Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.ChloraminesChlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Hypochlorous Acid: An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Carmine: Coloring matter from the insect Coccus cacti L. It is used in foods, pharmaceuticals, toiletries, etc., as a dye, and also has use as a microscopic stain and biological marker.Juglans: A plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that provides the familiar walnut.Perchlorates: Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.EncyclopediasDictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Methyl Chloride: A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Neural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)Spinal Dysraphism: Congenital defects of closure of one or more vertebral arches, which may be associated with malformations of the spinal cord, nerve roots, congenital fibrous bands, lipomas, and congenital cysts. These malformations range from mild (e.g., SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA) to severe, including rachischisis where there is complete failure of neural tube and spinal cord fusion, resulting in exposure of the spinal cord at the surface. Spinal dysraphism includes all forms of spina bifida. The open form is called SPINA BIFIDA CYSTICA and the closed form is SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)Cleft Palate: Congenital fissure of the soft and/or hard palate, due to faulty fusion.Cleft Lip: Congenital defect in the upper lip where the maxillary prominence fails to merge with the merged medial nasal prominences. It is thought to be caused by faulty migration of the mesoderm in the head region.Ethylene Dichlorides: Toxic, chlorinated, saturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. The latter is considerably more toxic. It has a sweet taste, ethereal odor and has been used as a fumigant and intoxicant among sniffers. Has many household and industrial uses.Ethylene Chlorohydrin: Used as a solvent, in the manufacture of insecticides, and for treating sweet potatoes before planting. May cause nausea, vomiting, pains in head and chest, stupefaction. Irritates mucous membranes and causes kidney and liver degeneration.Chlorohydrins: Any of the compounds derived from a group of glycols or polyhydroxy alcohols by chlorine substitution for part of the hydroxyl groups. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Organotin Compounds: Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Radium: Radium. A radioactive element of the alkaline earth series of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ra, atomic number 88, and atomic weight 226. Radium is the product of the disintegration of uranium and is present in pitchblende and all ores containing uranium. It is used clinically as a source of beta and gamma-rays in radiotherapy, particularly BRACHYTHERAPY.Triallate: A pre-emergence, selective herbicide for the control of wild oats in various crops.Chlordan: A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Endrin: An organochlorine compound that was formerly used as an insecticide. Its manufacture and use has been discontinued in the United States. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Heptachlor: A man-made compound previously used to control termites and other insects. Even though production of heptachlor was phased out of use in the United States during the late 1980's it remains in soil and hazardous waste sites. It is clearly toxic to animals and humans but, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that heptachlor is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (From ATSDR Public Heath Statement, April 1989)Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Lindane: An organochlorine insecticide that has been used as a pediculicide and a scabicide. It has been shown to cause cancer.Lice Infestations: Parasitic attack or subsistence on the skin by members of the order Phthiraptera, especially on humans by Pediculus humanus of the family Pediculidae. The hair of the head, eyelashes, and pubis is a frequent site of infestation. (From Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)Scabies: A contagious cutaneous inflammation caused by the bite of the mite SARCOPTES SCABIEI. It is characterized by pruritic papular eruptions and burrows and affects primarily the axillae, elbows, wrists, and genitalia, although it can spread to cover the entire body.Pediculus: Lice of the genus Pediculus, family Pediculidae. Pediculus humanus corporus is the human body louse and Pediculus humanus capitis is the human head louse.Antitussive Agents: Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.Scalp DermatosesNonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
Exhaled nitric oxide among pulpmill workers reporting gassing incidents involving ozone and chlorine dioxide. (1/131)The aim of the study was to investigate whether measurement of nitric oxide in exhaled air could be used for assessing the effects of irritants on the respiratory system, in this case recurrent ozone gassing in an occupational setting. The study population comprised bleachery workers (n=56) from a Swedish pulpmill carrying out ozone-based pulp bleaching since 1992 and controls (n=39). Both groups were investigated by measuring NO in exhaled air, methacholine challenge test and answers to a questionnaire concerning history of respiratory symptoms and accidental exposure to ozone peaks. There was no significant difference in NO output between exposed subjects and controls (median 67.2 versus 55.0 nL x min(-1), p=0.64). However, among bleachery workers reporting ozone gassings, the median NO output was 90.0 nL x min(-1) compared to 58.8 nL x min(-1) among those not reporting such incidents (p=0.019). There was no relation between exhaled NO and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms or bronchial hyperresponsiveness. In a multiple regression model, only reported ozone gassings were associated (p=0.016) with NO output. The results indicate an association between previous response to ozone gassing and nitric oxide output. The increased nitric oxide output among the bleachery workers reporting peak ozone exposure may indicate that chronic airway inflammation is present. Further studies are needed to evaluate the extent to which nitric oxide can be used for biological monitoring of respiratory health effects, and to relate it to other markers of airway inflammation. (+info)
Chlorine, chloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium. (2/131)Environmental and patient isolates of Mycobacterium avium were resistant to chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. For chlorine, the product of the disinfectant concentration (in parts per million) and the time (in minutes) to 99.9% inactivation for five M. avium strains ranged from 51 to 204. Chlorine susceptibility of cells was the same in washed cultures containing aggregates and in reduced aggregate fractions lacking aggregates. Cells of the more slowly growing strains were more resistant to chlorine than were cells of the more rapidly growing strains. Water-grown cells were 10-fold more resistant than medium-grown cells. Disinfectant resistance may be one factor promoting the persistence of M. avium in drinking water. (+info)
Identification of a serine hydrolase as a key determinant in the microbial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls. (3/131)The ability of 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoate (HOPDA) hydrolase (BphD) of Burkholderia cepacia LB400 to hydrolyze polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) metabolites was assessed by determining its specificity for monochlorinated HOPDAs. The relative specificities of BphD for HOPDAs bearing chlorine substituents on the phenyl moiety were 0.28, 0.38, and 1.1 for 8-Cl, 9-Cl, and 10-Cl HOPDA, respectively, versus HOPDA (100 mm phosphate, pH 7.5, 25 degrees C). In contrast, HOPDAs bearing chlorine substituents on the dienoate moiety were poor substrates for BphD, which hydrolyzed 3-Cl, 4-Cl, and 5-Cl HOPDA at relative maximal rates of 2.1 x 10(-3), 1.4 x 10(-4), and 0.36, respectively, versus HOPDA. The enzymatic transformation of 3-, 5-, 8-, 9-, and 10-Cl HOPDAs yielded stoichiometric quantities of the corresponding benzoate, indicating that BphD catalyzes the hydrolysis of these HOPDAs in the same manner as unchlorinated HOPDA. HOPDAs also underwent a nonenzymatic transformation to products that included acetophenone. In the case of 4-Cl HOPDA, this transformation proceeded via the formation of 4-OH HOPDA (t(12) = 2.8 h; 100 mm phosphate, pH 7.5, 25 degrees C). 3-Cl HOPDA (t(12) = 504 h) was almost 3 times more stable than 4-OH HOPDA. Finally, 3-Cl, 4-Cl and 4-OH HOPDAs competitively inhibited the BphD-catalyzed hydrolysis of HOPDA (K(ic) values of 0.57 +/- 0. 04, 3.6 +/- 0.2, and 0.95 +/- 0.04 microm, respectively). These results explain the accumulation of HOPDAs and chloroacetophenones in the microbial degradation of certain PCB congeners. More significantly, they indicate that in the degradation of PCB mixtures, BphD would be inhibited, thereby slowing the mineralization of all congeners. BphD is thus a key determinant in the aerobic microbial degradation of PCBs. (+info)
Relation between stillbirth and specific chlorination by-products in public water supplies. (4/131)During water treatment, chlorine reacts with naturally occurring organic matter in surface water to produce a number of by-products. Of the by-products formed, trihalomethanes (THMs) are among the highest in concentration. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between the level of total THM and specific THMs in public water supplies and risk for stillbirth. The cohort was assembled from a population-based perinatal database in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia and consisted of almost 50,000 singleton deliveries between 1988 and 1995. Individual exposures were assigned by linking mother's residence at the time of delivery to the levels of specific THMs monitored in public water supplies. Analysis was conducted for all stillbirths and for cause-of-death categories based on the physiologic process responsible for the fetal death. Total THMs and the specific THMs were each associated with increased stillbirth risk. The strongest association was observed for bromodichloromethane exposure, where risk doubled for those exposed to a level of [greater and equal to] 20 microg/L compared to those exposed to a level < 5 microg/L (relative risk = 1. 98, 95% confidence interval, 1.23-3.49). Relative risk estimates associated with THM exposures were larger for asphyxia-related deaths than for unexplained deaths or for stillbirths overall. These findings suggest a need to consider specific chlorination by-products in relation to stillbirth risk, in particular bromodichloromethane and other by-product correlates. The finding of a stronger effect for asphyxia deaths requires confirmation and research into possible mechanisms. (+info)
Foetal growth and duration of gestation relative to water chlorination. (5/131)OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of exposure to chlorination byproducts during pregnancy on foetal growth and duration of pregnancy. METHODS: A population based study was conducted of 137,145 Norwegian children born alive in 1993--5. Information was obtained from the Norwegian medical birth registry, waterwork registry, and social science data service. The outcomes of interest were birth weight, low birth weight (<2500 g), small for gestational age, and preterm delivery (gestational age <37 weeks). The exposure assessment was based on quality of drinking water in the municipality where the mother lived during pregnancy. Municipal exposure was calculated with information on chlorination and the amount of natural organic matter in raw water measured as colour in mg precipitate/l. The main exposure category was high colour and chlorination, which was contrasted with the reference category of low colour and no chlorination. RESULTS: In logistic regression analysis adjusting for confounding, the risks of low birth weight (odds ratio (OR) 0.97, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.89 to 1.06) and small for gestational age (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.10) were not related to exposure. Contrary to the hypothesis, the risk of preterm delivery was slightly lower among the exposed than the reference category (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.99). The risks of the studied outcomes were similar in newborn infants exposed to high colour drinking water without chlorination and chlorinated drinking water with low colour compared with the reference category. CONCLUSIONS: The present study did not provide evidence that prenatal exposure to chlorination byproducts at the relatively low concentrations encountered in Norwegian drinking water increases the risk of the studied outcomes. (+info)
Chlorine dioxide inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and bacterial spore indicators. (6/131)Cryptosporidium parvum, which is resistant to chlorine concentrations typically used in water treatment, is recognized as a significant waterborne pathogen. Recent studies have demonstrated that chlorine dioxide is a more efficient disinfectant than free chlorine against Cryptosporidium oocysts. It is not known, however, if oocysts from different suppliers are equally sensitive to chlorine dioxide. This study used both a most-probable-number-cell culture infectivity assay and in vitro excystation to evaluate chlorine dioxide inactivation kinetics in laboratory water at pH 8 and 21 degrees C. The two viability methods produced significantly different results (P < 0.05). Products of disinfectant concentration and contact time (Ct values) of 1,000 mg. min/liter were needed to inactivate approximately 0.5 log(10) and 2.0 log(10) units (99% inactivation) of C. parvum as measured by in vitro excystation and cell infectivity, respectively, suggesting that excystation is not an adequate viability assay. Purified oocysts originating from three different suppliers were evaluated and showed marked differences with respect to their resistance to inactivation when using chlorine dioxide. Ct values of 75, 550, and 1,000 mg. min/liter were required to achieve approximately 2.0 log(10) units of inactivation with oocysts from different sources. Finally, the study compared the relationship between easily measured indicators, including Bacillus subtilis (aerobic) spores and Clostridium sporogenes (anaerobic) spores, and C. parvum oocysts. The bacterial spores were found to be more sensitive to chlorine dioxide than C. parvum oocysts and therefore could not be used as direct indicators of C. parvum inactivation for this disinfectant. In conclusion, it is suggested that future studies address issues such as oocyst purification protocols and the genetic diversity of C. parvum, since these factors might affect oocyst disinfection sensitivity. (+info)
Selective oxidation in vitro by myeloperoxidase of the N-terminal amine in apolipoprotein B-100. (7/131)In contrast to the multiple low abundance 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-reactive tryptic peptides formed by oxidation of LDL with reagent HOCl in vitro, myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidation produces a dominant product in considerably greater yield and selectivity. This modified peptide had a single amino-terminal sequence corresponding to amino acids 53-66 of apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100), but its mass spectra indicated a significantly higher mass than could be reconciled with simple modifications of this peptide. Subsequent studies indicate that this product appears to result from N-chlorination of the N-terminal amino group of apoB-100 and dehydrohalogenation to the corresponding imine, which may form the hydrazone derivative directly, or after hydrolysis to the ketone. The methionine residue is oxidized to the corresponding sulfoxide, and the primary sequence peptide (residues 1-14 of apoB-100) is linked by the intramolecular disulfide bond between C-12 and C-61 to the peptide composed of residues 53-66, as we have observed previously (Yang, C-Y., T. W. Kim, S. A. Weng, B. Lee, M. Yang, and A. M. Gotto, Jr. 1990. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87: 5523-5527) in unmodified LDL. The selective oxidation by myeloperoxidase of the N-terminal amine suggests strong steric effects in the approach of substrate to the enzyme catalytic site, an effect that may apply to other macromolecules and to cell surface molecules. (+info)
Water disinfection for international and wilderness travelers. (8/131)Acquisition of waterborne disease is a substantial risk for international travelers to countries with inadequate sanitation facilities. It also poses smaller but still significant risks for wilderness travelers who rely on surface water in developed countries with low rates of diarrheal illness, such as the United States. This article reviews the etiology and risks associated with waterborne disease that might be encountered by both types of travelers. It also summarizes--and makes recommendations for--the various water-treatment methods available to travelers for reducing their risk of contracting waterborne disease. (+info)
Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecule Size = 0.124 Nanometers or 8.06451612903 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules = 1 Nanometer (1000 Nanometers = 1 Micron) (Oxygen = 0.0005 Micron in size) (Approximately 4 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.0005 microns). (Atmospheric Dust = 0.001-40 Microns in size) (Approx. 8 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.001 microns). (Viruses = 0.005 - 0.3 Microns in size) (Approximately 40 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.005 microns). (Tobacco Smoke = 0.01 - 4 Microns in size) (Approximately 80 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.01 microns). (Ozone = 0.1 - 0.2 Microns in size) (Approximately 800 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.1 microns). (Lead = 0.1-0.7 Microns in size) (Approximately 800 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.1 microns). (Bacteria = 0.3 - 60 Microns in size) (Approximately 2,400 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.3 microns). (Insecticide Dusts = 0.5-10 Microns in ...
