Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)ChloraminesDisinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Swimming PoolsOxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Photochemotherapy: Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Photosensitizing Agents: Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.Mesoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two ethyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.Hypochlorous Acid: An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Aroclors: Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Peracetic Acid: A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Calicivirus, Feline: A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Giardia: A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.Electrolysis: Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Methyl Chloride: A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)Sanitary Engineering: A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.Chloride Peroxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the chlorination of a range of organic molecules, forming stable carbon-chloride bonds. EC 1.11.1.10.Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Coccidia: A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Recycling: The extraction and recovery of usable or valuable material from scrap or other discarded materials. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mice, Hairless: Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.Christian Science: A religion founded by Mary Baker Eddy in 1866 that was organized under the official name of the Church of Christ, Scientist. It includes the practice of spiritual healing.Christianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Multimedia: Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Rescue Work: Activities devoted to freeing persons or animals from danger to life or well-being in accidents, fires, bombings, floods, earthquakes, other disasters and life-threatening conditions. While usually performed by team efforts, rescue work is not restricted to organized services.

Decolorization and detoxification of extraction-stage effluent from chlorine bleaching of kraft pulp by Rhizopus oryzae. (1/1030)

Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycete, was found to decolorize, dechlorinate, and detoxify bleach plant effluent at lower cosubstrate concentrations than the basidiomycetes previously investigated. With glucose at 1 g/liter, this fungus removed 92 to 95% of the color, 50% of the chemical oxygen demand, 72% of the adsorbable organic halide, and 37% of the extractable organic halide in 24 h at temperatures of 25 to 45 degrees C and a pH of 3 to 5. Even without added cosubstrate the fungus removed up to 78% of the color. Monomeric chlorinated aromatic compounds were removed almost completely, and toxicity to zebra fish was eliminated. The fungal mycelium could be immobilized in polyurethane foam and used repeatedly to treat batches of effluent. The residue after treatment was not further improved by exposure to fresh R. oryzae mycelium.  (+info)

Analysis of zinc binding sites in protein crystal structures. (2/1030)

The geometrical properties of zinc binding sites in a dataset of high quality protein crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank have been examined to identify important differences between zinc sites that are directly involved in catalysis and those that play a structural role. Coordination angles in the zinc primary coordination sphere are compared with ideal values for each coordination geometry, and zinc coordination distances are compared with those in small zinc complexes from the Cambridge Structural Database as a guide of expected trends. We find that distances and angles in the primary coordination sphere are in general close to the expected (or ideal) values. Deviations occur primarily for oxygen coordinating atoms and are found to be mainly due to H-bonding of the oxygen coordinating ligand to protein residues, bidentate binding arrangements, and multi-zinc sites. We find that H-bonding of oxygen containing residues (or water) to zinc bound histidines is almost universal in our dataset and defines the elec-His-Zn motif. Analysis of the stereochemistry shows that carboxyl elec-His-Zn motifs are geometrically rigid, while water elec-His-Zn motifs show the most geometrical variation. As catalytic motifs have a higher proportion of carboxyl elec atoms than structural motifs, they provide a more rigid framework for zinc binding. This is understood biologically, as a small distortion in the zinc position in an enzyme can have serious consequences on the enzymatic reaction. We also analyze the sequence pattern of the zinc ligands and residues that provide elecs, and identify conserved hydrophobic residues in the endopeptidases that also appear to contribute to stabilizing the catalytic zinc site. A zinc binding template in protein crystal structures is derived from these observations.  (+info)

Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor: identification of a gene cluster required for the rugose colony type, exopolysaccharide production, chlorine resistance, and biofilm formation. (3/1030)

The rugose colony variant of Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, is shown to produce an exopolysaccharide, EPSETr, that confers chlorine resistance and biofilm-forming capacity. EPSETr production requires a chromosomal locus, vps, that contains sequences homologous to carbohydrate biosynthesis genes of other bacterial species. Mutations within this locus yield chlorine-sensitive, smooth colony variants that are biofilm deficient. The biofilm-forming properties of EPSETr may enable the survival of V. cholerae O1 within environmental aquatic habitats between outbreaks of human disease.  (+info)

Investigation of two evolutionarily unrelated halocarboxylic acid dehalogenase gene families. (4/1030)

Dehalogenases are key enzymes in the metabolism of halo-organic compounds. This paper describes a systematic approach to the isolation and molecular analysis of two families of bacterial alpha-halocarboxylic acid (alphaHA) dehalogenase genes, called group I and group II deh genes. The two families are evolutionarily unrelated and together represent almost all of the alphaHA deh genes described to date. We report the design and evaluation of degenerate PCR primer pairs for the separate amplification and isolation of group I and II deh genes. Amino acid sequences derived from 10 of 11 group I deh partial gene products of new and previously reported bacterial isolates showed conservation of five residues previously identified as essential for activity. The exception, DehD from a Rhizobium sp., had only two of these five residues. Group II deh gene sequences were amplified from 54 newly isolated strains, and seven of these sequences were cloned and fully characterized. Group II dehalogenases were stereoselective, dechlorinating L- but not D-2-chloropropionic acid, and derived amino acid sequences for all of the genes except dehII degrees P11 showed conservation of previously identified essential residues. Molecular analysis of the two deh families highlighted four subdivisions in each, which were supported by high bootstrap values in phylogenetic trees and by enzyme structure-function considerations. Group I deh genes included two putative cryptic or silent genes, dehI degrees PP3 and dehI degrees 17a, produced by different organisms. Group II deh genes included two cryptic genes and an active gene, dehIIPP3, that can be switched off and on. All alphaHA-degrading bacteria so far described were Proteobacteria, a result that may be explained by limitations either in the host range for deh genes or in isolation methods.  (+info)

Chlorine inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7. (5/1030)

We analyzed isolates of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (which has recently caused waterborne outbreaks) and wild-type E. coli to determine their sensitivity to chlorination. Both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains were significantly reduced within 1 minute of exposure to free chlorine. Results indicate that chlorine levels typically maintained in water systems are sufficient to inactivate these organisms.  (+info)

Longitudinal distribution of chlorine absorption in human airways: comparison of nasal and oral quiet breathing. (6/1030)

The fraction of an inspired chlorine (Cl2) bolus absorbed during a single breath (Lambda) was measured as a function of bolus penetration (VP) into the respiratory system of five male and five female nonsmokers during both nasal and oral breathing at a quiet respiratory flow of 250 ml/s. The correspondence between VP and specific anatomic landmarks was found for each subject by a combination of acoustic reflection and nitrogen washout measurements. For both nasal and oral breathing, Lambda reached approximately 0. 95 at the distal end of the upper airways and reached 1.00 within the lower conducting airways. The values of a regional mass transfer parameter computed from the Lambda-VP data indicated that the resistance to Cl2 diffusion in the airway mucosa was negligible compared with the diffusion resistance in the respired gas. Changing the peak inhaled Cl2 concentration from 0.5 to 3.0 parts/million did not significantly affect the distribution of Cl2 absorption, suggesting that the underlying mass transport and chemical reaction processes were linear with respect to Cl2 concentration.  (+info)

Development and testing of a microbiological assay to detect residual effects of disinfectant on hard surfaces. (7/1030)

We describe a glucuronidase bioassay for detecting residual bactericidal activity from the use of disinfectants on hard surfaces; in this assay we used formaldehyde, ethanol, isopropanol, chlorine, and a commercial preparation containing 2-bromo-2-nitro-1, 3-propanediol. Chlorine and the commercial preparation showed bactericidal activity (53.5% and 98.2%, respectively) for a week after disinfection.  (+info)

Chlorine disinfection of recreational water for Cryptosporidium parvum. (8/1030)

We examined the effects of chlorine on oocyst viability, under the conditions of controlled pH and elevated calcium concentrations required for most community swimming pools. We found that fecal material may alter the Ct values (chlorine concentration in mg/L, multiplied by time in minutes) needed to disinfect swimming pools or other recreational water for Cryptosporidium parvum.  (+info)

*Chlorine-36

... is an isotope of chlorine. Chlorine has two stable isotopes and one radioactive isotope: the cosmogenic isotope ... Isotopes of chlorine "Interactive Chart of Nuclides". Archived from the original on 2009-07-28. Retrieved 15 Dec 2012. M. Zreda ... Trace amounts of radioactive 36Cl exist in the environment, in a ratio of about (7-10) × 10−13 to 1 with stable chlorine ... 1991). "Cosmogenic chlorine-36 production rates in terrestrial rocks". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 105: 94. Bibcode: ...

*Chlorine azide

... is prepared by passing chlorine gas over silver azide, or by an addition of acetic acid to a solution of sodium ... Frierson, W. J.; Browne, A. W. (1943). "Chlorine Azide. II. Interaction of Chlorine Azide and Silver Azide. Azino Silver ... Chlorine azide (ClN3) is an inorganic compound that was discovered in 1908 by Friedrich Raschig. Concentrated ClN 3 is ... Chlorine azide reacts explosively with 1,3-butadiene, ethane, ethene, methane, propane, phosphorus, silver azide, and sodium. ...

*Chlorine pentafluoride

... is an interhalogen compound with formula ClF5. This colourless gas is a strong oxidant that was once a ... Chlorine trifluoride Hypervalent molecule Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). ... ISBN 0-8135-0725-1. Šmalc A, Žemva B, Slivnik J, Lutar K (1981). "On the Synthesis of Chlorine Pentafluoride". Journal of ... It was first prepared by fluorination of chlorine trifluoride at high temperatures and high pressures: ClF3 + F2 → ClF5 ClF + ...

*Chlorine perchlorate

This chlorine oxide is an asymmetric oxide, with one chlorine atom in oxidation state +1 and the other +7, with proper formula ... ClOClO3 Chlorine perchlorate can also be made the following reactions at −45 °C. CsClO4 + ClOSO2F → Cs(SO3)F + ClOClO3 Chlorine ... "Chlorine perchlorate a major photolysis product of chlorine dioxide". J. Phys. Chem. 86 (24): 4653-4655. doi:10.1021/ ... M. I. Lopez; J. E. Sicre (1988). "Ultraviolet spectrum of chlorine perchlorate". J. Phys. Chem. 92 (2): 563-564. doi:10.1021/ ...

*Chlorine peroxide

... can be produced by laser or ultraviolet photolysis of the chlorine molecule with ozone. The lasers used to ... Chemically, it is a dimer of the chlorine monoxide radical (ClO·). It is important in the formation of the ozone hole. Chlorine ... Microwave discharge can also break up chlorine molecules into atoms that react with ozone to make chlorine peroxide. Cl2 + hν ... Chlorine peroxide (also known as dichlorine dioxide or ClO dimer) is a molecular compound with formula ClOOCl. ...

