Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.
Chloramines are chemical compounds formed by the reaction between ammonia and chlorine, often used as disinfectants in water treatment but can also form in swimming pools, posing potential respiratory and mucous membrane irritation risks.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.

Exhaled nitric oxide among pulpmill workers reporting gassing incidents involving ozone and chlorine dioxide. (1/131)

The aim of the study was to investigate whether measurement of nitric oxide in exhaled air could be used for assessing the effects of irritants on the respiratory system, in this case recurrent ozone gassing in an occupational setting. The study population comprised bleachery workers (n=56) from a Swedish pulpmill carrying out ozone-based pulp bleaching since 1992 and controls (n=39). Both groups were investigated by measuring NO in exhaled air, methacholine challenge test and answers to a questionnaire concerning history of respiratory symptoms and accidental exposure to ozone peaks. There was no significant difference in NO output between exposed subjects and controls (median 67.2 versus 55.0 nL x min(-1), p=0.64). However, among bleachery workers reporting ozone gassings, the median NO output was 90.0 nL x min(-1) compared to 58.8 nL x min(-1) among those not reporting such incidents (p=0.019). There was no relation between exhaled NO and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms or bronchial hyperresponsiveness. In a multiple regression model, only reported ozone gassings were associated (p=0.016) with NO output. The results indicate an association between previous response to ozone gassing and nitric oxide output. The increased nitric oxide output among the bleachery workers reporting peak ozone exposure may indicate that chronic airway inflammation is present. Further studies are needed to evaluate the extent to which nitric oxide can be used for biological monitoring of respiratory health effects, and to relate it to other markers of airway inflammation.  (+info)

Chlorine, chloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium. (2/131)

Environmental and patient isolates of Mycobacterium avium were resistant to chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. For chlorine, the product of the disinfectant concentration (in parts per million) and the time (in minutes) to 99.9% inactivation for five M. avium strains ranged from 51 to 204. Chlorine susceptibility of cells was the same in washed cultures containing aggregates and in reduced aggregate fractions lacking aggregates. Cells of the more slowly growing strains were more resistant to chlorine than were cells of the more rapidly growing strains. Water-grown cells were 10-fold more resistant than medium-grown cells. Disinfectant resistance may be one factor promoting the persistence of M. avium in drinking water.  (+info)

Identification of a serine hydrolase as a key determinant in the microbial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls. (3/131)

The ability of 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoate (HOPDA) hydrolase (BphD) of Burkholderia cepacia LB400 to hydrolyze polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) metabolites was assessed by determining its specificity for monochlorinated HOPDAs. The relative specificities of BphD for HOPDAs bearing chlorine substituents on the phenyl moiety were 0.28, 0.38, and 1.1 for 8-Cl, 9-Cl, and 10-Cl HOPDA, respectively, versus HOPDA (100 mm phosphate, pH 7.5, 25 degrees C). In contrast, HOPDAs bearing chlorine substituents on the dienoate moiety were poor substrates for BphD, which hydrolyzed 3-Cl, 4-Cl, and 5-Cl HOPDA at relative maximal rates of 2.1 x 10(-3), 1.4 x 10(-4), and 0.36, respectively, versus HOPDA. The enzymatic transformation of 3-, 5-, 8-, 9-, and 10-Cl HOPDAs yielded stoichiometric quantities of the corresponding benzoate, indicating that BphD catalyzes the hydrolysis of these HOPDAs in the same manner as unchlorinated HOPDA. HOPDAs also underwent a nonenzymatic transformation to products that included acetophenone. In the case of 4-Cl HOPDA, this transformation proceeded via the formation of 4-OH HOPDA (t(12) = 2.8 h; 100 mm phosphate, pH 7.5, 25 degrees C). 3-Cl HOPDA (t(12) = 504 h) was almost 3 times more stable than 4-OH HOPDA. Finally, 3-Cl, 4-Cl and 4-OH HOPDAs competitively inhibited the BphD-catalyzed hydrolysis of HOPDA (K(ic) values of 0.57 +/- 0. 04, 3.6 +/- 0.2, and 0.95 +/- 0.04 microm, respectively). These results explain the accumulation of HOPDAs and chloroacetophenones in the microbial degradation of certain PCB congeners. More significantly, they indicate that in the degradation of PCB mixtures, BphD would be inhibited, thereby slowing the mineralization of all congeners. BphD is thus a key determinant in the aerobic microbial degradation of PCBs.  (+info)

Relation between stillbirth and specific chlorination by-products in public water supplies. (4/131)

During water treatment, chlorine reacts with naturally occurring organic matter in surface water to produce a number of by-products. Of the by-products formed, trihalomethanes (THMs) are among the highest in concentration. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between the level of total THM and specific THMs in public water supplies and risk for stillbirth. The cohort was assembled from a population-based perinatal database in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia and consisted of almost 50,000 singleton deliveries between 1988 and 1995. Individual exposures were assigned by linking mother's residence at the time of delivery to the levels of specific THMs monitored in public water supplies. Analysis was conducted for all stillbirths and for cause-of-death categories based on the physiologic process responsible for the fetal death. Total THMs and the specific THMs were each associated with increased stillbirth risk. The strongest association was observed for bromodichloromethane exposure, where risk doubled for those exposed to a level of [greater and equal to] 20 microg/L compared to those exposed to a level < 5 microg/L (relative risk = 1. 98, 95% confidence interval, 1.23-3.49). Relative risk estimates associated with THM exposures were larger for asphyxia-related deaths than for unexplained deaths or for stillbirths overall. These findings suggest a need to consider specific chlorination by-products in relation to stillbirth risk, in particular bromodichloromethane and other by-product correlates. The finding of a stronger effect for asphyxia deaths requires confirmation and research into possible mechanisms.  (+info)

