A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.
Porphyrins with four methyl, two ethyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.
Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.
Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)
A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.
An enzyme that catalyzes the chlorination of a range of organic molecules, forming stable carbon-chloride bonds. EC
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
The extraction and recovery of usable or valuable material from scrap or other discarded materials. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Coloring matter from the insect Coccus cacti L. It is used in foods, pharmaceuticals, toiletries, etc., as a dye, and also has use as a microscopic stain and biological marker.
A plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that provides the familiar walnut.
Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.

Decolorization and detoxification of extraction-stage effluent from chlorine bleaching of kraft pulp by Rhizopus oryzae. (1/1030)

Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycete, was found to decolorize, dechlorinate, and detoxify bleach plant effluent at lower cosubstrate concentrations than the basidiomycetes previously investigated. With glucose at 1 g/liter, this fungus removed 92 to 95% of the color, 50% of the chemical oxygen demand, 72% of the adsorbable organic halide, and 37% of the extractable organic halide in 24 h at temperatures of 25 to 45 degrees C and a pH of 3 to 5. Even without added cosubstrate the fungus removed up to 78% of the color. Monomeric chlorinated aromatic compounds were removed almost completely, and toxicity to zebra fish was eliminated. The fungal mycelium could be immobilized in polyurethane foam and used repeatedly to treat batches of effluent. The residue after treatment was not further improved by exposure to fresh R. oryzae mycelium.  (+info)

Analysis of zinc binding sites in protein crystal structures. (2/1030)

The geometrical properties of zinc binding sites in a dataset of high quality protein crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank have been examined to identify important differences between zinc sites that are directly involved in catalysis and those that play a structural role. Coordination angles in the zinc primary coordination sphere are compared with ideal values for each coordination geometry, and zinc coordination distances are compared with those in small zinc complexes from the Cambridge Structural Database as a guide of expected trends. We find that distances and angles in the primary coordination sphere are in general close to the expected (or ideal) values. Deviations occur primarily for oxygen coordinating atoms and are found to be mainly due to H-bonding of the oxygen coordinating ligand to protein residues, bidentate binding arrangements, and multi-zinc sites. We find that H-bonding of oxygen containing residues (or water) to zinc bound histidines is almost universal in our dataset and defines the elec-His-Zn motif. Analysis of the stereochemistry shows that carboxyl elec-His-Zn motifs are geometrically rigid, while water elec-His-Zn motifs show the most geometrical variation. As catalytic motifs have a higher proportion of carboxyl elec atoms than structural motifs, they provide a more rigid framework for zinc binding. This is understood biologically, as a small distortion in the zinc position in an enzyme can have serious consequences on the enzymatic reaction. We also analyze the sequence pattern of the zinc ligands and residues that provide elecs, and identify conserved hydrophobic residues in the endopeptidases that also appear to contribute to stabilizing the catalytic zinc site. A zinc binding template in protein crystal structures is derived from these observations.  (+info)

Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor: identification of a gene cluster required for the rugose colony type, exopolysaccharide production, chlorine resistance, and biofilm formation. (3/1030)

The rugose colony variant of Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, is shown to produce an exopolysaccharide, EPSETr, that confers chlorine resistance and biofilm-forming capacity. EPSETr production requires a chromosomal locus, vps, that contains sequences homologous to carbohydrate biosynthesis genes of other bacterial species. Mutations within this locus yield chlorine-sensitive, smooth colony variants that are biofilm deficient. The biofilm-forming properties of EPSETr may enable the survival of V. cholerae O1 within environmental aquatic habitats between outbreaks of human disease.  (+info)

Investigation of two evolutionarily unrelated halocarboxylic acid dehalogenase gene families. (4/1030)

Dehalogenases are key enzymes in the metabolism of halo-organic compounds. This paper describes a systematic approach to the isolation and molecular analysis of two families of bacterial alpha-halocarboxylic acid (alphaHA) dehalogenase genes, called group I and group II deh genes. The two families are evolutionarily unrelated and together represent almost all of the alphaHA deh genes described to date. We report the design and evaluation of degenerate PCR primer pairs for the separate amplification and isolation of group I and II deh genes. Amino acid sequences derived from 10 of 11 group I deh partial gene products of new and previously reported bacterial isolates showed conservation of five residues previously identified as essential for activity. The exception, DehD from a Rhizobium sp., had only two of these five residues. Group II deh gene sequences were amplified from 54 newly isolated strains, and seven of these sequences were cloned and fully characterized. Group II dehalogenases were stereoselective, dechlorinating L- but not D-2-chloropropionic acid, and derived amino acid sequences for all of the genes except dehII degrees P11 showed conservation of previously identified essential residues. Molecular analysis of the two deh families highlighted four subdivisions in each, which were supported by high bootstrap values in phylogenetic trees and by enzyme structure-function considerations. Group I deh genes included two putative cryptic or silent genes, dehI degrees PP3 and dehI degrees 17a, produced by different organisms. Group II deh genes included two cryptic genes and an active gene, dehIIPP3, that can be switched off and on. All alphaHA-degrading bacteria so far described were Proteobacteria, a result that may be explained by limitations either in the host range for deh genes or in isolation methods.  (+info)

Chlorine inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7. (5/1030)

We analyzed isolates of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (which has recently caused waterborne outbreaks) and wild-type E. coli to determine their sensitivity to chlorination. Both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains were significantly reduced within 1 minute of exposure to free chlorine. Results indicate that chlorine levels typically maintained in water systems are sufficient to inactivate these organisms.  (+info)

Longitudinal distribution of chlorine absorption in human airways: comparison of nasal and oral quiet breathing. (6/1030)

The fraction of an inspired chlorine (Cl2) bolus absorbed during a single breath (Lambda) was measured as a function of bolus penetration (VP) into the respiratory system of five male and five female nonsmokers during both nasal and oral breathing at a quiet respiratory flow of 250 ml/s. The correspondence between VP and specific anatomic landmarks was found for each subject by a combination of acoustic reflection and nitrogen washout measurements. For both nasal and oral breathing, Lambda reached approximately 0. 95 at the distal end of the upper airways and reached 1.00 within the lower conducting airways. The values of a regional mass transfer parameter computed from the Lambda-VP data indicated that the resistance to Cl2 diffusion in the airway mucosa was negligible compared with the diffusion resistance in the respired gas. Changing the peak inhaled Cl2 concentration from 0.5 to 3.0 parts/million did not significantly affect the distribution of Cl2 absorption, suggesting that the underlying mass transport and chemical reaction processes were linear with respect to Cl2 concentration.  (+info)

Development and testing of a microbiological assay to detect residual effects of disinfectant on hard surfaces. (7/1030)

We describe a glucuronidase bioassay for detecting residual bactericidal activity from the use of disinfectants on hard surfaces; in this assay we used formaldehyde, ethanol, isopropanol, chlorine, and a commercial preparation containing 2-bromo-2-nitro-1, 3-propanediol. Chlorine and the commercial preparation showed bactericidal activity (53.5% and 98.2%, respectively) for a week after disinfection.  (+info)

Chlorine disinfection of recreational water for Cryptosporidium parvum. (8/1030)

We examined the effects of chlorine on oocyst viability, under the conditions of controlled pH and elevated calcium concentrations required for most community swimming pools. We found that fecal material may alter the Ct values (chlorine concentration in mg/L, multiplied by time in minutes) needed to disinfect swimming pools or other recreational water for Cryptosporidium parvum.  (+info)