*Chlorine dioxide

... is a neutral chlorine compound. It is very different from elemental chlorine, both in its chemical structure ... Chlorine dioxide is less corrosive than chlorine and superior for the control of legionella bacteria. Chlorine dioxide is ... Chlorine dioxide also is used for control of zebra and quagga mussels in water intakes. Chlorine dioxide also was shown to be ... Chlorine dioxide is sometimes used for bleaching of wood pulp in combination with chlorine, but it is used alone in ECF ( ...

*Chlorine monoxide

In the stratosphere, chlorine atoms react with ozone molecules to form chlorine monoxide and oxygen. Cl· + O 3 → ClO· + O 2 ... In this way, the overall reaction for the decomposition of ozone is catalyzed by chlorine, as ultimately chlorine remains ... Chlorine monoxide is a chemical radical with the chemical formula ClO. It plays an important role in the process of ozone ... This cause many chlorine radicals to be produced and hence a significant amount of ozone molecules are decomposed before the ...

*Chlorine monofluoride

For example, it adds fluorine and chlorine to the carbon of carbon monoxide: CO + ClF → Chlorine fluorides Otto Ruff, E. Ascher ... Chlorine monofluoride is a volatile interhalogen compound with the chemical formula ClF. It is a colourless gas at room ... Chlorine monofluoride is a versatile fluorinating agent, converting metals and non-metals to their fluorides and releasing Cl2 ...

*Chlorine tetroxide

... is a chlorine oxide with the chemical formula ClO 4. In 1923, the famous radical chemist Moses Gomberg ... The structure of chlorine tetroxide is uncertain, and the symmetry point group may be Cs, C2v, or Td. Gomberg, M. (1 February ... Chlorine Tetra-Oxide". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 45 (2): 398-421. doi:10.1021/ja01655a017. Alcock, N. W.; ... The electron affinity energy of chlorine tetroxide can be figured out using the Born-Haber cycle and the lattice energy data of ...

*Chlorine fluoride

A chlorine fluoride is an interhalogen compound containing only chlorine and fluorine. National Pollutant Inventory - Fluoride ...

*Chlorine production

Chlorine can be manufactured by electrolysis of a sodium chloride solution (brine). The production of chlorine results in the ... Potassium permanganate can be used to generate chlorine gas when added to hydrochloric acid. Large-scale production of chlorine ... These towers progressively remove any remaining moisture from the chlorine gas. After exiting the drying towers the chlorine is ... A typical plant consists of brine production/treatment, cell operations, chlorine cooling & drying, chlorine compression & ...

*Chlorine nitrate

... , with chemical formula ClNO3 is an important atmospheric gas present in the stratosphere. It is an important ... 2CH2Cl Chlorine nitrate reacts with metal chlorides: 4 ClONO2 + TiCl4 → Ti(NO3)4 + 4 Cl2 张青莲. 《无机化学丛书》第六卷:卤素、铜分族、锌分族. 北京: 科学出版社 ... sink of chlorine that contributes to the depletion of ozone. It explosively reacts with metals,

*Chlorine acid

... can refer to: Hydrochloric acid, HCl Hypochlorous acid, HClO Chlorous acid, HClO2 Chloric acid, HClO3 Perchloric ...

*Chlorine-37

... accounts for 24.23% of natural chlorine, chlorine-35 accounting for 75.77%, giving chlorine atoms in bulk an ... Chlorine-37, or 37 Cl , is one of the stable isotopes of chlorine, the other being chlorine-35 (35 Cl ). Its nucleus contains ... The representative terrestrial abundance of chlorine-37 is 24.22(4)% of chlorine atoms, with a normal range of 24.14-24.36% of ... chlorine-37 and to have an atomic weight of around 35.4525 There is a known variation in the isotopic abundance of chlorine-37 ...

*Chlorine bleaching

... may refer to chlorine-based bleaching in the pulp and paper industry: Chlorine and hypochlorite bleaching of ... wood pulp household cleaning: Chlorine-based bleaches. ...

*Chlorine oxide

Chlorine and oxygen can bond in many ways: chlorine monoxide, ClO, chlorine(II) oxide chlorine dioxide, ClO 2, chlorine(IV) ... chlorine(0,IV) oxide chlorine chlorite, ClOClO, chlorine(I,III) oxide dichlorine trioxide, Cl2O3, chlorine(I,V) oxide ... chlorine(VII) oxide chlorine tetroxide chlorine(VII) oxide peroxide, (OClO3)2 Several ions are also chlorine oxides: chloryl, ... chlorine(VI) oxide dichlorine monoxide, Cl2O, chlorine(I) oxide Three dichlorine dioxides: ClO dimer, Cl2O2, chlorine(I) ...

*World Chlorine Council

The World Chlorine Council (WCC) is an international network of national and regional trade associations representing the ... World Chlorine Council. 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-14. World Chlorine Council. ... chlorine and chlorinated products industries in over 27 countries. Members include chloralkali process associations such as ...

*Pool chlorine hypothesis

The pool chlorine hypothesis is the hypothesis that long-term attendance at indoor chlorinated swimming pools by children up to ... A narrower version of the hypothesis, i.e. that asthma may be induced by chlorine related compounds from swimming pools, has ... Brindley, Medeleine (2006-07-18). "Pool chlorine may give children asthma". WalesOnline. Retrieved 2008-08-08. Armstrong B, ... and colleagues argue that what is common to the pool chlorine hypothesis and epidemiological studies associating chlorine based ...

*Chlorine base compound

... s, also known as chlorine-releasing compounds, are a family of chemicals that release chlorine. They are ... Chlorine base compounds first came into use in 1915. They are on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, ... Specific compounds in this family include sodium hypochlorite, chloramine, halazone, chlorine dioxide, and sodium ...

*Percent active chlorine

One gram of a 100% active chlorine bleach has the same bleaching power as one gram of chlorine. The term "active chlorine" is ... available chlorine by weight of chlorine/weight of bleaching powder*100=amount of available chlorine. ... Liquid bleaches sold for domestic use are typically 3-10% active chlorine, and should be diluted to 1-2% active chlorine before ... active chlorine. Active chlorine values are usually determined by adding an excess of potassium iodide to a sample of bleach ...

*Chlorine gas poisoning

... is illness resulting from the effects of exposure to chlorine beyond the threshold limit value. The ... Humans can smell chlorine gas at ranges from 0.1-0.3 ppm. According to a review from 2010: "At 1-3 ppm, there is mild mucus ... Chlorine gas was first used as a weapon in World War I. It was used several times by insurgents in the Iraqi insurgency (2003- ... A person with chlorine gas poisoning may also have nausea, vomiting, or a headache. Chronic exposure to relatively low levels ...

*Elemental chlorine free

... (ECF) is a technique that uses chlorine dioxide for the bleaching of wood pulp. It does not use ... Totally chlorine free (TCF) is paper that does not use any chlorine compounds for wood pulp bleaching. Environmental issues ... elemental chlorine gas during the bleaching process and prevents the formation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, ...

*Copper-chlorine cycle

The copper-chlorine cycle (Cu-Cl cycle) is a four-step thermochemical cycle for the production of hydrogen. The Cu-Cl cycle is ... Advantages of the copper-chlorine cycle include lower operating temperatures, the ability to use low-grade waste heat to ... "Nuclear-Based Hydrogen Production with a Thermochemical Copper-Chlorine Cycle and Supercritical Water Reactor", Canadian ...

*Equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine

... (EESC) provides an estimate of the total effective amount of halogens (chlorine and ... Newman, P. A., Daniel, J. S., Waugh, D. W., and Nash, E. R.: A new formulation of equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine ( ...