Foetal growth and duration of gestation relative to water chlorination. (5/131)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of exposure to chlorination byproducts during pregnancy on foetal growth and duration of pregnancy. METHODS: A population based study was conducted of 137,145 Norwegian children born alive in 1993--5. Information was obtained from the Norwegian medical birth registry, waterwork registry, and social science data service. The outcomes of interest were birth weight, low birth weight (<2500 g), small for gestational age, and preterm delivery (gestational age <37 weeks). The exposure assessment was based on quality of drinking water in the municipality where the mother lived during pregnancy. Municipal exposure was calculated with information on chlorination and the amount of natural organic matter in raw water measured as colour in mg precipitate/l. The main exposure category was high colour and chlorination, which was contrasted with the reference category of low colour and no chlorination. RESULTS: In logistic regression analysis adjusting for confounding, the risks of low birth weight (odds ratio (OR) 0.97, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.89 to 1.06) and small for gestational age (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.10) were not related to exposure. Contrary to the hypothesis, the risk of preterm delivery was slightly lower among the exposed than the reference category (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.99). The risks of the studied outcomes were similar in newborn infants exposed to high colour drinking water without chlorination and chlorinated drinking water with low colour compared with the reference category. CONCLUSIONS: The present study did not provide evidence that prenatal exposure to chlorination byproducts at the relatively low concentrations encountered in Norwegian drinking water increases the risk of the studied outcomes.  (+info)

Chlorine dioxide inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and bacterial spore indicators. (6/131)

Cryptosporidium parvum, which is resistant to chlorine concentrations typically used in water treatment, is recognized as a significant waterborne pathogen. Recent studies have demonstrated that chlorine dioxide is a more efficient disinfectant than free chlorine against Cryptosporidium oocysts. It is not known, however, if oocysts from different suppliers are equally sensitive to chlorine dioxide. This study used both a most-probable-number-cell culture infectivity assay and in vitro excystation to evaluate chlorine dioxide inactivation kinetics in laboratory water at pH 8 and 21 degrees C. The two viability methods produced significantly different results (P < 0.05). Products of disinfectant concentration and contact time (Ct values) of 1,000 mg. min/liter were needed to inactivate approximately 0.5 log(10) and 2.0 log(10) units (99% inactivation) of C. parvum as measured by in vitro excystation and cell infectivity, respectively, suggesting that excystation is not an adequate viability assay. Purified oocysts originating from three different suppliers were evaluated and showed marked differences with respect to their resistance to inactivation when using chlorine dioxide. Ct values of 75, 550, and 1,000 mg. min/liter were required to achieve approximately 2.0 log(10) units of inactivation with oocysts from different sources. Finally, the study compared the relationship between easily measured indicators, including Bacillus subtilis (aerobic) spores and Clostridium sporogenes (anaerobic) spores, and C. parvum oocysts. The bacterial spores were found to be more sensitive to chlorine dioxide than C. parvum oocysts and therefore could not be used as direct indicators of C. parvum inactivation for this disinfectant. In conclusion, it is suggested that future studies address issues such as oocyst purification protocols and the genetic diversity of C. parvum, since these factors might affect oocyst disinfection sensitivity.  (+info)

Selective oxidation in vitro by myeloperoxidase of the N-terminal amine in apolipoprotein B-100. (7/131)

In contrast to the multiple low abundance 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-reactive tryptic peptides formed by oxidation of LDL with reagent HOCl in vitro, myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidation produces a dominant product in considerably greater yield and selectivity. This modified peptide had a single amino-terminal sequence corresponding to amino acids 53-66 of apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100), but its mass spectra indicated a significantly higher mass than could be reconciled with simple modifications of this peptide. Subsequent studies indicate that this product appears to result from N-chlorination of the N-terminal amino group of apoB-100 and dehydrohalogenation to the corresponding imine, which may form the hydrazone derivative directly, or after hydrolysis to the ketone. The methionine residue is oxidized to the corresponding sulfoxide, and the primary sequence peptide (residues 1-14 of apoB-100) is linked by the intramolecular disulfide bond between C-12 and C-61 to the peptide composed of residues 53-66, as we have observed previously (Yang, C-Y., T. W. Kim, S. A. Weng, B. Lee, M. Yang, and A. M. Gotto, Jr. 1990. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87: 5523-5527) in unmodified LDL. The selective oxidation by myeloperoxidase of the N-terminal amine suggests strong steric effects in the approach of substrate to the enzyme catalytic site, an effect that may apply to other macromolecules and to cell surface molecules.  (+info)

Water disinfection for international and wilderness travelers. (8/131)

Acquisition of waterborne disease is a substantial risk for international travelers to countries with inadequate sanitation facilities. It also poses smaller but still significant risks for wilderness travelers who rely on surface water in developed countries with low rates of diarrheal illness, such as the United States. This article reviews the etiology and risks associated with waterborne disease that might be encountered by both types of travelers. It also summarizes--and makes recommendations for--the various water-treatment methods available to travelers for reducing their risk of contracting waterborne disease.  (+info)

Chlorine compounds refer to chemical substances that contain chlorine (Cl), which is a member of the halogen group in the periodic table. Chlorine is a highly reactive element that readily forms compounds with many other elements and molecules.

Chlorine compounds can be found in various forms, including inorganic and organic compounds. Inorganic chlorine compounds include salts of hydrochloric acid, such as sodium chloride (table salt), and chlorides of metals, such as copper chloride and silver chloride. Other inorganic chlorine compounds include chlorine gas (Cl2), hypochlorous acid (HClO), and chlorine dioxide (ClO2).

Organic chlorine compounds are those that contain carbon atoms bonded to chlorine atoms. Examples of organic chlorine compounds include chlorinated solvents, such as trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene, and pesticides, such as DDT and lindane.

Chlorine compounds have a wide range of uses in various industries, including water treatment, disinfection, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and manufacturing. However, some chlorine compounds can be harmful or toxic to humans and the environment, particularly if they are released into the air, water, or soil in large quantities. Therefore, it is essential to handle and dispose of chlorine compounds properly to minimize potential health and environmental risks.

Chloramines are a group of compounds that consist of chlorine combined with ammonia and nitrogen. In the context of water treatment, chloramines are often formed when ammonia is added to water that has been treated with chlorine. This process is known as chloramination and is used as a secondary disinfection method to help control microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems.