Bench-scale Cryptosporidium inactivation, pilot-scale disinfection by-product (DBP) formation and bench-scale inorganic DBP control experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide in meeting the current and future enhanced surface water treatment and disinfectant/disinfection by-product rules. A new chlorine dioxide generation process in which dilute, humidified chlorine gas is in contact with solid sodium chlorite was employed for this study. Chlorine dioxide was found to be effective in achieving CT values (pH=8 and temperature=20°C) of approximately 50 and 100 mg · min/l for 1-log and 2-log Cryptosporidium inactivation, respectively. Chlorine dioxide did not form significant amounts of trihalomethanes or haloacetic acids. Water spiked with high bromide concentrations resulted in insignificant amounts of organic DBPs after reaction with chlorine dioxide. Reaction of chlorine dioxide with water constituents resulted in the formation of chlorite and chlorate ions. ...
3.1 Results of Experiment regarding Sample Model I and II The rate of decomposition of the Organic chlorine Compounds in sample model I is shown in Table 2. The rate of decomposition of trichloroethylene was 96%, and 1,1-dichloroethylene was 92%. On the other hand, the rate of decomposition tetrachloroethylene was 2%. The m/z ratio was shown at 137 and it proofs the existence of chloral which is middle substance of Organic chlorine Compounds which the enzyme of microbe breaks in the process of decomposition3). The rate of decomposition of the Organic chlorine Compounds in sample model II is shown in Table 3. And the rate of decomposition of trichloroethylene was 22% , and 1,1- dichloroethylene was 15%. On the other hand, the rate of decomposition of tetrachloroethylene was 0%. Therefore, it was suggested that the soil could also decompose Organic chlorine Compounds without adding Effective Microorganisms. Regarding this matter, further examination is required for the consideration of a ...
Combined Treatment of Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide, Organic Acid, and Blanching for Microbial Decontamination of Wild Vegetables after Harvest - wild vegetable;chlorine dioxide;organic acid;blanching;microbiological safety;
China Chlorine Dioxide Stabilized for Agriculture Insecticides Pesticides Fungicides and Herbicide with High-Quality, Leading Chlorine Dioxide Stabilized for Agriculture Insecticides Pesticides Fungicides and Herbicide Manufacturers & Suppliers, find Chlorine Dioxide Stabilized for Agriculture Insecticides Pesticides Fungicides and Herbicide Factory & Exporters.
Influenza virus infection is one of the major causes of human morbidity and mortality. Between humans, this virus spreads mostly via aerosols excreted from the respiratory system. Current means of prevention of influenza virus infection are not entirely satisfactory because of their limited efficacy. Safe and effective preventive measures against pandemic influenza are greatly needed. We demonstrate that infection of mice induced by aerosols of influenza A virus was prevented by chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas at an extremely low concentration (below the long-term permissible exposure level to humans, namely 0.1 p.p.m.). Mice in semi-closed cages were exposed to aerosols of influenza A virus (1 LD50) and ClO2 gas (0.03 p.p.m.) simultaneously for 15 min. Three days after exposure, pulmonary virus titre (TCID50) was 102.6±1.5 in five mice treated with ClO2, whilst it was 106.7±0.2 in five mice that had not been treated (P=0.003). Cumulative mortality after 16 days was 0/10 mice treated with ClO2 and 7/10
Biosafety Pty Ltd is the exclusive agent for ClorDiSys Solution Inc. The main area of our business is to provide gaseous biological decontamination using Chlorine dioxide products and services to the Australian, New Zealand and South Pacific Life Science, Pharmaceutical, Food and Beverage and Healthcare markets. We also offer consulting on Hygiene, Contamination and Infection Control. Included is some niche contamination control products from our joint partners.
Biosafety Pty Ltd is the exclusive agent for ClorDiSys Solution Inc. The main area of our business is to provide gaseous biological decontamination using Chlorine dioxide products and services to the Australian, New Zealand and South Pacific Life Science, Pharmaceutical, Food and Beverage and Healthcare markets. We also offer consulting on Hygiene, Contamination and Infection Control. Included is some niche contamination control products from our joint partners.
Chlorine dioxide and chlorite are characterized together for toxicity to reproduction because studies conducted with chlorite, the predominant degradation product of chlorine dioxide, are likely relevant to characterizing the toxicity of chlorine dioxide. In addition, studies conducted with chlorine dioxide may be relevant to characterizing the toxicity of chlorite. Chlorine dioxide is fairly unstable and rapidly dissociates, predominantly into chlorite and chloride, and to a lesser extent, chlorate. There is a ready interconversion among these species in water (before administration to animals) and in the gut (after ingestion). Therefore, what exists in water or the stomach is a mixture of these chemical species (i.e., chlorine dioxide, chlorite, chlorate) and possibly their reaction products with the gastrointestinal contents. Key study: Experimental results: The test procedure was: EPA OPP 83-3 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study). Oral administration of sodium chlorite during ...
GF Piping Systems reagent-free Signet 4632 Chlorine Dioxide Analyzer System was built to augment the companys line of measurement and control products for disinfectant monitoring. The new system features amperometric sensing technology, a clear flow cell, flow regulator, sensors, filter, and variable-area flow indicator. The system is designed to provide a turnkey solution for accurately measuring residual chlorine dioxide levels up to 2 ppm/mg/l in water treatment applications. Typical uses include water distribution, cooling towers, fruit and vegetable washing, hospital/healthcare facilities, wastewater odor control, food and beverage processing, and UPW treatment.. ...
Chlorine dioxide eliminates harmful microorganisms through a process called oxidation. All microorganisms are made up organic molecules such as proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids. Oxidation can denature proteins and other organic molecules in the walls and inside microorganisms. When their protective walls are disrupted and their metabolic machinery jeopardized, deadly microorganisms die. Chlorine dioxide is a powerful oxidizing agent. The term microorganism is a broad one. It includes bacteria, viruses and fungi. Even the walls of tough bacterial spores are organic in nature, and thus susceptible to the action of chlorine dioxide. Microorganisms do not have the inherent ability to counter chlorine dioxides oxidative attack. This leads us to the good news: microorganisms cannot develop resistance to chlorine dioxide. Since microorganisms are what create odors, chlorine dioxide effectively and permanently eliminates the odor at its source.. ...
The system concept for the innovative generation and metering of chlorine dioxide is being presented at IFAT by ProMinent in the form of the chlorine dioxide ...
Find chlorine from water removal (chlorine dioxide dosing - water and wastewater) articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Hello Hveragerthi, In the presence of UV light, chlorine dioxide breaks down to chlorine and oxygen. This does not take place in closed loop systems. The reason THM s are formed in the cooling systems of power plants is that the water is cooled in cooling towers that expose the chlorine dioxide in the water to UV light. This breaks down the chlorine dioxide to chlorine and oxygen, and the chlorine reaction forms THM s. It is significant that the EPA limit for THM concentration is 80 PPB. You will notice that chlorine, at 1 PPM produces around 65 PPB, whereas chlorine dioxide, a ...
A dry disinfectant composition for the production of aqueous solutions of chlorine dioxide of predetermined concentration is formulated of a mixture of lithium hypochlorite, sodium bisulfate and sodium chlorite. Special liquid and dry formulations are also contemplated for convenience of use, for quality assurance and for safety.
Learn what chlorine dioxide is used to clean, how our products differ from others, whether theyre approved by the FDA and organic & more.
Definition of chlorine dioxide (ClO2): Very reactive and unstable gas that combines violently with organic materials and explodes in the presence of heat or sunlight. Used primarily in bleaching of cellulose based textiles (such as rayon), ...
Methods This study was carried out from November 2009 to September 2013. From November 2009 to October 2011 sodium dichloroisocyanurate was used for routine environmental disinfection. In November 2011, this was changed to a chlorine dioxide 275 ppm based disinfectant. This product was introduced into the hospital in a phased manner with intensive training on its use provided to all nursing, nursing auxiliary and hotel services staff. The effect of this change on the incidence of HA-MRSA and HA-CDI was assessed using segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series. In addition, the potential cost savings as a result of this intervention were assessed. ...
Chlorine dioxide radical (ClO2•) was found to act as an efficient oxidizing agent in the aerobic oxygenation of methane to methanol and formic acid under photoirradiation. The yields of methanol and formic acid were 14% and 85%, respectively, with a methane conversion of 99% under ambient conditions (298 K, 1 atm) in a two-phase system comprising perfluorohexane and water.
The mold cleaning options here are hydrogen peroxide and chlorine dioxide, both of which perform equally well. Which will you choose?
HAGERSTOWN, Md. (WDVM) - Teeth-whitening strips are a much more affordable way to whiten teeth at home and while a majority of whitening strips are safe, some contain an ingredient that can damage your teeth. The dangers in whitening strips come from a chemical known as chlorine dioxide. According to the American Health Insurance Company, […]
The Chlorine Dioxide Pocket Photometer gives you the accuracy expected from your laboratory, no matter where you happen to be available at Metex Corporation.
MODEL RELEASED. Water disinfectant generator manufacturing. Technician building a generator used to dose a water supply with chlorine dioxide for disinfection purposes. The generators supply chlorine dioxide (ClO2) by the use of precursor chemicals. The ClO2 has the effect of disinfecting the water and making it safe to drink or use in a range of applications. This is the Alpha generator from Scotmas, used to deliver ClO2 continuously to water storage tanks. This manufacturing is taking place at the Scotmas company in Scotland. Photographed in 2016. - Stock Image C033/7609
MMS uses chlorine dioxide as an oxidizer. Hydrogen peroxide in my opinon is a much safer oxidizer and is more effective. Chlorine is actually a rather poor oxidizer. Reports in the Journal of Health form the 50s for example reported in one yaer over 80,000 cases of hepatitis transmission in chorinated drinking water. The chlorine compound used to disinfect water is chlorine dioxide. This is is why the more powerful oxidizers, such as ozone and potassium permaganate, are also used in water treatment these days since chlorine will not destroy many viruses in the presence of organic matter. ...
In general, full brightness cannot be achieved in one bleaching stage, instead several consecutive stages must be used. Traditionally, bleaching has been done with chlorine-containing chemicals: with (elemental or gaseous) chlorine (C), hypochlorite (H) or with chlorine dioxide (D). Between stages, the dissolved lignin has been extracted with alkali. Typical traditional bleaching sequences were CEHDED and CEDED.. The principle was that the vast majority of the residual lignin was removed with the cheapest chemical i.e. chlorine, and only the final vestiges of lignin were removed with expensive chlorine dioxide.. When the transition was made to recycle bleach plant filtrates in order to reduce bleach plant wastewater effluent, the temperature of the chlorine stage began to rise, which had a detrimental effect on pulp strength. To prevent this, chlorine dioxide was added to the chlorine stage, i.e. the sequence used became (DC)EDED.. The pressurized reactor (EO) or pre-reactor (EO) have made it ...
Orthodontic patients, both adults and children, face dental hygiene challenges. Food trapped in braces provides a breeding ground for bacteria, often leading to gingivitis and bad breath. Plaque, a sticky biofilm of bacteria, can develop on teeth, tissue and brackets, inflaming gums. Braces can irritate the cheeks. Canker sores may even develop. In the case of lingual braces, placed on the inside of the teeth, the tongue may be irritated.. Orthodontists advise their patients to pay attention to homecare and visit their dentists frequently for checkups and cleaning. DioxiRinse Mouthwash is best known as a chlorine dioxide rinse for general dental homecare, but is particularly effective for orthodontic patients. DioxiRinse contains chlorine dioxide, a powerful oxidizing agent that provides a surprising combination of benefits. It neutralizes odor, kills bacteria, helps reduce irritation, does not stain the teeth and tastes great!. Rinsing with DioxiRinse Chlorine Dioxide Mouthwash cleans and ...
The use of stabilized chlorine dioxide as a composition for the treatment and prevention of oral disease and the reduction of oral malodor is disclosed. Chlorine dioxide is an effective anti-plaque agent, anti-gingivitis and anti-periodontitis agent, and also effective to destroy malodorous sulfur compounds. Preferred concentrations are in the range of 0.005% to 2% and the chlorine dioxide may be in the form of a wash or rinse in solution, a soak or as a toothpaste.
