A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.
Porphyrins with four methyl, two ethyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.
Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.
Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)
A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.
An enzyme that catalyzes the chlorination of a range of organic molecules, forming stable carbon-chloride bonds. EC
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
The extraction and recovery of usable or valuable material from scrap or other discarded materials. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Decolorization and detoxification of extraction-stage effluent from chlorine bleaching of kraft pulp by Rhizopus oryzae. (1/1030)

Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycete, was found to decolorize, dechlorinate, and detoxify bleach plant effluent at lower cosubstrate concentrations than the basidiomycetes previously investigated. With glucose at 1 g/liter, this fungus removed 92 to 95% of the color, 50% of the chemical oxygen demand, 72% of the adsorbable organic halide, and 37% of the extractable organic halide in 24 h at temperatures of 25 to 45 degrees C and a pH of 3 to 5. Even without added cosubstrate the fungus removed up to 78% of the color. Monomeric chlorinated aromatic compounds were removed almost completely, and toxicity to zebra fish was eliminated. The fungal mycelium could be immobilized in polyurethane foam and used repeatedly to treat batches of effluent. The residue after treatment was not further improved by exposure to fresh R. oryzae mycelium.  (+info)

Analysis of zinc binding sites in protein crystal structures. (2/1030)

The geometrical properties of zinc binding sites in a dataset of high quality protein crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank have been examined to identify important differences between zinc sites that are directly involved in catalysis and those that play a structural role. Coordination angles in the zinc primary coordination sphere are compared with ideal values for each coordination geometry, and zinc coordination distances are compared with those in small zinc complexes from the Cambridge Structural Database as a guide of expected trends. We find that distances and angles in the primary coordination sphere are in general close to the expected (or ideal) values. Deviations occur primarily for oxygen coordinating atoms and are found to be mainly due to H-bonding of the oxygen coordinating ligand to protein residues, bidentate binding arrangements, and multi-zinc sites. We find that H-bonding of oxygen containing residues (or water) to zinc bound histidines is almost universal in our dataset and defines the elec-His-Zn motif. Analysis of the stereochemistry shows that carboxyl elec-His-Zn motifs are geometrically rigid, while water elec-His-Zn motifs show the most geometrical variation. As catalytic motifs have a higher proportion of carboxyl elec atoms than structural motifs, they provide a more rigid framework for zinc binding. This is understood biologically, as a small distortion in the zinc position in an enzyme can have serious consequences on the enzymatic reaction. We also analyze the sequence pattern of the zinc ligands and residues that provide elecs, and identify conserved hydrophobic residues in the endopeptidases that also appear to contribute to stabilizing the catalytic zinc site. A zinc binding template in protein crystal structures is derived from these observations.  (+info)

Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor: identification of a gene cluster required for the rugose colony type, exopolysaccharide production, chlorine resistance, and biofilm formation. (3/1030)

The rugose colony variant of Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, is shown to produce an exopolysaccharide, EPSETr, that confers chlorine resistance and biofilm-forming capacity. EPSETr production requires a chromosomal locus, vps, that contains sequences homologous to carbohydrate biosynthesis genes of other bacterial species. Mutations within this locus yield chlorine-sensitive, smooth colony variants that are biofilm deficient. The biofilm-forming properties of EPSETr may enable the survival of V. cholerae O1 within environmental aquatic habitats between outbreaks of human disease.  (+info)

Investigation of two evolutionarily unrelated halocarboxylic acid dehalogenase gene families. (4/1030)

Dehalogenases are key enzymes in the metabolism of halo-organic compounds. This paper describes a systematic approach to the isolation and molecular analysis of two families of bacterial alpha-halocarboxylic acid (alphaHA) dehalogenase genes, called group I and group II deh genes. The two families are evolutionarily unrelated and together represent almost all of the alphaHA deh genes described to date. We report the design and evaluation of degenerate PCR primer pairs for the separate amplification and isolation of group I and II deh genes. Amino acid sequences derived from 10 of 11 group I deh partial gene products of new and previously reported bacterial isolates showed conservation of five residues previously identified as essential for activity. The exception, DehD from a Rhizobium sp., had only two of these five residues. Group II deh gene sequences were amplified from 54 newly isolated strains, and seven of these sequences were cloned and fully characterized. Group II dehalogenases were stereoselective, dechlorinating L- but not D-2-chloropropionic acid, and derived amino acid sequences for all of the genes except dehII degrees P11 showed conservation of previously identified essential residues. Molecular analysis of the two deh families highlighted four subdivisions in each, which were supported by high bootstrap values in phylogenetic trees and by enzyme structure-function considerations. Group I deh genes included two putative cryptic or silent genes, dehI degrees PP3 and dehI degrees 17a, produced by different organisms. Group II deh genes included two cryptic genes and an active gene, dehIIPP3, that can be switched off and on. All alphaHA-degrading bacteria so far described were Proteobacteria, a result that may be explained by limitations either in the host range for deh genes or in isolation methods.  (+info)

Chlorine inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7. (5/1030)

We analyzed isolates of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (which has recently caused waterborne outbreaks) and wild-type E. coli to determine their sensitivity to chlorination. Both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains were significantly reduced within 1 minute of exposure to free chlorine. Results indicate that chlorine levels typically maintained in water systems are sufficient to inactivate these organisms.  (+info)

Longitudinal distribution of chlorine absorption in human airways: comparison of nasal and oral quiet breathing. (6/1030)

The fraction of an inspired chlorine (Cl2) bolus absorbed during a single breath (Lambda) was measured as a function of bolus penetration (VP) into the respiratory system of five male and five female nonsmokers during both nasal and oral breathing at a quiet respiratory flow of 250 ml/s. The correspondence between VP and specific anatomic landmarks was found for each subject by a combination of acoustic reflection and nitrogen washout measurements. For both nasal and oral breathing, Lambda reached approximately 0. 95 at the distal end of the upper airways and reached 1.00 within the lower conducting airways. The values of a regional mass transfer parameter computed from the Lambda-VP data indicated that the resistance to Cl2 diffusion in the airway mucosa was negligible compared with the diffusion resistance in the respired gas. Changing the peak inhaled Cl2 concentration from 0.5 to 3.0 parts/million did not significantly affect the distribution of Cl2 absorption, suggesting that the underlying mass transport and chemical reaction processes were linear with respect to Cl2 concentration.  (+info)

Development and testing of a microbiological assay to detect residual effects of disinfectant on hard surfaces. (7/1030)