Chloramines have several advantages over chlorine alone as a disinfectant. They are more stable and persist for longer periods in the distribution system, which helps to maintain a residual disinfectant concentration throughout the system. This is important because it provides ongoing protection against microbial growth and contamination.

However, chloramines can also have some disadvantages. They may react with organic matter in the water to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs), which can be harmful to human health. Chloramines can also cause corrosion of pipes and other infrastructure in the distribution system, leading to leaching of metals such as lead and copper into the water.

Overall, chloramination is a widely used and effective method for disinfecting drinking water, but it must be carefully monitored and managed to ensure that it is done safely and effectively.

Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17. It is a member of the halogen group of elements and is the second-lightest halogen after fluorine. In its pure form, chlorine is a yellow-green gas under standard conditions.

Chlorine is an important chemical compound that has many uses in various industries, including water treatment, disinfection, and bleaching. It is also used in the production of a wide range of products, such as plastics, solvents, and pesticides.

In medicine, chlorine compounds are sometimes used for their antimicrobial properties. For example, sodium hypochlorite (bleach) is a common disinfectant used to clean surfaces and equipment in healthcare settings. Chlorhexidine is another chlorine compound that is widely used as an antiseptic and disinfectant in medical and dental procedures.

However, it's important to note that exposure to high concentrations of chlorine gas can be harmful to human health, causing respiratory irritation, coughing, and shortness of breath. Long-term exposure to chlorine can also lead to more serious health effects, such as damage to the lungs and other organs.

Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy or irreversibly inactivate microorganisms, but not necessarily their spores. They are different from sterilizers, which kill all forms of life, and from antiseptics, which are used on living tissue. Disinfectants work by damaging the cell wall or membrane of the microorganism, disrupting its metabolism, or interfering with its ability to reproduce. Examples of disinfectants include alcohol, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, and quaternary ammonium compounds. They are commonly used in hospitals, laboratories, and other settings where the elimination of microorganisms is important for infection control. It's important to use disinfectants according to the manufacturer's instructions, as improper use can reduce their effectiveness or even increase the risk of infection.

Disinfection is the process of eliminating or reducing harmful microorganisms from inanimate objects and surfaces through the use of chemicals, heat, or other methods. The goal of disinfection is to reduce the number of pathogens to a level that is considered safe for human health. Disinfection is an important step in preventing the spread of infectious diseases in healthcare settings, food processing facilities, and other environments where there is a risk of infection transmission.

It's important to note that disinfection is not the same as sterilization, which is the complete elimination of all microorganisms, including spores. Disinfection is generally less effective than sterilization but is often sufficient for most non-critical surfaces and objects. The choice between disinfection and sterilization depends on the level of risk associated with the item or surface being treated and the intended use of that item or surface.

