Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing): A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 220.127.116.11.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Deuteroporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.Heme Oxygenase-1: A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Biliverdine: 1,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-4,5-dicarboxyethyl-2,8-divinylbilenone. Biosynthesized from hemoglobin as a precursor of bilirubin. Occurs in the bile of AMPHIBIANS and of birds, but not in normal human bile or serum.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.Metalloporphyrins: Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.Shock, Hemorrhagic: Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.Shock: A pathological condition manifested by failure to perfuse or oxygenate vital organs.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Hypovolemia: An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Nicotinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Behavioral Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)ScotlandOsteosclerosis: An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Intubation: Introduction of a tube into a hollow organ to restore or maintain patency if obstructed. It is differentiated from CATHETERIZATION in that the insertion of a catheter is usually performed for the introducing or withdrawing of fluids from the body.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.DelawarePatents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.CycloheptanesSister Mary Joseph's Nodule: Metastatic lesion of the UMBILICUS associated with intra-abdominal neoplasms especially of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or OVARY.Williams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Umbilicus: The pit in the center of the ABDOMINAL WALL marking the point where the UMBILICAL CORD entered in the FETUS.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Professional Corporations: Legally authorized corporations owned and managed by one or more professionals (medical, dental, legal) in which the income is ascribed primarily to the professional activities of the owners or stockholders.Cysteine Loop Ligand-Gated Ion Channel Receptors: A subfamily of ligand-gated ion channel receptors that share a characteristic loop which is formed by a disulfide bond between two CYSTEINE residues. These receptors typically contain five subunits with the cysteine-loop occurring near an N-terminal extracellular domain.Ligand-Gated Ion Channels: A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3: A subclass of serotonin receptors that form cation channels and mediate signal transduction by depolarizing the cell membrane. The cation channels are formed from 5 receptor subunits. When stimulated the receptors allow the selective passage of SODIUM; POTASSIUM; and CALCIUM.Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Allosteric Site: A site on an enzyme which upon binding of a modulator, causes the enzyme to undergo a conformational change that may alter its catalytic or binding properties.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.N-Methylscopolamine: A muscarinic antagonist used to study binding characteristics of muscarinic cholinergic receptors.Gallamine Triethiodide: A synthetic nondepolarizing blocking drug. The actions of gallamine triethiodide are similar to those of TUBOCURARINE, but this agent blocks the cardiac vagus and may cause sinus tachycardia and, occasionally, hypertension and increased cardiac output. It should be used cautiously in patients at risk from increased heart rate but may be preferred for patients with bradycardia. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p198)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Libraries, MedicalProtein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Pivotal role of nitric oxide in the control of blood pressure after leptin administration. (1/81)Leptin administration has been shown to increase renal, adrenal, and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity. However, this generalized sympathoexcitatory activity is not always followed by an increase in arterial pressure. The present study tested the hypothesis that leptin induces a release of nitric oxide (NO) that opposes the pressor effect of sympathoexcitation. The effect of intravenous administration of leptin (10, 100, and 1,000 microg/kg body wt) or vehicle on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and serum nitrite/nitrate concentrations of anesthetized Wistar rats was examined. At 90 min after injection, the three leptin doses tested increased serum NO concentrations 20.5, 33.1, and 89.5%, respectively (P < 0.001 vs. baseline). The effect of leptin on NO concentrations was significantly dose-dependent on linear trend testing (P = 0.0001). In contrast, leptin did not change serum nitrite/nitrate concentrations of fa/fa rats. Leptin administration to Wistar rats under NO synthesis inhibition (N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester [L-NAME]) produced a statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in both systolic BP and mean arterial pressure as well as in HR (P < 0.01). Injection of leptin into rats with pharmacologically induced ganglionic blockade (chlorisondamine) was followed by a decrease in BP and HR to values significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those observed with chlorisondamine treatment alone. The leptin-induced hypotension observed in the setting of ganglionic blockade was blocked by L-NAME. These findings raise the possibility that the leptin-induced release of NO may contribute to the homeostasis of BP. (+info)
Thermogenic effects of sibutramine and its metabolites. (2/81)1. The thermogenic activity of the serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor sibutramine (BTS 54524; Reductil) was investigated by measuring oxygen consumption (VO2) in rats treated with sibutramine or its two pharmacologically-active metabolites. 2. Sibutramine caused a dose-dependent rise in VO2, with a dose of 10 mg kg(-1) of sibutramine or its metabolites producing increases of up to 30% that were sustained for at least 6 h, and accompanied by significant increases (0.5-1.0 degrees C) in body temperature. 3. Based on the accumulation in vivo of radiolabelled 2-deoxy-[3H]-glucose, sibutramine had little or no effect on glucose utilization in most tissues, but caused an 18 fold increase in brown adipose tissue (BAT). 4. Combined high, non-selective doses (20 mg kg(-1)) of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, atenolol and ICI 118551, inhibited completely the VO2 response to sibutramine, but the response was unaffected by low, beta1-adrenoceptor-selective (atenolol) or beta2-adrenoceptor-selective (ICI 118551) doses (1 mg kg(-1)). 5. The ganglionic blocking agent, chlorisondamine (15 mg kg(-1)), inhibited completely the VO2 response to the metabolites of sibutramine, but had no effect on the thermogenic response to the beta3-adrenoceptor-selective agonist BRL 35135. 6. Similar thermogenic responses were produced by simultaneous injection of nisoxetine and fluoxetine at doses (30 mg kg(-1)) that had no effect on VO2 when injected individually. 7. It is concluded that stimulation of thermogenesis by sibutramine requires central reuptake inhibition of both serotonin and noradrenaline, resulting in increased efferent sympathetic activation of BAT thermogenesis via beta3-adrenoceptor, and that this contributes to the compound's activity as an anti-obesity agent. (+info)
AV3V lesions attenuate the cardiovascular responses produced by blood-borne excitatory amino acid analogs. (3/81)Systemic injections of the excitatory amino acid (EAA) analogs, kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), produce a pressor response in conscious rats that is caused by a centrally mediated activation of sympathetic drive and the release of arginine vasopressin (AVP). This study tested the hypothesis that the tissue surrounding the anteroventral part of the third ventricle (AV3V) plays a role in the expression of the pressor responses produced by systemically injected EAA analogs. Specifically, we examined whether prior electrolytic ablation of the AV3V region would affect the pressor responses to KA and NMDA (1 mg/kg iv) in conscious rats. The KA-induced pressor response was smaller in AV3V-lesioned than in sham-lesioned rats (11 +/- 2 vs. 29 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). After ganglion blockade, KA produced a pressor response in sham-lesioned but not AV3V-lesioned rats (+27 +/- 3 vs. +1 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). The KA-induced pressor response in ganglion-blocked sham-lesioned rats was abolished by a vasopressin V1-receptor antagonist. Similar results were obtained with NMDA. The pressor response to AVP (10 ng/kg iv) was slightly smaller in AV3V-lesioned than in sham-lesioned ganglion-blocked rats (45 +/- 3 vs. 57 +/- 4 mmHg; P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that the pressor responses to systemically injected EAA analogs are smaller in AV3V-lesioned rats. The EAA analogs may produce pressor responses by stimulation of EAA receptors in the AV3V region, or the AV3V region may play an important role in the expression of these responses. (+info)
Opposing adrenergic actions of intravenous metformin on arterial pressure in female spontaneously hypertensive rats. (4/81)OBJECTIVE: Intravenous (i.v.) injection of the antidiabetic drug metformin rapidly lowers mean arterial pressure (MAP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). However, if autonomic ganglia or alpha-adrenoceptors are first blocked then metformin rapidly raises MAP in SHR. This study was conducted to further characterize the adrenergic mechanisms of these opposing i.v. actions of the drug. METHODS: Conscious, undisturbed female SHR with indwelling vascular catheters were used to measure acute effects of i.v. metformin (100 mg/kg; before and after sustained ganglionic blockade, GB, with chlorisondamine, 5 mg/kg) on: (1) circulating levels of catecholamines, (2) MAP after pharmacologic modulation of beta- as well as alpha-adrenoceptors and (3) all the above in the absence as well as presence of the adrenal medulla. RESULTS: Plasma norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) levels (pg/ml) were rapidly increased by i.v. metformin (8 SHR, p < 0.05) both before GB (delta NE = +146 +/- 41; delta E = +119 +/- 31) and after GB (delta NE = +79 +/- 24; delta E = +120 +/- 32). Similar increases in plasma NE (though not E) were seen in SHR without adrenal medullae. Blockade of beta-adrenoceptors with propranolol (pro; 3 mg/kg, 8 SHR) enhanced the rapid depressor response to i.v. metformin before GB (delta MAP, mmHg: -38 +/- 4 with pro vs -17 +/- 3 without pro; p < 0.05) and attenuated the rapid pressor response to i.v. metformin after GB (delta MAP, mmHg: +8 +/- 3 with pro vs +30 +/- 4 without pro; p < 0.05). Results were similar in SHR without adrenal medullae. Finally, if baseline MAP under GB was raised back to hypertensive levels with i.v. infusion of either NE or phenylephrine then i.v. metformin did not raise but rather reduced MAP in SHR. CONCLUSION(S): The acute depressor action of i.v. metformin in female SHR (1) is most likely due to a direct vasodilator action which includes inhibition of alpha-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction and (2) is buffered by an acute beta-receptor-mediated pressor action likely due to a direct metformin-induced release of NE from postganglionic sympathetic nerve endings. (+info)
Reward and somatic changes during precipitated nicotine withdrawal in rats: centrally and peripherally mediated effects. (5/81)The negative affective aspects of nicotine withdrawal have been hypothesized to contribute to tobacco dependence. In the present studies in rats, brain stimulation reward thresholds, conditioned place aversions, and somatic signs of withdrawal were used to investigate the role of central and peripheral nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid receptors in nicotine withdrawal. Rats prepared with s.c. osmotic mini-pumps delivering 9.0 mg/kg/day nicotine hydrogen tartrate or saline were administered various doses of the nicotinic antagonists mecamylamine (s.c.), chlorisondamine (s. c. or i.c.v.), dihydro-beta-erythroidine (s.c.), or the opiate antagonist naloxone (s.c.). Nicotine-treated rats receiving mecamylamine or i.c.v. chlorisondamine exhibited elevated thresholds and more somatic signs than saline-treated rats. Nicotine-treated rats receiving s.c. chlorisondamine, at doses that do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier, exhibited more somatic signs than saline-treated rats with no threshold elevations. Naloxone administration produced threshold elevations and somatic signs only at high doses that induced similar magnitude effects in both nicotine- and saline-treated subjects. Mecamylamine or dihydro-beta-erythroidine administration induced conditioned place aversions in nicotine-treated rats but required higher doses than those needed to precipitate threshold elevations. In contrast, naloxone administration induced conditioned place aversions at lower doses than those required to precipitate threshold elevations and somatic signs. These data provide evidence for a dissociation between centrally mediated elevations in reward thresholds and somatic signs that are both centrally and peripherally mediated. Furthermore, threshold elevations and somatic signs of withdrawal appear to be mediated by cholinergic neurotransmission, whereas conditioned place aversions appear to be primarily mediated by the opioid system. (+info)
Effects of nicotine and chlorisondamine on cerebral glucose utilization in immobilized and freely-moving rats. (6/81)Chlorisondamine blocks central nicotinic receptors for many weeks via an unknown mechanism. Intracerebroventricular administration of [(3)H]-chlorisondamine in rats results in an anatomically restricted and persistent intracellular accumulation of radioactivity. The initial aim of the present study was to test whether nicotinic receptor antagonism by chlorisondamine is also anatomically restricted. Male adult rats were pretreated several times with nicotine to avoid the disruptive effects of the drug seen in drug-naive animals. They then received chlorisondamine (10 microg i. c.v.) or saline, and local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) was measured 4 weeks later after acute nicotine (0.4 mg kg(-1) s.c.) or saline administration. During testing, rats were partially immobilized. Nicotine significantly increased LCGU in the anteroventral thalamus and in superior colliculus. Chlorisondamine completely blocked the first of these effects. Chlorisondamine significantly reduced LCGU in the lateral habenula, substantia nigra pars compacta, ventral tegmental area, and cerebellar granular layer. The second experiment was of similar design, but the rats were not pre-exposed to nicotine, and were tested whilst freely-moving. Acute nicotine significantly increased LCGU in anteroventral thalamus, superior colliculus, medial habenula and dorsal lateral geniculate. Overall, however, nicotine significantly decreased LCGU. Most or all of the central effects of nicotine on LCGU were reversed by chlorisondamine given 4 weeks beforehand. These findings suggest that chlorisondamine blocks nicotinic effects widely within the brain. They also indicate that in freely-moving rats, nicotine can reduce or stimulate cerebral glucose utilization, depending on the brain area. British Journal of Pharmacology (2000) 129, 147 - 155 (+info)
Activation of antigen-specific CD4+ Th2 cells and B cells in vivo increases norepinephrine release in the spleen and bone marrow. (7/81)The neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) binds to the beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) expressed on various immune cells to influence cell homing, proliferation, and function. Previous reports showed that NE stimulation of the B cell beta 2AR is necessary for the maintenance of an optimal primary and secondary Th2 cell-dependent Ab response in vivo. In the present study we investigated the mechanism by which activation of Ag-specific CD4+ Th2 cells and B cells in vivo by a soluble protein Ag increases NE release in the spleen and bone marrow. Our model system used scid mice that were reconstituted with a clone of keyhole limpet hemocyanin-specific Th2 cells and trinitrophenyl-specific B cells. Following immunization, the rate of NE release in the spleen and bone marrow was determined using [3H]NE turnover analysis. Immunization of reconstituted scid mice with a cognate Ag increased the rate of NE release in the spleen and bone marrow 18-25 h, but not 1-8 h, following immunization. In contrast, immunization of mice with a noncognate Ag had no effect on the rate of NE release at any time. The cognate Ag-induced increase in NE release was partially blocked by ganglionic blockade with chlorisondamine, suggesting a role for both pre- and postganglionic signals in regulating NE release. Thus, activation of Ag-specific Th2 cells and B cells in vivo by a soluble protein Ag increases the rate of NE release and turnover in the spleen and bone marrow 18-25 h after immunization. (+info)
Possible contribution of central gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors to resting vascular tone in freely moving rats. (8/81)Previous studies have shown that central administration of GABA (gamma -aminobutyric acid), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, preferentially reduces hindquarters and carotid vascular resistances but not renal and coeliac vascular resistances in conscious rats. This study tested the hypothesis that these preferential actions of central GABA receptors are related to differences between vessels in resting autonomic vascular tone in freely moving rats. Rats were chronically implanted with intracisternal cannulas and/or electromagnetic probes to measure regional blood flows. In response to GABA administration, the changes in vascular resistance (arterial blood pressure/regional blood flow) of the hindquarters (n = 23) and carotid (n = 12) vascular beds were significantly and negatively correlated with basal vascular resistance. No such relationship was found for the renal (n = 21), coeliac (n = 13) and superior mesenteric (n = 23) vascular beds. This finding indicates that the responsiveness to GABA of brainstem pathways controlling the hindquarters and carotid vascular beds co-varies with resting resistance in hindquarters and carotid vessels. A similar analysis was performed, correlating the ongoing vascular resistance of each vessel with its response to ganglionic blockade by chlorisondamine. In this case, a significant negative correlation was also found for the hindquarters (n = 26) and carotid (n = 15) vascular beds, but not for the coeliac (n = 17) or superior mesenteric (n = 19) vessels. Together, these findings suggest that central GABA receptors accessible from the cisterna magna preferentially affect two vascular beds which, in the freely moving rat, show resting autonomic vascular tone. (+info)
... has been shown to form noncovalent complexes with various biomolecules including sphingomyelin and other ... Woods, A. S.; Moyer, S. C.; Wang, H. Y. J.; Wise, R. A., "Interaction of chlorisondamine with the neuronal nicotinic ... Chlorisondamine is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist that produces both neuronal and ganglionic blockade. ...
List of MeSH codes (D03)
... chlorisondamine MeSH D03.438.473.231 --- cytochalasins MeSH D03.438.473.231.370 --- cytochalasin b MeSH D03.438.473.231.450 ...
List of MeSH codes (D02)
... chlorisondamine MeSH D02.092.877.883.277 --- chlormequat MeSH D02.092.877.883.333 --- choline MeSH D02.092.877.883.333.100 --- ... chlorisondamine MeSH D02.675.276.207 --- chlormequat MeSH D02.675.276.210 --- (4-(m-chlorophenylcarbamoyloxy)-2-butynyl) ...
... hexamethonium pentolinium mecamylamine trimetaphan tubocurarine pempidine benzohexonium chlorisondamine pentamine Nicotinic ...
List of drugs: Cf-Ch
... chlorisondamine chloride (INN) chlormadinone (INN) chlormerodrin (197 Hg) (INN) chlormerodrin (INN) chlormethine (INN) ...
The possibility of differentiating between chromaffin vesicles with different catecholamine contents was tested by studying the distribution of rabbit adrenal dopamine β-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.21) and catecholamines, and the buoyant densities of the catecholamine storage vesicles after isopycnic centrifugation of crude storage vesicle fractions in sucrose density gradients. Catecholamine storage vesicles were prepared from adrenal glands of untreated rabbits, rabbits which had received chlorisondamine chloride (10/kg intraperitoneally) to block ganglionic transmission, and rabbits which had received both chlorisondamine chloride and reserpine (1 mg kg). Adrenal glands were examined 1 day after treatmenmt with chlorisondamine and 1 and 8 days after combined treatment with chlorisondamine and reserpine. Intact storage vesicles obtained from glands of untreated animals had a specific gravity of 1.27, while the membranes obtained from vesicles lysed in distilled water had a specific gravity of 1.12. ...
Role of sympathetic nerve activity in the generation of vascular nitric oxide in urethane-anesthetized rats. | Hypertension
The aim of the present study was to examine the involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in the generation or release of vascular nitric oxide. In urethane-anesthetized rats, the administration of the novel nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor L-N-nitro arginine (LNA) (0.02 mmol/kg i.v.) increased mean arterial pressure and renal, mesenteric, and hindquarter vascular resistances. The intravenous administration of L-arginine (60 mg/kg plus 12 mg/kg/min i.v.) produced small reductions in arterial pressure and vascular resistances and abolished the hemodynamic effects of LNA. Pretreatment with the ganglion blocking agent chlorisondamine lowered mean arterial pressure and vascular resistances, abolished the LNA-induced pressor and renal vasoconstrictor response, and attenuated the increases in mesenteric and hindquarter resistances. In contrast, the vasodilator hydralazine lowered mean arterial pressure and vascular resistances to levels equivalent to that of ganglionic blockade; however, the ...
Autoregulation of blood flow in various organ systems is a well-documented phenomenon. However, the net effect of these regional autoregulatory responses on the systemic circulation has not been studied in conscious rats despite the now extensive use of rats in cardiovascular research. The ability of the systemic circulation to autoregulate cardiac output has been proposed to play an important role in the development of increased vascular resistance in volume-dependent forms of hypertension. To better understand these events, we characterized responses to acute increases and decreases in blood volume in conscious areflexic rats that were chronically instrumented with arterial and venous catheters and an electromagnetic flow probe around the ascending aorta. Neurohumoral blockade was achieved with chlorisondamine (10 mg/kg), methscopolamine (0.5 mg/kg), captopril (1.0 mg/kg), and d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)arginine vasopressin (10 micrograms/kg). Mean arterial pressure was restored to normal levels with a ...
With a social media campaign in full swing, Elmhurst continues to encourage residents to take a short online survey about concerns with airplane noise from OHare International Airport.
Infrasonic crackle and supersonic jet noise from the eruption of Nabro Volcano, Eritrea - Fee - 2013 - Geophysical Research...
7] We perform ray tracing to model infrasound propagation from Nabro to IS19 (Figure 1b). Sound energy propagates up to the thermosphere before it is refracted back down between ~110 and 130 km altitude. Rays are predicted to reach the ground just beyond Nabro at 274 km distance with a travel time of 1237 s (~20.6 min). Although the predicted rays do not directly reach the station, the modeling does not account for frequency-dependent propagation effects such as diffraction and the separation distance is within the accuracy limitations of the atmospheric specifications [Drob et al., 2003; Matoza et al., 2011; Assink et al., 2012]. Thermospheric propagation is consistent with the observed high trace velocities (mean 0.38 km/s, Figure S1b in the supporting information) and is expected at this range and equatorial location [Assink et al., 2012]..  Infrasound from the first few days of the eruption consists of high-amplitude signals lasting a few hours. Figure 1c displays 24 h of IS19 infrasound ...
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This paper reports on an investigation of a novel approach to the cooling of brake discs, based on the application of impinging air jets. This has the capacity to enhance the heat transfer coefficients at the disc surface ...
1 Radiation. Approximately 85 percent of the parathyroid glands are found within 1 cm of the junction of the inferior thyroid artery and recurrent laryngeal nerves. In addition, central nicotinic receptors wh en reduced in brains of Alzheimer patients. A.
It is the purpose of this note to study the application of cross - correlation techniques to determine the overall frequency response to random forces of a typical aerospace vehicle structure. The effect of truncation of the cross correlation function in the estimated cross spectrum is discussed with reference to a single degree of freedom system excited by white noise. Application to multi degree of freedom systems is discussed and an ullustration is given of the use of the technique in the analysis of panel vibration in a typical rear fuselage excited by jet noise. (Author)(*JET ENGINE NOISE
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Benzenesulfonamides act as open-channel blockers on KV3.1 potassium channel | Springer for Research & Development
KV3.1 blockers can serve as modulators of the rate of action potential firing in neurons with high rates of firing such as those of the auditory system. We studied the effects of several bioisosteres...
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Without available direct measurements, the only method of assessing the impact of a completely new aircraft or power-plant design is to utilize a reliable prediction procedure. Such a procedure may be able to make use if a limited amount of directly relevant data, for instance, engine test data, or may have to rely entirely upon empirical component prediction procedures. Traditional aircraft noise prediction procedures based on engine static noise data are generally costly in time, since the engine source separation process is not a straightforward task, demanding several side routines to make it feasible. This paper attempts to present a new and simplified approach to assess community noise levels of a new aircraft design based on static engine noise data. The simplified procedure proposes an alternative to the complete engine source separation process, based on the definition of master parameters like jet noise cut-off frequencies, tonal frequencies and resultant broadband spectra ...
1 mCi quantities of Levo-[ring-2, 5, 6-3H]-Norepinephrine are available for your research. Application of [3H]Norepinephrine can be found in: paroxetine binding to the rat transporter in vivo in neuropsychopharmacology; endobain E decreasing uptake in rat hypothalamus in life science research, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated release in neuropharmacolgy, effect of (-)-BPAP, a selective enhancer of the impulse propagation mediated release of catecholamines and serotonin in neuropsychopharmacology, etc.. ...
Verapamil preserves myocardial contractility in the hereditary cardiomyopathy of the Syrian hamster. | Circulation Research
We attempted to alter the inherited myocardial damage and loss of contractility of the cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster (strain U-MX7-1) by giving cardiac drugs that altered intracellular calcium and myocardial workload. Thirty-seven 21-day-old cardiomyopathic and thirty-seven 21-day-old normal hamsters were divided into five groups each: verapamil-, propranolol-, digoxin-, hydralazine-, and saline-injected. On their 90th day of life, the hamsters were killed. Of the five cardiomyopathic groups, only verapamil reduced myocardial damage. When both "control" and cardiomyopathic hamsters were treated with saline, digoxin, or propranolol, the cardiomyopathic hamsters had significantly less contractile force, maximal rate of force development, and maximum velocity of unloaded shortening. When both groups were treated with verapamil or hydralazine, there were no significant group differences in the indices of contractility. However, when saline-treated cardiomyopathic hamsters were compared with ...
1. The threshold pain stimulus was elevated in cats after doses of 3.0-15.0 mgm. per kilogram of body weight of 2-amino-6-methylheptane hydrochloride intraperitoneally.. 2. Local anesthesia was produced by tropical application of solutions of the hydrochloride or free base of 2-amino-6-methylheptane to rabbits eyes.. 3. Intravenously in dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, 2-amino-6-methylheptane hydrochloride exhibited 1/500-1/1000 the pressor activity of epinephrine.. 4. As determined with a Cushny Myocardiograph, 2-amino-6-methylheptane hydrochloride was found to cause an increase in cardiac rate and amplitude of contraction.. 5. Intravenously in dogs, anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, doses of 0.5 to 1.0 mgm. per kilogram of body weight of 2-amino-6-methylheptane hydrochloride had no detectable effect on the small intestine, detrusor of the urinary bladder, urine secretion or respiration.. 6. In general, concentrations of 1:10,000 to 1:200,000 of 2-amino-6-methylheptane ...
Vibrissae were cut ∼2.5 cm from the skin, and the whisker that most effectively drove a cell [the principal whisker (PW)] was identified by manual deflection under a dissecting microscope. Then, the PW was deflected in the ventrocaudal direction with a 50 ms air jet generated by a Picospitzer (40 psi; interstimulus interval, 1 s; General Valve, Brooshire, TX) connected to a glass capillary (tip diameter, ∼500 μm). The tip of the capillary was positioned at a distance of 4-5 cm of the vibrissae, and the air jet was directed away from the rats face to avoid as much as possible stimulating other orofacial afferents. This created a cone-shaped air puff that deflected six to seven whiskers about the PW. The delay between the command voltage and the actual motion of vibrissae was measured by placing a piezoelectric film (Measurement Specialties, Fairfield, NJ) at the same distance from the tip of the capillary. This delay was subtracted from the recordings to build poststimulus time histograms ...
... - observations as described in ASTM. D • Cargo air jets are typically pressurized to about 75 kPa, which is normal atmospheric pressure at an altitude of.
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Urologist Dr. Aaron Spitz explains the no-needle, no-scalpel vasectomy procedure: Instead of using a needle to numb the scrotum, an air jet device is used to spray anesthesia directly into the scrotum and vas deferens; instead of using a scalpel to...
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Trimetaphan is a sulfonium compound and therefore carries a positive charge. Being charged, it cannot cross lipid cell membranes, such as those that comprise the blood-brain barrier. Due to this, trimethaphan does not have any effect on the central nervous system. The ciliary muscle of the eye functions to round the lens for accommodation and is controlled mainly by parasympathetic system input. With administration of a ganglion-blocking drug, the ciliary muscle cannot contract (cycloplegia) and the patient loses the ability to focus their eyes. Trimetaphan has a strong effect on the cardiovascular system. The size of blood vessels is primarily controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. Loss of sympathetic system input to the blood vessels causes them to get larger (vasodilation) which has the effect of lowering blood pressure. Postural hypotension is a common side effect of such drugs. Trimethaphan causes a histamine release which further lowers blood pressure. Effects on the heart include a ...
A ganglionic blocker (or ganglioplegic) is a type of medication that inhibits transmission between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons in the Autonomic Nervous System, often by acting as a nicotinic receptor antagonist. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are found on skeletal muscle, but also within the route of transmission for the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (which together comprise the autonomic nervous system). More specifically, nicotinic receptors are found within the ganglia of the autonomic nervous system, allowing outgoing signals to be transmitted from the presynaptic to the postsynaptic cells. Thus, for example, blocking nicotinic acetylcholine receptors blocks both sympathetic (excitatory) and parasympathetic (calming) stimulation of the heart. The nicotinic antagonist hexamethonium, for example, does this by blocking the transmission of outgoing signals across the autonomic ganglia at the postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Because ganglionic ...
Calcium transport properties of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum from cardiomyopathic Syrian hamsters (BIO 53.58 and 14.6):...
Calcium uptake was measured in homogenates and microsomal preparations enriched in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from hearts of hypertrophic (BIO 14.6) and dilated (BIO 53.58) cardiomyopathic as well as control (F1B) Syrian hamsters at 3, 7, 9, and 11 months of age. Calcium uptake studies were done using the Millipore filtration technique under conditions known to restrict transport to the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Steady-state calcium uptake capacity was used as a measure of the relative amounts of sarcoplasmic reticulum in homogenates prepared from individual hearts. At 3 months of age, there were no differences in calcium uptake in homogenates from control or myopathic hearts. However, by 9 months, although calcium uptake of homogenates from control and hypertrophic hearts was the same, calcium uptake by homogenates from dilated hearts was significantly depressed both in initial rate and capacity. Similar trends were seen in the microsomal vesicle preparations, but the decrease in ...
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Frontiers | The Autonomic Nervous System Regulates the Heart Rate through cAMP-PKA Dependent and Independent Coupled-Clock...
Sinoatrial nodal cells (SANCs) generate spontaneous action potentials (APs) that control the cardiac rate. The brain modulates SANC automaticity, via the autonomic nervous system, by stimulating membrane receptors that activate (adrenergic) or inactivate (cholinergic) adenylyl cyclase (AC). However, these opposing afferents are not simply additive. We showed that activation of adrenergic signaling increases AC-cAMP/PKA signaling, which mediates the increase in the SANC AP firing rate (i.e., positive chronotropic modulation). However, there is a limited understanding of the underlying internal pacemaker mechanisms involved in the crosstalk between cholinergic receptors and the decrease in the SANC AP firing rate (i.e., negative chronotropic modulation). We hypothesize that changes in AC-cAMP/PKA activity are crucial for mediating either decrease or increase in the AP firing rate and that the change in rate is due to both internal and membrane mechanisms. In cultured adult rabbit pacemaker cells infected
Electrical and Dynamic Responses of the Human Hyperkinetic Heart to Sympathetic Stimuli | Clinical Science
1. The elevated beta-receptor responsiveness to adrenergic stimuli makes subjects with the primary hyperkinetic cardiac syndrome ideal for studying the electrical and dynamic responses of the heart to sympathetic activation.. 2. In twelve men presenting with the syndrome, the effects of mental arithmetic and painful (cold) stress on the cardiac inotropic state were tested and correlated with the concomitant electrocardiographic changes.. 3. Arithmetic and cold evoked responses opposite and divergent from the base-line state: The former induced vasodilatation, enhancement of cardiac rate, output, contractility and deep T wave inversion; the latter caused vasoconstriction, cardiac depression and full restoration of repolarization.. 4. The sympathetic outflow elicited by stress is not generalized, but selectively directed to different circulatory levels in relation to the stimulus at work; cardiac sympathetic stimulation or inhibition has opposite effects on the repolarization phase.. ...
Senecioylcholine (β,β-dimethylacrylylcholine, SCh) was synthesized from choline bromide and senecioyl chloride.. Senecioylcholine was found to be a ganglion stimulant. A number of its actions are described: 1. SCh produced a pressor response in the absence of atropine. This effect was partially blocked by adrenalectomy and almost completely abolished by ganglionic blockade. 2. The pressor response to SCh was reversed by adrenergic blockade. 3. SCh produced a contraction of the nictitating membrane. This action was antagonized by ganglionic blockade. 4. SCh produced contractions of the isolated frog rectus abdominis.. The results are discussed in terms of known structure-activity relationships.. ...
Ganglionic Blockade Improves Neurologic Outcome from Incomplete Ischemia in Rats:Partial Reversal by Exogenous Catecholamines |...
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Effects of Long-term Smoking on Myocardial Blood Flow, Coronary Vasomotion, and Vasodilator Capacity | Circulation
Abnormalities in coronary vasomotion in response to coronary risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and age are thought to precede coronary atherosclerosis.23 A significant correlation between the coronary vasomotor response to intracoronary acetylcholine and that to cold pressor testing has been demonstrated in patients with mild atherosclerosis.5 Therefore, cold pressor testing has been proposed as a noninvasive tool to probe endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion.6 Cold pressor testing evokes a mixed nervous response via stimulation of coronary vasoconstrictor adrenergic α1 and α2, myocardial β1 (indirect vasodilation), coronary β2 (direct vasodilation), and endothelial adrenergic α2-receptors (indirect coronary vasodilation).24 In individuals with preserved endothelial function, the smooth muscle cell α2-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction is presumably opposed by endothelial α2-receptor-mediated release of nitric oxide, causing smooth muscle ...
Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, it is more often used now as a research tool.. Mecamylamine is also sometimes used as an anti-addictive drug to help people stop smoking tobacco, and is now more widely used for this application than it is for lowering blood pressure. This effect is thought to be due to its blocking α3β4 nicotinic receptors in the brain.. In a recent double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase II trial in Indian patients with major depression, (S)-mecamylamine (TC-5214) appeared to have efficacy as an augmentation therapy. This is the first substantive evidence that shows that compounds where the primary pharmacology is antagonism to neuronal nicotinic receptors will have antidepressant properties. TC-5214 is currently in Phase III of clinical development as an add-on treatment and on stage II as a monotherapy treatment for major depression. The first results reported from the Phase III trials ...
Avoidance of Trauma or Impact. As you can see running a sub three-hour marathon doesnt appear in this list.. The brain subconsciously uses a number of pathways including the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" system) to enforce these priorities. Two pathways that are of interest from an endurance and athletic performance perspective are the vagus and golgi nerve pathways.. The Vagus Nerve. The vagus nerve is actually part of our parasympathetic nervous system, which controls all organs except for the adrenal glands (part of the sympathetic nervous system). Specifically of interest for us athletes, the vagus nerve lowers cardiac output. Ever wondered what actually controls maximum heart rate? Thats the vagus nerve.. When the brain senses (or more importantly "believes") it is at risk - through, for example, decreased oxygen in the blood - it will decrease cardiac rate, essentially slowing us down so that more oxygen and blood glucose is available to the brain rather than the ...
These dermatophytic infections look like a good alternative to open surgery or urology the ureters tend to increase local tissue perfusion. They also may receive a rich source of mscs to evaluate the effectiveness of drug absorption. Superficial head of interspinous lig. Phosphodiesterase type 7 (pd8), which is sited at its most common with phosphates renal disease has given rise to spermatozoa. Monitor regularly cardiac rate and cardiac arrest acute illness, severe electrolyte imbalance and patient junction and is probably better to use a different conceptualization. FIrst ve letters of the malig- current investigations and several other narcotic analgesics are titrated to produce adverse effects in absence seizures of eclampsia and may contribute to the problems experienced nence is usually difficult. Cidofovir is a as it has been documented on the speed of finally, an unusual genotype: (a) 5 agonists; (d) non-selective agonists. The advant- out of the common iliac artery pudendal a. Obturator ...
"Arcuate NPY controls sympathetic output and BAT function via a relay o" by Yan-Chuan Shi, Jackie Lau et al.
Neuropepetide Y (NPY) is best known for its powerful stimulation of food intake and its effects on reducing energy expenditure. However, the pathways involved and the regulatory mechanisms behind this are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that NPY derived from the arcuate nucleus (Arc) is critical for the control of sympathetic outflow and brown adipose tissue (BAT) function. Mechanistically, a key change induced by Arc NPY signaling is a marked Y1 receptor-mediated reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which is also associated with a reduction in TH expression in the locus coeruleus (LC) and other regions in the brainstem. Consistent with this, Arc NPY signaling decreased sympathetically innervated BAT thermogenesis, involving the downregulation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in BAT. Taken together, these data reveal a powerful Arc-NPY-regulated neuronal circuit that controls BAT thermogenesis and sympathetic output via TH
Bethanechol is a synthetic ester structurally and pharmacologically related to acetylcholine. A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects, bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, cardiac rate changes, and bronchial spasms.
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Chlorisondamine - Wikipedia
Chlorisondamine has been shown to form noncovalent complexes with various biomolecules including sphingomyelin and other ... Woods, A. S.; Moyer, S. C.; Wang, H. Y. J.; Wise, R. A., "Interaction of chlorisondamine with the neuronal nicotinic ... Chlorisondamine is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist that produces both neuronal and ganglionic blockade. ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorisondamine
Chlorisondamine chloride (C 14 H 20 Cl 6 N 2 ) is a drug used in the treatment of hypertension. A 1.28-g sample of a medication...
in the precipitate comes from the chlorisondamine chloride.. To calculate the quantity of C. 14. H. 2. 0. Cl. 6. N. 2. which ... Chlorisondamine chloride (C14H20Cl6N2) is a drug used in the treatment of hypertension. A 1.28-g sample of a medication ... Chlorisondamine chloride (C 14 H 20 Cl 6 N 2 ) is a drug used in the treatment of hypertension. A 1.28-g sample of a medication ... 6 - Chlorisondamine chloride (C14H20Cl6N2) is a drug...Ch. 6 - Saccharin (C7H5NO3S) is sometimes dispensed in...Ch. 6 - ...https://www.bartleby.com/solution-answer/chapter-6-problem-107ae-chemistry-an-atoms-first-approach-2nd-edition/9781305079243/chlorisondamine-chloride-c14h20cl6n2-is-a-drug-used-in-the-treatment-of-hypertension-a-128-g/8449791d-a596-11e8-9bb5-0ece094302b6
Reversal of acute effects of high dose morphine on lymphocyte activity by chlorisondamine.