2015 by the American Thoracic Society. Autopsy specimens from human victims or experimental animals that die due to acute chlorine gas exposure present features of cardiovascular pathology. We demonstrate acute chlorine inhalation-induced reduction in heart rate and oxygen saturation in rats. Chlorine inhalation elevated chlorine reactants, such as chlorotyrosine and chloramine, in blood plasma. Using heart tissue and primary cardiomyocytes, we demonstrated that acute highconcentration chlorine exposure in vivo (500 ppm for 30 min) caused decreased total ATP content and loss of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) activity. Loss of SERCA activity was attributed to chlorination of tyrosine residues and oxidation of an important cysteine residue, cysteine-674, in SERCA, as demonstrated by immunoblots and mass spectrometry. Using cardiomyocytes, we found that chlorine-induced cell death and damage to SERCA could be decreased by thiocyanate, an important biological antioxidant, and by ...
Read chapter Case Study 10: Chronic Reactive Airway Disease Following Acute Chlorine Gas Exposure in an Asymptomatic Atopic Patient: People are increasing...
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The Town of Newmarket is currently NOT using a free chlorine disinfection method. Free Chlorine disinfection is one of the Ministry of the Environment and Climate Changes (MOECC) approved methods for drinking water disinfection in Ontario and is one of the most widely used processes across North America.. Usually, Newmarket uses chloramine to provide a longer lasting disinfectant in the Towns water supply. However, when needed, the Town of Newmarket in conjunction with York Region, temporarily switches to a free chlorine method. The website will always have the latest information regarding the current drinking water disinfection in place. Those affected will receive hand delivered notices. Free Chlorine is a stronger disinfectant than Chloramine, and it will be used for enhanced maintenance of the water distribution systems to maintain Newmarkets high standard of water quality.. For more information, please read the Free Chlorine FAQ or contact our Customer Service at 905-895-5193. ...
How to measure chlorine levels of 15-20 ppm for shocking ...- Supplier of PPM chlorine bleach ,May 30, 2015·I have a healthy crop of green algae in my 18,000 gallon plaster pool. I want to use bleach to shock. Ive measured the CYA at 50, which according to the TFP table requires a chlorine level of 20 ppm. My Taylor test kit only reads levels up 5 ppm. How do you measure higher levels of chlorine?Rationale and Considerations for Chlorine Use in Infection ...efficacy. Bleach may also damage surfaces and discolor materials, so it is a good idea to try using it in an inconspicuous area first, or check with the manufacturer of the surface you want to disinfect (such as medical equipment) if you are unsure if bleach should be used. Bleach Solution 5.25-6.15% sodium hypochlorite Dilution Chlorine (ppm ...
Chlorine is among one of the significant halogen compounds that has several uses. Sodium hypochlorite is called chlorine bleach and is used for water purification. Chlorine is also a part of sodium chloride, which is called table salt. Chlorine is very necessary for human life. Chlorine is considered the tenth substance that is abundantly present in the human body and the eleventh substance found abundantly on this planet. Chlorine is found to be helpful in saving many lives more than any other chemical as it is used as a disinfectant for most of the water supply in the United States as well as in other countries.. Chlorine is used in the synthesis of  most  pharmaceutical substances. The manufacture of almost all of the chemicals for crop protection is done by using chlorine. Chlorine is also found to be used in the synthesis of about 45 percent of commercial products.  The ocean, which is the result of the weathering of the continental lands, is the largest storehouse for salt. It has ...
TOPIC:. Combined chloramine residuals often mask themselves as false-positive phantom free chlorine residuals, while using the DPD free chlorine reagents and test method. A detailed breakpoint chlorine diagram will be used during this session to help visualize the pros and cons between using combined chloramine residuals or free chlorine disinfection methods. Chloramination treatment, disinfection byproduct formation, nitrification, and controlling chlorine taste/odor will be addressed in this session. Attendees will receive formulas and tools, to return to the job and calculate chlorine demand, optimize chlorine dosage rate, and limit byproduct formation. Bring your own DPD chlorine field test kit, copies of your raw/finished water quality reports, and a sample of your finished water to see first hand if you have phantom false-positive chlorine residuals and how to avoid them and then make treatment changes to improve water quality and consumer confidence.. ...
TOPIC:. Combined chloramine residuals often mask themselves as false-positive phantom free chlorine residuals, while using the DPD free chlorine reagents and test method. A detailed breakpoint chlorine diagram will be used during this session to help visualize the pros and cons between using combined chloramine residuals or free chlorine disinfection methods. Chloramination treatment, disinfection byproduct formation, nitrification, and controlling chlorine taste/odor will be addressed in this session. Attendees will receive formulas and tools, to return to the job and calculate chlorine demand, optimize chlorine dosage rate, and limit byproduct formation. Bring your own DPD chlorine field test kit, copies of your raw/finished water quality reports, and a sample of your finished water to see first hand if you have phantom false-positive chlorine residuals and how to avoid them and then make treatment changes to improve water quality and consumer confidence.. ...
Total chlorine is the remaining chlorine concentration after chlorine demand and is not available for disinfection the range for total chlorine was from 0.82±0.01 to 1.35±0.01mg/L with the significant difference (p,0.05) between these boreholes high the suitable concentration of total chlorine adopted by 19 is 5mg/L but with regards to all the samples analysed, the total chlorine concentration was within permissible range of WHO standard. However, the effect of heavily chlorinated water can lead to increased risk cancer as well as asthma and dermatitis and can also lead to bleeding gums 27. Free chlorine is the chlorine available for disinfection and for deactivating organisms. The concentration of free chlorine ranged from 0.71±0.01 to 1.2±0.01 with a high significant difference (p,0.05) observed in the different borehole water analysed however The 19 standard guideline value for free chlorine is given as 5mg/l and with due consideration to the permissible limit all the water sample ...
Swimmers may face adverse effects from exposure to chlorine read Go Chemless Info About The Long Term Effects of Chlorine on Swimmers...
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We have a vinyl liner pool with 35,000 gallons water. We have shocked the pool several times with as much as 13 bags of shock and have also used liquid chlorine but we cannot hold a chlorine level. All other numbers are perfect. We have an automatic chlorinator set at maximum too but still no chlorine level. Please help. Churchville, PA. Thanks ...
The dangers of chlorination were first documented in the 1950s. During the Korean civil war, soldiers who were given chlorine tablets for their canteens developed severe cardiovascular diseases. A lot of soldiers died because of heart disease within the next ten years.. While you can do your best to avoid areas exposed to chlorine, an effective way to neutralize the toxic chemical is with ascorbic acid or vitamin C, since it chemically destroys chlorine. (Related: 7 Reasons why you should start eating more blueberries.). The reverse is also true since chlorine can destroy vitamin C. Since both chemicals cancel each other out, consuming more vitamin C than chlorine is crucial to neutralizing the latter.. One gram (g) of vitamin C can neutralize 100 gallons (gal) of water with one part per million (PPM) of chlorine. Take note that one PPM is standard for U.S. drinking water, but it can legally go up to four PPM chlorine.. While the naked eye cannot see the neutralization effect, as it is ...
The Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority will temporarily substitute chlorine as the disinfecting agent in the drinking water treatment process in place of its regularly used chlorine/ammonia compound, known as chloramines, at the GBRA Port Lavaca Water Treatment Plant.. This action will begin on Monday and will last 21 days, after which the plant will resume the use of chloramines, Herb Wittliff, manager for Port Lavaca operations, stated in a news release.. Chlorine and chloramines are used as disinfecting agents for drinking water to safeguard finished water against bacteria that cause water-borne illnesses, Wittliff said. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality recommends periodically substituting chlorine alone to provide more stability to the disinfecting process and remove any excess ammonia that might have accumulated in distribution systems over time.. As part of the process, the three wholesale customers of GBRA - the City of Port Lavaca, the Calhoun County Rural Water System of GBRA ...
After the first day or two of seeing the chlorine dissipate nearly completely each day, pouring more in each night, I decided to try putting some of the 1 tablets in the pump rather then having to keep pouring chlorine in repeatedly. At first the three 1 tablets alone didnt seem to keep the chlorine level high enough so I added another three. At that point the chlorine level stayed up above 3PPM, maybe even going higher, I found/find it hard to read the OTO test thing, test strips said it was around 3PPM, but at times the OTO looked like it was at 5PPM. I started thinking I had put too many tablets in and had the chlorine level too high, so I started doing more research... Found this forum , which was indeed a good thing ...
HR-200RT is connected to a residual chlorine sensor (RA-30), which allows the free residual chlorine concentration to be measured with high accuracy. It is sutable for waterworks, pool water sterilization, and desalination systems. The measurement method is a three-pole polarographic method, which enables continuous monitoring of residual chlorine concentrations without using reagents ...
The Vaccuperm VGB-103 series by Grundfos Alldos is a vacuum chlorine gas dosing system for direct installation on a chlorine cylinder or a chlorine gas header line. Vaccuperm VGB-103 is available in 5 measuring ranges for maximum dosing flows of 4 kg/h chlorine.. ...
I just bought a case (4 gals) of Liquid Chlorine from Rural King for $10.00. The label reads as follows: Available Chlorine - 15%. Sodium Hypochlorite - 12.5%. Which description do I use when adding Chlorine to my pool? Is it 15% or the 12.5%. Second Question: The pool calculator lets me input the 15% reading up in the FC column, but it does not give me the 15% option down in the Effects of adding chemicals; thus, I am assuming that I should use the Available Chlorine option at the 12.5%
Free Chlorine High Range for water quality testing combines a wide range of detection with our patented Free Chlorine indicator. Designed to resist interference from monochloramines, Free Chlorine High Range is the ideal product when testing in a food processing environment. With its wide range of detection, from 0-120
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Platinum Health Supply Groups Range of Safe Guard Cleaning Chemicals offers affordable and comfortable protection in all environments. Safe Guard Premium Bleach 7% Chlorine is a powerful general-purpose disinfecting Bleach containing 7% available chlorine. Safe Guard Premium Bleach 7% Chlorine is a strong bleach solution that is commonly used as an all-purpose cleaner and sanitiser. Areas for use: Bleach in its purest form, a strong sanitiser for tough stains. Safe Guard Premium Bleach 7% Chlorine can be used in liquid feed laundry systems such as bleach, and stain remover for whites. Sodium Hypochlorite is used for the removal of stains from laundry, it is particularly effective on cotton fibre, cleans & disinfects large areas. Areas NOT* for use: Nylon Rayon Silk Wool Non-Colour fast articles Leather Silver Product Size: Safe Guard Premium Bleach 7% Chlorine 5 litre Safe Guard Premium Bleach 7% Chlorine 20 litre General Features: Superior Quality Bulk Refill packaging  Australian Made 
Agency: U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR). Technology: Chlorine-Resistant Membranes, a new polyamide (PA) membrane chemical formulation that can reduce water treatment costs.. Overview: Reverse osmosis (RO) polyamide membranes are used to desalinate and purify seawater, wastewater, and surface water. Chlorine is used in the reverse osmosis process to prevent biofouling of the membrane, but chlorine rapidly degrades polyamide membranes. A high-performance membrane that is resistant to chlorine degradation has long been sought by the desalination industry to simplify and lower the cost of operating desalting plants. This new chemical formation has the potential to be that solution because it is resistant to chlorine degradation.. Benefits: The technology could revolutionize the industry by increasing the life of membranes and reducing replacement costs for desalting plants. Existing RO treatment facilities could replace damaged membranes with chlorine-resistant PA membranes that would ...
Chlorines effective potency is an advantage as well. The first purpose is to kill any pathogenic bacteria in the raw water before it is released into the aquatic life. Eye irritation. Here is a list of disadvantages. So let us check it out some of the information one by one. When a large amount … 3. Chlorine gas reacts with organic compounds in the water to form chloramines. Wheezing. These compounds are toxic and can cause immediate irritation to the respiratory tract. Advantages and disadvantages of chlorine Advantages. Whats the difference between Koolaburra by UGG and UGG? How Dangerous Is The Chemical synthesized cyanogen Chloride? Free chlorine reacts with organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts. Giardia lamblia - Giardiasis is an infection of the digestive system caused by tiny parasites called Giardia intestinalis (also known as Giardia lamblia, or Giardia duodenalis). Therefore, chlorine loses its effectiveness with increasing pH levels (alkaline conditions). ...
To prevent scale formation, calcium hardness should be checked at least once a week. Further, when Calcium hardness is too low, i.e. the water is too soft, it can create a reaction called pH bounce which in turn, can affect the performance of chlorine. The ideal range of calcium hardness is 150 to 400 mg/L.. After examining the key chemicals for maintaining pool water balance and how they interact, you could conclude that chlorine is central to ensuring a healthy pool. We should now drill down and look closer at managing chlorine levels. Measuring Chlorine Measuring chlorine in a pool is a relatively easy task. Chlorine concentrations in the range of 1 to 3 ppm are used in both pools and spas. Since free chlorine is the primary disinfectant used for swimming pools, the choice of the best means of measuring free chlorine for your application is needed.. Test Strips Test strips are small strips, typically produced from plastic, with pads on the end that are chemically impregnated. These pads ...
The molar mass of chlorine gas is 70.90 g/mol. One molecule of chlorine gas is formed from two chlorine atoms and has the chemical formula...
Another name for Chlorine Inhalation is Irritant Inhalational Injury. Evaluation of an irritant inhalational injury begins with a history and physical ...
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We report a case of 25-year-old woman with severe tracheobronchial necrosis caused by chlorine released from a mixture household cleaning agents. She subsequently exposed benzene while she was fixing the seats with benzene containing gum. The case wa
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Okay,tested pH and free chlorine level. pH level was 7.6 and my Free Chlorine was 9.5 Is my FC too high? What is an acceptable level for FC?
This relatively new additive is marketed under the name Splenda®. Sucralose is basically denatured sucrose. Its preparation involves chlorinating sucrose, chemically changing the structure of the sugar molecules by substituting three chlorine atoms for three hydroxyl groups. Yes, you did read chlorinating, adding chlorine atoms. But isnt chlorine a known carcinogen, you ask? Why would the FDA allow toxic materials to be used in our food and beverages?. Yes, chlorine is a carcinogen. And to the other question, no one said just why the FDA approved it. You should know too that it was approved even with the pre-approval research revealed possible toxicity of the substance. ...
Article Sanitation Using Ozone & Chlorine. For nearly 100 years, ozone has been used all over the world for water sanitation. It is nature’s strongest oxidizer and has a byproduct of pure oxygen. Chlorine, on the other hand, is a very effective...
Tests for Free Chlorine, Total Chlorine, pH, Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Cyanuric Acid Free chlorine test range: 0 to 10Total chlorine test range: 0 to 10pH test range: 6.8 to 8.4Total hardness test range: 0 to 100Total alkalinity test range: 0 to 240Cyanuric Acid test range: 0 to 150 Packing: 50 pieces swimming
New Waters Cycler Pac 407C gives pool owners tired of constantly adding messy chlorine with a self-contained chlorine pack to manage their pools health, eliminating the need for hand feeding chlorine forever. Cycler Pac 105Cs design releases chlorine slowly and steadily to give you the optimal level of chlorine effic
Gene probes developed locally for both enteric Adenoviruses 40 and 41 were used to determine whether these viruses were present in both raw and treated waters. Approximately sixty water samples were concentrated by ultra filtration and analysed directly for the presence of enteric adenoviruses. Three pre-treatment techniques, namely sephadex columns, cellulose fibre and Geneclean(TM) were tested for the removal of inhibitory substances from concentrated water samples. The effect of chlorine treatment on viral detection using gene probe hybridization was also examined by exposing adenoviruses to chlorine concentrations of up to 20mg/l for 1 hour. Enteric adenoviruses were detected in up to 59% of both raw and treated waters analysed, Cellulose fibre and Geneclean(TM) were found to successfully remove inhibitory substances from concentrated raw waters. Viral I NA was detected after exposure to a range of chlorine concentrations indicating that the viruses detected in the treated waters may have ...
