A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Material from which the casting mold is made in the fabrication of gold or cobalt-chromium castings. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p168)
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.
Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.
The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.
Porphyrins with four methyl, two ethyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.
Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.
Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).
Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.
Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.
A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.
Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
Replacement for a hip joint.
Relating to the size of solids.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Chemical reaction that occurs when saliva comes into contact with the metals in dental fillings. This reaction can send electric currents through the brain causing negative symptoms.
Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
An alloy of 60% cobalt, 20% chromium, 5% molybdenum, and traces of other substances. It is used in dentures, certain surgical appliances, prostheses, implants, and instruments.
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)
Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.
An enzyme that catalyzes the chlorination of a range of organic molecules, forming stable carbon-chloride bonds. EC 1.11.1.10.
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.
The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The extraction and recovery of usable or valuable material from scrap or other discarded materials. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
F-Stoff: titanium tetrachloride. *K-Stoff: methyl chloroformate. *M-Stoff: methanol. *N-Stoff: chlorine trifluoride ...
The oxidized form of the chlorine is molecular chlorine Cl2, the reduced form is titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4). The oxidizing ... The titanium is fed into the process in form of ore together with the coke. Titanium ore is a mixture of oxides. The added O2 ... In this process, the feedstock is treated at 1000 °C with carbon and chlorine gas, giving titanium tetrachloride. Typical is ... TiCl4 + O2 + heat → TiO2 + 2Cl2 In this way, chlorine is recovered for recycling. The standard chloride process for titanium ...
Potassium, strontium, iron, aluminium, titanium, magnesium are present as other admixtures. An important fraction of fluorine ... is substituted by chlorine and hydroxyl groups. Mindat, Kentbrooksite, http://www.mindat.org/min-7132.html Johnsen, O., Grice, ...
Since then, the titanium based electrode have been widely used in the chlorine, chlorate and hypochlorite industries. H.B. Beer ... The platinum electroplated titanium electrodes had a large overpotential for chlorine evolution. The next step was moving from ... He is known in electrochemistry as the inventor of the mixed metal oxides (MMO) coatings onto titanium, and the creator of two ... In 1965, Beer proposed another change in coating: application of ruthenium oxide onto titanium, and filed his first patent on ...
I. Argon and chlorine isotope chains". Physical Review C. 98 (6): 064308-1-064308-13. arXiv:1803.10951. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC. ... Meierfrankenfeld, D.; Bury, A.; Thoennessen, M. (2011). "Discovery of scandium, titanium, mercury, and einsteinium isotopes". ...
Winget, Paul; Clark, Timothy (2005). "AM1* parameters for aluminum, silicon, titanium and zirconium". J Mol Model. 11 (6): 439- ... sulfur and chlorine". J Mol Model. 9 (6): 408-414. doi:10.1007/s00894-003-0156-7. PMID 12955599. ...
Ruthenium(IV) oxide coated titanium anodes are used for the industrial production of chlorine. Home electrical systems, for the ... From 1809 onward, light metals, such as magnesium, aluminium, and titanium, were discovered, as well as less well-known heavy ... Sulfides of the Group 1 and 2 metals, and aluminium, are hydrolysed by water; scandium, yttrium and titanium sulfides are ... Light structural metals like beryllium, scandium, and titanium have some of the characteristics of heavy metals, such as higher ...
... the most important being carbonate and chlorine. Minor substituting elements are lanthanum, neodymium, yttrium, titanium, ...
Chemical impurities in mogovidite include chlorine, potassium, and manganese, with trace titanium, cerium, and lanthanum. ...
The few compatible metals include titanium (which however is not compatible with dry chlorine) and tantalum. Glass containers ... "Strong chlorine solution" is a 0.5% solution of hypochlorite (containing approximately 5000 ppm free chlorine) used for ... Vogt H, Balej J, Bennett JE, Wintzer P, Sheikh SA, Gallone P (2007). "Chlorine Oxides and Chlorine Oxygen Acids". Ullmann's ... At pH below 2, the majority of the chlorine in the solution is in the form of dissolved elemental Cl 2. At pH greater than 7.4 ...
This technology supplies most of the chlorine and sodium hydroxide required by many industries. The cathode is a mixed metal ... Landolt, D.; Ibl, N. (1972). "Anodic Chlorate Formation on Platinized Titanium". Journal of Applied Electrochemistry. Chapman ... "Co-axial heterostructures integrating palladium/titanium dioxide with carbon nanotubes for efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen ... oxide clad titanium anode (also called a dimensionally stable anode). Many organofluorine compounds are produced by ...
Chlorine. 0.003214. 171.6. 239.11 Potassium. 0.862. 336.53. 1032 Titanium. 4.54. 1941. 3560 ...
Platinum alloyed with iridium is more resistant to corrosion from chlorine than pure platinum. Unclad titanium cannot be used ... Due to the corrosive nature of chlorine production, the anode (where the chlorine is formed) must be non-reactive and has been ... 35 million tons of chlorine were prepared by this process in 1987. The chlorine and sodium hydroxide produced in this process ... Chlorine is produced at the anode and bubbles out of the cell. Mercury cells are being phased out due to concerns about mercury ...
This difference is attributed to the larger size of the zirconium atom relative to the titanium atom. Zirconia is chemically ... When heated with carbon in the presence of chlorine, it converts to zirconium tetrachloride. This conversion is the basis for ... Unlike TiO2, which features six-coordinated titanium in all phases, monoclinic zirconia consists of seven-coordinated zirconium ... "Highly ordered mesoporous titania-zirconia photocatalyst for applications in degradation of rhodamine-B and hydrogen evolution ...
It produced heavy industrial chemicals for industry and agriculture, including: anhydrous ammonia, caustic soda, chlorine, ... titanium tetrachloride, and soda ash. During the Second World War, Columbia-Southern produced a line of 200 polymers. CR-39 (CR ...
Some chemicals in the soil contained sulfur and chlorine that were like those remaining after the evaporation of sea water. ... and titanium. Trace elements, strontium and yttrium, were detected. The amount of potassium was five times lower than the ... the identical chlorine compounds discovered by both Viking landers when they performed the same tests on Mars. Because ...
The loading or amount of precious metal on the substrate (that is, other than the titanium) can be in the order of around 10 to ... Applications include use as anodes in electrolytic cells for producing free chlorine from saltwater in swimming pools, in ... They are made by coating a substrate, such as pure titanium plate or expanded mesh, with several kinds of metal oxides. One ... The other metal oxide is typically titanium dioxide which does not conduct or catalyze the reaction, but is cheaper and ...