We describe a glucuronidase bioassay for detecting residual bactericidal activity from the use of disinfectants on hard surfaces; in this assay we used formaldehyde, ethanol, isopropanol, chlorine, and a commercial preparation containing 2-bromo-2-nitro-1, 3-propanediol. Chlorine and the commercial preparation showed bactericidal activity (53.5% and 98.2%, respectively) for a week after disinfection.  (+info)

Chlorine disinfection of recreational water for Cryptosporidium parvum. (8/1030)

We examined the effects of chlorine on oocyst viability, under the conditions of controlled pH and elevated calcium concentrations required for most community swimming pools. We found that fecal material may alter the Ct values (chlorine concentration in mg/L, multiplied by time in minutes) needed to disinfect swimming pools or other recreational water for Cryptosporidium parvum.  (+info)

... Page Chlorine Institute - Trade association representing the chlorine industry Chlorine Online - the web portal of ... chlorine cyanate (ClNCO), chlorine thiocyanate (ClSCN, unlike its oxygen counterpart), and chlorine azide (ClN3). Chlorine ... "solid chlorine" had a structure of chlorine hydrate (Cl2·H2O). Chlorine gas was first used by French chemist Claude Berthollet ... chlorine, oxygen, water, and chlorine dioxide. Its most important salt is sodium chlorate, mostly used to make chlorine dioxide ...
... can refer to: Hydrochloric acid, HCl Hypochlorous acid, HClO Chlorous acid, HClO2 Chloric acid, HClO3 Perchloric ... acid, HClO4 Chlorine acids Molecular structure of hydrochloric acid. Molecular structure of hypochlorous acid. Molecular ...
... is prepared by passing chlorine gas over silver azide, or by an addition of acetic acid to a solution of sodium ... Frierson, W. J.; Browne, A. W. (1943). "Chlorine Azide. II. Interaction of Chlorine Azide and Silver Azide. Azino Silver ... Chlorine azide is extremely sensitive. It may explode, sometimes even without apparent provocation; it is thus too sensitive to ... Chlorine azide (ClN3) is an inorganic compound that was discovered in 1908 by Friedrich Raschig. Concentrated ClN3 is ...
In the hydrosphere, chlorine exists primarily as chloride due to the high solubility of the Cl− ion. The majority of chlorine ... The cycling of chlorine into the atmosphere and creation of chlorine compounds by anthropogenic sources has major impacts on ... The chlorine cycle (Cl) is the biogeochemical cycling of chlorine through the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and ... The largest reservoir of chlorine resides in the lithosphere, where 2.2×1022 kg of global chlorine is found in Earth's mantle. ...
... is a volatile interhalogen compound with the chemical formula ClF. It is a colourless gas at room ... Chlorine monofluoride is a versatile fluorinating agent, converting metals and non-metals to their fluorides and releasing Cl2 ... For example, it adds fluorine and chlorine to the carbon of carbon monoxide, yielding carbonyl chloride fluoride: CO + ClF → ... Chlorine fluorides Otto Ruff, E. Ascher (1928). "Über ein neues Chlorfluorid-CIF3". Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine ...
Chlorine may also refer to: Chlorine (2013 film), an American film Chlorine (2015 film), an Italian film "Chlorine" (song), ... "Chlorine", a song on the album Hyperview by Title Fight (2015) Chlorine acid Chlorine bleach Isotopes of chlorine Wikimedia ... Look up chlorine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17. ... CL (disambiguation) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Chlorine. If an internal link led you ...
Inorganic chlorine compounds, Interhalogen compounds, Rocket oxidizers, Fluorinating agents, Oxidizing agents, Chlorine(V) ... Chlorine pentafluoride is an interhalogen compound with formula ClF5. This colourless gas is a strong oxidant that was once a ... Chlorine pentafluoride was once considered for use as an oxidizer for rockets. As a propellant, it has a higher maximum ... Due to the hazardous nature of chlorine pentafluoride, it has yet to be used in a large scale rocket propulsion system. John ...
This chlorine oxide is an asymmetric oxide, with one chlorine atom in +1 oxidation state and the other +7, with proper formula ... ClOClO3 Chlorine perchlorate is a pale greenish liquid. It is less stable than ClO2 (chlorine dioxide)[citation needed] and ... Cl2O6 Chlorine perchlorate reacts with metal chlorides to form chlorine and the corresponding anhydrous perchlorate: CrO2Cl2 + ... "Chlorine perchlorate a major photolysis product of chlorine dioxide". J. Phys. Chem. 86 (24): 4653-4655. doi:10.1021/ ...
... is an unstable chlorine oxide with the chemical formula ClO4. In 1923, the famous radical chemist Moses ... attached to the chlorine. Gomberg, M. (1 February 1923). "The Reaction Between Silver Perchlorate and Iodine. Chlorine Tetra- ... The structure of chlorine tetroxide is uncertain, and the symmetry point group may be Cs, C2v, or Td. In a solid oxygen matrix ... The electron affinity energy of chlorine tetroxide can be figured out using the Born-Haber cycle and the lattice energy data of ...
It was first reported in 1930 by Ruff and Krug who prepared it by fluorination of chlorine; this also produced ClF (chlorine ... Inorganic chlorine compounds, Incendiary weapons, Rocket oxidizers, Fluorinating agents, Oxidizing agents, Chlorine(III) ... Dioxygen difluoride Chlorine fluoride List of stoffs ^a Using data from Economic History Services and The Inflation Calculator ... I. Chlorine Trifluoride at −120 °C". The Journal of Chemical Physics. 21 (4): 602-608. Bibcode:1953JChPh..21..602B. doi:10.1063 ...
... (36Cl) is an isotope of chlorine. Chlorine has two stable isotopes and one naturally occurring radioactive isotope ... Isotopes of chlorine Audi, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Wang, M.; Huang, W. J.; Naimi, S. (2017). "The NUBASE2016 evaluation of nuclear ... "Chlorine". Isotopes & Hydrology. Archived from the original on 2004-03-27. Paleari, Chiara I.; F. Mekhaldi; F. Adolphi; M. ... Trace amounts of radioactive 36Cl exist in the environment, in a ratio of about (7-10) × 10−13 to 1 with stable chlorine ...
A chlorine bomb is a small explosive device which uses the pressure of chemically produced chlorine gas or other chlorine- ... Also chlorine is not formed by the reaction of chlorine bleach with ammonia. The reaction of bleach with ammonia forms ... It is made with an airtight container part-filled with different types of chlorine tablet and other reagents. The reaction ... Contrary to the opinion of chemical laymen and public security experts, chlorine is not generated by the reaction of ...
A chlorine fluoride is an interhalogen compound containing only chlorine and fluorine. National Pollutant Inventory - Fluoride ... compounds fact sheet NIST Standard Reference Database WebElements (Inorganic chlorine compounds, Fluorides, Interhalogen ...
... can be produced by laser or ultraviolet photolysis of the chlorine molecule with ozone. The lasers used to ... Chemically, it is a dimer of the chlorine monoxide radical (ClO·). It is important in the formation of the ozone hole. Chlorine ... Microwave discharge can also break up chlorine molecules into atoms that react with ozone to make chlorine peroxide. Cl2 + hν ... Chlorine peroxide (also known as dichlorine dioxide or ClO dimer) is a molecular compound with formula ClOOCl. ...