Make your own chlorine with common salt with SPPs Salt Chlorine Generator System. With a salt chlorine generator, never buy expensive chlorine again!
In reponse to recent emails, we will re-visit the topic of free chlorine versus combined chlorine and how they both relate to total chlorine: (Free Chlorine) +
Keep the pee, poop, sweat and dirt out of the water! the CDC urges.. Every swimmer should shower before entering the pool, never urinate or defecate in the pool, never swallow the water and anyone with diarrhea should stay out of the water.. Hourly breaks from the water are also suggested so that children have ample opportunity to use the restroom and so that parents can check diapers on younger kids and change them in a bathroom or diaper-changing area - not by the pool where germs can easily spread.. Finally, you can check the free chlorine level and pH before you get in the pool to make sure an error hasnt occurred. Pool testing strips can be purchased at most hardware stores, superstores and pool supply stores.. The proper free chlorine level of pools is 1-3 mg/L or parts per million (ppm), and the pH should be between 7.2-7.8 to maximize the chlorines ability to wipe out germs.. In hot tubs, the free chlorine level should be at 2-4 ppm, or if using bromine to disinfect instead, the free ...
These Blue Horizons chlorine tablets are designed to slowly erode over a period of 3-5 days, depending on the water flowing over them. As they release chlorine relatively slowly it may be necessary to shock dose or oxidise prior to their first establish some chlorine more rapidly. Ideal chlorine levels are between 1-3
The North Texas Municipal Water District (NTMWD) has scheduled a free chlorine maintenance that will be conducted on the NTMWD water transmission system and customer cities distribution systems for a 28-day period beginning Monday. As a member city, Richardson receives its water from NTMWD.. The free chlorine maintenance does not affect water quality, and water remains safe for use. Consumers who are sensitive to taste and odor changes in drinking water might notice a change during this period. This palatability change does not alter the quality of the drinking water.. Free chlorine maintenance allows water suppliers to maintain the disinfectant residual in their systems without flushing systems, thus conserving water. ...
The North Texas Municipal Water District (NTMWD) has scheduled a free chlorine maintenance that will be conducted on its water transmission system and customer cities distribution systems for a 28-day period from Feb. 17 to March 17. As a member city, Richardson receives its water from NTMWD.. The free chlorine maintenance does not affect water quality, and water remains safe for use. Consumers who are sensitive to taste and odor changes in drinking water might notice a change during this period. This palatability change does not alter the quality of the drinking water.. Free chlorine maintenance allows water suppliers to maintain the disinfectant residual in their systems without flushing systems, thus conserving water. ...
Chlorine gas is a very commonly used toxic gas that can be found in many applications: most commonly, water, wastewater, swimming pools, and the chemical industry. If you have chlorine gas at your facility, you may be required to have sensors in the area where the Cl2 gas is stored. To ensure that they are operating correctly, you must calibrate chlorine gas detectors periodically.. ...
The 8232 from Bürkert is an electrochemical sensor designed for the measurement of the free chlorine concentration generated from inorganic sources (chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite solution,...). Type 8232 offer a range of three models: • the
Bench-scale Cryptosporidium inactivation, pilot-scale disinfection by-product (DBP) formation and bench-scale inorganic DBP control experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide in meeting the current and future enhanced surface water treatment and disinfectant/disinfection by-product rules. A new chlorine dioxide generation process in which dilute, humidified chlorine gas is in contact with solid sodium chlorite was employed for this study. Chlorine dioxide was found to be effective in achieving CT values (pH=8 and temperature=20°C) of approximately 50 and 100 mg · min/l for 1-log and 2-log Cryptosporidium inactivation, respectively. Chlorine dioxide did not form significant amounts of trihalomethanes or haloacetic acids. Water spiked with high bromide concentrations resulted in insignificant amounts of organic DBPs after reaction with chlorine dioxide. Reaction of chlorine dioxide with water constituents resulted in the formation of chlorite and chlorate ions. ...
Sodium hypochlorite is the main ingredient in household bleach as well as in some of the pool sanitizers you use. Sodium hypochlorite Sodium hypochlorite is chlorine gas dissolved in sodium hydroxide. Sodium hypochlorite disintegrates when heated or if it contacts acids, sunlight, certain metals, and poisonous and corrosive gases, including chlorine gas. Calcium hypochlorite is another low-cost chlorine solution, but it comes with the same issues that liquid chlorine has with a pH of 12, requiring additional treatment. A gallon of sodium hypochlorite (containing 2.34 pounds of solids) will add 12 ppm of FAC (Free Available Chlorine) to 10,000 gallons of water and will increase the TDS by 28 ppm. 1.Sodium hypochlorite , commonly called liquid bleach, is commercially available in strengths approximately 15% by weight. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a solution made from reacting chlorine with a sodium hydroxide solution. Sodium hypochlorite, commonly referred to as Active chlorine released from ...
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We examined the effects of chlorine on oocyst viability, under the conditions of controlled pH and elevated calcium concentrations required for most community swimming pools. We found that fecal material may alter the Ct values (chlorine concentration in mg/L, multiplied by time in minutes) needed to disinfect swimming pools or other recreational water for Cryptosporidium parvum.
Source. Its very clear the rocket in the video is a match for the Iranian examples, with similar colouring and markings. A very interesting detail is the date of manufacture (2016), which can be clearly seen in this screenshot taken from the media office of Al-Marj video.. The design of the munition is close to that of improvised rocket assisted munitions (IRAMs) used by the Syrian military and documented since 2013, which also use 107mm rocket motors. A typical IRAM takes a conventional rocket and replaces the warhead with a much larger one, increasing the destructive power of the munitions while sacrificing range and accuracy. Whats significant about the IRAMs used in the above attack is instead of an explosive warhead, the warhead was reportedly filled with chlorine gas, the first document instance of this in the conflict. While there have been previous claims of chlorine rockets being used in Syria, this is the first time there has been visual evidence. Previous examples of chlorine gas ...
So you expect to do a lot of swimming this summer. You must know that a day of dipping into a chlorine pool can do some damage to your hair. Chlorine protects swimmers from harmful bacteria that can grow in swimming pools. However, if you soak too long in the water, it can take its toll on your skin and hair. Experts say you have to prepare your hair to save yourself from being sorry that you have ruined your locks. Here are some helpful tips.. Know your hair type. Some hair types are more prone to extreme dryness and tangling. Chlorine in water strips hair of their natural oils, leaving your hair dry and brittle. The curlier and tighter your hair pattern, the more dry and tangled it becomes due to chlorine. Thats because curls are naturally drier than straight or wavy hair.. Be ready before you jump in. Prepare your hair by putting on a rich conditioner or a leave-on conditioner and detangling your hair strands as hair absorbs chlorine. Also, chlorine can turn blonde hair into a greenish ...
0008] Although it would be desirable to be able to vaporize the liquid chlorine stream containing a high concentration of nitrogen trichloride from the chlorine scrubber to avoid the use of a decomposer and organic solvents or the use of other chemicals that generate waste streams that must be handled, the chlorine vaporizers currently used in industry have shortcomings in vaporizing such streams. Industrial chlorine vaporizers are generally non-horizontal units, such as vertical bayonet style units, or horizontal vaporizer units, such as kettle reboiler style units. For convenience in the following discussion, non-horizontal units with a positive slope are referred to as vertical units, meaning units with an angle from the horizontal from 0.1 to 90 degrees. These horizontal and vertical chlorine vaporizers can be of two types, namely: pool boiling vaporizers and plug-flow vaporizers. In a pool boiling vaporizer, such as a vertical bayonet or kettle reboiler style vaporizer, liquid chlorine is ...
The oxidation state of chlorine brine in in hypochlorous acid hypoc HCIO The oxidation state of chlorine in magnesium chloride MgCl2 The oxidation state of nitrogen In nitrous acid HNO2 Which of the following is a tribasic acid? d. \(\ce{SnCl3-}\) This will get oxygens oxidation number to ##-2##. Chlorine gas rapidly hydrolyzes to hypochlorous acid: Cl 2 + H 2O ÎHOCl + H+ + Cl- Aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hypochlorite hydrolyze : Ca(OCl) 2 + 2H 2O ÎCa2+ + 2HOCl + 2OH- NaOCl + H 2O ÎNa+ + HOCl + OH- The two chemical species formed by chlorine in water, In water treatment, hypochlorous acid is the active sanitizer in hypochlorite-based produ… e. H2CCH2 It has been suggested that the electrophile is the chloronium cation Cl + , rather than HClO, attacking at the nitrogen atom of the hydrazone form of an azo dye (329,574) . 96 . John Ware, Director of Envirolyte ECA UK Ltd, details how the Envirolyte disinfection product can aid in the fight against COVID-19. c. \(\ce{BF4-}\) Draw ...
China Chlorine Dioxide Stabilized for Agriculture Insecticides Pesticides Fungicides and Herbicide with High-Quality, Leading Chlorine Dioxide Stabilized for Agriculture Insecticides Pesticides Fungicides and Herbicide Manufacturers & Suppliers, find Chlorine Dioxide Stabilized for Agriculture Insecticides Pesticides Fungicides and Herbicide Factory & Exporters.
Water Works has begun ratcheting down the levels of chlorine in tap water, after more than a month of higher chlorine concentrations to combat high levels of coliform bacteria, a Water Works official said.
GF Piping Systems reagent-free Signet 4632 Chlorine Dioxide Analyzer System was built to augment the companys line of measurement and control products for disinfectant monitoring. The new system features amperometric sensing technology, a clear flow cell, flow regulator, sensors, filter, and variable-area flow indicator. The system is designed to provide a turnkey solution for accurately measuring residual chlorine dioxide levels up to 2 ppm/mg/l in water treatment applications. Typical uses include water distribution, cooling towers, fruit and vegetable washing, hospital/healthcare facilities, wastewater odor control, food and beverage processing, and UPW treatment.. ...
Introduction. Aims: Deduce the concentration of a saturated solution of chlorine In order to determine the concentration of aqueous chlorine one must firstly reduce the chlorine to its ions, using a reducing agent, in this case Fe(II). I will be using FeCl2 powder for a source of Fe2+. 2FeCl2 (2) + Cl2(aq) --, 2FeCl3 (aq) [ EQUATION 1] 2Fe2+ (aq) + Cl2 (aq) --, 2Fe3+ (aq) + 2Cl-(aq) 2 : 1 ratio Now if one can calculate the amount of reducing agent left over, it will be possible to calculate the initial Cl2 solution concentration. It is possible to do this by titration of the Fe2+ with Potassium Manganate. [ EQUATION 2] MnO4- (aq) + 5Fe2+(aq) +8H+(aq) --, Mn2+ (aq) + 5Fe3+(aq) + 4H2O(l) 1 : 5 ratio Acidic conditions are necessary, because in neutral or alkaline conditions Potassium Manganate is reduced no farther than Mn+4 and a source of H+ is also needed. Sulphuric acid is a good source of H+, and the SO4-2 ions are not reactive. Hydrochloric acid would react with the KMnO4, and chlorine gas ...
The kinetics, products, and reaction pathways of triclosan/free chlorine reactions were investigated for the pH range 3.5-11. Although pH dependent speciation occurs in both triclosan and free chlorine, only the reaction between HOCl and the phenolate-triclosan was found to play a significant role in the kinetics. The second order rate constant for the reaction between phenolate-triclosan and HOCl was found to be 5.40 (±1.82) à 103 M-1s-1. Three chlorinated triclosan intermediates were tentatively identified based on mass spectral analysis. Additionally, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and chloroform formed under excess free chlorine conditions. The majority of the chloroform formed during the reactions does not form via 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol oxidation. Therefore, the majority of chloroform is likely formed via the oxidation of triclosanâ s phenolic ring. Based on the identified products, a reaction pathway was proposed for the oxidation of triclosan in the ...
Salt-water chlorine generation vs other sanitation methods Salty water has a softening effect, just like treated with water softener, so hair and skin feels
Hello Hveragerthi, In the presence of UV light, chlorine dioxide breaks down to chlorine and oxygen. This does not take place in closed loop systems. The reason THM s are formed in the cooling systems of power plants is that the water is cooled in cooling towers that expose the chlorine dioxide in the water to UV light. This breaks down the chlorine dioxide to chlorine and oxygen, and the chlorine reaction forms THM s. It is significant that the EPA limit for THM concentration is 80 PPB. You will notice that chlorine, at 1 PPM produces around 65 PPB, whereas chlorine dioxide, a ...
Ann Arbors Water Treatment Plant uses ozone as the primary disinfectant and chloramines as a secondary disinfectant. Chloramines or combined chlorine is a compound made up of chlorine and ammonia. These disinfectants are used as an alternative to chlorine treatment because they have fewer by-products, and are a longer lasting disinfectant than free chlorine. In addition, chloramines have less taste and odor than chlorine, and ozone is odorless. Ozone disinfection kills pathogens, improves water taste and reduces odors commonly detected in tap water.. ​ ...
Chlorine dioxide and chlorite are characterized together for toxicity to reproduction because studies conducted with chlorite, the predominant degradation product of chlorine dioxide, are likely relevant to characterizing the toxicity of chlorine dioxide. In addition, studies conducted with chlorine dioxide may be relevant to characterizing the toxicity of chlorite. Chlorine dioxide is fairly unstable and rapidly dissociates, predominantly into chlorite and chloride, and to a lesser extent, chlorate. There is a ready interconversion among these species in water (before administration to animals) and in the gut (after ingestion). Therefore, what exists in water or the stomach is a mixture of these chemical species (i.e., chlorine dioxide, chlorite, chlorate) and possibly their reaction products with the gastrointestinal contents. Key study: Experimental results: The test procedure was: EPA OPP 83-3 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study). Oral administration of sodium chlorite during ...
Find chlorine from water removal (chlorine dioxide dosing - water and wastewater) articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
The ability of acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water (AEO) and neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEO) to inactivate the murine norovirus (MNV-1) surrogate for human norovirus and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in suspension and on stainless steel coupons in the presence of organic matter was investigated. Viruses containing tryptone (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0) were mixed with AEO and NEO for 1 min. In addition, stainless steel coupons containing MNV-1 with or without organic matter were treated with AEO or NEO for 3, 5, and 10 min. AEO was proven effective and generally killed more MNV-1 and HAV in suspension than NEO. Depending on the EO water generator, free chlorine concentrations are required to inactivate MNV-1 and HAV by 3-log PFU/mL or greater ranged from 30 mg/L to 40 mg/L after a 1 min contact time. The virucidal effect increased with increasing free chlorine concentration and decreased with increasing tryptone concentration in suspension. Both AEO and NEO at 70100 mg/L of free ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Deformation of chlorin rings in the photosystem II crystal structure. AU - Saito, Keisuke. AU - Umena, Yasufumi. AU - Kawakami, Keisuke. AU - Shen, Jian Ren. AU - Kamiya, Nobuo. AU - Ishikita, Hiroshi. PY - 2012/5/29. Y1 - 2012/5/29. N2 - The crystal structure of Photosystem II (PSII) analyzed at a resolution of 1.9 Å revealed deformations of chlorin rings in the chlorophylls for the first time. We investigated the degrees of chlorin ring deformation and factors that contributed to them in the PSII crystal structure, using a normal-coordinate structural decomposition procedure. The out-of-plane distortion of the PD1 chlorin ring can be described predominantly by a large doming mode arising from the axial ligand, D1-His198, as well as the chlorophyll side chains and PSII protein environment. In contrast, the deformation of PD2 was caused by a saddling mode arising from the D2-Trp191 ring and the doming mode arising from D2-His197. Large ruffling modes, which were reported to ...
AquaRite Electronic Chlorine Generator ® AQR15 AQR9 AQR3 AQR15-120 AQR15-LL Hayward Pool Products 620 Division Street, Elizabeth NJ 07207 wwwardPeople also askDoes hayward aqua rite generate bromine?Does hayward aqua rite generate bromine?NOTE: Hayward does not recommend using the Aqua Rite to generate bromine. one of 3 different chlorinator cells that are available from your authorized Hayward dealer. cells are not included with the Aqua Rite and must be purchased before installation. appropriate cell based on the size of your pool.Reference: hayward-pool-assets/assets/documents/pools/pdf/manuals/aquariSee all results for this questionWhat is aqua rite in pools?What is aqua rite in pools?The Aqua Rite ® is an automatic chlorine generation system for pool or spa sanitation. requires a low concentration of salt (sodium chloride) in the pool water. that it normally will not be tasted. the salt into free chlorine which kills bacteria and algae in the pool.Reference: ...