... , also known as chlorine base compounds, is jargon to describe certain chlorine-containing ... This chlorine-releasing compound is the most common bleaching and disinfection compound. A dilute (3-6%) aqueous solution in ... The activity and applications of chlorine-releasing compounds are diverse. Some have strong oxidizing character. Chlorine ... "free chlorine" or "available chlorine". It is the mass of chlorine gas (Cl2) that would yield the same oxidizing power as the ...
V/3 Fluorine and Chlorine Compounds . Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart 1962, ISBN 978-3-13-203004-6, p. 524. US Grant 2046090, Cortes F ... Due to chlorine, which is bound directly to the sulfur, the resulting products are highly reactive. As secondary products there ... Too high chlorine concentrations lead to high absorption near the light source and have a disadvantageous effect. The ... In addition to chlorine, sulfur dioxide is also introduced into the reaction mixture. The products formed are alkylsulfonyl ...
The cycling of chlorine into the atmosphere and creation of chlorine compounds by anthropogenic sources has major impacts on ... These highly reactive chlorine ions will also interact with volatile organic compounds to form other ozone depleting acids. ... In the hydrosphere, chlorine exists primarily as chloride due to the high solubility of the Cl− ion. The majority of chlorine ... N.; Makarov, M. I. (2017). "Organochlorine compounds and the biogeochemical cycle of chlorine in soils: A review". Eurasian ...
Chlorine and chlorine compounds, pp. 131-151. In S. S. Block (ed.), Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation. Lea & Febiger ... The resulting compound is a chlorohydrin. The polar chlorine disrupts lipid bilayers and could increase permeability. When ... to a flask of chlorine gas, a dilute suspension of mercury(II) oxide in water. He also named the acid and its compounds. ... Investigations into the nature of bleaching compounds of chlorine]. Annales de Chimie et de Physique. 2nd series (in French). ...
Bleach Chlorine-releasing compound Chloramine-T (tosylchloramide sodium salt), another water disinfection agent. Water ... "Antimicrobial activity of organic chlorine releasing compounds". Journal of the British Contact Lens Association. 15 (2): 81. ... Halazone (4-(dichlorosulfamoyl)benzoic acid) is a chemical compound whose formula can be written as either C 7H 5Cl 2NO 4S or ( ... Halazone's disinfecting activity is mainly due to the hypochlorous acid (HClO) released by hydrolysis of the chlorine-nitrogen ...
Handbook of Mineralogy Webmineral data Q. Ashton Acton (2012). Chlorine Compounds-Advances in Research and ...
Chlorine monofluoride (ClF) is the lightest interhalogen compound. ClF is a colorless gas with a normal boiling point of −100 ° ... In chemistry, an interhalogen compound is a molecule which contains two or more different halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, ... This compound is the only known interhalogen compound where the larger atom is carrying seven of the smaller atoms. All ... Chlorine pentafluoride (ClF5) is a colourless gas, made by reacting chlorine trifluoride with fluorine at high temperatures and ...
344). 'On the Combination of Chlorine with Oil of Turpentine' (1812, xxxiii. 194). 'On the Explosive Compound of Chlorine and ... Porrett, R. Jr.; Wilson, W.; Kirk, Rupert (April 1813). "On the explosive compound of chlorine and azote". Journal of Natural ...
... chlorine compounds are used in swimming pools to keep them clean and sanitary. In the upper atmosphere, chlorine-containing ... The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride (table salt), has been known since ancient times; however, around 1630, ... Chlorine is a component of many other compounds. It is the second most abundant halogen and 21st most abundant chemical element ... The most useful compounds of aluminium, at least on a weight basis, are the oxides and sulfates. Silicon (symbol Si) is a group ...
The active carbon absorbs compounds such as chlorine. Filters with active carbon need to be replaced periodically because the ...
Chloride Any chemical compound containing the element chlorine. Chromate Chromate salts contain the chromate anion, CrO2− 4. ... Hydrocarbon A compound containing hydrogen and carbon atoms only; petroleum is made of hydrocarbons. Contents: A B C D E F G H ... Amphoterism In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base. Many ... Chemical compound Is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from ...
The use of chlorine dioxide minimizes the amount of organochlorine compounds produced. Chlorine dioxide (ECF technology) ... Chlorine dioxide is less corrosive than chlorine and superior for the control of Legionella bacteria. Chlorine dioxide is ... Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2 that exists as yellowish-green gas above 11 °C, a reddish-brown ... Chlorine dioxide may be used for control of zebra and quagga mussels in water intakes.: 4-34 Chlorine dioxide was shown to be ...
Inorganic chlorine compounds, Interhalogen compounds, Rocket oxidizers, Fluorinating agents, Oxidizing agents, Chlorine(V) ... Chlorine pentafluoride is an interhalogen compound with formula ClF5. This colourless gas is a strong oxidant that was once a ... Chlorine pentafluoride was once considered for use as an oxidizer for rockets. As a propellant, it has a higher maximum ... Due to the hazardous nature of chlorine pentafluoride, it has yet to be used in a large scale rocket propulsion system. ...
SeCl4 is used in the synthesis of other selenium compounds. The compound is prepared by treating selenium with chlorine. When ... Selenium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound composed with the formula SeCl4. This compound exists as yellow to white ... Gaseous SeCl4 contains SeCl2 and chlorine, which recombine upon condensation. Selenium tetrachloride can be reduced in situ to ... compounds, Chlorides, Nonmetal halides, Chalcohalides, Selenium halides). ...
Billroth Gottlieb, Hans (1936). "The Replacement of Chlorine by Fluorine in Organic Compounds". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58 (3): 532- ... edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2009, ISBN 978-1-4200-9084-0, Section 3, Physical Constants of Organic Compounds, p. 3 ...
In 1812, Davy discovered phosgene, a compound he also named. At the same time, he concluded that chlorine was an element. He ... Retrieved 4 July 2018.[permanent dead link] John Davy (1812). "On a Gaseous Compound of Carbonic Oxide and Chlorine". ... During his career, Davy discovered phosgene, silicon tetrafluoride, and concluded that chlorine was an element. John Davy was ...
"On a gaseous Compound of carbonic Oxide and Chlorine". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. London. 102: 144-151. ...
John Davy (1812). "On a gaseous compound of carbonic oxide and chlorine". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of ... "The fate of atmospheric phosgene and the stratospheric chlorine loadings of its parent compounds: CCl 4, C 2 Cl 4, C 2 HCl 3, ... phosgene reverts to carbon monoxide and chlorine, Keq(300 K) = 0.05. World production of this compound was estimated to be 2.74 ... with the chlorine helping to spread the denser phosgene. Phosgene was more potent than chlorine, though some symptoms took 24 ...
Major pollutants included sulfuric acid, cobalt compounds, and chlorine. The Center for Public Integrity reports that Goodyear ... "BioTRED compounding technology". The new technology increases the tires "flexibility and resistance to energy loss", which ...