... accounts for 24.23% of natural chlorine, chlorine-35 accounting for 75.77%, giving chlorine atoms in bulk an ... Chlorine-37 (37 Cl ), is one of the stable isotopes of chlorine, the other being chlorine-35 (35 Cl ). Its nucleus contains 17 ... The representative terrestrial abundance of chlorine-37 is 24.22(4)% of chlorine atoms, with a normal range of 24.14-24.36% of ... chlorine-37 and to have an atomic weight of around 35.4525 There is a known variation in the isotopic abundance of chlorine-37 ...
Digital release of "Chlorine (Alt Mix)": "Chlorine (Alt Mix) - Single". iTunes Store (US). 8 February 2019. Retrieved February ... Twenty One Pilots, Chlorine, retrieved January 28, 2019 "Twenty One Pilots - Chlorine" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40. ... "Chlorine (Alt Mix) - Single". iTunes Store (UK). 8 February 2019. Retrieved February 9, 2019. "Chlorine (Alt Mix) - Single". ... "Chlorine (Alt Mix) - Single". iTunes Store (NZ). 8 February 2019. Retrieved February 9, 2019. "Chlorine (Alt Mix) - Single". ...
... is less corrosive than chlorine and superior for the control of Legionella bacteria. Chlorine dioxide is ... Chlorine dioxide may be used for control of zebra and quagga mussels in water intakes.: 4-34 Chlorine dioxide was shown to be ... Chlorine dioxide is also superior to chlorine when operating above pH 7,: 4-33 in the presence of ammonia and amines, and for ... Chlorine dioxide is sometimes used for bleaching of wood pulp in combination with chlorine, but it is used alone in ECF ( ...
In the stratosphere, chlorine atoms react with ozone molecules to form chlorine monoxide and oxygen. Cl• + O3 → ClO• + O2 This ... In this way, the overall reaction for the decomposition of ozone is catalyzed by chlorine, as ultimately chlorine remains ... Chlorine monoxide is a chemical radical with the chemical formula ClO•. It plays an important role in the process of ozone ... This causes many chlorine radicals to be produced and hence a significant amount of ozone molecules are decomposed before the ...
Inorganic chlorine compounds, Nitrates, Oxidizing agents, Chlorine(I) compounds, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ... Chlorine nitrate, with chemical formula ClNO3 is an important atmospheric gas present in the stratosphere. It is an important ... 2CH2Cl Chlorine nitrate reacts with metal chlorides: 4 ClONO2 + TiCl4 → Ti(NO3)4 + 4 Cl2 Schmeisser, M.; Ruff, J. K. & Lustig, ... "New synthesis of chlorine nitrate". Inorganic Chemistry. 6 (10): 1938-1939. doi:10.1021/ic50056a047. ISSN 0020-1669. 张青莲 (1991 ...
... may refer to chlorine-based bleaching in the pulp and paper industry: Chlorine and hypochlorite bleaching of ... Chlorine-based bleaches This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Chlorine bleaching. If an internal ...
Look up chlorine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Production of chlorine gas and demonstration of its oxidizing properties ( ... Potassium permanganate can be used to generate chlorine gas when added to hydrochloric acid. Large-scale production of chlorine ... These towers progressively remove any remaining moisture from the chlorine gas. After exiting the drying towers the chlorine is ... A typical plant consists of brine production/treatment, cell operations, chlorine cooling & drying, chlorine compression & ...
... chlorine monoxide, ClO, chlorine (II) oxide chlorine peroxide, Cl 2O 2, dimer of chlorine (II) oxide chlorine dioxide, ClO 2, ... chlorine (VII) oxide chlorine tetroxide, ClO 4 chlorine (VII) oxide peroxide, (OClO3)2 Several ions are also chlorine oxides: ... chlorine (0,IV) oxide chlorine chlorite, ClOClO, chlorine (I,III) oxide dichlorine trioxide, Cl2O3, chlorine (I,V) oxide ... chlorine (IV) oxide chloroperoxyl, ClOO chlorine trioxide, ClO3, chlorine (VI) oxide dichlorine monoxide, Cl2O, chlorine (I) ...
... (ECF) is a technique that uses chlorine dioxide for the bleaching of wood pulp. It does not use ... 15 Totally chlorine free (TCF) is paper that does not use any chlorine compounds for wood pulp bleaching. Environmental issues ... elemental chlorine gas during the bleaching process and prevents the formation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, ...
... fluoridates various materials such as chlorine monoxide, chlorine, glass or quartz. ClOF3 + Cl2O → ... Chlorine oxide trifluoride or chlorine trifluoride oxide is a corrosive liquid molecular compound with formula ClOF3. It was ... Chlorine oxide trifluoride was originally made at Rocketdyne by treating chlorine monoxide with fluorine. Other substances that ... Over 280 °C ClOF3 decomposes to oxygen and chlorine trifluoride. The boiling point of chlorine trifluoride oxide is 29 °C. The ...
... is an illness resulting from the effects of exposure to chlorine beyond the threshold limit value. The ... In 2007 chlorine was used by insurgents in the Iraqi insurgency (2003-11), In 2014 chlorine was allegedly used in Kafr Zita, ... of chlorine gas. Sixty-seven persons were injured. In 2015 In Nigeria, the explosion of a chlorine gas storage tank at a water ... Humans can smell chlorine gas at ranges from 0.1-0.3 ppm. According to a review from 2010: "At 1-3 ppm, there is mild mucous ...
The World Chlorine Council (WCC) is an international network of national and regional trade associations representing the ... ISBN 978-0-230-21665-5. "About WCC". World Chlorine Council. 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-14. Chemical Times & Trends. Chemical ... chlorine and chlorinated products industries in more than 27 countries. Members include chloralkali process associations such ...
The pool chlorine hypothesis is the hypothesis that long-term attendance at indoor chlorinated swimming pools by children up to ... A narrower version of the hypothesis, i.e. that asthma may be induced by chlorine related compounds from swimming pools, has ... Brindley, Medeleine (2006-07-18). "Pool chlorine may give children asthma". WalesOnline. Retrieved 2008-08-08. Armstrong B, ... and colleagues argue that what is common to the pool chlorine hypothesis and epidemiological studies associating chlorine based ...
... , also known as chlorine base compounds, is jargon to describe certain chlorine-containing ... "free chlorine" or "available chlorine". It is the mass of chlorine gas (Cl2) that would yield the same oxidizing power as the ... Industrially, chlorine-based bleaches are used in a wide variety of processes, including bleaching of wood pulp. Chlorine- ... Vogt H, Balej J, Bennett JE, Wintzer P, Sheikh SA, Gallone P (2010). "Chlorine Oxides and Chlorine Oxygen Acids". Ullmann's ...
Stable chlorine-37 makes up about 24.23% of the naturally occurring chlorine on earth. Variation occurs as chloride mineral ... Isotopes of chlorine, Chlorine, Lists of isotopes by element). ... Chlorine (17Cl) has 25 isotopes with mass numbers ranging from ... I. Argon and chlorine isotope chains". Physical Review C. 98 (6): 064308-1-064308-13. arXiv:1803.10951. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC. ... Chlorine isotopes data from The Berkeley Laboratory Isotopes Project's (Articles with short description, Short description with ...