*Chlorine bombings in Iraq

... began as early as October 2004 , when insurgents in Al Anbar province started using chlorine gas in ... Police on Alert As Chlorine Hits Iraq - The New York Sun May 1, 2007 "BBC NEWS - Middle East - 'Chlorine bomb' hits Iraq ... "chlorine bomb factory was al Qaeda's". October 21, 2006: A car bomb carrying 12 120 mm mortar shells and two 100-pound chlorine ... while many more suffered breathing difficulties attributed to the chlorine gas. April 25, 2007: A chlorine truck bomb detonated ...
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Global Chlorine Supplier Directory, Chlorine, Chlorine Manufacturers, Chlorine Factories, Chlorine Manufacturing, Chlorine Manufacturer, Factory,Chlorine Export Company, Chlorine Suppliers, Exporters, Chlorine Producers, Wholesalers, Distributors, International Chlorine, OEM Chlorine, Chemical & Plastics.
The Town of Newmarket is currently NOT using a free chlorine disinfection method. Free Chlorine disinfection is one of the Ministry of the Environment and Climate Changes (MOECC) approved methods for drinking water disinfection in Ontario and is one of the most widely used processes across North America.. Usually, Newmarket uses chloramine to provide a longer lasting disinfectant in the Towns water supply. However, when needed, the Town of Newmarket in conjunction with York Region, temporarily switches to a free chlorine method. The website will always have the latest information regarding the current drinking water disinfection in place. Those affected will receive hand delivered notices. Free Chlorine is a stronger disinfectant than Chloramine, and it will be used for enhanced maintenance of the water distribution systems to maintain Newmarkets high standard of water quality.. For more information, please read the Free Chlorine FAQ or contact our Customer Service at 905-895-5193. ...
Chlorine is among one of the significant halogen compounds that has several uses. Sodium hypochlorite is called chlorine bleach and is used for water purification. Chlorine is also a part of sodium chloride, which is called table salt. Chlorine is very necessary for human life. Chlorine is considered the tenth substance that is abundantly present in the human body and the eleventh substance found abundantly on this planet. Chlorine is found to be helpful in saving many lives more than any other chemical as it is used as a disinfectant for most of the water supply in the United States as well as in other countries.. Chlorine is used in the synthesis of  most  pharmaceutical substances. The manufacture of almost all of the chemicals for crop protection is done by using chlorine. Chlorine is also found to be used in the synthesis of about 45 percent of commercial products.  The ocean, which is the result of the weathering of the continental lands, is the largest storehouse for salt. It has ...
TOPIC:. Combined chloramine residuals often mask themselves as false-positive phantom free chlorine residuals, while using the DPD free chlorine reagents and test method. A detailed breakpoint chlorine diagram will be used during this session to help visualize the pros and cons between using combined chloramine residuals or free chlorine disinfection methods. Chloramination treatment, disinfection byproduct formation, nitrification, and controlling chlorine taste/odor will be addressed in this session. Attendees will receive formulas and tools, to return to the job and calculate chlorine demand, optimize chlorine dosage rate, and limit byproduct formation. Bring your own DPD chlorine field test kit, copies of your raw/finished water quality reports, and a sample of your finished water to see first hand if you have phantom false-positive chlorine residuals and how to avoid them and then make treatment changes to improve water quality and consumer confidence.. ...
TOPIC:. Combined chloramine residuals often mask themselves as false-positive phantom free chlorine residuals, while using the DPD free chlorine reagents and test method. A detailed breakpoint chlorine diagram will be used during this session to help visualize the pros and cons between using combined chloramine residuals or free chlorine disinfection methods. Chloramination treatment, disinfection byproduct formation, nitrification, and controlling chlorine taste/odor will be addressed in this session. Attendees will receive formulas and tools, to return to the job and calculate chlorine demand, optimize chlorine dosage rate, and limit byproduct formation. Bring your own DPD chlorine field test kit, copies of your raw/finished water quality reports, and a sample of your finished water to see first hand if you have phantom false-positive chlorine residuals and how to avoid them and then make treatment changes to improve water quality and consumer confidence.. ...
Swimmers may face adverse effects from exposure to chlorine read Go Chemless Info About The Long Term Effects of Chlorine on Swimmers...
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We have a vinyl liner pool with 35,000 gallons water. We have shocked the pool several times with as much as 13 bags of shock and have also used liquid chlorine but we cannot hold a chlorine level. All other numbers are perfect. We have an automatic chlorinator set at maximum too but still no chlorine level. Please help. Churchville, PA. Thanks ...
The dangers of chlorination were first documented in the 1950s. During the Korean civil war, soldiers who were given chlorine tablets for their canteens developed severe cardiovascular diseases. A lot of soldiers died because of heart disease within the next ten years.. While you can do your best to avoid areas exposed to chlorine, an effective way to neutralize the toxic chemical is with ascorbic acid or vitamin C, since it chemically destroys chlorine. (Related: 7 Reasons why you should start eating more blueberries.). The reverse is also true since chlorine can destroy vitamin C. Since both chemicals cancel each other out, consuming more vitamin C than chlorine is crucial to neutralizing the latter.. One gram (g) of vitamin C can neutralize 100 gallons (gal) of water with one part per million (PPM) of chlorine. Take note that one PPM is standard for U.S. drinking water, but it can legally go up to four PPM chlorine.. While the naked eye cannot see the neutralization effect, as it is ...
The Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority will temporarily substitute chlorine as the disinfecting agent in the drinking water treatment process in place of its regularly used chlorine/ammonia compound, known as chloramines, at the GBRA Port Lavaca Water Treatment Plant.. This action will begin on Monday and will last 21 days, after which the plant will resume the use of chloramines, Herb Wittliff, manager for Port Lavaca operations, stated in a news release.. Chlorine and chloramines are used as disinfecting agents for drinking water to safeguard finished water against bacteria that cause water-borne illnesses, Wittliff said. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality recommends periodically substituting chlorine alone to provide more stability to the disinfecting process and remove any excess ammonia that might have accumulated in distribution systems over time.. As part of the process, the three wholesale customers of GBRA - the City of Port Lavaca, the Calhoun County Rural Water System of GBRA ...
After the first day or two of seeing the chlorine dissipate nearly completely each day, pouring more in each night, I decided to try putting some of the 1 tablets in the pump rather then having to keep pouring chlorine in repeatedly. At first the three 1 tablets alone didnt seem to keep the chlorine level high enough so I added another three. At that point the chlorine level stayed up above 3PPM, maybe even going higher, I found/find it hard to read the OTO test thing, test strips said it was around 3PPM, but at times the OTO looked like it was at 5PPM. I started thinking I had put too many tablets in and had the chlorine level too high, so I started doing more research... Found this forum , which was indeed a good thing ...
I just bought a case (4 gals) of Liquid Chlorine from Rural King for $10.00. The label reads as follows: Available Chlorine - 15%. Sodium Hypochlorite - 12.5%. Which description do I use when adding Chlorine to my pool? Is it 15% or the 12.5%. Second Question: The pool calculator lets me input the 15% reading up in the FC column, but it does not give me the 15% option down in the Effects of adding chemicals; thus, I am assuming that I should use the Available Chlorine option at the 12.5%
Agency: U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR). Technology: Chlorine-Resistant Membranes, a new polyamide (PA) membrane chemical formulation that can reduce water treatment costs.. Overview: Reverse osmosis (RO) polyamide membranes are used to desalinate and purify seawater, wastewater, and surface water. Chlorine is used in the reverse osmosis process to prevent biofouling of the membrane, but chlorine rapidly degrades polyamide membranes. A high-performance membrane that is resistant to chlorine degradation has long been sought by the desalination industry to simplify and lower the cost of operating desalting plants. This new chemical formation has the potential to be that solution because it is resistant to chlorine degradation.. Benefits: The technology could revolutionize the industry by increasing the life of membranes and reducing replacement costs for desalting plants. Existing RO treatment facilities could replace damaged membranes with chlorine-resistant PA membranes that would ...
To prevent scale formation, calcium hardness should be checked at least once a week. Further, when Calcium hardness is too low, i.e. the water is "too soft", it can create a reaction called "pH bounce" which in turn, can affect the performance of chlorine. The ideal range of calcium hardness is 150 to 400 mg/L.. After examining the key chemicals for maintaining pool water balance and how they interact, you could conclude that chlorine is central to ensuring a healthy pool. We should now drill down and look closer at managing chlorine levels. Measuring Chlorine Measuring chlorine in a pool is a relatively easy task. Chlorine concentrations in the range of 1 to 3 ppm are used in both pools and spas. Since free chlorine is the primary disinfectant used for swimming pools, the choice of the best means of measuring free chlorine for your application is needed.. Test Strips Test strips are small strips, typically produced from plastic, with pads on the end that are chemically impregnated. These pads ...
The molar mass of chlorine gas is 70.90 g/mol. One molecule of chlorine gas is formed from two chlorine atoms and has the chemical formula...
Another name for Chlorine Inhalation is Irritant Inhalational Injury. Evaluation of an irritant inhalational injury begins with a history and physical ...
We report a case of 25-year-old woman with severe tracheobronchial necrosis caused by chlorine released from a mixture household cleaning agents. She subsequently exposed benzene while she was fixing the seats with benzene containing gum. The case wa
Total ChlorineTest Strips WaterWorks 2 Test StripsFree & Total Chlorine SenSafe Free Chlorine Water CheckEPA Approved Product Many people do not
Okay,tested pH and free chlorine level. pH level was 7.6 and my Free Chlorine was 9.5 Is my FC too high? What is an acceptable level for FC?
This relatively new additive is marketed under the name Splenda®. Sucralose is basically denatured sucrose. Its preparation involves chlorinating sucrose, chemically changing the structure of the sugar molecules by substituting three chlorine atoms for three hydroxyl groups. Yes, you did read "chlorinating," adding "chlorine atoms." But isnt chlorine a known carcinogen, you ask? Why would the FDA allow toxic materials to be used in our food and beverages?. Yes, chlorine is a carcinogen. And to the other question, no one said just why the FDA approved it. You should know too that it was approved even with the pre-approval research revealed possible toxicity of the substance. ...
Article Sanitation Using Ozone & Chlorine. For nearly 100 years, ozone has been used all over the world for water sanitation. It is nature’s strongest oxidizer and has a byproduct of pure oxygen. Chlorine, on the other hand, is a very effective...
Gene probes developed locally for both enteric Adenoviruses 40 and 41 were used to determine whether these viruses were present in both raw and treated waters. Approximately sixty water samples were concentrated by ultra filtration and analysed directly for the presence of enteric adenoviruses. Three pre-treatment techniques, namely sephadex columns, cellulose fibre and Geneclean(TM) were tested for the removal of inhibitory substances from concentrated water samples. The effect of chlorine treatment on viral detection using gene probe hybridization was also examined by exposing adenoviruses to chlorine concentrations of up to 20mg/l for 1 hour. Enteric adenoviruses were detected in up to 59% of both raw and treated waters analysed, Cellulose fibre and Geneclean(TM) were found to successfully remove inhibitory substances from concentrated raw waters. Viral I NA was detected after exposure to a range of chlorine concentrations indicating that the viruses detected in the treated waters may have ...
Make your own chlorine with common salt with SPPs Salt Chlorine Generator System. With a salt chlorine generator, never buy expensive chlorine again!
In reponse to recent emails, we will re-visit the topic of free chlorine versus combined chlorine and how they both relate to total chlorine: (Free Chlorine) +
The North Texas Municipal Water District (NTMWD) has scheduled a free chlorine maintenance that will be conducted on the NTMWD water transmission system and customer cities distribution systems for a 28-day period beginning Monday. As a member city, Richardson receives its water from NTMWD.. The free chlorine maintenance does not affect water quality, and water remains safe for use. Consumers who are sensitive to taste and odor changes in drinking water might notice a change during this period. This palatability change does not alter the quality of the drinking water.. Free chlorine maintenance allows water suppliers to maintain the disinfectant residual in their systems without flushing systems, thus conserving water. ...