... is a chemical compound with the formula Cl2O4. This chlorine oxide is an asymmetric oxide, with one ... Chlorine oxides, Acidic oxides, Chlorine(VII) compounds, Perchlorates). ... ClOClO3 Chlorine perchlorate is a pale greenish liquid. It is less stable than ClO2 (chlorine dioxide)[citation needed] and ... Cl2O6 Chlorine perchlorate reacts with metal chlorides to form chlorine and the corresponding anhydrous perchlorate: CrO2Cl2 + ...
Chlorine(III) compounds, Fluorides, Fluorinating agents, Incendiary weapons, Inorganic chlorine compounds, Interhalogen ... Chlorine trifluoride is an interhalogen compound with the formula ClF3. This colorless, poisonous, corrosive, and extremely ... "Chlorine trifluoride". PubChem Compound. National Center for Biotechnology Information. 4 July 2023. Retrieved 8 July 2023. ... Robinson D. Burbank; Frank N. Bensey (1953). "The Structures of the Interhalogen Compounds. I. Chlorine Trifluoride at −120 °C ...
This compound reacted readily with air, chlorine, bromine and iodine. On the basis of his experimental evidence Gomberg ... the first instance of the formation of such a compound from a hydrocarbon. Studies of other triarylmethyl compounds gave ... Gomberg, M.; Bachmann, W. E. (2002-05-01). "The synthesis of biaryl compounds by means of the diazo reaction". Journal of the ... In 1923, he claimed to have synthesized chlorine tetroxide via the reaction of silver perchlorate with iodine, but was later ...
"They are bromine compounds produced by seaweed and the ocean's phytoplankton". Only 10% of ozone deleting chlorine compounds ...
... is an inorganic compound of chlorine and rhenium. The compound has the formula Re2Cl10 but it is usually ... This compound was first prepared in 1933, a few years after the discovery of rhenium. The preparation involves chlorination of ... Rhenium compounds, Chlorides, Metal halides, Substances discovered in the 1930s). ...
... is an interhalogen compound of iodine and chlorine. It is bright yellow but upon time and exposure to light ... Iodine compounds, Chlorides, Interhalogen compounds, Oxidizing agents, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ... It can be prepared by reacting iodine with an excess of liquid chlorine at −70 °C. In the molten state it is conductive, which ... ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8. v t e (Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals in an infobox that need ...
... is a chemical compound of arsenic and chlorine. This compound was first prepared in 1976 through the UV ... compounds, Chlorides, Arsenic halides, Substances discovered in the 1970s). ... irradiation of arsenic trichloride, AsCl3, in liquid chlorine at −105 °C. AsCl5 decomposes at around −50 °C. The structure of ...
... is a compound of chlorine, hydrogen, and carbon. It may be found as a contaminant in soil fumigants ...
Major pollutants included sulfuric acid, chromium compounds, lead compounds, and chlorine. The Center for Public Integrity has ...
Chlorine, as compounded chloride, is necessary for osmosis and ionic balance; it also plays a role in photosynthesis. Cobalt ... For example, nitrogen compounds comprise 40% to 50% of the dry matter of protoplasm, and it is a constituent of amino acids, ... Plants not classified as legumes such as wheat, corn and rice rely on nitrogen compounds present in the soil to support their ... When coupled with certain acidic compounds of the jelly-like pectins of the middle lamella, calcium forms an insoluble salt. It ...
The reactions depended on the pH, compound structures, and chlorine dose. Concern about effects on coral reefs resulted in a ... In swimming pools with hypochlorite in aqueous solution, octyl methoxycinnamate has been shown to produce chlorine-substituted ... is an organic compound that is an ingredient in some sunscreens and lip balms. It is an ester formed from methoxycinnamic acid ... A study carried out in 2017 by the Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment at Masaryk University, Czech Republic ...
Chlorine-releasing compounds, also known as chlorine base compounds, is jargon to describe certain chlorine-containing ... This chlorine-releasing compound is the most common bleaching and disinfection compound. A dilute (3-6%) aqueous solution in ... The activity and applications of chlorine-releasing compounds are diverse. Some have strong oxidizing character. Chlorine ... "free chlorine" or "available chlorine". It is the mass of chlorine gas (Cl2) that would yield the same oxidizing power as the ...
Leave the compound reaction: • Magnesium + chlorine • Aluminum + iodine • Phosphorus + oxygen • Potassium + nitrogen ... Leave the compound reaction: • Magnesium + chlorine • Aluminum + iodine • Phosphorus + oxygen • Potassium + nitrogen. univerkov ...
i) Gases, such as ammonia, chlorine or hydrogen chloride, fluorine or hydrogen fluoride, carbon oxides, sulphur compounds, ... iv) Nitrogenous hydrocarbons such as amines, amides, nitrous compounds, nitro compounds or nitrate compounds, nitriles, ... 15) Total mass of tributyltin compounds, expressed as mass of tributyltin.. (16) Total mass of triphenyltin compounds, ... 8) substance means any chemical element and its compounds, with the exception of radioactive substances; ...
Chlorine in PDB 7qga: Human CD73 (Ecto 5-Nucleotidase) in Complex with MRS4598 (A 3-Methyl- Cmpcp Derivative, Compound 16 in ... Chlorine binding site 1 out of 1 in 7qga. Go back to Chlorine Binding Sites List in 7qga Chlorine binding site 1 out of 1 in ... Chlorine in PDB 7qga: Human CD73 (Ecto 5-Nucleotidase) in Complex with MRS4598 (A 3-Methyl- Cmpcp Derivative, Compound 16 in ... Chlorine Binding Sites:. The binding sites of Chlorine atom in the Human CD73 (Ecto 5-Nucleotidase) in Complex with MRS4598 (A ...
Chlorine gas reacts with the water in the cells located in the surface of the respiratory airways and forms other compounds ... How can chlorine enter and leave my body?. Chlorine gas enters your body only when you breathe it in. Chlorine gas can enter ... How might I be exposed to chlorine?. Most people are not expected to be exposed to chlorine Because chlorine is so reactive, it ... What happens to chlorine when it enters the environment?. Chlorine is very unstable in the environment Chlorine is very ...
Chlorine and chlorine compounds. In: Block SS, editor. Disinfection and sterilization and preservation. Philadelphia: Lea and ... Germicidal properties of chlorine compounds. Vol. 35. Ames (IA): Iowa State College; 1937. p. 1-60. ... Chlorine dioxide gas sterilization under square-wave conditions. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990;56:514-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Chlorine dioxide gas sterilization of oxygenators in an industrial scale sterilizer: a successful model. Artif Organs. 1990;14: ...
... other decomposition products include nitrogen oxides and chlorine compounds. ...
Laboratory-animals; Animals; Animal-studies; Injuries; Airway-resistance; Airway-obstruction; Chlorine-compounds; Bronchial- ... The role of gamma delta T cells in airway epithelial injury and bronchial responsiveness after chlorine gas exposure in mice. ... BACKGROUND: Acute exposure to chlorine (Cl2) gas causes epithelial injury and airway dysfunction. gammadelta T cells are ...