"Chlorine (2014)". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on 2014-03-02. Official website Chlorine at IMDb Chlorine at ... Chlorine is a 2013 American comedy-drama film directed and written by Jay Alaimo. Filming mainly took place in Madison, New ... Brody, Meredith (2013-03-16). "Sun Valley Film Fest Day Two: From Steve Gaghan and Adam West to 'The Summit,' 'Chlorine,' and a ... On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, Chlorine has an approval rating of 8% based on 13 reviews. Harvey, Dennis (February 27, ...
Exposure to low levels of chlorine can result in nose, throat, and eye irritation. At higher levels, breathing chlorine gas may ... Chlorine (Cl₂) is a greenish-yellow gas with a pungent, irritating odor. ... Chlorine (Cl₂) is a greenish-yellow gas with a pungent, irritating odor. Exposure to low levels of chlorine can result in nose ... Additional symptoms of exposure to chlorine can be severe. Workers may be harmed from exposure to chlorine. The level of ...
Chlorine gas can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Exposure to high levels can result in corrosive ... Chlorine gas has been found in at least 60 of the 1,591 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental ... working in facilities that use chlorine to manufacture other chemicals have the highest risk of being exposed to chlorine. ... such as a liquid chlorine spill, a leak from a chlorine tank, or a leak from a facility that produces or uses chlorine. ...
Chlorine poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes in (inhales) chlorine. ... Chlorine is a chemical that prevents bacteria from growing. ... Chlorine reacts with water in and out of the body to form ... Chlorine poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes in (inhales) chlorine.. This article is for information only. DO ... Chlorine is present in:. *Gas released when mixing bleach with some of the powdered cleansing products and ammonia (chloramine ...
Information on chlorine, a potential agent for chemical terrorism. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ... Facts About Chlorine. Overview of chlorine, including signs & symptoms, protection, & treatment. *Case Definition: Chlorine. ... Chlorine - NIOSH Resources. *Emergency Response Card: Information for First Responders. Agent-specific identification, medical ...
Chlorine rash is simple to treat, but can be confused with other rashes, such as swimmers itch and heat rash. Learn more here. ... What is a chlorine rash?. Share on Pinterest. A chlorine rash is a type of contact dermatitis.. Image credit: James Heilman, MD ... The chlorine in swimming pools can cause a rash in some people. Chlorine rash may be confused with swimmers itch or heat rash. ... Chlorine rashes happen after exposure to the chemical. It is not possible to be allergic to chlorine, but one persons skin may ...
Get the best deals on chlorine dioxide tablets when you shop the largest online selection at eBay.com. Free shipping on many ...
... you arent necessarily allergic to chlorine, just sensitive to it. Fortunately, there are ways to treat the rash without having ... If you get a chlorine rash after swimming, ... However, a chlorine rash is a reaction to chlorine exposure ... People often experience chlorine rash related to repeated exposure to chlorine. The immune system may identify the chlorine as ... Some of the ways to prevent a chlorine rash include:. *Taking a bath or shower before and after youre exposed to chlorine. If ...
... non-reagent type chlorine analyzer for measuring free chlorine and a reagent type chlorine analyzer for measuring free chlorine ... or residual chlorine (total chlorine). You can find the best solution. , Yokogawa France ... The lineup of two types of chlorine analyzers, a ... About Chlorine. *What is Residual Chlorine?. *What is Free ... Residual chlorine = free available chlorine + combined available chlorine; or. Residual chlorine = free residual chlorine + ...
Leaking chlorine from a chemical plant is thought the cause of suspected poisoning which has put 164 people in hospital in ... Leaking chlorine from a chemical plant is thought the cause of suspected poisoning which has put 164 people in hospital in ...
Chlorine poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes in (inhales) chlorine. ... Chlorine is a chemical that prevents bacteria from growing. ... Chlorine reacts with water in and out of the body to form ... Chlorine poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes in (inhales) chlorine.. This article is for information only. DO ... Chlorine is present in:. *Gas released when mixing bleach with some of the powdered cleansing products and ammonia (chloramine ...
2002)‎. Chlorine dioxide (‎gas)‎. World Health Organization. https://extranet.who.int/iris/restricted/handle/10665/42421 ...
Testing Status of Chlorinated paraffins: C23, 43% chlorine 10062-P. Testing Status of Chlorinated paraffins: C23, 43% chlorine ...
Chlorine analysis is a key parameter of monitoring at water treatment plants and typically represents a critical control point ... Resources , Latest News , Chlorine analysis colorimetric versus amperometric Chlorine analysis: colorimetric versus ... which reacts with the free chlorine to form a coloured product that is read photometrically to determine the amount of chlorine ... AWA Specialist Networks Assets & Operations chlorine Water Quality Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis Specialist N ...
Sexton Plaza was evacuated Thursday morning after a chlorine vapor leak. PATRICK DOVE/TCPALM ...
INEOS produces chlorine products which have multiple uses including to make drinking water safe to drink. ... Chlorine. Chlorine is used to purify drinking water among other things and can be used to produce other chemical products such ... Chlorine. Chlorine is produced by passing a powerful electric current through a brine solution (salt dissolved in water), a ... Chlorine Derivatives. Chlorine derivatives includes various derivatives for use throughout the chemical industry, including ...
I must supplement some chlorine during these months to keep the basic levels up. Is there any difference in throwing in a ... A well balanced chlorine pool doesnt cause these issues. I think SWGs are great and would have one myself if not for our stone ... Its not an issue to use chlorine with a SWCG.... But-- you have to ask yourself why? Six (6) hours is plenty enough time for ... Most of the problems you hear about (burning eyes, dry skin, etc.) are not because of it being a chlorine pool. These are ...
Treatments billed as miracle cures have cropped up across the internet since the new coronavirus began spreading.
Large Whole House Water Filter Advanced Upgrade Chlorine Chloramine. $2,199.00. - $2,496.00. $2,062.00. - $2,375.00. ... Large Whole House Filter Wide-Spectrum 2-Media CHLORINE Plus 600,000 gallons!. $999.95. $959.00. ... Large Whole House Water Filter Advanced Upgrade Chlorine Chloramine. Rated 5.00 out of 5 ...
October 2021 Chlorine Production. 03/12/2021. In October, the European chlorine production reached 763,394 tonnes. With 24,626 ... Chlorine production & capacity utilisation - EU 27 + Norway/Switzerland/UK. Month. Production (tonnes). Capacity Utilisation ... The following tables give the details of chlorine production and caustic soda stocks in the EU-27 countries plus Norway, ... In 2021, 9,237 kilotonnes of chlorine was produced by Euro Chlor members. These data are reported annually in our industry ...
