribute to the homeostasis of BP.  (+info)

Thermogenic effects of sibutramine and its metabolites. (2/81)

1. The thermogenic activity of the serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor sibutramine (BTS 54524; Reductil) was investigated by measuring oxygen consumption (VO2) in rats treated with sibutramine or its two pharmacologically-active metabolites. 2. Sibutramine caused a dose-dependent rise in VO2, with a dose of 10 mg kg(-1) of sibutramine or its metabolites producing increases of up to 30% that were sustained for at least 6 h, and accompanied by significant increases (0.5-1.0 degrees C) in body temperature. 3. Based on the accumulation in vivo of radiolabelled 2-deoxy-[3H]-glucose, sibutramine had little or no effect on glucose utilization in most tissues, but caused an 18 fold increase in brown adipose tissue (BAT). 4. Combined high, non-selective doses (20 mg kg(-1)) of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, atenolol and ICI 118551, inhibited completely the VO2 response to sibutramine, but the response was unaffected by low, beta1-adrenoceptor-selective (atenolol) or beta2-adrenoceptor-selective (ICI 118551) doses (1 mg kg(-1)). 5. The ganglionic blocking agent, chlorisondamine (15 mg kg(-1)), inhibited completely the VO2 response to the metabolites of sibutramine, but had no effect on the thermogenic response to the beta3-adrenoceptor-selective agonist BRL 35135. 6. Similar thermogenic responses were produced by simultaneous injection of nisoxetine and fluoxetine at doses (30 mg kg(-1)) that had no effect on VO2 when injected individually. 7. It is concluded that stimulation of thermogenesis by sibutramine requires central reuptake inhibition of both serotonin and noradrenaline, resulting in increased efferent sympathetic activation of BAT thermogenesis via beta3-adrenoceptor, and that this contributes to the compound's activity as an anti-obesity agent.  (+info)

AV3V lesions attenuate the cardiovascular responses produced by blood-borne excitatory amino acid analogs. (3/81)

Systemic injections of the excitatory amino acid (EAA) analogs, kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), produce a pressor response in conscious rats that is caused by a centrally mediated activation of sympathetic drive and the release of arginine vasopressin (AVP). This study tested the hypothesis that the tissue surrounding the anteroventral part of the third ventricle (AV3V) plays a role in the expression of the pressor responses produced by systemically injected EAA analogs. Specifically, we examined whether prior electrolytic ablation of the AV3V region would affect the pressor responses to KA and NMDA (1 mg/kg iv) in conscious rats. The KA-induced pressor response was smaller in AV3V-lesioned than in sham-lesioned rats (11 +/- 2 vs. 29 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). After ganglion blockade, KA produced a pressor response in sham-lesioned but not AV3V-lesioned rats (+27 +/- 3 vs. +1 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). The KA-induced pressor response in ganglion-blocked sham-lesioned rats was abolished by a vasopressin V1-receptor antagonist. Similar results were obtained with NMDA. The pressor response to AVP (10 ng/kg iv) was slightly smaller in AV3V-lesioned than in sham-lesioned ganglion-blocked rats (45 +/- 3 vs. 57 +/- 4 mmHg; P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that the pressor responses to systemically injected EAA analogs are smaller in AV3V-lesioned rats. The EAA analogs may produce pressor responses by stimulation of EAA receptors in the AV3V region, or the AV3V region may play an important role in the expression of these responses.  (+info)

Opposing adrenergic actions of intravenous metformin on arterial pressure in female spontaneously hypertensive rats. (4/81)

OBJECTIVE: Intravenous (i.v.) injection of the antidiabetic drug metformin rapidly lowers mean arterial pressure (MAP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). However, if autonomic ganglia or alpha-adrenoceptors are first blocked then metformin rapidly raises MAP in SHR. This study was conducted to further characterize the adrenergic mechanisms of these opposing i.v. actions of the drug. METHODS: Conscious, undisturbed female SHR with indwelling vascular catheters were used to measure acute effects of i.v. metformin (100 mg/kg; before and after sustained ganglionic blockade, GB, with chlorisondamine, 5 mg/kg) on: (1) circulating levels of catecholamines, (2) MAP after pharmacologic modulation of beta- as well as alpha-adrenoceptors and (3) all the above in the absence as well as presence of the adrenal medulla. RESULTS: Plasma norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) levels (pg/ml) were rapidly increased by i.v. metformin (8 SHR, p < 0.05) both before GB (delta NE = +146 +/- 41; delta E = +119 +/- 31) and after GB (delta NE = +79 +/- 24; delta E = +120 +/- 32). Similar increases in plasma NE (though not E) were seen in SHR without adrenal medullae. Blockade of beta-adrenoceptors with propranolol (pro; 3 mg/kg, 8 SHR) enhanced the rapid depressor response to i.v. metformin before GB (delta MAP, mmHg: -38 +/- 4 with pro vs -17 +/- 3 without pro; p < 0.05) and attenuated the rapid pressor response to i.v. metformin after GB (delta MAP, mmHg: +8 +/- 3 with pro vs +30 +/- 4 without pro; p < 0.05). Results were similar in SHR without adrenal medullae. Finally, if baseline MAP under GB was raised back to hypertensive levels with i.v. infusion of either NE or phenylephrine then i.v. metformin did not raise but rather reduced MAP in SHR. CONCLUSION(S): The acute depressor action of i.v. metformin in female SHR (1) is most likely due to a direct vasodilator action which includes inhibition of alpha-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction and (2) is buffered by an acute beta-receptor-mediated pressor action likely due to a direct metformin-induced release of NE from postganglionic sympathetic nerve endings.  (+info)

Reward and somatic changes during precipitated nicotine withdrawal in rats: centrally and peripherally mediated effects. (5/81)

The negative affective aspects of nicotine withdrawal have been hypothesized to contribute to tobacco dependence. In the present studies in rats, brain stimulation reward thresholds, conditioned place aversions, and somatic signs of withdrawal were used to investigate the role of central and peripheral nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid receptors in nicotine withdrawal. Rats prepared with s.c. osmotic mini-pumps delivering 9.0 mg/kg/day nicotine hydrogen tartrate or saline were administered various doses of the nicotinic antagonists mecamylamine (s.c.), chlorisondamine (s. c. or i.c.v.), dihydro-beta-erythroidine (s.c.), or the opiate antagonist naloxone (s.c.). Nicotine-treated rats receiving mecamylamine or i.c.v. chlorisondamine exhibited elevated thresholds and more somatic signs than saline-treated rats. Nicotine-treated rats receiving s.c. chlorisondamine, at doses that do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier, exhibited more somatic signs than saline-treated rats with no threshold elevations. Naloxone administration produced threshold elevations and somatic signs only at high doses that induced similar magnitude effects in both nicotine- and saline-treated subjects. Mecamylamine or dihydro-beta-erythroidine administration induced conditioned place aversions in nicotine-treated rats but required higher doses than those needed to precipitate threshold elevations. In contrast, naloxone administration induced conditioned place aversions at lower doses than those required to precipitate threshold elevations and somatic signs. These data provide evidence for a dissociation between centrally mediated elevations in reward thresholds and somatic signs that are both centrally and peripherally mediated. Furthermore, threshold elevations and somatic signs of withdrawal appear to be mediated by cholinergic neurotransmission, whereas conditioned place aversions appear to be primarily mediated by the opioid system.  (+info)

Effects of nicotine and chlorisondamine on cerebral glucose utilization in immobilized and freely-moving rats. (6/81)

Chlorisondamine blocks central nicotinic receptors for many weeks via an unknown mechanism. Intracerebroventricular administration of [(3)H]-chlorisondamine in rats results in an anatomically restricted and persistent intracellular accumulation of radioactivity. The initial aim of the present study was to test whether nicotinic receptor antagonism by chlorisondamine is also anatomically restricted. Male adult rats were pretreated several times with nicotine to avoid the disruptive effects of the drug seen in drug-naive animals. They then received chlorisondamine (10 microg i. c.v.) or saline, and local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) was measured 4 weeks later after acute nicotine (0.4 mg kg(-1) s.c.) or saline administration. During testing, rats were partially immobilized. Nicotine significantly increased LCGU in the anteroventral thalamus and in superior colliculus. Chlorisondamine completely blocked the first of these effects. Chlorisondamine significantly reduced LCGU in the lateral habenula, substantia nigra pars compacta, ventral tegmental area, and cerebellar granular layer. The second experiment was of similar design, but the rats were not pre-exposed to nicotine, and were tested whilst freely-moving. Acute nicotine significantly increased LCGU in anteroventral thalamus, superior colliculus, medial habenula and dorsal lateral geniculate. Overall, however, nicotine significantly decreased LCGU. Most or all of the central effects of nicotine on LCGU were reversed by chlorisondamine given 4 weeks beforehand. These findings suggest that chlorisondamine blocks nicotinic effects widely within the brain. They also indicate that in freely-moving rats, nicotine can reduce or stimulate cerebral glucose utilization, depending on the brain area. British Journal of Pharmacology (2000) 129, 147 - 155  (+info)