Chlorine is formed at the anode, while sodium formed at the cathode dissolves into the mercury, making sodium amalgam. Normally ... In this cell, brine (concentrated sodium chloride solution) is electrolysed between a liquid mercury cathode and a titanium or ... Sodium amalgam is a by-product of chlorine manufactured by mercury cell electrolysis. ...
... titanium, potassium, chlorine, and praseodymium. Carbokentbrooksite and zirsilite-(Ce) are chemically similar. ...
... titanium, potassium, chlorine, and praseodymium. Zirsilite-(Ce) is isostructural with kentbrooksite. Mindat, Zirsilite-(Ce), ...
His powder was made by reacting chlorine with dry slaked lime and proved to be a cheap and successful product. He opened a ... titanium dioxide, and hydrogen peroxide. Fertilizers are the smallest category (about 6 percent) and include phosphates, ... Products include salt, chlorine, caustic soda, soda ash, acids (such as nitric acid, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid), ... chlorine (13), phosphoric acid (13) and diammonium phosphates (12).[citation needed] The largest chemical producers today are ...
RuO2 is extensively used for the coating of titanium anodes for the electrolytic production of chlorine and for the preparation ... It is widely used as an electrocatalyst for producing chlorine, chlorine oxides, and O2 catalyst is ruthenium(IV) oxide.[1] ... Helmut Vogt, Jan Balej, John E. Bennett, Peter Wintzer, Saeed Akbar Sheikh, Patrizio Gallone "Chlorine Oxides and Chlorine ... Mills, A. "Heterogeneous redox catalysts for oxygen and chlorine evolution" Chem. Sot. Rev.,1989, 18, 285-316. doi:10.1039/ ...
2 NaN3 + 2 HNO2 → 3 N2 + 2 NO + 2 NaOH Many inorganic covalent azides (e.g., chlorine, bromine, and iodine azides) have been ... Reaction conditions: a) sodium azide 4 eq., acetone, 18 hours reflux 92% chemical yield b) isopropyl amine, titanium ... Azide 2 is formed in a nucleophilic aliphatic substitution reaction displacing chlorine in 1 by the azide anion. The ketone ...
... manufactures titanium dioxide pigment using the chlorine process from rutile, or synthetic rutile made from locally mined ... operates a chlor-alkali plant to supply chlorine to the local titanium dioxide processing industry, using about 40,000 tonnes ... The titanium dioxide pigment is then used in the production of paints, plastics, paper, rubber, printing inks, cosmetics and ... "Titanium dioxide pigment". Retrieved 3 October 2006. South West Development Commission. "Major Mineral Resources Projects". ...
... is the world's second-largest producer of titanium dioxide and a leading producer of titanium chemicals. It was ... Gypsum Hydrochloric Acid Copperas Iron Chlorosulfate Carbon Dioxide Molten Sulfur Sulfuric Acid Other Chlorine Caustic Soda ... Titanium Dioxide (TiO2), using both the chloride and sulfate processes. Performance Chemicals Specialty Titanium Dioxides ( ... Ultrafine TiO2) Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and related products Ferrica™ ...
In this process, a mixture of carbon and the crushed ore is heated at 1000 °C under flowing chlorine gas, giving titanium ... One example is the chloride process for separating titanium from ilmenite, the main ore of titanium. ... This behavior is observed for titanium, hence the use of the chloride process. Carbides also form upon high temperature ...
The elements titanium, chromium, manganese, sulfur, phosphorus, sodium, and chlorine are less abundant but are still important ... It probably also contains some titanium. The global dust cover and the presence of other wind-blown sediments has made soil ... They are enriched in the elements phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, and bromine-all of which can be carried around in water ... All the dust contains a magnetic component which was identified as magnetite with some titanium. Furthermore, the thin coating ...
1973 3,929,501 Novel titanium dioxide composition Filed: June 4, 1973 3,887,694 Production of chlorine Filed: December 22, 1972 ... 1976 4,081,507 Process for removing chemisorbed and interstitial chlorine and chlorides from a hot titanium dioxide beneficiate ... Chlorine extraction of gold - Chapter 10. in Gold, Silver, Uranium, and Coal: Geology, Mining, Extraction & Environment. ... Filing date: Jun 1, 1961 [9] Chlorine extraction of gold. Inventor: Wendell E. Dunn, Jr. Patent number: 4353740 Filing date: ...
The process involves blowing a stream of chlorine gas over and through a crucible filled with molten impure gold. Impurities in ... or titanium as a starter cathode) and chloroauric acid (gold chloride-hydrochloric acid) as the electrolyte; this is made by ... In 1860s Australia the Miller process was developed, this removed silver by bubbling chlorine gas through the molten gold ... to produce hydrochloric acid and also some chlorine. This reacts with the silver to produce silver chloride (AgCl). The urine ...
The rest of the iron in the dust, perhaps as much as 50% of the mass, may be in titanium enriched magnetite (Fe3O4). Magnetite ... The mass fraction of chlorine and sulfur in the dust is greater than that which has been found (by the Mars Exploration Rovers ...
Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ... In 1899, Debierne described the substance as similar to titanium[26] and (in 1900) as similar to thorium.[27] Friedrich Oskar ... Some Elements Isolated with the Aid of Potassium and Sodium:Zirconium, Titanium, Cerium and Thorium". The Journal of Chemical ...
Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium ...
Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ... Titanium is produced industrially by the reduction of titanium tetrachloride with Na at 4000C (van Arkel process). ... The electron pair is attracted so close to the chlorine atom that they are practically transferred to the chlorine atom (an ... chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine), forming salts known as the alkali metal halides. The reaction is very vigorous and ...
Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium ...
Titanium(IV) bromide (titanium tetrabromide) - TiBr4. *Titanium(IV) carbide - TiC. *Titanium(IV) chloride (titanium ... Chlorine perchlorate - Cl2O4. *Chlorine tetroxide (the peroxide) - O3ClOOClO3 ... Titanium diboride - TiB2. *Titanium dioxide (titanium(IV) oxide) - TiO2 - Titanium dioxide (B) ...
Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ...
Titanium(III) oxide (Ti2O3). *Tungsten(III) oxide (W2O3) ... Chlorine dioxide (ClO2). *Chromium(IV) oxide (CrO2). * ...
Chlorine may be added in the form of hypochlorite to decrease biofouling in cooling water systems, but is later reduced to ... Systems operating with sea water need to be manufactured from cupronickel, bronze, titanium or similarly corrosion-resistant ...