... chlorine has been hard to find, but the shortage appears to be easing. Here are four budget-friendly brands you can buy online. ... Affordable chlorine brands to buy online. Affordable chlorine brands to buy online Read Less by: Allen Foster, BestReviews ... How much chlorine do I need?. It is impossible to guess how much chlorine you will go through in the summer. The number of ... Why was there a chlorine shortage?. While it has become typical to blame everything on COVID-19, only part of the chlorine ...
Read reviews and buy UltraSwim Moisturizing Formula Chlorine Removal Shampoo - 7 fl oz at Target. Choose from Same Day Delivery ... If you love to swim, but hate how chlorine damages your hair, the Chlorine Removal Shampoo from UltraSwim is the perfect fix! ... I live in an area with very hard water that is strongly treated with chlorine. I color my hair and the water is harsh and ... Ive been using this shampoo since it first came out & it absolutely does what it says it does- gets the chlorine out of my ...
Information on chlorine, a potential agent for chemical terrorism. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ... Facts About Chlorine. Overview of chlorine, including signs & symptoms, protection, & treatment. *Case Definition: Chlorine. ... Chlorine - NIOSH Resources. *Emergency Response Card: Information for First Responders. Agent-specific identification, medical ...
Abstract Chlorine Inhalation Induces Acute Chest Syndrome in Humanized Sickle Cell Mouse Model and Ameliorated by Postexposure ... Hemopexin] [Synopsis Chlorine Inhalation Induces Acute Chest Syndrome in Humanized Sickle Cell Mouse Model and Ameliorated by ...
Chlorine tablets provide a quick and simple method for you to keep pool water clear and clean throughout the year. ... Chlorine tablets are less strong than pure chlorine gas, but theyre still very powerful. Youll notice most chlorine tablets ... For example, if a chlorine tablet has 90% chlorine available, this means the tablets are 90% as strong as chlorine gas. ... How to use chlorine tablets. Chlorine tablets typically come in two sizes: 1-inch or 2-inch tablets. You can buy containers of ...
Chlorine is damaging to all hair types; African hair, however, is naturally dry and surprisingly fragile making it to be ... "The best prevention for chlorine damage to black hair is to keep the hair from being exposed in the first place," says Vicky ... First of all, the after swim steps discussed above should be implemented to remove as much of the chlorine build-up as possible ... Vicky says that it is imperative that the black swimmers be diligent about using an anti-chlorine, or clarifying shampoo such ...
For chlorine this point is reached at 76.0 atmospheres (1117 psi) and 144C (291F).. A note on photography: As a colored liquid ... Ivan, who made this sample, tested it by heating it in a hot bath until the chlorine inside reached the critical point, where ... This is a small (1/8" inside diameter) vial of liquid chlorine. Unlike the medicinal ampule listed above, its actually pure ... chlorine does not reflect or diffract any light: In order to see the yellow color, you have to have a light background (i.e. ...
... liquefied chlorine gas. That would have made them very dangerous objects indeed: The pressure needed to liquefy chlorine is ... Medicinal chlorine.. This item seriously scared me when I first opened it. All the literature it came with (old and yellowed ... But careful reading of the fine print showed that these are in fact just dissolved chlorine in an alcohol solution. Whats ... Inhaling halogens is generally considered a bad idea these days, but considering how much exposure we all have to chlorine in ...
Discover Dosatrons efficient chlorine dosing pumps for water treatment and disinfection applications. ... Since a large part of the chlorine is needed to neutralize these organic materials, the dose of chlorine delivered by the ... Chlorine Dosing Pump Specification, a well-mastered Technology. Installed directly on the water supply line, the certified ... According to the WHO, in drinking water treatment, the free chlorine concentration of the treated water should be 0.2 to 0.5 mg ...
  • We provides two type of chlorine analyzers, non reagent type chlorine analyzer for free available chlorine measurement and reagent type chlorine analyzer for free chlorine or residual chlorine (total chlorine) measurement. (yokogawa.com)
  • The RC800D can measure free chlorine or residual chlorine (total chlorine). (yokogawa.com)
  • Sometimes free available chlorine is also called free chlorine, and residual chlorine is also called total chlorine. (yokogawa.com)
  • and S. typhi survived at total chlorine concentration of 0.50 mg/L for 100 minutes. (who.int)
  • We concluded that total chlorine levels of less than 0.71 mg/L in water supply systems cannot provide the recommended safety levels. (who.int)
  • Environmental and personal air samples were analyzed for chlorine (7782505), hydrogen-chloride (7647010), phosphates and other contaminants, and medical surveys were conducted at Iowa Beef Processors, Incorporated (SIC-2011) in Dakota City, Nebraska, on December 15 to 17, 1980. (cdc.gov)
  • Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for chlorine (7782505) (Cl), asbestos (1332214), and chromium (7440473) and nickel (7440020) welding fumes at Pennwalt Corporation (SIC-2812), Portland, Oregon in March, September, and October 1979, and April 1980. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to low levels of chlorine can result in nose, throat, and eye irritation. (cdc.gov)
  • Additional symptoms of exposure to chlorine can be severe. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSH Criteria Documents: Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Chlorine -DHHS (NIOSH) No. 76-170 Contains a recommended standard for mitigation of exposure to Chlorine to prevent adverse effects over a working lifetime. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to chlorine can occur following an accident, such as a leak or spill from a chlorine tank or the improper use of swimming pool chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • These effects are most likely caused by the caustic nature of the hypochlorite solution and not from exposure to molecular chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorine rashes happen after exposure to the chemical. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • As when other irritants cause contact dermatitis, exposure to chlorine can result in an itchy red rash and raw, swollen skin. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Chlorine rashes are most common after repeated exposure to the chemical. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Swimmer's itch is not related to chlorine exposure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Inhaling halogens is generally considered a bad idea these days, but considering how much exposure we all have to chlorine in pools and cleaning solutions, these were probably not a whole lot worse. (theodoregray.com)
  • One infant boy died after exposure consistent with chlorine , according to the Syrian American Medical Society, and more than a dozen others were said to be injured. (time.com)