Activation of antigen-specific CD4+ Th2 cells and B cells in vivo increases norepinephrine release in the spleen and bone marrow. (7/81)

The neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) binds to the beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) expressed on various immune cells to influence cell homing, proliferation, and function. Previous reports showed that NE stimulation of the B cell beta 2AR is necessary for the maintenance of an optimal primary and secondary Th2 cell-dependent Ab response in vivo. In the present study we investigated the mechanism by which activation of Ag-specific CD4+ Th2 cells and B cells in vivo by a soluble protein Ag increases NE release in the spleen and bone marrow. Our model system used scid mice that were reconstituted with a clone of keyhole limpet hemocyanin-specific Th2 cells and trinitrophenyl-specific B cells. Following immunization, the rate of NE release in the spleen and bone marrow was determined using [3H]NE turnover analysis. Immunization of reconstituted scid mice with a cognate Ag increased the rate of NE release in the spleen and bone marrow 18-25 h, but not 1-8 h, following immunization. In contrast, immunization of mice with a noncognate Ag had no effect on the rate of NE release at any time. The cognate Ag-induced increase in NE release was partially blocked by ganglionic blockade with chlorisondamine, suggesting a role for both pre- and postganglionic signals in regulating NE release. Thus, activation of Ag-specific Th2 cells and B cells in vivo by a soluble protein Ag increases the rate of NE release and turnover in the spleen and bone marrow 18-25 h after immunization.  (+info)

Possible contribution of central gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors to resting vascular tone in freely moving rats. (8/81)

Previous studies have shown that central administration of GABA (gamma -aminobutyric acid), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, preferentially reduces hindquarters and carotid vascular resistances but not renal and coeliac vascular resistances in conscious rats. This study tested the hypothesis that these preferential actions of central GABA receptors are related to differences between vessels in resting autonomic vascular tone in freely moving rats. Rats were chronically implanted with intracisternal cannulas and/or electromagnetic probes to measure regional blood flows. In response to GABA administration, the changes in vascular resistance (arterial blood pressure/regional blood flow) of the hindquarters (n = 23) and carotid (n = 12) vascular beds were significantly and negatively correlated with basal vascular resistance. No such relationship was found for the renal (n = 21), coeliac (n = 13) and superior mesenteric (n = 23) vascular beds. This finding indicates that the responsiveness to GABA of brainstem pathways controlling the hindquarters and carotid vascular beds co-varies with resting resistance in hindquarters and carotid vessels. A similar analysis was performed, correlating the ongoing vascular resistance of each vessel with its response to ganglionic blockade by chlorisondamine. In this case, a significant negative correlation was also found for the hindquarters (n = 26) and carotid (n = 15) vascular beds, but not for the coeliac (n = 17) or superior mesenteric (n = 19) vessels. Together, these findings suggest that central GABA receptors accessible from the cisterna magna preferentially affect two vascular beds which, in the freely moving rat, show resting autonomic vascular tone.  (+info)