Spallation is also responsible for the abundances of scandium, titanium, vanadium, and manganese ions in cosmic rays produced ... Chlorine-34 m (32 minutes). *Chlorine-36 (300,000 years). *Chlorine-38 (37.2 minutes) ...
Cadmium}}, {{Caesium}}, {{Calcium}}, {{Californium}}, {{Carbon}}, {{Cerium}}, {{Chlorine}}, {{Chromium}}, {{Cobalt}}, {{Copper ... Tantalum}}, {{Technetium}}, {{Tellurium}}, {{Terbium}}, {{Thallium}}, {{Thorium}}, {{Thulium}}, {{Tin}}, {{Titanium}}, {{ ...
Chlorine. Greek chloros. 17. &035.453235.453(2)[২][৩][৪]. 17. 3 ... Titanium. the Titans. 22. &047.867147.867(1). 4. 4 Tl. Thallium. Greek thallos. 81. &204.38332204.3833(2). 13. 6 ...
The halide minerals are compounds in which a halogen (fluorine, chlorine, iodine, or bromine) is the main anion. These minerals ... is the chief ore of titanium; other examples include cassiterite (SnO2; ore of tin), and pyrolusite (MnO2; ore of manganese).[ ...
Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ...
Chlorine dioxide - aroma arttırıcı. *Chlorine - aroma arttırıcı. *Chlorophylls and Chlorophyllins - renklendirici (yeşil) ... Titanium dioxide - renklendirici (beyaz). *Tocopherol (Vitamin E) -. *Tocopherol concentrate (natural) - antioksidan. * ...
Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ... Ytterbium forms both dihalides and trihalides with the halogens fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine. The dihalides are ...
Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ...
Chlorine 1774 W. Scheele 1774 W. Scheele Obtained it from hydrochloric acid, but thought it was an oxide. Only in 1808 did ... 732-38 "Titanium". LCCCN 68-29938.. *^ Browning, Philip Embury (1917). "Introduction to the Rarer Elements". Kongl. Vet. Acad. ... but radical muriatique also appears instead of chlorine.[53] André-Marie Ampère predicted an element analogous to chlorine ... "17 Chlorine". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12.. *^ "25 Manganese". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09- ...
Cech Thorium Thortveitite Thulium Timeline of biology and organic chemistry Tin Titanite Titanium Titanium dioxide Titration ... series Chemical thermodynamics Cheminformatics chemist chemistry Chemistry basic topics Chirality Chloride Chlorin chlorine ...
Titanium 22. Ti. 47.867(1) isotopes Vanadium 23. V 50.9415(1) isotopes Chromium 24. Cr. 51.9961(6) isotopes Manganese 25. Mn. ... Chlorine 17. Cl. 35.453(2) isotopes Argon 18. Ar. 39.948(1) isotopes ...
Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ... The dioxide is obtained as precipitate and converted with chlorine gas or hydrochloric acid to germanium tetrachloride, which ... C by heating the metal with chlorine.[28] All the tetrahalides are readily hydrolyzed to hydrated germanium dioxide.[28] GeCl4 ... It has replaced titania as the dopant for silica fiber, eliminating the subsequent heat treatment that made the fibers brittle. ...
... one of the early Venera probes detected large amounts of toxic chlorine just below the Venusian cloud deck.[58] ...
Titanium(III) oxide (Ti2O3). *Tungsten(III) oxide (W2O3) ... Chlorine dioxide (ClO2). *Chromium(IV) oxide (CrO2). * ...
Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ... The surface of most metals, such as aluminium and titanium, are oxidized in the presence of air and become coated with a thin ...
Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ...
Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ... In the US, NioCorp Development Ltd has raised $1.3 billion in funding[56] toward opening a niobium, scandium, and titanium mine ...
Titanium(III) oxide (Ti2O3). *Tungsten(III) oxide (W2O3) ... Chlorine dioxide (ClO2). *Chromium(IV) oxide (CrO2). * ...
Commonly used metals include gold, nickel, aluminium, copper, chromium, titanium, tungsten, platinum, and silver. ... The source gas for the plasma usually contains small molecules rich in chlorine or fluorine. For instance, carbon tetrachloride ... The nitrides of silicon, aluminium and titanium as well as silicon carbide and other ceramics are increasingly applied in MEMS ...
Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ... The surface of most metals, such as aluminium and titanium, are oxidized in the presence of air and become coated with a thin ...
The addition of chlorine entails "oxychlorination," i.e. chlorine itself is not used. Some products derived from this group are ... This group also discovered that ethylene could be combined with chlorine to produce the oil of the Dutch chemists, 1,2- ...
Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ... By reacting the molten mixture with chlorine gas the metals are converted to their chlorides while bismuth remains unchanged. ... Bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) structure (mineral bismoclite). Bismuth atoms shown as grey, oxygen red, chlorine green. ...
Nokia sites use cookies to improve and personalize your experience and to display advertisements. The sites may also include cookies from third parties. By using this site, you consent to the use of cookies. Learn more ...
... titanium(IV) C9H7Cl3Ti bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. Term ... Chlorine. 17 Cl 35.453000000 Chlorine Chlorine is a Block P, Group 17, Period 3 element. Its electron configuration is [Ne]3s2 ... Titanium. 22 Ti 47.867000000 Titanium See more Titanium products. Titanium (atomic symbol: Ti, atomic number: 22) is a Block D ... Trichloro(indenyl)titanium(IV) Synonyms. (indenyl)titanium(IV) trichloride, (indenyl)titanium trichloride, IndTiCl3, ...
13470-08-1................................ Titanium III fluoride. 13637-63-3................................ Chlorine ...
CHLORINE MANUFACTURER WITH TITANIUM ELECTRODES. Mod. CHLO ACTIVE CL2. ATTACKS: IN / OUT F 3/8 ". COMPLETE OF TRANSFORMER. SEE ... CHLORINE MANUFACTURER FOR TITANIUM ELECTRODES, F 3/8 COMPLETE TRANSFORMER Mod. CHLO ACTIVE CL2. SKU: 15000407 ...
RJ45 PLUS Replacement Salt Cell easily replaces your worn out cell for years more life from your saltwater chlorine generator. ... Low prices + Fast Shipping on top [categoryname]Pool EquipmentChlorine GeneratorsSalt CellsOzone GeneratorsSalt SystemsPool [ ... When it is working, the chlorine generation is great (usually set at 55%), but as soon as the "low salt" and "check cell" ... Both have the same chlorine output power, and can be used interchangeably (you just need to change the "cell type" setting in ...