Chlorite (ClO 2 - ) is a disinfection byproduct formed during drinking water treatment when source waters with a high oxidant demand are disinfected with chlorine dioxide. This study investigated the reduction of… Chlorite (ClO 2 - ) is a disinfection byproduct formed during drinking water treatment when source waters with a high oxidant demand are disinfected with chlorine dioxide. This study investigated the reduction of ClO 2 - using a visible light (Vis) active photocatalyst, bismuth vanadate (BiVO 4 ). The effect of direct photolysis, the presence of oxalate, light source, and fluence on the reaction rate and by-product selectivity was evaluated. A commercial titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) was used as a UV-benchmark comparison. Photolysis was an effective reductant of ClO 2 - , but it produced the undesirable byproduct chlorate (ClO 3 - ) and required ultraviolet light (UV) less than 360 nm. BiVO 4 and TiO 2 reduced ClO 2 - using irradiation greater than 360 nm, but ClO 3 - was also produced. ...
Cry-Spore is ideal for the disinfection of walls and floors and is safe for use on surfaces found within pharmaceutical production facilities. Product codes: 600-0817, 600-0807
Stabilized Chlorine Dioxide is very safe in comparison with other disinfectants. Stabilized Chlorine Dioxide is so safe that the EPA rates its toxicity level the same as water. It will not damage gums, even if they have been cut. It has no effect on fillings and possesses no harmful properties that a dentist should worry about. On the contrary, it is very effective on keeping the mouth extremely clean. ...
DMSO is an amazing product. Unfortunately, there are some strong warnings that go with its use. Do not be alarmed by these safety warning, they are easy to implement.. First, pregnant women, women who may be pregnant, women who may become pregnant, or women who are nursing, should not use DMSO - period. Even though there is no evidence that DMSO causes birth defects, the similarity between early fetal cells and cancer cells is so great that it is better to err on the side of caution.. Second, do NOT let it come into contact with your eyes. Again, there is no evidence this will cause problems, but it is better to err on the side of caution.. Third, do NOT use plastic, latex or rubber gloves, or any other kind of gloves, when handling DMSO. The DMSO may bind to the gloves and take the substance into your cells causing severe illness. A technician who was working with the scientists who originally discovered DMSO became very sick from handling the newly discovered DMSO with lab gloves. While some ...
The system concept for the innovative generation and metering of chlorine dioxide is being presented at IFAT by ProMinent in the form of the chlorine dioxide system Bello Zon® CDVc.
It is not easy to replace fossil-based fuels in the transport sector, however, an appealing solution is to use biomass and waste for the production of renewable alternatives. Thermochemical conversion of biomass for production of synthetic transport fuels by the use of gasification is a promising way to meet these goals.. One of the key challenges in using gasification systems with biomass and waste as feedstock is the upgrading of the raw gas produced in the gasifier. These materials replacing oil and coal contain large amounts of demanding impurities, such as alkali, inorganic compounds, sulphur and chlorine compounds. Therefore, as for all multi-step processes, the heat management and hence the total efficiency depend on the different clean-up units. Unfortunately, the available conventional gas filtering units for removing particulates and impurities, and also subsequent catalytic conversion steps have lower optimum working temperatures than the operating temperature in the gasification ...
Furosemide is a grinding diuretic. The intake promotes excretion of water, potassium, sodium and chlorine compounds. It is used by athletes for ...
Grass has been considered as herbage that is appropriate or used for feeding animals but it has never been used as a treatment for any kind of disease. Recently, a grass which is known as Paragis became viral due to its unending health benefits. Fortunately, we have this type of plant here in the Philippines and it can also be found in some other tropical countries. A lot of people have testified and proved the wonder of this grass in curing many diseases.. In Africa, this grass has been used as a natural way of curing different types of illnesses. In Porac, Pampanga, the tribe of Aeta has been using it as an insect repellant. Paragis is proven to have protein and its leaves contain silicon monoxide, calcium oxide, and even chlorine compounds. It is also known to have a lot of properties just like anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihistamine, as well as a natural diuretic and cytotoxic properties. Its stem, roots, and leaves are usually used as herbal medicine by boiling ...
Lipid comprising polyunsaturated fatty acids | Oral pharmaceutical composition of isotretinoin | Preparation for treatment of a non-oral treatment site comprising an active chlorine compound and amino acids | Compounded solutions of diclofenac and lidocaine and methods | Compositions and methods including leelamine and arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone relating to treatment of cancer |
Our all-new Peelu Gum is packed with soft peelu fibers that clean your teeth while you chew. Tooth-brightening chlorine compounds and tiny micro-fibers naturall
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However, campaigners have expressed concerns that the UK government is adopting a different tone behind closed doors. Sustains Dalmeny accusing Gove of making assurances to the US that the ongoing issue would soon be resolved.. "Wed also like to hear from Michael Gove on Mr McKinneys claims that Mr Gove has privately assured US officials that he will draw a line under the dispute on the grounds that its not fair to American poultry producers. . "We can assure both Mr Gove and Mr McKinney that they may be sick and tired of hearing us talk about chlorine-rinsed chicken, but were not going to shut up about it.". Much of the argument centres on the standards employed in the practice of washing chickens in a chlorine dioxide solution that is said to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella.. It is a practice adopted in the US but banned throughout Europe due to concerns over the possible formation of by-products as a result of chlorine break down.. "The point about their use of chlorine is that ...
Posted 07/30/2010]. AUDIENCE: Consumers, Emergency Medicine. ISSUE: FDA warned consumers not to consume or use Miracle Mineral Solution, an oral liquid solution also known as "Miracle Mineral Supplement" or "MMS." The product, when used as directed, produces an industrial bleach that can cause serious harm to health. The product instructs consumers to mix the 28 percent sodium chlorite solution with an acid such as citrus juice. This mixture produces chlorine dioxide, a potent bleach used for stripping textiles and industrial water treatment. High oral doses of this bleach, such as those recommended in the labeling, can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and symptoms of severe dehydration.. BACKGROUND: MMS is distributed on Internet sites and online auctions by multiple independent distributors. MMS claims to treat multiple unrelated diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, the H1N1 flu virus, common colds, acne, cancer, and other conditions. The FDA is not aware of any research that MMS is effective ...
The Tristel Duo system, which uses Tristel's patented chlorine dioxide chemistry, is the first rapid action sporicidal cleaner for general hospital surfaces and non-invasive medical devices.
A composition for retarding bacterial, fungal and viral contamination and mold growth containing an acid releasing polymer, a hydrophilic material, and chlorite anions. Each component of the composition has a particle size of not more than about 1,000 angstroms. The composition is substantially free of water and capable of releasing chlorine dioxide upon hydrolysis of the acid releasing polymer.
Research, Testing and Investigation: Sodium chlorite [b]([/b]NaClO2[b])[/b] 22.4% plus an activator, making Chlorine dioxide [b]([/b]Cl02[...
MMS: Sodium chlorite [b]([/b]NaClO2[b])[/b] 28% MMS1 or Activated MMS: Chlorine dioxide [b]([/b]Cl02[b])[/b] ... - Page 2
Latest news about the G2 Church and its work worldwide with Jim Humbles discovery of MMS formula of creating chlorine dioxide (ClO2)
Latest news about the G2 Church and its work worldwide with Jim Humbles discovery of MMS formula of creating chlorine dioxide (ClO2)
Infusing materials with chlorine dioxide to reduce the numbers of dangerous microorganisms is a concept that could be extremely helpful to a number of industries, according to Dr. Michael Barza, author of the study. "To me, the most interesting thing about this technology is that it is really a platform technology that could be applied to control of infection in many other circumstances besides gloves and hands," he said. "For example, it could be used in the food industry, including supermarkets, delis and fast food markets." Other medical devices, such as vascular and urinary catheters, if made with the gas-emitting microspheres, could prevent infections that might endanger already vulnerable patients, he added ...
A chlorine dioxide sterilization cycle was developed for a novel split-valve aseptic powder transfer device. Several techniques can be used to help ensure product sterility assurance during the
Our Product Formulations: An Overview TheraBreath, AktivOxigen, and TheraBrite are the first chlorine dioxide based products to be sold in retail stores. ...
Jinhe Bai is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Controlled-release of Chlorine Dioxide in a Perforated Packaging System to Extend the Storage Life and Improve the Safety of Grape Tomatoes
Jan Narciso is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Controlled-release of Chlorine Dioxide in a Perforated Packaging System to Extend the Storage Life and Improve the Safety of Grape Tomatoes
definition of CLO, what does CLO mean?, meaning of CLO, Centrum Landbouwkundig Onderzoek, CLO stands for Centrum Landbouwkundig Onderzoek
Side 1 av 5 SEKSJON 1: Identifikasjon av stoffet/stoffblandingen og selskapet/foretaket 1.1. Produktidentifikator 1.2. Relevante identifiserte anvendelser av stoffet eller blandingen og anvendelser som
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite on the dissolution of human pulp tissue - an in vitro study. AU - Singh, Sandeep. AU - Sinha, Ramen. AU - Kar, S. K.. AU - Ather, Amber. AU - Limaye, S. N.. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Background: Organic tissue dissolution is an important property of an irrigant which aids in the success of root canal treatment. Recent studies have advocated the use of Chlorine dioxide as an endodontic irrigant. The aim of this study is to compare the dissolution efficacy of chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite on human pulp tissue. Methods: In this study, 2% Sodium hypochlorite, 5% Chlorine dioxide and isotonic saline solution (control) were used. Thirty human pulp tissue specimens were exposed to three test solutions (n = 10) for 30 min following which the loss of weight was compared from the original weight by using a digital analytical balance. Results: Sodium hypochlorite was more efficient in dissolving human pulp tissue when ...
0011] According to an aspect of the invention, there is provided a carbon dioxide gas recovery device including: an absorption tower that is configured to introduce a carbon dioxide-containing gas containing carbon dioxide gas and a lean absorbent, bring the carbon dioxide-containing gas and the lean absorbent into contact with each other, and cause the absorbent to absorb carbon dioxide gas in the carbon dioxide-containing gas to generate a rich absorbent; and a regeneration tower that is configured to regenerate the lean absorbent by heating the rich absorbent supplied from the absorption tower to separate carbon dioxide gas from the rich absorbent, wherein the regeneration tower includes: a reboiler system that is configured to lead the absorbent from the regeneration tower, heat the led absorbent, and reintroduce the resultant absorbent into the regeneration tower; and a mixed gas cooling system that is configured to lead a mixed gas of carbon dioxide gas and a vapor fraction of a solute and ...
See why active chlorine dioxide mouthwash is the best bacteria & odor killer for bad breath and halitosis. Learn differences between active and stabilized.
A catalyst together with a catalytic method for making chlorine dioxide from an acid and a metal chlorate solution. The catalyst generally comprises at least one of a valve metal oxide, ruthenium oxide, iridium oxide, palladium oxide, platinum oxide and rhodium oxide.
The kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of methimazole (1-methyl-3H-imidazole), MMI, by chlorite in mildly acidic environments were studied. It is a complex reaction that gives oligo-oscillations in chlorine dioxide concentrations in excess chlorite conditions. The stoichiometry is strictly 2:1, with the sulfur center being oxidized to sulfate and the organic moiety being hydrolyzed to several indeterminate species. In excess MMI conditions over chlorite, the sulfinic acid and sulfonic acid were observed as major intermediates. The sulfenic acid, which was observed in the electrochemical oxidation of MMI, was not observed with chlorite oxidations. Initial reduction of chlorite produced HOCl, an autocatalytic species in chlorite oxidations. HOCl rapidly reacts with chlorite to produce chlorine dioxide, which, in turn, reacts rapidly with MMI to produce more chlorite. The reaction of chlorine dioxide with MMI is competitive, in rate, with the chlorite-MMI and HOCl-ClO2- reactions. This explains the
Get an in-depth review and ask questions about Reactions of Aqueous Solutions Forming Sulfur Dioxide Gas. See what people are saying about Reactions of Aqueous Solutions Forming Sulfur Dioxide Gas.
Chlorine is among one of the significant halogen compounds that has several uses. Sodium hypochlorite is called chlorine bleach and is used for water purification. Chlorine is also a part of sodium chloride, which is called table salt. Chlorine is very necessary for human life. Chlorine is considered the tenth substance that is abundantly present in the human body and the eleventh substance found abundantly on this planet. Chlorine is found to be helpful in saving many lives more than any other chemical as it is used as a disinfectant for most of the water supply in the United States as well as in other countries.. Chlorine is used in the synthesis of Â most Â pharmaceutical substances. The manufacture of almost all of the chemicals for crop protection is done by using chlorine. Chlorine is also found to be used in the synthesis of about 45 percent of commercial products. Â The ocean, which is the result of the weathering of the continental lands, is the largest storehouse for salt. It has ...
Other garbage in the mass produced loaf are preservative and volume increaser fats, fractionated or sometimes hydrogenated. L-ascorbic acid, an oxidant which gasses up a loaf to make it look more impressive. Chlorine dioxide gas used to bleach white flours. L-cysteine hydrochloride, which may be derived from animal hair and feathers. Soya flour, preservatives, emulsifiers, the list goes on and on.. "healthy" wholemeal bread contains the most residual pesticides in tests including chlormequat, glyphosate, malathion and pirimiphos-methyl. These are found in the majority of high street loaves ...
Not only has bleached white flour lost its nutritive value, but potassium bromate was added. "After removing all the layers and nutrients, flour is bleached, preserved, and aged with chlorine dioxide. It is further whitened by adding chalk, alum, and ammonium carbonate to make it look and feel more appealing to the consumer. An anti-salting agent called sorbitan mono-saturate is added in the final stage. potassium bromate is also added to white flour. It is a very powerful oxidizer that damages cells. Bromate is considered a category 2B carcinogen (=possibly carcinogenic to humans) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Potassium bromate has been banned in most developed countries in 1884, including all countries in the European Union (chlorine, bromates, and peroxides in food is banned in the EU), UK, Canada." (See Admin, http://livingtraditionally.com/5-secrets-white-flour-will-shock/, 2014). Editors Note: Potassium bromate and chlorine dioxide in bleached flour - a double ...
The dangers of chlorination were first documented in the 1950s. During the Korean civil war, soldiers who were given chlorine tablets for their canteens developed severe cardiovascular diseases. A lot of soldiers died because of heart disease within the next ten years.. While you can do your best to avoid areas exposed to chlorine, an effective way to neutralize the toxic chemical is with ascorbic acid or vitamin C, since it chemically destroys chlorine. (Related: 7 Reasons why you should start eating more blueberries.). The reverse is also true since chlorine can destroy vitamin C. Since both chemicals cancel each other out, consuming more vitamin C than chlorine is crucial to neutralizing the latter.. One gram (g) of vitamin C can neutralize 100 gallons (gal) of water with one part per million (PPM) of chlorine. Take note that one PPM is standard for U.S. drinking water, but it can legally go up to four PPM chlorine.. While the naked eye cannot see the neutralization effect, as it is ...
Tom Simonite, www.newscientist.com A new catalyst that can split carbon dioxide gas could allow us to use carbon from the atmosphere as a fuel source in a
Carbon Dioxide Gas Detector, CO2 Gas Detector 0-5% Vol 4-20mA - Infrared sensor - SMART3-R for non classified area S3971CO2 Sensitron
Warn workers in your facility of carbon dioxide gas discharge and to immediately evacuate an area after alarm operates. Order your sign today.
Shop online for a wide selection of Brady Aluminum Warning Sign: CARBON DIOXIDE GAS CAN CAUSE INJURY OR DEATH. WHEN ALARM OPERATES, VACATE IMMEDIATELY. Improve workplace safety
Sodium bisulfate is formed by the partial neutralization of sulfuric acid, using either sodium hydroxide or sodium chloride. Like any acid, it should be handled with care.. Because chlorine can become unstable when exposed to ultraviolet light, most chlorine compounds added to pool water are stabilized. In some conditions, the pH of the water can then become too high. This results in scaly formations on the pool walls, floor and fixtures, as well as cloudy water. In addition, the chlorine is less effective. To prevent or counter these effects, dry acid or sodium bisulfite is added to the water. This balances the pH of the water.. To add dry acid to the pool, set the pump on filter. Dissolve the dry acid in a bucket of water, according to the manufacturer s instructions. Then pour the contents into the deepest part of the pool.. Like any acid, dry acid should be handled with care. Wear protective gear, including mask, goggles and clothing, while handling. Inhaling dry acid fumes can cause ...
Oratene Veterinarian Water Additive uses enzymes to help reduce plaque on pets teeth without brushing. Simply add the flavorless concentrate to drinking water daily. The formula is pH neutral, with no xylitol, alcohol, chlorhexidine or chlorine compounds. Its 100% safe for daily ingestion. For cats and dogs of all ages. Made in USA.
The floater would normally be able to keep up with chlorine, but your chlorine demand may be higher because either 1) you have little or no Cyanuric Acid (CYA aka stabilizer or conditioner) in the water and your chlorine is getting broken down by sunlight faster than the tabs can dissolve or 2) you have too much CYA in the water so there is nascent algae growth that is using up chlorine faster than the tabs can release it and faster than chlorine can kill the algae. Read the Pool School for more info on how to properly maintain your pool. Get a good test kit as well -- either the Taylor K-2006 or the TF-100 ...
This year we eliminated the chlorine frog and installed a salt chlorine generator. The water is clear and clean but doesnt seem to be as crystal clear as with the chlorine. Is this normal or do I need to keep working away at it? For the past 5 years when the water began to cloud a little, Id hit it with chlorine and it would go crystal again. Ive tried shocking it with chlorine but just cant get it that last 5% of clearness ...
This relatively new additive is marketed under the name Splenda®. Sucralose is basically denatured sucrose. Its preparation involves chlorinating sucrose, chemically changing the structure of the sugar molecules by substituting three chlorine atoms for three hydroxyl groups. Yes, you did read "chlorinating," adding "chlorine atoms." But isnt chlorine a known carcinogen, you ask? Why would the FDA allow toxic materials to be used in our food and beverages?. Yes, chlorine is a carcinogen. And to the other question, no one said just why the FDA approved it. You should know too that it was approved even with the pre-approval research revealed possible toxicity of the substance. ...
Total ChlorineTest Strips WaterWorks 2 Test StripsFree & Total Chlorine SenSafe Free Chlorine Water CheckEPA Approved Product Many people do not
Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions are important in drinking water treatment and distribution. Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) measurements of water reflect the tendency of major constituents in the water to accept or lose electrons. Although ORP measurements are valuable and can provide useful information toward protecting public health, they are not widely performed by the drinking water community for a variety of reasons. The objective of this research is to report the impact of five oxidants commonly used in drinking water as well as the pH on the measured ORP of water. Results show that the ORP of each oxidant system increased with increasing oxidant concentration to a maximum and decreased with increasing pH. Chlorine and chlorine dioxide waters had the greatest ORP followed by water containing monochloramine and permanganate, and water containing only oxygen. Duplicate ORP measurements revealed some inconsistencies with redox electrode measurements.. ...
In reponse to recent emails, we will re-visit the topic of free chlorine versus combined chlorine and how they both relate to total chlorine: (Free Chlorine) +
Disinfection of common and shared areas is critical to interrupt the virus spread.. ProKure donated its flagship product, ProKure V, a delivery system for the chemical chlorine dioxide (ClO2), as well as approved containers and spray bottles. ProKure V is on the EPAs List N, which meets the EPAs criteria for use against SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19. ProKure V disinfectant is currently used across the U.S., in hospitals, airplanes, daycares, gyms, restaurants, and other locations where disinfection is a priority.. "We distribute ProKure disinfectant to businesses and organizations all over the country, but Phoenix is our home," says Alex Cushman, President, ProKure Solutions. "Its also an area of increasing need due to an uptick in COVID-19 cases. Helping protect our homeless and vulnerable populations is a critical step in this ongoing battle with such an infectious virus.". Rescue Mission staff will be able to employ the regular use of ProKure V liquid spray on high touch ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Hello, I have an indoor endless pool (about 5ft by 15 ft by 8 ft) and I am using a non chlorine shocking treatment but my CC is always high after using the shock... both Free Chlorine and Total Chlorine increase after using the product as well.... which makes no sense to me... I use a taylor test kit... as well my cyanic acid levels are 50ppm even though I dont use stabilized chlorine there is no mention about stabilizing agents in the shock agent but could it be from there?... Thanks
Peroxy Foam is intended for use in dairies, food, poultry, wine, and beverage processing industry for CIP or foam cleaning of equipment and environmental surfaces. Peroxy Foam has a very high oxidation potential and will readily break down proteins, fats, greases, oils, and biofilms. It is an outstanding replacement to chlorinated-alkaline foam products, and performs equivalently to other oxidative foaming products such as peracetic acid (PAA) chlorine dioxide, and bleach. This product is also an outstanding performer for foam application to poultry houses, meat processing, and dairy processing or beverage accounts. Peroxy Foam is stable in tempertures up to 150F and all ingredients Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS). ...
Sodium chlorate is used as an oxidizing agent and bleach for paper pulp, to make chlorine dioxide used in water disinfection, in various manufacturing processes, and as a non-selective herbicide, defoliant, and harvest aid (Merck, 1996; HSDB, 1997; RTECS, 1997). This study was performed due to the potential for human exposure to sodium chlorate and the lack of pertinent developmental toxicity data.. Dose selection was based on a screening study in which New Zealand White rabbits were treated by gavage with 0, 100, 250, 500, 750, or 1000 mg sodium chlorate/kg body weight/day on gestational days 6 through 29 (NTP, 1998). Maternal toxicity was noted at greater than or equal to 250 mg/kg/day, with maternal morbidity and mortality at greater than or equal to 500 mg/kg/day. There was no definitive evidence of developmental toxicity at doses up to 500 mg/kg/day (NTP, 1998).. In this study, female NZW rabbits were dosed by gavage with sodium chlorate (100, 250, or 475 mg/kg/day) or its vehicle ...
Chlorine water (hyperchlorous acid) bleaching a strip of blue litmus paper. In this oxidation reaction, the chlorine water turns the blue litmus paper red (near end of strip), which is then bleached white (end of strip). Chlorine water is an aqueous solution of chlorine used as a bleaching agent. - Stock Image A500/0553
Chlorine deficiency: Chlorine deficiency, condition in which chlorine is insufficient or is not utilized properly. Chlorine is a component of all body secretions and excretions resulting from
Spectrum Volume 18 Issue 25 - March 28, 1996 The American Water Works Association (AWWA) has selected Robert C. Hoehn, professor of civil engineering, as the recipient of the 1996 A.P. Black Research Award.. The AWWA, the largest national association of water supply and treatment professionals, established the Black Award in 1967 to recognize long-term, outstanding research contributions to water science and water-supply practices.. In selecting Hoehn, the AWWA Board of Directors cited his "significant achievements in water research and his effective advancement of water science through scholarly publications, teaching and training of water-supply professionals, and particularly for his outstanding contributions to understanding of disinfection byproduct formation and control, the use of chlorine dioxide, reservoir management, and taste and odor control.". Hoehn will receive the award June 24 during the opening session of AWWAs annual conference in Toronto, Canada.. S.T. Oyama, associate ...
Our Environmental Hygiene Services (EHS) Group offers secondary disinfection of domestic water programs that can effectively utilize chlorine dioxide or copper-silver disinfection technology and address the most important issues you face on a daily basis. | Nalco Water
After removing all the layers and nutrients, flour is bleached, preserved, and aged with chlorine dioxide. It is further whitened by adding chalk, alum, and ammonium carbonate to make it look and feel more appealing to the consumer. An anti-salting agent called sorbitan mono-saturate is added in the final stage. Potassium bromate is also added to white flour. It is very powerful oxidizer that damages cells. Bromate is considered a category 2B carcinogen (= possibly carcinogenic to humans) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Potassium bromate has been banned in most of the developed countries in 1994 including all countries in European Union (chlorine, bromates, and peroxides in food is banned in the EU), UK, Canada ...
Two 1-gallon containers of Liquid Chlorine. Liquid Chlorine is for everyday chlorination and super chlorination. It is a great alternative to granular or tablet chlorine. Comes packed with two-one gallon containers per case Works instantly Calcium free, won?t cloud pool water Safe for all types of pools and filters For everyday chlorination and superchlorinating treatments
A public debate between the creator of MMS (Miracle Mineral Supplement) and The Health Wyze Report sheds light on chlorine dioxide, the bleach that Jim Humble recommends as medicine.
A public debate between the creator of MMS (Miracle Mineral Supplement) and The Health Wyze Report sheds light on chlorine dioxide, the bleach that Jim Humble recommends as medicine.
2. Chlorine dioxide, one of the chemicals used to bleach flour, combines with residual protein in most of these foods to form alloxan. In the lab, researchers use alloxan to induce diabetes in rats. Enriched or white anything, is dangerous, period ...
SVPHP® is specifically formulated as a reducing agent for chlorine dioxide generation. It contains a proprietary additive package that enhances the performance of the generator, and corrosion inhibitors that make it suitable for storage in both stainless steel and high-purity aluminum storage tanks.
There are only a few "inexpensive" filters out there which pass the 1< Micron test which is needed to protect the human body. Most filters are designed for the"Hiker" who is above the Industrial/Agricultural levels and is working with basically clean water. Thats why most have a microbial element to them. Three filters (that I Know of) and one tablet type will carry you from the inner city to the wilderness. The first is the Life Straw. Designed for Africa for a non profit organization it will filter the dirtiest water (think Africa), Second is the First Alert pump it is a true 1 micron pump and thrd is HTI products, They use forward osmosis (same as trees) to extract water like a tree root eliminating ALL harmfull elements including metals. Of the tabs only the Chlorine Dioxide gives true protection by killing all bugs. Remember you have to cover everything from viruses to metals and toxins in a survival situation ...
If there was a dental product that could combat periodontal disease, eliminate bad breath, battle candidiasis, control plaque, and soothe dry mouth, would you try it? Now there is!. OraCare Oral Cleanser is a two-bottle system that uses activated Chlorine Dioxide and Xylitol to kill bacteria, viruses, fungi, biofilm, and VSCs - waste and toxins produced by the bacteria in your mouth. It is a glycerin-based rinse that locks moisture into your tissues. There is no lingering aftertaste and, unlike other similar prescription rinses, it does not cause staining and is approved for long-term use.. OraCare Oral Cleanser is recommended for patients with dental implants, partials, and dentures; chronic periodontal issues; dry mouth; and orthodontics. Find out today if OraCare is right for you!. ...