The North Texas Municipal Water District (NTMWD) has scheduled a free chlorine maintenance that will be conducted on its water transmission system and customer cities distribution systems for a 28-day period from Feb. 17 to March 17. As a member city, Richardson receives its water from NTMWD.. The free chlorine maintenance does not affect water quality, and water remains safe for use. Consumers who are sensitive to taste and odor changes in drinking water might notice a change during this period. This palatability change does not alter the quality of the drinking water.. Free chlorine maintenance allows water suppliers to maintain the disinfectant residual in their systems without flushing systems, thus conserving water. ...
The 8232 from Bürkert is an electrochemical sensor designed for the measurement of the free chlorine concentration generated from inorganic sources (chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite solution,...). Type 8232 offer a range of three models: • the
Even if you do decide to go for a swim in a chlorine-treated pool, make sure you take a shower before and right after the swim to prevent the rash from appearing!. Some health complications may accompany chlorine rash as a result of increased exposure. It can be a red rash on balls or just white spots on your testicles. A tightly fitting swim cap and pair of goggles prevents the chlorinated water from further reaching the hair and eye area. Skin Problems Caused by Swimming Pool Bromine - Swimming pool water needs disinfection and constant maintenance in order to keep it safe for swimmers. How can you prevent hot tub rash? If youre using a public hot tub or pool, the CDC recommends asking the person in charge if disinfectant (like chlorine) pH levels are checked at least twice a. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are a great way to ruin a day in the outdoors. Chlorine helps eliminate harmful bacteria and other foreign agents that can build up in a body of water, especially when its exposed to a large ...
Buy Stephen Clouser - Chlorine [CD] at DeepDiscount.com. Music: Rock: 837101209304. Guaranteed Lowest Price. Free Shipping on Orders over $25!
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Get information, facts, and pictures about chlorine at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about chlorine easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Find chlorine level articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Chlorine water (hyperchlorous acid) bleaching a strip of blue litmus paper. In this oxidation reaction, the chlorine water turns the blue litmus paper red (near end of strip), which is then bleached white (end of strip). Chlorine water is an aqueous solution of chlorine used as a bleaching agent. - Stock Image A500/0553
A Conyngham Borough Authority employee required medical treatment after getting blasted with chlorine vapor while checking on a well house Wednesday morning.. The leak also forced the closure of Banks Avenue, from Main Street in Conyngham to state Route 93 in Sugarloaf, for about three hours as emergency responders assessed and neutralized the leak.. A small leak in a hose at the well across the street from 42 Banks Ave. built up chlorine vapor in the cold well house, which is about 6 feet tall, said Kenneth Temborski, authority board chairman. The well house, which resembles a vault, is mostly underground; inside is a 100-gallon drum of water-diluted chlorine to which the hose is attached, he said. However, the tank was not full.. The employee, who has not officially been named, was overcome by chlorine vapors after opening the door of the well house. The employee was taken by ambulance to Hazleton General Hospital for treatment after experiencing a respiratory issue.. As firefighters arrived ...
Chlorine deficiency: Chlorine deficiency, condition in which chlorine is insufficient or is not utilized properly. Chlorine is a component of all body secretions and excretions resulting from
Two 1-gallon containers of Liquid Chlorine. Liquid Chlorine is for everyday chlorination and super chlorination. It is a great alternative to granular or tablet chlorine. Comes packed with two-one gallon containers per case Works instantly Calcium free, won?t cloud pool water Safe for all types of pools and filters For everyday chlorination and superchlorinating treatments
Chlorine was first added to a community water system in 1908 in Chicago and was instrumental in eliminating many types of water-borne disease such as Cholera and Typhoid fever. Prior to chlorination, many major cities had death tolls of 1 in 1000 people from Typhoid alone. Chlorine has been used to disinfect municipal water for over 80 years and has had some positive effects on public health. In the 1970s it was discovered that chlorine, when added to water, forms Trihalomethanes (chlorinated by-products) by combining with certain naturally occurring organic matter such as vegetation and algae. In 1992 the American Journal of Public Health published a report that showed a 15% to 35% increase in certain types of cancer for people who consume chlorinated water. This report also stated that much of these effects were due to showering in chlorinated water. The National Cancer Institute estimates cancer risks for people who consume chlorinated water to be 93% higher than for people who do not. The ...
A filter media component (416, 516, 616) containing activated carbon, which undesirably filters chlorine from water in an aquatic reservoir (301) in which a minimum level of chlorine is desired to be maintained, is inserted into a fluid pumping path for water from the reservoir to reduce levels of cyanuric acid without purging the reservoir. Once levels of cyanuric acid drop below a target reduced concentration, chlorine and other required chemicals may be added to the water to restore proper water balance and increase the chlorine concentration to at least the minimum level of chlorine desired to be maintained. The process, which can be completed in a short period of time with sufficient quantities of activated carbon, need only be performed seasonally or periodically and avoids waste and potential damage associated with purging and replacing the water within the aquatic reservoir to reduce cyanuric acid levels.
... is a chlorine-based bleach that enhances the performance of Clothesline Fresh Laundry Detergents and aids in the removal of tough stains. Formulated with the power of sodium hypochlorite, an inorganic chlorine source, whi
The use of chlorine to treat and disinfect drinking water and wastewater has been in practice for decades, with the earliest recorded attempt dating...
I really didnt consider what I did a serious risk given the amount I had reacted. I cant answer your questions Hurkyl without doing the calculations and Id really prefer not to because I feel that a couple of millilitres of reactants would not do me any serious harm. I didnt do any serious research beforehand, it was a kind of spur of the moment thing. I just bought the HCl, the first REAL chemical I have ever purchased, I was pretty excited about it all. I wanted to do some kind of reaction.I was aware that chlorine gas islethal at certain concentrations but, again, I felt that the couple mls wasnt going to produce enough Cl2 for a death dose. The reaction was also contained in a 4L flat bottomed flask, so most of the gas remained inside of the flask and didnt pass through the neck. Besides which I didnt have my face right above the opening, I wasnt huffing the gas as it was being formed. I did however catch a wiff when I was cleaning the flask out with water, and that prompted me to ...
MAIN CONCLUSION - Banning the use of chlorine chemistry in the manufacture of only three of the major uses of chlorine (steel, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Titanium Dioxide) would result in a requirement to landfill an additional 24.6 billion pounds of waste each year (4.2 billion pounds auto related), raise serious issues regarding recycling with regard to PVC substitutes and raise the cost of related parts by some $2.0 billion a year. In addition, the use of available substitutes for chlorine-based compounds would result in a serious degradation in the quality and performance of automobiles manufactured in North America.PROCESS - Essentially, the process consisted of a micro economic analysis of the impact on the cost and performance of a "representative" automobile manufactured in North America and the differential environmental impact arising from the use of "available" substitutes.This entailed breaking the representative car down into its major systems, subsystems and 12,500 components to ...
Read the latest Chlorine Free Ultra Thin Pads by Seventh Generation reviews and find the latest results, side effects and user experiences from eVitamins. Have you taken Chlorine Free Ultra Thin Pads by Seventh Generation? Submit your own Chlorine Free Ultra Thin Pads review and let the world know what you think. United Kingdom
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 7790-91-2(Chlorine fluoride(ClF3)) for price inquiry. where to buy 7790-91-2(Chlorine fluoride(ClF3)).Also offer free database of 7790-91-2(Chlorine fluoride(ClF3)) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
Palintest™ Test Chlorine DPD No 1 + No 3 Quantity: 250/Pk. Palintest™ Test Chlorine DPD No 1 + No 3 Water Testing Solutions and Reagents
a greenish yellow color that is a gas at room temperature . The boiling point for chlorine is - 35 c and the melting point is -101c. Also, the density is 3.21 g/cm3. Next, the Atomic weight is 35.453. Chlorine is a deficient conductor of electricity due to its liquid state under usually conditions. However, when put below enormous pressures, it obtains a metallic structure that permits it to conduct electricity. The same thing also happens when heat conducts with chlorine ...
What could be the reason behind strong chlorine smell in our pool room? We opened the spa a couple of days ago and I put a few tablets of chlorine in the chlorinator but after about of week it still smells ready bad and when I test it it has no chlorine.
Handprinted in the UK, 100%Heavy Cotton Fruit of the Loom Chlorine tshirt in BlackThe printing wont fade or crack even when tumble dried so your shirt will stay as soft and silky for years to come. an Ideal gift for anyone interested in chlorine Sizes are Small 35 - 37, Medium 38 - 40, Large 40 - 41, XL 44 - 46, XXL 47 - 49, XXXL 50 -52
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The UltraPen™ PT4 from Myron L is a free chlorine measurement pen with excellent sensor design, accuracy & durability. Get yours today from Dewco Pumps!
... ,Chlorine-36, 3.7 MBq, 100 uCi. 0.1-0.3 HCl.< 111 MBq/g Cl, < 3 mCi/g Cl.Dispensed to order. Please inquire for alternative pack sizes. Category: Radiochemicals &Radiation Safety, Radiochemicals.,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Make sure that your chlorine levels are correct in your sanitation sink with these Chlorine Test Strips from Krowne. With the simple dipping of one of
As you all know, our bodies are mostly water. Perhaps you also know that water is required during many metabolic processes. You may be aware of the concept of keeping your bodys fluids at certain pH values and remaining alkaline for greater health. The alkalinity comes from the mineral balance in the fluid. And therefore, it is important to have a constant intake of fresh, clean, mineralized water. We are fortunate here to live beside the ocean and to have clean water. David Suzuki says we have some of the best water in the world. And Victoria water is not fluoridated. However, our water does have chloramines (chlorine and ammonia) which are great for killing unhealthy bacteria, unfortunately they also kill healthy bacteria and in large amounts are cancerous. The heavy steam that occurs when taking a hot shower is mostly chlorine gas. Breathing that in every day is best avoided. Putting it on ones skin is not advisable, either because our skin absorbs these chemicals like a sponge. One way ...
The 2018-2023 World Outlook for Household Dry Chlorine and Other Inorganic Bleaching Compounds (calcium Hypochlorite, Etc., 50 Percent or More Available Chlorine or Equivalent Oxidizing - Market research report and industry analysis - 10666671
Hazards: Chlorine is toxic. Fill cylinders only in the hood.. Sodium metal is highly reactive (reacting with both air and water). Keep it stored under oil. Chemicals and Solutions: chlorine gas. sodium metal. Materials: glass deflagrating spoon. large hydrometer with glass square cover. forceps and knife. burner and matches. References: Procedure. Before class fill the hydrometer with chlorine gas and cover.. Using forceps and a knife, cut a pea sized piece of sodium metal .. Place the sodium in the glass deflagrating spoon and melt it using a burner. (The oil should burn off the surface). Place the deflagrating spoon of melted sodium in the chlorine and gently shake.. The orange glow of sodium reacting with chlorine will be seen.. Reaction:. Na + 1/2 Cl2 ---, NaCl -411 kJ/mole. ...
... testing. Laboratory testing for Total Residual Chlorine, Field 7782-50-5. 231-959-5 is light greenish-yellow gas with an irritating odour
To calculate contact time, one should use the highest pH and lowest water temperature expected. For example, if the highest pH anticipated is 7.5 and the lowest water temperature is 42 °F, the K value (from the table below) to use in the formula is 15. Therefore, a chlorine residual of 0.5 mg/l necessitates 30 minutes contact time. A residual of 0.3 mg/l requires 50 minutes contact time for adequate disinfection.. Chlorination levels. If a system does not allow adequate contact time with normal dosages of chlorine, superchlorination followed by dechlorination (chlorine removal) may be necessary ...