Pool Salt Chlorine Generator with Quality Titanium Cell Min. Order: 1 Piece ... are an alternative means of sanitizing your pool with chlorine using the process of electrolysis. The ... ... are an alternative means of sanitizing your pool with chlorine using the process of electrolysis. The ... ...
Titanium. 39 minerals with Cl and Ti. 3.22%. 52.98% lower. Bismuth. 36 minerals with Cl and Bi. 2.97%. 30.22% lower. ... Most widespread minerals containing Chlorine. This list of minerals containing Chlorine is built from the mindat.org locality ... Element association of Chlorine in the Mineral World. This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with ... The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Chlorine and the element listed for that row.. The ...
18 - Titanium(IV) oxide is converted to titanium...Ch. 18 - Cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] is a...Ch. 18 - ... Calculate ΔS°(universe) for the formation of 1 mol HCl(g) from gaseous hydrogen and chlorine. Is this reaction spontaneous ... Calculate Δ S °(universe) for the formation of 1 mol HCl(g) from gaseous hydrogen and chlorine. Is this reaction spontaneous ... from gaseous hydrogen and chlorine. Is this reaction spontaneous under standard conditions at 25 °C? Explain your answer ...
Phosphorus, then Sulfur, Chlorine and Argon. Potassium, and Calcium so youll grow strong. Scandium, Titanium, Vanadium and ...
Titanium is unsuitable for Chlorine duty and should be avoided.. Bromine. Susceptibility of materials of construction to attack ... Chlorine. The flow rate of liquid chlorine through carbon steel pipework is restricted to 2 m/s to avoid removing the ferric ... Chlorine gas handled at temperatures in excess of 200°C in carbon steel can result in chlorine / steel fires. Zinc can be used ... HS(G)28 Safety advice for bulk chlorine installations Safety Advice for Bulk Chlorine Installations, HSE, 1999.. Briefly deals ...
Welcome to buy high quality platinized titanium and niobium mesh and plate anode with 10 microns platinium for chlorine&caustic ... Platinized Titanium and Niobium mesh and plate Anode with 10 microns platinium for Chlorine&Caustic Industry Diaphram and ... Platinized Titanium and Niobium Mesh and Plate Anode with 10 Microns Platinium for Chlorine&Caustic Industry Diaphram and ... Welcome to buy high quality platinized titanium and niobium mesh and plate anode with 10 microns platinium for chlorine&caustic ...
F-Stoff: titanium tetrachloride. *K-Stoff: methyl chloroformate. *M-Stoff: methanol. *N-Stoff: chlorine trifluoride ...
... titanium should not be exposed to dry chlorine gas because it may result in a titanium-chlorine fire.[109] Even wet chlorine ... Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ... "Titanium". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Retrieved 29 December 2006.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). ... Titanium Metals Corporation (1997). Titanium design and fabrication handbook for industrial applications. Dallas: Titanium ...
Find Disinfectant Chlorine (TCCA) from China Manufacturer, Manufactory, Factory and Supplier - Chengan Tianrun Chemical ... Titanium isopropoxide FOB Price: 4.75-5.65 USD/Kilogram. Min Order: 200 Kilogram ...
Chlorine (Cl2). *titanium oxide (OTi). *hydrogen fluoride (FH). *Hydrogen bromide (BrH) ...
Boron Lead Titanium. Cadmium Magnesium Uranium. Calcium Manganese Vanadium. Chlorine Mercury Zinc. Thorium ...
Max Diameter: 80mm Chlorine Tablets. *Mould Condition: New and in Titanium Alloy ... Automatic Chemical Chlorine Hydraulic Rotary Tablet Press Machine FOB Price: US $ 20000-30000 / Piece. Min. Order: 1 Piece ... Automatic TCCA Chlorine Hydraulic Rotary Tablet Press FOB Price: US $ 10000-20000 / Piece. Min. Order: 1 Piece ... 200g TCCA Chlorine Rotary Tablet Press Machinery FOB Price: US $ 10000-20000 / Piece. Min. Order: 1 Piece ...
Waterman - Model CPF-D1/D2 - Medical Waste Chlorine Dioxide Generator. Place of Origin: Jiangsu, China (Mainland). Model Number ... Conversion Rate: ,95%. Material: PVC (shell), Titanium (reactor), PTFE(tube). Control: Automatic control. Raw Chemicals: NaClO2 ...
And chlorine, cobalt, carbon, copper, tungsten, tin and sodium.. These are the only ones of which the news has come to Harvard, ... Titanium Quotes (2 quotes) Wenn sich f r ein neues Fossil kein, auf eigenth mliche Eigenschaften desselben hinweisender, Name ... Chlorine (15) , Chromium (2) , Cobalt (4) , Copper (25) , Element (310) , Erbium (2) , Fluorine (5) , Francium (2) , General ( ... And tantalum, technetium, titanium, tellurium,. And cadmium and calcium and chromium and curium.. Theres sulfur, californium ...
Landolt D, Ibl N (1972) Anodic chlorate formation on platinized titanium. J Appl Electrochem 2(3):201-210Google Scholar ... Fair G, Morris J, Chang S, Weil I, Burden RP (1948) The behavior of chlorine as a water disinfectant. J Am Water Work Assoc 40: ... Role of active chlorine mediation. J Electrochem Soc 147(2):592-596Google Scholar ... Trasatti S (1987) Progress in the understanding of the mechanism of chlorine evolution at oxide electrodes. Electrochim Acta 32 ...
Green: Barium compounds+Chlorine producer+Barium Chloride (BaCl2). Blue: Copper coumpounds+Chlorine producer+copper+Chloride ( ... Silver: Burning aluminum+Titanium+magnesium (AlTiMg+Heat). Every pyrotechnic composition has at least thats oxygen rich... [ ...
When a potential difference is applied and current flows, chlorine is released at the titanium anode and sodium (or potassium) ... Potassium permanganate can be used to generate chlorine gas when added to hydrochloric acid. Large-scale production of chlorine ... These towers progressively remove any remaining moisture from the chlorine gas. After exiting the drying towers the chlorine is ... A typical plant consists of brine production/treatment, cell operations, chlorine cooling & drying, chlorine compression & ...
Cl _ Ar _ Chlorine _ Argon. K _ Ca _ Potassium _ Calcium. Sc _ Ti _ Scandium _ Titanium. V _ Cr _ Vanadium _ Chromium. Mn _ Fe ... 17,18 Chlorine-Airgun. 19,20 PotOf-Calcium. 21,22 Scanned-Tites. 23,24 Van-Chrome. 25,26 Mangled-Iron. 27,28 Cold-Nickel. 29,30 ...