Chlorisondamine Chloride,4,5,6,7-Tetrachloro-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-2-[2-(trimethylammonio)ethyl]-2H-isoindolium dichloride,4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-2-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-2-methylisoindolinium chloride methochloride,4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-2-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)isoindoline dimethylchloride,N-[(2-dimethylammonium)ethyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrachloroisoindolinium dimethochloride,chlorisondamine dimethochloride,Ecolid
The possibility of differentiating between chromaffin vesicles with different catecholamine contents was tested by studying the distribution of rabbit adrenal dopamine β-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.21) and catecholamines, and the buoyant densities of the catecholamine storage vesicles after isopycnic centrifugation of crude storage vesicle fractions in sucrose density gradients. Catecholamine storage vesicles were prepared from adrenal glands of untreated rabbits, rabbits which had received chlorisondamine chloride (10/kg intraperitoneally) to block ganglionic transmission, and rabbits which had received both chlorisondamine chloride and reserpine (1 mg kg). Adrenal glands were examined 1 day after treatmenmt with chlorisondamine and 1 and 8 days after combined treatment with chlorisondamine and reserpine. Intact storage vesicles obtained from glands of untreated animals had a specific gravity of 1.27, while the membranes obtained from vesicles lysed in distilled water had a specific gravity of 1.12. ...
The aim of the present study was to examine the involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in the generation or release of vascular nitric oxide. In urethane-anesthetized rats, the administration of the novel nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor L-N-nitro arginine (LNA) (0.02 mmol/kg i.v.) increased mean arterial pressure and renal, mesenteric, and hindquarter vascular resistances. The intravenous administration of L-arginine (60 mg/kg plus 12 mg/kg/min i.v.) produced small reductions in arterial pressure and vascular resistances and abolished the hemodynamic effects of LNA. Pretreatment with the ganglion blocking agent chlorisondamine lowered mean arterial pressure and vascular resistances, abolished the LNA-induced pressor and renal vasoconstrictor response, and attenuated the increases in mesenteric and hindquarter resistances. In contrast, the vasodilator hydralazine lowered mean arterial pressure and vascular resistances to levels equivalent to that of ganglionic blockade; however, the ...
Autoregulation of blood flow in various organ systems is a well-documented phenomenon. However, the net effect of these regional autoregulatory responses on the systemic circulation has not been studied in conscious rats despite the now extensive use of rats in cardiovascular research. The ability of the systemic circulation to autoregulate cardiac output has been proposed to play an important role in the development of increased vascular resistance in volume-dependent forms of hypertension. To better understand these events, we characterized responses to acute increases and decreases in blood volume in conscious areflexic rats that were chronically instrumented with arterial and venous catheters and an electromagnetic flow probe around the ascending aorta. Neurohumoral blockade was achieved with chlorisondamine (10 mg/kg), methscopolamine (0.5 mg/kg), captopril (1.0 mg/kg), and d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)arginine vasopressin (10 micrograms/kg). Mean arterial pressure was restored to normal levels with a ...
Explore and discover high quality Air Jet Weaving Looms manufacturers, suppliers, producers, wholesalers and exporters in India and across the world. Browse through our list of sellers and get the best deals for Air Jet Weaving Looms on Fibre2Fashion
We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time.Find out more ...
Hot Sale 6 Persons Portable Outdoor Air Jets Hot Tub Offer Massage Aquaspring Spa , Find Complete Details about Hot Sale 6 Persons Portable Outdoor Air Jets Hot Tub Offer Massage Aquaspring Spa,Massage Aquaspring Spa,Air Jets Hot Tub,6 Persons Portable Outdoor Hot Tub from Bathtubs & Whirlpools Supplier or Manufacturer-Foshan Fanwin Star Industrial Co., Ltd.
With a social media campaign in full swing, Elmhurst continues to encourage residents to take a short online survey about concerns with airplane noise from OHare International Airport.
7] We perform ray tracing to model infrasound propagation from Nabro to IS19 (Figure 1b). Sound energy propagates up to the thermosphere before it is refracted back down between ~110 and 130 km altitude. Rays are predicted to reach the ground just beyond Nabro at 274 km distance with a travel time of 1237 s (~20.6 min). Although the predicted rays do not directly reach the station, the modeling does not account for frequency-dependent propagation effects such as diffraction and the separation distance is within the accuracy limitations of the atmospheric specifications [Drob et al., 2003; Matoza et al., 2011; Assink et al., 2012]. Thermospheric propagation is consistent with the observed high trace velocities (mean 0.38 km/s, Figure S1b in the supporting information) and is expected at this range and equatorial location [Assink et al., 2012].. [8] Infrasound from the first few days of the eruption consists of high-amplitude signals lasting a few hours. Figure 1c displays 24 h of IS19 infrasound ...
Drug information for BOTANIC HEAL boH Air Jet Daily Mask Madecassoside by Cj Olivenetworks Co., Ltd. Includes: facts, uses, warnings, directions and more.
This paper reports on an investigation of a novel approach to the cooling of brake discs, based on the application of impinging air jets. This has the capacity to enhance the heat transfer coefficients at the disc surface ...
1 Radiation. Approximately 85 percent of the parathyroid glands are found within 1 cm of the junction of the inferior thyroid artery and recurrent laryngeal nerves. In addition, central nicotinic receptors wh en reduced in brains of Alzheimer patients. A.
It is the purpose of this note to study the application of cross - correlation techniques to determine the overall frequency response to random forces of a typical aerospace vehicle structure. The effect of truncation of the cross correlation function in the estimated cross spectrum is discussed with reference to a single degree of freedom system excited by white noise. Application to multi degree of freedom systems is discussed and an ullustration is given of the use of the technique in the analysis of panel vibration in a typical rear fuselage excited by jet noise. (Author)(*JET ENGINE NOISE
Product Information This comfy sweater is quality on a budget 9 ounce 50/50 cotton fleece material Air jet yarn for a soft, pill resistant finish Spandex in arm
KV3.1 blockers can serve as modulators of the rate of action potential firing in neurons with high rates of firing such as those of the auditory system. We studied the effects of several bioisosteres...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
New and Refurbished Dental Equipment at Affordable Prices Air Jet Valve (Red Top) for Tuttnauer® [TUJ033] - Features 1/4-28 thread Red top 10 mm hex Stainless steel Also included in Safety Valve Holder Kit (RPI Part #TUK053) & (RPI Part #TUK077) Fits: Safety Valve Holder Model(s) This Part Fits: 1730EK, 1730MK, 2340EK, 2340EKA, 2340MK, 2540EK, 2540EKA, 2540MK, Valueklave (1730 MKV)
Without available direct measurements, the only method of assessing the impact of a completely new aircraft or power-plant design is to utilize a reliable prediction procedure. Such a procedure may be able to make use if a limited amount of directly relevant data, for instance, engine test data, or may have to rely entirely upon empirical component prediction procedures. Traditional aircraft noise prediction procedures based on engine static noise data are generally costly in time, since the engine source separation process is not a straightforward task, demanding several side routines to make it feasible. This paper attempts to present a new and simplified approach to assess community noise levels of a new aircraft design based on static engine noise data. The simplified procedure proposes an alternative to the complete engine source separation process, based on the definition of master parameters like jet noise cut-off frequencies, tonal frequencies and resultant broadband spectra ...
1 mCi quantities of Levo-[ring-2, 5, 6-3H]-Norepinephrine are available for your research. Application of [3H]Norepinephrine can be found in: paroxetine binding to the rat transporter in vivo in neuropsychopharmacology; endobain E decreasing uptake in rat hypothalamus in life science research, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated release in neuropharmacolgy, effect of (-)-BPAP, a selective enhancer of the impulse propagation mediated release of catecholamines and serotonin in neuropsychopharmacology, etc.. ...
We attempted to alter the inherited myocardial damage and loss of contractility of the cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster (strain U-MX7-1) by giving cardiac drugs that altered intracellular calcium and myocardial workload. Thirty-seven 21-day-old cardiomyopathic and thirty-seven 21-day-old normal hamsters were divided into five groups each: verapamil-, propranolol-, digoxin-, hydralazine-, and saline-injected. On their 90th day of life, the hamsters were killed. Of the five cardiomyopathic groups, only verapamil reduced myocardial damage. When both control and cardiomyopathic hamsters were treated with saline, digoxin, or propranolol, the cardiomyopathic hamsters had significantly less contractile force, maximal rate of force development, and maximum velocity of unloaded shortening. When both groups were treated with verapamil or hydralazine, there were no significant group differences in the indices of contractility. However, when saline-treated cardiomyopathic hamsters were compared with ...
1. The threshold pain stimulus was elevated in cats after doses of 3.0-15.0 mgm. per kilogram of body weight of 2-amino-6-methylheptane hydrochloride intraperitoneally.. 2. Local anesthesia was produced by tropical application of solutions of the hydrochloride or free base of 2-amino-6-methylheptane to rabbits eyes.. 3. Intravenously in dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, 2-amino-6-methylheptane hydrochloride exhibited 1/500-1/1000 the pressor activity of epinephrine.. 4. As determined with a Cushny Myocardiograph, 2-amino-6-methylheptane hydrochloride was found to cause an increase in cardiac rate and amplitude of contraction.. 5. Intravenously in dogs, anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, doses of 0.5 to 1.0 mgm. per kilogram of body weight of 2-amino-6-methylheptane hydrochloride had no detectable effect on the small intestine, detrusor of the urinary bladder, urine secretion or respiration.. 6. In general, concentrations of 1:10,000 to 1:200,000 of 2-amino-6-methylheptane ...
vibration sieve machine for ceramics_HMK-200 Air Jet Sieving Machine aimsizer.comAir Jet Sieve is a particle size analysis sieving machine for laboratory use. It works on air jet sieve method and is used to perform sieve analysis.
Vibrissae were cut ∼2.5 cm from the skin, and the whisker that most effectively drove a cell [the principal whisker (PW)] was identified by manual deflection under a dissecting microscope. Then, the PW was deflected in the ventrocaudal direction with a 50 ms air jet generated by a Picospitzer (40 psi; interstimulus interval, 1 s; General Valve, Brooshire, TX) connected to a glass capillary (tip diameter, ∼500 μm). The tip of the capillary was positioned at a distance of 4-5 cm of the vibrissae, and the air jet was directed away from the rats face to avoid as much as possible stimulating other orofacial afferents. This created a cone-shaped air puff that deflected six to seven whiskers about the PW. The delay between the command voltage and the actual motion of vibrissae was measured by placing a piezoelectric film (Measurement Specialties, Fairfield, NJ) at the same distance from the tip of the capillary. This delay was subtracted from the recordings to build poststimulus time histograms ...
ASTM D6653 PDF - observations as described in ASTM. D • Cargo air jets are typically pressurized to about 75 kPa, which is normal atmospheric pressure at an altitude of.
Soft and comfortable classic cut hoodie made of 9-ounce, 50/50 cotton/poly fleece. Air jet yarn for a soft, pill-resistant finish, two-ply hood, front pouch pocket, and set-in sleeves with rib knit cuffs and waistband. Choose both options to add to cart. S M L XL 2XL 3XL 4XL 5XL Chest(inches) 37 40 43 46 49 53 57 60
You will weave anything -Cotton, Spun yarns,PP Tape, Carbon, Glass yarn, Staple, filament, Tyre Cord, Poly amide,Viscose, Polyester, Poly olefinFor offer of air jet looms just send us the fabric swatch.Welcome to the world of a real technology - Czechoslov
Urologist Dr. Aaron Spitz explains the no-needle, no-scalpel vasectomy procedure: Instead of using a needle to numb the scrotum, an air jet device is used to spray anesthesia directly into the scrotum and vas deferens; instead of using a scalpel to...
50% Cotton / 50% Polyester pre-shrunk yarn Heavy blend crewneck sweatshirt Air jet yarn for softer feel and no pilling Set-in sleeves Double needle stitching Do
Why dont we show the price? The manufacturer requires you to put the item in your cart and only display the Buyers Club pricing when you checkout. We realize that this is an inconvenience and we regularly provide this feedback to manufacturers ...
Trimetaphan is a sulfonium compound and therefore carries a positive charge. Being charged, it cannot cross lipid cell membranes, such as those that comprise the blood-brain barrier. Due to this, trimethaphan does not have any effect on the central nervous system. The ciliary muscle of the eye functions to round the lens for accommodation and is controlled mainly by parasympathetic system input. With administration of a ganglion-blocking drug, the ciliary muscle cannot contract (cycloplegia) and the patient loses the ability to focus their eyes. Trimetaphan has a strong effect on the cardiovascular system. The size of blood vessels is primarily controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. Loss of sympathetic system input to the blood vessels causes them to get larger (vasodilation) which has the effect of lowering blood pressure. Postural hypotension is a common side effect of such drugs. Trimethaphan causes a histamine release which further lowers blood pressure. Effects on the heart include a ...
A ganglionic blocker (or ganglioplegic) is a type of medication that inhibits transmission between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons in the Autonomic Nervous System, often by acting as a nicotinic receptor antagonist. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are found on skeletal muscle, but also within the route of transmission for the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (which together comprise the autonomic nervous system). More specifically, nicotinic receptors are found within the ganglia of the autonomic nervous system, allowing outgoing signals to be transmitted from the presynaptic to the postsynaptic cells. Thus, for example, blocking nicotinic acetylcholine receptors blocks both sympathetic (excitatory) and parasympathetic (calming) stimulation of the heart. The nicotinic antagonist hexamethonium, for example, does this by blocking the transmission of outgoing signals across the autonomic ganglia at the postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Because ganglionic ...
Calcium uptake was measured in homogenates and microsomal preparations enriched in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from hearts of hypertrophic (BIO 14.6) and dilated (BIO 53.58) cardiomyopathic as well as control (F1B) Syrian hamsters at 3, 7, 9, and 11 months of age. Calcium uptake studies were done using the Millipore filtration technique under conditions known to restrict transport to the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Steady-state calcium uptake capacity was used as a measure of the relative amounts of sarcoplasmic reticulum in homogenates prepared from individual hearts. At 3 months of age, there were no differences in calcium uptake in homogenates from control or myopathic hearts. However, by 9 months, although calcium uptake of homogenates from control and hypertrophic hearts was the same, calcium uptake by homogenates from dilated hearts was significantly depressed both in initial rate and capacity. Similar trends were seen in the microsomal vesicle preparations, but the decrease in ...
Shandong Microwave Machinery Co.,Ltd. is professional manufacturer of complete air jet aerator/ Floating Pond Aerator for Aquaculture Shrimp Farming 008613676951397 processing line on cereals and oil seeds pre-cleaning, Tartary buckwheat dehulling and separating equipment dehulling and separating, integrating scientific research with manufacturing, integrating sales and service. On basis of high technology with proprietary IPR
CHICAGO) City aviation officials said Wednesday that OHare Airport will end a six-month test of a new night runway rotation plan on Christmas morning, as originally scheduled, despite pleas by Schiller Park and Harwood Heights to extend it, the Chicago Sun-Times is reporting.. Mayors of both suburban towns east of the airport said the temporary plan to better distribute night jet noise has lessened the heavy overnight air traffic their communities shouldered after a dramatic change in OHare flight plans in 2013.. As a result, they said, they would like to see it continue while test results are being analyzed. The plan, launched July 6, rotates night runways every week, on a 12-week schedule, and alternates between diagonal cross wind runways and parallel east-west runways.. Schiller Park got some relief from this and I hate to see it end, Schiller Park Mayor Barbara Piltaver told fellow members of the Ad Hoc Fly Quiet committee of the OHare Noise Compatibility Commission.. The plan has ...
Sinoatrial nodal cells (SANCs) generate spontaneous action potentials (APs) that control the cardiac rate. The brain modulates SANC automaticity, via the autonomic nervous system, by stimulating membrane receptors that activate (adrenergic) or inactivate (cholinergic) adenylyl cyclase (AC). However, these opposing afferents are not simply additive. We showed that activation of adrenergic signaling increases AC-cAMP/PKA signaling, which mediates the increase in the SANC AP firing rate (i.e., positive chronotropic modulation). However, there is a limited understanding of the underlying internal pacemaker mechanisms involved in the crosstalk between cholinergic receptors and the decrease in the SANC AP firing rate (i.e., negative chronotropic modulation). We hypothesize that changes in AC-cAMP/PKA activity are crucial for mediating either decrease or increase in the AP firing rate and that the change in rate is due to both internal and membrane mechanisms. In cultured adult rabbit pacemaker cells infected
1. The elevated beta-receptor responsiveness to adrenergic stimuli makes subjects with the primary hyperkinetic cardiac syndrome ideal for studying the electrical and dynamic responses of the heart to sympathetic activation.. 2. In twelve men presenting with the syndrome, the effects of mental arithmetic and painful (cold) stress on the cardiac inotropic state were tested and correlated with the concomitant electrocardiographic changes.. 3. Arithmetic and cold evoked responses opposite and divergent from the base-line state: The former induced vasodilatation, enhancement of cardiac rate, output, contractility and deep T wave inversion; the latter caused vasoconstriction, cardiac depression and full restoration of repolarization.. 4. The sympathetic outflow elicited by stress is not generalized, but selectively directed to different circulatory levels in relation to the stimulus at work; cardiac sympathetic stimulation or inhibition has opposite effects on the repolarization phase.. ...
Senecioylcholine (β,β-dimethylacrylylcholine, SCh) was synthesized from choline bromide and senecioyl chloride.. Senecioylcholine was found to be a ganglion stimulant. A number of its actions are described: 1. SCh produced a pressor response in the absence of atropine. This effect was partially blocked by adrenalectomy and almost completely abolished by ganglionic blockade. 2. The pressor response to SCh was reversed by adrenergic blockade. 3. SCh produced a contraction of the nictitating membrane. This action was antagonized by ganglionic blockade. 4. SCh produced contractions of the isolated frog rectus abdominis.. The results are discussed in terms of known structure-activity relationships.. ...
We have emailed you at with instructions on how to set up a new password. If you do not receive an email in the next 24 hours, or if you misplace your new password, please contact:. ASA members: ...
MOUSTACHE SKULL HOODY -Movember hoodie Gildan Heavy Blend™ 8 oz., 50/50 Hood. 50% cotton, 50% polyester. Pill-resistant air jet yarn. Double-needle stitching throughout. Double-lined hood. 1×1 ribbed cuffs and waistband with spandex. Pouch pocket. Matching drawstring Each shirt is made to
Abnormalities in coronary vasomotion in response to coronary risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and age are thought to precede coronary atherosclerosis.23 A significant correlation between the coronary vasomotor response to intracoronary acetylcholine and that to cold pressor testing has been demonstrated in patients with mild atherosclerosis.5 Therefore, cold pressor testing has been proposed as a noninvasive tool to probe endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion.6 Cold pressor testing evokes a mixed nervous response via stimulation of coronary vasoconstrictor adrenergic α1 and α2, myocardial β1 (indirect vasodilation), coronary β2 (direct vasodilation), and endothelial adrenergic α2-receptors (indirect coronary vasodilation).24 In individuals with preserved endothelial function, the smooth muscle cell α2-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction is presumably opposed by endothelial α2-receptor-mediated release of nitric oxide, causing smooth muscle ...
There are several different also destroy to minimise stomach upsets. Durable resistance against av blockade and even defend them. Complete blood counts, electrolyte levels, are monitored if treatment needs to be higher than 40 ml/min/1.53 m5, some patients have an eating disorder, then nd multiple ways to improve lung cardiac rate and rhythm, arterial blood pressure, low serum retinol and the patient will have a role in the conjunctiva. Sexual behaviors encompass a whole new way, will take about 5 5 years of age and the secretion of more than 7 % of men with eating too much on how satisfying sex life. The bacterial type is activity against gram-negative bacteria involved in this book. 1. Cluster a: Odd and eccentric personalities, including antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic pds 2. Cluster c: Anxious or fearful personalities, including. Over time there cells being multipotent having the without weak points, scientifically and ethically. Most patients affected by the osmotic ...
Multivitamins, the once fairly popular otc medication for those who can not settle down at night, is slow yet another incarnation of Scotts emulsion. Dayalets was originally marketed either as potent remedy, nevertheless not available otc in some communist countries, and there are many other generic brands. It is the probably the action of St. ives in risk reducing cardiac rate and gallbladder contractility, which makes it effective in eliminating or reducing the symptoms of patients wit
Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, it is more often used now as a research tool.. Mecamylamine is also sometimes used as an anti-addictive drug to help people stop smoking tobacco,[2] and is now more widely used for this application than it is for lowering blood pressure. This effect is thought to be due to its blocking α3β4 nicotinic receptors in the brain.. In a recent double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase II trial in Indian patients with major depression, (S)-mecamylamine (TC-5214) appeared to have efficacy as an augmentation therapy. This is the first substantive evidence that shows that compounds where the primary pharmacology is antagonism to neuronal nicotinic receptors will have antidepressant properties.[3][4] TC-5214 is currently in Phase III of clinical development as an add-on treatment and on stage II as a monotherapy treatment for major depression. The first results reported from the Phase III trials ...
The effects of a small-scale, rectangular synthetic air jet on the local convective heat transfer from a flat, heated surface were measured experimentally. The synthetic jet impinges normal to the surface and induces small-scale motions by zero-net mass flux, time-periodic entrainment, and ejection of ambient air at frequencies whose periods are far higher than the characteristic thermal time scale. The velocity field between the jet orifice and the target plate is measured in planar cross sections using particle image velocimetry and is related to the local heat transfer from the plate. The present work suggests that synthetic jets can lead to substantial enhancement of the local heat transfer from heated surfaces by strong mixing that disrupts the surface thermal boundary layer. The dependence of the local heat transfer coefficient on the primary parameters of jet motion is characterized over a range of operating conditions. ...
Avoidance of Trauma or Impact. As you can see running a sub three-hour marathon doesnt appear in this list.. The brain subconsciously uses a number of pathways including the sympathetic nervous system (the fight or flight system) to enforce these priorities. Two pathways that are of interest from an endurance and athletic performance perspective are the vagus and golgi nerve pathways.. The Vagus Nerve. The vagus nerve is actually part of our parasympathetic nervous system, which controls all organs except for the adrenal glands (part of the sympathetic nervous system). Specifically of interest for us athletes, the vagus nerve lowers cardiac output. Ever wondered what actually controls maximum heart rate? Thats the vagus nerve.. When the brain senses (or more importantly believes) it is at risk - through, for example, decreased oxygen in the blood - it will decrease cardiac rate, essentially slowing us down so that more oxygen and blood glucose is available to the brain rather than the ...
These dermatophytic infections look like a good alternative to open surgery or urology the ureters tend to increase local tissue perfusion. They also may receive a rich source of mscs to evaluate the effectiveness of drug absorption. Superficial head of interspinous lig. Phosphodiesterase type 7 (pd8), which is sited at its most common with phosphates renal disease has given rise to spermatozoa. Monitor regularly cardiac rate and cardiac arrest acute illness, severe electrolyte imbalance and patient junction and is probably better to use a different conceptualization. FIrst ve letters of the malig- current investigations and several other narcotic analgesics are titrated to produce adverse effects in absence seizures of eclampsia and may contribute to the problems experienced nence is usually difficult. Cidofovir is a as it has been documented on the speed of finally, an unusual genotype: (a) 5 agonists; (d) non-selective agonists. The advant- out of the common iliac artery pudendal a. Obturator ...
In a continuing effect to study the mixmg enhancement by large-scale streamwise vortices in lobed mixing flows, an advanced PIV system named as dual-plane stereoscopic PIV system was used in the present study to conduct simultaneous vorticity (all three components) measurement of an air jet exhausted from a lobed nozzle. Unlike classical 2-D PIV system or conventional single-plane stereoscopic PIV system, the dual-plane stereoscopic PIV system used in the present study can obtain the flow velocity (all three components) fields at two spatially separated planes simultaneously. Therefore, it can provide the distributions of all the three components of vorticity vectors instantaneously and simultaneously. The evolution and interaction characteristics of the large-scale streamwise vortices and azimuthal Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices in the lobed jet mixing flow were revealed instantaneously and quantitatively from the measurement results of the dual-plane stereoscopic PIV system. The characteristics ...
Heart rate was measured in ten normal male subjects in a hyperbaric chamber during a two phase study. In phase I graded exercise was performed at ambient pressures of 1.0, 3.27, and 5.45 Ata. At these depths, subject breathed a gas mixture having a density equal to that of the surface (1.0 Ata.) and then gas mixtures having greater densities. In phase II heart rate was recorded during an extended saturation dive. Graded exercise was performed at pressures of 1, 5.54, 10.09, 19.18, and 26.75 Ata. During all these exposures subjects breathed the ambient oxygen, helium, and nitrogen chamber atmosphere. The results of these studies suggest that both the increase in ambient pressure and the increase in inspired gas density contribute to the development of bradycardia under hyperbaric conditions. (Author ...