We have many challenges in the Treasure Valley to create the perfect filter. We have about 83 neighborhood wells and each has its own unique signature. This means having to contact the water department for specific reports for your neighborhood. Now we have someone to help us discover the perfect filter for our households.. We have the following local elements that need filtration:. Uranium, chlorine, fluoride and arsenic.. Boise, Eagle, Nampa and Meridian have uranium in the water, Caldwell does not.. This uranium is from natural deposits in the rock.. Chlorine is present in all publically shared wells. Chlorine molecules can break down into toxic carcinogenic byproducts. All chlorine needs filtration. A Britta filter, while affordable, does not filter enough chlorine. The Britta Company makes no claims except to enhance the taste of the water. Even reverse osmosis filters do not have a carbon filter for chlorine removal. If a carbon filter is not hooked up before the RO unit, the chlorine will ...
We have many challenges in the Treasure Valley to create the perfect filter. We have about 83 neighborhood wells and each has its own unique signature. This means having to contact the water department for specific reports for your neighborhood. Now we have someone to help us discover the perfect filter for our households.. We have the following local elements that need filtration:. Uranium, chlorine, fluoride and arsenic.. Boise, Eagle, Nampa and Meridian have uranium in the water, Caldwell does not.. This uranium is from natural deposits in the rock.. Chlorine is present in all publically shared wells. Chlorine molecules can break down into toxic carcinogenic byproducts. All chlorine needs filtration. A Britta filter, while affordable, does not filter enough chlorine. The Britta Company makes no claims except to enhance the taste of the water. Even reverse osmosis filters do not have a carbon filter for chlorine removal. If a carbon filter is not hooked up before the RO unit, the chlorine will ...
A method and an apparatus for dispensing a pH balancing solution are provided. The apparatus includes a system having a chlorine generator with a power supply coupled to the chlorine generator, the chlorine generator servicing a body of water and chlorinating it. A pH monitoring and balancing unit is provided. The pH monitoring and balancing unit monitors and measures when power is supplied from the power supply to the chlorine generator to produce chlorine and thereby calculates an operational time for the chlorine generator. A pH monitoring and balancing unit controller is also provided, the pH monitoring and balancing unit controller computing an estimated pH level based on the production of the chlorine generator from the operational time measured and then determining if the estimated pH is outside of a desired range, and, if it is outside of the desired range, metering a discrete amount of pH balancing solution based on this estimated pH level to return the pH of the body of water to within the
Unquestionably chlorine is effective as a bacterial control in the water supply, so what can we do? One strategy is to replae it with a system using hydrogen peroxide, ozone or ultraviolet. Another strategy is to filter it out prior to use. Unfortunately chlorine is absorbed as much by showering and bathing as by drinking, so the entire water supply must be filtered. Either way adds to the expense of water treatment, but what hs been the cost of a century of chlorination? ...
Brochures about healthy swimming and recreational water, including recreation water illnesses (RWI), contaminated water, water-related injuries or risks such as drowning, entrapment, or skin cancer, cryptosporidium, model aquatic health code, boating, pools and spas, pool and spa design and operation guidelines, legionellosis, pool disinfection, water quality indicators, beach monitoring, diarrhea, chlorine disinfection, sun protection, certified pool spa inspector training, fecal contamination, lakes, rivers, outbreaks, lifeguard training, and chlorine disinfection.
People have been using chlorine bleach in their laundries since the end of the 18th century. While these products work very well in whitening clothes, chlorine bleaches do have a negative effect upon the environment because of their chemistry. Care must be taken in using chlorine bleach as it is toxic to humans, animals, and plants. Also, we all have experienced destroying a colored article of clothing because chlorine bleach was accidentally spilled on it.. Tropical Traditions Oxygen Bleach is a safe and effective alternative to chlorine based products and it can be used in many applications in and around the home. It is based on sodium per carbonate which uses oxygen for destaining and deodorizing. Oxygen Bleach is safe to use at all temperatures, on most washable fabrics, and all colors, in hard or soft water, and is compatible with other household cleaners. Also, it produces no harmful by-products which negatively affect the environment. Unlike chlorine bleach, which can merely cover up a ...
A new study from Johns Hopkins raises newfound concerns about the most common water treatment found in American tap water.Researchers identified new toxic and carcinogenic byproducts that are produced when chlorine is added to regular drinking water. Their findings were published in the peer-reviewed journal Environmental Sciences & Technology.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggests 4 milligrams of chlorine per liter of drinking water as a safe level.Carsten Prasse,
Your skin can be protected from effects of chlorine before and after swimming. You have seen the protective recipe before entering the pool or sea waters. You also need to follow a simple procedure to remove the deposition of chlorine on your skin after swimming.. Shower in chlorine free water and dry your skin with a towel. Take ½ cup of essential oil, Vitamin C oil, 1 teaspoon of Tuberose oil and 1/4th cup of lemon syrup in a bowl.. Mix them well and heat to moderate temperature. Let the liquid cool to lukewarm temperature. Apply all over your skin and let it soak for about 15 minutes.. Your skin will absorb all the ingredients within this time. So you will not need to wash it. ...
Chlorine bleach is extremely basic, as it has a high pH of 13. This means that a chlorine bleach solution has a H+ concentration of about one-millionth of the H+ concentration in pure...
Add and dissolve one heaping teaspoon of high-test granular calcium hypochlorite (approximately ¼ ounce) for each two gallons of water, or 5 milliliters (approximately 7 grams) per 7.5 liters of water. The mixture will produce a stock chlorine solution of approximately 500 milligrams per liter, since the calcium hypochlorite has available chlorine equal to 70 percent of its weight. To disinfect water, add the chlorine solution in the ratio of one part of chlorine solution to each 100 parts of water to be treated. This is roughly equal to adding 1 pint (16 ounces) of stock chlorine to each 12.5 gallons of water or (approximately ½ liter to 50 liters of water) to be disinfected ...
All Swim offer great discounts on Non-Chlorine Shock, Potassium Peroxymono Sulphate. In stock, UK next working day delivery available. FREE delivery on orders over £60. These chlorine free shock granules are ideal for regular oxidisation of pool and spa water. They are suitable for pools and spas running on chlorine or bromine.
Mohawk uses fiber that has been processed in elemental chlorine in order to reduce the byproducts of elemental chlorine in our water supply.
Arlington, VA (PRWEB) January 18, 2013 -- Swimmers smell like chlorine. Each day about 1000 Twitter users discuss their chlorine problems. These problems are
Chlorine in water linked to food allergies. Chlorine in tap water has been linked to the rising number of people developing food allergies, a study has revealed.
Chlorine is one of the chemicals that are used in the swimming pools to keep the pool in the perfect health condition. However, not many swimmers love the smell of chlorine and some patches that it leaves on their skin.
Top Tip: When shock dosing your spa keep the lid off and run your clean cycle or jets for 10 mins to circulate the water and run the chlorine or non-chlorine through your pipes. Keeping the lid off will help to oxidise off the bacteria and it is kinder to your lid. You could also remove your pillows if you are shock dosing with chlorine to help them last longer. ...
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How Many Protons And Electrons Does Chlorine - 28 images - Isotopes Sliderbase, Atomic Concepts, Why Doesn T Silicon 4 Electrons With A Single, 10 Answers The Number Of Valence Electron In A Chloride, Basic Chemistry Tutorial 2 Drawing Atoms Sciencemusicvideos
Four ways to effectively monitor inorganic and organic chlorine in crude oil with benchtop and online XRF; organic chlorides by ASTM D4929, total chlorine by modified ASTM D7536 with Accu-flow, online analysis in crude and process streams, organic and inorganic chlorides using water extraction.
BIKINIS Trendsdepot presents the highly exotic bikinis in various collections at affordable prices. Best selections of bikinis in multiple designs and colors just to make you satisfy. All has been designed in a special way for all plus-size women in order to give your body support and to make you comfortable. Bikini alone has its sub-divisions such bikini sets, bikini tops, bikini bottoms, chlorine resistant bikinis, and many more to explore. What you need just to type your likes in search engine and own your dream. TANKINIS Tankini is one of the favorites of women in beaches because it comes in variety of designs, colors, and fashion. More attractable are floral designs. Rather than this, this type has lots of newly collections, newly launched available at your budget. We also sell tankini sets, tankini tops, tankini bottoms, chlorine resistant tankinis and many more. Just search out your likes. ONEPIECES Newly launched onepieces are in fabulous collections to catch every womans eyes. Wear ...
Jual TEST KIT PH, CHLORIN, TOTAL BROMIN, DAN ALKALINITAS (4 in 1 Test Kit) Paling Murah...!! TEST KIT PH, CHLORIN, TOTAL BROMIN, DAN ALKAL.... ...
UltraSwim Chlorine Removal Shampoo at Walgreens. Get free shipping at $35 and view promotions and reviews for UltraSwim Chlorine Removal Shampoo
United States Patent [1 1 Blue et al. [ Apr. 8, 1975 ELECTROLYTIC CELL FOR GENERATING CHLORINE [75] Inventors: Robert D. Blue; John A. Van Westenburg; James J. Leddy, all of Midland, Mich. [73] Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Mich. [22] Filed: June 17, 1971 [21] Appl. No.: 154,197 Related U.S. Application Data 3] Continuation of Ser. No. 780,711, Dec. 3, 1968, Primary E.\aminer.lohn H. Mack Assistant Examiner-R. L. Andrews Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Earl D. Ayers [57] ABSTRACT The invention relates to the design parameters for diaphragm type chlorine cells. Specifically, the invention relates to the discovery that, in the design of cells in which the effective electrode height is greater than 3.5 feet, it is necessary for the efficient operation of the cells both with respect to current utilization and distribution, that anolyte brine recirculation rates be employed between the bottom and top of the anode(s) such that the ratio of recirculated anolyte brine flow in a given ...
Were off for our usual pre-Fashion Week week of Pilates and sartorial palette cleansing (also on our to-do list: processing for future posts the mounds of interesting merchandise we encountered at the New York International Gift Fair), but one more bit of news before we leave to you in the nimble hands of guest blogger Mary Beth Klatt. Its a story weve dubbed "Andre Balazs and the Mysterious Chlorine Cloud," which only sounds like a lost Tintin adventure. Earlier this month, reports of noxious gas swirls seeded fears of a terrorist attack in downtown Los Angeles. Turns out it was a nearby storm basin bubbling with chlorine courtesy of the rooftop pool-endowed Standard Hotel, explains todays Los Angeles Times:. ...
Learn about pyrotechnic chemicals known as chlorine donors, their uses in pyrotechnic formulas and the amount of chlorine they give off.
Rumit untuk di jelaskan secara detail, gampang nya begini : stabilizer ini buat Chlorine di cicil lepas nya supaya tak cepat hilang kena UV dari matahari. Jika selalu pakai ini stabilized chlorine, saat di baca oleh test kit, termasuk FAS-DPD pun, value chlorine di air kesan nya tinggi memadai, padahal effektivitas sanitasi nya tidak segitu. Jadi air tidak lah cukup sanitasi in-real-time, tetapi test kit bilang OK OK. Stabilizer nya sendiri adalah kimia, dan harus ada faktor konversi nya kepada effektifitas chlorine nya. Tapi kudu beli test kit khusus untuk baca kadar stabilizer dan pakai table reduction Chlorine nya. Yg jual pun tak paham sifat buruk stabilized chlorine ini ...
INEOS ChlorVinyls says it has completed the sale of its packed chlorine business in the United Kingdom to 2M Group. The value of the deal was not disclosed. The sale consists of the packed chlorine...
The delicate balance of pool water can be difficult to keep. A large number of outside influences can affect the water in any number of ways. Unless you keep the pool covered when not in use, the second most common influence is rainwater. Once you know why and how rain affects the water in your pool, you will be ...
1. Eat more fermented foods. Fermented foods are naturally probiotic and help to repopulate the gut with beneficial bacteria. There is a tremendously long list of fermented foods from around the world. Some examples include yogurt, cultured butter, creme fraiche, sauerkraut, kimchi, and naturally fermented pickles. Fermented beverages include: kefir, kombucha, kefir soda pop, and beet kvass. Read more about fermented foods in this post. There are lots of good recipes for fermented foods in Sally Fallon-Morells book, Nourishing Traditions or Sandor Katzs Wild Fermentation. Check the listings on my resources page for sources of fermented foods and starter cultures.. 2. Drink and cook with filtered water, not tap water. Why is this important? Because tap water is chlorinated. Chlorine kills bacteria - good and bad. If you are working to put good bacteria into your digestive tract, you dont want to douse chlorine on it. If you swim in a chlorinated pool, try to limit it to once or twice a ...