Titanium Chloride Solution TiCl4 bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. ... 17 Cl 35.453000000 Chlorine Chlorine is a Block P, Group 17, Period 3 element. Its electron configuration is [Ne]3s23p5. The ... Titanium Chloride Solution Synonyms. Titanium tetrachloride, Titanium(IV) chloride, TTC, Titanium(4+) tetrachloride, ... 22 Ti 47.867000000 Titanium See more Titanium products. Titanium (atomic symbol: Ti, atomic number: 22) is a Block D, Group 4, ...
Chlorine: 103.3 mg/L. - Ca/mg ratio: 17.66 mg/L. - Conductivity: 372.0 µS. - Intervals of water quality measurement: During the ... Nicolas et al (2015) tested dispersions of the two titanium dioxide nanoparticles, i.e. NM 101 (, 10 nm) and NM 104 (20 nm), in ... Dispersions of the two titanium dioxide nanoparticles NM 101(< 10 nm) and NM 104 (20 nm) were tested in Erlenmeyer flasks in an ... measured concentrations were below LOQ (0.8610) and max 1.5 µg TiO2/L; The titanium concentration in the solution after 48 h ...
Titanium Electrode Products with 5 kg /h Chlorine for Chlorination System Introduction: Electrolytic cell is the most important ... Home > Product >Chlor Alkali Production Titanium Anode--Chlor Alkali Production Ruthenium based mmo coating titanium anode The ... Its major chemical products are caustic soda and chlorine, which are separated by the electrolysis of a pure brine solution. ... 100g Chlorine Low Power Consumption Sodium Hypochlorite Production Product introduce: Main reaction process: NaCL+ H2O = NaCLO ...
First, the ore is heated with carbon and chlorine to produce titanium tetrachloride. Second, the titanium tetrachloride is ... But gifts are supposed to be free, and titanium is expensive. That is not because it is particularly rare (titanium dioxide is ... At the moment, titanium is made by the first, but unlike purifying iron, from which the oxygen is removed cheaply by reaction ... For not only titanium could be produced this way. Other expensive metals, such as vanadium and chromium, could also become ...
Chlorine Boron & MolybdenumIn addition to amino acids, vitamins, and minerals, bee pollen also contains many enzymes, co- ... Titanium Zinc (needed for the immune system) Iodine & ... Sulphur & Titanium. *Zinc (needed for the immune system). * ...
... titanium & iron; sodium & krypton; magnesium & bromine; chlorine & zinc.. A cautionary note: The above list of possible ... Titanium 22; Hydrogen 1; Phosphorus 15; Manganese 25; Sulfur 16; Carbon 12; Chlorine 17; Rubidium 37; Fluorine 9; Strontium 38 ... titanium & manganese.. Payload Element: proton. Possible Pairs of Elements Produced:. Boron & molybdenum; fluorine & krypton; ... titanium & manganese; calcium & manganese; manganese & chromium.. Payload Element: helium-4. Possible Pairs of Elements ...
  • The most common compound, titanium dioxide , is a popular photocatalyst and is used in the manufacture of white pigments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, the authors report the results of an experiment in which they grew three common species of stream algae as monocultures and together as polycultures in the biofilms of stream mesocosms that were exposed to nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (nTiO2) in a recirculating system. (europa.eu)
  • That is not because it is particularly rare (titanium dioxide is the basis of white paint) but because it is hard to extract as a pure metal. (economist.com)
  • For the electrolysis of titanium dioxide, the preferred electrolyte is molten calcium chloride. (economist.com)
  • Dr Chen's calculations showed, however, that it should be possible to reduce titanium dioxide electrically without having to dissolve it. (economist.com)
  • Instead, one of the electrodes dipped into the calcium chloride is made of solid titanium dioxide. (economist.com)
  • Titanium readily reacts with oxygen at 1,200 °C (2,190 °F) in air, and at 610 °C (1,130 °F) in pure oxygen, forming titanium dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • It should be noted that hydrogen reduction has been proposed for both titanium dioxide and titanium tetrachloride. (hstoday.us)
  • 5. The collection of particles of claim 1 wherein the oxide comprises titanium dioxide. (google.es)
  • Kronos is the world's fourth largest producer of titanium dioxide pigments ("TiO2") with an estimated 11% share of the worldwide market. (sec.gov)
  • KRONOS INDUSTRY Titanium dioxide pigments are chemical products used for imparting whiteness, brightness and opacity to a wide range of products, including paints, paper, plastics, fibers and ceramics. (sec.gov)
  • MAIN CONCLUSION - Banning the use of chlorine chemistry in the manufacture of only three of the major uses of chlorine (steel, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Titanium Dioxide) would result in a requirement to landfill an additional 24.6 billion pounds of waste each year (4.2 billion pounds auto related), raise serious issues regarding recycling with regard to PVC substitutes and raise the cost of related parts by some $2.0 billion a year. (sae.org)
  • Three major materials groups were selected to test the effectiveness of the methodology: steel, PVC and Titanium Dioxide.From this breakdown, key components were selected for testing. (sae.org)
  • Quality degradation would be substantial.Titanium Dioxide is used as a pigment for automotive paints. (sae.org)
  • The ICIS titanium dioxide (TiO2) price reports are published weekly as a global report and a CIS report. (icis.com)
  • We offer the following regional Titanium dioxide analysis and news coverage to keep you informed of factors and developments affecting prices in the Titanium dioxide marketplace . (icis.com)
  • European titanium dioxide (TiO2) supply is likely to remain at a reduced lvel during the fourth quarter, even if there is a slowdown from the main demand sectors. (icis.com)
  • European titanium dioxide (TiO2) demand from the downstream paints and plastics sectors is expected to be slower during the fourth quarter, because of the colder winter months. (icis.com)
  • Titanium dioxide (TiO2) sources, however, anticipate more stable Q4 demand amid reparation efforts following Hurricane Harvey, which could include heightened interest in products such as tarps, window profiles and plastic bags. (icis.com)
  • HOUSTON (ICIS)--Venator will be able to afford "opportunistic" acquisitions of titanium dioxide (TiO2) assets - despite the high costs it faces in. (icis.com)
  • 8. A process as claimed in claim 6 in which the halogen is chlorine or bromine. (google.com.au)
  • Bromine Test Kit for Pools, Spas, and Hot Tubs - Model L-P Cube: Bromine is less volatile than chlorine and is used as a disinfectant in spas and hot tubs, as well as swimming pools. (environmental-expert.com)
  • First, the ore is heated with carbon and chlorine to produce titanium tetrachloride. (economist.com)
  • Second, the titanium tetrachloride is reduced with either sodium or magnesium. (economist.com)
  • And titanium tetrachloride is a volatile, corrosive liquid that is difficult to handle. (economist.com)
  • The solubility of anhydrous aluminum chloride in solutions of titanium tetrachloride and vanadium tetrachloride was determined as part of a research project by the Bureau of Mines to make a homogeneous alloy sponge of titanium, vanadium, and aluminum. (cdc.gov)