If youre worried about the negative effects on your health of store-bought bread, then you might be in luck. Baking Smart has just released its list of the best bread making machines available today. Having your own bread making machine means that you can finally avoid all those nasty additives that commercial bread manufacturers add to their bread, like calcium propionate, amylase, chlorine dioxide and l-cysteine hydrochloride. Instead, you can make bread the old-fashioned way with just flour, yeast and water.. Choosing A Break Making Machine. Choosing the best bread machine for your family depends on a number of factors, as Baking Smarts guide points out. First of all, buyers need to consider the design of breadmaker that best meets their needs, giving them the freedom to make the type of bread they want. Machines differ in a number of important ways, including whether they have clear and intuitive displays, as well as whether the pan is the right shape or big enough for the whole family. ...
Qualified experts share their concerns about the use of chlorine dioxide (miracle mineral solution/MMS) on individuals with autism.
PERFORMACIDE® Odor Elimination system utilizes a pre-measured chlorine dioxide pouch system to chemically break down stubborn odors in enclosed spaces. Pouch can be used as either a fast release or slow release system. One 10 gram pouch will treat an area approximately 1,000 cu. ft.. ...
We recognize the urgency parents may feel when confronted with a diagnosis of autism, which may lead them to undertake desperate treatments such as Miracle Mineral Solution (MMS, a.k.a. CD for chlorine dioxide, or ASEA). Any medical treatment that uses Miracle on its label raises serious questions of old-fashioned fraud. In particular, suspicions arise with MMS, a product whose primary ingredient has side effects known to be seriously damaging. We recognize that there are off-label treatments with variable amounts of data that parents and practitioners will attempt. As pioneers in the use of a biomedical approach to autism, however, we maintain that it is critical that a treatment be considered reasonably safe before we give it to children. We do not consider MMS to meet these standards, and it violates the principal precept of medical bioethics: first, do no harm ...
People have been using chlorine bleach in their laundries since the end of the 18th century. While these products work very well in whitening clothes, chlorine bleaches do have a negative effect upon the environment because of their chemistry. Care must be taken in using chlorine bleach as it is toxic to humans, animals, and plants. Also, we all have experienced destroying a colored article of clothing because chlorine bleach was accidentally spilled on it.. Tropical Traditions Oxygen Bleach is a safe and effective alternative to chlorine based products and it can be used in many applications in and around the home. It is based on sodium per carbonate which uses oxygen for destaining and deodorizing. Oxygen Bleach is safe to use at all temperatures, on most washable fabrics, and all colors, in hard or soft water, and is compatible with other household cleaners. Also, it produces no harmful by-products which negatively affect the environment. Unlike chlorine bleach, which can merely cover up a ...
Ok I am trying to figure out which test I am actually doing and where its supposed to be. I have a TF100 and everyday I am using the blue Taylor chlorine/Ph test kit. Which type of chlorine test is this CC, FC, or TC?? Either way, here are my numbers...keep in mind that I have added almost a whole jug of bleach in the past three days and my daily chlorine test (in the Taylor kit) never gets above 1. I have also added stabilizer yesterday to raise my CYA. Any input would be greatly
The molar mass of chlorine gas is 70.90 g/mol. One molecule of chlorine gas is formed from two chlorine atoms and has the chemical formula...
Palintest™ Test Chlorine DPD No 1 + No 3 Quantity: 250/Pk. Palintest™ Test Chlorine DPD No 1 + No 3 Water Testing Solutions and Reagents
It forms a variety of organosilicon compounds upon treatment with Grignard reagents and organolithium compounds: 4 RLi + SiCl4 ... Brine can be contaminated with silica when the production of chlorine is a byproduct of a metal refining process from metal ... Simmler, W., "Silicon Compounds, Inorganic", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/ ... Silicon tetrachloride or tetrachlorosilane is the inorganic compound with the formula SiCl4. It is a colourless volatile liquid ...
The compounds are typically denser than water due to the higher atomic weight of chlorine versus hydrogen. Aliphatic ... Chlorine adds to the multiple bonds on alkenes and alkynes as well, giving di- or tetra-chloro compounds. ... Kjeld C. Engvild (1986). "Chlorine-Containing Natural Compounds in Higher Plants". Phytochemistry. 25 (4): 7891-791. doi: ... However, the presence of chlorine in an organic compound does not ensure toxicity. Some organochlorides are considered safe ...
Chlorine, like oxygen, forms flammable mixtures with organic compounds." I and Xe. The chemistry of iodine in its oxidation ... Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ... Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ... Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ...
... chlorine resinate; the crystalline material might be atacamite or another copper-chlorine compound. Analysis of the red-brown ... to have used this knowledge to work out entire paragraphs proving the authorship of Bacon and recording his use of a compound ...
Bleaching with chlorine produces large amounts of organochlorine compounds, including dioxins. ... and recently the pulp industry has been using alternatives to chlorine, such as chlorine dioxide, oxygen, ozone and hydrogen ... These compounds have extremely low odor thresholds and disagreeable smells. Applications. The main applications for pulp ... These same compounds are released during many forms of microbial decay, including the internal microbial action in Camembert ...
Inorganic compoundsEdit. ChlorineEdit. This group comprises aqueous solution of chlorine, hypochlorite, or hypochlorous acid. ... Occasionally, chlorine-releasing compounds and their salts are included in this group. Frequently, a concentration of , 1 ppm ... Chlorine and oxygen are strong oxidizers, so their compounds figure heavily here. ... Quaternary ammonium compoundsEdit. Quaternary ammonium compounds ("quats"), such as benzalkonium chloride, are a large group of ...
Chlorine-based bleaches, whose active agent is chlorine, usually from the decomposition of some chlorine compound like ... The grade of chlorine-based bleaches is often expressed as percent active chlorine. One gram of a 100% active chlorine bleach ... Chlorine-based bleaches. Chlorine-based bleaches are found in many household "bleach" products, as well as in specialized ... Chlorine, a powerful oxidizer, is the active agent in many household bleaches. Since pure chlorine is a toxic corrosive gas, ...
... in which either hydrogen is replaced by chlorine in a hydrocarbon compound or chlorine is reacted via an addition reaction to ... V/3 Fluorine and Chlorine Compounds . Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart 1962, ISBN 978-3-13-203004-6, p. 524. US Grant 2046090, Cortes F ... The addition of chlorine to benzene proceeds also via a radical chain reaction: C l 2 → h ν C l ⋅ + ⋅ C l ( c h a i n s t a r t ... Chain termination occurs by recombination of chlorine radicals to molecular chlorine on the vessel wall. Impurities such as ...
Chlorine and chlorine compounds, pp. 131-151. In S. S. Block (ed.), Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation. Lea & Febiger ... The resulting compound is a chlorhydrin. The polar chlorine disrupts lipid bilayers and could increase permeability. When ... and chlorine gas is formed. Thus, the formation of stable hypochlorite bleaches is facilitated by dissolving chlorine gas into ... a sacrificial defense against chlorine compounds". Journal of Bacteriology. 178 (7): 2131-5. PMC 177915 . PMID 8606194. Morris ...
The active carbon absorbs compounds such as chlorine. Filters with active carbon need to be replaced periodically because the ...
Any chemical compound containing the element chlorine.. Chromate. .. Circular motion. .. Civil engineering. The profession that ... Saturated compound. .. Scalar (mathematics). .. Scalar (physics). .. Scalar multiplication. .. Screw. .. Series circuit. An ... Chemical compound. .. Chemical equilibrium. .. Chemical kinetics. .. Chemical reaction. .. Chemistry. .. Chloride. ... A hydrocarbon compound, solid at room temperature.. Paramagnetism. .. Particle accelerator. .. Particle displacement. .. ...
Billroth Gottlieb, Hans (1936). "The Replacement of Chlorine by Fluorine in Organic Compounds". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58 (3): 532- ... edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2009, ISBN 978-1-4200-9084-0, Section 3, Physical Constants of Organic Compounds, p. 3 ...
"They are bromine compounds produced by seaweed and the ocean's phytoplankton". Only 10% chlorine compounds are made by the ... the impact on stratospheric ozone is larger in the more recent decades with enhanced chlorine loading, due to combined bromine- ... chlorine catalytic ozone loss cycles. Furthermore, the climate change is a majority of VSLS because climate change may impact ...
Faraday, Michael (1821). "On two new Compounds of Chlorine and Carbon, and on a new Compound of Iodine, Carbon, and Hydrogen". ... Faraday was specifically involved in the study of chlorine; he discovered two new compounds of chlorine and carbon. He also ... In 1820 Faraday reported the first synthesis of compounds made from carbon and chlorine, C2Cl6 and C2Cl4, and published his ... As a chemist, Faraday discovered benzene, investigated the clathrate hydrate of chlorine, invented an early form of the Bunsen ...
Major pollutants included sulfuric acid, cobalt compounds, and chlorine. The Center for Public Integrity reports the Goodyear ... "BioTRED compounding technology". The new technology increases the tires "flexibility and resistance to energy loss", which ...
Chlorine-based bleaches. See also: Chlorine base compound. Chlorine-based bleaches are found in many household cleaners. The ... Chlorine dioxide. Main article: Chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide, ClO2, is an unstable gas and is used in situ or stored as ... Chlorine is produced by the electrolysis of sodium chloride.. 2 NaCl + 2 H2O → Cl2 + H2 + 2 NaOH. Chlorine is used to prepare ... After chlorine-based bleaches, the peroxide bleaches are most commonly encountered. Peroxides are compounds that contain an ...
Eugène Soubeiran obtained the compound by the action of chlorine bleach on both ethanol and acetone. ... "Investigations into some compounds of chlorine]. Annales de Chemie et de Physique (série II). 48: 113-157.. *Reprinted in ... "On the compounds which arise by the reaction of chlorine with alcohol, ether, oil-forming gas, and spirit of vinegar]. Annalen ... "Continuation of investigations on some compounds of chlorine]. Journal de Pharmacie et des Sciences Accessoires. 18: 1-24.. ...
Chlorine - Elemental chlorine was discovered in 1774 but was thought to be a compound and was called "dephlogisticated muriatic ... It was named by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac who thought it either a compound of oxygen or an element. A few days later Humphry Davy ... acid air". Humphry Davy named it chlorine in 1810 after experimenting with it and declared it was an element. ...
The compounds are treated with chlorine to free up the bismuth. Temperature used in the process is about 380-500 °C(572-932 °F ... The resulting bismuth compounds have higher melting points and lower densities than the lead, and can be removed as dross. ...
Major pollutants included sulfuric acid, chromium compounds, lead compounds, and chlorine. The Center for Public Integrity has ...
Bleaching with chlorine produces large amounts of organochlorine compounds, including dioxins. The kraft pulping reaction in ... and recently the pulp industry has been using alternatives to chlorine, such as chlorine dioxide, oxygen, ozone and hydrogen ... These same compounds are released during many forms of microbial decay, including the internal microbial action in Camembert ... These compounds have extremely low odor thresholds and disagreeable smells; a common saying in communities economically ...
Chlorine monofluoride (ClF) is the lightest interhalogen compound. ClF is a colorless gas with a normal boiling point of −100 ° ... An interhalogen compound is a molecule which contains two or more different halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine ... This compound is the only known interhalogen compound where the larger atom is carrying seven of the smaller atoms. All ... Chlorine pentafluoride (ClF5) is a colourless gas, made by reacting chlorine trifluoride with fluorine at high temperatures and ...
... it is actually sodium hypochlorite or a related compound-not pure chlorine-that is being used. Chlorine partly reacts with ... Chlorine and oxygen are strong oxidizers, so their compounds figure heavily here. Sodium hypochlorite is very commonly used. ... Chloramine-T is antibacterial even after the chlorine has been spent, since the parent compound is a sulfonamide antibiotic. ... Quaternary ammonium compounds ("quats"), such as benzalkonium chloride, are a large group of related compounds. Some ...
Such compounds are prepared by treating CuPc with chlorine, bromine or oleum. H2Pc has few applications. It reacts with metal ... Phthalocyanine is an organic compound with the formula (C8H4N2)4H2. It is classified as an aromatic macrocyclic compound. The ... Many phthalocyanine compounds are thermally very stable, do not melt but can be sublimed, CuPc sublimes at >500 °C under inert ... An unidentified blue compound, which is now known to be metal-free phthalocyanine, was first reported in 1907. In 1927, Swiss ...
Numerous atoms and compounds can replace the chlorine atom in trifluoroacetyl chloride. These include iodine, fluorine, cyanide ... The compound has a melting point of −146 °C (−231 °F) and a boiling point of −27 °C (−17 °F). The compound easily reacts with ... When the compound reacts with water in contact with metal, hydrogen gas, which is explosive, is produced. The compound forms a ... When the compound burns, it produces toxic gases. It also corrodes the respiratory tract. The compound is also a lacrimator. It ...
Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ... Patnaik, Pradyot (2003). Handbook of Inorganic Chemical Compounds. McGraw-Hill. pp. 444-446. ISBN 0-07-049439-8. . Retrieved ... Heiserman, David L. (1992). "Element 39: Yttrium". Exploring Chemical Elements and their Compounds. New York: TAB Books. pp. ... Once reached a human, scandium concentrates in the liver and is a threat to it; some its compounds are possibly carcinogenic, ...