In this study, different optical, physical and chemical measurements were tested for their capacity to detect changes in water quality. The tests included UV-absorbance at 254 nm, absorbance at 420 nm, turbidity, particle counting, temperature, pH, electric conductivity (EC), free chlorine concentration and ATP concentration measurements. Special emphasis was given to investigating the potential for measurement tools to detect changes in bacterial concentrations in drinking water. Bacterial colony counts (CFU) and total bacterial cell counts (TBC) were used as reference methods for assessing the bacterial water quality. The study consists of a series of laboratory scale experiments: monitoring of regrowth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, estimation of the detection limits for optical measurements using Escherichia coli dilutions, verification of the relationships by analysing grab water samples from various distribution systems and utilisation of the measurements in the case of an accidentally contaminated
A series of transparent glass color standards mounted in a disk or turret and identified by numerical markings. The standards may indicate hydrogen ion concentration (pH values), residual chlorine concentration, certain toxic substances, and other solutions. Similarly, the standards may be used in the grading of petroleum products as prescribed in various test methods. ...
A series of transparent glass color standards mounted in a disk or turret and identified by numerical markings. The standards may indicate hydrogen ion concentration (pH values), residual chlorine concentration, certain toxic substances, and other solutions. Similarly, the standards may be used in the grading of petroleum products as prescribed in various test methods. ...
Not only does the chlorine level in your pool needs to be at a sufficient level, but you must also make sure that the pH level of your pool is adequate. To determine the pH level (as well as the chlorine level), youll need to purchase a water testing kit. The pH level of the pool should be at 7.2 to 7.6. If the pH ends up being too high, acid needs to be added to the water to lower it. For example, sodium bisulfite is an example of a product that can be used to lower pH levels to where they should be.. ...
1. T.C. Broyer, A.B. Carlton, C.M. Johnson, P.R. Stout. Chlorine - a micronutrient element for higher plants. Plant Physiol. 29:526-532, 1954.. 2. P.E. Fixen. Crop responses to chloride. Adv. Agron. 50:107-150, 1993.. 3. Anonymous. The trends towards chloride-free specialty fertilizers: always fully justified? New Ag. Int. 2:36-49, 2001.. 4. G. Xu, H. Magen, J. Tarchitzky, U. Kafkaf. Advances in chloride nutrition of plants. Adv. Agron. 28:97-150, 2002.. 5. C.H. Lipman. Importance of silicon, aluminum, and chlorine for higher plants. Soil Sci. 45:189-198.. 6. F.M. Eaton. Chlorine. In: H.D. Chapman, ed. Diagnostic Criteria for Plants and Soils. Riverside: University of California, 1966, pp. 98-135.. 7. C.M. Johnson, P.R. Stout, T.C. Broyer, A.B. Carlton. Comparative chlorine requirements of different plant species. Plant Soil 8:337-353, 1957.. 8. D.C. Whitehead. Chlorine deficiency in red clover grown in solution culture. J. Plant Nutr. 8:193-198,. ...
In this experiment chlorine gas is generated on a microscale from bleach solution. The gas is used directly to investigate any reaction with water or halide ions in solution.
You might remember my battles to convert our harmful saltwater pool into a natural pool last year. Well, I have finally succeeded. We now swim in a clear mountain pool - yes, the natural colour of water is brown. White or sea-through water is bleached and therefore chemically laden and not good for you or the environment.. Why would one bother to convert your pool? A 2010 research report by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) revealed that exposure to disinfection by-products (DPB) such as chlorine found in swimming pools, is a possible cause of bladder cancer.. Most regular swimmers know that a high chlorine content in swimming pools causes skin and eye irritation. But the health risks posed by swimming pool chlorine are potentially more dangerous than rashes and red eyes. According to the NIEHS report published in September 2010, chlorine is also linked to chronic breathing problems, cancer, birth defects and erosion of tooth enamel.. ...
H2O Wear is simply the best made, chlorine-resistant swimwear for women. Guaranteed! We offer a great selection of one-piece swimsuits, sun protection swimwear, swim separates, mastectomy swimwear, fitness swimwear, swim coverups, neoprene swim gear and swimming shoes. Trust H2O Wear for quality swimwear that lasts ...
Something didnt smell right. As a worker at Kenema Government Hospital mixed a batch of chlorine on a broiling August day, he noticed it didnt have its typically strong, bleach-like odor. Concerned, he turned to a consultant with the World Health Organization, who tested the disinfectant and found barely any active ingredient.
I dont think you need to worry about the effect of chlorine on poolside plants. Unless large quantities of water are going to be splashed out of the pool and around the roots and on the foliage. Just be sure that the planters and soil mix have good drainage. You also might want to plant annuals, because then you will be replacing them every year, so you dont need to worry about the long-term effects ...
Search Indian Gas Chlorination System Manufacturers and Suppliers Details - Contact to Gas Chlorination System Exporters in India, Gas Chlorination System Wholesalers, Gas Chlorination System Distributors and Traders from India.
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cisplatin is platinum in the middle with two chlorines on one side (cl) and two ammines on the other (NH3). So there should be four bonds ...
Bench-scale Cryptosporidium inactivation, pilot-scale disinfection by-product (DBP) formation and bench-scale inorganic DBP control experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide in meeting the current and future enhanced surface water treatment and disinfectant/disinfection by-product rules. A new chlorine dioxide generation process in which dilute, humidified chlorine gas is in contact with solid sodium chlorite was employed for this study. Chlorine dioxide was found to be effective in achieving CT values (pH=8 and temperature=20°C) of approximately 50 and 100 mg · min/l for 1-log and 2-log Cryptosporidium inactivation, respectively. Chlorine dioxide did not form significant amounts of trihalomethanes or haloacetic acids. Water spiked with high bromide concentrations resulted in insignificant amounts of organic DBPs after reaction with chlorine dioxide. Reaction of chlorine dioxide with water constituents resulted in the formation of chlorite and chlorate ions. ...
We perform first-principles structure optimization, phonon frequency, and finite temperature molecular dynamics calculations based on density functional theory to study the interaction of chlorine atoms with graphene predicting the existence of possible chlorinated graphene derivatives. The bonding of a single chlorine atom is ionic through the transfer of charge from graphene to chlorine adatom and induces negligible local distortion in the underlying planar graphene. Different from hydrogen and fluorine adatoms, the migration of a single chlorine adatom on the surface of perfect graphene takes place almost without barrier. However, the decoration of one surface of graphene with Cl adatoms leading to various conformations cannot be sustained due to strong Cl-Cl interaction resulting in the desorption through the formation of Cl2 molecules. On the contrary, the fully chlorinated graphene, chlorographene CCl, where single chlorine atoms are bonded alternatingly to each carbon atom from different ...
Hepatitis E (genotype 1 and, to a lesser extent genotype 2) is endemic and can cause outbreaks in Southeast Asia, northern and central Africa, India, and Central America.[5][45] It is spread mainly by the fecal-oral route due to contamination of water supplies or food; direct person-to-person transmission is uncommon.[5][19] In contrast to genotypes 1 and 2, genotypes 3 and 4 cause sporadic cases thought to be contracted zoonotically, from direct contact with animals or indirectly from contaminated water or undercooked meat.[5][46] Outbreaks of epidemic hepatitis E most commonly occur after heavy rainfalls, especially monsoons because of their disruption of water supplies; heavy flooding can causes sewage to contaminate water supplies.[47][48]:78 The World Health Organization recommendation for chlorine on HEV inactivation, a free chlorine residual of 0.5 mg/L (6.7×10−5 oz/US gal) for 30 min (pH, ,8.0)[49] Major outbreaks have occurred in New Delhi, India (30,000 cases in 1955-1956),[50] ...
The characteristics of disinfection by-product (DBP) formation in the distribution system of Hiroshima City were investigated. Then a model was developed for predicting DBPs based on multiple regression analysis. Potassium permanganate consumption value (KMnO4), free chlorine residual concentration (Cl2), pH, water temperature (WT) and residence time (RT) were confirmed to have an influence on DBP formation in the distribution system and used as independent variables.. The correlation coefficients between the logarithmic values of the predicted DBPs and those of the observed DBPs were higher than 0.7. In addition, the seasonal change patterns of the predicted DBPs were very similar to those observed in some DBPs. The model is helpful for managing the DBPs in water distribution systems. ...
Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecule Size = 0.124 Nanometers or 8.06451612903 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules = 1 Nanometer (1000 Nanometers = 1 Micron) (Oxygen = 0.0005 Micron in size) (Approximately 4 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.0005 microns). (Atmospheric Dust = 0.001-40 Microns in size) (Approx. 8 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.001 microns). (Viruses = 0.005 - 0.3 Microns in size) (Approximately 40 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.005 microns). (Tobacco Smoke = 0.01 - 4 Microns in size) (Approximately 80 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.01 microns). (Ozone = 0.1 - 0.2 Microns in size) (Approximately 800 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.1 microns). (Lead = 0.1-0.7 Microns in size) (Approximately 800 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.1 microns). (Bacteria = 0.3 - 60 Microns in size) (Approximately 2,400 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.3 microns). (Insecticide Dusts = 0.5-10 Microns in ...
Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States. Norovirus is shed in high numbers in the feces and vomitous of infected individuals. Contact surfaces contaminated with bodily fluids harboring infectious virus particles serve as vehicles for pathogen transmission. Environmental stability of NoV and its resistance to many conventional disinfectants necessitate effective inactivation strategies to control the spread of virus. We investigated the efficacy of two commercial disinfectants, hydrogen peroxide (7.5%) and a chlorine dioxide (0.2%)-surfactant-based product using a fogging delivery system against human NoV GI.6 and GII.4 Sydney strains as well as the cultivable surrogate, feline calicivirus (FCV) dried on stainless steel coupons. Log10 reductions in human NoV and FCV were calculated utilizing RNase RT-qPCR and infectivity (plaque) assay, respectively. An improved antiviral activity of hydrogen peroxide as a function of disinfectant formulation concentration
The Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (DBPR) reduces drinking water exposure to disinfection byproducts. The Rule applies to community water systems and non-transient non-community systems, including those serving fewer than 10,000 people that add a disinfectant to the drinking water during any part of the treatment process.. The Stage 2 DBPR strengthens public health protection by tightening compliance monitoring requirements for Trihalomethanes (TTHM) and Haloacetic acids (HAA5). The rule targets public water systems (PWSs) with the greatest risk.. Taken together, the Stage 1 and Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rules (DBPRs) improve drinking water quality. The rules do this by providing protection from disinfection byproducts. Byproducts, if consumed in excess of EPAs standard over many years, may increase health risks.. Drinking water comes from source water locations such as:. ...
Drinking water disinfection byproducts suggests a possible connection to adverse health effects, including neurological diseases such as Alzheimers, a new study has warned.. University of Illinois scientists report the first identification of a cellular mechanism linked to the toxicity of a major class of drinking water disinfection byproducts.. "Im not implying that drinking disinfected water will give you Alzheimers," said Michael Plewa, lead scientist and professor of genetics in the U of I Department of Crop Sciences.. "Certainly, the disinfection of drinking water was one of the most significant public health achievements of the 20th century. But the adverse effects of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that are unintentionally formed during this process are causing concerns as researchers unveil their toxicity.". More than 600 DBPs have been discovered. Although researchers know some DBPs are toxic, little biological information is available on the majority of these water contaminants. The ...
The microbiological quality of water from a wastewater treatment plant that uses sodium hypochlorite as a disinfectant was assessed. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were not removed efficiently. This fact allowed for the isolation of several bacterial strains from the effluents. Molecular identification indicated that the strains were related to Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli (three strains), Enterobacter cloacae, Kluyvera cryocrescens (three strains), Kluyvera intermedia, Citrobacter freundii (two strains), Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. The first five strains, which were isolated from the non-chlorinated effluent, were used to test resistance to chlorine disinfection using three sets of variables: disinfectant concentration (8, 20 and 30 mg·L−1), contact time (0, 15 and 30 min) and water temperature (20, 25 and 30 °C). The results demonstrated that the strains have independent responses to experimental conditions and that the most efficient treatment was an 8 mg·L−1 dose of disinfectant