  • The concept of reducing the cost of production of titanium sponge by replacing expensive and environmentally hazardous thermal conversion by magnesium to the reduction of titanium tetrachloride with hydrogen is proposed. (hstoday.us)
  • Hydrogen can be considered as an alternative reducing agent for titanium tetrachloride. (hstoday.us)
  • 15. The method of claim 14 wherein the metal precursor or silicon precursor is selected from the group consisting of titanium tetrachloride and titanium isopropoxide. (google.es)
  • 4. A process as set forth in claim 1 wherein the catalyst is prepared from titanium tetrachloride as the tetravalent titanium compound. (google.com.au)
  • Manufacturers first make titanium chloride, which gets processed into titanium tetrachloride, and then mixed with magnesium, which draws out the titanium and produces chlorine gas. (technologyreview.com)
  • 6. The method of claim 2 , wherein the metal-containing compound is titanium tetrachloride. (google.ca)
  • Chlorine is the second lightest halogen after fluorine. (americanelements.com)
  • Titanium silicate with (from left to right) no added halogen, fluorine, chlorine and iodine. (ualberta.ca)
  • Chlorine can also be produced by the electrolysis of a solution of potassium chloride, in which case the co-products are hydrogen and caustic potash (potassium hydroxide). (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, in the "primary cell", titanium anodes clad with platinum or conductive metal oxides (formerly graphite anodes) are placed in a sodium (or potassium) chloride solution flowing over a liquid mercury cathode. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a potential difference is applied and current flows, chlorine is released at the titanium anode and sodium (or potassium) dissolves in the mercury cathode forming an amalgam. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result from adding titanium powder to a burning mixture of potassium chlorate and sucrose (only to be demonstrated by a professionally qualified chemist). (webelements.com)
  • The Saltron Retro is a salt chlorine generator for in ground and above ground swimming pools with up to 20,000 gallons of water. (intheswim.com)
  • The controller communicates with the salt-chlorine generator to activate it for chlorine needs. (solardirect.com)
  • Saltron Retro is the perfect pool salt chlorine generator for all pools up to 20,000 gallons. (poolproducts.com)
  • Add salt to the pool to reach the 3000 ppm, and your pool salt chlorine generator will do the rest! (poolproducts.com)
  • The Saltron pool salt chlorine generator leaves your pool water feeling silky, soft, refreshing and sparkling clear - with no eye & skin irritation, chlorine odor, faded towels, swimsuits, poolside chairs, etc. (poolproducts.com)
  • Trichloro(indenyl)titanium(IV) is one of numerous organo-metallic compounds (also known as metalorganic, organo-inorganic and metallo-organic compounds) sold by American Elements under the trade name AE Organo-Metallics™ for uses requiring non-aqueous solubility such as recent solar energy and water treatment applications. (americanelements.com)
  • 1) one or more compounds of tetravalent titanium having the formula TiX.sub. (google.com.au)
  • Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of titanium where known. (webelements.com)
  • The Chloramine custom cartridge for 45,000 and 80,000 gallons contains KDF85 and Catalytic Acid Washed Coconut Shell Carbon that removes chloramines, chlorine, disinfection byproducts (DBP), herbicides, pesticides, heavy metals and other organic compounds. (inspiredliving.com)
  • CuZn's patented fast flow wide spectrum media with KDF55 and the highly rated Acid Washed Coconut Shell Carbon to remove chlorine, disinfection by-products (DBPs), herbicides, pesticides and other inorganic and organic compounds. (inspiredliving.com)
  • State-of-the-art chlorine generator gives above-ground and in-ground pools up to 20,000 gallons of advanced chlorine technology for pennies a day! (familypoolfun.com)
  • Titanium is 60% denser than aluminium, but more than twice as strong as the most commonly used 6061-T6 aluminium alloy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like aluminium and magnesium, titanium metal and its alloys oxidize immediately upon exposure to air. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, nanoparticles including titanium oxide with a rutile crystal structure have been produced. (google.es)
  • 14. The method of claim 13 wherein the oxide comprises titanium oxide. (google.es)
  • Titanium oxide bands are prominent in the spectra of M-type stars. (webelements.com)
  • SOLUTION: Titanium oxide (IV) obtained by a chemical bond of an oxo acid, that is a photocatalyst 1, and a halogen is provided in water. (rexresearch.com)
  • But processing titanium oxide found in the ground to make a usable metal is slow and produces toxic waste. (technologyreview.com)
  • The other molten oxides remain in place, acting as the electrolyte when more titanium oxide is added. (technologyreview.com)
  • Comes with an advanced, solid-state controller with a programmable, digital timer to adjust chlorine output. (familypoolfun.com)
  • The CircuPool RJ-Series (3rd-gen) Electrolytic Cell is an inline clear housing which contains built-in titanium electrode plates and built-in power supply cord. (discountsaltpool.com)
  • Welcome to buy high quality platinized titanium and niobium mesh and plate anode with 10 microns platinium for chlorine&caustic industry diaphram and membrane chlor alkali electrolytic cell from Howah Industry which is well-known as one of the leading manufacturers and suppliers in China. (howahanode.com)
  • Although a much lower production scale is involved, electrolytic diaphragm and membrane technologies are also used industrially to recover chlorine from hydrochloric acid solutions, producing hydrogen (but no caustic alkali) as a co-product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Titanium Electrode Products with 5 kg /h Chlorine for Chlorination System Introduction: Electrolytic cell is the most important part for chlorination system, it is key component of generating sodium hypochlorite solution by brine electrolysis . (fnxradio.com)
  • The electrolytic process uses a very low concentration of salt (less than a teaspoon per gallon) and generates free chlorine. (intheswim.com)
  • Also, if you nail titanium sheet you get electrolytic corrosion around the nail, and in any case the nailed hole is not watertight. (halfbakery.com)
  • Chlorine gas can be produced by extracting from natural materials, including the electrolysis of a sodium chloride solution (brine) and other ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine can be manufactured by the electrolysis of a sodium chloride solution (brine), which is known as the Chloralkali process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of chlorine results in the co-products caustic soda (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) and hydrogen gas (H2). (wikipedia.org)