  • A White Helmet volunteer sprays water on the body of a boy, said to have died after exposure to chlorine. (time.com)
  • Acute respiratory symptoms and evacuation-related behavior after exposure to chlorine gas leakage. (bvsalud.org)
  • Health examination was performed for all 52 workers suspected of exposure to chlorine gas , and their evacuation -related behaviors were observed in addition to analyzing the factors that affected the duration of their acute respiratory symptoms. (bvsalud.org)
  • Behavioral characteristics during the incidence of the accidental chlorine gas leakage , the estimated time of exposure, and the duration of subjective acute respiratory symptoms were investigated. (bvsalud.org)
  • Exposure to chlorine gas (Cl2) causes occupational asthma that we hypothesized occurs through the induction of airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness by oxidative damage. (cdc.gov)
  • We conclude that chlorine exposure causes functional and pathological changes in the airways associated with oxidative stress. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors conclude that a health hazard from exposure to chlorine existed at this facility. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorine is very unstable and reacts with a variety of chemicals and water when it is released into the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorine is very unstable and reacts with a variety of · People who work in places where chlorine is made or chemicals and water when it is released into used may be exposed to low levels over a period the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • When chlorine gas (Cl 2 ) is added to water, it reacts to form hypochlorous acid (HClO) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) and the reaction reaches equilibrium, as shown in chemical equation (1). (yokogawa.com)
  • Colorimetric analysis is based on N,N-Diethyl-p-Phenylenediamine (DPD), which reacts with the free chlorine to form a coloured product that is read photometrically to determine the amount of chlorine present. (awa.asn.au)
  • Chlorine reacts with water in and out of the body to form hydrochloric acid and hypochlorous acid. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When chlorine is added to water, it reacts with organic materials and metals, forming combined chlorine. (sensorex.com)
  • DPD is a reagent that reacts with chlorine and produces a red color. (sensorex.com)
  • however, the chlorine is quickly transformed into other chemicals (hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite anion), which actually disinfect the water. (cdc.gov)
  • The term 'free chlorine' in drinking water usually refers to the amount of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite in the water. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorine dissolves in water and is converted into chloride and hypochlorous acid. (cdc.gov)
  • the amount of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite in the · You may also be exposed to chlorine if you mix water. (cdc.gov)
  • Free chlorine refers to chlorine that is present as hypochlorous acid (HOCl) or the hypochlorite (OCl-) ion. (sensorex.com)
  • Chlorine exists in different chemical forms in solution, including free chlorine (hypochlorite ion and hypochlorous acid) and combined chlorine. (sensorex.com)
  • It is also used for water disinfection, although the chlorine itself is quickly transformed into other chemicals at the beginning of the process. (cdc.gov)
  • It is also used for that is heavier than air and can be carried by the wind water disinfection, although the chlorine itself is quickly several miles from the source. (cdc.gov)
  • It is also said that when combined available chlorine and free available chlorine have the same concentration, disinfection with combined available chlorine will take 100 times longer than the one with free available chlorine. (yokogawa.com)
  • The pressure and flow of water drives the engine piston, which is itself connected to a metering piston.Chlorine or other disinfection chemicals are proportionally dosed and continuously injected with water at the chosen dosage.The dose of concentrated product is directly proportional to the volume of water flowing through the dosing pump, regardless of variations in the flow rate and pressure of the water supply to the network. (dosatron.com)
  • Because combined chlorine is not available for disinfection, this effect is called the chlorine demand of the water. (sensorex.com)
  • These measurements ensure an adequate amount of chlorine is available for disinfection purposes, and in some cases that the chlorine has been removed. (sensorex.com)
  • For applications where the free chlorine concentration is critical for disinfection, the most robust measurement technique is the use of an amperometric free chlorine sensor. (sensorex.com)
  • In this case, the high temperature of the hot tub may have broken down the chlorine, allowing bacteria to grow in the water. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • To kill bacteria completely in a certain period of time, combined available chlorine is required about 25 times more than free available chlorine in terms of quantity. (yokogawa.com)
  • Chlorine is a chemical that prevents bacteria from growing. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, chlorine is extremely effective at killing off dangerous bacteria in the water. (centralillinoisproud.com)
  • As the tablets dissolve in the water, the chlorine attacks and breaks down contaminants such as bacteria. (centralillinoisproud.com)
  • Disinfecting wipes or clean rags for using to clean and disinfect cabin and a disinfectant e.g. chlorine/bleach/Jik and water for mixing it when necessary, if no disinfecting wipes available. (who.int)
  • The FC800D is a non-reagent type chlorine analyzer and measures free chlorine continuously. (yokogawa.com)
  • In this article, we describe how to identify a chlorine rash, its symptoms, and tips for prevention. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Symptoms may develop soon after swimming or several days after repeated contact with chlorine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The symptoms of a chlorine rash can vary in intensity from person to person. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If a person with a chlorine rash does not take preventive measures, and they come into frequent contact with the chemical in a short period, their symptoms will become worse. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If, while cleaning, someone inhales or ingests chlorine or starts to experience physical symptoms, stopping use of that particular product and seeking care from a medical professional is advised. (columbia.edu)
  • When using cleaning products that contain chlorine, it's good to be aware of any symptoms that may signal chlorine poisoning. (columbia.edu)
  • Documentation for Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) Value Profile: Chlorine -Documents the criteria and information sources that have been used by NIOSH to determine immediately dangerous to life or health concentrations. (cdc.gov)
  • Short-term exposures (minutes) to high concentrations of chlorine affect children in the same manner they affect adults, but children may be more sensitive. (cdc.gov)
