Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte
Anion Transport Proteins
Molecular Sequence Data
Cation Transport Proteins
Amino Acid Sequence
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Electron Transport Complex I
Kidney Tubules, Distal
Genetic Complementation Test
Acidosis, Renal Tubular
Membrane Transport Proteins
Kidney Tubules, