Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS which are concentrated in the thick ascending limb at the junction of the LOOP OF HENLE and KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more nitro groups.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A gas that condenses under slight pressure. Because of its low boiling point ethyl chloride sprayed on skin produces an intense cold by evaporation. Cold blocks nerve conduction. Ethyl chloride has been used in surgery but is primarily used to relieve local pain in sports medicine.
Na-K-Cl transporter ubiquitously expressed. It plays a key role in salt secretion in epithelial cells and cell volume regulation in nonepithelial cells.
A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A sulfamyl diuretic.
An analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Organometallic compounds which contain tin and three alkyl groups.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.
A highly toxic compound used as a fungicide for treating seeds.
A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.
An enzyme that catalyzes the chlorination of a range of organic molecules, forming stable carbon-chloride bonds. EC
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
Inherited myotonic disorders with early childhood onset MYOTONIA. Muscular hypertrophy is common and myotonia may impair ambulation and other movements. It is classified as Thomsen (autosomal dominant) or Becker (autosomal recessive) generalized myotonia mainly based on the inheritance pattern. Becker type is also clinically more severe. An autosomal dominant variant with milder symptoms and later onset is known as myotonia levior. Mutations in the voltage-dependent skeletal muscle chloride channel are associated with the disorders.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
A subclass of symporters found in KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL that are the major pathway for salt resorption. Inhibition of these symporters by BENZOTHIADIAZINES is the basis of action of some DIURETICS.
Magnesium chloride. An inorganic compound consisting of one magnesium and two chloride ions. The compound is used in medicine as a source of magnesium ions, which are essential for many cellular activities. It has also been used as a cathartic and in alloys.
Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Prolonged failure of muscle relaxation after contraction. This may occur after voluntary contractions, muscle percussion, or electrical stimulation of the muscle. Myotonia is a characteristic feature of MYOTONIC DISORDERS.
A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.
Electroneutral chloride bicarbonate exchangers that allow the exchange of BICARBONATE IONS exchange for CHLORIDE IONS across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.
Light driven chloride ion pumps that are ubiquitously found in halophilic archaea (HALOBACTERIALES).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, widely distributed in the United States and Europe.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)
A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Inorganic compounds that contain zinc as an integral part of the molecule.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.
The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.
Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A group of disorders caused by defective salt reabsorption in the ascending LOOP OF HENLE. It is characterized by severe salt-wasting, HYPOKALEMIA; HYPERCALCIURIA; metabolic ALKALOSIS, and hyper-reninemic HYPERALDOSTERONISM without HYPERTENSION. There are several subtypes including ones due to mutations in the renal specific SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.
Agents, usually topical, that cause the contraction of tissues for the control of bleeding or secretions.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)
The fluid inside CELLS.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Compounds of four rings containing a nitrogen. They are biosynthesized from reticuline via rearrangement of scoulerine. They are similar to BENZYLISOQUINOLINES. Members include chelerythrine and sanguinarine.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.
Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.
Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Gadolinium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Gd, atomic number 64, and atomic weight 157.25. Its oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces noursei, S. aureus, and other Streptomyces species. The biologically active components of the complex are nystatin A1, A2, and A3.
Inorganic compounds that contain silver as an integral part of the molecule.
Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
A trace element that is required in bone formation. It has the atomic symbol Sn, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 118.71.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.
Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.
A strain of mice widely studied as a model for cystic fibrosis. These mice are generated from embryonic stem cells in which the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene is inactivated by gene targeting. As a result, all mice have one copy of this altered gene in all their tissues. Mice homozygous for the disrupted gene exhibit many features common to young cystic fibrosis patients, including failure to thrive, meconium ileus, and alteration of mucous and serous glands.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Compounds that contain a 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl group.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Organic mercury compounds in which the mercury is attached to an ethyl group.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.

Intrarenal site of action of calcium on renin secretion in dogs. (1/7624)

We studied the effects of intrarenal calcium infusion on renin secretion in sodium-depleted dogs in an attempt to elucidate the major site of calcium-induced inhibition of renin release. Both calcium chloride and calcium gluconate reduced renal blood flow and renin secretion while renal perfusion pressure was unchanged. These data indicate that calcium inhibition of renin secretion did not occur primarily at the renal vascular receptor; decreased renal blood flow is usually associated with increased renin secretion. Calcium chloride infusion increased urinary chloride excretion without affecting sodium excretion, and calcium gluconate failed to increase either sodium or chloride excretion. Also, the filtered loads of sodium and chloride were unchanged during the calcium infusions. These results give no indication that calcium inhibited renin secretion by increasing the sodium or chloride load at the macula densa. The effects of intrarenal calcium infusion on renin release were also assessed in dogs with a nonfiltering kidney in which renal tubular mechanisms could not influence renin secretion. The observation that calcium still suppressed renin release in these dogs provides additional evidence that the the major effect of calcium involved nontubular mechanisms. Thus, it appears likely that calcium acted directly on the juxtaglomerular cells to inhibit renin secretion.  (+info)

Acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. (2/7624)

Renal micropuncture studies have greatly changed our views on the pathophysiology of acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. Formerly, this type of renal insufficiency was attributed to a direct effect of the nephrotoxins on tubule epithelial permeability. According to that theory, glomerular filtration was not greatly diminished, the filtrate formed being absorbed almost quantitatively and nonselectively across damaged tubule epithelium. Studies in a wide variety of rat models have now shown glomerular filtration to be reduced to a level which will inevitably cause renal failure in and of itself. Passive backflow of filtrate across tubular epithelium is either of minor degree or nonexistent even in models where frank tubular necrosis has occurred. This failure of filtration cannot be attributed to tubular obstruction since proximal tubule pressure is distinctly subnormal in most models studied. Instead, filtration failure appears best attributed to intrarenal hemodynamic alterations. While certain facts tend to incriminate the renin-angiotensin system as the cause of the hemodynamic aberrations, others argue to the contrary. The issue is underactive investigation.  (+info)

Somatic recording of GABAergic autoreceptor current in cerebellar stellate and basket cells. (3/7624)

Patch-clamp recordings were performed from stellate and basket cells in rat cerebellar slices. Under somatic voltage clamp, short depolarizing pulses were applied to elicit action potentials in the axon. After the action potential, a bicuculline- and Cd2+-sensitive current transient was observed. A similar response was obtained when eliciting axonal firing by extracellular stimulation. With an isotonic internal Cl- solution, the peak amplitude of this current varied linearly with the holding potential, yielding an extrapolated reversal potential of -20 to 0 mV. Unlike synaptic or autaptic GABAergic currents obtained in the same preparation, the current transient had a slow rise-time and a low variability between trials. This current was blocked when 10 mM BAPTA was included in the recording solution. In some experiments, the current transient elicited axonal action potentials. The current transient was reliably observed in animals aged 12-15 d, with a mean amplitude of 82 pA at -70 mV, but was small and rare in the age group 29-49 d. Numerical simulations could account for all properties of the current transient by assuming that an action potential activates a distributed GABAergic conductance in the axon. The actual conductance is probably restricted to release sites, with an estimated mean presynaptic current response of 10 pA per site (-70 mV, age 12-15 d). We conclude that in developing rats, stellate and basket cell axons have a high density of GABAergic autoreceptors and that a sizable fraction of the corresponding current can be measured from the soma.  (+info)

Effects of inhibitors and substitutes for chloride in lumen on p-aminohippurate transport by isolated perfused rabbit renal proximal tubules. (4/7624)

The transport step for p-aminohippurate (PAH) from cell to lumen across the luminal membrane of rabbit proximal tubules has not been adequately defined. To examine this process more closely, we determined the effects of possible transport inhibitors and substitutes for chloride on PAH secretion in isolated perfused S2 segments of rabbit proximal tubules. The addition of 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyano-2,2' disulfonic stilbene (10(-4) M) to the perfusate irreversibly inhibited PAH secretion, whereas the addition of probenecid (10(-4) M) to the perfusate reversibly inhibited PAH secretion. PAH secretion was unaffected by thiocyanate replacement of chloride in the luminal perfusate, reversibly inhibited by 15 to 20% by methyl sulfate replacement, and irreversibly inhibited by isethionate replacement. Because the luminal membrane is at least as permeable to thiocyanate as to chloride, less permeable to methyl sulfate, and much less permeable to isethionate, these data suggest that the PAH transport step from cells to lumen does not require chloride in the lumen but does require a highly permeant anion. During inhibition of PAH transport from cells to lumen, PAH uptake across the basolateral membrane was also reduced, suggesting some type of feedback inhibition. The data are compatible with PAH transport across the luminal membrane by an anion exchanger, a potential-driven uniporter, both carriers, or a carrier that can function in both modes.  (+info)

Electrostatic interactions during activation of coagulation factor IX via the tissue factor pathway: effect of univalent salts. (5/7624)

Interaction between the Gla-domain of coagulation proteins and negatively charged phospholipid membranes is essential for blood coagulation reactions. The interaction is calcium-dependent and mediated both by electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. This report focuses on the electrostatic component of factor IX activation via the extrinsic pathway. Effective charges during the reaction are measured by ionic titration of activity, according to the Debye-Huckel and Gouy-Chapman models. Rates of activation decrease with ionic strength independently of the type of monovalent salt used to control ionic strength. Moreover, the effect of ionic strength decreases at concentrations of charged phospholipid approaching saturation levels, indicating that membrane charges participate directly in the ionic interaction measured. The effective charge on calcium-bound factor IX during activation on phospholipid membranes is 0.95+/-0.1. Possible sites mediating contacts between the Gla-domain and membranes are selected by geometrical criteria in several metal-bound Gla-domain structures. A pocket with a solvent opening-pore of area 24-38 A2 is found in the Gla-domain of factors IX, VII, and prothrombin. The pocket contains atoms with negative partial charges, including carboxylate oxygens from Gla residues, and has a volume of 57-114 A3, sufficient to accommodate additional calcium atoms. These studies demonstrate that electrostatic forces modify the activity coefficient of factor IX during functional interactions and suggest a conserved pocket motif as the contact site between the calcium-bound Gla-domain and charged membranes.  (+info)

Topology of the membrane domain of human erythrocyte anion exchange protein, AE1. (6/7624)

Anion exchanger 1 (AE1) is the chloride/bicarbonate exchange protein of the erythrocyte membrane. By using a combination of introduced cysteine mutants and sulfhydryl-specific chemistry, we have mapped the topology of the human AE1 membrane domain. Twenty-seven single cysteines were introduced throughout the Leu708-Val911 region of human AE1, and these mutants were expressed by transient transfection of human embryonic kidney cells. On the basis of cysteine accessibility to membrane-permeant biotin maleimide and to membrane-impermeant lucifer yellow iodoacetamide, we have proposed a model for the topology of AE1 membrane domain. In this model, AE1 is composed of 13 typical transmembrane segments, and the Asp807-His834 region is membrane-embedded but does not have the usual alpha-helical conformation. To identify amino acids that are important for anion transport, we analyzed the anion exchange activity for all introduced cysteine mutants, using a whole cell fluorescence assay. We found that mutants G714C, S725C, and S731C have very low transport activity, implying that this region has a structurally and/or catalytically important role. We measured the residual anion transport activity after mutant treatment with the membrane-impermeant, cysteine-directed compound, sodium (2-sulfonatoethyl)methanethiosulfonate) (MTSES). Only two mutants, S852C and A858C, were inhibited by MTSES, indicating that these residues may be located in a pore-lining region.  (+info)

Inhibition of vibrio anguillarum by Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2, a possible probiotic treatment of fish. (7/7624)

To study the possible use of probiotics in fish farming, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antagonism of antibacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2 against the fish-pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. As iron is important in virulence and bacterial interactions, the effect of P. fluorescens AH2 was studied under iron-rich and iron-limited conditions. Sterile-filtered culture supernatants from iron-limited P. fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum, whereas sterile-filtered supernatants from iron-replete cultures of P. fluorescens AH2 did not. P. fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum during coculture, independently of the iron concentration, when the initial count of the antagonist was 100 to 1, 000 times greater that of the fish pathogen. These in vitro results were successfully repeated in vivo. A probiotic effect in vivo was tested by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss Walbaum) to P. fluorescens AH2 at a density of 10(5) CFU/ml for 5 days before a challenge with V. anguillarum at 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/ml for 1 h. Some fish were also exposed to P. fluorescens AH2 at 10(7) CFU/ml during the 1-h infection. The combined probiotic treatment resulted in a 46% reduction of calculated accumulated mortality; accumulated mortality was 25% after 7 days at 12 degrees C in the probiotic-treated fish, whereas mortality was 47% in fish not treated with the probiont.  (+info)

Chloride dependence of hyperpolarization-activated chloride channel gates. (8/7624)

1. ClC proteins are a class of voltage-dependent Cl- channels with several members mutated in human diseases. The prototype ClC-0 Torpedo channel is a dimeric protein; each subunit forms a pore that can gate independently from the other one. A common slower gating mechanism acts on both pores simultaneously; slow gating activates ClC-0 at hyperpolarized voltages. The ClC-2 Cl- channel is also activated by hyperpolarization, as are some ClC-1 mutants (e.g. D136G) and wild-type (WT) ClC-1 at certain pH values. 2. We studied the dependence on internal Cl- ([Cl-]i) of the hyperpolarization-activated gates of several ClC channels (WT ClC-0, ClC-0 mutant P522G, ClC-1 mutant D136G and an N-terminal deletion mutant of ClC-2), by patch clamping channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. 3. With all these channels, reducing [Cl-]i shifted activation to more negative voltages and reduced the maximal activation at most negative voltages. 4. We also investigated the external halide dependence of WT ClC-2 using two-electrode voltage-clamp recording. Reducing external Cl- ([Cl-]o) activated ClC-2 currents. Replacing [Cl-]o by the less permeant Br- reduced channel activity and accelerated deactivation. 5. Gating of the ClC-2 mutant K566Q in normal [Cl-]o resembled that of WT ClC-2 in low [Cl-]o, i.e. channels had a considerable open probability (Po) at resting membrane potential. Substituting external Cl- by Br- or I- led to a decrease in Po. 6. The [Cl-]i dependence of the hyperpolarization-activated gates of various ClC channels suggests a similar gating mechanism, and raises the possibility that the gating charge for the hyperpolarization-activated gate is provided by Cl-. 7. The external halide dependence of hyperpolarization-activated gating of ClC-2 suggests that it is mediated or modulated by anions as in other ClC channels. In contrast to the depolarization-activated fast gates of ClC-0 and ClC-1, the absence of Cl- favours channel opening. Lysine 556 may be important for the relevant binding site.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones. AU - Thoreson, Wallace B. AU - Bryson, Eric J.. PY - 2004/12/5. Y1 - 2004/12/5. N2 - Background: GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl) was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results: Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca)) and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- ...
Congenital Chloride diarrhea (CLD) is an intestinal transport defect of chloride ions. Retention of intestinal chloride causes water retention, which leads to watery diarrhea with an abnormally high chloride concentration. This defect presents in utero, with hydramnion presumably due to intrauterine diarrhea. The gestational period is shortened, and newborn babies have abdominal distension and chronic watery diarrhea. If untreated the condition leads to severe electrolyte changes with a fatal outcome, or to permanent damage of kidneys and brain. Treatment with chloride substitution and control of electrolyte balance is effective and patients can live an almost normal life complicated only by relatively loose stools.
Common causes of hypochloremia, or low chloride levels, include congestive heart failure, dehydration, excessive sweating and dehydration. Hyponatremia, or low sodium levels in the blood or urine,...
Common causes of hypochloremia, or low chloride levels, include congestive heart failure, dehydration, excessive sweating and dehydration. Hyponatremia, or
p,Other than modifying either neurotransmitter release or receptor expression and/or properties, one way to modulate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A and glycine receptor-mediated signalling is to alter the transmembrane gradient for chloride ions. Because intracellular chloride concentration is low in neurons, and the reversal potential for chloride currents is close to the resting membrane potential, small changes in intracellular chloride concentration can dramatically affect the strength and even polarity of GABA/glycine-mediated transmission. It now appears that chloride homeostasis is actively regulated in the adult brain and affected by endogenous neuromodulators such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Modulating chloride gradients even emerges as a mechanism by which microglia can control neuronal excitability. These findings, together with the observation of altered chloride homeostasis in several neurological disorders, point to new targets for therapeutic agents.,/p,. ...
Most of us use lactated Ringers solution for fluid therapy intraoperatively, though in some institutions the preferred solution is normal saline. Normal salines chloride concentration is 154 mEq/l, substantially higher than typical serum chloride concentration (100-100 mEq/l). Given salines higher chloride concentration, do patients who receive that solution get hyperchloremic acidosis? If they do, what are the implications?. In their study Hyperchloremia After Noncardiac Surgery Is Independently Associated with Increased Morbidity and Mortality: A Propensity-Matched Cohort Study, Dr. Stuart A. McCluskey, Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and colleagues compared outcomes in patients who were hyperchloremic with outcomes in patients with normal serum chloride after inpatient, noncardiac, nontransplant surgery. This was a retrospective study using propensity-matched and logistic multivariable ...
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WNK1 [with no lysine (K)] is a serine-threonine kinase associated with a form of familial hypertension. WNK1 is at the top of a kinase cascade, leading to phosphorylation of several cotransporters, in particular those transporting sodium, potassium, and chloride (NKCC), sodium and chloride (NCC), and potassium and chloride (KCC). The responsiveness of NKCC, NCC, and KCC to changes in extracellular chloride parallels their phosphorylation state, provoking the proposal that these transporters are controlled by a chloride-sensitive protein kinase. We found that chloride stabilizes the inactive conformation of WNK1, preventing kinase autophosphorylation and activation. Crystallographic studies of inactive WNK1 in the presence of chloride revealed that chloride binds directly to the catalytic site, providing a basis for the unique position of the catalytic lysine. Mutagenesis of the chloride-binding site rendered the kinase less sensitive to inhibition of autophosphorylation by chloride, validating ...
CL:0000017 ! spermatocyte CL:0000018 ! spermatid CL:0000019 ! sperm CL:0000023 ! oocyte CL:0000025 ! egg CL:0000026 ! nurse cell CL:0000030 ! glioblast CL:0000031 ! neuroblast CL:0000034 ! stem cell CL:0000037 ! hematopoietic stem cell CL:0000056 ! myoblast CL:0000057 ! fibroblast CL:0000062 ! osteoblast CL:0000066 ! epithelial cell CL:0000071 ! blood vessel endothelial cell CL:0000075 ! columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell CL:0000081 ! blood cell CL:0000084 ! T cell CL:0000092 ! osteoclast CL:0000094 ! granulocyte CL:0000097 ! mast cell CL:0000115 ! endothelial cell CL:0000125 ! glial cell CL:0000127 ! astrocyte CL:0000128 ! oligodendrocyte CL:0000129 ! microglial cell CL:0000134 ! mesenchymal cell CL:0000136 ! fat cell CL:0000138 ! chondrocyte CL:0000147 ! pigment cell CL:0000148 ! melanocyte CL:0000150 ! glandular epithelial cell CL:0000178 ! Leydig cell CL:0000187 ! muscle cell CL:0000188 ! skeletal muscle cell CL:0000192 ! smooth muscle cell CL:0000201 ! auditory receptor cell CL:0000202 ! ...
CL:0000017 ! spermatocyte CL:0000018 ! spermatid CL:0000019 ! sperm CL:0000023 ! oocyte CL:0000025 ! egg CL:0000026 ! nurse cell CL:0000030 ! glioblast CL:0000031 ! neuroblast CL:0000034 ! stem cell CL:0000037 ! hematopoietic stem cell CL:0000056 ! myoblast CL:0000057 ! fibroblast CL:0000062 ! osteoblast CL:0000066 ! epithelial cell CL:0000071 ! blood vessel endothelial cell CL:0000075 ! columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell CL:0000081 ! blood cell CL:0000084 ! T cell CL:0000092 ! osteoclast CL:0000094 ! granulocyte CL:0000097 ! mast cell CL:0000115 ! endothelial cell CL:0000125 ! glial cell CL:0000127 ! astrocyte CL:0000128 ! oligodendrocyte CL:0000129 ! microglial cell CL:0000134 ! mesenchymal cell CL:0000136 ! fat cell CL:0000138 ! chondrocyte CL:0000147 ! pigment cell CL:0000148 ! melanocyte CL:0000150 ! glandular epithelial cell CL:0000178 ! Leydig cell CL:0000187 ! muscle cell CL:0000188 ! skeletal muscle cell CL:0000192 ! smooth muscle cell CL:0000201 ! auditory receptor cell CL:0000202 ! ...
An improved process is disclosed of preparing a high chloride tabular grain emulsion. The concentration of thiocyanate ion in the dispersing medium at nucleation and during grain growth is relied upon a favor the formation of {111} crystal faces. The concentration of chloride ion in the thiocyanate ion containing dispersing medium is relied upon to produce the grain twinning necessary for tabular grain formation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Apical membrane chloride channels in a colonic cell line activated by secretory agonists. AU - Halm, D. R.. AU - Rechkemmer, G. R.. AU - Schoumacher, Robert. AU - Frizzell, R. A.. PY - 1988/1/1. Y1 - 1988/1/1. N2 - We characterized the anion channel responsible for the increase in apical membrane Cl secretion using a model salt-secreting epithelium, the T84 colonic cell line. The adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-mediated secretagogues, prostaglandin E2, forskolin, and 8-bromo-cAMP, evoked activity of an outwardly rectifying Cl channel in previously quiet cell-attached membrane patches. The channel remained active in excised, inside-out membranes, where its single-channel conductance was 40-45 pS at 0 mV with 160 mM NaCl in pipette and bath. Selectivities were P(Cl)/P(Na) = 50 and for halides I(1.8)/Br(1.4)/Cl(1.0)/F(0.4). This halide sequence illustrates that the ability of various anions to undergo transepithelial secretion is determined by the selectivity of the ...
Chloride flux at corneal wounds A.Cl− concentration. Unwounded cornea had a slighly higher Cl− concentration than background. Upon wounding, the Cl− conce
Read Glucose enhances rotavirus enterotoxin-induced intestinal chloride secretion, Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiologyl of Physiology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
We have shown that XE991 can reduce electrogenic chloride secretion in the murine colon when it is added basolaterally. This result supports the general thesis that hyperpolarization increases chloride efflux through the apical membrane by increasing the electrical gradient. Conversely, blockade of basolateral K+-channels, by causing depolarization, will reduce chloride secretion. Because XE991 reduces the basal SCC without prior stimulation of SCC, this suggests that some K+ channels are constitutively open, as has been argued by others (Schroeder et al., 2000).. Both forskolin and EBIO have multiple actions on chloride secretory epithelia. Both activate apically located CFTR chloride channels, either by increasing cAMP (Cuthbert et al., 1999b) or by direct action (Devor et al.,1996a,b), and both activate basolateral K+ channels, again either via cAMP or by a mixture of direct and indirect actions (Devor et al.,1996a,b; Cuthbert et al., 1999b; Syme et al., 2000). However, as shown here for the ...
A detailed study of the anodic behaviour of synthetic covellite in acidic chloride solutions has been conducted as part of an overall program on the fundamental aspects of the heap leaching of copper sulfide minerals.. The anodic behaviour in chloride solutions is characterized by active (but slow) dissolution at low potentials below about 0.65 V, passivation at potentials above 0.70 V that continues to potentials greater than 1.4 V above which rapid transpassive dissolution occurs. These characteristics are also typical of chalcopyrite under similar conditions.. The anodic characteristics at potentials in the region of the measured mixed potentials in the presence of copper(II) show that there are two peaks in the voltammetric sweeps at about 0.65 V and 0.75 V, the magnitude of which increase with increasing chloride concentration. The two peaks merge into a single peak at very high chloride concentrations.. Potentiostatic current-time transients at various potentials in the region of the mixed ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane glycoprotein that transports chloride ions across the cell membrane in exchange for bicarbonate ions. It is localized to the mucosa of the lower intestinal tract, particularly to the apical membrane of columnar epithelium and some goblet cells. The protein is essential for intestinal chloride absorption, and mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital chloride diarrhea. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008 ...
Descending rabbit colon, stripped ofmuscularis externa, absorbs Na and Cl under short-circuit conditions and exhibits a residual ion flux, consistent with HCO3 secretion, whose magnitude is approximately equal to the rate of active Cl absorption. Net K transport was not observed under short-circuit conditions. The results of ion replacement studies and of treatment with ouabain or amiloride suggest that the short-circuit currentI sc is determined solely by the rate of active Na transport and that the net movements of Cl and HCO3 are mediated by a Na-independent, electrically-neutral, anion exchange process. Cyclic AMP stimulates an electrogenic Cl secretion, abolishes HCO3 secretion but does not affect the rate of Na absorption under short-circuit conditions. Studies of the effect of transepithelial potential difference on the serosa-to-mucosa fluxesJ sm i of Na, K and Cl suggest thatJ sm Na ,J sm K and one-third ofJ sm Cl may be attributed to ionic diffusion. The permeabilities of the passive
A sub-chronic repeated dose toxicity study was conducted according to EPA guideline 82.1 which is equivalent to OECD guideline 408 under GLP conditions. The test article (sodium chlorite) was administered by gavage daily for 13 weeks to the rat. Doses were selected based on a previous range-finding study. The doses for the main study were 10, 25 and 80 mg/kg/day. Animals were observed daily and bodyweight and food consumption were recorded weekly. Ophthalmic examinations were performed on all animals before dosing started and on high dose and control animals during week 12. Blood samples for haematological and blood chemical investigations were obtained during week 13. Urine samples were analysed during week 13. At the end of the treatment period animals were sacrificed and necropsied. Several organs were weighed and a range of tissues was preserved for subsequent histopathology. Sodium chlorite treatment elicited toxicity at 80 and 25 mg/kg/day. At the highest dose level this was characterised ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of metakaolin on chloride penetration into concrete. AU - Ferreira, Miguel. AU - Costa, Pedro M.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Extensive research and practical experience have shown that partial replacement of cement by metakaolin improves concrete durability as a result of the refinement of the pore structure. While literature confirms much research on the performance of concrete with metakaolin, it is scarce concerning the performance with regards to chloride penetration. For the study, reference mixes where made with CEM I 42,5R cement. Two contents levels where defined: 330 kg/m3 and 440 kg/m3 based on mix designs currently used in the ready-mixindustry for C20/25 and C30/37 concretes. Cement was partially replaced with metakaolin with levels varying from 10-20%. All mixes where tested for compressive strength, electrical resistivity and chloride diffusion characteristics (migration and immersion testing). The results demonstrate the improved resistance to chloride ...
Hyperchloremia is an electrolyte imbalance that occurs when theres too much chloride in the blood. Chloride is an important electrolyte that is responsible for maintaining the acid-base (pH) balance in your body, regulating fluids, and transmitting nerve impulses. The normal range for chloride in adults is roughly bet
Supporting transcellular Cl absorption, apical membranes of both amphibian and mammalian proximal tubules bring Cl into the cell from the tubule lumen in exchange for organic anions such as oxalate and formate via isoforms of the SLC family of multifunctional anion exchangers (6, 7, 24, 81, 87, 152, 179, 181), and the basolateral membrane offers Cl channels that permit the exit of intracellular Cl into the renal interstitium (7, 149, 151). Supporting transcellular Cl secretion, same cells employ Cl/HCO3 exchange to bring Cl into the cell from the renal interstitium (2, 90, 117, 141, 193), and the apical membrane offers Cl channels that allow the efflux of Cl into the tubule lumen (1, 31, 99, 182). Thus amphibian and mammalian proximal tubules express the transporters for absorptive as well as secretory Cl transport (Fig. 10). Whether net transcellular Cl transport proceeds in the direction of absorption or secretion depends on many variables, among them 1) the relative number and activity of ...
The single-span membrane protein KCNE3 modulates a variety of voltage-gated ion channels in diverse biological contexts. In epithelial cells, KCNE3 regulates the function of the KCNQ1 potassium ion (K(+)) channel to enable K(+) recycling coupled to transepithelial chloride ion (Cl(-)) secretion, a physiologically critical cellular transport process in various organs and whose malfunction causes diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF), cholera, and pulmonary edema. Structural, computational, biochemical, and electrophysiological studies lead to an atomically explicit integrative structural model of the KCNE3-KCNQ1 complex that explains how KCNE3 induces the constitutive activation of KCNQ1 channel activity, a crucial component in K(+) recycling. Central to this mechanism are direct interactions of KCNE3 residues at both ends of its transmembrane domain with residues on the intra- and extracellular ends of the KCNQ1 voltage-sensing domain S4 helix. These interactions appear to stabilize the ...
A chloride test measures the level of chloride in your blood or urine. Chloride is one of the most important electrolytes in the blood. It helps keep the amount of fluid inside and outside of your cells in balance. It also helps maintain proper blood volume, blood pressure, and pH of your body fluids. Tests for sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate are usually done at the same time as a blood test for chloride.. Most of the chloride in your body comes from the salt (sodium chloride) you eat. Chloride is absorbed by your intestines when you digest food. Extra chloride leaves your body in your urine.. Sometimes a test for chloride can be done on a one-time random sample of urine or on a sample of all your urine collected over a 24-hour period (called a 24-hour urine sample). This can help find out how much chloride is leaving your body in your urine.. Chloride can also be measured in skin sweat to test for cystic fibrosis. ...
History/Goals: Even though the Cl- efflux assays are relatively straightforward, their capability to assess the efficiency of phenotypic modification in cystic fibrosis (CF) tissues or cells might end up being small. wild-type (wt), the 36Cl efflux assay was no reliable much longer. 115256-11-6 manufacture Polarized CFBE41o-cells, homozygous for the Y508 mutation also, had been utilized in the Ussing step research. Ussing evaluation discovered cAMP-dependent Cl- currents in blends with 1% wild-type cells suggesting that Ussing evaluation is normally even more delicate than 36Cd efflux evaluation for recognition of useful CFTR. A conclusion: Evaluation of CFTR function by Ussing evaluation is definitely more sensitive than 36Cl efflux analysis. Ussing analysis shows that cell mixes comprising 10% 16HBecome14o- cells showed 40C50% of normal cAMP-dependent Cl- transport that drops off exponentially between 10-1% wild-type cells. cell systems. Materials and Methods Cell tradition and cell lines The ...
The cognitive enhancer XE991 interacts with K(+) channels consisting of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 heteromultimers to block the M-current. XE991 can also block KCNQ1 K(+) channels expressed in oocytes, but sensitivity is reduced when the channels are coexpressed with minK (KCNE1). The purpose of the study was to examine the interaction of XE991 with other types of K(+) channel, especially those in the basolateral membranes of murine epithelia. K(+) channel blockade was measured by the inhibition of chloride secretion resulting from depolarization. XE991 inhibited the chloride secretory current in colonic epithelia by an interaction with basolateral K(+) channels when forskolin was used as the stimulus. However, when 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (EBIO) was used to stimulate chloride secretion, XE991 was ineffective unless charybdotoxin was also present. Because EBIO also activates Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels, whereas forskolin activates only cAMP-sensitive K(+) channels, it is concluded that the latter ...
Hello A store that sells sodium chlorite sent me a chemistry NaCl02 - 25,45% NaCl03 - 0,22% NaCl - 1,05% NaOH - 0,21% Na2CO3 - 0,45% Na2SO4... - Page 2
I suggest that you never use MMS (sodium chlorite solution) without mixing it with citric acid, HCl, or another proven food-grade acid to activate it. Once it...
Mutations in several SLC26 transporters are linked to human diseases, most of which involve epithelia dysfunction in specific organs. This indicates that SLC26 transporters play a central role in transepithelial fluid and electrolyte transport, including Cl− absorption and HCO3− secretion by the kidney, the GI tract, and secretory glands (Kunzelmann and Mall, 2002; Ko et al., 2004; Melvin et al., 2005; Steward et al., 2005). To understand the function of the SLC26 transporters in epithelial Cl− absorption and HCO3− secretion, it is essential to know their transport mechanism and Cl−/HCO3− transport stoichiometry. Two of the most studied SLC26 transporters are slc26a3 and slc26a6. Both were shown to function as Cl−/HCO3− exchangers (Melvin et al., 1999; Ko et al., 2002; Wang et al., 2002) and as electrogenic transporters (Ko et al., 2002; Xie et al., 2002) with isoform-specific stoichiometry (Ko et al., 2002). However, the electrogenicity of the transporters was called into ...
Dear All, Does anyone has any experiences to coat on Sodium Hypo Chloride - 6-14% active Chloride- tank & PH 12 ? in order to prolong the surface against wet corrosion, Tanks base metal is Carbon ste
Chloride secretion is the major determinant of mucosal hydration throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and chloride transport is also pivotal in the regulation of fluid secretion by organs that drain into the intestine. Moreover, there are pathological consequences if chloride secretion is either r …
where cl tm is the maximum total chloride content in concrete in percentage by weight of cement, cl c is the cement chloride content in percentage by weight of cement, w c is the water-cement ratio, cl w is the chloride content in mixing water in ppm, c is the cement content in the concrete mixture in kg/m 3, ca is the coarse aggregate ...
This paper reports the influence of varying curing durations on the chloride ingress resistance of slag blends. Samples were prepared by combining two slags (S1 and S2) with CEM I 52·5R cement at 30% by weight of slag. Mortar samples were cured for either 7 or 28 d, before being exposed to a 3% sodium chloride solution. Samples were subjected to two chloride exposure conditions (either complete submersion or a cyclic 6 h wetting and drying cycle). Depths of free chloride penetration as well as total and water-soluble chloride contents were measured for the exposed samples. Samples cured for 28 d before exposure showed far better resistance to chloride ingress than those cured for 7 d. The cement-slag blend with S1, having an alumina content of 12·23%, performed better than the blend with S2 (alumina content of 7·77%), especially for samples cured for 7 d. This was attributed to the higher basicity of S1. However, when the samples were cured for 28 d, the difference between the performances of ...
Durability and long-term performance of concrete exposed to deleterious ions and environmental conditions are major concerns. The rapid chloride permeability (R
Change in other NPD measures from baseline and Days 4, 7, and 14 to include baseline PD, change in amiloride, low chloride, and low chloride plus isoproterenol ...
:confused: I started to look into chloride because I know its an essential nutrient for plants but its absent from CSM+B Plantex. No problem, the...
Chloride detection kit for NANOCOLOR AOX 3. For samples with high chloride contents. It detects if the chloride is present in the sample after rinsin…
A trial was conducted to establish a NaCl level that maximizes intake and performance while minimizing excretion of Na to the environment. Fifty-nine individually fed yearling heifers (803 lb) were fed 113 days. NaCl was added to a corn-based feedlot diet at levels of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375 and 0.5 % of diet DM. No difference in ADG, DMI or F/G were observed with different levels of NaCl. Results suggest NaCl inclusion in the diet likely is not necessary to maintain acceptable feedlot performance.
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Chloride contamination of Wichitas water-supply wells is inevitable unless actions are taken, according to U.S. Geological Survey scientists and authors of a new modeling report describing chloride movement in the areas aquifer.Possible actions include pumping to remove the plume of high-chloride groundwater, and increased artificial recharge of water into the aquifer to
Chloride: sodium and chloride are often found together, and both help regulate the bodys fluid balance. A normal chloride level is 95-105 mmol/L. This test is included in the Comprehensive Metabolic Panel-14
Synonyms for acetyl chloride in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for acetyl chloride. 1 synonym for acetyl chloride: ethanoyl chloride. What are synonyms for acetyl chloride?
User-submitted description: CROSSLINKED, DEOXY HUMAN HEMOGLOBIN A vs. High-resolution X-ray study of deoxyhemoglobin Rothschild 37 beta Trp----Arg: a mutation that creates an intersubunit chloride-binding site. ...
Indicated for replenishing fluid losses, as an energy source and for restoration or maintenance of sodium and chloride ion concentrations. Colourless or white crystal and is freely soluble in water. Nonpyrogenic solutions. Sterile. ...
Read Differential response of two almond rootstocks to chloride salt mixtures in the growing medium, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Find here polyaluminium chloride manufacturers, polyaluminium chloride suppliers, polyaluminium chloride exporters, polyaluminium chloride importers. Get contact address of polyaluminium chloride manufacturing and supplying companies of India.
Anhydrous Zinc Chloride , Find Complete Details about Anhydrous Zinc Chloride,Anhydrous Zinc Chloride,Anhydrous Zinc Chloride,Anhydrous Zinc Chloride from Chloride Supplier or Manufacturer-Zhengzhou Qiangjin Science And Technology Trading Co., Ltd.
Zinc chloride is a white crystalline solid. Reacts violently with strong oxidants and strong bases. In aqueous solution it is used as a woodâ ¦ ... NIOSH/OSHA. 8. 0. Chloride compounds can conduct electricity when fused or dissolved in water. Physical hazards. 7646-85-7. Uses of Zinc Chloride: It is used to help growth and good health. Zinc Chloride (CAS. 7646-85-7. Section 6: Accidental Release Measures Small Spill: Use appropriate tools to put the spilled solid in a convenient waste disposal container. Proper Shipping Name: ZINC CHLORIDE, ANHYDROUS Hazard Class: 8 UN/NA: UN2331 Packing Group: III. White deliquescent granules or fused pieces. Up to 50 mg/m 3: (APF = 10) Any particulate respirator equipped with an N95, R95, or P95 filter (including N95, R95, and P95 filtering facepieces) except quarter-mask respirators. Zinc Chloride is an inorganic salt. Details: ZINC CHLORIDE, ANHYDROUS. Zinc Chloride is an excellent water soluble crystalline Zinc source for uses compatible with chlorides. 5 ...
Sodium hydroxide (low chloride), ACS, 97.0% min, Alfa Aesar™ 100g Sodium hydroxide (low chloride), ACS, 97.0% min, Alfa Aesar™ Inorganic Sodium Compounds
The compound ZnCl2·​1⁄2HCl·H2O may be prepared by careful precipitation from a solution of ZnCl2 acidified with HCl. It contains a polymeric anion (Zn2Cl5−)n with balancing monohydrated hydronium ions, H5O2+ ions.[4][28] The formation of highly reactive anhydrous HCl gas formed when zinc chloride hydrates are heated is the basis of qualitative inorganic spot tests.[29] The use of zinc chloride as a flux, sometimes in a mixture with ammonium chloride (see also Zinc ammonium chloride), involves the production of HCl and its subsequent reaction with surface oxides. Zinc chloride forms two salts with ammonium chloride: (NH4)2ZnCl4 and (NH4)3ClZnCl4, which decompose on heating liberating HCl, just as zinc chloride hydrate does. The action of zinc chloride/ammonium chloride fluxes, for example, in the hot-dip galvanizing process produces H2 gas and ammonia fumes.[30] Cellulose dissolves in aqueous solutions of ZnCl2, and zinc-cellulose complexes have been detected.[31] Cellulose also dissolves ...
Low chloride conductance myotonia [Elektronische Ressource] : in vitro investigations on muscle stiffness and the warm-up phenomenon / submitted by Sunisa Chaiklieng : Ulm University Institute of Applied Physiology Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Frank Lehmann-Horn Low chloride conductance myotonia - in vitro investigations on muscle stiffness and the warm-up phenomenon Dissertation Applying for the Degree of Doctor of human biology (Dr. biol. hum.) Faculty of Medicine, Ulm University Submitted by Sunisa Chaiklieng From Phatthalung, Thailand
TY - JOUR. T1 - An anion substitution route to low loss colossal dielectric CaCu3Ti4O12. AU - Smith, Andrew E.. AU - Calvarese, T. G.. AU - Sleight, A. W.. AU - Subramanian, M. A.. PY - 2009/2. Y1 - 2009/2. N2 - An anion substitution route was utilized for lowering the dielectric loss in CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) by partial replacement of oxygen by fluorine. This substitution reduced the dielectric loss, and retained a high dielectric constant that was essentially temperature independent from 25 to 200 °C. In particular, CaCu3Ti4O11.7F0.3 exhibited a giant dielectric constant over 6000 and low dielectric loss below 0.075 at 100 kHz within a temperature range of 25-200 °C. Fluorine analysis confirmed the presence of fluorine in all samples measured.. AB - An anion substitution route was utilized for lowering the dielectric loss in CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) by partial replacement of oxygen by fluorine. This substitution reduced the dielectric loss, and retained a high dielectric constant that was essentially ...
The chloride concentration in neurons is in general established by the precise functional expression of the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter one (NKCC1) and the potassium-chloride cotransporter two (KCC2). NKCC1 raises the intracellular chloride concentration, while KCC2 extrudes chloride. The intracellular chloride concentration determines the strength and direction of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-mediated transmission. In general, the intracellular chloride concentration in neurons is low and causes GABA-mediated inhibition. However, the intracellular chloride concentration in immature neurons is high leading to GABAergic depolarization, which can cause excitation. The effects of excitatory GABA signaling in early development is still unclear. It has been speculated that excitatory GABA, causing general depolarization in neurons, has profound effects on neuronal activity and neuronal maturation. Therefore, I studied in collaboration with Carsten Pfeffer the development of the ...
The lantibiotic duramycin (Moli1901, Lancovutide) has been suggested as a drug of choice in the treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF). It has been proposed that duramycin may stimulate chloride secretion through Ca²(+) -activated Cl⁻ channels (CaCC). We investigated whether duramycin exhibited any effe …
I. The effects of different external media on the sodium and chloride efflux in Artemia salina, the brine shrimp, have been observed, using animals acclimatized to sea water. In sea water, both sodium and chloride fluxes across the epithelium are approximately 7,000 pmole cm.-2 sec.-1.. 2. Sodium efflux drops markedly in sodium-free media, and chloride efflux falls in chloride-free media; the two effects are independent, and are not due to changes in external osmolarity.. 3. The decreases in sodium efflux can be explained by changes in electrical potential difference and diffusional permeability; exchange diffusion of sodium does not occur.. 4. Approximately 70% of the chloride efflux is due to exchange diffusion, and most of the remainder is due to active transport.. 5. It is shown that graphs of ion efflux against external concentration which can be fitted by a Michaelis-Menten equation do not constitute evidence for the presence of exchange diffusion; graphs of similar shape can be obtained ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hypo-osmolar stimulation of transepithelial Cl- secretion in cultured human T84 intestinal epithelial layers. AU - McEwan, Gordon T.A.. AU - Brown, C D. AU - Hirst, B H. AU - Simmons, N L. PY - 1992/6/10. Y1 - 1992/6/10. N2 - Intact epithelial monolayers of T84 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells were exposed from the basolateral surfaces to hypo-osmotic media; in responsive tissues this resulted in a transient stimulation of inward short-circuit current (SCC) to a peak of 12.9 +/- 1.5 (S.E., n = 10) microA/cm2 which declined to prestimulation values of SCC (2.1 microA/cm2) within 5 min. Exposure of T84 cells to hypo-osmotic media results in an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+]i, dependent on extracellular Ca2+ influx. The cell-swelling activated SCC is abolished upon medium Cl- replacement and by 100 microM bumetanide applied to the basal-surfaces, consistent with the inward SCC resulting from transepithelial Cl- secretion. 100 microM DIDS ...
Manufacturer of Ferric Chloride - Ferric Chloride Anhydrous, Ferric Chloride Anhydrous Pharma Grade Powder, Ferric Chloride Anhydrous For Water Treatment and Ferric Chloride Anhydrous Powder offered by Real MetalChem Private Limited, Ahmedabad, Gujarat.
Click here for an article from Food Navigator about sea salt. Calcium chloride is also used for maintaining unpaved roads and for fortifying roadbases for new construction. Chloride Content of Salts Experiment 7 Cristian Martinez CHEM 1111.2006 March 24, 2015 Instructor J. Lopez Purpose: To determine the amount of chloride ions in several solutions of metal chlorides. The road salts assessment covered the chloride salts: sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), potassium chloride (KCl), brines used in road deicing/anti-icing, dust suppression, the salt portion of abrasive mixtures and additives commonly used in road salts (ferrocyanides). Osmotic pressure in cells is stabilized by quaternary ammonium salts. Salt, also called sodium chloride, mineral substance of great importance to human and animal health, as well as to industry. Salts which contain a combination of sodium and potassium chloride are now widely available in the UK. In some countries (i.e. ...
Genotype-to-phenotype studies that correlate in vivo CFTR function with disease severity suggest that a recovery of the CFTR function ,10% based on chloride transport would lead to a milder CF pathology [63, 64]. The milder disease is characterised by a lower incidence of pancreatic insufficiency, later age at diagnosis, a more moderate lung function decline and lower sweat chloride levels (∼80 mmol·L−1) compared with those with minimal CFTR chloride transport (i.e. patients with F508del homozygous CF). By analysing the outcome from the clinical trials performed with the three products (table 4), a correlation cannot be established for all the products between the in vitro efficacy data and the results based on the clinical end-points of the phase 2/3 studies (FEV1 and sweat chloride). Of the three compounds, ivacaftor demonstrated a significant efficacy both in the in vitro studies using HBE cells from patients with the G551D/F508del mutation and in the clinical studies performed on ...
GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission is greatly influenced by cation-chloride cotransporter activity during developmental stages. In embryonic neurons Na-K-2Cl (NKCC1) cotransporters mediate active chloride uptake, thus increasing the intracellular chloride concentration associated with GABA-induced depolarization. At fetal stages near term, oxytocin-induced NKCC1 downregulation has been implicated in the developmental shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing GABA action. Mature dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGN), however, express high NKCC1 levels and maintain high intracellular chloride levels with consequent GABA-induced depolarization. Gramicidin-perforated patch-clamp recordings were used to assess the developmental change in chloride homeostasis in rat cultured small DRGN at the embryonic day 16 (E16) and 19 (E19). The results were compared to data previously obtained in fetal DRGN at E14 and in mature cells. A significant NKCC1 downregulation, leading to reduction in excitatory GABAergic
This is a prospective, controlled, before-and-after study. The baseline pre-intervention period will include collection of data while doctors and nurses are unaware that such collection is taking place. During this time, high chloride fluids (saline, Gelofusine, 4% albumin) will continue to be used according to standard practice with an estimated 30,000 liters of saline as well as 2,000 bottles of Gelofusine® being consumed.. Following a wash out period of education and preparation, there will be a complete shift to a working environment where use of saline, Gelofusine and any other fluids with a high chloride level (,110 mmol/L)will be restricted and substituted with fluids of lower chloride concentration similar to blood; either Hartmanns solution or Plasmalyte® or 20% albumin.. The study will compare a 6 month control period (before) and a six month intervention period (after). ...
A study was conducted to determine if chloride permeability could be determined more quickly and efficiently. Two mixtures were selected by the Tennessee Department of Transportation (TDOT) Materials and Tests (M&T) Division: a TDOT Class D mixture with 20% Class F fly ash and an experimental mixture containing 35% Grade 120 slag and 15% Class F fly ash. Five validation batches of each mixture were produced. The plastic and hardened properties of all validation batches of both mixtures met TDOT 604.03 Class D requirements. Subsequently, twenty batches of each mixture were produced for chloride permeability comparison. Rapid chloride permeability ((RCP) AASHTO T 277) was measured after 28 days of accelerated curing and also after 56 and 91 days of normal curing. Surface resistivity ((SR) AASHTO TP 95) was measured after 28 days of accelerated curing and also after 28, 56 and 91 days of normal curing. Additional data from other TTU studies was also used in the correlations and predictions. The ...
In accordance with column 2 of REACH Annex IX, the biodegradation studies in soil (simulation tests) do not need to be conducted since there is no need to investigate further the degradation of the substance and its degradation products. Sodium chlorite is a strong oxidizing agent and under proper reducing conditions is readily reduced to chloride, and to a lesser extent, chlorate. In strong acidic conditions, chlorite can change into chlorine dioxide (from pg. 11, USEPA/OPPTS; Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for Chlorine Dioxide and Sodium Chlorite (Case 4023) p.1 (August 2006) EPA-HQ-OPP-2006-0328-0022/EPA 738-R-06-007. Available from, as of July 31, 2008: ...
Irreversible inhibition, 99.8% of control values for chloride transport in human red blood cells, was obtained by well-established methods of maximum covalent binding of 4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS). The kinetics of the residual chloride transport (0.2%, 106 x s-1) at 38 degrees C, pH 7.2) was studied by means of 36Cl- efflux. The outside apparent affinity, expressed by Ko1/2,c, was 34 mM, as determined by substituting external KCl by sucrose. The residual flux was reversibly inhibited by a reexposure to DIDS, and by 4,4-dinitrostilbene-2,2-disulfonate (DNDS), phloretin, salicylate, and alpha-bromo-4-hydroxy-3,5-dinitroacetophenone (Killer III) (Borders, C. L., Jr., D. M. Perez, M. W. Lafferty, A. J. Kondow, J. Brahm, M. B. Fenderson, G. L. Breisford, and V. B. Pett. 1989. Bioorganic Chemistry. 17:96-107), to approximately 0.001% of control cells, which is a flux as low as in lipid bilayers. The reversible DIDS inhibition of the residual chloride flux ...
Around 44% of the lakes sampled in the Midwest and the Northeast (out of a total of 371 lakes sampled) show long-term salinization trends, the research found.. To put that another way, if current salinization trends continue, then many North American lakes will surpass EPA-recommended chloride levels within 50 years. And, as the press release put it: Within this study, 14 North American Lakes Region lakes are expected to exceed the EPAs aquatic life criterion concentration of 230 mg/L by 2050, and 47 are on track to reach chloride concentrations of 100 mg/L during the same time period.. Why does this matter? Because lake, ground, and reservoir water is used as drinking water, irrigation water, and to support fisheries in many regions. And, notably, these findings are likely an underestimate of the problem, as noted by the researchers.. Co-author of the new study, Sarah Bartlett of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, noted: These results are likely an underestimation of the salinization ...
In this study, we proposed electrolysis method to remove TN of the simulated coastal secondary effluent with high chloride ion concentration. TN, nitrate-N, ammonia-N nitrite-N were detected to evaluate the evolution of nitrogen. Under the set conditions, Nitrate-N, ammonia-N removal rate and...
Since chloride dissolves in water and easily moves, winter salt application contributes to increasing chloride levels in our lakes, rivers, and groundwater. Researchers analyzing data from multiple states, including Wisconsin, have documented stream chloride levels increasing as developed urban areas expand. These increases can be observed year round, not simply after a winter storm event. The chloride that enters groundwater from winter salt application acts as a reserve and increases surface water chloride concentrations in other seasons as groundwater slowly feeds rivers and streams throughout the year. Chloride in groundwater also reaches municipal and private wells. Water from shallower wells are likely to have higher chloride concentrations than water from deeper wells.. Besides winter deicing, another use of salt in this region is in softening household water. Both private and municipal wells have hard water high in calcium and magnesium. Water softeners in each building use salt in the ...
Product Details of Zinc chloride CAS 7646-85-7, Zinc chloride CAS 7646-85-7 Zinc chloride solution Zincchlorideultradry zinc dichloride from China manufacturer on
Molar mass:. 136.315 g.mol-1. Molecular formula: ZnCl2. Zinc chlorides, of which nine crystalline forms are known, are colorless or white, and are highly soluble in water. Concentrated aqueous solutions of zinc chloride (more than 64% weight/weight zinc chloride in water) have the interesting property of dissolving starch, silk, and cellulose. Thus, such solutions cannot be filtered through standard filter papers. ...
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The present invention relates to chloride-selective electrodes which comprise insoluble metal salt layer and a protecting membrane formed of hydrophilic polyurethane thereon, wherein the hydrophilic polyurethane coated chloride-selective electrodes show fast activation and response time and are usefully employed to accurately measure the chloride by reducing the interference from bromide and iodide or preventing the surface of the electrode from protein adsorption.
Cellular resting and action potentials and total tissue concentrations of K+, Na+, and Cl- were measured in canine myocardial and Purkinje tissues. The results with myocardium were consistent with those of others: the total tissue concentration of K+ was greater than that of Na+ of Cl- In Purkinje tissue, the total tissue concentration of K+ was relatively low, while that of Na+ and of Cl- was high. Extracellular space was calculated on the basis of four different assumptions about the intracellular concentration of one of the ions: (1) the intracellular concentrations of Cl- is zero; (2) the electrochemical equilibrium potential of Cl- equals the cellular resting potential; (3) the electrochemical equilibrium potential of K+ equals the cellular maximum diastolic potential; (4) the electrochemical equilibrium potential of Na+ equals the reversal of the cellular action potential. In the myocardium, the lowest estimate of extracellular space was 14±2%, and the highest was 18±2%. In the Purkinje ...
Question - IgA nephropathy, increase in BP. Kidney transplantation done. Creatinine, chloride levels normal. Chances of re-occurring?. Ask a Doctor about Kidney transplantation, Ask a Nephrologist
Considering first the issue of Cl-versusNa+ uptake rates, the apparent discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo observations can be attributed to different concentrations of Cl- and Na+ in seawater. In general,Cl- concentrations exceed Na+ concentrations in seawater by ∼70 mmol l-1, which means that seawater ingestion results in higher gastrointestinal intake of Cl- than Na+. Further,desalinization in the esophagus occurs via both passive and active equimolar Na+ and Cl- absorption(Kirsch and Meister, 1982; Parmelee and Renfro, 1983; Smith, 1930; Wilson et al., 1996). With little or no transport across the gastric mucosa in starved fish, the consequence of the higher concentrations of Cl- than Na+in seawater and equal molar Na+ and Cl- absorption in the esophagus is that fluids entering the intestine contain higher concentrations of Cl- than Na+. However, while intestinal fluid Cl- concentrations remain higher than the corresponding Na+ concentrations as fluids move along the intestine, the ...
1. Total body, intracellular, and extracellular electrolyte and acid-base changes were studied following sodium nitrate-induced potassium and chloride depletion and subsequent selective chloride repletion.. 2. It was found that potassium and chloride depletion was associated with markedly decreased extracellular Na, K, Cl and water content. Intracellular Na increased, intracellular K decreased and there was a large transcellular redistribution of acid, i.e. extracellular alkalosis and intracellular acidosis ensued.. 3. Selective chloride repletion was associated with return of extracellular pH towards normal. Extracellular K and intracellular parameters showed very little change. Further chloride administration was followed by extracellular acidosis, but extracellular K remained low.. 4. There was close relationship between extracellular chloride and hydrogen ion concentrations ([Cl−]e and [H+]e) and extracellular potassium and intracellular hydrogen ion ([K+]e and [H+]i) but not between any ...
Zinc chloride or lewis acid is electrophilic in nature. Catalytic activity of Zinc Chloride is feeble in comparison to aluminum chloride…. ...
Chloride chemistry. Chlorides are compounds that contain chlorine (Cl). From left-right these are the chlorides of elements from period three of the periodic table: sodium chloride (NaCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), aluminium chloride (Al2Cl6), all solids. Next are the two liquids: silicon chloride (SiCl4) and phosphorus (III) chloride (PCl3), and finally phosphorus (V) chloride (PCl5). NaCl is table salt. Important trends for the period three chlorides are falling melting points, and a change from ionic bonding and neutral pH (Na, Al) to acid pH and covalent bonding. The phosphorus chlorides demonstrate two oxidation states of phosphorus. - Stock Image A500/0444
We evaluated the conductances for ion flow across the cellular and paracellular pathways of flounder intestine using microelectrode techniques and ion-replacement studies. Apical membrane conductance properties are dominated by the presence of Ba-sensitive K channels. An elevated mucosal solution K concentration, [K]m, depolarized the apical membrane potential (ψa) and, at [K]m less than 40 mM, the K dependence of ψa was abolished by 1-2 mM mucosal Ba. The basolateral membrane displayed Cl conductance behavior, as evidenced by depolarization of the basolateral membrane potential (ψb) with reduced serosal Cl concentrations, [Cl]s. ψb was unaffected by changes in [K]s or [Na]s. From the effect of mucosal Ba on transepithelial K selectivity, we estimated that paracellular conductance (Gp) normally accounts for 96% of transepithelial conductance (Gt). The high Gp attenuates the contribution of the cellular pathway to ψt while permitting the apical K and basolateral Cl conductances to influence the
1. The effects of MgCl2 on the electrical characteristics and sodium and chloride transport in short-circuited rabbit terminal ileum in vitro were studied.. 2. Increasing the magnesium concentration from a basal concentration of 1.1 mmol/l to either 2.5 or 10.3 mmol/l (mucosal or serosal addition) resulted in increases in the unidirectional flux of chloride from serosa to mucosa (JCl sm), short-circuit current (SCC) and transmucosal potential difference (p.d.).. 3. Increasing the magnesium concentration from a low basal concentration (0.3 mmol/l) to 10.3 mmol/l (mucosal or serosal addition) abolished net sodium absorption and converted net chloride absorption into net secretion, as a result of a decrease in the unidirectional flux of sodium from mucosa to serosa (JNa ms), and increases in the unidirectional fluxes of sodium and chloride from serosa to mucosa (JNa sm and JCl sm). Increases in SCC and p.d. occurred after mucosal, but not serosal, addition of magnesium.. 4. Incubation of stripped ...
COSHH Information on Ferric Chloride. Uses/Processes. To produce, by etching away unwanted copper, an electronic circuit board designed to meet a specific requirement. The prepared board is immersed in ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride) solution or sodium peroxodisulfate (persulfate) solution to etch away the copper. The board is sometimes cleaned with a solvent before or after soldering, formerly mainly 1,1, 1 - trichloroethane, now propan-2-ol (isopropanol) or other alcohols (e.g. ethanol).. Assessment. Sodium peroxodisulfate (OES of 2 mg/m3 - 15 min ref period) and ferric chloride are harmful if swallowed and steps should be taken to minimise the risk of ingestion. Mist produced makes it less suitable for use in a bubble-etch tank. When used with a small manual developing tray, little mist will be produced.. If the two etchants are mixed, toxic chlorine gas is produced.. Propan-2-ol has an OES of 500 ppm (15 min ref period). Ethanol OES is 3000 ppm (15 min ref period). If applied by a ...
The CLC family of chloride channels and transporters is made up by nine members but just three of these ClC-Ka/b ClC-7 and ClC-2 have already been found up to now connected with auxiliary subunits. immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains regulates its subcellular localization and activity in glial cells. The normal theme for these three proteins can be their requirement of an effective homeostasis since their breakdown leads to specific illnesses. We will review right here their properties and their part in regular chloride physiology as well as the pathological outcomes of their incorrect function. Intro Chloride is very important to many biological features such Apremilast as for example transepithelial fluid transportation acidification of intracellular organelles muscle tissue contraction neuronal membrane potential or cell quantity rules. Chloride flux across membranes is mediated by several classes of proteins (Duran oocytes or in transfected cells (Steinmeyer gene lead to classical Bartter ...
The formation of CaCO3 precipitates in the intestinal lumen was first discussed in 1930 (Smith, 1930) but it was not until much later that the detailed chemical nature of these precipitates was characterized (Walsh et al., 1991). Since then, the presence of CaCO3 precipitates in marine teleost fish intestinal fluids has been observed in a high number of species and appears to be a general feature for this group of vertebrates (Wilson et al., 2002; Wilson and Grosell, 2003). The combined global piscine production of CaCO3, which is eliminated with rectal fluids has recently been estimated to contribute as much as 15% to oceanic CaCO3 production (Wilson et al., 2009) and also has important physiological implications for individual fish. More than 95% of NaCl imbibed with seawater to replace osmotically lost water in marine teleosts is absorbed by the gastro-intestinal tract and as much as 85% of the ingested water is absorbed. By contrast, very little Mg2+, SO42- and Ca2+ are absorbed, leaving the ...
Table of Contents Global Zinc Chloride Batteries Market by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2024 1 Report Overview 1.1 Definition and Specification 1.2 Report Overview 1.2.1 Manufacturers Overview 1.2.2 Regions Overview 1.2.3 Type Overview 1.2.4 Application Overview 1.3 Industrial Chain 1.3.1 Zinc Chloride Batteries Overall Industrial Chain 1.3.2 Upstream 1.3.3 Downstream 1.4 Industry Situation 1.4.1 Industrial Policy 1.4.2 Product Preference 1.4.3 Economic/Political Environment 1.5 SWOT Analysis 2 Product Type Market 2.1 World Product Type Market Performance and Trend 2.1.1 World Market Performance 2.1.2 Different Type of Market Performance 2.2 North America Product Type Market Performance and Trend 2.2.1 North America Market Performance 2.2.2 Different Type of Market Performance 2.3 Europe Product Type Market Performance and Trend 2.3.1 Europe Market Performance 2.3.2 Different Type of Market Performance 2.4 Asia-Pacific Product Type Market Performance and Trend 2.4.1 ...
The chloride-chloride exchange reaction in arenesulfonyl chlorides was investigated experimentally and theoretically by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The second order rate constants and activation parameters of this identity reaction were determined for 22 variously substituted arenesulfonyl chlorides using radio-labeled Et4N36Cl. The chloride exchange rates of 11 sulfonyl chlorides bearing para-and meta-substituents (σ constants from −0.66 to +0.43) in the aromatic ring followed the Hammett equation with a ρ-value of +2.02. The mono- and di-ortho-alkyl substituted sulfonyl chlorides exhibit an enhanced reactivity although both inductive and steric effects lower the reaction rate. The DFT calculations of their structures together with X-ray data showed that an increased reactivity is mainly due to a peculiar, rigid, strongly compressed and sterically congested structure. The DFT studies of the title reaction revealed that it proceeds via a single transition state
The CLC family comprises a group of integral membrane proteins that translocate Cl− across the cell membranes; members of this family are essential for the maintenance of membrane potential, regulation of transepithelial Cl− transport, and control of intravesicular pH (1-3). Human CLC proteins can be divided into two subtypes. The first subtype consists of Cl− channels: CLC-1, CLC-2, CLC-Ka, and CLC-Kb, which are mainly found at the cell membrane, where they function to control the Cl− flow and to stabilize the membrane potential (4). The remaining CLC proteins (CLC-3 to CLC-7) are electrogenic Cl−/H+ antiporters (5-8) that exchange Cl− and H+ with a stoichiometry of 2:1. CLC proteins function as dimers, with each subunit having its own passageway for ion transport (9-15). Previous macroscopic current and single-channel studies have indicated that CLC proteins apparently display two distinct types of gating process (9, 16, 17): fast gating (protopore gate), wherein the ...
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2017-10-3 · Ferric Chloride (FeCl 3) as Coagulant:. Removal of both arsenite and arsenate present at different initial concentrations were evaluated for different doses of ferric chloride 25.After addition of a particular dose of a coagulant (ferric chloride), the water in the bucket was mixed with a wooden stick, first vigorously for about 30 to 60 seconds and then slowly (approximately one turn of the .... Get Price ...
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Hypotonic-activated current is driven by Cl− ions, in microglia cells. (a) Representative whole-cell currents recorded under acute application of the hypotonic extracellular solution (8-10% dilution), at the indicated membrane potentials, with a standard ([Cl−]i = 144 mM; upper traces) or a low chloride ([Cl−]i = 4 mM; lower traces) pipette solution. As indicated, the left traces were recorded in normotonic condition, just before applying the hypotonic medium; the right traces were recorded 21 minutes after hypotonic stimulation. (b) Current-voltage relationships of the currents recorded in control condition ([Cl−]i = 144 mM; black squares; n = 3) and with a low chloride pipette solution ([Cl−]i = 4 mM; green circles; n = 4; HP = −70 mV) during acute application of hypotonic medium. Note the shift of the current reversal potential to more negative values. (c) Current-voltage relationships recorded in BV-2 cells, exposed acutely to a hypotonic medium (205 mOsm), in control condition ...
The approximate order of reactivity, beginning with the most reactive, is as follows: acid chlorides > aldehydes > tosylates ~ ... chloride solution: C2H2 + 2 CuCl → Cu2C2 + 2 HCl Organocopper compounds are diverse in structure and reactivity, but ... epoxides > iodides > bromides > chlorides > ketones > esters > nitriles >> alkenes Generally the OA-RE mechanism is analogous ... "Secondary and Tertiary Alkyl Ketones from Carboxylic Acid Chlorides and Lithium Phenylthio(Alkyl)Cuprate Reagents:tert-Butyl ...
In the laboratory, useful reagents include tosyl chloride, brosyl chloride, nosyl chloride and mesyl chloride. Sulfonyl ... Sulfonic acid chlorides, or sulfonyl chlorides, are a sulfonyl halide with the general formula RSO2Cl. They are generally ... Phenyldiazonium chloride reacts with sulfur dioxide and hydrochloric acid to give the sulfonyl chloride: [C6H5N2]Cl + SO2 → ... HCl The desulfonation of arylsulfonyl chlorides provides a route to aryl chlorides: ArSO2Cl → ArCl + SO2 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene ...
The nucelophilic polysubstitution of chloride by alkoxide proceeds via displacement of chloride at separate phosphorus centers ... Nielsen, Morris L.; Cranford, Garland (2007) [1960]. "Trimeric Phosphonitrile Chloride and Tetrameric Phosphonitrile Chloride ... Since ammonium chloride is insoluble in chlorinated solvents, workup is facilitated. For the reaction under such conditions, ... Substitution of the chloride groups by other nucleophilic groups, especially alkoxides as laid out above, yields numerous ...
S3N3Cl3 → 3 NS-Cl In NSCl, chloride is bonded to the chalcogen, in contrast to nitrosyl chloride with an N-Cl bond. In contrast ... thiazyl chloride trimer undergoes cracking to thiazyl chloride monomer, which is a green gas. ... with six fewer electrons, cyanuric chloride is a planar ring. It reacts with nitriles to dithiadiazolium chlorides: RCN + 2⁄3 ... The three chloride groups are attached to sulfur with S-Cl distance of 208 pm, and are mutually cis, as the S centers are ...
Many metal chlorides may be dried by refluxing in thionyl chloride. See Alfred R. Pray; Richard F. Heitmiller; Stanley Strycker ... 2S reacts with the combination of SCl2 and sulfuryl chloride (SO2Cl2) to form S4N4, trimethylsilyl chloride, and sulfur dioxide ... Tin(II) bis(trimethylsilyl)amide is prepared from anhydrous tin(II) chloride and is commercially available. It is used to ... as lanthanide chlorides have either poor solubility or poor stability in common solvents. As a result of this nearly all ...
For example, ferric chloride can be prepared thus, but ferrous chloride cannot. Heating the higher halides may produce the ... Sodium chloride crystal structure Discrete UF6 molecules Infinite chains of one form of palladium chloride In principle, most ... For example, palladium chloride is quite insoluble in water, but it dissolves well in concentrated sodium chloride solution: ... For example, the chloride ligands of aluminium chloride bridge two aluminium centers, thus the compound with the empirical ...
Polysilicon chlorides[edit]. At higher temperatures homologues of silicon tetrachloride can be prepared by the reaction: Si + 2 ... can be contaminated with silica when the production of chlorine is a byproduct of a metal refining process from metal chloride ...
Other particularly important organochlorines are methyl chloride, methylene chloride, chloroform, vinylidene chloride, ... vinyl chloride and its polymer polyvinyl chloride (PVC), aluminium trichloride for catalysis, the chlorides of magnesium, ... Chloride of lime was used for destroying odors and "putrid matter". One source claims chloride of lime was used by Dr. John ... Deuterium chloride, DCl, may be produced by reacting benzoyl chloride with heavy water (D2O).[36] ...
Methylene chloride[edit]. Methylene chloride can be found in adhesive removers and aerosol spray paints. In the human body, ... methylene chloride is metabolized to carbon monoxide. If a product that contains methylene chloride needs to be used the best ... methylene chloride is listed as exempt from VOC status.[21] ...
"Carbamates and Carbamoyl Chlorides". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007. ...
They are prepared by reaction of carbamoyl chlorides with alcohols, the addition of alcohols to isocyanates, and the reaction ... ISBN 978-0-7817-4381-5. Jäger, Peter; Rentzea, Costin N.; Kieczka, Heinz (2000). "Carbamates and Carbamoyl Chlorides". ... carbamic acids carbamate anions carbamate esters carbamoyl chlorides Many substituted carbamic acids (RHNCOOH or RR′NCOOH), can ...
Part I. Polonium chlorides". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 2320. doi:10.1039/JR9550002320. v t e Salts and ...
Triphenylsilicol and alkyloxysilicon chlorides". J. Chem. Soc., Trans. 79: 449-459. doi:10.1039/CT9017900449. James E. Mark; ... For consumer applications such as caulks silyl acetates are used instead of silyl chlorides. The hydrolysis of the acetates ...
Part I. Polonium chlorides". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 2320. doi:10.1039/JR9550002320. Bagnall, K. W.; d'Eye, ...
Sulphur chloride pentafluoride: reaction with fluoro-olefins". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 2070. doi:10.1039/ ... Perfluoroalkyl Bromides and Chlorides". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 74 (5): 1347-1350. doi:10.1021/ja01125a511. ... "Trifluoromethanesulfonyl chloride 164798". Sigma-Aldrich. Thrasher, Joseph S.; Madappat, Krishnan V. (September 1989). "Sulfur- ... F is a gas but decomposes over several hours trifluoromethylsulfinyl chloride CF3C(O)Cl nitrosyl cyanide ?−20° blue-green gas ...
... chloride; and also contain sodium and a substantial content of fluoride ions. Two swimming pools with 22-24 °C (72-75 °F) and ...
... hydrogen chloride; chloride. Colesevelam is part of a class of drugs known as bile acid sequestrants. Colesevelam hydrochloride ... The bromide ions are then replaced with chloride ions when the material is washed. The constituents of the polymer colesevelam ...
... chloride; chromium; iron; magnesium; manganese; nickel; nitrate; pH; phosphorus; potassium; sodium; and sulfate, as well as the ...
From acid chlorides[edit]. A routine route to oxazolines entails reactions of acyl chlorides with 2-amino alcohols. Thionyl ... Aminomethyl propanol is the classical precursor to oxazolines using acid chloride method.[12] As applied to fatty acids, the ... If reagents milder than SOCl2 are required, oxalyl chloride can be used.[11] ... chloride is commonly used to generate the acid chloride in situ, care being taken to maintain anhydrous conditions, as ...
... calcium chloride, calcite, sodium chloride, magnesium chloride and more. Some of these new stabilizing techniques create ... calcium chloride, and Sodium Chloride. Soil can also be stabilized mechanically with stabilization geosynthetics, for example, ... In addition, the chloride concentration in the surface water also depends on the size or flow rate of the water body and the ... Although magnesium chloride use in an equestrian (horse) arena environment is generally referred to as a dust suppressant it is ...
... chlorides 6.0-7.0 mg/l; total hardness 22-28 mg/l, gives total hardness range from 19 to 68 mg/l; total alkalinity 53-81 mg/l; ...
Using solutions of sodium chloride, potassium chloride and ammonium chloride, He succeeded in coating a mercury cathode with ... Not only chlorides were used; beryllium, aluminium and silicon were obtained from the salts and oxides of these elements. In ... "Notice respecting the artificial formation of a basic chloride of copper by voltaic influence", Report of the Eighth Meeting of ...
The reaction of boron trichloride with alcohols was reported in 1931, and was used to prepare dimethoxyboron chloride, B(OCH3) ... Via alkoxy-substituted boron chlorides)]. Z. anorg. allg. Chem. (in German). 202 (1): 1-21. doi:10.1002/zaac.19312020102. ...
"Dichlorofluoromethanesulfenyl Chloride". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 83 (3): 751-752. doi:10.1021/ja01464a052. T. ...
It is a salt consisting of the N,N-dimethyliminium cation ([(CH3)2N=CHCl]+) and chloride anion. Depending on the particular ... This iminium species is a derivative of the imidoyl chloride CH3N=CHCl. Analogues of this particular reagent are generated when ... "Dimethylchloromethyleneammonium Chloride". Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. doi:10.1002/047084289X.rd319m.CS1 ...
For example, sodium chloride (NaCl) has a cation-to-anion stoichiometry of 1:1, but it has a cubic structure with each ion ... In solutions, the diacetate is the major product formed, and is also produced when aluminium chloride is treated with a sodium ... 2008). "ALuminium chloride". A Dictionary of Chemistry (6th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191726569. Kubicki, J. D.; ... both of these have been reported in aluminium acetate solution and aluminium chloride is known to exist as a Al 2Cl 6 dimer. ...
... converts aldehydes to vinyl chlorides: RCHO + Ph3P=CHCl → RCH=CHCl + Ph3PO These vinyl ... Marth, Charles F. (2001). "Chloromethyltriphenylphosphonium Chloride". Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. doi: ... chlorides undergo dehydrochlorination to give alkynes: RCH=CHCl + NaN(SiMe3)2 → RC≡CH + NaCl + HN(SiMe3)2 (Iodomethylene) ...
Furthermore, nitrosyl chloride is a powerful oxidizing agent, and oxidation of the alcohols with concomitant chlorination has ... In this case, nitrosylsulfuric acid is used in place of nitrosyl chloride. In the process of preparing a series of derivatives ... While the synthesis of alkyl nitrites from nitrosyl chloride is known and oft-employed in the context of complex molecule ... Beckham, L. J.; Fessler, W. A.; Kise, M. A. (1951). "Nitrosyl Chloride". Chemical Reviews. 48 (3): 319-396. doi:10.1021/ ...
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Related NO-delivery reagents include nitrosonium tetrafluoroborate ([NO]BF4) and nitrosyl chloride. In industry, the ... Nitrosyl Chloride. Inorganic Syntheses. 1. pp. 55-59. doi:10.1002/9780470132326.ch20. ISBN 9780470132326. This procedure ...
Johnson Matthey Process Technology - Choline chloride licensed process *^ "Choline chloride" (PDF). Screening Information Data ... 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride OR (2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride ... Choline chloride is mass-produced with world production estimated at 160 000 tons in 1999.[2] Industrially, it is produce by ... Choline chloride is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)3NCH2CH2OH]Cl. It is bifunctional, containing both quaternary ...
Beryllium chloride. Calcium chloride. Strontium chloride. Barium chloride. Radium chloride Except where otherwise noted, data ... Magnesium chloride is used in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Cuisine[edit]. Magnesium chloride (E511[13]) is an ... Calcium chloride damages concrete twice as fast as magnesium chloride.[11] It should be noticed that the amount of magnesium ... The hydrated magnesium chloride can be extracted from brine or sea water. In North America, magnesium chloride is produced ...
Some chloride-containing minerals include halite (sodium chloride NaCl), sylvite (potassium chloride KCl), bischofite (MgCl2∙ ... Salts such as calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, potassium chloride have varied uses ranging from medical treatments to ... chloride, and mercury(I) chloride, they are slightly soluble in water. In aqueous solution, chloride is bound by the protic end ... A chloride ion is a structural component of some proteins, e.g., it is present in the amylase enzyme. For these roles, chloride ...
chemistry) any salt of hydrochloric acid, such as sodium chloride, or any binary compound of chlorine and another element or ... Retrieved from "" ...
Methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) is a colorless liquid that can harm the eyes, skin, liver, and heart. Exposure can cause drowsiness ... RAIS Toxicity Profile: Methylene Chlorideexternal icon. *New Jersey Hazardous Substance Fact Sheets: Methylene Chlorideexternal ... ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Methylene Chloride. *EPA Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs): Methylene Chlorideexternal ... Methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) is a colorless liquid that can harm the eyes, skin, liver, and heart. Exposure can cause drowsiness ...
Hydrogen chloride can irritate the skin, nose, eyes, throat, and larynx. Exposure to liquid hydrogen chloride may cause ... Workers may be harmed from exposure to hydrogen chloride. The level of harm depends upon the dose, duration, and work being ... Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is a colorless to slightly yellow gas with a pungent odor. ... Useful search terms for hydrogen chloride include "anhydrous hydrogen chloride" "aqueous hydrogen chloride," and "hydrochloric ...
Cyclohexyl chloride can be prepared from cyclohexanol by treatment with hydrogen chloride. Henry Gilman and W. E. Catlin (1926 ... Cyclohexyl chloride (or chlorocyclohexane) is a chlorinated hydrocarbon with the formula (CH2)5CHCl. It is a colorless liquid. ...
Resins of polyvinyl chloride are hard, but with the addition of plasticizers a flexible, elastic plastic can be made. This ... PVC), thermoplastic that is a polymer of vinyl chloride. ... polyvinyl chloride (PVC), thermoplastic that is a polymer of ... Resins of polyvinyl chloride are hard, but with the addition of plasticizers a flexible, elastic plastic can be made. This ...
hydrogen chloride. hydrogen chloride, chemical compound, HCl, a colorless, poisonous gas with an unpleasant, acrid odor. It is ... Hydrogen chloride is prepared commercially by the reaction of sulfuric acid with sodium chloride (common salt) niter cake, a ... In dilute solutions of the acid the hydrogen chloride is almost completely dissociated into hydrogen and chloride ions . A ... Hydrogen chloride also forms monohydrates, dihydrates, and trihydrates that are liquids at room temperature. The Columbia ...
All rights reserved. The published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. Neither ILO nor WHO nor the European Commission shall be responsible for the interpretation and use of the information contained in this material ...
Hydrogen chloride gas can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Exposure to high levels can result in ... People working in occupations in which hydrogen chloride is used have the highest risk of being exposed to this compound. ... How can hydrogen chloride affect my health?. Hydrogen chloride is irritating and corrosive to any tissue it contacts. Brief ... How does hydrogen chloride affect children?. Children are probably affected by exposure to hydrogen chloride in the same ways ...
BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE. ICSC. : 1584. Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C8-18-alkyldimethyl chlorides. ... Alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride. Alkyldimethyl(phenylmethyl) quaternary ammonium chloride. Ammonium alkyldimethyl( ... benzyl C8-18-alkyldimethyl chlorides.. Benzalkonium chloride itself is a mixture of very similar substances with different ...
... is a barium salt (CHEBI:63320) barium chloride (CHEBI:63317) is a inorganic chloride (CHEBI:36093 ... CHEBI:63317 - barium chloride. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... barium chloride (CHEBI:63317) has role potassium channel blocker (CHEBI:50509) ...
Properties*Sodium chloride is readily soluble in water and insoluble or only slightly soluble in most other liquids. It forms ... Sodium chloride is odorless but has a characteristic taste. ... Sodium Chloride. OVERVIEW. Sodium chloride (SO-dee-um KLOR-ide ... Sodium chloride. Sodium chloride (chemical formula NaCl), known as table salt , rock salt, sea salt and the mineral halite, is ... sodium chloride (common salt) A colourless crystalline solid, NaCl, that is soluble in water. Sodium chloride has a key role in ...
... sodium chloride [1]). It is soluble in water, alcohol, and alkalies. ... potassium chloride, chemical compound, KCl, a colorless or white, cubic, crystalline compound that closely resembles common ... Potassium Chloride. OVERVIEW. Potassium chloride (poe-TAS-ee-yum KLOR-ide) occurs as a white or colorless crystalline solid or ... Many infant formulas also contain potassium chloride. Potassium chloride is also used as a nutrient for yeast cultures and in ...
... is a inorganic chloride (CHEBI:36093) sodium chloride (CHEBI:26710) is a inorganic sodium salt ( ... sodium chloride (CHEBI:26710) has role emetic (CHEBI:149552) sodium chloride (CHEBI:26710) has role flame retardant (CHEBI: ... CHEBI:26710 - sodium chloride. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
Breathing vinyl chloride for long periods of time can result in permanent liver damage, immune reactions, nerve damage, and ... Breathing high levels of vinyl chloride for short periods of time can cause dizziness, sleepiness, unconsciousness, and at ... Exposure to vinyl chloride occurs mainly in the workplace. ... What is vinyl chloride? *What happens to vinyl chloride when it ... What happens to vinyl chloride when it enters the environment?. *Liquid vinyl chloride evaporates easily. Vinyl chloride in ...
Potassium Chloride. A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to ... All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryInorganic ChemicalsChlorine CompoundsHydrochloric AcidChloridesPotassium ... All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryInorganic ChemicalsPotassium CompoundsPotassium Chloride ...
... everything you need for studying or teaching Sodium chloride. ... Immediately download the Sodium chloride summary, chapter-by- ... Sodium Chloride Overview Sodium chloride (SO-dee-um KLOR-ide) is a colorless to white powder or crystalline solid with no odor ... Sodium Chloride Sodium chloride (chemical formula NaCl), known as table salt, rock salt, sea salt, and the mineral halite, is ... Sodium chloride Summary. Everything you need to understand or teach Sodium chloride. ...
... is made from sodium and chloride ions. Salt gives flavor to many meals. This compound is also in the form of a crystal lattice ... Salt (Sodium Chloride). Salt (NaCl) is made from sodium and chloride ions. Salt gives flavor to many meals. This compound is ... How do you separate sodium chlorate and sodium chloride. ?. Asked by Wiki User ...
Solid sodium chloride is not an electrolyte and is not an electrical conductor.Sodium chloride in water solutions or molten ... Why is sodium chloride different from sodium chloride crystals in its electricity conductivity?. Solid sodium chloride is not ... Does sugar sodium chloride create conductivity?. 1. Sodium chloride as solid is not conductive. 2. Sodium chloride in water ... Sodium chloride and sodium chloride crystals in its electrical conductivity?. Solid sodium chloride is not an electrolyte. ...
... azanium chloride, Ammonium chloride (en); ملح النشادر, كلور الأمونيوم, كلور أمونيوم, Ammonium chloride, النشادر, نشادر, نوشادر ... Cloruro de amonio (es); Ammoníumklóríð (is); sadir (ms); ammonium chloride (en-gb); Амониев хлорид (bg); Amonyum klorür (tr); 氯 ... Media in category "Ammonium chloride". The following 22 files are in this category, out of 22 total. ... ammonium chloride (en); كلوريد الأمونيوم (ar); ဇဝက်သာ (my); Ammónium-klorid (hu); Amonio kloruro (eu); آمونیوم کولورید (azb); ...
... ethanoyl chloride, CH3-CO-Cl, acetic acid chloride, CH3COCl, acetic chloride (en); استیل کلراید (fa); Ακετυλοχλωρίδιο (el); ... Preparation of Acetyl Chloride from Acetic Acid and Phosphorus Trichloride.png 1,632 × 1,362; 1.12 MB. ... Media in category "Acetyl chloride". The following 27 files are in this category, out of 27 total. ... acetyl chloride (en); كلوريد الأسيتيل (ar); 乙酰氯 (zh-hans); Acetil hlorid (sr-el) compuesto químico (es); konposatu kimiko (eu ...
Chloride, AZ 33 F Rainbows End Station , Report Report Station. Thank you for reporting this station. We will review the data ...
... should not be confused with the other chloride of tin; tin(IV) chloride or stannic chloride (SnCl4).. ... Tin(II) chloride also behaves as a Lewis acid, forming complexes with ligands such as chloride ion, for example:. SnCl2(aq) + ... Tin(II) chloride (stannous chloride) is a white crystalline solid with the formula SnCl2. It forms a stable dihydrate, but ... Tin(IV) chloride. Germanium dichloride. Lead(II) chloride. Except where noted otherwise, data are given for. materials in their ...
... The classic case of ionic bonding, the sodium chloride molecule forms by the ionization of sodium and ... The classic studies are the extremes of ionic bonding in sodium chloride and covalent bonding in the hydrogen molecule. ... and the environment is different in the normal solid state where sodium chloride (common table salt) forms cubical crystals. ...
... An animation that shows the process at the particle level for dissolving table salt (sodium chloride ...
calcium chloride calcium chloride. calcium chloride, CaCl 2, chemical compound that is crystalline, lumpy, or flaky, is usually ... Calcium chloride is a byproduct of the Solvay process (a major source of the compound) and is present in natural brines. The ... Calcium chloride is commercially available usually as the dihydrate, CaCl 2·2H 2O it is used to melt ice on roads, to control ...
Tradename: 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection USP. Manufacturer: Fresenius Kabi AG. Indication:. * A pre-attached subassembly ... September 5, 2019 Approval Letter - 0.9 % Sodium Chloride Injection USP. *August 1, 2019 Summary Basis for Regulatory Action - ...
  • Useful search terms for hydrogen chloride include "anhydrous hydrogen chloride" "aqueous hydrogen chloride," and "hydrochloric acid. (
  • Although anhydrous (water-free) hydrogen chloride is commercially available as a high-pressure compressed gas in steel cylinders, most of the gas produced is dissolved in water to form hydrochloric acid (see acids and bases ), a commercially important chemical. (
  • Most hydrochloric acid produced has a concentration of 30% to 35% hydrogen chloride by weight. (
  • Both hydrogen chloride and hydrochloric acid are corrosive. (
  • This salt can also be prepared chemically by reacting hydrochloric acid (chemical formula HCl) with sodium hydroxide (chemical formula NaOH) to form sodium chloride and water. (
  • Vinyl chloride in the air breaks down in a few days, resulting in the formation of several other chemicals including hydrochloric acid, formaldehyde, and carbon dioxide. (
  • In terms of its acid-base properties, chloride is a very weak base as indicated by the negative value of the pKa of hydrochloric acid. (
  • Cupric chloride , CuCl 2 , can be prepared by dissolving cupric oxide in hydrochloric acid. (
  • This experiment involves preparing and looking at the properties of hydrogen chloride , especially the demonstration of its great solubility in water ( fountain experiment ), forming hydrochloric acid . (
  • Investigating some of the properties of the solution of the gas in water - that is hydrochloric acid - can be done either as a part of the demonstration or as a class experiment, unless the demonstration is only being used to show the great solubility of gases like hydrogen chloride in water. (
  • The salts of hydrochloric acid contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. (
  • Most chlorides are salts that are formed either by direct union of chlorine with a metal or by reaction of hydrochloric acid with a metal, a metal oxide, or an inorganic base. (
  • In terms of its acid-base properties, chloride is a very weak base as indicated by the negative value of the p K a of hydrochloric acid. (
  • Barium chloride dihydrate is the hydrated crystalline form of barium chloride, the barium salt of hydrochloric acid. (
  • [ 4 ] It mainly exists as sodium chloride or hydrochloric acid. (
  • Potassium chloride (poe-TAS-ee-yum KLOR-ide) occurs as a white or colorless crystalline solid or powder. (
  • Potassium chloride is the most abundant compound of the element potassium and has the greatest number of applications of any salt of potassium. (
  • By far the most important application of potassium chloride is in the manufacture of fertilizers. (
  • All of the major sources of potassium chloride have their origin in sea water. (
  • The most important of those salts are sodium chloride (about 2.3 percent), magnesium chloride (about 0.5 percent), sodium sulfate (about 0.4 percent), calcium chloride (about 0.1 percent) and potassium chloride (about 0.07 percent). (
  • Any one of the salts present in a sea salt deposit-including potassium chloride-can be extracted by a common procedure. (
  • Since potassium chloride is much more soluble in hot water than in cold water, it crystallizes out after other salts have been removed. (
  • The majority of potassium chloride in the United States is now extracted by a lengthy process that also begins with the crushing of natural ores, such as sylvite and carnalite. (
  • A flotation agent is a material that coats the desired compound, such as potassium chloride, and allows it to float to the surface of the reaction chamber, like the soap suds that float on top of a washing machine. (
  • The amine-coated potassium chloride is skimmed off the top of the reaction mixture, purified, and prepared in some crystalline or powder form. (
  • Potassium chloride is present in some foods in small amounts. (
  • Many infant formulas also contain potassium chloride. (
  • Potassium chloride is also used as a nutrient for yeast cultures and in making beer. (
  • One use of potassium chloride is as a lethal injection for prisoners who have been given the death penalty. (
  • The largest application of potassium chloride is in the production of fertilizers. (
  • More than ninety percent of the potassium chloride produced in the United States is used for that purpose. (
  • Smaller amounts of potassium chloride are used in the production of other potassium compounds, in photography, and in chemical research applications. (
  • Routine but Deadly Drug: Potassium Chloride Has a Jekyll and Hyde Personality. (
  • Some chloride-containing minerals include halite (sodium chloride NaCl), sylvite (potassium chloride KCl), bischofite (MgCl2∙6H2O), carnallite (KCl∙MgCl2∙6H2O), and kainite (KCl∙MgSO4 ∙3H2O). (
  • An electrolyte panel is a test that measures chloride and other electrolytes, such as potassium , sodium , and bicarbonate. (
  • What Conditions does Potassium Chloride Tablet, Extended Release Particles/Crystals Treat? (
  • Slow-K modified-release tablets contain the active ingredient potassium chloride. (
  • Slow-K tablets are a 'modified-release' form of potassium chloride that are designed to release the potassium slowly as they pass through the gut. (
  • What is potassium chloride, and how does it work (mechanism of action)? (
  • What brand names are available for potassium chloride? (
  • Is potassium chloride available as a generic drug? (
  • Do I need a prescription for potassium chloride? (
  • What are the side effects of potassium chloride? (
  • What is the dosage for potassium chloride? (
  • Is potassium chloride safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding? (
  • What else should I know about potassium chloride? (
  • What preparations of potassium chloride are available? (
  • How should I keep potassium chloride stored? (
  • Potassium chloride (K-Dur, KLor Con, K-Tab) is a preparation used to treat low potassium (hypokylemia) in the blood. (
  • This Potassium Chloride Injection is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, highly concentrated, ready-to-use solution of Potassium Chloride, USP in Water for Injection, USP for electrolyte replenishment in a single dose container for intravenous administration. (
  • A deficiency of either potassium or chloride will lead to a deficit of the other. (
  • Potassium Chloride Injection is indicated in the treatment of potassium deficiency states when oral replacement is not feasible. (
  • Potassium Chloride Injection is contraindicated in diseases where high potassium levels may be encountered, and in patients with hyperkalemia, renal failure and in conditions in which potassium retention is present. (
  • In patients with renal insufficiency, administration of potassium chloride may cause potassium intoxication and life-threatening hyperkalemia. (
  • Because pain associated with peripheral infusion of Potassium Chloride solution has been reported, whenever possible administration via a central route is recommended for thorough dilution by the blood stream and avoidance of extravasation. (
  • Chloride salts include sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride and ammonium chloride. (
  • Klor-Con (Potassium Chloride) is a supplement that raises potassium levels in your blood. (
  • Sources of salt (chloride) in groundwater include atmospheric deposition, road salt, saltwater intrusion, fertilizers (potassium chloride), backflushing of water softening systems, and human waste (septic systems). (
  • Some chloride-containing minerals include halite (sodium chloride NaCl ), sylvite (potassium chloride KCl ), bischofite (MgCl 2 ∙6H 2 O), carnallite (KCl∙MgCl 2 ∙6H 2 O), and kainite (KCl∙MgSO4 ∙3H 2 O). It is also found in evaporite minerals such as chlorapatite and sodalite . (
  • potassium chloride: What Are the Dosage and Brand Names? (
  • Potassium chloride (KLor Con, K-Tab , Kaon CL, Klorvess, Slow-K, Ten-K, Klotrix, K-Lyte CL) is a supplement used to treat low blood levels of potassium, a condition called hypokalemia . (
  • Learn about the side effects, dosage, and pregnancy safety information for potassium chloride. (
  • A unique property of potassium chloride is that it is more soluble in hot water, but less soluble in cold water, than sodium chloride is. (
  • How do you tell the difference between potassium nitrate and potassium chloride? (
  • Visually, potassium nitrate (KNO3) and potassium chloride (KCl) may be difficult to differentiate because they both appear as colorless or white crystals. (
  • Like sodium, potassium, and other electrolytes, the concentration of chloride in your body is carefully regulated by your kidneys. (
  • The EU classification refers to a group of substances known as quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl C8-18-alkyldimethyl chlorides. (
  • Ammonium chloride is a combination of two necessary elements for plant growth -- nitrogen and chlorine. (
  • Ammonium chloride is one of many forms of nitrogen that are used on crops, lawns and gardens. (
  • Ammonium chloride is a medium-strength nitrogen fertilizer compared to other ammonium-based products. (
  • Ammonium chloride increased crop yields by up to 40 percent over crops with no chloride added, according to a multi-year study reported on by W. E. Thompson of the Oklahoma State University Department of Plant and Soil Sciences. (
  • Ammonium chloride is also being studied for disease prevention. (
  • Tomatoes, beans and peppers were purposefully inoculated with harmful bacteria in an alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride solution by Dr. Kayimbi Tubajika in 2009. (
  • Chloride is increased in dehydration, with ammonium chloride administration, with renal tubular acidosis (hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis) and with excessive infusion of normal saline. (
  • To patina a copper roof, first clean the surface before applying a mixture of ammonium chloride crystals dissolved in water. (
  • In the crystal, the tri-benzyl-ammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. (
  • Sodium chloride (chemical formula NaCl), known as table salt, rock salt, sea salt, and the mineral halite, is an ionic compound consisting of cube-shaped crystals composed of the elements sodium and chlorine. (
  • Salt (NaCl) is made from sodium and chloride ions. (
  • The potential diagram above is for gaseous NaCl, and the environment is different in the normal solid state where sodium chloride (common table salt) forms cubical crystals. (
  • Chloride can be protonated by strong acids, such as sulfuric acid: NaCl + H2SO4 → NaHSO4 + HCl Ionic chloride salts reaction with other salts to exchange anions. (
  • [ 1 ] Chloride daily requirements for adults are 80-120 mEq/d as sodium chloride (NaCL). (
  • In dilute solutions of the acid the hydrogen chloride is almost completely dissociated into hydrogen and chloride ions . (
  • Hydrogen chloride dissociates readily in water to chloride and hydronium ions (an ion is an electrically charged atom or molecule), which ultimately lowers the pH of the water (makes it more acidic). (
  • If released to soil, hydrogen chloride will evaporate from dry soil surfaces and dissociate into chloride anions and hydronium ions in moist soil. (
  • Many sodium and chloride ions are held together this way, resulting in a salt with a distinctive crystal shape. (
  • The classic case of ionic bonding , the sodium chloride molecule forms by the ionization of sodium and chlorine atoms and the attraction of the resulting ions. (
  • The presence of chloride is often detected by its formation of an insoluble silver chloride upon treatment with silver ion: Cl− + Ag+ → AgCl The concentration of chloride in an assay can be determined using a chloridometer, which detects silver ions once all chloride in the assay has precipitated via this reaction. (
  • Combinations of these ions-sodium and chloride, for example-form salts, and salinity is another term commonly used to describe the dissolved solids content of water. (
  • The concentration of chloride in an assay can be determined using a chloridometer , which detects silver ions once all chloride in the assay has precipitated via this reaction. (
  • In marine and coastal environments, penetration of chloride ions is one of the main mechanisms causing concrete reinforcement corrosion. (
  • Currently, most of experimental investigations about submerged penetration of chloride ions are started after the four-week standard curing of concrete. (
  • The ingress of chloride ions constitutes a major source of durability problems affecting reinforced concrete structures which are exposed to marine environments. (
  • Once a sufficient quantity of chloride ions has accumulated around the embedded steel, pitting corrosion of the metal is liable to occur unless the environmental conditions are strongly anaerobic. (
  • Amar Flood and Yongjun Li at Indiana University (Bloomington, USA) have now synthesized a donut-shaped molecule that tightly and selectively takes chloride ions up into its center. (
  • however, for some chloride salts, such as silver chloride, lead (II) chloride, and mercury(I) chloride, they are slightly soluble in water. (
  • A printing paper with a silver chloride emulsion. (
  • Most chloride salts are readily soluble in water, but mercurous chloride (calomel) and silver chloride are insoluble, and lead chloride is only slightly soluble. (
  • A silver-silver chloride skin electrode is prepared by coating a composition containing silver grain, silver chloride grain and glass frit on a substrate made of a spinel type crystalline oxide such as ferrite and sintering the coated layer. (
  • 1. A non-polarizable skin electrode for detecting electrical signals generated by biopotential phenomena, which comprises an electrode layer comprising silver grains, silver chloride grains and particles of glass frit bonded on their surfaces to form a matrix, the grains being interspersed throughout the matrix, the electrode layer being coated upon a substrate. (
  • The present invention relates to a silver-silver chloride electrode. (
  • More particularly, it relates to a silver-silver chloride skin electrode adapted to a skin of a living-body for detecting electrical signal generated by biopotential phenomena such as electrocardiogram, electromyogram and electroencephalogram to lead the electrical signal to a monitoring equipment. (
  • It has been known that a silver-silver chloride electrode is optimum as the biopotential nonpolarized electrode. (
  • It has been reported that the silver-silver chloride electrode having excellent characteristics as a skin electrode is prepared by electrolyzing a silver plate as an anode in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride to form a film of silver chloride on the surface of the silver plate or by press-molding a mixture of powdery silver and powdery silver chloride. (
  • Such silver-silver chloride electrode is not suitable as a disposable electrode. (
  • Thus, the silver-silver chloride electrode has not been widely used. (
  • In order to overcome these disadvantages on the conventional preparation of the silver-silver chloride electrode, it has been proposed to prepare a silver-silver chloride electrode by coating a layer of a homogeneous mixture of silver grain, silver chloride grain and a synthetic resin such as polyvinyl chloride and epoxy resin on a substrate for the electrode in Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication No. 24195/1972. (
  • It has been also proposed to prepare a silver-silver chloride electrode by coating on a conductive substrate, a layer having an organic matrix made of epoxy resin, etc. in which silver chloride grain and silver grain or silver coated grain coating silver on a core such as ceramic, silica or glass grain, are dispersed, in Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication No. 26789/1976. (
  • Anhydrous magnesium chloride is the principal precursor to magnesium metal, which is produced on a large scale. (
  • [3] Anhydrous MgCl 2 is produced industrially by heating the chloride salt of hexammine complex [Mg(NH 3 ) 6 ] 2+ . (
  • Anhydrous copper chloride is brown, but copper chloride hydrate is light blue. (
  • This section" means this methylene chloride standard. (
  • The startup dates established by the methylene chloride standard, as amended by this final rule, are shown in the following table, with the provisions whose startup dates have already passed listed as being 'in effect. (
  • Calcium chloride is commercially available usually as the dihydrate, CaCl 2 ·2H 2 O it is used to melt ice on roads, to control dust, in brines for refrigeration, and as a preservative in foods. (
  • What is copper chloride dihydrate? (
  • Copper chloride dihydrate is a form of copper chloride that has formed crystals around molecules of water. (
  • In this state, each crystal of copper chloride contains two molecules of water, hence the name "dihydrate. (
  • What is barium chloride dihydrate? (
  • polyvinyl chloride (PVC), thermoplastic that is a polymer of vinyl chloride. (
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about vinyl chloride. (
  • Exposure to vinyl chloride occurs mainly in the workplace. (
  • Breathing high levels of vinyl chloride for short periods of time can cause dizziness, sleepiness, unconsciousness, and at extremely high levels can cause death. (
  • Breathing vinyl chloride for long periods of time can result in permanent liver damage, immune reactions, nerve damage, and liver cancer. (
  • What is vinyl chloride? (
  • Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas. (
  • Vinyl chloride is used to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC). (
  • Vinyl chloride is also known as chloroethene, chloroethylene, and ethylene monochloride. (
  • What happens to vinyl chloride when it enters the environment? (
  • Liquid vinyl chloride evaporates easily. (
  • Vinyl chloride in water or soil evaporates rapidly if it is near the surface. (
  • Vinyl chloride in the air breaks down in a few days to other substances, some of which can be harmful. (
  • Small amounts of vinyl chloride can dissolve in water. (
  • Vinyl chloride is unlikely to build up in plants or animals that you might eat. (
  • How might I be exposed to vinyl chloride? (
  • Breathing vinyl chloride that has been released from plastics industries, hazardous waste sites, and landfills. (
  • Breathing vinyl chloride in air or during contact with your skin or eyes in the workplace. (
  • How can vinyl chloride affect my health? (
  • Breathing high levels of vinyl chloride can cause you to feel dizzy or sleepy. (
  • Some people who have breathed vinyl chloride for several years have changes in the structure of their livers. (
  • People are more likely to develop these changes if they breathe high levels of vinyl chloride. (
  • Some people who work with vinyl chloride have nerve damage and develop immune reactions. (
  • Some workers exposed to very high levels of vinyl chloride have problems with the blood flow in their hands. (
  • The effects of drinking high levels of vinyl chloride are unknown. (
  • If you spill vinyl chloride on your skin, it will cause numbness, redness, and blisters. (
  • Animal studies have shown that long-term exposure to vinyl chloride can damage the sperm and testes. (
  • How likely is vinyl chloride to cause cancer? (
  • The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has determined that vinyl chloride is a known carcinogen. (
  • Studies in workers who have breathed vinyl chloride over many years showed an increased risk of liver, brain, lung cancer, and some cancers of the blood have also been observed in workers. (
  • How can vinyl chloride affect children? (
  • It has not been proven that vinyl chloride causes birth defects in humans, but studies in animals suggest that vinyl chloride might affect growth and development. (
  • Animal studies also suggest that infants and young children might be more susceptible than adults to vinyl chloride-induced cancer. (
  • How can families reduce the risk of exposure to vinyl chloride? (
  • Tobacco smoke contains low levels of vinyl chloride, so limiting your family's exposure to cigarette or cigar smoke may help reduce their exposure to vinyl chloride. (
  • Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to vinyl chloride? (
  • The results of several tests can sometimes show if you have been exposed to vinyl chloride. (
  • Vinyl chloride can be measured in your breath, but the test must be done shortly after exposure. (
  • This public health statement tells you about vinyl chloride and the effects of exposure to it. (
  • Vinyl chloride has been found in at least 616 of the 1,662 current or former NPL sites. (
  • Although the total number of NPL sites evaluated for this substance is not known, the possibility exists that the number of sites at which vinyl chloride is found could increase in the future as more sites are evaluated. (
  • If you are exposed to vinyl chloride, many factors will determine whether you will be harmed. (
  • Vinyl chloride exists in liquid form if kept under high pressure or at low temperatures. (
  • Vinyl chloride has a mild, sweet odor, which may become noticeable at 3,000 parts vinyl chloride per million parts (ppm) of air. (
  • Most people begin to taste vinyl chloride in water at 3.4 ppm. (
  • Production of vinyl chloride in the United States grew at an average rate of about 7% from the early 1980s to the early 1990s, with current growth at about 3% annually. (
  • PVC), which consists of long repeating units of vinyl chloride. (
  • At one time, vinyl chloride was used as a coolant, as a propellant in spray cans, and in some cosmetics. (
  • However, since the mid-1970s, vinyl chloride mostly has been used in the manufacture of PVC. (
  • Refer to Chapter 4 for more information about the chemical and physical properties of vinyl chloride. (
  • For more information about the production and use of vinyl chloride, see Chapter 5. (
  • Most of the vinyl chloride that enters the environment comes from vinyl chloride manufacturing or processing plants, which release it into the air or into waste water. (
  • Vinyl chloride also is a breakdown product of other synthetic chemicals. (
  • In addition, vinyl chloride has been found in tobacco smoke at very low levels. (
  • Some vinyl chloride can dissolve in water. (
  • Vinyl chloride can migrate to groundwater and can be in groundwater due to the breakdown of other chemicals. (
  • For more information about what happens to vinyl chloride in the environment, see Chapter 6. (
  • Because vinyl chloride usually exists in a gaseous state, you are most likely to be exposed to it by breathing it. (
  • Vinyl chloride is not normally found in urban, suburban, or rural air in amounts that are detectable by the usual methods of analysis. (
  • The final product may contain traces of monomer see ICSC0082 Vinyl chloride. (
  • Brine is a solution of sodium chloride and water that may or may not contain other salts. (
  • Chloride salts such as sodium chloride are often very soluble in water. (
  • Most chloride salts are soluble in water, thus, chloride-containing minerals are usually only found in abundance in dry climates or deep underground. (
  • 4. The vinylidene chloride copolymer latex of claim 1 wherein the anionic surfactant is selected from the group consisting of sodium alkylbenzenesulfonate, sodium salts of alkyl sulfonic acid esters, sodium salts of sulfosuccinic acid alkyl esters, sodium alkylsulfonate, sodium alkyldiphenylether sulfonate, and sulfuric acid esters of alkylphenolpolyethylene oxide. (
  • Ionic chloride salts reaction with other salts to exchange anions. (
  • Hydrogen chloride gas can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. (
  • You may breathe in air that contains very low levels of hydrogen chloride gas. (
  • hydrogen chloride gas on tin metal. (
  • Preparation of hydrogen chloride gas on a large scale must be done as a demonstration by a teacher. (
  • Work in a fume cupboard and wear goggles for generating and handling hydrogen chloride gas. (
  • Hydrogen chloride gas, HCl(g) is generated (TOXIC, CORROSIVE) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard and CLEAPSS Recipe Book . (