Chlorine base compounds, also known as chlorine-releasing compounds, are a family of chemicals that release chlorine. They are ... Chlorine base compounds first came into use in 1915. They are on the World Health Organizations List of Essential Medicines, ... Specific compounds in this family include sodium hypochlorite, chloramine, halazone, chlorine dioxide, and sodium ...
Atmospheric chemistry of chlorine and sulfur compounds proceedings of a symposium held at the Robert A. Taft Sanitary ... Atmospheric chemistry of chlorine and sulfur compounds proceedings of a symposium held at the Robert A. Taft Sanitary ... Atmospheric chemistry of chlorine and sulfur compounds.. [Washington] American Geophysical Union, 1959. (DLC) 59060039. (OCoLC) ... rdfs:label "Atmospheric chemistry of chlorine and sulfur compounds." ;. schema:description "Print version:" ;. schema: ...
... Y.OGANE*, N.SATO°, K.ASATO°, T. HIGA°°, M. ... For example, Organic chlorine Compounds bond to soil according to the effect which is accompanied with the soil grain structure ... Therefore, it is guessed that disassembly of the organic chlorine compound by the exam is the same as that of the case of ... Organic chlorine Compounds including trichloroethylene have been used as a solvent for washing clothes and electronic parts for ...
Excretion of organic chlorine compounds in the urine of persons exposed to vapours of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene ... Excretion of organic chlorine compounds in the urine of persons exposed to vapours of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene ... Excretion of organic chlorine compounds in the urine of persons exposed to vapours of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene ... The urinary levels of trichloroethanol, trichloroacetic acid, and total trichloro compounds were almost proportional to the ...
Microbial synthesis and transformation of inorganic and organic chlorine compounds. Author(s): Atashgahi, Siavash. ... Organic and inorganic chlorine compounds are formed by a broad range of natural geochemical, photochemical and biological ... In addition, chlorine compounds are produced in large quantities for industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical purposes, ... Abiotic transformations and microbial metabolism of inorganic and organic chlorine compounds combined with human activities ...
50 Percent or More Available Chlorine or Equivalent Oxidizing - Market research report and industry analysis - 10666671 ... The 2018-2023 World Outlook for Household Dry Chlorine and Other Inorganic Bleaching Compounds (calcium Hypochlorite, Etc., ... The 2018-2023 World Outlook for Household Dry Chlorine and Other Inorganic Bleaching Compounds (calcium Hypochlorite, Etc., 50 ... This study covers the world outlook for household dry chlorine and other inorganic bleaching compounds (calcium hypochlorite, ...
Abstract: Chlorine cycle in natural ecosystems involves formation of low and high molecular weight organic compounds of living ... The natural chlorine cycle - Formation of the carcinogenic and greenhouse gas compound chloroform in drinking water reservoirs ... The natural chlorine cycle - Formation of the carcinogenic and greenhouse gas compound chloroform in drinking water reservoirs ... The natural chlorine cycle - Formation of the carcinogenic and greenhouse gas compound chloroform in drinking water reservoirs ...
How Many Protons And Electrons Does Chlorine - 28 images - Isotopes Sliderbase, Atomic Concepts, Why Doesn T Silicon 4 ... Home-How Many Protons And Electrons Does Chlorine-How Many Protons And Electrons Does Chlorine ... How Many Protons And Electrons Does Chlorine. How Many Protons And Electrons Does Chlorine. ... If the hyperlink is broken or the image not entirely onHow Many Protons And Electrons Does Chlorineyou can contact us to get ...
Chlorine and Chlorine Compounds. Overview.. Hypochlorites, the most widely used of the chlorine disinfectants, are available as ... Alternative compounds that release chlorine and are used in the health-care setting include demand-release chlorine dioxide, ... Quaternary ammonium compounds (as well as 70% isopropyl alcohol, phenolic, and a chlorine-containing wipe [80 ppm]) effectively ... Chlorine dioxide can be produced by mixing solutions, such as a solution of chlorine with a solution of sodium chlorite 329. In ...
Particularly notable-and controversial-are compounds involving chlorine and carbon.. CHLORINE AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.. Chlorine ... For example, chlorine and methane gas can be reacted with each other to form a series of chlorine-containing compounds. The ... Like chlorine, bromine is obtained from brine. Chlorine gas is used to convert bromide compounds in brine to elemental bromine. ... In some cases, gaseous chlorine is pumped directly into water. In other cases, a compound containing chlorine, such as sodium ...
... in the manufacture of inorganic chlorine compounds. About 15,000 chlorine compounds are used commercially. The ... Chlorine oxides. Yellow chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas above a yellow chlorine dioxide solution. Solutions of pure chlorine ... are the most stable oxo-compounds of chlorine, in keeping with the fact that chlorine compounds are most stable when the ... Chlorine fluorides. The three fluorides of chlorine form a subset of the interhalogen compounds, all of which are diamagnetic.[ ...
Chlorine perchlorate is the chemical compound with the formula Cl2O4. This chlorine oxide is an asymmetric oxide, with one ... "Chlorine perchlorate a major photolysis product of chlorine dioxide". J. Phys. Chem. 86 (24): 4653-4655. doi:10.1021/ ... Chlorine perchlorate reacts with metal chlorides forming anhydrous perchlorates: CrO2Cl2 + 2 ClOClO3 → 2 Cl2 + CrO2(ClO4)2. ... M. I. Lopez; J. E. Sicre (1988). "Ultraviolet spectrum of chlorine perchlorate". J. Phys. Chem. 92 (2): 563-564. doi:10.1021/ ...
Chlorine fluoride. References. *^ "Chlorine trifluoride - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for ... Chlorine trifluoride is an interhalogen compound with the formula ClF3. This colorless, poisonous, corrosive, and extremely ... Robinson D. Burbank; Frank N. Bensey (1953). "The Structures of the Interhalogen Compounds. I. Chlorine Trifluoride at −120 °C ... The compound can also dissociate under the scheme: ClF3 → ClF + F2. Uses. Semiconductor industry. In the ...
Yes chlorine(g) is a carcinogen its very reactive and therefore does not occur naturally in nature , but chlorine when bound to ... Yes, you did read "chlorinating," adding "chlorine atoms." But isnt chlorine a known carcinogen, you ask? Why would the FDA ... Every prepared food I buy has some amount of chlorine in it and the ocean is 3% chlorine. Wont the FDA do something!!!!! (end) ... Yes, chlorine is a carcinogen. And to the other question, no one said just why the FDA approved it. You should know too that it ...
3. Freitag . Danger of chlorine gas. Z. Gesamte Schiess Sprengstoffwes.. 4. ILO . Chlorine and compounds. In: ... Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for chlorine is 10 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [Freitag 1941 ...
In March and April 2007, we collected area air samples for trichloramine, soluble chlorine compounds, and endotoxin. We also ... Region-5; Chlorine-compounds; Amines; Sulfates; Sulfites; Endotoxins; Humidity; Respiratory-irritants; Respiratory-system- ...
Exposure-levels; Organic-solvents; Birth-defects; Pregnancy; Prenatal-exposure; Chlorine-compounds; Neurological-system; ... Neuromotor-disorders; Neurotoxic-effects; Neurotoxicity; Neurotoxins; Glycols; Ethers; Aliphatic-compounds; Ketones; Esters; ...
It forms a variety of organosilicon compounds upon treatment with Grignard reagents and organolithium compounds: 4 RLi + SiCl4 ... Brine can be contaminated with silica when the production of chlorine is a byproduct of a metal refining process from metal ... Simmler, W., "Silicon Compounds, Inorganic", Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/ ... Silicon tetrachloride or tetrachlorosilane is the inorganic compound with the formula SiCl4. It is a colourless volatile liquid ...
Chlorine-compounds; Plastics-industry ...
Make research projects and school reports about chlorine easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Another compound made using chlorine is propylene oxide (CH3CH0CH2). There is no chlorine in propylene oxide, but chlorine is ... Chlorine gas is extremely toxic. In large doses, it can be fatal. On the other hand, chlorine compounds are essential to plants ... Chlorine and its compounds have a large number of everyday uses. Chlorine is used in water purification as well in the ...
Predict some possible compounds that could form between chlorine and selenium. (Hint: See Exercise 63.). Chemistry ...
Tags: Compound Fertilizer , Chlorine Based Npk Compound Fertilizer , Npk Compound Fertilizer Prices For High Yielding , View ...
Organo-chlorine-compounds; Carbamates; Fungicides; Skin-exposure; Pesticide-residues; Author Keywords: Regulation of ... The fungicide benomyl (17804352) was the most commonly detected and was also the compound found in the highest concentration. ... A total of 86 different compounds comprising 18 different pesticides were detected. ... with six different compounds being identified. The use of gloves to protect against pesticide residues was not uniform. ...
AtomsFluorineDeposited chlorideDioxideReactionSodium chlorideContain chlorineInterhalogenDisinfectionSulfurHydrogen peroxideAtomVolatileDisinfectantsDisinfectantChemicalsOzoneAROMATIC COMPOUNDSPhenolAmount of chlorineIonicChemistryMolecularArgonFree chlorineFluorideConcentrationsToxicityNitrogenHazardousMetalsMicroorganismsNaClQuaternaryInorganic and organicAqueous solution
- Its preparation involves chlorinating sucrose, chemically changing the structure of the sugar molecules by substituting three chlorine atoms for three hydroxyl groups. (blogspot.com)
- Yes, you did read "chlorinating," adding "chlorine atoms. (blogspot.com)
- A series of compounds containing up to six silicon atoms in the chain can be separated from the mixture using fractional distillation . (wikipedia.org)
- For example, it is covalently bound to carbon atoms in many organic compounds. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- When ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere degrades CFCs or HCFCs, the chlorine released acts to consume ozone molecules, which contain three oxygen atoms, into separate chlorine-oxygen and two-oxygen molecules (the latter is known as oxygen gas). (encyclopedia.com)
- Because the chlorine atoms can persist in the stratosphere for more than a century, they are recycled through the ozone-degrading reactions. (encyclopedia.com)
- Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) - Chemical compounds that contain hydrogen, fluorine, and carbon atoms. (encyclopedia.com)
- When they break down, they release chlorine or bromine atoms, which then deplete ozone. (epa.gov)
- An interhalogen compound is a molecule which contains two or more different halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine) and no atoms of elements from any other group. (wikipedia.org)
- The molecule is a planar dimer (ICl3)2, with each iodine atom surrounded by four chlorine atoms. (wikipedia.org)
- Numerous atoms and compounds can replace the chlorine atom in trifluoroacetyl chloride. (wikipedia.org)
- The phosphorus in PCl3 is often considered to have the +3 oxidation state and the chlorine atoms are considered to be in the −1 oxidation state. (wikipedia.org)
- Phosphorus trichloride is the precursor to organophosphorus compounds that contain one or more P(III) atoms, most notably phosphites and phosphonates. (wikipedia.org)
- These compounds do not usually contain the chlorine atoms found in PCl3. (wikipedia.org)
- Halomethane compounds are derivatives of methane (CH4) with one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced with halogen atoms (F, Cl, Br, or I). Halomethanes are both naturally occurring, especially in marine environments, and human-made, most notably as refrigerants, solvents, propellants, and fumigants. (wikipedia.org)
- The physical properties of halomethanes depend on the number and identity of the halogen atoms in the compound. (wikipedia.org)
- The first digit specifies the number of carbon atoms in the molecule, the second is the number of fluorine atoms, the third is the chlorine atoms, and the fourth is the number of bromine atoms. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, consider Halon 1211: C F Cl Br 1 2 1 1 Halon 1211 has one carbon atom, two fluorine atoms, one chlorine atom and one bromine atom. (wikipedia.org)
- The structure is like propene, but in this compound, 3 hydrogen atoms are changed into chlorine atoms. (wikipedia.org)
- The structure has a propane skeleton, but four of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by chlorine atoms. (wikipedia.org)
- In PCBs, some of the hydrogen atoms in biphenyl are replaced by chlorine atoms. (wikipedia.org)
- There are 209 different chemical compounds in which one to ten chlorine atoms can replace hydrogen atoms. (wikipedia.org)
- Noncoplanar Noncoplanar PCBs, with chlorine atoms at the ortho positions can cause neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects, but only at concentrations much higher than those normally associated with dioxins. (wikipedia.org)
- In the case of dichlorodimethylsilane, two chlorine atoms are available, so that a reaction with excess water produces a linear chain of ether-like linkages between silicon atoms. (wikipedia.org)
- Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen atoms, with the molecular formula KClO3. (wikipedia.org)
- Dichlorophenols (DCPs) are any of several chemical compounds which are derivatives of phenol containing two chlorine atoms. (wikipedia.org)
- The bond angle is slightly larger than normal, likely due to steric repulsion between the bulky chlorine atoms. (wikipedia.org)
- 2UCl4 + H2 → 2UCl3 + 2HCl In solid uranium(III) chloride each uranium atom has nine chlorine atoms as near neighbours, at approximately the same distance, in a tricapped trigonal prismatic configuration. (wikipedia.org)
- There are 75 PCDD congeners, differing in the number and location of chlorine atoms, and seven of them are especially toxic, the most dangerous being 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), or furans. (wikipedia.org)
- Known collectively by a term derived from a Greek word meaning "salt-producing," the halogen family consists of five elements: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. (encyclopedia.com)