It should be noted that chlorine dioxide to ingest is a completely new antiviral approach as it is an oxidant and can eliminate by combustion any subspecies or mutant variant of virus. Given the emergency situation in which we currently find ourselves with Covid-19, the oral use of ClO2 is proposed immediately through a protocol already known and used.. 2. Toxicity: The biggest problems that arise with medications in general are due to their toxicity and side effects. New studies demonstrate its viability. Although the toxicity of chlorine dioxide in case of massive inhalation is known, there is no clinically proven death even at high doses by oral ingestion. The lethal dose (LD50, acute toxicity ratio) is considered to be 292 mg per kilogram for 14 days, where its equivalent in a 50 kg adult would be 15,000 mg administered for two weeks of a gas dissolved in water (something almost impossible). The oral sub-toxic doses used are around 50 mg dissolved in 100 ml of water 10 times a day, which is ...
Chlorine dioxide eliminates harmful microorganisms through a process called oxidation. All microorganisms are made up organic molecules such as proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids. Oxidation can denature proteins and other organic molecules in the walls and inside microorganisms. When their protective walls are disrupted and their metabolic machinery jeopardized, deadly microorganisms die. Chlorine dioxide is a powerful oxidizing agent. The term microorganism is a broad one. It includes bacteria, viruses and fungi. Even the walls of tough bacterial spores are organic in nature, and thus susceptible to the action of chlorine dioxide. Microorganisms do not have the inherent ability to counter chlorine dioxides oxidative attack. This leads us to the good news: microorganisms cannot develop resistance to chlorine dioxide. Since microorganisms are what create odors, chlorine dioxide effectively and permanently eliminates the odor at its source.. ...
Metsä Fibre Oy, part of the Metsä Group, and AFRY have entered into a preliminary agreement for the engineering, project management and site services of the chlorine dioxide plant at the Kemi bioproduct mill in Finland. The project is a continuation of AFRYs previous basic design of the chlorine dioxide plant.
Combined Treatment of Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide, Organic Acid, and Blanching for Microbial Decontamination of Wild Vegetables after Harvest - wild vegetable;chlorine dioxide;organic acid;blanching;microbiological safety;
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Chlorine levels in swimming pools should fall between 1 ppm and 2 ppm. When potentially hazardous contaminants enter the pool water, the water will need more chlorine than usual for disinfecting the water. Chlorine levels as high as 20 ppm are necessary for thorough decontamination. These situations can include diarrheal contamination and cryptosporidium contamination. Swimmers should not use pools that have chlorine levels in excess of 5 ppm.. ...
In general, full brightness cannot be achieved in one bleaching stage, instead several consecutive stages must be used. Traditionally, bleaching has been done with chlorine-containing chemicals: with (elemental or gaseous) chlorine (C), hypochlorite (H) or with chlorine dioxide (D). Between stages, the dissolved lignin has been extracted with alkali. Typical traditional bleaching sequences were CEHDED and CEDED.. The principle was that the vast majority of the residual lignin was removed with the cheapest chemical i.e. chlorine, and only the final vestiges of lignin were removed with expensive chlorine dioxide.. When the transition was made to recycle bleach plant filtrates in order to reduce bleach plant wastewater effluent, the temperature of the chlorine stage began to rise, which had a detrimental effect on pulp strength. To prevent this, chlorine dioxide was added to the chlorine stage, i.e. the sequence used became (DC)EDED.. The pressurized reactor (EO) or pre-reactor (EO) have made it ...
Aquarium Water Conditioner - One Formula Does It All - Removes Ammonia, Nitrite, Chlorine, Chloramines & Heavy Metals - Adds Essential Electrolytes, Replaces Slime Coat - Reduces Stress. Can Be Used In Freshwater & Saltwater. Aquarium Water Conditioner This formulation is one of the most comprehensive water conditioners available. It is ideal for use in both saltwater and freshwater aquariums. Apply directly to new aquariums or immediately after water changes. The product will remove ammonia and chlorine, destroy chloramines, detoxifies nitrites and heavy metals (including copper), add essential electrolytes, replace skin slime coat and reduce stress.. * Removes Ammonia * Removes Chlorine. * Destroys Chloramines * Detoxifies Nitrite. * Detoxifies Heavy Metals (Including Copper) * Added Essential Electrolytes. * Replace Skin Slime Coat * Reduces Stress. MOST CONVENIENT WATER CONDITIONER - It instantly removes chloramine, removes ammonia, removes nitrite, destroys chloramines, detoxifies heavy ...
The aim of this study was to determine the combined effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water SAEW (pH range 5.06.5, oxidationreduction potential 6501000 mV, available chlorine concentration 1080 mg/L) containing 0, 15, and 30 ppm chlorine and 0, 50, and 100 min of ultrasound US (37 kHz, 380 W) using the central composite design (CCD) on the reductions of Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (initial value, approximately 67 log10 colony forming unit (CFU) of E. coli or V. parahaemolyticus/g) and the sensory properties on freshly sliced shad (Konosirus punctatus), in comparison with SAEW or US alone. Another aim was to develop the response surface model for E. coli and V. parahaemolyticus in the shad treated with the combination of SAEW and US. Single treatments with SAEW (chlorine 15 ppm), SAEW (chlorine 30 ppm), or US for 50 min caused a much-less-than-1-log10 reduction in the number of both E. coli and V. parahaemolyticus in the shad. In contrast, the combination of SAEW (15 or 30 ...
This study describes the use of alkaline fusion by sodium peroxide to dissolve chlorine and bromine in rocks to produce a solution which, with appropriate pre-treatment, is suitable for analysis by ion chromatography. Results are given for a selection of sedimentary and igneous rocks. The accuracy of the fusion method is evaluated by analysis of Geological Survey of Japan reference materials. Additionally, a spike recovery rest is performed to show that the fusion process is quantitative for chlorine and bromine. The results for chlorine are in the range 58-3860 mg kg(-1) and show good agreement both with results obtained by pyrohydrolysis with flow injection colorimetric detection and results obtained by aqueous leaching of the samples with ion chromatography detection. Results for bromine are in the range ,3-4.5 mg kg(-1). Because of the relatively few data obtained in this study and the relative paucity of published data for reference materials, an assessment of the accuracy of the fusion ...
Bacterial growth in potable water distribution systems was studied in a pilot reactor system designed to model the plug flow characteristics in a water main. Experiments were performed to measure specific cellular growth rates and numbers of cells growing on the pipe walls (biofilm cells) and cells suspended in the water phase (planktonic cells) to determine the relative contribution of biofilm accumulation to the bacterial populations in distribution mains. The experiments were performed with chlorine-free water at a water treatment plant as well as with disinfectant (chlorine) added to the reactor influent to examine the effect of chlorine on biofilm accumulation and planktonic cell numbers. The results indicate that biofilm growth and detachment accounted for most, if not all, the planktonic cells present in the bulk water of a chlorine free system. Chlorine affects the accumulation and spatial distribution of the biofilm ...
Equations (9) to (18) can be used (with the aid of a simple, iterative computer program) to solve for (DGH), (DGC), (DGCl) and (DGBr). However, it is clear that equations (9) to (11) can be replaced by a general equation for the chlorine substituted methanes, likewise equations (12) to (14) can be replaced by a general equation for the bromine substituted methanes and equations (15) to (17) can be replaced by a general equation for the chlorine substituted bromomethanes. Similarly, equations (15) and (18) are members of the bromine substituted monochloromethanes.. Thus, the general equation for the chlorine substituted methanes will be,. ...
Seham, M. Shash1, Ahmad, Z. Al-Herrawy2, Mohammed, M. Kamel2 and Hamdy, A.El-Sadik3 1 Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benh...
Seham, M. Shash1, Ahmad, Z. Al-Herrawy2, Mohammed, M. Kamel2 and Hamdy, A.El-Sadik3 1 Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benh...
Pi Page Diaphragm Seals Halogen Chlorine Ds Pi 32a - Product Information Page Diaphragm Seal Chlorine Bromine Fluorine DS-PI-32A - Product & Technical Information product information
It now is widely recognised that the global temperature is rising, a phenomenon which could alter the effects of pollution on wildlife. In order to assess the role of temperature and exposure to chlorine due to cooling water discharges, a battery of metabolic, oxidative stress and histological parameters were evaluated in Mytilus galloprovincialis after 15 and 30 days at 15 °C and at two increased temperatures (+5 and + 10 °C). Diverse gill pathologies such as haemolymphatic sinus dilatation, an increased number of mucocytes and granulocytes as well as a lower number of cilia were observed after 30 days exposure at higher temperatures. Protein, amino acid, triglyceride and fatty acid levels decreased when the temperature increased, as a consequence of higher energetic demand. Similarly, acetylcholinesterase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities showed an inhibition at higher temperatures, although gill lipid peroxidation levels remained unaffected. Our results suggest that ...
Syrian regime armed forces on Monday targeted rebel-held Jobar neighborhood of Damascus by chlorine gas, but no suffocation cases have been reported, activists said.. Local activists have documented more than 20 toxic gas attacks in the last three months as Bashar al-Assad forces carry out the fiercest assault on Jobar since the start of Syrian revolution in 2011, conducting hundreds of airstrikes.. Meanwhile, rebels have thwarted attacks launched by Assad forces north of the embattled district, killing three troops, sources said.. The regime is trying to retake Jobar after the capture of several rebel-held areas around the center of the capital last summer, including the town of Mleiha just outside Damascus on August 14, according to Reuters.. Jobar was seized by armed rebels over a year ago, and the area has since endured ongoing ground shelling by government missile batteries located in Damascus city center.. Translated and edited by The Syrian Observer. ...
A video posted on a social media website purports to show chlorine gas floating in the street following an attack on the Syrian village of Kfar Zeita. Nathan Frandino reports.
March 17, 2007 -- The U.S. military says insurgents have detonated explosives on three trucks carrying toxic chlorine gas in western Iraq, killing at least two people and causing hundreds of civilians to seek treatment.
So while were on the topic of these normal carrots being mechanically peeled and shaped to look like baby carrots, lets debunk some misinformation that is being spread about the baby carrots and chlorine causing white marks on the carrots. From the viral piece of Facebook spreading about mini carrots and chlorine it states, You will notice that once you keep these carrots in your refrigerator for a few days, a white covering will form on the carrots. This is the chlorine which resurfaces. This part is just absolutely absurd. The white covering is simply cuts and gashes from the carrot being peeled and mechanically shaped into a cute little baby carrots. You can test this out for yourself by getting an unaltered carrot and cutting it up with a knife and letting it sit out. You will notice that the parts youve cut with the knife will look white as the carrot dries out and the water evaporates.. I put two pictures below of the mini peeled carrots I buy from Costco under the brand Earthbound ...
As one of the most widely used domestic fuels, the detection of possible leakages of Liquefied Petroleum (LP) gas from production plants, from cylinders during their storage, transport and usage is of utmost importance. This article discusses a study of the response of undoped and chlorine doped electrodeposited n-type Cuprous Oxide (Cu2O) films to of LP gas. Undoped n-type Cu2O films were fabricated in an electrolyte bath containing a solution of sodium acetate and cupric acetate whereas n-type chlorine doped Cu2O thin films were prepared by adding a 0.02 M cuprous chloride (CuCl2) into an electrolyte solution containing lactic acid, cupric sulfate and sodium hydroxide. The n-type conductivity of the deposited films was determined using spectral response measurements. The structural and morphological properties of the fabricated films were monitored using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Due to doping, the overall conductivity of the chlorine doped n-type Cu2O films
This week, member company Solvay continued its exit of Western European chlor-alkali by divesting its chlorine and peroxide derivatives site at Torviscosa to Caffaro Industrie SpA. This follows on from previous activities during the Inovyn (vinyls) joint venture with Ineos (which was completed recently).. Caffaro, a fine chemicals producer will invest in the site, which mostly contains units for chlorine and chlorine derivative production, in order to bring it into line with their existing chemicals portfolio.. More information can be found here. ...
In 1998, using Raman and ultraviolet spectroscopic radiation, scientists proved that the bactericidal activity of chlorine treatment was quantitatively linked to the concentration of the hypochlorous acid in the chemical solution. Further, the pH dependence discovered indicates an equilibrium amongst the chlorine, hypochlorous acid, and hypochlorite13. Though typically chlorine activity decreases at higher pH, compromise with other factors (such as prevention of skin and eye irritation) places the ideal pH for swimming pools at approximately 7.2-7.814. DNA microarray can be used to monitor water quality more precisely15. A study in 2011 established 26 different microbial probes, and claimed to drastically reduce the time and labor required with current methods of identifying the presence of microbes in drinking water sources16. The success of shock chlorination, however, is not straightforward or universal. Due to the process of horizontal gene transfer (in which bacteria can pick up DNA from ...
From chlorine[edit]. Alkanes and aryl alkanes may be chlorinated under free radical conditions, with UV light. However, the ... In oxychlorination, hydrogen chloride instead of the more expensive chlorine for the same purpose: CH2=CH2 + 2 HCl + ​1⁄2 O2 → ... Chlorine adds to the multiple bonds on alkenes and alkynes as well, giving di- or tetra-chloro compounds. ... Aryl chlorides may be prepared by the Friedel-Crafts halogenation, using chlorine and a Lewis acid catalyst.[1] ...
A British chlorine cylinder, known as an "oojah", weighed 190 lb (86 kg), of which 60 lb (27 kg) was chlorine gas, and required ... Phosgene was sometimes used on its own, but was more often used mixed with an equal volume of chlorine, with the chlorine ... The first killing agent was chlorine, used by the German military. Chlorine is a powerful irritant that can inflict damage to ... Chlorine, codenamed Red Star, was the agent to be used (140 tons arrayed in 5,100 cylinders), and the attack was dependent on a ...
"chlorine". Online Etymology Dictionary. Harper, Douglas. "potash". Online Etymology Dictionary. Harper, Douglas. "Potassium". ...
Chlorine, sulfur and carbon (as coal) are cheapest by mass. Hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and chlorine are cheapest by volume at ... "Liquid Chlorine Demands Goes Up with Substantial Price Hike". CnAgri. Beijing Orient Agribusiness Consultant. 15 October 2013. ... "Chlorine". In Elvers, Barbara; et al. (eds.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (release 2008, 7th ed.). Wiley-VCH ...
Chlorine, bromine, and iodine can each form mono-, tri-, and pentafluorides, but only iodine heptafluoride has been ... It also has a high electron affinity, second only to chlorine, and tends to capture an electron to become isoelectronic with ... Its effects in humans start at concentrations lower than hydrogen cyanide's 50 ppm and are similar to those of chlorine: ... Germany used high-temperature electrolysis to make tons of the planned incendiary chlorine trifluoride and the Manhattan ...
It is used in chemical synthesis as an easy to store and transport chlorine gas source, it is not subject to hazardous gas ... Trichloroisocyanuric acid as used in swimming pools is easier to handle than chlorine gas. It dissolves slowly in water, but as ... L. Lerner (2011). "Chlorine". Small-Scale Synthesis of Laboratory Reagents with Reaction Modeling. CRC Press. ISBN ... This white crystalline powder, which has a strong "chlorine odour," is sometimes sold in tablet or granule form for domestic ...
For instance, chlorine gas turns blue litmus paper white - the litmus dye is bleached, because of presence of hypochlorite ions ... O'Leary, Donal (2000). "Chlorine". The Chemical Elements. Archived from the original on 2008-12-21. Beecken, H.; E-M. ...
... are used as chlorine donors. Perchlorates and chlorates play this role together with their main use as oxidizers. Chlorine ... also serving as chlorine donor and a binder Polyvinylidene chloride, also serving as chlorine donor Shellac, good especially ... Chlorine donors. Used together with colorants. In some cases, the color emitting species is molecular and not atomic. Such is ... Can act as a chlorine donor. High impact and friction sensitivity with sulfur and sulfides. With ammonium salts produces ...
K. O. Christe; C. J. Schack (1976). Harry Julius Emeléus, A. G. Sharpe (ed.). Chlorine Oxyfluorides. Advances in Inorganic ...
... or the chlorine industry as a whole, citing health and environmental hazards of chlorine and chlorine compounds. Euro Chlor was ... Euro Chlor is a sector group of European Chemical Industry Council (Cefic) and a member of World Chlorine Council. As of 2020[ ... The immediate motivation for its creation was an anti-chlorine campaign lead by Greenpeace, which was seen as threatening the ... The campaigners were seeking to ban specific uses of chlorine (like for the manufacture of PVC or paper production) ...
Splitting or homolysis of a chlorine molecule to form two chlorine atoms, initiated by ultraviolet radiation or sunlight. A ... The reactive chlorine radical develops a transition state resembling the reactant with little radical character. When the alkyl ... This results in the desired product plus another chlorine radical. This radical will then go on to take part in another ... If there is sufficient chlorine, other products such as CH2Cl2 may be formed. 3. chain termination: recombination of two free ...