Decomposition of Organic chlorine Compounds in the soil by Effective MicroorganismsDecomposition of Organic chlorine Compounds in the soil by Effective Microorganisms

... Y.OGANE*, N.SATO°, K.ASATO°, T. HIGA°°, M. ... For example, Organic chlorine Compounds bond to soil according to the effect which is accompanied with the soil grain structure ... Therefore, it is guessed that disassembly of the organic chlorine compound by the exam is the same as that of the case of ... Organic chlorine Compounds including trichloroethylene have been used as a solvent for washing clothes and electronic parts for ...
more infohttp://www.teraganix.com/category-s/1198.htm

Shower Filter Takes Out Chloramine. omica shower filter removes chlorine chloramine lead. shower filter chlorine or chloramine...Shower Filter Takes Out Chloramine. omica shower filter removes chlorine chloramine lead. shower filter chlorine or chloramine...

shower filter chlorine or chloramine friends of water. propur promax chrome shower filter removes chlorine chloramine fluoride ... vitapure vitamin c shower filter removes 99 9 chlorine chloramine fo. propur promax shower filter removes chlorine chloramine ... shower filter chlorine or chloramine friends of water. premium chloramine shower filter china aquasana china. pelican whole ... shower filter chlorine or chloramine friends of water. shower filter for chlorine and fluoride filters chloramine hard water ...
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Cooking Odors EliminatedCooking Odors Eliminated

Chlorine Dioxide Gas Size Chart. Size Does Matter When It Come To Chlorine Dioxide Gas Penetration. Chlorine Dioxide Gas ... 8 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.001 microns). (Viruses = 0.005 - 0.3 Microns in size) (Approximately 40 ... This is why Chlorine Dioxide Gas works so well at eliminating indoor odors, reducing indoor allergens, destroying indoor ... Chlorine Dioxide Gas is truly the Miracle Vapor Gassing System™ of the 21st century. ...
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Effectiveness of a peracetic acid solution on Escherichia coli reduction during fresh-cut lettuce processing at the laboratory...Effectiveness of a peracetic acid solution on Escherichia coli reduction during fresh-cut lettuce processing at the laboratory...

Current measures to control the quality of lettuce during washing include the use of chemicals like chlorine; however, ... questions regarding the safety of chlorine have prompted research for alternative solutions with peracetic acid (PAA). This ...
more infohttps://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/561951

AUFBAU1 [SELECTED PRINCIPLES: ELECTROLYSIS (2)]AUFBAU1 [SELECTED PRINCIPLES: ELECTROLYSIS (2)]

1] 3. Shown below are electron-structure diagrams for atomic chlorine and molecular chlorine (or dichlorine).. State briefly ... why a chlorine atom is considered to be a free-radical ...
more infohttp://wissensdrang.com/auf1el2.htm

Sodium Hypochlorite Solution - Manufacturer from Navi MumbaiSodium Hypochlorite Solution - Manufacturer from Navi Mumbai

Available Chlorine 3.81- 5.72% w/w ). purified water IP -QS. Excipients -QS. Disinfectant for hospital and pharma Ind. Food ...
more infohttp://www.aarshachemicals.com/sodium-hypochlorite-solution.html

CDC | Facts About ChlorineCDC | Facts About Chlorine

How chlorine works *The extent of poisoning caused by chlorine depends on the amount of chlorine a person is exposed to, how ... How chlorine exposure is treated No antidote exists for chlorine exposure. Treatment consists of removing the chlorine from the ... Where chlorine is found and how it is used *Chlorine is one of the most commonly manufactured chemicals in the United States. ... Chlorine is sometimes in the form of a poisonous gas. Chlorine gas can be pressurized and cooled to change it into a liquid so ...
more infohttps://emergency.cdc.gov/agent/chlorine/basics/facts.asp

CDC - The Emergency Response Safety and Health Database: Lung Damaging Agent: CHLORINE - NIOSHCDC - The Emergency Response Safety and Health Database: Lung Damaging Agent: CHLORINE - NIOSH

Chlorine has also been used as a chemical warfare choking agent. The lowest level at which humans can smell chlorine and notice ... Chronic exposure to chlorine, usually in the workplace, may cause erosion of the teeth. Multiple exposures to chlorine have ... There is no post-exposure therapy specifically for chlorine inhalation.. * ANTIDOTE: There is no antidote for chlorine toxicity ... persons with a history of prolonged exposure lose the ability to identify when they are being exposed to chlorine. Chlorine is ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ershdb/emergencyresponsecard_29750024.html

Disinfection & Testing | Healthy Swimming | Healthy Water | CDCDisinfection & Testing | Healthy Swimming | Healthy Water | CDC

What does chlorine do? Chlorine is added to the water to kill germs. But it does not work right away. If used properly, free ... Why does chlorine need to be tested regularly? All sorts of things can reduce chlorine concentration in pool or hot tub/spa ... Your Disinfection Team: Chlorine & pH. Chlorine and pH, your disinfection team, are the first defense against germs that can ... Thats why the free chlorine concentration must be routinely tested. And remember, the time it takes for free chlorine to kill ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/swimming/pools/chlorine-disinfection-timetable.html

ATSDR - Public Health Statement: Chlorine Dioxide & ChloriteATSDR - Public Health Statement: Chlorine Dioxide & Chlorite

Chlorine dioxide is soluble in water and will react rapidly with other compounds. When it reacts in water, chlorine dioxide ... Because it is a hazardous gas, chlorine dioxide is always made at the location where it is used. Chlorine dioxide is used as a ... In communities that use chlorine dioxide to treat drinking water, chlorine dioxide and its by-product, chlorite ions, may be ... Because chlorine dioxide is very reactive, it is able to kill bacteria and microorganisms in water. About 5% of large water- ...
more infohttps://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/phs/phs.asp?id=580&tid=108

Chlorine - WikipediaChlorine - Wikipedia

Chlorine oxides. Yellow chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas above a yellow chlorine dioxide solution. Solutions of pure chlorine ... Chlorine Institute - Trade association representing the chlorine industry. *Chlorine Online - the web portal of Eurochlor - the ... Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ... chlorine cyanate (ClNCO), chlorine thiocyanate (ClSCN, unlike its oxygen counterpart), and chlorine azide (ClN3).[41] ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorine

Chlorine perchlorate - WikipediaChlorine perchlorate - Wikipedia

Chlorine perchlorate is the chemical compound with the formula Cl2O4. This chlorine oxide is an asymmetric oxide, with one ... "Chlorine perchlorate a major photolysis product of chlorine dioxide". J. Phys. Chem. 86 (24): 4653-4655. doi:10.1021/ ... Chlorine perchlorate reacts with metal chlorides forming anhydrous perchlorates: CrO2Cl2 + 2 ClOClO3 → 2 Cl2 + CrO2(ClO4)2. ... M. I. Lopez; J. E. Sicre (1988). "Ultraviolet spectrum of chlorine perchlorate". J. Phys. Chem. 92 (2): 563-564. doi:10.1021/ ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorine_perchlorate

chlorine | Infopleasechlorine | Infoplease

ranges 35.446-35.457 m.p. −100.98°C b.p. −34.6°C density 3.2 grams per liter at STP valence −1, +1, +3, +5, +7. Chlorine is a ...
more infohttps://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/science-and-technology/chemistry/compounds-and-elements/chlorine

Chlorine deficiency | Britannica.comChlorine deficiency | Britannica.com

Chlorine deficiency, condition in which chlorine is insufficient or is not utilized properly. Chlorine is a component of all ... Chlorine deficiency, condition in which chlorine is insufficient or is not utilized properly. Chlorine is a component of all ... chlorine. Chlorine (Cl). , chemical element, the second lightest member of the halogen elements, or Group 17 (Group VIIa) of ... Treatment of chlorine deficiency is directed towards the underlying cause.. The best source of chlorine is ordinary table salt ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/chlorine-deficiency