  • However, this substance must have chemical stability of its properties, by maintaining the potential of hydrogen (pH) and chlorine concentrations appropriately. (bvsalud.org)
  • Chlorine air concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 0.4 parts per million (ppm), below the OSHA standard of 1 ppm. (cdc.gov)
  • According to the WHO, in drinking water treatment, the free chlorine concentration of the treated water should be 0.2 to 0.5 mg/l. (dosatron.com)
  • In some applications, oxidation reduction potential (ORP) measurement can be used as an indicator of free chlorine concentration. (sensorex.com)
  • Just like any other essential plant nutrient, the adequate concentration of chlorine is essential for adequate plant growth. (maximumyield.com)
  • bleach is not the same as chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • You may also be exposed to chlorine if you mix household chemicals such as toilet cleaner with bleach. (cdc.gov)
  • Is there any difference in throwing in a gallon from the Pool Supply store or throwing in some pure clorox or other store brand bleach that is on sale to keep a basic level of chlorine until the chlorinator kicks back in? (gardenweb.com)
  • You may be exposed to chlorine gas through the improper use of swimming pool chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • You may be exposed through breathing, skin contact, acid and sodium hypochlorite are two of these chemicals that and eye contact if an accident involving chlorine takes disinfect the water. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorine gas can also be released to the air when concentrated hypochlorite solution can produce severe chemicals used to chlorinate swimming pools are damage to the upper digestive tract and even death. (cdc.gov)
  • Vicky says that it is imperative that the black swimmers be diligent about using an anti-chlorine, or clarifying shampoo such as Design Essentials Neutralizing Conditioning Shampoo after every swim to remove chemicals from the hair before build-up has a chance to occur. (rainbowkids.com)
  • This combination of chemicals also results in the production of chlorine gas. (columbia.edu)
  • Namibia Chemicals has developed a solution to produce chlorine by electrolysing salt using 100% solar energy as a means to fight cholera in an environmentally friendly manner. (who.int)
  • It is suitable for free chlorine measurement under challenging and residual chlorine measurement. (yokogawa.com)
  • What is Residual Chlorine? (yokogawa.com)
  • Since a large part of the chlorine is needed to neutralize these organic materials, the dose of chlorine delivered by the metering pump will allow a part, called free residual chlorine, to remain available to treat possible future contamination of the water in the network or in the homes. (dosatron.com)
  • Chlorine residual, pH, temperature and total organic carbon levels were measured. (who.int)
  • A useful search terms for chlorine include "molecular chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • are different from molecular chlorine even though the Mixing household cleaners containing ammonia with terminology is often used interchangeably. (cdc.gov)
  • molecular chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • In solution, chlorine can be found in many different molecular forms. (sensorex.com)
  • Chlorine poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes in (inhales) chlorine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The FLXA402T is the next-generation analyzer for the Turbidity detector and Chlorine sensor. (yokogawa.com)
  • The FLXA402T can connect up to two sensors of Turbidity, Chlorine, pH, and Conductivity, with digital communications availability. (yokogawa.com)
  • LaMotte Company introduces the first compact water analysis instrument designed for precision measurements of turbidity, chlorine and color. (wcponline.com)
  • The unique optics configuration enables the instrument to read low levels for turbidity (0.05 NTU), chlorine (0.02 ppm) and color (0.2 cu) and features six languages, data logging, RS0232 interface and CE mark. (wcponline.com)
  • However, as pH increases, HOCl dissociates to form hypochlorite ions (OCl-) and hydrogen ions (H+) causing the amounts of individual component of effective free chlorine to change with pH value. (awa.asn.au)
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate active chlorine releasing and pH of some sodium hypochlorite solutions used in endodontic clinical practice. (bvsalud.org)
  • Chlorine (Cl₂) is a greenish-yellow gas with a pungent, irritating odor. (cdc.gov)
  • If chlorine is spilled into water or onto soil or if it is released from a tank into the air, the chlorine will evaporate very quickly forming a greenish-yellow cloud that is heavier than air and can be carried by the wind away from the source. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorine is a gas with a very irritating odor. (cdc.gov)
  • When the chlorine demand of water is satisfied, the remaining free chlorine is available to oxidize contaminants, which is measured by a Free Chlorine sensor. (sensorex.com)
  • 1000 people (800 children, 200 adults) controlled through the addition of chlorine worldwide were dying every hour from and maintaining a certain level of free chlo- waterborne microbial disease. (who.int)
  • I suggest that you contact The Chlorine Institute, Inc., 2001 L Street N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036-4919, Phone 202-775-2790, FAX 202-223-7225, Http://www.cl2.com and request their pamphlets on the subject. (control.com)
  • Chlorination is one of sterilization method in drinking water and industrial water, and chlorine measurement is very important to secure water quality. (yokogawa.com)
  • From the perspective and experience of operators of online chlorine analysers, the following table presents a summary of general observations and considerations as well as a list of advantages and disadvantages for colorimetric and amperometric analyser systems. (awa.asn.au)
  • Our dependable free chlorine sensor features amperometric measurement technology. (sensorex.com)
  • Keep your free chlorine amperometric sensors running for extended lifetime and improved accuracy using our FCLA-5018 free chlorine maintenance kit. (sensorex.com)
  • Chlorine gas is too reactive to be detected in environmental media at hazardous waste sites. (cdc.gov)
  • Because chlorine is so reactive, it is not normally detected in the environment except for very low levels in the air above seawater. (cdc.gov)
  • Because chlorine is so reactive, it is not normally is present in chlorinated water. (cdc.gov)
  • Like all halogens, chlorine is a highly reactive element. (sensorex.com)
  • The term "free chlorine" in drinking water usually refers to uses chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • Free available chlorine, in general, refers to chlorine that is present in forms of Cl 2 , HClO, ClO - , etc. in water. (yokogawa.com)
  • Chlorine is not present in chlorinated water. (cdc.gov)
  • People develop swimmer's itch after swimming in water that has not been chlorinated, as chlorine would kill the parasites. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Yokogawa started chlorine analyzer business since 1958, our analyzers have been contributed to safety drinking water around the world. (yokogawa.com)