It will violently react with interhalogens (e.g., bromine pentafluoride; chlorine trifluoride). Its reaction with hot sodium, ...
K. O. Christe; C. J. Schack (1976). Harry Julius Emeléus, A. G. Sharpe (ed.). Chlorine Oxyfluorides. Advances in inorganic ... David L. Cooper (2001). "Spin-coupled description of the chemical bonding to hypercoordinate chlorine". Theoretical Chemistry ... with chlorine having a +5 oxidation state (rather than the +3 of chlorite). This makes it a rare example of a positively ...
"17 Chlorine". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12. "25 Manganese". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12. " ... On the preparation of bromine and a striking decomposition of ether by chlorine), Magazine für Pharmacie, vol. 21, pages 31-36 ...
"Strong chlorine solution" is a 0.5% solution of hypochlorite (containing approximately 5000 ppm free chlorine) used for ... Vogt H, Balej J, Bennett JE, Wintzer P, Sheikh SA, Gallone P (2007). "Chlorine Oxides and Chlorine Oxygen Acids". Ullmann's ... At pH below 2, the majority of the chlorine in the solution is in the form of dissolved elemental Cl 2. At pH greater than 7.4 ... The Chlorine Institute. Faith, Thomas (2014). Behind the gas mask : the U.S. chemical warfare service in war and peace. ...
... chlorine for sanitation; latrine slabs; temporary warehouse tents; 14 air conditioning units and isolator equipment. More than ...
"Neoprene: The First Synthetic Rubber". chlorine.americanchemistry.com. Retrieved 2018-12-06. "Wallace Carothers and the ...
"Chlorine Azide, CIN3. I1." - Journal of the American Chemical Society (ACS Publications). N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2016. ...
"How to deliver drinking water chlorine-free". phys.org. Retrieved 2020-09-09. Sánchez-Polo, M.; Rivera-Utrilla, J.; Salhi, E.; ... Disinfection and by-product formation in presence of bromide, iodide or chlorine". Water Research. 37 (7): 1469-1487. doi: ... Sedlak, David L.; Gunten, Urs von (2011-01-07). "The Chlorine Dilemma". Science. 331 (6013): 42-43. doi:10.1126/science.1196397 ...
... chlorine for sanitation; latrine slabs; temporary warehouse tents; 14 air conditioning units and isolator equipment. The UK ...
The Weldon process is a process developed in 1866 by Walter Weldon for recovering manganese dioxide for re-use in chlorine ... The common method to manufacture chlorine at the time, was to react manganese dioxide (and related oxides) with hydrochloric ... "The Chlorine industry". Lenntech. Retrieved 11 September 2018. Lunge, Georg (1911). "Alkali Manufacture § Preparation of ... acid to give chlorine: MnO2 + 4 HCl → MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O Weldon's contribution was to develop a process to recycle the ...
While studies of chlorine dioxide effects in humans are rare, studies on animal subjects are more common; chlorine dioxide has ... "ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Chlorine Dioxide & Chlorite". www.atsdr.cdc.gov. Jensen, Erik (2010-01-09). "Deadly chemical being sold as ... A study found reduced red blood cell count in rats exposed to 100 mg/L of chlorine dioxide concentration in their drinking ... The United States Environmental Protection Agency has set a maximum level of 0.8 mg/L for chlorine dioxide in drinking water. ...
Chlorine (referred to in water treatment as free chlorine) is being displaced by chloramine-to be specific, monochloramine- ... Chloramines are responsible for the distinctive "chlorine" smell of swimming pools, which is often misattributed to chlorine by ... "Chloramines: Understanding "Pool Smell"". chlorine.americanchemistry.com. Retrieved 2020-11-22. "The Chlorine Smell From Pools ... "The smell of chlorine: nostalgic or noxious?". Rheem Thermal Swimming Pool Heating. 2016-08-22. Retrieved 2020-11-22. " ...
ISBN 978-0-486-67628-9. Frierson, W. J.; Kronrad, J.; Browne, A. W. (1943). "Chlorine Azide, ClN3. I". Journal of the American ... It has one of the highest electronegativities among the elements (3.04 on the Pauling scale), exceeded only by chlorine (3.16 ... from magnesium to chlorine; these are known as diagonal relationships), their degree drops off abruptly past the boron-silicon ... Chlorine azide (ClN3) and bromine azide (BrN3) are extremely sensitive and explosive. Two series of nitrogen oxohalides are ...
... and by Chlorine.[citation needed] Timms' musical style is often placed under the genre of alternative country, and she has ...
Chlorine gas cylinders. Sodium hypochlorite, the sodium salt of hypochlorous acid. Hydrochloric Acid, a clear, colorless, ... SYSACCO is Syria's only chlorine manufacturing plant. They mostly produce products for water sterilization to the local market ...
Chlorine is the only elemental gas that is technically a vapor since STP is below its critical temperature; whilst bromine and ... "History - Discovering Chlorine". www.chlorineinstitute.org. Retrieved 2014-07-06. "Kipp Gas Generator.Gases on tap". Bruce ... For example, carbonated water was being made from 1772 and commercially from 1783, chlorine was first used to bleach textiles ... Examples are hydrogen chloride produced by burning hydrogen in chlorine, nitrous oxide produced by thermal decomposition of ...
... can also form excimers with other elements, such as the halogens bromine, chlorine, and fluorine. Although xenon is rare ... Christe, K. O.; Schack, C. J.; Pilipovich, D. (1972). "Chlorine trifluoride oxide. V. Complex formation with Lewis acids and ... ISBN 3-11-011451-8. Proserpio, Davide M.; Hoffmann, Roald; Janda, Kenneth C. (1991). "The xenon-chlorine conundrum: van der ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Clark, Laine (21 December 2008). "Revelling in the chlorine". The Sydney Morning Herald ...
"Another chlorine attack by the Assad regime leaves scores injured, suffocating". Cii Radio. Archived from the original on 29 ... The factory produces chlorine among other chemicals. On 5 November 2014, the Syrian UN-ambassador Bashar al-Jaafari, said " ... use of banned chlorine". Reuters. "Syria: A Year On, Chemical Weapons Attacks Persist". Human Rights Watch. April 4, 2018. " ... Chlorine attack' on rebel Syrian town". BBC News. 5 February 2018. Archived from the original on 10 February 2018. Retrieved 14 ...
How chlorine works *The extent of poisoning caused by chlorine depends on the amount of chlorine a person is exposed to, how ... How chlorine exposure is treated No antidote exists for chlorine exposure. Treatment consists of removing the chlorine from the ... Where chlorine is found and how it is used *Chlorine is one of the most commonly manufactured chemicals in the United States. ... Chlorine is sometimes in the form of a poisonous gas. Chlorine gas can be pressurized and cooled to change it into a liquid so ...
Chlorine oxides. Yellow chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas above a yellow chlorine dioxide solution. Solutions of pure chlorine ... Chlorine Institute - Trade association representing the chlorine industry. *Chlorine Online - the web portal of Eurochlor - the ... Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ... chlorine cyanate (ClNCO), chlorine thiocyanate (ClSCN, unlike its oxygen counterpart), and chlorine azide (ClN3).[41] ...
Exposure to low levels of chlorine can result in nose, throat, and eye irritation. At higher levels, breathing chlorine gas may ... Chlorine (Cl₂) is a greenish-yellow gas with a pungent, irritating odor. ... Chlorine (Cl₂) is a greenish-yellow gas with a pungent, irritating odor. Exposure to low levels of chlorine can result in nose ... Additional symptoms of exposure to chlorine can be severe. Workers may be harmed from exposure to chlorine. The level of ...
Chlorine perchlorate is the chemical compound with the formula Cl2O4. This chlorine oxide is an asymmetric oxide, with one ... "Chlorine perchlorate a major photolysis product of chlorine dioxide". J. Phys. Chem. 86 (24): 4653-4655. doi:10.1021/ ... Chlorine perchlorate reacts with metal chlorides forming anhydrous perchlorates: CrO2Cl2 + 2 ClOClO3 → 2 Cl2 + CrO2(ClO4)2. ... M. I. Lopez; J. E. Sicre (1988). "Ultraviolet spectrum of chlorine perchlorate". J. Phys. Chem. 92 (2): 563-564. doi:10.1021/ ...
Lachrymation. The substance is corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Rapid evaporation of the liquid may cause frostbite. Inhalation may cause asthma-like reactions. Inhalation may cause pneumonitis. Inhalation may cause lung oedema, but only after initial corrosive effects on eyes and/or airways have become manifest. See Notes. Exposure could cause death ...
Chlorine gas can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Exposure to high levels can result in corrosive ... Chlorine gas has been found in at least 60 of the 1,591 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental ... working in facilities that use chlorine to manufacture other chemicals have the highest risk of being exposed to chlorine. ... such as a liquid chlorine spill, a leak from a chlorine tank, or a leak from a facility that produces or uses chlorine. ...
Chlorine deficiency, condition in which chlorine is insufficient or is not utilized properly. Chlorine is a component of all ... Chlorine deficiency, condition in which chlorine is insufficient or is not utilized properly. Chlorine is a component of all ... chlorine. Chlorine (Cl). , chemical element, the second lightest member of the halogen elements, or Group 17 (Group VIIa) of ... Treatment of chlorine deficiency is directed towards the underlying cause.. The best source of chlorine is ordinary table salt ...
Toxicological Profile for Chlorine. CAS#: 7782-50-5. Toxicological Profile Information. The ATSDR toxicological profile ... Toxicological profile for Chlorine. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
Bonnie Rice of Greenpeaces Chlorine Free Campaign states, ``Using chlorine is going to end life as we know it.... ... How do we define the term ``using chlorine? To clarify the Greenpeace position it would be useful to inquire whether Ms. Rice ... Does Rices unqualified statement relate to the use of chlorine in the purification of drinking water for more than a century? ... We need a workable definition of ``using chlorine, including an indication of what kind and how much, and less of the ...
Chlorine Mixture. Br Med J 1862; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.101.600-b (Published 06 December 1862) Cite this as: Br ...
... but New York City police recently put more emphasis on screening shipments of chlorine after learning that it has become a ... Its something we have to be concerned about, Commissioner Ray Kelly said of the potential of an attack using chlorine… There ... NYPD Hypes Chlorine Terror Threat. Its something we have to be concerned about, Commissioner Ray Kelly said of the potential ... Except... the chlorine strikes in Iraq didnt really hurt anyone, per se. The real impact of this attack is not the actual ...
Chlorine is a toxic gas with corrosive properties. It is widely used as bleach in the manufacture of paper and cloth and in ... Chlorine has also been used as a chemical warfare choking agent. The lowest level at which humans can smell chlorine and notice ... Chronic exposure to chlorine, usually in the workplace, may cause erosion of the teeth. Multiple exposures to chlorine have ... There is no post-exposure therapy specifically for chlorine inhalation.. *ANTIDOTE: There is no antidote for chlorine toxicity. ...
Chlorine poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes in (inhales) chlorine. ... Chlorine is a chemical that prevents bacteria from growing. ... Chlorine reacts with water in and out of the body to form ... Chlorine poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes in (inhales) chlorine.. This article is for information only. DO ... Chlorine is present in:. *Gas released when mixing bleach with some of the powdered cleansing products and ammonia (chloramine ...
Chlorine damages cells by releasing free oxygen which combines with cell proteins causing them to denature. Because the ... Does chlorine kill fish?. Yes, chlorine can kill fish. Fish can swallow it. Yes, chlorine can kill fish. Fish can swallow it. ... If I clean my house with chlorine will it kill my plants?. It depends on the amount of chlorine is in the bleach. If it is a ... Does chlorine affects the growth of plants?. Chlorine does affect the growth of many plants. When you water the plant with it ...
Does Chlorine Affect Your Vision?. Chemically Treated Water May Kill Germs in the Pool, but Leave Your Eyes Vulnerable. ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Killing Weeds with Chlorine Bleach Put 1 cup of liquid bleach in full concentration into a large spray bottle and spray it ...
In this experiment chlorine gas is generated on a microscale from bleach solution. The gas is used directly to investigate any ... Microscale reactions of chlorine. Class practical. In this experiment chlorine. gas is generated on a microscale. from bleach. ... Microscale reactions of chlorine Experiment Microscale reactions of chlorine student sheet Handout Duration : 1 pages ... Chlorine, Cl2(g), (TOXIC, DANGEROUS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard. Chlorine gas is produced in small quantities in ...
Chlorine gas was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. ... Chlorine gas is a pulmonary irritant with intermediate water ... encoded search term (Chlorine Toxicity) and Chlorine Toxicity What to Read Next on Medscape ... Chlorine Toxicity Differential Diagnoses. Updated: May 13, 2019 * Author: Gerald F OMalley, DO; Chief Editor: Zygmunt F Dembek ... Treatment of acute chlorine gas inhalation with nebulized sodium bicarbonate. J Emerg Med. 1990 May-Jun. 8(3):327-9. [Medline] ...
I now live where there is chlorine in the water and i cough after any use or from in the hot shower and have a tightness in my ... I now live where there is chlorine in the water and i cough after any use or from in the hot shower and have a tightness in my ... chlorine cough. My sons are lifeguards at an indoor water park. They both have chronic dry coughs, even after being off work ... Looked it up and found out to be the chlorine . Always had well water . So when we had a glass of wine the cough and tightness ...
... The tech tip, Using Vitamin C to Neutralize Chlorine in Water Systems (0523- ... Often, a strong chlorine solution is added to the water to kill bacteria and other organisms. If this water is allowed to enter ... Vitamin C is a newer chemical method for neutralizing chlorine. It does not lower the dissolved oxygen as much as the sulfur ... Over time, air and sunlight would neutralize chlorine in tanks or ponds, but chemical treatments are much faster. Although ...
Chlorine gas attacks in Syria this month, if proven, expose a major loophole in an international deal to remove chemical ... Chlorine, a so-called dual-use chemical that has industrial uses, is not on the list of chemical weapons submitted to the OPCW ... In addition, chlorine gas that was never included on the list submitted to the OPCW is now allegedly being used on the ... If inhaled, chlorine gas - a deadly agent widely used in World War One - turns to hydrochloric acid in the lungs, which can ...
Euro Chlor, the chlorine industry federation based in Brussels, argues that there are chlorinated organic compounds in nature, ... Europe has also started to take a closer look at the problems posed by chlorine. The Paris Convention for the prevention of ... In 1992, the commission called for a ban on the use of chlorine around the lakes because of the high concentrations of ... Barry Commoner, of the City University of New York, says Clinton picked on chlorine in particular because of the findings of ...
The interactive plot requires a browser with JavaScript and HTML 5 canvas support. Select a region with data to zoom. Select a region with no data or click the mouse on the plot to revert to the orginal display. Moving the mouse pointer over or near a point will display the coordinates of the point. The number of digits shown do not reflect the uncertainty of the value. On newer browsers the following keyboard commands are supported: ...
Grisard, J.W.; Bernhardt, H.A.; Oliver, G.D., Thermal data, vapor pressure and entropy of chlorine tri- fluoride., J. Am. Chem ... Grisard, J.W.; Bernhardt, H.A.; Oliver, George D., Thermal Data, Vapor Pressure and Entropy of Chlorine Trifluoride 1, J. Am. ... Dudin, A.V.; Gorokhov, L.N.; Baluev, A.V., A study of the electron-impact ionization of chlorine trifluoride and its ... Baluev, A.V.; Nikitin, I.M.; Fedorova, L.I.; Rossolovskii, V.Ya., Mass Spectrometric Study of Chlorine Pentafluoride Ionization ...
... military says insurgents have detonated explosives on three trucks carrying toxic chlorine gas in western Iraq, killing at ... RFE/RL) March 17, 2007 -- The U.S. military says insurgents have detonated explosives on three trucks carrying toxic chlorine ... The military said that around 350 Iraqi civilians and six coalition troops were treated for chlorine-gas exposure. ...
Regulators in China shut down production at a beverage plant owned by Coca-Cola after finding chlorine in a batch of drinks ... after finding chlorine in a batch of drinks made in February.. The food-safety regulator in Shanxi province said Saturday that ... was made with water containing chlorine. The statement, from the Shanxi Provincial Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision ... refers to the suspension as a penalty for the chlorine levels. ...
... breathing problems similar to those associated with asthma after several minutes of swimming even in water with chlorine levels ... Chlorine in Pools May Cause Breathing Trouble Chlorine Levels May Pose Risks to Swimmers, People With Asthma ... Swimming in an indoor pool with no chlorine in the water. *Swimming in a chlorinated pool with low levels of chlorine (0.5 ... Chlorine Tied to Breathing Problems In the study, which was presented recently at the American College of Sports Medicines ...
Get free shipping at $35 and view promotions and reviews for UltraSwim Chlorine Removal Shampoo ...
  • Chlorine itself is not flammable, but it can react explosively or form explosive compounds with other chemicals such as turpentine and ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • Because of its great reactivity, all chlorine in the Earth's crust is in the form of ionic chloride compounds, which includes table salt. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a common disinfectant, elemental chlorine and chlorine-generating compounds are used more directly in swimming pools to keep them clean and sanitary . (wikipedia.org)
  • Other types of chlorine compounds are rare in living organisms, and artificially produced chlorinated organics range from inert to toxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to recognize that these compounds are different from chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorides (chlorine compounds) play an essential role in the electrical neutrality and pressure of extracellular fluids and in the acid-base balance of the body. (britannica.com)