Chlorine-compounds; Air-flow; Air-sampling; Ammonium-compounds; Temperature-effects; Endotoxins; Food-processing-industry; Food ... The levels of soluble chlorine compounds measured by PBZ samples were significantly higher for those employees who reported ... Results of this evaluation suggest a health hazard may exist from exposure to soluble chlorine compounds and trichloramine. ... The concentrations of chloramine compounds (trichloramine and soluble chlorine [monochloramine, dichloramine, hypochlorite, and ...
Acetonitrile; Chlorine compounds; Nitriles; Organochlorine compounds; IDLH; Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health; LD50; ...
It forms compounds with carbon, chlorine, oxygen, sulfur, and some other elements. It is hexavalent in its most important ... It is sometimes called wolfram, and the chemical symbol is taken from this name; in naming compounds of tungsten, use of the ... compounds. It forms tungstic acid (H2WO4), or wolframic acid, which is the basis of a series of salts called tungstates, or ...
Instead, the Viking scientists interpreted the chlorine compounds as contaminants. Upcoming missions to Mars and further work ... chlorine compounds interpreted at the time as likely contaminants from cleaning fluids. But those chemicals are exactly what ... If organic compounds can indeed persist in the surface soil of Mars, contrary to the predominant thinking for three decades, ... an ion of chlorine and oxygen, becomes a strong oxidant when heated. It could sit there in the Martian soil with organics ...
Adsorption, Chlorine Compounds/analysis, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Odors/analysis, Polyethylene/analysis, Polyvinyl ... LR: 20131121; JID: 0105072; 0 (Chlorine Compounds); 0 (Trihalomethanes); 0 (Water Pollutants); 059QF0KO0R (Water); 9002-86-2 ( ... The title compound, C(25)H(20)N(4).4H(2)O, crystallizes with the organic mol-ecule lying on a twofold rotation axis through the ... Water samples stored in both types of pipe showed a significant increase in the leaching of organic compounds when compared to ...
Monograph on chlorine and its compounds used in the food industry. (Informatics, Inc. ;, 1978), also by Robert Rogers, Janice ...
The extraction of aluminium oxide from an ore and the reaction of aluminium or its alloys with chlorine or its compounds. ... chlorine, fluorine, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen cyanide, or hydrogen sulphide. ...
Arsenic in animals and plants combines with carbon and hydrogen to form organic arsenic compounds. Inorganic arsenic compounds ... Organic arsenic compounds are used as pesticides, primarily on cotton plants. ... In the environment, arsenic is combined with oxygen, chlorine, and sulfur to form inorganic arsenic compounds. ... In the environment, arsenic is combined with oxygen, chlorine, and sulfur to form inorganic arsenic compounds. Arsenic in ...
Product arising from burning: NOx, COx and compounds containing chlorine. Thermal decomposition or combustion may include toxic ...
It is also used as a catalyst for the formation of some chlorine compounds. ... Many classes of compounds are used as pesticides. Examples include endocrine modulators, such as DDT and related compounds, and ... and the management of chlorine compound waste. Like DDT and methylmercury, dioxins accumulate in the food chain and are ... How can chemical compounds alter human fertility?. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2002 Jan 10. 100(2):127-37. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
"Chlorate is one such oxygenated chlorine compound that has the same properties as bleach. The contaminants (metal and ... Chemicals containing oxygenated chlorine (like bleach) are routinely used to decontaminate water. But chlorine can also be a ... Chlorine and bromine are both halogens, and chlorate and bromate are the dominant forms of both on Mars. ... "One of the main differences between Earth and Mars is that Mars is rich in halogens, elements like Chlorine and Bromine. Mars ...
Selective Detection of Chlorine Containing Compounds by Gas Chromatography-Chemical Reaction Interface Mass Spectrometry, Song ... Selective detection and characterization of chlorine-and bromine-containing compounds in complex mixtures using microwave- ... Keywords: Chlorine containing compound GC Mass Spectrometry; Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry; GC-CRIMS; Sulfur Dioxide ... These compounds are then detected by mass spectrometry. The generation of new small compounds reduces the possibility of ...
Wichita, KS (Chlorine, Hydrochloric Acid, Caustic Soda, Sodium Chlorite, Chlorinated Organic Compounds) ... Talcahuano, Chile (Chlorine, Caustic Soda, Hydrochloric Acid, Sodium Hypochlorite, Ferric Chloride, Calcium Chloride) ...
What is Chloride? A chloride is chemically defined as a two chlorine ions in a compound. Understand... ...
These intermediate-level disinfectants include phenolics, iodophors, and chlorine-containing compounds. Because mycobacteria ... Concentrations ranging from 500 to 800 ppm of chlorine (a 1:100 dilution of bleach and tap water or 1/4 cup of bleach to 1 ... Caution should be exercised, since chlorine solutions are corrosive to metals, especially aluminum. Low-level disinfectants -- ... quaternary ammonium compounds) -- are appropriate for general housekeeping purposes such as cleaning floors, walls, and other ...
Drawbacks • Chief drawback of bleaching powder is that it is unstable compound and loses its chlorine content on storage. • Its ... Interpretation • If chlorine is present in the water a yellow colour will develop after adding the reagent. • The amount of ... Wait for half an hour for the action of chlorine. Add 3 drops of starch iodide indicator to each of white cups and stir again. ... It can be prepared by reacting calcium hydroxide or slaked lime, Ca(OH)2, with chlorine gas, CI 2. • A good sample of bleaching ...
Best shower water filters for chlorine, chloramine. Sprite water filter, CuZn Turbo Shower, VitaShower SF-1 filters for showers ... Chloramine is a chemical compound of chlorine and ammonia. It does not dissipate or evaporate into the air as chlorine does, ... Chlorine and Hair. One out of every two clients coming into the salon has chlorine damage to their hair, says Vancouvers top ... How to Remove Chlorine, Chloramine and Heavy Metals from Your Bathing Water. Water Filters for the Removal of Chlorine, ...
Chlorverbindungen / chlorine compounds: A.C.S. Test entspricht;. Geruch / odor profile: charakteristisch, blumig-süß mit ...
... chlorine; organochlorine compounds; pesticides; DDT; DDD; DDE; dicofol; perthane; methoxychlor; chlordane; oxychlordane; trans- ... Tributyltin compounds. Tributyltin compounds, until very recently, were used in large quantities as antifouling paints on ships ... "Estrogen effects are not restricted to a small group of therapeutic agents but appear in several groups of compounds that are ...
Compound-Specific Chlorine Isotope Analysis of Tetrachloromethane and Trichloromethane by Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass ... Carbon and chlorine isotope fractionation patterns associated with different engineered chloroform transformation reactions. ...
  • The increase in chlorinated volatile organic compound concentrations was the lowest for plain bleach and the highest for the products in the form of "thick liquid and gel. (
  • The concentrations of chlorine dioxide and chlorite ion in your drinking water, however, may be lower or higher than these levels. (