  • In diaphragm cell electrolysis, an asbestos (or polymer-fiber) diaphragm separates a cathode and an anode, preventing the chlorine forming at the anode from re-mixing with the sodium hydroxide and the hydrogen formed at the cathode. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, electrolysis of fused chloride salts (Downs process) also enables chlorine to be produced, in this case as a by-product of the manufacture of metallic sodium or magnesium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment Titanium Electrode for Salt Electrolysis Anode Electrolyser (electrodes or electrolysis cell) Electrolyser (electrodes or electrolysis cell) is designed for producing 8000ppm sodium hypochlorite through 0.3% brine , which is stable and safety. (fnxradio.com)
  • The baked platinum-coated titanium electrodes are durable and exceptionally resistant to deterioration. (panasonic.com)
  • Most manufacturer chlorine generator warranties are pro-rated. (discountsaltpool.com)
  • With the Saltron Retro chlorine generator, you will make your own 'locally sourced and organic' chlorine. (poolproducts.com)
  • Its major chemical products are caustic soda and chlorine, which are separated by the electrolysis of a pure brine solution. (fnxradio.com)
  • Titanium is capable of withstanding attack by dilute sulfuric and hydrochloric acids, chloride solutions, and most organic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Titanium is resistant to dilute sulphuric and hydrochloric acid, most organic acids, damp chlorine gas, and chloride solutions. (webelements.com)
  • By substituting various halogen atoms bonded to titanium silicate sieves, the pore size of these sieves can be controlled absolutely, therefore changing the adsorptive qualities of the sieve. (ualberta.ca)
  • a) a catalyst comprising a solid compound of titanium, magnesium and a halogen produced by reacting at a temperature within the range of -20 to 150 C. (google.com.au)
  • Metallurgists have thus been searching for years for a way to coax titanium out of its ore by electrolysis. (economist.com)
  • Electrolysis of salt water is able to produce chlorine gas. (halfbakery.com)
  • The electricity produces electrolysis, breaking the bond between the titanium and oxygen atoms, and the heavier titanium sinks. (technologyreview.com)
  • The chlorine gas bubbles out where it meets the abundant mineral rutile (TiO2), then electricity is used to create a highly reactive discharge plasma (or even a plasma rutile aerosol) at the TIO2 chlorine mixture producing TiCL4, which is then distilled, or drained away. (halfbakery.com)
  • HONGTECHTI is one of the best China Ru Ir Coating Titanium Anode Chlorinator for Swimming Pool MMO titanium anode manufacturers and suppliers, and we are also a professional company with productive and effective factory. (entremaqueros.com)
  • At the anode, chloride ions are oxidized to elemental chlorine. (rexresearch.com)
  • You also get sparkling clear water to swim in without the eye and skin irritation along with faded clothing and towels and nasty chemical odors that come with chlorine. (poolproducts.com)
  • The chlorine continuously kills bacteria and algae and then reverts back to salt. (intheswim.com)
  • It has been proved under the direction of Bell , mostly in the potencies, and the symptoms mark it out as allied in action to Selenium and Titanium in its general action, and particularly in the male sexual sphere. (abchomeopathy.com)
  • Titanium is resistant to corrosion in sea water , aqua regia , and chlorine . (wikipedia.org)
  • Atmospheric passivation gives titanium excellent resistance to corrosion, almost equivalent to platinum. (wikipedia.org)
  • 100% titanium heat exchanger assures corrosion-free performance for extra long life and value. (hottubworks.com)
  • The pure titanium heat exchanger tube material was selected based on corrosion tests at 100 F with a pH of 4.75 and chlorine levels 5000 parts per million (1000 times greater than normal pool water) Although this is a severe test, it simulates realistic possible conditions such as chlorine tablets in skimmers and out of balance pool water. (heatsiphon.com)
  • Heat Siphon's corrosion-proof Heat Exchanger design uses electrically Isolated PURE TITANIUM tubing and a solid PVC shell to GUARANTEE LIFETIME CORROSION FREE OPERATION. (heatsiphon.com)
  • [12] Although they have the same number of valence electrons and are in the same group in the periodic table , titanium and zirconium differ in many chemical and physical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • and X is titanium or zirconium. (google.com)
  • The five stable Titanium isotopes are used for a wide range of studies and applications. (webelements.com)
  • First, in the same way as with a regular water purifier, residual chlorine and impurities are removed to create purified water. (panasonic.com)
  • Despite the use of new tool materials-such as special ceramics, coated carbides, polycrystalline diamonds, and cubic boron nitride-in metal removal of steels, cast irons, and heat-resistant alloys, none of these newer developments have found application in increasing the productivity of titanium machined parts. (candlepowerforums.com)
  • forming a titanium layer comprising boron on at least a portion of the substrate by sequentially chemisorbing monolayers of a titanium-containing compound and a boron-containing compound on the substrate during an atomic layer deposition process wherein the titanium layer comprising boron is formed at a temperature of less than about 500 C. (google.ca)
  • Calculate Δ S °(universe) for the formation of 1 mol HCl(g) from gaseous hydrogen and chlorine. (bartleby.com)
  • The main issue is the generation of large amounts of solid, liquid and gaseous chlorine-contaminated wastes. (hstoday.us)
  • One 3-pack of FreshWater Salt System titanium cartridges gives you a year's worth of water care. (hotspring.com)
  • The FreshWater Salt System will continually generate chlorine from the salt added to the water at start-up. (calderaspas.com)
  • At the moment, titanium is made by the first, but unlike purifying iron, from which the oxygen is removed cheaply by reaction with carbon in the form of coke, purifying titanium is a two-stage operation. (economist.com)
  • Hold a grindstone to the shackle of a "titanium" padlock from Master Lock, however, and you'll instead see the telltale fine, long, yellow sparks of high-carbon steel. (slashdot.org)
  • The Kroll method is used on large scales and involves the action of chlorine and carbon upon ilmenite (TiFeO 3 ) or rutile (TiO 2 ). (webelements.com)
  • The KDF-Carbon combination works together to remove or reduce chlorine, iron, lead and other heavy metals, some bacteria and other micro-organisms, hydrogen sulfide, disinfection by-products (DBPs), trihalomethanes (THMs), herbicides, pesticides and hundreds of other organic and inorganic contaminants from the water supply. (inspiredliving.com)
  • More electricity reduces the TiCl4 to titanium metal, producing cheaper titanium from seawater(ish) and a common mineral, rutile. (halfbakery.com)
  • I wasn't sure if my seawater and rutile soucre of titanium metal was new enough, even witht he plasma aerosol, so i mentioned the titanium roof covering. (halfbakery.com)
  • Now, about making that titanium about as cheap as aluminum. (halfbakery.com)
  • Magnesium metal is commonly used in aluminum (for malleability), iron (for strength), steel (to decrease its brittleness) and titanium (for lightness and strength). (utah.gov)