  • In 1992, the commission called for a ban on the use of chlorine around the lakes because of the high concentrations of chlorinated compounds in the lake water. (newscientist.com)
  • Euro Chlor, the chlorine industry federation based in Brussels, argues that there are chlorinated organic compounds in nature, and industry is not creating an artificial risk by contributing a few more. (newscientist.com)
  • Chlorine in its pure form is yellowish-green, but its common compounds are usually colorless. (prezi.com)
  • Chlorine also forms compounds in which it is covalently bound to various nonmetals. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chlorine compounds have been important to humans for thousands of years. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As chlorine is added to kill pathogenic microorganisms, the highly reactive chlorine combines with fatty acids and carbon fragments to form a variety of toxic compounds, which comprise about 30% of the chlorination by--products. (whale.to)
  • The book also compares the general methods of producing chlorine, bromine, or iodine by 1) oxidation of halide derivatives or 2) reduction of compounds of the halogens in positive oxidation states. (elsevier.com)
  • Chlorine compounds may be used to disinfect drinking water. (wisegeek.com)
  • Chlorine compounds are commonly used to disinfect drinking water, swimming pools, and in sewage treatment plants. (wisegeek.com)
  • Compounds containing chlorine keep pools and hot tubs sanitary, but exposure to the chemical poses some health risks. (livestrong.com)
  • Other means of supplying chlorine in the colored flame include organic compounds that contain chlorine. (skylighter.com)
  • Unlike all other oxygen metabolites known to be generated by phagocytes, the nitrogen-chlorine compounds can be readily detected in cell supernatants 90 min after stimulation. (jci.org)
  • We conclude that human phagocytes can chlorinate both endogenous and exogenous nitrogenous compounds at inflammatory sites to generate a heterogeneous mixture of nitrogen-chlorine derivatives. (jci.org)
  • Reactions of chlorine with inorganic and organic compounds during water treatment-kinetics and mechanisms: a critical review. (ipl.org)
  • Compounds containing chlorine in its +1 oxidation state are hypochlorites . (wikipedia.org)
  • Many organic compounds have chlorine in them. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are some organic compounds that have chlorine in them, too. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine is widely used to purify water (usually in a swimming pool ), as a disinfectant and bleach , and in the making of many important compounds including chloroform and carbon tetrachloride . (wikipedia.org)
  • The term 'free chlorine' in drinking water usually refers to the amount of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite in the water. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the nature of free chlorine gas as a separate substance was only recognised around 1630 by Jan Baptist van Helmont. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although aqua regia is an unstable mixture that continually gives off fumes containing free chlorine gas, this chlorine gas appears to have been ignored until c. 1630, when its nature as a separate gaseous substance was recognised by the Flemish chemist and physician Jan Baptist van Helmont. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free chlorine is regularly monitored automatically, and if the free-chlorine residual drops below 0.25 PPM, the metering pump turns on and injects sodium hypochlorite solution, and boosts the chlorine residual back up to the desired level. (prweb.com)
  • Chloramine is used for most of the year because it is far more stable than free chlorine and lacks the smell of chlorine. (welovedc.com)
  • However, Chloramine is not as effective at sanitizing as free Chlorine. (welovedc.com)
  • If there is no free chlorine in the flame, there can be no blue color from copper. (skylighter.com)
  • Potassium chlorate can be considered to be somewhat of a chlorine donor during combustion, which allows free chlorine to combine with other elements in the colored flame. (skylighter.com)
  • The alkaline earth metal chlorides typically have such a high decomposition temperature that they yield no free chlorine. (skylighter.com)
  • Many saltwater pools have a chlorine generator, feeder, or chlorinator that releases free chlorine into the water. (wikihow.com)
  • Swimming pool management should continue to operate in accordance with the guidelines issued by the Institute of Sport and Recreation Management and the Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group and monitor free chlorine and chloramines levels and keep them as low as reasonably practicable without compromising microbial disinfections. (innovations-report.com)
  • The extent of poisoning caused by chlorine depends on the amount of chlorine a person is exposed to, how the person was exposed, and the length of time of the exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • This is only done when the person gets medical care within 30 to 45 minutes of the poisoning, and a very large amount of chlorine has been swallowed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A homeowner or landscaper may desire to locate plants that can tolerate a fair amount of chlorine for areas near pools that will be subject to splashing or pool water drainage. (gardenguides.com)
  • Small trees likely to survive in the presence of a fair amount of chlorine include wax myrtle, yaupon, devilwood, redbay and sand live oak. (gardenguides.com)
  • In reality, they both tend to vaporize out of the colored flame before contributing a significant amount of chlorine. (skylighter.com)
  • If so, remove these items immediately so they stop increasing the amount of chlorine in the water. (wikihow.com)
  • Sunlight is incredibly effective at reducing the amount of chlorine in a pool! (wikihow.com)
  • The car with an unspecified amount of chlorine inside leaked early Saturday, at about 8:40 a.m. local time, Axiall said in a statement. (rt.com)
  • In the periodic table , chlorine is located in group 17 (former group 7A), the halogen family, between fluorine and bromine . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The Chemistry of Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine and Astatine is a special edition that contains selected sections and addresses the needs of specialists in their respective fields. (elsevier.com)
  • The text also cites some behavior characteristics of halogens that are irregular, such as chlorine and bromine are similar but differ from fluorine on one side and iodine on the other. (elsevier.com)
  • Bromine is a highly reactive element that can form bonds with many different elements, including magnesium, silver, oxygen, chlorine and zinc. (reference.com)
  • Bromine is an alternative to chlorine and works particularly well in warmer water, and therefore, in spa applications. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Bromine, the next halogen down from chlorine, has largely supplanted chlorine in the role of fire retardant. (skylighter.com)
  • Compatible with bromine and chlorine. (google.com)
  • Chlorine reacts with bromides and iodides to make bromine and iodine . (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to low levels of chlorine can result in nose, throat, and eye irritation. (cdc.gov)
  • Levels of chlorine closely parallel levels of sodium intake and output, since a primary source of both is sodium chloride, or common table salt . (britannica.com)
  • The study shows that trained swimmers who swam for six to eight minutes in a pool with high levels of chlorine were three times more likely to develop exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) (commonly known as exercise -induced asthma ) than when they swam in water with low chlorine levels or exercised out of the water. (webmd.com)
  • High levels of chlorine dioxide can be irritating to the nose, eyes, throat, and lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • Irish Water has said that around 1,200 customers in Co Meath have been told not to use their tap water for drinking, washing or preparing food because of dangerous levels of chlorine in the supply. (rte.ie)
  • Using ozone with lower levels of chlorine will also yield higher ORP levels and less chemical usage (both residual sanitizer and pH control) compared to other sanitizer options. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Household 'bleaches' based on peroxide are becoming more widely available and do not contain chlorine, therefore they should not be used. (rsc.org)
  • Barrels suspected to contain chlorine gas have been dropped on a town in Syria, a doctor and rescuers have said. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Cancer risks among people drinking chlorinated water is 93% higher than among those whose water does not contain chlorine. (whale.to)
  • Medical drugs that contain chlorine as an ingredient are prescribed for treating a number of diseases and conditions. (reportlinker.com)
  • Chlorine gas can be recognized by its pungent, irritating odor, which is like the odor of bleach. (cdc.gov)
  • Household chlorine bleach can release chlorine gas if it is mixed with certain other cleaning agents. (cdc.gov)
  • bleach is not the same as chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • You may also be exposed to chlorine if you mix household chemicals such as toilet cleaner with bleach. (cdc.gov)
  • In this experiment chlorine gas is generated on a microscale from bleach solution. (rsc.org)
  • In this experiment chlorine gas is generated on a microscale from bleach solution and used directly to investigate its reaction with water and halide ions in solution. (rsc.org)
  • 2 Commercial chlorine-based bleach solutions can be used instead of sodium chlorate(I) solution supplied by laboratory suppliers but they may not be sufficiently concentrated to generate enough chlorine. (rsc.org)
  • Eighty-six bleach plants across the country put 63.8 million people in danger of a potential worst-case release of chlorine gas, a substance so toxic it has been used as a chemical weapon. (greenpeace.org)
  • Bleach manufacturers use chlorine gas to produce bleach and also repackage bulk chlorine gas into smaller containers for commercial use. (greenpeace.org)
  • An increasing number of bleach facilities around the country now operate without bulk chlorine gas storage and transportation, eliminating catastrophic hazards in densely populated areas. (greenpeace.org)
  • I really don't think chlorine bleach is some sort of elixir - more likely you've got some sort of wilt pathogen and the bleach is knocking it around enough for the plant to recover. (bio.net)
  • Many people also use chlorine to bleach their clothes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Large paper and pulp mills use chlorine to bleach their products. (encyclopedia.com)
  • While plants could be forced to buy bleach instead of chlorine, the bleach manufacturer would still have to buy chlorine. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Aside from industrial exposure to chlorine, one very common method of chlorine exposure is the mixture of household bleach with other cleaning agents containing acids or ammonia . (wisegeek.com)
  • Chlorine gas has the characteristic smell of bleach. (wisegeek.com)
  • Chlorine is used in drinking water and swimming pool water to kill harmful bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • If chlorine liquid is released into water, people may be exposed by touching or drinking water that contains chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • Does Rice's unqualified statement relate to the use of chlorine in the purification of drinking water for more than a century? (csmonitor.com)
  • Chlorine dioxide is added to drinking water to protect people added to water, chlorine dioxide forms chlorite ion, which is from harmful bacteria and other microorganisms. (cdc.gov)
  • Children exposed to large amounts of chlorine dioxide and of chlorite per liter (1 mg/L) and 0.8 mg/L for chlorine dioxide chlorite would be expected to be affected in the same manner in drinking water. (cdc.gov)
  • What Chlorine is used for Chlorine is frequently used as an antiseptic and is used to make drinking water safe and to care for swimming pools. (prezi.com)
  • Chlorine has been used for more than a century to disinfect drinking water and is responsible for a 50 percent increase in life expectancy, according to the American Water Works Association . (scientificamerican.com)
  • Part of the Technology Updates series, this fact sheet describes PATH's work, in collaboration with MSR® Global Health, to develop the SE Flow, an innovative onsite chlorine generator for drinking water treatment and infection prevention and control. (path.org)
  • The cause of atherosclerosis and resulting heart attacks and strokes is none other than the ubiquitous chlorine in our drinking water. (whale.to)
  • When the war was over, the use of chlorine was diverted to poisoning germs in our drinking water. (whale.to)
  • The combination of chlorine (when in drinking water) and animal fats results in atherosclerosis, heart attacks, and death. (whale.to)
  • Chlorine is a common disinfectant that is used to kill bacteria, for example in swimming pools and drinking water supplies. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers identified new toxic and carcinogenic byproducts that are produced when chlorine is added to regular drinking water. (usatoday.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggests 4 milligrams of chlorine per liter of drinking water as a safe level. (usatoday.com)
  • Adding chlorine to drinking water, per the CDC, kills germs and bacteria - and significantly reduces waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. (usatoday.com)
  • Like chlorine, chlorine dioxide is used to disinfect drinking water. (wisegeek.com)
  • Chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramines are the most common disinfectants used nowadays and each produces its own suite of chemical DBPs in finished drinking water (Richardson, 2003). (ipl.org)
  • The Niagara Falls, New York water treatment plant first used chlorine dioxide for drinking water treatment in 1944 for phenol destruction. (bionity.com)
  • Chlorine dioxide was introduced as a drinking water disinfectant on a large scale in 1956, when Brussels, Belgium, changed from chlorine to chlorine dioxide. (bionity.com)
  • Potable Aqua Chlorine Dioxide Water Purification Tablets are for the emergency disinfection of drinking water. (realgoods.com)
  • The animals received drinking-water containing an excess of 100 ppm of chlorine. (inchem.org)
  • The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride (common salt), has been known since ancient times. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a special in humans and in animals, the International Agency for test to measure chlorite in tissues, blood, urine, and feces, Research on Cancer (IARC) and the EPA have determined but the test cannot tell the extent of the exposure or whether that chlorine dioxide and sodium chlorite are not classifiable harmful effects will occur. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorine is highly reactive and when combined with sodium makes table salt. (prezi.com)
  • Chlorine played an important role in the experiments conducted by medieval alchemists, which commonly involved the heating of chloride salts like ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac) and sodium chloride (common salt), producing various chemical substances containing chlorine such as hydrogen chloride, mercury(II) chloride (corrosive sublimate), and hydrochloric acid (in the form of aqua regia). (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common compound of chlorine in seawater is sodium chloride. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A dry disinfectant composition for the production of aqueous solutions of chlorine dioxide of predetermined concentration is formulated of a mixture of lithium hypochlorite, sodium bisulfate and sodium chlorite. (google.com)
  • 1. A product capable of producing chlorine dioxide, consisting essentially of effective amounts of lithium hypochlorite, sodium bisulfate and sodium chlorite. (google.com)
  • 2. A product capable of producing chlorine dioxide comprising effective amounts of lithium hypochlorite, sodium bisulfate and sodium chlorite wherein the lithium hypochlorite and sodium bisulfate are packaged together and the sodium chlorite is packaged alone. (google.com)
  • 3. A product capable of producing chlorine dioxide comprising effective amounts of lithium hypochlorite, sodium bisulfate and sodium chlorite each packaged in an individual packet. (google.com)
  • 6. A method for preparing an active chlorine dioxide solution comprising (1) dissolving the contents of an Activator Pack containing lithium hypochlorite and sodium bisulfate in water and (2) thereafter adding a Chlorite Pack containing sodium chlorite to said water containing therein the dissolved contents of the Activator Pack and in substantially the ratio of 6.12 g. of lithium hypochlorite, 7.7 g. of sodium bisulfate and 5.6 g. of sodium chlorite. (google.com)
  • 7.7 g of sodium bisulfate and 6.33 of sodium chlorite to be added to a liter of water to produce substantially a 3,000 ppm chlorine dioxide solution. (google.com)
  • 3.36 ml of 25% aqueous sodium chlorite so that when the components are properly added to a gallon of water, a composition of 150 ppm of chlorine dioxide at a pH of 3.5 will be produced. (google.com)
  • 16. A method of preparing chlorine dioxide comprising adding effective amounts of lithium hypochlorite and sodium bisulfate to water in sufficient amount to reduce pH into the acid range and then adding sodium chlorite to the acidified solution. (google.com)
  • Chlorine, hydrogen and sodium hy-droxide can be generated on site from harmless sodium chloride. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Over 95% of the chlorine dioxide produced in the world today is made from sodium chlorate and is used for pulp bleaching. (bionity.com)
  • Sodium chloride is the most common chlorine ore. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine gas is too reactive to be detected in environmental media at hazardous waste sites. (cdc.gov)
  • Because chlorine is so reactive, it is not normally detected in the environment except for very low levels in the air above seawater. (cdc.gov)
  • At ordinary temperatures and pressures , pure chlorine is a highly reactive, poisonous gas with a greenish-yellow color and an unpleasant odor. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chlorine is highly reactive, ranking only below fluorine in its chemical activity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In order to find out what happens to RidA under oxidative stress, researchers subjected RidA to a variety of reactive species normally generated by immune cells, including chlorine. (eurekalert.org)