- Fluorine and chlorine are gases, iodine is a solid, and bromine is one of only two elements that exists at room temperature as a liquid. (encyclopedia.com)
- Chlorine is highly reactive, ranking only below fluorine in its chemical activity. (encyclopedia.com)
- In the periodic table , chlorine is located in group 17 (former group 7A), the halogen family, between fluorine and bromine . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Under suitable conditions, it combines with other halogens- fluorine , bromine , and iodine -to form "interhalogen" compounds such as ClF, ClF 3 , ClF 5 , ClBr, and ICl. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - Chemical compounds containing chlorine, fluorine and carbon. (encyclopedia.com)
- The more electronegative of the reactive nonmetals, such as oxygen and fluorine, are characterised by stronger nonmetallic properties and a tendency to form predominantly ionic compounds with metals. (wikipedia.org)
- All combinations of fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine that have the above-mentioned general formula are known, but not all are stable. (wikipedia.org)
- It is made by reacting chlorine with an excess of fluorine at 250 °C in a nickel tube. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, it adds fluorine and chlorine to the carbon of carbon monoxide: CO + ClF → Chlorine fluorides Otto Ruff, E. Ascher (1928). (wikipedia.org)
- A chlorine fluoride is an interhalogen compound containing only chlorine and fluorine. (wikipedia.org)
- Compounds containing fluorine, chlorine, bromine and methyl groups were reported to be more potent than methylphenidate. (wikipedia.org)
- Fluorine and chlorine are more electrophilic and are more aggressive halogenating agents. (wikipedia.org)
- Bromine is a weaker halogenating agent than both fluorine and chlorine, while iodine is the least reactive of them all. (wikipedia.org)
- Many commercially important organic compounds are fluorinated electrochemically using hydrogen fluoride as the source of fluorine. (wikipedia.org)
- The procedure measures chlorine, bromine, and iodine as equivalent halogens, but does not measure fluorine levels in the sample. (wikipedia.org)
- Silicon tetrachloride is prepared by the chlorination of various silicon compounds such as ferrosilicon , silicon carbide , or mixtures of silicon dioxide and carbon. (wikipedia.org)
- PROCESS FOR PRODUCING AQUEOUS CHLOROUS ACID SOLUTION FOR USE AS DISINFECTANT - A process for producing aqueous chlorous acid solution in which chlorous acid, which is safe for the human body, is easy to handle, and less generates chlorine dioxide, is yielded and used as a disinfectant for a pretreatment in food processing. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- This public health statement tells you about chlorine dioxide and chlorite and the effects of exposure to them. (cdc.gov)
- Chlorine dioxide and chlorite have not been found in any of the 1,647 current or former NPL sites. (cdc.gov)
- Although the total number of NPL sites evaluated for these substances is not known, the possibility exists that chlorine dioxide and chlorite may be found in the future as more sites are evaluated. (cdc.gov)
- If you are exposed to chlorine dioxide or chlorite, many factors will determine whether you will be harmed. (cdc.gov)
- Chlorine dioxide is a yellow to reddish-yellow gas that can decompose rapidly in air. (cdc.gov)
- Because it is a hazardous gas, chlorine dioxide is always made at the location where it is used. (cdc.gov)
- Chlorine dioxide is used as a bleach at pulp mills, which make paper and paper products, and in public water-treatment facilities, to make water safe for drinking. (cdc.gov)
- Chlorine dioxide is soluble in water and will react rapidly with other compounds. (cdc.gov)
- Because chlorine dioxide is very reactive, it is able to kill bacteria and microorganisms in water. (cdc.gov)
- 100,000 persons) in the United States use chlorine dioxide to treat drinking water. (cdc.gov)
- 12 million persons may be exposed in this way to chlorine dioxide and chlorite ions. (cdc.gov)
- In communities that use chlorine dioxide to treat drinking water, chlorine dioxide and its by- product, chlorite ions, may be present at low levels in tap water. (cdc.gov)
- More than 80% of all chlorite (present as sodium chlorite) is used to make chlorine dioxide to disinfect drinking water. (cdc.gov)
- Chlorine dioxide is a very reactive compound. (cdc.gov)
- In air, sunlight quickly breaks chlorine dioxide apart into chlorine gas and oxygen. (cdc.gov)
- Like chlorine dioxide, chlorite is very reactive. (cdc.gov)
- For additional information about what happens to chlorine dioxide and chlorite when they enter the environment, see Chapter 6. (cdc.gov)
- Chlorine dioxide is added to drinking water to protect people from harmful bacteria and other microorganisms. (cdc.gov)
- 1. PUBLIC HEALTH STATEMENT product, chlorite ions, when they drink water that has been treated with chlorine dioxide. (cdc.gov)
- The EPA has set the maximum concentration in the drinking water at 0.8 milligrams per liter (mg/L) for chlorine dioxide and 1.0 mg/L for chlorite ion. (cdc.gov)
- The concentrations of chlorine dioxide and chlorite ion in your drinking water, however, may be lower or higher than these levels. (cdc.gov)
- Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2. (wikipedia.org)
- One of the most important qualities of chlorine dioxide is its high water solubility, especially in cold water. (wikipedia.org)
- Chlorine dioxide is approximately 10 times more soluble in water than chlorine. (wikipedia.org)
- Chlorine dioxide is a compound that can decompose extremely violently when separated from diluting substances. (wikipedia.org)
- In the laboratory, ClO2 is prepared by oxidation of sodium chlorite: NaClO2 + ½ Cl2 → ClO2 + NaCl Chlorine dioxide can be prepared in laboratory by reaction of potassium chlorate with oxalic acid: KClO3 + H2C2O4 → ½ K2C2O4 + ClO2 + CO2 + H2O KClO3 + ½ H2C2O4 + H2SO4 → KHSO4 + ClO2 + CO2 + H2O Over 95% of the chlorine dioxide produced in the world today is made from sodium chlorate and is used for pulp bleaching. (wikipedia.org)
- A much smaller, but important, market for chlorine dioxide is for use as a disinfectant. (wikipedia.org)
- Since 1999 a growing proportion of the chlorine dioxide made globally for water treatment and other small-scale applications has been made using the chlorate, hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid method, which can produce a chlorine-free product at high efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
- It is produced by the photolysis of chlorine dioxide at room temperature with 436 nm ultraviolet light: 2 ClO2 → ClOClO3 Chlorine perchlorate can also be made the following reactions at −45 °C. CsClO4 + ClOSO2F → Cs(SO3)F + ClOClO3 Chlorine perchlorate is a pale greenish liquid which decomposes at room temperature. (wikipedia.org)
- Miracle Mineral Supplement, often referred to as Miracle Mineral Solution, Master Mineral Solution, MMS or the CD protocol, is chlorine dioxide, an industrial bleach. (wikipedia.org)
- This mixture produces chlorine dioxide, a potent industrial bleach and industrial water cleaner. (wikipedia.org)
- A more dilute version is marketed as Chlorine Dioxide Solution (CDS). (wikipedia.org)
- When citric acid or other food acid is used to "activate" MMS as described in its instructions, the mixture produces an aqueous solution containing chlorine dioxide, a toxin and a potent oxidizing agent used in the treatment of water and in bleaching. (wikipedia.org)
- The United States Environmental Protection Agency has set a maximum level of 0.8 mg/L for chlorine dioxide in drinking water. (wikipedia.org)
- Elemental chlorine free (ECF) is a technique that uses chlorine dioxide for the bleaching of wood pulp. (wikipedia.org)
- The chlorite ion, or chlorine dioxide anion, is ClO− 2. (wikipedia.org)
- First, the explosively unstable gas chlorine dioxide, ClO2 is produced by reducing sodium chlorate in a strong acid solution with a suitable reducing agent (for example, sodium chloride, sulfur dioxide, or hydrochloric acid). (wikipedia.org)
- Chlorine dioxide, ClO2 is an unstable gas with moderate solubility in water. (wikipedia.org)
- The reaction between chlorine and other elements can often be vigorous. (encyclopedia.com)
- The haloform reaction , using chlorine and sodium hydroxide , is also able to generate alkyl halides from methyl ketones, and related compounds. (wikipedia.org)
- The process is exothermic and proceeds as a chain reaction initiated by the homolytic cleavage of molecular chlorine into chlorine radicals by ultraviolet radiation. (wikipedia.org)
- He showed that for each mole of chlorine introduced into a hydrocarbon, one mole of hydrogen chloride is formed and noted the light-sensitivity of this reaction. (wikipedia.org)
- Addition of chlorine to water gives both hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl): Cl2 + H2O ⇌ HClO + HCl Cl2 + 4 OH− ⇌ 2 ClO− + 2 H2O + 2 e− Cl2 + 2 e− ⇌ 2 Cl− When acids are added to aqueous salts of hypochlorous acid (such as sodium hypochlorite in commercial bleach solution), the resultant reaction is driven to the left, and chlorine gas is formed. (wikipedia.org)
- Their absence has been speculatively attributed to the extreme reactivity of such compounds, including the reaction of an initially formed fluoride with the walls of the glass container to form a non-volatile product. (wikipedia.org)
- The compound forms a clustering reaction with a methyl group (CH3). (wikipedia.org)
- Phosphorus trichloride is prepared industrially by the reaction of chlorine with a refluxing solution of white phosphorus in phosphorus trichloride, with continuous removal of PCl3 as it is formed (in order to avoid the formation of PCl5). (wikipedia.org)
- It was first prepared by fluorination of chlorine trifluoride at high temperatures and high pressures: ClF3 + F2 → ClF5 ClF + 2F2 → ClF5 Cl2 + 5F2 → 2ClF5 CsClF4 + F2 → CsF + ClF5 NiF2 catalyzes this reaction. (wikipedia.org)
- Industrially, phosgene is produced by passing purified carbon monoxide and chlorine gas through a bed of porous activated carbon, which serves as a catalyst: CO + Cl2 → COCl2 (ΔHrxn = −107.6 kJ/mol) The reaction is exothermic, therefore the reactor must be cooled. (wikipedia.org)
- Typically, the reaction is conducted between 50 and 150 °C. Above 200 °C, phosgene reverts to carbon monoxide and chlorine, Keq(300 K) = 0.05. (wikipedia.org)
- Chlorinolysis is a radical chain reaction that occurs when hydrocarbons are exposed to chlorine gas under pyrolytic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
- Thus, by adjusting these reaction conditions in the presence of chlorine gas, hexachlorobutadiene can be even further chlorinated to give tetrachloroethylene, hexachloroethane, octachlorobutene, and even decachlorobutane. (wikipedia.org)
- As disulfur dichloride is formed, the contents become a golden yellow liquid: S8 + 4 Cl2 → 4 S2Cl2 ΔH = −58.2 kJ/mol Excess chlorine produces sulfur dichloride which causes the liquid to become less yellow and more orange-red: S2Cl2 + Cl2 ↔ 2 SCl2 ΔH = −40.6 kJ/mol The reaction is reversible, and upon standing, SCl2 releases chlorine to revert to the disulfur dichloride. (wikipedia.org)
- Reaction of the anhydrous compound with sodium cyclopentadienide gives cobaltocene. (wikipedia.org)
- Reaction of 1-norbonyllithium with the CoCl2·THF in pentane produces the brown, thermally stable cobalt(IV) tetralkyl - a rare example of a stable transition metal/saturated alkane compound, different products are obtained in other solvents. (wikipedia.org)
- An illustrative reaction is the hydration of terminal alkynes to produce acetyl compounds. (wikipedia.org)
- When heated with water, the compound disporpotionates to metallic gold and gold(III) chloride in an autoredox reaction: 3 AuCl → 2 Au + AuCl3 Reaction with potassium bromide yields potassium auric bromide and potassium chloride with separation of metallic gold: 3 AuCl + 4 KBr → KAuBr4 + 2 Au + 3 KCl Gold(I) chloride may irritate the skin and eyes, damage kidney function, and reduce white blood cell counts. (wikipedia.org)
- Several pathways exist for the halogenation of organic compounds, including free radical halogenation, ketone halogenation, electrophilic halogenation, and halogen addition reaction. (wikipedia.org)
- Aromatic compounds are subject to electrophilic halogenation: RC6H5 + X2 → HX + RC6H4X In the Hunsdiecker reaction, from carboxylic acids are converted to the chain-shortened halide. (wikipedia.org)
- Present methods of the synthesis of bis(trifluoromethyl)peroxide involves the reaction of carbonyl fluoride and chlorine trifluoride at 0-300 °C. An example of this reaction is the reaction of carbonyl fluoride and chlorine trifluoride in the presence of akali metal fluorides or bifluorides at 100-250 °C. This example is quite insensitive to variations in temperature. (wikipedia.org)
- His doctoral advisor was James F. Norris, and the title of his thesis was Rates of reaction of certain organic chlorine compounds. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, compound 3 would be expected to simply form an enolate without CeCl3 being present, but in the presence of CeCl3 smooth alkylation occurs: It is reported that organolithiums work more effectively in this reaction than do Grignard reagents. (wikipedia.org)
- The halogens are all nonmetals, and tend to form salts with metals, as in the example of sodium chloride (NaCl), a bond between chlorine, a halogen, and the metal sodium. (encyclopedia.com)
- The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride (common salt), has been known since ancient times. (wikipedia.org)
- The most common compound of chlorine in seawater is sodium chloride. (encyclopedia.com)
- Common salt or table salt is the compound sodium chloride (NaCl). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Many sodium compounds are useful, such as sodium hydroxide (lye) for soapmaking, and sodium chloride for use as a deicing agent and a nutrient. (wikipedia.org)
- It does not contain chlorine, has both organic nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen. (cnqiya.com)
- HFCs do not contain chlorine and thus do not attack the ozone layer . (encyclopedia.com)
- HFCs have zero ODP because they do not contain chlorine. (epa.gov)
- Oxidizing bleaching agents that do not contain chlorine are usually based on peroxides such as hydrogen peroxide, sodium percarbonate, and sodium perborate. (wikipedia.org)
- Chlorine trifluoride is an interhalogen compound with the formula ClF 3 . (wikipedia.org)