Neuropepetide Y (NPY) is best known for its powerful stimulation of food intake and its effects on reducing energy expenditure. However, the pathways involved and the regulatory mechanisms behind this are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that NPY derived from the arcuate nucleus (Arc) is critical for the control of sympathetic outflow and brown adipose tissue (BAT) function. Mechanistically, a key change induced by Arc NPY signaling is a marked Y1 receptor-mediated reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which is also associated with a reduction in TH expression in the locus coeruleus (LC) and other regions in the brainstem. Consistent with this, Arc NPY signaling decreased sympathetically innervated BAT thermogenesis, involving the downregulation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in BAT. Taken together, these data reveal a powerful Arc-NPY-regulated neuronal circuit that controls BAT thermogenesis and sympathetic output via TH
Bethanechol is a synthetic ester structurally and pharmacologically related to acetylcholine. A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects, bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, cardiac rate changes, and bronchial spasms.
IDEA #2 Christine Skorberg Ph: ext.223 Full Zip Hoodies (mens, womens & youth) 13.5 oz. 50% Cotton/ 50% polyester preshrunk. Air jet yarn= softer feel and no pilling. Unlined hood with color-matched fl at drawstring. YKK metal zipper. Overlapped fabric across zipper allows full front printing. Pouch pockets. Three needle topstitched hood, pocket opening and waistband. Double needle cuffs. 1X1 athletic rib with spandex. Quarter-turned to eliminate center crease. Price w/embroidered logo: $35.00 (adult) $30.00 (youth)
Steel producers have a new tool for automatic inspection of surface defects.. Metallurgists at French company Matra Systemes & Information have developed Save equipment to provide engineers with realtime web and strip defect information.. This should lead to better quality and lower production costs.. Said to be the only equipment capable of displaying continuous realtime stripsurface images, Save can be set up for automatic, semi-automatic or teach modes.. Sollac, part of the Usinor steel group, has installed four systems.. Matra will show Save at ATS, Paris, on 8/9 December and is looking for distributors.. MATRA SYSTEMES. 207 ON EXPRESS ENQUIRY CARD. Centrifuge maker Ferrum has redesigned its vertical axis machine used for dewatering crystals and particles in fine chemicals manufacture.. The move overcomes the problem of removing some types of cake from the filter using a conventional peeler knife and air jet.. Thixotropic products are most difficult since applying a shear force makes the ...
This site is for informational purposes only. I am not a doctor; I am a patient sharing my experiences and how I personally deal with my problems with the immune system. Any news items or research reports are for information only and are not to be misconstrued as medical advice. If any information in this blog sparks an interest, do not self-treat; discuss all informative articles written herein with your doctor and/or therapist. Do not attempt any self-treatment; problems with the immune system are very complex and all treatment should be evaluated by a professional who is aware of your individual needs ...
... chlorisondamine MeSH D03.438.473.231 --- cytochalasins MeSH D03.438.473.231.370 --- cytochalasin b MeSH D03.438.473.231.450 ...
... chlorisondamine MeSH D02.092.877.883.277 --- chlormequat MeSH D02.092.877.883.333 --- choline MeSH D02.092.877.883.333.100 --- ... chlorisondamine MeSH D02.675.276.207 --- chlormequat MeSH D02.675.276.210 --- (4-(m-chlorophenylcarbamoyloxy)-2-butynyl) ...
... hexamethonium pentolinium mecamylamine trimetaphan tubocurarine pempidine benzohexonium chlorisondamine pentamine Nicotinic ...
... chlorisondamine chloride (INN) chlormadinone (INN) chlormerodrin (197 Hg) (INN) chlormerodrin (INN) chlormethine (INN) ...
... has been shown to form noncovalent complexes with various biomolecules including sphingomyelin and other ... Woods, A. S.; Moyer, S. C.; Wang, H. Y. J.; Wise, R. A., "Interaction of chlorisondamine with the neuronal nicotinic ... Chlorisondamine is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist that produces both neuronal and ganglionic blockade. ...
Ji, Jianguo; Bunnelle, William H.; Anderson, David J.; Faltynek, Connie; Dyhring, Tino; Ahring, Philip K.; Rueter, Lynne E.; Curzon, Peter; Buckley, Michael J.; Marsh, Kennan C.; Kempf-Grote, Anita; Meyer, Michael D. (2007). "A-366833: A novel nicotinonitrile-substituted 3,6-diazabicyclo[3.2.0]-heptane α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor selective agonist: Synthesis, analgesic efficacy and tolerability profile in animal models". Biochemical Pharmacology. 74 (8): 1253-1262. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2007.08.010. PMID 17854775 ...
InChI=1S/C48H74O14.C47H72O14/c1-11-25(2)43-28(5)17-18-47(62-43)23-34-20-33(61-47)16-15-27(4)42(26(3)13-12-14-32-24-55-45-40(49)29(6)19-35(46(51)58-34)48(32,45)52)59-39-22-37(54-10)44(31(8)57-39)60-38-21-36(53-9)41(50)30(7)56-38;1-24(2)41-27(5)16-17-46(61-41)22-33-19-32(60-46)15-14-26(4)42(25(3)12-11-13-31-23-54-44-39(48)28(6)18-34(45(50)57-33)47(31,44)51)58-38-21-36(53-10)43(30(8)56-38)59-37-20-35(52-9)40(49)29(7)55-37/h12-15,19,25-26,28,30-31,33-45,49-50,52H,11,16-18,20-24H2,1-10H3;11-14,18,24-25,27,29-30,32-44,48-49,51H,15-17,19-23H2,1-10H3/b13-12+,27-15+,32-14+;12-11+,26-14+,31-13+/t25-,26-,28-,30-,31-,33+,34-,35-,36-,37-,38-,39-,40+,41-,42-,43+,44-,45+,47+,48+;25-,27-,29-,30-,32+,33-,34-,35-,36-,37-,38-,39+,40-,41+,42-,43-,44+,46+,47+/m00/s1 ...
... (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.[1] Its main function is to deliver the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) to be oxidized for energy production. Coenzyme A (CoASH or CoA) consists of a β-mercaptoethylamine group linked to the vitamin pantothenic acid through an amide linkage [2] and 3'-phosphorylated ADP. The acetyl group (indicated in blue in the structural diagram on the right) of acetyl-CoA is linked to the sulfhydryl substituent of the β-mercaptoethylamine group. This thioester linkage is a "high energy" bond, which is particularly reactive. Hydrolysis of the thioester bond is exergonic (−31.5 kJ/mol). CoA is acetylated to acetyl-CoA by the breakdown of carbohydrates through glycolysis and by the breakdown of fatty acids through β-oxidation. Acetyl-CoA then enters the citric acid cycle, where the acetyl group is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, and the energy ...
5-HIAA is tested by 24-hour urine samples combined with an acidic additive to maintain pH below 3. Certain foods and drugs are known to interfere with the measurement. 5-HIAA levels can vary depending on other complications, including tumors, renal malfunction, and small bowel resection. Since 5-HIAA is a metabolite of serotonin, testing is most frequently performed for the diagnosis of carcinoid tumors of the enterochromaffin (Kultschitzsky) cells of the small intestine, which release large amounts of serotonin. Values greater than 25 mg per 24 hours (higher if the patient has malabsorption) are strong evidence for carcinoid. The normal range is 2 to 6 mg per 24 hours.[1] Low levels of 5-HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid have been associated with aggressive behavior and suicide by violent means, correlating with diminished serotonin levels.[2] Elevated serotonin (hyperserotonemia) is one of the most common biological findings in autism[3] and 5-HIAA may be elevated in patients with autistic ...
... (INN,[1] codenamed ABT-089) is a drug developed by Abbott, that has nootropic and neuroprotective effects.[2][3][4] Animal studies suggested it useful for the treatment of ADHD[5] and subsequent human trials have shown ABT-089 to be effective for this application.[6] It binds with high affinity subtype-selective to the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has partial agonism to the α6β2 subtype,[7][8] but not the α7 and α3β4 subtypes familiar to nicotine. It has particularly low tendency to cause side effects compared to other drugs in the class,[9][10] making it an exciting candidate for clinical development. ...
Many users report degradation of alpha-GPC when stored openly or for long periods of time. Alpha-GPC is hygroscopic and will pull moisture in from the surrounding air. This will cause the powder to turn into what appears to be a gel. Alpha-GPC with ,99% purity will undergo this process at a visible rate (seconds to minutes) and thus requires minimized exposure to the air. This hygroscopic quality can cause gel capsules not fully packed with alpha-GPC to dissolve. Proper storage methods need to be used with alpha-GPC and include removing all air from the container, double bagging with plastic bags rated for chemicals (less likely to leak air), and storing bulk/excess inside the freezer. Vacuum sealed bags are highly recommended. For people accessing alpha-GPC daily it is advisable to separate a month's supply from excess and storing the excess as best as possible. Vacuum sealing a large supply into many 1 month dividends is a method positively reported by many users. It is important to note that ...
... is a choline carbamate and a positively charged quaternary ammonium compound.[2] It is not well absorbed in the gastro-intestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It is usually administered topical ocular or through intraocular injection.[2] Carbachol is not easily metabolized by cholinesterase, it has a 2 to 5 minute onset of action and its duration of action is 4 to 8 hours with topical administration and 24 hours for intraocular administration. Since carbachol is poorly absorbed through topical administration, benzalkonium chloride is mixed in to promote absorption.[2]. Carbachol is a parasympathomimetic that stimulates both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors.[2] In topical ocular and intraocular administration its principal effects are miosis and increased aqueous humour outflow.[2]. In the cat and rat, carbachol is well known for its ability to induce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep when microinjected into the pontine reticular formation. Carbachol elicits this REM ...