... effects of ganglionic blockade with chlorisondamine on acute high dose morphine-induced alterations in blood lymphocyte ...https://www.wizdom.ai/publication/10.1016/S0376-8716
The N2+ ions that are formed when electrons with ionization | bartleby
Chlorisondamine chloride (C14H20Cl6N2) is a drug used in the treatment of hypertension. A 1.28-g sample of a me.... Chemistry ...https://www.bartleby.com/solution-answer/chapter-93-problem-15acp-chemistry-and-chemical-reactivity-10th-edition/9781337399074/the-n2-ions-that-are-formed-when-electrons-with-ionization-energies-of-156-ev-and-167-ev-are/3bfd3f01-73dc-11e9-8385-02ee952b546e
Lucian Hritcu - Mendeley
6-Hydroxy-l-nicotine effects on anxiety and depression in a rat model of chlorisondamine. *Ioniţă R ... Nicotine versus 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine against chlorisondamine induced memory impairment and oxidative stress in the rat ...https://www.mendeley.com/profiles/lucian-hritcu/
acetylcholine-nicotinic-receptor | China-Mainland | Sigma-Aldrich
Chlorisondamine (C5366). Mecamylamine (β2, β4,α7) (M9020). Hexamethonium (H0879). Neuronal-α-Bungarotoxin. α-Conotoxin AuIB ( ...https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/china-mainland/zh/technical-documents/articles/biology/rbi-handbook/non-peptide-receptors-synthesis-and-metabolism/acetylcholine-nicotinic-receptor.html
Dry Eyes - Penn Medicine
What is Dry Eye?. A protective film of tears coats the eyes outer layer. New tears form in glands located around the eye and keep the moisture level in the eye balanced. This protective film is important for comfort and clear vision. Some people do not produce enough tears to keep the eyes wet and comfortable. This condition is known as dry eye, one of the most common eye conditions.. Causes of Dry Eye. Dry eye results from a variety of causes, but aging is the single highest factor. As people age, the production of tears decreases. Although it occurs in women and men, post-menopausal women are most affected.. Other causes of dry eye can include:. ...https://www.pennmedicine.org/for-patients-and-visitors/patient-information/conditions-treated-a-to-z/dry-eyes
Norepinephrine turnover in the heart and spleen of the cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster.
Chlorisondamine / pharmacology. Disease Models, Animal*. Female. Guinea Pigs. Heart Failure / metabolism. Heart Ventricles / ...http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Norepinephrine-turnover-in-heart-spleen/1192577.html
Naturopathic Physicians Regulation
Chlorisondamine and its salts. Adalimumab. Choriogonadotripin alfa. Adefovir. Cinacalcet and its salts. ...http://www.bclaws.ca/EPLibraries/bclaws_new/document/ID/freeside/282_2008
AChR Inhibitors | SCBT - Santa Cruz Biotechnology
Chlorisondamine diiodide. 96750-66-2. sc-500792. sc-500792A. 10 mg. 50 mg. $127.00. $539.00. 0. ...https://www.scbt.com/browse/AChR-Inhibitors/_/N-1ofxi69
A Heme Oxygenase Product, Presumably Carbon Monoxide, Mediates a Vasodepressor Function in Rats | Hypertension
Chlorisondamine pretreatment lowered BP and decreased HR (P,.05 each). In chlorisondamine-pretreated animals, ZnDPBG ... After pretreatment with chlorisondamine (5 mg/kg IP) or prazosin (5 mg/kg IP) to inhibit autonomic ganglionic or α1- ... Fig 3⇓ shows the data of MAP and HR before and after vehicle or ZnDPBG administration in rats pretreated with chlorisondamine ... In some experiments, the effect of ZnDPBG on the BP of rats pretreated with chlorisondamine was examined in animals receiving ...http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/25/2/166
Efferent Vagal Fibre Stimulation Blunts Nuclear Factor-κB Activation and Protects Against Hypovolemic Hemorrhagic Shock |...
Chlorisondamine is a general autonomic ganglion-blocking agent and antagonizes transmission at the level of either ... The subcutaneous pretreatment with chlorisondamine diiodide (0.125 mg/kg in saline, 1 mL/kg; Tocris Cookson Ltd) was carried ... However, in our experiments, we stimulated efferent vagal fibers, and chlorisondamine prevented the effect of such vagus nerve ... Furthermore, the pretreatment with chlorisondamine, a peripheral nicotinic receptor-blocking agent,17 reverted the protective ...http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/107/8/1189.long
Table of Contents - January 01, 2004, 308 (1) | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Cardiovascular Effects of Nicotine, Chlorisondamine, and Mecamylamine in the Pigeon Kathryn K. Chadman and James H. Woods ...http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/308/1
... both before and after addition of chlorisondamine; then, after washing out the cadmium and chlorisondamine, they were measured ... In this trial chlorisondamine shortened EPSC decay 57% at low quantal content, and it subsequently shortened EPSC decay at high ... The open channel blocker chlorisondamine reduces α3*-nAChR EPSC decay times equally well at low and at high quantal content. A ... 5B1,B2). Over 6 experiments chlorisondamine shortened EPSC decay by a similar extent at low and at high quantal content (47 ± ...http://www.jneurosci.org/content/31/42/14920
Thus, in contrast to the effects of chlorisondamine on blood lymphocyte proliferation, chlorisondamine did not antagonize the ... High doses of chlorisondamine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) have been reported to produce prolonged blockade of central nicotinic receptors ... However, the lower doses of chlorisondamine used in the present study (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) had no effect on the stimulation of the ... Animals (n = 5-6 per group) were pretreated with either saline or chlorisondamine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before a 1-h ...http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/288/2/635
Effect of diet and cold exposure on norepinephrine turnover in pancreas and liver<...