- Most interhalogen compounds known are binary (composed of only two distinct elements). (wikipedia.org)
- No interhalogen compounds containing three or more different halogens are definitely known, although a few books claim that IFCl 2 and IF 2Cl have been obtained, and theoretical studies seem to indicate that some compounds in the series BrClF n are barely stable. (wikipedia.org)
- Chlorine monofluoride (ClF) is the lightest interhalogen compound. (wikipedia.org)
- It is the heaviest confirmed interhalogen compound. (wikipedia.org)
- Chlorine pentafluoride is an interhalogen compound with formula ClF5. (wikipedia.org)
- Phenolic compounds are known structural moieties of natural organic matter (NOM), and their reactivity is a key parameter for understanding the reactivity of NOM and the disinfection by-product formation during oxidative water treatment. (edu.au)
- Removal of precursors in the original water, removal of by-products, and change in the disinfection system with alternate disinfectant for chlorine are among the measures for decreasing chlorinated by-products at water purification plants, but the first one is employed as the basis method. (osti.gov)
- Why is my water provider switching from chlorine to chloramine disinfection? (cdc.gov)
- Chlorine is a highly effective method of disinfection. (cdc.gov)
- HClO and ClO- are oxidizers, and the primary disinfection agents of chlorine solutions. (wikipedia.org)
- In wastewater treatment, a disinfection step with chlorine, ultra-violet (UV) radiation or ozonation can be included as tertiary treatment to remove pathogens from wastewater, for example if it is to be reused to irrigate golf courses. (wikipedia.org)
- Solutions containing more than 500 ppm available chlorine are corrosive to some metals, alloys and many thermoplastics (such as acetal resin) and need to be thoroughly removed afterwards, so the bleach disinfection is sometimes followed by an ethanol disinfection. (wikipedia.org)
- Sanitation methods include a water filter to remove pollutants, disinfection to kill infectious microorganisms, swimmer hygiene to minimize the introduction of contaminants into pool water, and regular testing of pool water, including chlorine and pH levels. (wikipedia.org)
- Atmospheric chemistry of chlorine and sulfur compounds proceedings of a symposium held at the Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, November 4-6, 1957. (worldcat.org)
- I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/646956701 Title: Atmospheric chemistry of chlorine and sulfur compounds proceedings of a symposium held at the Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, November 4-6, 1957. (worldcat.org)
- Atmospheric chemistry of chlorine and sulfur compounds. (worldcat.org)
- The less electronegative of them, such as carbon and sulfur, mostly have weak to moderately strong nonmetallic properties and tend to form covalent compounds with metals. (wikipedia.org)
- Water and sulfur and chlorine-containing substances, among other ingredients, showed up in samples Curiosity's arm delivered to an analytical laboratory inside the rover. (nasa.gov)
- Most aggregates contained primarily silver, although some also contained chlorine and sulfur. (cdc.gov)
- Some alternative names for this compound are sulfur monochloride (the name implied by its empirical formula, SCl), disulphur dichloride (British English Spelling) and sulphur monochloride (British English Spelling). (wikipedia.org)
- Where chlorination of inorganic compounds is practiced on a relatively large scale is for the production of phosphorus trichloride and sulfur monochloride. (wikipedia.org)
- Some chemicals in the soil contained sulfur and chlorine that were like typical compounds remaining after the evaporation of sea water. (wikipedia.org)
- PoCl2 is rapidly oxidised by hydrogen peroxide or chlorine water. (wikipedia.org)
- The first class mostly contains the peroxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals whereas the covalent peroxides are represented by such compounds as hydrogen peroxide and peroxymonosulfuric acid (H2SO5). (wikipedia.org)
- Nineteen years later Louis Jacques Thénard recognized that this compound could be used for the preparation of hydrogen peroxide. (wikipedia.org)
- This chlorine oxide is an asymmetric oxide, with one chlorine atom in oxidation state +1 and the other +7, with proper formula ClOClO 3 . (wikipedia.org)
- One chlorine atom can destroy up to 100,000 molecules of stratospheric ozone. (encyclopedia.com)
- The chlorite ion adopts a bent molecular geometry, due to the effects of the lone pairs on the chlorine atom, with an O-Cl-O bond angle of 111° and Cl-O bond lengths of 156 pm. (wikipedia.org)
- Because occupational diseases among cleaning personnel have been associated with use of several disinfectants (e.g., formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, and chlorine), precautions (e.g., gloves and proper ventilation) should be used to minimize exposure 318, 480, 481 . (cdc.gov)
- Alcohol and alcohol plus Quaternary ammonium cation based compounds comprise a class of proven surface sanitizers and disinfectants approved by the EPA and the Centers for Disease Control for use as a hospital grade disinfectant. (wikipedia.org)
- Chlorine base compounds, also known as chlorine-releasing compounds, are a family of chemicals that release chlorine. (wikipedia.org)
- Chlorine is used in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products, about two-thirds of them organic chemicals such as polyvinyl chloride , and many intermediates for the production of plastics and other end products which do not contain the element. (wikipedia.org)
- Chlorine ranks among the top 10 chemicals produced in the United States . (encyclopedia.com)
- Easily combining with other elements and molecules, chlorine is transformed into new classes of chemicals with an endless array of uses. (latimes.com)
- Though great strides have been made in reinventing some chemicals and products, most industries remain dependent on thousands of hazardous substances such as chlorine. (latimes.com)
- In the upper atmosphere , chlorine-containing organic molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons have been implicated in ozone depletion . (wikipedia.org)
- Because all three of these classes of compounds either destroy the stratospheric ozone layer essential to life on Earth or contribute to global warming , international agreements have been signed to eliminate their production and use by either the year 2000 (CFCs) or 2040 (HCFCs and HFCs). (encyclopedia.com)
- CFCs are degraded in the stratosphere by solar ultraviolet radiation , and this releases chlorine radicals that attack ozone molecules. (encyclopedia.com)
- Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer - An agreement signed by 43 countries in 1987, and amended and signed by 90 nations in 1990, to eliminate the production and use of compounds that destroy the ozone layer. (encyclopedia.com)
- ODS A compound that contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion. (epa.gov)
- Their website says 'ozone is used as the primary sterilization agent and chlorine the secondary sterilization agent for all indoor pools. (reddit.com)
- VSLS emissions are constant in time, the impact on stratospheric ozone is larger in the more recent decades with enhanced chlorine loading, due to combined bromine-chlorine catalytic ozone loss cycles. (wikipedia.org)
- CLAES was a spectrometer that determined the concentrations and distributions of nitrogen and chlorine compounds, ozone, water vapor and methane. (wikipedia.org)
- His work helped demonstrate the link between chlorine-containing and bromine-containing compounds on the destruction of ozone over the Arctic and Antarctic. (wikipedia.org)
- This means that the hydrated form cannot act as a Lewis acid since it cannot accept electron pairs, and thus this cannot be used as a catalyst in Friedel-Crafts alkylation of aromatic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
- 2 HOCl ⇌ Cl2O + H2O K (0 °C) = 3.55x10−3 dm3/mol Despite this, it has been suggested that dichlorine monoxide may be the active species in the reactions of HOCl with olefins and aromatic compounds, as well as in the chlorination of drinking water. (wikipedia.org)
- It has been suggested that dichlorine monoxide may be the active species in the reactions of HOCl with olefins and aromatic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
- Although triazines are aromatic compounds, their resonance energy is much lower than in benzene. (wikipedia.org)
- In this study, species-specific and/or apparent second order rate constants and mechanisms for the reactions of bromine and chlorine have been determined for various phenolic compounds (phenol, resorcinol, catechol, hydroquinone, phloroglucinol, bisphenol A, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, hesperetin and tannic acid) and flavone. (edu.au)
- Since chlorite is an ionic compound, it will exist primarily in water. (cdc.gov)
- In ionic compounds, lithium loses an electron to become positively charged, forming the cation Li+. (wikipedia.org)
- In ionic compounds, beryllium loses its two valence electrons to form the cation, Be2+. (wikipedia.org)
- Metal peroxides are metal-containing compound with ionic or covalently bonded peroxide (O22−) groups. (wikipedia.org)
- This large family of compounds can be divided into ionic and covalent peroxide. (wikipedia.org)
- Many obstacles, including insufficient investment and lack of training, keep chemists from embracing green chemistry and designing safer substitutes for the vast majority of compounds in use today. (latimes.com)
- The marvelous variety and infinite subtlety of the non-metallic elements, their compounds, structures and reactions, is not sufficiently acknowledged in the current teaching of chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
- The chemistry of these compound is complicated with only a few having been well characterized. (wikipedia.org)
- Although novel ways to produce these compound exist, background stems from arecoline chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
- Kozikowski made some phenylpiperidine based bridged/fused analogs of Paxil, but with differing choice of halogen in: U.S. Patent 6,150,376 This shows us the special relationship between the two compounds that they share & CNS chemistry in general. (wikipedia.org)
- Examining organic compounds, the relative intensity of the molecular ion peak diminishes with branching and with increasing mass in a homologous series. (wikipedia.org)
- This is validated by the Lipinski's rule of five: The molecular weight of the compound is less than 500 Da (170 Da). (wikipedia.org)
- Dichlorine monoxide, is an inorganic compound with the molecular formula Cl2O. (wikipedia.org)
- Page 275 - Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium ' Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium H He Li Be B C N 0 F Ne Na Mg. (google.com)
- To disinfect the water following a diarrheal incident, aquatic staff should hyperchlorinate, or raise the free chlorine concentration to a high concentration for a long period of time. (cdc.gov)
- Do not allow anyone to enter concentration of free chlorine in parts per million the venue(s) until the hyperchlorination process is (ppm) multiplied by time in minutes at a specific completed. (cdc.gov)
- Use the formula below to calculate the time diarrhea and the free chlorine concentration and pH at required to inactivate or kill Crypto6 the time or observation of the event. (cdc.gov)
- We describe the fatal case of the worker whose clinical course was consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) following exposure to high concentrations of chlorine gas. (cdc.gov)
- Although HCBD is a potent herbicide, in recent years, this particular application has been discouraged due to the high toxicity of the compound at low concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
- No evidence has been reported for acute toxicity or carcinogenicity of phthalocyanine compounds. (wikipedia.org)
- In general, increasing the number of chlorine substituents on a compound increases its toxicity but decreases its combustibility. (wikipedia.org)
- Dysprosium compounds are believed to be of low to moderate toxicity, although their toxicity has not been investigated in detail. (wikipedia.org)
- This simple compound is not persistent and has no PCDD-like toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
- A mixture of PCBs such as Aroclor may contain PCB compounds which are known estrogen agonists, but on the other hand are not classified as dioxin-like in terms of toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
- Nonmetals form many more compounds than metals. (wikipedia.org)
- Chlorinated compounds used to remove oil from metals, such as automotive brake cleaners, are converted to phosgene by the UV rays of arc welding processes. (wikipedia.org)
- Chlorine monofluoride is a versatile fluorinating agent, converting metals and non-metals to their fluorides and releasing Cl2 in the process. (wikipedia.org)
- Inorganic compounds such as metals also undergo halogenation. (wikipedia.org)
- The law of definite proportions refers to the fixed composition of any compound formed between element A and element B. The law of multiple proportions describes the stoichiometric relationship between two or more different compounds formed between element A and element B. The law of reciprocal proportions was proposed in essence by Richter, following his determination of neutralisation ratios of metals with acids. (wikipedia.org)
- Additionally, the experiment on decomposing the organic chlorine substances contained in the model was conducted by utilizing Effective Microorganisms.This model was incubated at 37 degrees C. for seven days to activate the microorganisms. (teraganix.com)
- Authors have obtained the predicted result about disassembly of the organic chlorine Compounds in soil by using Effective Microorganisms (the authorized material for organic farming in Japan, product name as EM) which are the material developed for agriculture1). (teraganix.com)
- In addition, the co-occurrence and potential interdependency of catabolic and anabolic transformations of natural and synthetic chlorine compounds are discussed for selected microorganisms and particular ecosystems. (uminho.pt)
- Surface and floor cleaning and stripping tasks were predominated by housekeepers and floor strippers/waxers, and use of chlorine -, alcohol-, ethanolamine-, and quaternary ammonium compounds-based products was associated with exposures to chloroform, alpha-pinene, acetone, 2-propanol, or d-limonene. (cdc.gov)