  • Chlorine is highly reactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine oxides can be made, but most of them are very reactive and unstable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine is sometimes in the form of a poisonous gas. (cdc.gov)
  • Elemental chlorine at high concentrations is extremely dangerous and poisonous for all living organisms, and was used in World War I as the first gaseous chemical warfare agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Volcanoes have been puffing out poisonous chlorine gas since before the Pleistocene Epoch. (csmonitor.com)
  • Elemental chlorine at high concentration is extremely dangerous, and poisonous to most living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine is a greenish-yellow poisonous gas. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17. (wikipedia.org)
  • Around 1630, chlorine gas was first synthesised in a chemical reaction, but not recognised as a fundamentally important substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high oxidising potential of elemental chlorine led to the development of commercial bleaches and disinfectants , and a reagent for many processes in the chemical industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you work in an industry that uses chlorine, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheet for hazard information. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorine perchlorate is the chemical compound with the formula Cl 2 O 4 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Regarding the Associated Press story ``Chlorine: Safe Chemical or Toxic Threat? (csmonitor.com)
  • We need a workable definition of ``using chlorine,'' including an indication of what kind and how much, and less of the currently fashionable knee-jerk reaction to the ``toxic-chemical'' syndrome. (csmonitor.com)
  • Chlorine is more hype than hurt ,' added Major Kris Aexander - chemical weapons specialist, in his own right. (wired.com)
  • Chlorine is a chemical that prevents bacteria from growing. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Over time, air and sunlight would neutralize chlorine in tanks or ponds, but chemical treatments are much faster. (fed.us)
  • Vitamin C is a newer chemical method for neutralizing chlorine. (fed.us)
  • BEIRUT (Reuters) - Chlorine gas attacks in Syria this month, if proven, expose a major loophole in an international deal to remove chemical weapons from the war-torn country and suggest chemical warfare could persist after the removal operation has finished. (reuters.com)
  • The U.S. State Department, which is examining the allegations, said on Tuesday that if the Syrian government used chlorine with the intent to kill or harm this would violate the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which it joined as part of last September's Geneva agreement to give up its chemical weapons. (reuters.com)
  • Amy Smithson, a leading American chemical weapons expert at the Monterey Institute, said that unless tests are run, it is not certain that chlorine was used or some similar agent. (reuters.com)
  • Chlorine, a so-called dual-use chemical that has industrial uses, is not on the list of chemical weapons submitted to the OPCW but was produced in Syria before the war. (reuters.com)
  • If his bill is passed, the Environmental Protection Agency will have stronger powers to limit chemical discharges in general, and chlorine in particular. (newscientist.com)
  • The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) has asked to see the high-resolution images taken in Kfar Zita because it is currently investigating allegations about the use of chlorine gas in the Syrian war. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Chlorine is a common industrial chemical, but its use in weapons is banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention. (bbc.co.uk)
  • An eyewitness to a chemical attack tells FP that Assad's forces are dropping barrel bombs containing chlorine gas on hospitals and civilian centers. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Chlorine (chemical symbol Cl , atomic number 17) is a nonmetal that belongs to a group of chemical elements known as halogens . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • As a chemical warfare agent, chlorine was first used in World War I as a poison gas weapon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine is a strong oxidizing agent (a chemical substance that gives up or takes on electrons from another substance). (encyclopedia.com)
  • A sprawling Capitol Hill debate over protecting U.S. chemical facilities from terrorists has come down to a central question: What should be done about chlorine? (scientificamerican.com)
  • Although bomb disposal teams say they have encountered the small-scale use of chlorine, there is no evidence to suggest IS has accumulated a significant chemical weapons cache. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The chemical element chlorine has 17 electrons, 17 protons and 18 neutrons. (reference.com)
  • AMSTERDAM (Reuters) - Banned chlorine munitions were likely dropped on a Syrian neighborhood in February, an international body on chemical weapons said on Wednesday, after laboratory tests confirmed the presence of the toxic chemical. (reuters.com)
  • Chlorine, on the other hand, is a very effective, time-proven chemical, but is ineffective against hard-to-kill microorganisms such as cryptosporidium. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Elemental chlorine has the chemical formula of Cl 2 and is a member of the halogen group of elements. (wisegeek.com)
  • When you start itching from chlorine, get out of the pool and limit your exposure to the chemical. (livestrong.com)
  • Chlorine: Inexpensive and easily available, chlorine is the chemical most commonly used in swimming pools and hot tubs to kill bacteria that can spread disease. (mailtribune.com)
  • Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO 2 . (bionity.com)
  • Chlorine ( chemical symbol Cl ) is a chemical element . (wikipedia.org)
  • Even inorganic and organic complex chemical manufacturers could up the demand for liquid chlorine. (reportlinker.com)
  • The plant, which is located along the Ohio River, manufactures hazardous chlorine and caustic soda, another very strong chemical, and is operated by Eagle Natrium, an Axiall subsidiary company. (rt.com)
  • Eleven Iraqi police officers were taken to hospital after an ISIS chemical weapons attack, with the Defense Ministry and doctors recently confirming the gas as chlorine. (rt.com)
  • The use of chlorine as a chemical weapon is an abhorrent act. (rt.com)
  • As a choking agent, chlorine was widely used during World War I. Nowadays it is sold legally as a key component in industry, but its use as a chemical weapon violates the Chemical Weapons Convention. (rt.com)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations World Health Organization 1967 CHLORINE Chemical name Chlorine Empirical formula Cl 2 Molecular weight 70.91 Use For the treatment of flour. (inchem.org)
  • In the absence of adequate chemical data from the manufacturers, specifications for chlorine have not been prepared and will not be established until the biological studies requested have been made available. (inchem.org)
  • It is also used for water disinfection, although the chlorine itself is quickly transformed into other chemicals at the beginning of the process. (cdc.gov)
  • Read about reproductive and developmental problems associated with Chlorine Disinfection By Products (DBP's)! (answers.com)
  • The broad spectrum disinfection properties of chlorine dioxide result in a lower C T value than traditional chlorine treatment to help a plant comply with EPA regulations. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Chlorine dioxide offers utilities a simple solution to primary disinfection requirements. (environmental-expert.com)
  • When chlorine is combined with phenols, which are chemicals that are both naturally-occurring in water and exist in pharmaceuticals and personal care products, the mixture produces disinfection byproducts. (usatoday.com)
  • He points out that the earlier disinfection byproducts are the reason, he explained, that some European countries such as Germany and the Netherlands have cut back or eliminated chlorine in their water supply systems. (usatoday.com)
  • Clean Water Systems & Stores Inc was chosen to design and supply an advanced automated chlorine disinfection skid for a potable water storage tank at the Opal Gas Processing Plant in Lincoln County Wyoming. (prweb.com)
  • It is used as a step before chlorine disinfection to eliminate trihalomethanes - the possible carcinogenic by-products of chlorine that are produced by its reaction with organic matter. (wisegeek.com)
  • the type of disinfectant used ,say for considering case of disinfection by chlorine dioxide (ClO2) substantial amount of chlorite (ClO2 -) is formed which acts as a precursor or product. (ipl.org)
  • Chlorine dioxide is used primarily (>95%) for bleaching of wood pulp, but is also used for the bleaching of flour and for the disinfection of water. (bionity.com)
  • Chlorine dioxide is also used in conjunction with ozone disinfection of water to reduce the formation of bromates which are regulated carcinogens. (bionity.com)
  • When liquid chlorine is released, it quickly turns into a gas that stays close to the ground and spreads rapidly. (cdc.gov)
  • Quickly take off clothing that has liquid chlorine on it. (cdc.gov)
  • You may be exposed through breathing, skin and eye contact if an accident involving chlorine takes place nearby, such as a liquid chlorine spill, a leak from a chlorine tank, or a leak from a facility that produces or uses chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • while it produces the same byproducts, it eliminates handling issues one encounters with liquid chlorine. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Asia Pacific is prognosticated to lead the market with a high demand for liquid chlorine in the production of vinyl chlorides, which could be further employed for producing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). (reportlinker.com)
  • The overall chlorine market is prophesied to increase demand in the upcoming future, examining the growing growth of the liquid chlorine industry. (reportlinker.com)
  • One of the main applications of liquid chlorine could be as a bleaching agent in end-use sectors including pulp and paper and water treatment. (reportlinker.com)
  • However, this has no consequence for using chlorine as a disinfectant: RidA helps bacteria only when the chlorine concentration is very low. (eurekalert.org)
  • Chlorine dioxide gas is used as a disinfectant for laboratory and manufacturing equipment, clean rooms, and tools. (wisegeek.com)
  • and an anonymous commenter delivered the news: From February 1st until May 17th, DC WASA changed the disinfectant used in its water treatment process from chloarmine (NH 2 Cl) to chlorine. (welovedc.com)
  • A much smaller but important market for chlorine dioxide is for use as a disinfectant. (bionity.com)
  • When chlorine is added to water it reacts with organic matter such as skin cells and body care products to form "disinfectant by-products" or DBPs. (innovations-report.com)
  • Eating or chlorine gas and oxygen. (cdc.gov)
  • Scheele knew that chlorine was a new element, but thought it contained oxygen as well. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chlorine does not burn but, like oxygen, it helps other substances bum. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A chlorite ion consists of one chlorine atom covalently bonded to two oxygen atoms. (reference.com)
  • It may not be chlorine but the chloramines emitted when the water doesn't have enough chlorine. (healingwell.com)
  • the small amount required will be 'free available' chlorine, which has not combined with contaminants that create chloramines. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Chlorine is a relatively strong oxidizer and bactericide, but it creates chloramines and trihalomethanes (THMs), which cause irritation to the eyes, skin, throat and lungs. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In addition to chlorine gas, ammonia gas and chloramines can also be produced. (wisegeek.com)
  • This product is perfectly safe for swimming immediately after treatment and will not affect pH or chlorine levels while it destroys organic contaminants and chloramines. (google.com)
  • People's risk for exposure depends on how close they are to the place where the chlorine was released. (cdc.gov)
  • Quickly moving to an area where fresh air is available is highly effective in reducing exposure to chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • Additional symptoms of exposure to chlorine can be severe. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSH Criteria Documents: Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Chlorine -DHHS (NIOSH) No. 76-170 Contains a recommended standard for mitigation of exposure to Chlorine to prevent adverse effects over a working lifetime. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to chlorine can occur following an accident, such as a leak or spill from a chlorine tank or the improper use of swimming pool chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • These effects are most likely caused by the caustic nature of the hypochlorite solution and not from exposure to molecular chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • Acute chlorine gas exposure. (medscape.com)
  • Hemström P, Larsson A, Elfsmark L, Åstot C. l-α-Phosphatidylglycerol Chlorohydrins as Potential Biomarkers for Chlorine Gas Exposure. (medscape.com)
  • Jones RN, Hughes JM, Glindmeyer H, Weill H. Lung function after acute chlorine exposure. (medscape.com)
  • Chlorine gas exposure and the lung: a review. (medscape.com)
  • Acute health effects after exposure to chlorine gas released after a train derailment. (medscape.com)
  • The military said that around 350 Iraqi civilians and six coalition troops were treated for chlorine-gas exposure. (rferl.org)
  • Swimmers should be aware of the concentration of chlorine exposure they receive, and those who care for pools should closely monitor chlorine levels. (webmd.com)
  • Several grass species for both turf and ornamental use may prove ideal for an area with chlorine exposure. (gardenguides.com)
  • People who work with chlorine gas must be trained in proper safety protocols and use certain equipment to avoid industrial exposure. (wisegeek.com)
  • Exposure to chlorine can cause contact dermatitis, or skin inflammation resulting from direct contact with an irritant. (livestrong.com)
  • Before you swim, slather on a moisturizer, such as petrolatum, on the areas of your body most susceptible to itching to minimize the irritation from chlorine exposure. (livestrong.com)
  • Halogens are the family chlorine is in, along with iodine and Astatine. (prezi.com)
  • The chlorine-containing lipids showed a decreased iodine value (Gilles et al. (inchem.org)
  • Small quantities of elemental chlorine are generated by oxidation of chloride to hypochlorite in neutrophils as part of the immune response against bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • This chlorine oxide is an asymmetric oxide, with one chlorine atom in oxidation state +1 and the other +7, with proper formula ClOClO 3 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the pool water will have an oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of more than 700, with less than one part per million (ppm) of chlorine. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Ozone performs the 'heavy lifting' in oxidation, while chlorine acts as a residual sanitizer. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Chlorine is a strong oxidizing agent and causes oxidation by accepting electrons from a compound. (wisegeek.com)
  • Thesemay appear immediately if high concentrations of chlorine gas are inhaled, or they may be delayed if low concentrations of chlorine gas are inhaled. (cdc.gov)
  • Long-term complications may occur after breathing in high concentrations of chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • Short-term exposures (minutes) to high concentrations of chlorine affect children in the same manner they affect adults, but children may be more sensitive. (cdc.gov)
  • When they were scientifically tested they proved to contain high concentrations of chlorine and ammonia. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Often, a strong chlorine solution is added to the water to kill bacteria and other organisms. (fed.us)
  • Chlorine, in one form or another, is added to most swimming pools, spas, and public water supplies because it kills bacteria that cause disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Our immune system also produces chlorine, which causes proteins in bacteria to lose their natural folding. (eurekalert.org)
  • RUB researchers headed by Prof Dr Lars Leichert have discovered a protein in the intestinal bacterium E. coli that protects bacteria from chlorine. (eurekalert.org)
  • We believe that chlorine-activated chaperons play a role when bacteria and immune defence collide," says Lars Leichert. (eurekalert.org)
  • Effective water purification with no after taste, the Lifesystems Chlorine Dioxide Tablets kill the bacteria, viruses and cysts that lurk in water. (blacks.co.uk)
  • Chlorine dioxide is less corrosive than chlorine and superior for the control of legionella bacteria. (bionity.com)
  • It is more effective than chlorine against viruses , bacteria and protozoa - including the cysts of Giardia and the oocysts of Cryptosporidium . (bionity.com)
  • Most public water supplies are chlorinated to kill bacteria, and the BPA in the water also becomes chlorinated, acquiring one or more chlorine atoms from the water around it. (junkscience.com)
  • Chlorine is used in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products, about two-thirds of them organic chemicals such as polyvinyl chloride , and many intermediates for the production of plastics and other end products which do not contain the element. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the form of chloride ions , chlorine is necessary to all known species of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine dissolves in water and is converted into chloride and hypochlorous acid. (cdc.gov)
  • Comparison of the sensory irritation response in mice to chlorine and hydrogen chloride. (medscape.com)
  • chlorine can combine with practically any element to form a chloride. (prezi.com)
  • Rather, chlorine is found mainly in the form of the chloride ion, a component of salts deposited in the earth or dissolved in the oceans . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center at the University of Texas at Auston suggests that salt-tolerant plants are simultaneously the best able to tolerate chlorine, as chlorine exists in nature as chloride in salts. (gardenguides.com)