  • The concentrations of chloramine compounds (trichloramine and soluble chlorine [monochloramine, dichloramine, hypochlorite, and hypochlorous acid]) were significantly higher in the evisceration area than the dark meat area. (
  • Mean PBZ concentrations of trichloramine and soluble chlorine were higher in workers with significant cross-shift declines in lung function. (
  • Mars is a halogen-rich planet, with chlorine and bromine concentrations in bulk Mars about 4 times greater than on Earth," lead author Kaushik Mitra told Universe Today. (
  • Several studies in the older literature reported that chronic exposure to chlorine concentrations of around 5 ppm caused respiratory complaints, corrosion of the teeth, inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, and increased susceptibility to tuberculosis in workers. (
  • the position of the equilibrium is pH dependent and low pH (acidic) favors chlorine, Cl2 + H2O ⇌ 2H+ + Cl− + ClO− A hypochlorite bleach can react violently with hydrogen peroxide and produce oxygen gas: H2O2(aq) + NaOCl (aq) → NaCl (aq) + H2O(l) + O2(g) A 2008 study indicated that sodium hypochlorite and organic chemicals (e.g., surfactants, fragrances) contained in several household cleaning products can react to generate chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs). (
  • In air, sunlight quickly breaks chlorine dioxide apart into chlorine gas and oxygen. (
  • Perchlorate, an ion of chlorine and oxygen, becomes a strong oxidant when heated. (
  • In the environment, arsenic is combined with oxygen, chlorine, and sulfur to form inorganic arsenic compounds. (
  • When chlorine dioxide reacts with dissolved organic compounds in water-treatment systems, it forms disinfection by-products, such as chlorite and chlorate ions. (
  • Chlorine and bromine are both halogens, and chlorate and bromate are the dominant forms of both on Mars. (
  • Especially if they contain chlorine compounds (hypochlorite, chlorate, etc. (
  • The terms "free chlorine" and "aqueous chlorine" in drinking water usually refers to the amount of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite in the water. (
  • Gasses, as a rule, are less soluble in hot water, and when heated, the free chlorine in water escapes into the air we breathe. (
  • Exposure to chlorine has been limited to 0.5 ppm (8-hour time-weighted average-38-hour week) by the U.S. OSHA. (
  • This public health statement tells you about chlorine dioxide and chlorite and the effects of exposure to them. (
  • The role of gamma delta T cells in airway epithelial injury and bronchial responsiveness after chlorine gas exposure in mice. (
  • BACKGROUND: Acute exposure to chlorine (Cl2) gas causes epithelial injury and airway dysfunction. (
  • Results of this evaluation suggest a health hazard may exist from exposure to soluble chlorine compounds and trichloramine. (
  • Animal studies have reported decreased body weight gain, eye and nose irritation, and effects on the respiratory tract, liver, and kidneys from chronic inhalation exposure to chlorine. (
  • Other studies have indicated that exposure to chlorine, via inhalation, may alter disease resistance in animals, with higher incidences of emphysema, pneumonia, and tuberculosis reported. (
  • Chlorine dioxide and chlorite have not been found in any of the 1,647 current or former NPL sites. (
  • Although the total number of NPL sites evaluated for these substances is not known, the possibility exists that chlorine dioxide and chlorite may be found in the future as more sites are evaluated. (
  • If you are exposed to chlorine dioxide or chlorite, many factors will determine whether you will be harmed. (
  • Chlorine dioxide is a yellow to reddish-yellow gas that can decompose rapidly in air. (
  • Because it is a hazardous gas, chlorine dioxide is always made at the location where it is used. (
  • Chlorine dioxide is used as a bleach at pulp mills, which make paper and paper products, and in public water-treatment facilities, to make water safe for drinking. (
  • Chlorine dioxide is soluble in water and will react rapidly with other compounds. (
  • Because chlorine dioxide is very reactive, it is able to kill bacteria and microorganisms in water. (
  • 100,000 persons) in the United States use chlorine dioxide to treat drinking water. (
  • 12 million persons may be exposed in this way to chlorine dioxide and chlorite ions. (
  • In communities that use chlorine dioxide to treat drinking water, chlorine dioxide and its by- product, chlorite ions, may be present at low levels in tap water. (
  • More than 80% of all chlorite (present as sodium chlorite) is used to make chlorine dioxide to disinfect drinking water. (
  • Chlorine dioxide is a very reactive compound. (
  • In water, chlorine dioxide reacts quickly to form chlorite ions. (
  • Like chlorine dioxide, chlorite is very reactive. (
  • For additional information about what happens to chlorine dioxide and chlorite when they enter the environment, see Chapter 6. (
  • Chlorine dioxide is added to drinking water to protect people from harmful bacteria and other microorganisms. (
  • 1. PUBLIC HEALTH STATEMENT product, chlorite ions, when they drink water that has been treated with chlorine dioxide. (
  • The EPA has set the maximum concentration in the drinking water at 0.8 milligrams per liter (mg/L) for chlorine dioxide and 1.0 mg/L for chlorite ion. (
  • Air samples and readings for chlorine , ammonia, carbon dioxide, temperature, and relative humidity were taken in the same departments during the first shift on the 27th. (
  • Drager tubes were used to sample for chlorine , and carbon dioxide, temperature, and relative humidity were measured throughout the week. (
  • Chlorine dissolves in water and is converted into chloride and hypochlorous acid. (
  • The levels of soluble chlorine compounds measured by PBZ samples were significantly higher for those employees who reported these symptoms compared to those employees who did not. (
  • Arsenic in animals and plants combines with carbon and hydrogen to form organic arsenic compounds. (
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds are substances sometimes used or created in industry that contain the elements chlorine, hydrogen, and carbon. (
  • He and coworkers established that oral malodor (bad breath) is associated with the presence of volatile sulfur compounds, primarily hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. (
  • Inorganic arsenic compounds are mainly used to preserve wood. (
  • Organic arsenic compounds are used as pesticides, primarily on cotton plants. (
  • The role of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in producing bacteria that colonize the dorsal surface of the tongue was recently understood as a primary cause of halitosis (bad breath). (
  • Blood-borne causes often are consequences of metabolic processes that emit odorous volatile sulfur compounds, which are taken by the bloodstream, transported to the lungs, and emitted during exhalation. (
  • however, the chlorine is quickly transformed into other chemicals, which actually disinfect the water. (
  • Although chlorine is universally used to disinfect water, it is not safe for drinking, showering or bathing. (
  • All Sprite Shower Filters use patented Chlorgon®, a non-carbon media and CuZn uses Catalytic Carbon, both of which remove more chlorine at a wider temperature range than other carbon medias. (
  • This post-carbon filter is designed to remove foul odors, colors and organic compounds such as chlorine copper and more. (