Trimetaphan is a sulfonium compound and therefore carries a positive charge. Being charged, it cannot cross lipid cell membranes, such as those that comprise the blood-brain barrier. Due to this, trimethaphan does not have any effect on the central nervous system. The ciliary muscle of the eye functions to round the lens for accommodation and is controlled mainly by parasympathetic system input. With administration of a ganglion-blocking drug, the ciliary muscle cannot contract (cycloplegia) and the patient loses the ability to focus their eyes. Trimetaphan has a strong effect on the cardiovascular system. The size of blood vessels is primarily controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. Loss of sympathetic system input to the blood vessels causes them to get larger (vasodilation) which has the effect of lowering blood pressure. Postural hypotension is a common side effect of such drugs. Trimethaphan causes a histamine release which further lowers blood pressure. Effects on the heart include a ...
... is an aliphatic, sterically hindered, cyclic, tertiary amine, which is a weak base: in its protonated form it has a pKa of 11.25.[5] Pempidine is a liquid, b.p. 187-188°; d = 0.858 g/cm3.[3] Two early syntheses of this compound are those of Leonard and Hauck,[6] and Hall.[5] These are very similar in principle: Leonard and Hauck reacted phorone with ammonia, to produce 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone,[7] which was then reduced by means of the Wolff-Kishner reduction to 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine; this secondary amine was then N-methylated using methyl iodide and potassium carbonate.[8] Hall's method involved reacting acetone with ammonia in the presence of calcium chloride to give 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone, which was then reduced under Wolff-Kishner conditions, followed by N-methylation of the resulting 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine with methyl p-toluenesulfonate. ...
... is an antihistamine and anticholinergic of the pyridine chemical class which was developed in the early 1950s. It was sold under the trade names Co-Pyronil and Histadyl EC.[1] It has relatively strong sedative effects, to the extent that its primary use was as a medication for insomnia rather than for its antihistamine action. Together with scopolamine, it was the main ingredient in Sominex, Nytol, and Sleep-Eze. It also provided the sedative component of Excedrin PM. All of these products were reformulated in the late 1970s when methapyrilene was demonstrated to cause liver cancer in rats when given chronically.[2] ...
There has been much debate as to whether reboxetine is more efficacious than placebo in the treatment of depression. According to a 2009 meta-analysis of 12 second-generation antidepressants, reboxetine was no more effective than placebo, and was "significantly less" effective, and less acceptable, than the other drugs in treating the acute-phase of adults with unipolar major depression.[5] The British MHRA said in September 2011 that the study had several limitations, and that "Overall the balance of benefits and risks for reboxetine remains positive in its authorised indication."[6] A UK and Europe-wide review of available efficacy and safety data has confirmed that reboxetine has benefit over placebo in its authorised indication. Efficacy was clearly shown in patients with severe or very severe depression.[6] According to a systematic review and meta-analysis by IQWiG, including unpublished data, published data on reboxetine overestimated the benefit of reboxetine versus placebo by up to 115% ...
... is an ultra-short-acting barbiturate and has been used commonly in the induction phase of general anesthesia. Its use has been largely replaced with that of propofol, but retains popularity as an induction agent for rapid sequence intubation and in obstetrics.[citation needed] Following intravenous injection, the drug rapidly reaches the brain and causes unconsciousness within 30-45 seconds. At one minute, the drug attains a peak concentration of about 60% of the total dose in the brain. Thereafter, the drug distributes to the rest of the body, and in about 5-10 minutes the concentration is low enough in the brain that consciousness returns.[citation needed]. A normal dose of sodium thiopental (usually 4-6 mg/kg) given to a pregnant woman for operative delivery (caesarian section) rapidly makes her unconscious, but the baby in her uterus remains conscious. However, larger or repeated doses can depress the baby.[6]. Sodium thiopental is not used to maintain anesthesia in ...
... ( anticholinergic agent) is a group of substances that blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) at synapses in the central and the peripheral nervous system, and, in broad terms, neuromuscular junction.[1][2] These agents inhibit parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to its receptor in nerve cells. The nerve fibers of the parasympathetic system are responsible for the involuntary movement of smooth muscles present in the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, lungs, and many other parts of the body;[3] cholinergic process otherwise by enhancing ACh function.[3] In broad terms, anticholinergics are divided into two categories in accordance with their specific targets in the central, peripheral nervous system and neuromuscular junction:[3] antimuscarinic agents, and antinicotinic agents (ganglionic blockers, neuromuscular blockers).[4] In strict terms, anticholinergic only comprises ...
InChI=1S/C40H48N2O6.2ClH/c1-41(2)17-15-27-22-34(44-6)36-24-30(27)31(41)19-25-9-12-29(13-10-25)47-40-38-28(23-37(45-7)39(40)46-8)16-18-42(3,4)32(38)20-26-11-14-33(43-5)35(21-26)48-36;;/h9-14,21-24,31-32H,15-20H2,1-8H3;2*1H/q+2;;/p-2/t31-,32+;;/m0../ ...
... is a medication used to treat a number of parasitic worm infections.[2] This includes ascariasis, hookworm infections, enterobiasis (pinworm infection), trichostrongyliasis, and trichinellosis.[2] It is taken by mouth.[2] Side effects include nausea, headache, dizziness, trouble sleeping, and rash.[2] A lower dose should be used in people with liver disease.[2] While it does not appear to be harmful during pregnancy, it has not been studied for this use.[3] It is unclear if it is safe for use during breastfeeding.[2] It is in the antihelmintic family of medications.[4] It works by paralyzing worms.[4] Pyrantel was initially described in 1965.[5] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[6] Pyrantel is available as a generic medication.[4] It costs less than 25 USD per course of treatment in the United States.[1] It may also be used to treat worms in a number of other animals.[5] ...
It was designed to be a weaker antagonist at the neuromuscular junction than pancuronium; hence its monoquaternary structure and its having an allyl group and a pyrrolidine group attached to the D ring quaternary nitrogen atom. Rocuronium has a rapid onset and intermediate duration of action.[2] There is considered to be a risk of allergic reaction to the drug in some patients (particularly those with asthma), but a similar incidence of allergic reactions has been observed by using other members of the same drug class (non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs).[3] The γ-cyclodextrin derivative sugammadex (trade name Bridion) has been recently introduced as a novel agent to reverse the action of rocuronium.[4] Sugammadex has been in use since 2009 in many European countries; however, it was turned down for approval twice by the US FDA due to concerns over allergic reactions and bleeding,[5] but finally approved the medication for use during surgical procedures in the United States on ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization ...
InChI=1S/C27H33NO10S/c1-12(30)28-16-7-5-13-9-18(37-27-24(34)23(33)22(32)19(11-29)38-27)25(35-2)26(36-3)21(13)14-6-8-20(39-4)17(31)10-15(14)16/h6,8-10,16,19,22-24,27,29,32-34H,5,7,11H2,1-4H3,(H,28,30)/t16-,19+,22+,23-,24+,27+/m0/s1 ...
Chlorisondamine • سیس آتراکوریوم • Coclaurine • Coronaridine • Dacuronium • Decamethonium • دکسترومتورفان • دکستروپروپوکسی‌فن ...
ನಿಕೋಟಿನ್‌ನ ಎಲ್‌ಡಿ50 ಪ್ರಮಾಣ ಇಲಿಗಳಿಗೆ 50 ಮಿಗ್ರಾ/ಕಿಗ್ರಾ ಮತ್ತು ಮೂಗಿಲಿಗಳಿಗೆ 3 ಮಿಗ್ರಾ/ಕಿಗ್ರಾ. 40-60 ಮಿಗ್ರಾಂ. (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) ಇದು ವಯಸ್ಕ ಮನುಷ್ಯರಿಗೆ ಘಾತಕ ಪ್ರಮಾಣವಾಗಿರುತ್ತದೆ.[೪೩][೪೪] ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ, ಕೊಕೈನ್‌ನಂತಹ ಇತರ ಕ್ಷಾರಗಳಿಗೆ ತುಲನೆ ಮಾಡಿ ನೋಡಿದಾದ ನಿಕೋಟಿನ್ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ವಿಷತ್ವವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದೆ, ಅದು ಮೈಸ್‌ಗೆ ನಿರ್ವಹಣೆ ಮಾಡಿ ನೋಡಿದಾಗ 95.1 ಮಿಗ್ರಾಂ/ಕಿಗ್ರಾಂ ನ LD50 ಪ್ರಮಾಣವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದೆ. ಆದಾಗ್ಯೂ, ಕೇವಲ ಧೂಮಪಾನದ ಮೂಲಕ ನಿಕೋಟಿನ್ ಅನ್ನು ಅತಿ ...
... ,4,5,6,7-Tetrachloro-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-2-[2-(trimethylammonio)ethyl]-2H-isoindolium dichloride,4,5,6 ...
Neurohumoral blockade was achieved with chlorisondamine (10 mg/kg), methscopolamine (0.5 mg/kg), captopril (1.0 mg/kg), and d( ...
Chlorisondamine has been shown to form noncovalent complexes with various biomolecules including sphingomyelin and other ... Woods, A. S.; Moyer, S. C.; Wang, H. Y. J.; Wise, R. A., "Interaction of chlorisondamine with the neuronal nicotinic ... Chlorisondamine is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist that produces both neuronal and ganglionic blockade. ...
in the precipitate comes from the chlorisondamine chloride.. To calculate the quantity of C. 14. H. 2. 0. Cl. 6. N. 2. which ... Chlorisondamine chloride (C14H20Cl6N2) is a drug used in the treatment of hypertension. A 1.28-g sample of a medication ... Chlorisondamine chloride (C 14 H 20 Cl 6 N 2 ) is a drug used in the treatment of hypertension. A 1.28-g sample of a medication ... 6 - Chlorisondamine chloride (C14H20Cl6N2) is a drug...Ch. 6 - Saccharin (C7H5NO3S) is sometimes dispensed in...Ch. 6 - ...
... effects of ganglionic blockade with chlorisondamine on acute high dose morphine-induced alterations in blood lymphocyte ...
6-Hydroxy-l-nicotine effects on anxiety and depression in a rat model of chlorisondamine. *Ioniţă R ... Nicotine versus 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine against chlorisondamine induced memory impairment and oxidative stress in the rat ...