  • Magnesium chloride is the name for the chemical compound with the formula MgCl 2 and its various hydrates MgCl 2 (H 2 O) x . (
  • The hydrated magnesium chloride can be extracted from brine or sea water . (
  • In North America, magnesium chloride is produced primarily from Great Salt Lake brine. (
  • Magnesium chloride, as the natural mineral bischofite , is also extracted (by solution mining) out of ancient seabeds, for example, the Zechstein seabed in northwest Europe. (
  • Some magnesium chloride is made from solar evaporation of seawater. (
  • Hydrated magnesium chloride is the form most readily available. (
  • The production of metallic magnesium at the cathode (reduction reaction) is accompanied by the oxidation of the chloride anions at the anode with release of gaseous chlorine . (
  • To stem down the cost to produce calcium chloride, TETRA is investing in excess of $100 million in a new manufacturing plant in El Dorado, Arkansas which will produce calcium chloride liquid, calcium chloride flake, sodium chloride, and magnesium hydroxide. (
  • Oxybutynin Chloride Tablets also contain colloidal silicon dioxide NF, FD&C Blue #1 aluminum lake, magnesium stearate NF, microcrystalline cellulose NF, and pregelatinized starch NF. (
  • In Maryland, state-maintained roads are treated with sodium chloride, calcium chloride, or magnesium chloride, depending upon the air temperature. (
  • Calcium chloride is a byproduct of the Solvay process (a major source of the compound) and is present in natural brines. (
  • TETRA Technologies Inc., the leading supplier of calcium chloride, said Friday its increase of calcium chloride up to $100 per dry short ton due to the current economic environment. (
  • TETRA is an oil and gas Services Company with an integrated calcium chloride and brominated products manufacturing operation that supplies feedstocks to energy markets, as well as other markets. (
  • As we describe here, transformed lympho-blasts have whole cell chloride currents under conditions of stimulation by cAMP agonists, calcium ionophore, or hypotonicity which are quite similar to the aggregate chloride currents measured under similar conditions in epithelial cells. (
  • China Calcium Chloride Industry 2016 Market Research Report is a new market research publication announced by Reportstack. (
  • This report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Calcium Chloride industry. (
  • The Calcium Chloride market analysis is provided for the China markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status. (
  • The Calcium Chloride industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. (
  • Useful search terms for methylene chloride include "dichloromethane," "methylene dichloride," and "DCM. (
  • Resins of polyvinyl chloride are hard, but with the addition of plasticizers a flexible, elastic plastic can be made. (
  • In aqueous solution, chloride is bound by the protic end of the water molecules. (
  • In studies by an independent firm, a "repeated insult patch test with a 1% aqueous solution of Stearalkonium Chloride showed the material to be neither a primary irritant nor a sensitizer. (
  • Sodium chloride in water solutions or molten sodium chloride are electrolytes. (
  • Chloride is often measured along with other electrolytes to diagnose or monitor conditions such as kidney disease , heart failure , liver disease , and high blood pressure . (
  • Like other electrolytes, chloride cannot be interpreted without clinical knowledge of the patient. (
  • Chloride is one of the most important electrolytes in the blood. (
  • Consequently, for instance, in an application such as addition of a vinylidene chloride latex to a mortar, there has been adopted a countermeasure of using a nonionic surfactant together with an anionic one to prevent agglomeration due to inorganic electrolytes. (
  • To maintain electroneutrality, it should also contain around the same amount of anions, which are mainly chloride (110 mEq) and bicarbonate (24 mEq). (
  • However, it is difficult to develop suitable chelators for negatively charged anions such as chloride and fluoride. (
  • In the laboratory, choline can be prepared by methylation of dimethylethanolamine with methyl chloride . (
  • For example, methyl chloride, with the standard name chloromethane (see IUPAC books) is an organic compound with a covalent C−Cl bond in which the chlorine is not an anion. (
  • Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is a colorless to slightly yellow gas with a pungent odor. (
  • At room temperature, hydrogen chloride is a colorless to slightly yellow, corrosive, nonflammable gas that is heavier than air and has a strong irritating odor. (
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on methylene chloride -NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (
  • This problem has fostered attempts by investigators both to immortalize epithelial cell lines and to search for other cells which may serve as a model to study chloride conductances. (
  • Choline chloride is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)3NCH2CH2OH]Cl. (
  • Tin(II) chloride (stannous chloride) is a white crystalline solid with the formula Sn Cl 2 . (
  • Methylene chloride (MC)" means an organic compound with chemical formula, CH2Cl2. (
  • Cyclohexyl chloride (or chlorocyclohexane) is a chlorinated hydrocarbon with the formula (CH2)5CHCl. (
  • 8. The vinylidene chloride copolymer latex of claim 1 wherein the cationic surfactant is a salt of a quaternary amine represented by the formula: ##STR2## wherein R is an alkyl and n and m are integers having values from 2 to 15. (
  • Both forms of copper chloride have a chemical formula of one copper atom attached ionically to two atoms of chlorine. (
  • Sodium Chloride Overview Sodium chloride (SO-dee-um KLOR-ide) is a colorless to white powder or crystalline solid with no odor and a characteristic salty taste. (
  • Oxybutynin chloride is a white crystalline solid with a molecular weight of 393.95. (
  • The word chloride can also refer to a chemical compound in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded in the molecule. (
  • Slow sodium tablets contain the active ingredient sodium chloride, which is a salt that is normally found dissolved in the body fluids. (
  • It is formed when the element chlorine (a halogen) gains an electron or when a compound such as hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water or other polar solvents. (
  • Less frequently, the word chloride may also form part of the "common" name of chemical compounds in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded. (
  • A chloride ion is much larger than a chlorine atom, 167 and 99 pm, respectively. (
  • For these roles, chloride is one of the essential dietary mineral (listed by its element name chlorine). (
  • Cupric chloride is a yellowish to brown powder that readily absorbs moisture from the air and turns into the greenish blue hydrate, CuCl 2 ∙2H 2 O. The hydrate is commonly prepared by passing chlorine and water in a contacting tower packed with metallic copper. (
  • Chloride, a salt form of the element, should not be confused with chlorine, the gas form of the element which is manufactured from chloride. (
  • when chlorine is the more electronegative element in the compound, the compound is called a chloride. (
  • Most metal chlorides conduct electricity when fused or dissolved in water and can be decomposed by electrolysis to chlorine gas and the metal. (
  • As a result, chloride is affected little by chemical reactions once it enters groundwater, and can be indicative of land use. (
  • It reacts with most common metals, releasing hydrogen and forming the metal chloride with most metal oxides and hydroxides it reacts to form water and the metal chloride. (
  • Chloride is also a useful and reliable chemical indicator of river / groundwater fecal contamination, as chloride is a non-reactive solute and ubiquitous to sewage & potable water. (
  • Some chlorides such as antimony chloride and bismuth chloride decompose in water, forming oxychlorides. (
  • a white, granular, water-insoluble powder, AgCl, that darkens on exposure to light, produced by the reaction of silver nitrate with a chloride: used chiefly in the manufacture of photographic emulsions and in the making of antiseptic silver preparations. (
  • Chloride concentrations greater than about 250 mg/L give drinking water a salty taste. (
  • Chloride of Lime … bad smell … bad egg … white of egg … fowl … grain … flour … flour and water … milk fluid … milk. (
  • the water leaves the crystals as steam and the copper chloride is said to be decomposed. (
  • Han [ 4 ] proposes a modified diffusion coefficient that considers the effect of chloride binding and evaporable water on the diffusion coefficient. (
  • Chloride is an extracellular fluid anion that plays an important role in maintaining normal acid-base balance and along with sodium maintains water balance and serum osmolality. (
  • Sixty-five to seventy percent of the total amount of filtered chloride is reabsorbed, which is close to the fractional reabsorption of sodium and water. (
  • A chloride blood test measures the amount of chloride in your blood. (
  • The sweat test measures the amount of chloride in sweat. (
  • Kids with cystic fibrosis can have two to five times the normal amount of chloride in their sweat. (
  • [ 4 ] Chloride usually reflects changes in sodium, except in acid-base disorders in which changes in chloride are independent from sodium. (
  • The concentration of chloride in the blood is called serum chloride, and this concentration is regulated by the kidneys. (
  • Characteristic concentrations of chloride in model organisms are: in both E. coli and budding yeast are 10-200mM (media dependent), in mammalian cell 5-100mM and in blood plasma 100mM. (
  • Increased concentrations of chloride can cause a number of ecological effects in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. (
  • Because concentrations of chloride in precipitation are low, and there are no near-surface naturally-occurring salt deposits in Maryland, elevated chloride levels in shallow groundwater in non- coastal areas usually indicate the effects of land-based human activity. (
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to methylene chloride. (
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to methylene chloride. (
  • Criteria for a Recommended Occupational Exposure Standard for Methylene Chloride -DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 76-138. (
  • Exposure to liquid hydrogen chloride may cause frostbite. (
  • On exposure to air, hydrogen chloride forms dense white corrosive vapors. (
  • Naturally-occurring (i.e., from volcanic eruptions) and other releases of hydrogen chloride are removed by rainfall, limiting the chances of exposure to high levels of this compound by breathing ambient air. (
  • We do not know if exposure to hydrogen chloride can result in reproductive effects. (
  • This occupational health standard establishes requirements for employers to control occupational exposure to methylene chloride (MC). (
  • OSHA is amending its standard regulating occupational exposure to methylene chloride (29 CFR 1910.1052) by adding a provision for temporary medical removal protection benefits for employees who are removed or transferred to another job because of a medical determination that exposure to methylene chloride may aggravate or contribute to the employee's existing skin, heart, liver, or neurological disease. (
  • Sodium chloride, found abundantly in nature, occurs in seawater, other saline waters or brines, and in dry rock salt deposits. (
  • Most of them precipitate before sodium chloride and therefore are left behind as the seawater is moved from one evaporating pond to another. (
  • In nature, chloride is found primarily in seawater, which contains 1.94% chloride. (
  • The presence of chlorides, e.g. in seawater, significantly worsens the conditions for pitting corrosion of most metals (including stainless steels, aluminum and high-alloyed materials). (
  • After hydrogen and oxygen, the two most abundant or "common" elements dissolved in seawater are sodium and chloride, which combine to form salt. (
  • MgCl 2 crystallizes in the cadmium chloride motif, which features octahedral Mg centers. (
  • The presence of the copper chloride led to the decrease in the temperature of the initial destruction of hemicellulose fraction of wheat straw by 64°С. (
  • Moreover, the increase in the hydrogen and decrease in carbon dioxide concentration were also observed in the presence of copper chloride. (
  • Urine also contains some chloride. (
  • Your health care provider may recommend a urine chloride test in addition to the blood test to get more information about your chloride levels. (
  • Sodium chloride is also lost from the body in urine and sweat. (
  • A chloride test measures the level of chloride in human blood or urine. (
  • In this case, your doctor may also test your urine for chloride and blood sugar levels to see if you have diabetes. (
  • Hydrogen chloride is prepared commercially by the reaction of sulfuric acid with sodium chloride (common salt) niter cake, a mixture of sodium bisulfite and sulfuric acid that is a byproduct of nitric acid manufacture, is sometimes used in place of sulfuric acid. (
  • Some people may develop an inflammatory reaction to hydrogen chloride. (
  • To overcome this weak point, this paper presents a numerical procedure to analyze simultaneously cement hydration reaction and chloride ion penetration process. (
  • Using the volumetric relations calculated chemical reaction equations, porosity and chloride diffusivity of hardened concrete are determined. (
  • 2013). In the course of our ongoing studies on organotin(IV) chemistry, we serendipitously isolated the title salt, tribenzylammonium chloride C 21 H 21 NH + ·Cl - , from the reaction of [(C 6 H 5 CH 2 ) 3 NH] 2 [HPO 4 ] with Sn(CH 3 ) 3 Cl. (
  • Zinc Chloride is an inorganic salt. (
  • In the United States, Zinc Chloride may be used as an active ingredient in OTC drug products. (
  • When used as an active drug ingredient, the established name is Zinc Chloride. (
  • Serum chloride levels are mainly regulated by the kidneys through a variety of transporters that are present along the nephron. (
  • Serum chloride is helpful in the assessment of normal or high anion gap metabolic acidosis and in making the differentiation between hypercalcemia secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism versus hypercalcemia secondary to malignancy (elevated vs low chloride respectively). (
  • The simplest example of an inorganic covalently bonded chloride is hydrogen chloride, HCl. (
  • An inorganic chloride salt having sodium(1+) as the counterion. (
  • Solid sodium chloride is not an electrolyte and is not an electrical conductor. (
  • Chloride has a major physiological significance, which includes regulation of osmotic pressure, electrolyte balance and acid-base homeostasis. (
  • Chloride is an essential electrolyte, playing a key role in maintaining cell homeostasis and transmitting action potentials in neurons. (
  • Chloride is a type of electrolyte. (
  • Your health care provider may have ordered a chloride blood test as part of an electrolyte panel, which is a routine blood test. (
  • You don't need any special preparations for a chloride blood test or an electrolyte panel. (
  • It has been found that a vinylidene chloride resin latex obtained by using such an anionic surfactant is markedly unstable when an electrolyte coexists. (
  • Hyperchloremia is an electrolyte imbalance that occurs when there's too much chloride in the blood. (
  • Chloride is an important electrolyte that is responsible for maintaining the acid-base (pH) balance in your body, regulating fluids, and transmitting nerve impulses. (
  • Your kidneys play an important role in the regulation of chloride in your body, so an imbalance in this electrolyte may be related to a problem with these organs. (
  • A chloride sweat test helps diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF) , an inherited disorder that makes kids sick by disrupting the normal function of epithelial cells. (
  • Doctors will order a chloride sweat test for kids with positive newborn screen for cystic fibrosis, a family history of cystic fibrosis, or symptoms of the disorder. (
  • If your child has a sweat chloride level of more than 60 millimoles per liter, it's considered abnormal and indicates a high likelihood of cystic fibrosis, though some children with CF do have borderline or even normal sweat chloride levels. (
  • The chloride permeability defect which characterizes the apical membrane of secretory epithelial cells in cystic fibrosis has been difficult to study in part because of lack of accessibility of tissue for study. (
  • Chloride is the most abundant extracellular anion and accounts for around one third of extracellular fluid tonicity. (
  • Chloride is usually (though not always) at a higher extracellular concentration, causing it to have a negative reversal potential (around -61 mV at 37 degrees Celsius in a mammalian cell). (
  • Chloride, the major extracellular anion, closely follows the metabolism of sodium, and changes in the acid-base of the body are reflected by changes in the chloride concentration. (
  • Chloride is the predominant anion that exists in the extracellular space. (