  • It is suitable for free chlorine control and monitoring in drinking water. (yokogawa.com)
  • Chlorine water has strong bactericidal properties on the acid side and weak bactericidal properties on the alkaline side. (yokogawa.com)
  • Chlorine analysis is a key parameter of monitoring at wastewater, drinking water and recycled water treatment plants, and typically represents a critical control point (CCP) parameter. (awa.asn.au)
  • Chlorine tablets provide a quick, simple method for keeping pool water clear and clean. (centralillinoisproud.com)
  • So chlorine is now sold in its solid form as tablets to make it easy and affordable to treat home pools' water. (centralillinoisproud.com)
  • How do chlorine tablets clean pool water? (centralillinoisproud.com)
  • Chlorine needs to be dispersed through the water to clean it properly. (centralillinoisproud.com)
  • With this machine, you simply load chlorine tablets inside, then select how quickly you want to dispense chlorine into the pool water. (centralillinoisproud.com)
  • In order to make the water drinkable, the Dosatron ACS or NSF certified metering pumps, installed in line with the water pipe, inject a dose of chlorine (NaClo, CaClo) which allows the destruction of organic matter such as viruses and microbes contained in the water, in proportion to the flow rate. (dosatron.com)
  • Installed directly on the water supply line, the certified chlorine dosing pump works with the water in your network as the only source of energy. (dosatron.com)
  • The effect of the chlorine re- increased risk ensues because of localities sidual depends on the chemical and in which treatment of the domestic water physical conditions as well as on the length supply is inadequate or non-existent [ 3 ]. (who.int)
  • Free chlorine measurements are one of the most important measurements in the water industry today. (sensorex.com)
  • In addition to Free Chlorine sensors we have a full range of water quality sensors. (sensorex.com)
  • Cholera can be easily prevented by simply purifying water with diluted chlorine, however, the product chlorine is not easily accessible to those living in rural areas. (who.int)
  • A spoonful of chlorine can dilute up to 20 litres of dirty water, but currently, all chlorine products are imported into Namibia which makes it expensive for the ordinary Namibian to afford.The company is founded by Immanuel Hango, a Civil Engineer by profession who also hold an MBA in entrepreneurship from Steinbeis University, Berlin. (who.int)
  • The current flow of this reduction is proportional to the chlorine available. (sensorex.com)
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on Chlorine -NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • Ocean and sea life is a major contributor of chlorine and they create it from mineral deposits. (maximumyield.com)
  • What is Free Available Chlorine? (yokogawa.com)
  • Chloramines are far less effective as disinfectants than free available chlorine. (yokogawa.com)
  • What is Free Chlorine (FCI)? (sensorex.com)
  • Why is Free Chlorine Measurement Necessary? (sensorex.com)
  • How is Free Chlorine Measured? (sensorex.com)
  • While DPD test kits may suffice for simple applications, this methodology does not distinguish between free chlorine and combined chlorine in solution. (sensorex.com)
  • Because free chlorine is an oxidizer, ORP is a measure of free chlorine sanitization activity. (sensorex.com)
  • Measuring ORP as an indicator of free chlorine is especially popular in swimming pool monitoring applications. (sensorex.com)
  • This form can be dangerous: when people come into contact with concentrated chlorine gas, it causes severe burning to the respiratory system, skin and eyes. (centralillinoisproud.com)
  • Thankfully, there are solutions available for both the prevention, and repair of chlorine damage to African hair, none of which include prohibiting children of color from swimming. (rainbowkids.com)
  • The best prevention for chlorine damage to black hair is to keep the hair from being exposed in the first place," says Vicky Seapker of InVu Hair Salon, in Franklin, Tennessee. (rainbowkids.com)
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • How can chlorine affect my health? (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have not classified chlorine as to its human carcinogenicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Inhaling chlorine gas can pose health risks, particularly for those with pulmonary disease, bronchitis, or chronic lung conditions. (columbia.edu)
  • Chlorine is found in abundance on earth and is an essential element for soil and plant health. (maximumyield.com)
  • But careful reading of the fine print showed that these are in fact just dissolved chlorine in an alcohol solution. (theodoregray.com)
  • You may be exposed through breathing, skin and eye contact if an accident involving chlorine takes place nearby, such as a liquid chlorine spill, a leak from a chlorine tank, or a leak from a facility that produces or uses chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorine gas from household cleaners? (columbia.edu)
  • I have been reading on the internet that mixing certain household cleaners can be deadly because doing so may release chlorine gas. (columbia.edu)
  • This summer I received a deluge of e-mails from transracial adoptive mothers in need of a solution for their childrens dry, damaged, chlorine coated hair. (rainbowkids.com)
  • Unfortunately, there is no magic solution that will instantly repair chlorine damage. (rainbowkids.com)
  • Chlorine is an integral element for plants and along with its many benefits it helps with photosynthesis, hydrolysis, and in preventing plant diseases. (maximumyield.com)
  • There is also research that supports the idea the proper amounts of chlorine in plants can reduce fungal infections in plants, thereby, ensuring higher plant yields. (maximumyield.com)
  • Similarly, an excess of chlorine can result in toxicity of plants. (maximumyield.com)
  • So, it is important to ensure plants do not have too much or too little chlorine. (maximumyield.com)
  • A soil analysis, though not common practice, needs to be conducted to determine the optimum amount of chlorine needed. (maximumyield.com)
  • At higher levels, breathing chlorine gas may result in changes in breathing rate and coughing, and damage to the lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • Of 47 workers exposed to chlorine gas , 36 (77 %) developed more than one subjective symptom. (bvsalud.org)
  • This is only done when the person gets medical care within 30 to 45 minutes of the poisoning, and a very large amount of chlorine has been swallowed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People who work in places where chlorine is made or used may be exposed to low levels over a period of time. (cdc.gov)
  • I must supplement some chlorine during these months to keep the basic levels up. (gardenweb.com)
  • 100 minutes at chlorine levels of 0.11 mg/L to 0.90 mg/L. The other 3 organisms showed higher resistance. (who.int)
  • The final component in treating chlorine damaged hair is time. (rainbowkids.com)
  • It's best to use only one drain cleaner at a time because depending on the composition of the cleaners, they may release chlorine gas if they interact inside the pipes. (columbia.edu)