Using chlorine - CSMonitor.comUsing chlorine' - CSMonitor.com

Bonnie Rice of Greenpeaces Chlorine Free Campaign states, ``Using chlorine is going to end life as we know it.... ... How do we define the term ``using chlorine? To clarify the Greenpeace position it would be useful to inquire whether Ms. Rice ... Does Rices unqualified statement relate to the use of chlorine in the purification of drinking water for more than a century? ... We need a workable definition of ``using chlorine, including an indication of what kind and how much, and less of the ...
more infohttps://www.csmonitor.com/1994/0105/letter2.html

Chlorine Mixture | The BMJChlorine Mixture | The BMJ

Chlorine Mixture. Br Med J 1862; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.101.600-b (Published 06 December 1862) Cite this as: Br ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/2/101/600.3

chlorine atom (CHEBI:23116)chlorine atom (CHEBI:23116)

... has role micronutrient (CHEBI:27027) chlorine atom (CHEBI:23116) is a halogen (CHEBI:24473) ... CHEBI:23116 - chlorine atom. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI%3A23116

ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: ChlorineATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Chlorine

Chlorine gas can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Exposure to high levels can result in corrosive ... Chlorine gas has been found in at least 60 of the 1,591 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental ... People working in facilities that use chlorine to manufacture other chemicals have the highest risk of being exposed to ... such as a liquid chlorine spill, a leak from a chlorine tank, or a leak from a facility that produces or uses chlorine. ...
more infohttps://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/TF.asp?id=200&tid=36

chlorine trifluoridechlorine trifluoride

The interactive plot requires a browser with JavaScript and HTML 5 canvas support. Select a region with data to zoom. Select a region with no data or click the mouse on the plot to revert to the orginal display. Moving the mouse pointer over or near a point will display the coordinates of the point. The number of digits shown do not reflect the uncertainty of the value. On newer browsers the following keyboard commands are supported: ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=C7790912&Units=SI&Mask=1A8F&Type=ANTOINE&Plot=on

Chlorine dioxideChlorine dioxide

Other names: Chlorine oxide (ClO2); Chlorine(IV) oxide; Chloryl radical; Doxcide 50; Chlorine oxide; ClO2; Alcide; Anthium ... Muller, H.S.P.; Willner, H., Vibrational and electronic spectra of chlorine dioxide, OClO, and chlorine superoxide ClOO, ... Richardson, A.W.; Redding, R.W.; Brand, J.C.D., The 4750 Å band system of chlorine dioxide, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1969, 29, 1-3, ... Curl, R.F.; Abe, K.; Bissinger, J.; Bennett, C.; Tittel, F.K., Fluorescence spectrum of chlorine dioxide induced by the 4765 Å ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?Source=1981MIC%2FMER3089&Units=SI&Mask=800

Chlorine poisoning: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaChlorine poisoning: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Chlorine poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes in (inhales) chlorine. ... Chlorine is a chemical that prevents bacteria from growing. ... Chlorine reacts with water in and out of the body to form ... Chlorine poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes in (inhales) chlorine.. This article is for information only. DO ... Chlorine is present in:. *Gas released when mixing bleach with some of the powdered cleansing products and ammonia (chloramine ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002772.htm

NYPD Hypes Chlorine Terror Threat | WIREDNYPD Hypes Chlorine Terror Threat | WIRED

... but New York City police recently put more emphasis on screening shipments of chlorine after learning that it has become a ... Its something we have to be concerned about, Commissioner Ray Kelly said of the potential of an attack using chlorine… There ... NYPD Hypes Chlorine Terror Threat. Its something we have to be concerned about, Commissioner Ray Kelly said of the potential ... Except... the chlorine strikes in Iraq didnt really hurt anyone, per se. The real impact of this attack is not the actual ...
more infohttps://www.wired.com/2008/02/nypd-hypes-chlo/

chlorine cough - Allergy - MedHelpchlorine cough - Allergy - MedHelp

I now live where there is chlorine in the water and i cough after any use or from in the hot shower and have a tightness in my ... I now live where there is chlorine in the water and i cough after any use or from in the hot shower and have a tightness in my ... chlorine cough. My sons are lifeguards at an indoor water park. They both have chronic dry coughs, even after being off work ... Looked it up and found out to be the chlorine . Always had well water . So when we had a glass of wine the cough and tightness ...
more infohttps://www.medhelp.org/posts/Allergy/chlorine-cough/show/1136383

chlorine Archives - Beyond Gorgeouschlorine Archives - Beyond Gorgeous

Its on the table - but that doesnt make it food. Doing research on sucralose, found in the popular artificial sweetener, Splenda, brought disappointing, not to say frightening, results. It sounded so good - a more "natural" sweetener that is […]. ...
more infohttp://www.beliefnet.com/columnists/beyondgorgeous/tag/chlorine/

Microscale reactions of chlorine- Learn ChemistryMicroscale reactions of chlorine- Learn Chemistry

In this experiment chlorine gas is generated on a microscale from bleach solution. The gas is used directly to investigate any ... Microscale reactions of chlorine. Class practical. In this experiment chlorine. gas is generated on a microscale. from bleach. ... Microscale reactions of chlorine Experiment Microscale reactions of chlorine student sheet Handout Duration : 1 pages ... Chlorine, Cl2(g), (TOXIC, DANGEROUS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard. Chlorine gas is produced in small quantities in ...
more infohttp://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/resource/res00000530/microscale-reactions-of-chlorine?cmpid=CMP00005887
  • The extent of poisoning caused by chlorine depends on the amount of chlorine a person is exposed to, how the person was exposed, and the length of time of the exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • This is only done when the person gets medical care within 30 to 45 minutes of the poisoning, and a very large amount of chlorine has been swallowed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hotel maintenance workers initially admitted pouring a small amount of chlorine down a rooftop drain. (adweek.com)
  • Humphry Davy proposed and confirmed chlorine to bean elemt in 1810, and also named the element. (smore.com)
  • To clarify the Greenpeace position it would be useful to inquire whether Ms. Rice is referring to free, bound, molecular, free-radical, ionic, or covalent chlorine, the properties of which are vastly different. (csmonitor.com)
  • These effects are most likely caused by the caustic nature of the hypochlorite solution and not from exposure to molecular chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • Household 'bleaches' based on peroxide are becoming more widely available and do not contain chlorine, therefore they should not be used. (rsc.org)
  • Cancer risks among people drinking chlorinated water is 93% higher than among those whose water does not contain chlorine. (whale.to)
  • The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride (common salt), has been known since ancient times. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine is used in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products, about two-thirds of them organic chemicals such as polyvinyl chloride , and many intermediates for the production of plastics and other end products which do not contain the element. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the form of chloride ions , chlorine is necessary to all known species of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levels of chlorine closely parallel levels of sodium intake and output, since a primary source of both is sodium chloride, or common table salt . (britannica.com)
  • Rather, chlorine is found mainly in the form of the chloride ion, a component of salts deposited in the earth or dissolved in the oceans . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • chlorine can combine with practically any element to form a chloride. (prezi.com)
  • This chlorine oxide is an asymmetric oxide, with one chlorine atom in oxidation state +1 and the other +7, with proper formula ClOClO 3 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Ironically, even the chlorine widely used to disinfect water produces Carcinogenic traces. (whale.to)
  • Chlorine is used in drinking water and swimming pool water to kill harmful bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorine is a gas at room temperature, making ingestion an unlikely route of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine perchlorate is a pale greenish liquid which decomposes at room temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine has two stable isotopes and one radioactive isotope: the cosmogenic isotope 36Cl. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trace amounts of radioactive 36Cl exist in the environment, in a ratio of about (7-10) × 10−13 to 1 with stable chlorine isotopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • If chlorine is spilled into water or onto soil or if it is released from a tank into the air, the chlorine will evaporate very quickly forming a greenish-yellow cloud that is heavier than air and can be carried by the wind away from the source. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorine azide is prepared by passing chlorine gas over silver azide, or by an addition of acetic acid to a solution of sodium hypochlorite and sodium azide. (wikipedia.org)
  • If using cyanuric acid, a chlorine stabilizer, or chlorine products with cyanuric acid (for example, products commonly known as dichlor or trichlor [see product label]), CDC recommends pH 7.2-7.8 and a free available chlorine concentration of at least 2 ppm in pools. (cdc.gov)
  • Alternatively your son can try for a job at pools which do not use chlorine for purification. (medhelp.org)
  • Chlorine is in most pools around the world for swimming. (smore.com)
  • The atomic number of Chlorine is 17. (smore.com)
  • Halogens are the family chlorine is in, along with iodine and Astatine. (prezi.com)
  • When chlorine gas comes into contact with moist tissues such as the eyes, throat, and lungs, an acid is produced that can damage these tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • chlorine is not flammable but when combined with other chemicals it does. (prezi.com)
  • The best source of chlorine is ordinary table salt, but chlorides are also naturally contained in meat, milk, and eggs. (britannica.com)
  • Chlorine is produced from ordinary salt. (smore.com)
  • Huge amounts of chlorine are used in many industrial processes, such as in the production of paper products, plastics, dyes, textiles, medicines, antiseptics, insecticides, solvents and paints second most common halogen on the planet it took almost 200 years after the discovery to become an element. (prezi.com)
  • Chlorine-based pool and spa disinctants help keep recreational waters safe by destroying waterborne pathogens that can result in illnesses. (smore.com)
  • The body's supplies of chlorine are rapidly depleted during hot weather, when excessive perspiration reduces the fluid content of the body. (britannica.com)
  • Chlorine is a yellow gas which combines directly with nearly all elements. (smore.com)
  • Chlorine perchlorate can also be made the following reactions at −45 °C. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine azide (ClN3) is an inorganic compound that was discovered in 1908 by Friedrich Raschig. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine is one of the most commonly manufactured chemicals in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • It is also used for water disinfection, although the chlorine itself is quickly transformed into other chemicals at the beginning of the process. (cdc.gov)
  • You may be exposed to chlorine gas through the improper use of swimming pool chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • There has been no specific terror threat against the city involving chemicals, but New York City police recently put more emphasis on screening shipments of chlorine after learning that it has become a favored component of homemade bombs in Iraq. (wired.com)
  • At higher levels, breathing chlorine gas may result in changes in breathing rate and coughing, and damage to the lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorine is a component of all body secretions and excretions resulting from processes of building ( anabolism ) and breaking down ( catabolism ) body tissues. (britannica.com)
  • Chlorine is stored to a limited extent in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and skeleton and constitutes two-thirds of the negatively charged ions (anions) in the blood . (britannica.com)
  • Chlorine is usually shipped in steel cylinders as a compressed liquefied gas. (cdc.gov)
  • 100-pound cylinders of chlorine. (wired.com)