  • Other pyrotechnic chemicals that contain high percentages of chlorine include ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), hexachlorobenzene (C6Cl6), and hexachloroethane (C2Cl6). (skylighter.com)
  • 4 is in chlorine dioxide , a common chlorine compound that is not a chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • PVC (Poly-vinyl chloride), a common plastic, has chlorine in it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most people are exposed to small amounts of chlorine dioxide and chlorite by drinking treated water. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies in animals exposed to high amounts of chlorine chain. (cdc.gov)
  • Huge amounts of chlorine are used in many industrial processes, such as in the production of paper products, plastics, dyes, textiles, medicines, antiseptics, insecticides, solvents and paints second most common halogen on the planet it took almost 200 years after the discovery to become an element. (prezi.com)
  • They say rail shipping and storage of massive amounts of chlorine gas to water-treatment plants are dangerous. (scientificamerican.com)
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to chlorine cells and particularly to so-called diaphragm type electrolytic cells used in the production of chlorine. (google.com)
  • It provides a practical and up-to-date account of the scientific and technological basics for the production of chlorine and describes various applications and prospects for future developments. (wiley.com)
  • Unfortunately, the mechanism of calomel s production of chlorine is unique. (skylighter.com)
  • One liter of water dissolves 3.10 liters of gaseous chlorine at ten ° C , but the same amount of water dissolves only 1.77 liters chlorine gas at 30 °C. In water, it exists as a mixture of chlorine (Cl 2 ), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and hypochlorous acid (HOCl). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chlorine is a dense gas with a density of 3.21 grams per liter. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 10. A method for preparing a composition which comprises substantially 3,000 ppm of chlorine dioxide per liter comprising adding the product of claim 4 to a liter of water in an amount effective to disinfect said water. (google.com)
  • RFE/RL) March 17, 2007 -- The U.S. military says insurgents have detonated explosives on three trucks carrying toxic chlorine gas in western Iraq, killing as many as eight people and causing hundreds of others to seek treatment. (rferl.org)
  • They're putting chlorine inside these homemade roadside bombs, which is toxic for those that inhale it. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Chlorine gas is very toxic because of it's strong oxidizing nature. (smore.com)
  • Carl Wilhelm Scheele wrote a description of chlorine gas in 1774, supposing it to be an oxide of a new element. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine was discovered in 1774 by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele , who observed the greenish-yellow gas when experimenting with seawater. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Still, chlorine was not recognized as an element until 1774, when Scheele was studying the mineral pyrolusite. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chlorine was discovered in 1774 by Carl Wihelm Scheele. (smore.com)
  • A useful search terms for chlorine include "molecular chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • Scientists studying the atmosphere above Barrow, Alaska, have discovered unprecedented levels of molecular chlorine in the air, a new study reports. (nsf.gov)
  • Chlorine dioxide is also superior to chlorine when operating above neutral pH, when ammonia is present and for the control of biofilms. (bionity.com)
  • Humphry Davy proposed and confirmed chlorine to bean elemt in 1810, and also named the element. (smore.com)
  • Chlorine was named in 1810 by Humphry Davy who insisted it was an element. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elemental chlorine is commercially produced from brine by electrolysis . (wikipedia.org)
  • As noted above, elemental chlorine is not found in nature. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Elemental chlorine (Cl 2 ) combines readily with nearly all other elements. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Elemental chlorine is commercially produced from brine by electrolysis, predominantly in the chlor-alkali process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine gas is a form of elemental chlorine that is commonly used industrially. (wisegeek.com)
  • At atmospheric pressure and room temperature, elemental chlorine is a gas. (wisegeek.com)
  • Chlorine is one of the most commonly manufactured chemicals in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • however, the chlorine is quickly transformed into other chemicals (hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite anion), which actually disinfect the water. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorine is very unstable and reacts with a variety of chemicals and water when it is released into the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • You may be exposed to chlorine gas through the improper use of swimming pool chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • There has been no specific terror threat against the city involving chemicals, but New York City police recently put more emphasis on screening shipments of chlorine after learning that it has become a favored component of homemade bombs in Iraq. (wired.com)
  • chlorine is not flammable but when combined with other chemicals it does. (prezi.com)
  • Chlorine ranks among the top 10 chemicals produced in the United States . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Most people think they can smell chlorine, but you can't until the level gets extremely high, and then you can actually taste the chemicals it reacts with. (healingwell.com)
  • Chlorine is one of the most important inorganic basic chemicals It is not only an essential reaction component for the synthesis of numerous organic and inorganic chemicals and plastics, it is also of great importance for the production of pharmaceuticals, disinfectants, bleaches and insecticides. (wiley.com)
  • Using ozone as the main pool sanitizer and chlorine as a secondary sanitizer can increase bather comfort while decreasing hazardous chemicals and byproducts. (environmental-expert.com)
  • But when construction is completed, it also will be the filtration system for a backyard swimming pool that will use plants, gravel and mechanical filters instead of chlorine or other chemicals to clean the water. (mailtribune.com)
  • However, chlorine breaks down into different chemicals that have been blamed for itchy skin, difficulty breathing, asthma and other ailments. (mailtribune.com)
  • The worldwide chlorine market is expected to be classified into four critical segments, i.e. vinyls, organic chemicals, water treatment, and chlorinated intermediates. (reportlinker.com)
  • How the CDC, in addressing cancer, can ignore all the cancer-causing pesticide residues in typical cigarettes, the dioxin-creating chlorine chemicals and the chlorine-bleached paper, the carcinogenic levels of radiation from certain Still Legal phosphate fertilizers, and the little fact that a typical cigarette may not even be made from tobacco is a question. (opednews.com)
  • Attacks this month in several areas of the country share characteristics that have led analysts to believe that there is a coordinated chlorine campaign, with growing evidence that it is the government side dropping the bombs. (reuters.com)
  • Activists said helicopters dropped improvised barrel bombs with a chlorine canister enclosed, which led to casualties. (reuters.com)
  • This also features in a bomb used in Telmens [another town hit by chlorine bombs], and it appears to be designed to hold the gas cylinder away from the front of the barrel bomb, so on impact it doesn't end up buried in the ground, preventing the release of gas. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • An unknown quantity of chlorine bombs is buried in the middle of a football field, on the entrance to the town. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • More recently, chlorine bombs have been used in the Iraq War. (wisegeek.com)
  • Chlorine (Cl₂) is a greenish-yellow gas with a pungent, irritating odor. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorine perchlorate is a pale greenish liquid which decomposes at room temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • If chlorine is spilled into water or onto soil or if it is released from a tank into the air, the chlorine will evaporate very quickly forming a greenish-yellow cloud that is heavier than air and can be carried by the wind away from the source. (cdc.gov)
  • The greenish-yellow colour of chlorine gas may be visible in the Petri dish, especially if viewed from the side. (rsc.org)
  • Chlorine was derived from the greek word Chloros, meaning a greenish yellow. (prezi.com)
  • He named it chlorine, from the Greek word χλωρóς (chloros) , meaning greenish yellow. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • He suggested the name chlorine for the element, from the Greek word chloros, meaning "greenish-yellow. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This greenish-yellow gas crystallizes as orange crystals at −59 °C. As one of several oxides of chlorine, it is a potent and useful oxidizing agent used in water treatment and in bleaching. (bionity.com)
  • Chlorine is a very irritating and greenish-yellow gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low concentrations of chlorine gas attack eyes, throats, and lungs with painful effects. (smore.com)
  • The Lewis Dot structure for chlorine pentafluoride, a compound containing one chlorine atom and five fluorine atoms, is drawn with the chlorine, represente. (reference.com)
  • Another frequently used chlorine compound that is used in liquid and gas form is chlorine dioxide, ClO 2 . (wisegeek.com)
  • Chlorine is a gas with a very irritating odor. (cdc.gov)
  • Removes chlorine & chlorine odor with just one use (use as directed). (wegmans.com)
  • Washes away chlorine & chlorine odor. (wegmans.com)
  • Chlorine dioxide is used as an oxidant for phenol destruction in waste water streams, control of zebra mussels in water intakes and for odor control in the air scrubbers of animal byproduct (rendering) plants. (bionity.com)
  • The physical sciences building at the University of Central Florida was evacuated briefly Thursday afternoon because of an odor of chlorine, the UCF Police Department said. (wesh.com)
  • What is the Lewis Dot structure for chlorine pentafluoride? (reference.com)
  • In addition, the decomposition of chlorine dioxide can release chlorine gas. (wisegeek.com)
  • In the upper atmosphere , chlorine-containing organic molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons have been implicated in ozone depletion . (wikipedia.org)
  • not Ozone generated by UV, strait UV technology will Kill algae, not just put it to sleep like chlorine does. (answers.com)
  • The water is as pure and clear as bottled water and safer than pools that use chlorine only or combinations other than ozone and chlorine. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Using ozone in conjunction with chlorine is also a natural, pre-emptive approach to chloramine management, which also improves water quality. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Introducing ozone prior to chlorine further reduces chances of chloramine formation. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Chlorine has long been the industry standard to keep pool water clean and clear, but consumer demand for alternatives has prompted the emergence of new technologies, including the saltwater systems that came into vogue a few years ago and the copper-and-silver ionization and ozone-gas systems that are increasingly popular. (mailtribune.com)
  • Wailani Natural Purewater Systems in Thousand Oaks, Calif., also uses copper and silver ionizers, as well as an ozone gas generator that virtually eliminates the need for chlorine. (mailtribune.com)
  • Their website says 'ozone is used as the primary sterilization agent and chlorine the secondary sterilization agent for all indoor pools. (reddit.com)
  • An electrochemical cell for the detection of chlorine which includes a gold working electrode and a counter electrode, with or without a reference electrode, comprising either gold or platinum black which operate in a substantially non-aqueous electrolyte consisting preferably of lithium perchlorate dissolved in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of γ-butyrolactone and propylene carbonate. (google.ca)
  • Chlorine inhalation toxicity from vapors generated by swimming pool chlorinator tablets. (medscape.com)
  • You may have chlorine tablets or a chlorine floater in the pool. (wikihow.com)
  • Regulate the speed at which the tablets dissolve, depending on your pool's chlorine demand. (jcpenney.com)
  • Potable Aqua Chlorine Dioxide Water Purification Tablets are for use by campers, hikers, militaries, emergency organizations, and anyone needing to drink water of questionable microbiological quality. (realgoods.com)
  • Chlorine gas is heavier than air, so it would settle in low-lying areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Go to the highest ground possible, because chlorine is heavier than air and will sink to low-lying areas. (cdc.gov)
  • The victims talked of the fog that hung close to the ground - a possible indication that it was chlorine, which is heavier than air. (rt.com)
  • Chlorine reacts with water in and out of the body to form hydrochloric acid and hypochlorous acid. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This is a class experiment in which students, using microscale apparatus, can generate chlorine gas safely themselves in the open laboratory and investigate how it reacts with water and halide ions in solution. (rsc.org)
  • Chlorite is formed when chlorine dioxide reacts with water. (cdc.gov)
  • If inhaled, chlorine gas - a deadly agent widely used in World War One - turns to hydrochloric acid in the lungs, which can lead to internal burning and drowning through a reactionary release of water in the lungs. (reuters.com)
  • Chlorine acid can refer to: Hydrochloric acid, HCl Hypochlorous acid, HClO Chlorous acid, HClO2 Chloric acid, HClO3 Perchloric acid, HClO4 Chlorine acids Molecular structure of hydrochloric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shusterman D, Murphy MA, Balmes J. Influence of age, gender, and allergy status on nasal reactivity to inhaled chlorine. (medscape.com)
  • A 2007 United Nations report found that at least 10 attacks in Iraq involved explosives attached to chlorine canisters. (wired.com)
  • On May 5, local sources took this reporter to three sites in the Syrian town of Kfar Zita to track down the remnants of chlorine bomb attacks. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • In the past few weeks it has become the main target of multiple chlorine bomb attacks by the Assad regime. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Iraqi officials have shown the BBC footage, which they say proves Islamic State militants are using chlorine gas in roadside bomb attacks. (bbc.co.uk)
  • One use of chlorine dioxide has been to treat the aftermath of terrorist attacks. (wisegeek.com)
  • A recent statement from the Iraqi Defense Ministry said that the IS had used the gas in a "primitive and ineffective way" - in roadside bomb attacks and near several water treatment plants where it had gained access to chlorine. (rt.com)
  • Two naturally occurring isotopes of chlorine exist, chlorine-35 and chlorine-36. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Dry skin, and smell of chlorine when your skin gets wet. (reddit.com)
  • A new study shows that swimmers experienced breathing problems similar to those associated with asthma after several minutes of swimming even in water with chlorine levels below the recommended level for disinfecting private pools. (webmd.com)
  • What happens to chlorine when it enters the environment? (cdc.gov)
  • In the presence of chlorine, it tightly bonds with other proteins, thus preventing them from coagulating. (eurekalert.org)
  • In other words: in the presence of chlorine, RidA transforms into a so-called chaperon. (eurekalert.org)
  • The conclusions on the Saraqib attack are based on the presence of two cylinders, which were determined as previously containing chlorine, witness testimony and environmental samples confirming "the unusual presence of chlorine", it said. (reuters.com)
  • Ironically, even the chlorine widely used to disinfect water produces Carcinogenic traces. (whale.to)
  • Chlorine is the most widely used sanitation method, but is becoming less desirable because of the harmful byproducts it produces and its difficulty inactivating cryptosporidium. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Chlorine may have its disadvantages however it is still accepted as the most popular and available sanitizer. (answers.com)
  • Chlorine, on the other hand, has a long half-life, which allows it to function as a long-term residual sanitizer in the pool basin. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Since 1999 a growing proportion of the chlorine dioxide made globally for water treatment and other small scale applications has been made using the chlorate, hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid method which can produce a chlorine free product at high efficiency. (bionity.com)
  • When chlorine gas comes into contact with moist tissues such as the eyes, throat, and lungs, an acid is produced that can damage these tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • At higher levels, breathing chlorine gas may result in changes in breathing rate and coughing, and damage to the lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorine gas is classified as a "choking agent", burning the lungs when inhaled in large quantities. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Babu RV, Cardenas V, Sharma G. Acute respiratory distress syndrome from chlorine inhalation during a swimming pool accident: a case report and review of the literature. (medscape.com)
  • Martinez TT, Long C. Explosion risk from swimming pool chlorinators and review of chlorine toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • SOURCES: Williams, A. "Increased Concentration of Chlorine in Swimming Pool Water Causes Exercise-Induced Bronchochonstriction (EIB)," presented at the American College of Sports Medicine 51st Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, June 2-5, 2004. (webmd.com)
  • He developed a prototype for the patent-pending FINLEY'S BOAT FOR POOLS to dispense chlorine in a swimming pool while improving the pool's appearance. (prweb.com)