  • 1) Why would your titanium extraction process be cheaper than the Kroll process? (halfbakery.com)
  • The Kroll process is currently the most commonly used commercial titanium sponge manufacturing technology, as well as the standard of comparison with new technologies. (hstoday.us)
  • Although the world is currently continuing research aimed at creating new technologies for continuous production to allow the recovery of titanium metal at a lower cost, there was only one enterprise (capacity of 2,000 tons per year) which did not use the Kroll process in 2013 [2]. (hstoday.us)
  • Since the early 1950s, titanium has been produced through the Kroll process. (technologyreview.com)
  • These have failed because of the way that titanium atoms behave when they are in such a solution. (economist.com)
  • Titanium atoms have 22 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.10.2. (webelements.com)
  • Actually I once calculated one that it was only about $3000 or $4000 to put a titanium roof on 2000-3000 sqft dwelling at current titanium values. (halfbakery.com)
  • Fair G, Morris J, Chang S, Weil I, Burden RP (1948) The behavior of chlorine as a water disinfectant. (springer.com)
  • I think that underneath the roofing shingles a thin layer of titanium sheeting would ultra durably shed water. (halfbakery.com)
  • Pool water will retain constant low-levels of ph-balanced chlorine that purifies the water while making it soft and silky to the touch. (solardirect.com)
  • A wonderful thing happens to the salt after it is turned into low-level chlorine and does the work of sanitizing you pool water - it turns back into salt and the process begins all over again. (solardirect.com)
  • Swim in soft, silky water with chlorine that you produce. (familypoolfun.com)
  • By adding mild salt solution to your pool, Saltron® changes the salt ions in the water into chlorine to sanitize your pool water. (familypoolfun.com)
  • With just a little salt in your spa water, the system generates chlorine automatically so you'll spend less time measuring and adding chemicals. (hotspring.com)
  • The titanium cartridge creates chlorine from salt to sanitize the spa water. (hotspring.com)
  • It turns out you don't need much (if any) chlorine to enjoy a refreshing swim in water that is both clean and clear. (greenlivingonline.com)
  • For instance, TechnoPure systems treat water by channeling it through titanium plates coated with copper and zinc ions. (greenlivingonline.com)
  • DEL Ozone manufactures ozone injectors that purify the water and can reduce the need for chlorine by up to 90 percent . (greenlivingonline.com)
  • Saltwater pools are another cleaner option, although the very existence of salt results in the formation of some chlorine in the water. (greenlivingonline.com)
  • KLOROGEN-SC automatic chlorination system produces its own chlorine at site from the swimming pool water. (environmental-expert.com)
  • When Chlorine is at 5 ppm and the water has reached desired temperature… Spa is ready to use! (calderaspas.com)
  • Crystal clear water is one of the other advantages of using pure Titanium since it will not decompose or stain your pool like copper or stainless steel. (heatsiphon.com)
  • The chlorine extracted from splitting the magnesium chloride is used to purify water, but it is also a point of contention for air and water quality regulations around the facility. (utah.gov)
  • The result is a pool of liquid titanium at the bottom and oxygen bubbling out the top. (technologyreview.com)
  • In its elemental form, titanium has a silvery grey-white metallic appearance. (americanelements.com)
  • The result is a technically elegant, sun-safe swim fabric that is chlorine and saltwater resistant with a modest 4-way stretch. (coolibar.com)
  • and titanium trichloride (TiCl 3 ), which is used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene . (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to provide these industries with titanium and expand titanium applications, it is necessary to reduce its cost of production. (hstoday.us)
  • Therefore, titanium manufacturers are actively looking for new production technologies that will significantly reduce the cost of titanium. (hstoday.us)
  • Therefore, the improvement or replacement of this process is the most promising for reducing the cost of titanium production. (hstoday.us)
  • Contains commercial grade titanium plates for optimum chlorine production. (familypoolfun.com)
  • Economical production techniques have been developed through application of the previously mentioned basic rules in machining titanium. (candlepowerforums.com)
  • Three years later he bit the bullet and replaced his stainless steel production line with a specialised titanium line. (wineaustralia.com)
  • Jeffrey Sabados, president of the four-person Avanti, estimates that, based on production plans published by Boeing and Airbus, there'll be a 30,000-ton shortage of titanium by 2010. (technologyreview.com)
  • The whole house system removes hundreds of contaminants including chlorine, lead, heavy metals, iron, hydrogen sulfide and hard scale. (inspiredliving.com)
  • This self-contained purification system utilizes a natural process to generate pure chlorine. (intheswim.com)
  • Add 250 pounds of pool salt per 10,000 gallons to reach the recommended salinity level, and your pool salt will generate chlorine, saving you from buying, storing and handling chlorine. (poolproducts.com)
  • The system utilizes a disposable titanium cartridge to generate chlorine from salt. (calderaspas.com)
  • Magnesium chloride is found naturally in the lake and chemical reactions split magnesium metal from the chlorine. (utah.gov)
  • AutoPilot - since 1978 the leading manufacturer of the world's most effective salt-chlorine generators! (solardirect.com)
  • Supported, magnesium-containing, titanium-containing, electron donor-containing olefin polymerization catalysts now are well known in the art. (google.com)
  • Commercially pure (99.2% pure) grades of titanium have ultimate tensile strength of about 434 MPa (63,000 psi ), equal to that of common, low-grade steel alloys, but are less dense. (wikipedia.org)
  • Titanium is superconducting when cooled below its critical temperature of 0.49 K. Commercially pure (99.2% pure) grades of titanium have ultimate tensile strength of about 434 MPa (63,000 psi), equal to that of common, low-grade steel alloys, but are less dense. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain titanium alloys (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technology supporting the machining of titanium alloys is basically very similar to that for other alloy systems. (candlepowerforums.com)
  • Lower speeds are required for alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V than are necessary for unalloyed titanium. (candlepowerforums.com)
  • Tool life data have been developed experimentally for a wide variety of titanium alloys. (candlepowerforums.com)
  • It can be seen that tools for machining titanium alloys are very sensitive to changes in feed. (candlepowerforums.com)
  • Table 10.2 shows the power requirements for titanium in comparison with other alloys. (candlepowerforums.com)
  • and other alloys were tested including Titanium. (heatsiphon.com)