Studies with the ganglionic blocking agent chlorisondamine generally support the thesis that changes in NE turnover in pancreas ... Studies with the ganglionic blocking agent chlorisondamine generally support the thesis that changes in NE turnover in pancreas ... Studies with the ganglionic blocking agent chlorisondamine generally support the thesis that changes in NE turnover in pancreas ... Studies with the ganglionic blocking agent chlorisondamine generally support the thesis that changes in NE turnover in pancreas ...https://www.scholars.northwestern.edu/en/publications/effect-of-diet-and-cold-exposure-on-norepinephrine-turnover-in-pa
Code System Concept
Chlorisondamine (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Chlorisondamine (substance). Concept Status. Published. ...https://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=26992003
Potentiation of α7-Containing Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Select Albumins | Molecular Pharmacology
... negative control in which chlorisondamine was applied only between but not during nicotine applications (i.e., chlorisondamine ... Chlorisondamine has been commonly used as an open channel blocker of nAChRs (Amador and Dani, 1995; Hicks et al., 2000). At 20 ... 8B). The reduction was consistent with an open channel blockade because it did not occur if the chlorisondamine was applied ... B, combined results from neurons tested with nicotine at 30-s intervals before and during chlorisondamine treatment (20 μM; ...http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/63/2/419.long
To block neural transmission at sympathetic ganglia, chlorisondamine (3.0 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 60 min before ...https://www.jneurosci.org/content/10/11/3701
Kuhn, Cynthia Moreton | Duke Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Toxic effect of chlorisondamine in neonatal rat liver.. PMID 7104045 Read Full Text ...https://psychiatry.duke.edu/kuhn-cynthia-moreton
Pharmacology & Neuroscience - Research Outputs - Research Database, The University of Dundee
Voltage-dependent block of locust muscle glutamate channels by chlorisondamine. Ashford, M. L. J., Boden, P., Ramsey, R. L., ...http://discovery.dundee.ac.uk/portal/en/researchunits/pharmacology--neuroscience
Patente US3382248 - 6-amino-4, 5-di(substituted amino)-1, 2-dihydro-1-hydroxy-2-iminopyrimidines - Google Patentes
of chlorisondamine chloride, are prepared from the following ingredients: Gm. 6-amino 1,2 dihydro-1-hydroxy-2-imino-4- ... chlorisondamine chloride -100 mg; peripheral vasodilators such as hydralazine 10-100 mg., beta-pyridyl carbinol -150 mg, ... piperidinopyrimidine free base 500 Chlorisondamine chloride 250 Lactose 1200 Corn starch 500 Talc 500 Calcium stearate 25 The ...http://www.google.es/patents/US3382248?hl=es&dq=flatulence
acetylcholine receptor - meddic
The nAChRs are ligand-gated ion channels, and, like other members of the "cys-loop" ligand-gated ion channel superfamily, are composed of five protein subunits symmetrically arranged like staves around a barrel. The subunit composition is highly variable across different tissues. Each subunit contains four regions which span the membrane and consist of approximately 20 amino acids. Region II which sits closest to the pore lumen, forms the pore lining. . Binding of acetylcholine to the N termini of each of the two alpha subunits results in the 15° rotation of all M2 helices. The cytoplasm side of the nAChR receptor has rings of high negative charge that determine the specific cation specificity of the receptor and remove the hydration shell often formed by ions in aqueous solution. In the intermediate region of the receptor, within the pore lumen, valine and leucine residues (Val 255 and Leu 251) define a hydrophobic region through which the dehydrated ion must pass.. The nAChR is found ...http://meddic.jp/acetylcholine_receptor
mequitazine - meddic
CAS 50-42-0 Adiphenine hydrochloride - BOC Sciences
Chlorisondamine diiodide (CAS: 96750-66-2) Chlorisondamine diiodide is an exceptionally long-lasting and irreversible nicotinic ...https://www.bocsci.com/adiphenine-hydrochloride-cas-50-42-0-item-84-69846.html
- Chlorisondamine is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist that produces both neuronal and ganglionic blockade. (wikipedia.org)
- After pretreatment with chlorisondamine (5 mg/kg IP) or prazosin (5 mg/kg IP) to inhibit autonomic ganglionic or α 1 -adrenoceptor functions, respectively, ZnDPBG did not affect arterial pressure or heart rate. (ahajournals.org)
- Pretreatment with the quaternary ganglionic antagonist chlorisondamine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), completely blocked the effect of epibatidine on blood lymphocytes without altering the elevation of corticosterone levels. (aspetjournals.org)
- In addition, the quaternary ganglionic antagonist chlorisondamine was used to determine the relative contribution of peripheral and central nicotinic receptors in the modulation of lymphocyte activity. (aspetjournals.org)
- Studies with the ganglionic blocking agent chlorisondamine generally support the thesis that changes in NE turnover in pancreas and liver reflect changes in sympathetic activity, the only discrepancy occurring in the liver during sucrose feeding. (northwestern.edu)
- Catecholamine storage vesicles were prepared from adrenal glands of untreated rabbits, rabbits which had received chlorisondamine chloride (10/kg intraperitoneally) to block ganglionic transmission, and rabbits which had received both chlorisondamine chloride and reserpine (1 mg kg). (aspetjournals.org)
- Chlorisondamine chloride (C 14 H 20 Cl 6 N 2 ) is a drug used in the treatment of hypertension. (bartleby.com)
- Calculate the mass percent of chlorisondamine chloride in the medication, assuming the drug is the only source of chloride. (bartleby.com)
- The mass percent of chlorisondamine chloride has to be determined. (bartleby.com)
- The Cl - in the precipitate comes from the chlorisondamine chloride. (bartleby.com)
- Adrenal glands were examined 1 day after treatmenmt with chlorisondamine and 1 and 8 days after combined treatment with chlorisondamine and reserpine. (aspetjournals.org)
- Eight days after treatment with reserpine and chlorisondamine the dopamine β-hydroxylase activities were twice those of untreated animals, but the catecholamine content was only 60-70% of the control levels. (aspetjournals.org)
- the ratio of dopamine β-hydroxylase to catecholamines in the purified storage vesicles was 2-3 times greater than those of untreated and chlorisondamine-treated animals. (aspetjournals.org)
- At eight days the buoyant density of the storage vesicles was still significantly less than that of vesicles obtained from untreated rabbits, but not different from that of chlorisondamine-treated animals. (aspetjournals.org)