  • Chlorine is broken down by sunlight within minutes. (
  • other decomposition products include nitrogen oxides and chlorine compounds. (
  • It is also used for water disinfection, although the chlorine itself is quickly transformed into other chemicals at the beginning of the process. (
  • The odor is a distinctive warning property of this liquid compound. (
  • Chlorine is very unstable, and reacts with a variety of chemicals and water when it is released into the environment. (
  • and measured volatile carbonyl compounds (VCCs). (
  • Chlorine gas is too reactive to be detected in environmental media at hazardous waste sites. (
  • Chlorine-releasing compounds, also known as chlorine base compounds, is jargon to describe certain chlorine-containing substances that are used as disinfectants and bleaches. (
  • Any chlorine gas released at these sites would be quickly converted to other substances whose primary source may or may not have been chlorine. (
  • Organic chlorine compounds also include highly poisonous, persistent and bioaccumulative substances, such as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans. (
  • If you mix acidic chemicals with bleach, chlorine can be formed and given off as a gas. (
  • Since chlorine is highly reactive, you are unlikely to be exposed directly to it unless there has been a large scale accidental release nearby. (
  • Because chlorine is so reactive, it is not normally detected in the environment except for very low levels in the air above seawater. (
  • Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic. (
  • Due to transport and handling safety concerns, the use of sodium hypochlorite is preferred over chlorine gas in water treatment. (
  • Bleach contains a compound called sodium hypochlorite. (
  • Chlorine releasing solutions, such as liquid bleach and solutions of bleaching powder, can burn the skin and cause eye damage, especially when used in concentrated forms. (
  • Mixing a hypochlorite bleach with an acid can liberate chlorine gas. (
  • Mixing an acid cleaner with a hypochlorite bleach can cause toxic chlorine gas to be released. (
  • One of the important products that chlorine is used to make is bleach, and people sometimes confuse chlorine with bleach. (
  • You may also be exposed to chlorine if you mix household chemicals such as toilet cleaner with bleach. (
  • Phosgene can be formed when chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds are exposed to high temperatures. (
  • Chlorine-releasing compounds first came into use as bleaching agents around 1785, and as disinfectants in 1915. (
  • The presence of other organic matter in the place of application can make these disinfectants less effective, by consuming some of the released chlorine. (
  • Chlorine-based compounds are effective against a wide variety of microorganisms including bacterial spores. (
  • Chlorine releasing compounds can react with other common household chemicals like vinegar or ammonia to produce toxic gases. (
  • These chlorinated compounds are emitted during cleaning applications, some of which are toxic and probable human carcinogens. (
  • Material degradation and concentration involves either the breakdown of a compound or the concentration of a material via some man made or natural process. (
  • The campaign included activities such as vaccination of defaulters, health-education sessions on communicable diseases and hand wash, distribution of chlorine tablets, and insecticidal spray and rodents control activities. (
  • Since chlorite is an ionic compound, it will exist primarily in water. (
  • Chlorine is a respiratory irritant that attacks mucous membranes and burns the skin. (
  • The only organic chemicals identified when the Viking landers heated samples of Martian soil were chloromethane and dichloromethane -- chlorine compounds interpreted at the time as likely contaminants from cleaning fluids. (
  • Chlorinated solvents are chlorine-containing chemicals that are typically used in industrial processes to dissolve or clean other materials, such as in paint stripping, metal cleaning, and dry cleaning. (
  • The product may also get damaged in badly aired rooms where water condensates with an admixture of chlorine (pools, whirpool bath, etc.). b) calcium deposits impact. (
  • It enables them to survive outside the body for long periods of time (for example, in lakes and streams) and makes them less likely to be killed by chlorine (for example, in swimming pools). (
  • The generation of new small compounds reduces the possibility of interference from isotopologs and eliminates the large isotopic mass profiles found in larger molecules. (
  • Chlorine-based compounds are usually handled in water solutions, powders, or tablets, that are mixed with water before use. (
  • Chlorine is so dangerous' according to biologist/chemist Dr. Herbert Schwartz,' that it should be banned. (
  • Industrially, chlorine-based bleaches are used in a wide variety of processes, including bleaching of wood pulp. (
  • For products made of corrosion resistant steel, it is necessary to use liquids with no chlorine, e.g. window glass cleaner. (
  • Chlorine-releasing products present significant risks. (
  • Chlorine is an extremely important industrial chemical that is used in the production of thousands of products. (
  • A common misconception is that molecular chlorine (Cl 2 ) is present in chlorinated water. (
  • This interpretation proposed by Navarro-González and his four co-authors challenges the interpretation by Viking scientists that Martian organic compounds were not present in their samples at the detection limit of the Viking experiment. (
  • Instead, the halogen elements chlorine and bromine are behind Mars' manganese. (
  • One of the main differences between Earth and Mars is that Mars is rich in halogens, elements like Chlorine and Bromine. (
  • This Public Health Statement is the summary chapter from the Toxicological Profile for chlorine . (
  • If organic compounds can indeed persist in the surface soil of Mars, contrary to the predominant thinking for three decades, one way to search for evidence of life on Mars could be to check for types of large, complex organic molecules, such as DNA, that are indicators of biological activity. (
  • If chlorine is spilled into water or onto soil or if it is released from a tank into the air, the chlorine will evaporate very quickly forming a greenish-yellow cloud that can be carried away from the source by the wind. (
  • Chlorine-based compounds work by breaking the chemical bonds that make up the pigment's chromophore. (
  • In partially aired rooms it is appropriate to avoid using these - vaporized chlorine solutions can condensate on a surface and thus damage it. (
  • If an accident involving chlorine takes place nearby, such as a liquid chlorine spill, a leak from a chlorine tank, or a leak from a facility that produces or uses chlorine, you may be exposed through breathing and skin and eye contact. (
  • What happens to chlorine when it enters the environment? (
  • It is important to recognize that these compounds are different from molecular chlorine. (
  • It is hexavalent in its most important compounds. (
  • There are, furthermore, a wide variety of natural organic chlorine connections that could be synthesised by organisms such as ground bacteria, mould fungi, seaweed and lichens. (
  • This binding sites where shown within 5.0 Angstroms radius around Chlorine atom. (