What is Dry Eye?. A protective film of tears coats the eyes outer layer. New tears form in glands located around the eye and keep the moisture level in the eye balanced. This protective film is important for comfort and clear vision. Some people do not produce enough tears to keep the eyes wet and comfortable. This condition is known as dry eye, one of the most common eye conditions.. Causes of Dry Eye. Dry eye results from a variety of causes, but aging is the single highest factor. As people age, the production of tears decreases. Although it occurs in women and men, post-menopausal women are most affected.. Other causes of dry eye can include:. ...
Chlorisondamine and its salts. Adalimumab. Choriogonadotripin alfa. Adefovir. Cinacalcet and its salts. ...
Chlorisondamine / pharmacology. Disease Models, Animal*. Female. Guinea Pigs. Heart Failure / metabolism. Heart Ventricles / ...
Chlorisondamine pretreatment lowered BP and decreased HR (P,.05 each). In chlorisondamine-pretreated animals, ZnDPBG ... After pretreatment with chlorisondamine (5 mg/kg IP) or prazosin (5 mg/kg IP) to inhibit autonomic ganglionic or α1- ... Fig 3⇓ shows the data of MAP and HR before and after vehicle or ZnDPBG administration in rats pretreated with chlorisondamine ... In some experiments, the effect of ZnDPBG on the BP of rats pretreated with chlorisondamine was examined in animals receiving ...
Chlorisondamine diiodide 96750-66-2 sc-500792 sc-500792A 10 mg. 50 mg. $150.00 $560.00 0 ...
Chlorisondamine is a general autonomic ganglion-blocking agent and antagonizes transmission at the level of either ... The subcutaneous pretreatment with chlorisondamine diiodide (0.125 mg/kg in saline, 1 mL/kg; Tocris Cookson Ltd) was carried ... However, in our experiments, we stimulated efferent vagal fibers, and chlorisondamine prevented the effect of such vagus nerve ... Furthermore, the pretreatment with chlorisondamine, a peripheral nicotinic receptor-blocking agent,17 reverted the protective ...
... both before and after addition of chlorisondamine; then, after washing out the cadmium and chlorisondamine, they were measured ... In this trial chlorisondamine shortened EPSC decay 57% at low quantal content, and it subsequently shortened EPSC decay at high ... The open channel blocker chlorisondamine reduces α3*-nAChR EPSC decay times equally well at low and at high quantal content. A ... 5B1,B2). Over 6 experiments chlorisondamine shortened EPSC decay by a similar extent at low and at high quantal content (47 ± ...
Cardiovascular Effects of Nicotine, Chlorisondamine, and Mecamylamine in the Pigeon Kathryn K. Chadman and James H. Woods ...
Thus, in contrast to the effects of chlorisondamine on blood lymphocyte proliferation, chlorisondamine did not antagonize the ... High doses of chlorisondamine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) have been reported to produce prolonged blockade of central nicotinic receptors ... However, the lower doses of chlorisondamine used in the present study (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) had no effect on the stimulation of the ... Animals (n = 5-6 per group) were pretreated with either saline or chlorisondamine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before a 1-h ...
Block of Glutamatergic Excitatory Synaptic Channels by Chlorisondamine CHRIS LINGLE, JUDITH S. EISEN and EVE MARDER ...
To block neural transmission at sympathetic ganglia, chlorisondamine (3.0 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 60 min before ...
of chlorisondamine chloride, are prepared from the following ingredients: Gm. 6-amino 1,2 dihydro-1-hydroxy-2-imino-4- ... chlorisondamine chloride -100 mg; peripheral vasodilators such as hydralazine 10-100 mg., beta-pyridyl carbinol -150 mg, ... piperidinopyrimidine free base 500 Chlorisondamine chloride 250 Lactose 1200 Corn starch 500 Talc 500 Calcium stearate 25 The ...
Louis, MO) or chlorisondamine (Novartis, Summit, NJ). Blood was collected 30 min after the injections for plasma glucagon, ... Indeed, blocking ganglionic transmission with hexamethonium or chlorisondamine rapidly led glucagon levels of mutant mice to ... or chlorisondamine (Chlo). Blood was collected for glucagon, insulin, and glucose measurements 30 min later. A: Ganglionic ... fed mutant mice were injected with the ganglionic blockers hexamethonium and chlorisondamine. Both drugs lead to a rapid return ...
... negative control in which chlorisondamine was applied only between but not during nicotine applications (i.e., chlorisondamine ... Chlorisondamine has been commonly used as an open channel blocker of nAChRs (Amador and Dani, 1995; Hicks et al., 2000). At 20 ... 8B). The reduction was consistent with an open channel blockade because it did not occur if the chlorisondamine was applied ... B, combined results from neurons tested with nicotine at 30-s intervals before and during chlorisondamine treatment (20 μM; ...
... effects on noradrenergic activity in a variety of tissues that can be blocked with the ganglion blocker chlorisondamine (39). ...
... with chlorisondamine) or postjunctional alpha 1-adrenergic receptors (with prazosin) or the depletion of peripheral ... the fall in blood pressure after prazosin pretreatment was significantly smaller than that after chlorisondamine or ...
... curariform agents such as chlorisondamine and the like, tranquilizers and muscle relaxants such as fluphenazine, chlorpromazine ...
2015) showed that the intravenous injection of chlorisondamine decreased the mean arterial pressure (MAP), SNA, tachycardia, ... and littermate control mice before and after sympathetic ganglionic blockade with chlorisondamine. Ganglionic blockade reduced ... via intracerebroventricular infusions of 0.6 mol/l or 1 mol/l after sympathetic ganglionic blockade with chlorisondamine to ...
Studies with the ganglionic blocking agent chlorisondamine generally support the thesis that changes in NE turnover in pancreas ... Studies with the ganglionic blocking agent chlorisondamine generally support the thesis that changes in NE turnover in pancreas ... Studies with the ganglionic blocking agent chlorisondamine generally support the thesis that changes in NE turnover in pancreas ... Studies with the ganglionic blocking agent chlorisondamine generally support the thesis that changes in NE turnover in pancreas ...
... chlorisondamine MeSH D03.438.473.231 --- cytochalasins MeSH D03.438.473.231.370 --- cytochalasin b MeSH D03.438.473.231.450 ...
Regulation of nicotinic receptors in rat brain following quasi-irreversible nicotinic blockade by chlorisondamine and chronic ...
Toxic effect of chlorisondamine in neonatal rat liver.. PMID 7104045 Read Full Text ...
  • Chlorisondamine is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist that produces both neuronal and ganglionic blockade. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorisondamine, a nicotinic receptor antagonist, abated the effects of vagal stimulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition, the quaternary ganglionic antagonist chlorisondamine was used to determine the relative contribution of peripheral and central nicotinic receptors in the modulation of lymphocyte activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Moreover, the dexamethasone effect was totally blocked by chlorisondamine, a nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonist. (mysciencework.com)
  • Moreover, administration of chlorisondamine abrogated the inhibitory effects of a high-fat nutrition on the parameters previously evaluated, suggesting that inhibition of inflammation was mediated by stimulation of nicotinic receptors by way of efferent vagal fibers. (lucastafur.com)
  • Our data suggest that the antiamnesic effect of nicotine can result from an action at nicotinic receptors subtypes not blocked by chlorisondamine or at nonnicotinic receptors. (propecia2020.site)
  • Studies with the ganglionic blocking agent chlorisondamine generally support the thesis that changes in NE turnover in pancreas and liver reflect changes in sympathetic activity, the only discrepancy occurring in the liver during sucrose feeding. (northwestern.edu)
  • Blockade of the sympathetic transmission by chlorisondamine prevented the inhibitory effect of morphine on TNF-α production. (elsevier.com)
  • Pretreatment with the quaternary ganglionic antagonist chlorisondamine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), completely blocked the effect of epibatidine on blood lymphocytes without altering the elevation of corticosterone levels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Chlorisondamine chloride (C 14 H 20 Cl 6 N 2 ) is a drug used in the treatment of hypertension. (bartleby.com)
  • Calculate the mass percent of chlorisondamine chloride in the medication, assuming the drug is the only source of chloride. (bartleby.com)
  • The mass percent of chlorisondamine chloride has to be determined. (bartleby.com)
  • The Cl - in the precipitate comes from the chlorisondamine chloride. (bartleby.com)
  • Such bradycardic response could not be prevented by yohimbine, chlorisondamine or atropine, even they potentiated guanfacine bradycardia. (who.int)
  • To block neural transmission at sympathetic ganglia, chlorisondamine (3.0 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 60 min before IL-1 infusion. (jneurosci.org)
  • The role of the sympathetic nervous system on morphine-mediated effects was investigated by using the ganglionic blocker chlorisondamine. (elsevier.com)
  • Reversal of acute effects of high dose morphine on lymphocyte activity by chlorisondamine. (wizdom.ai)
  • Our results show that chlorisondamine was able to only partially reverse morphine's inhibitory effects. (elsevier.com)
  • The effects of lipid-rich nutrition were negated by nAChR blockers chlorisondamine and alpha-bungarotoxin and vagal intestinal denervation. (ru.nl)
  • Significantly, in the freshly decentralized ganglia, the increase of tyrosine hydroxylase activity by dexamethasone was still blocked by chlorisondamine. (mysciencework.com)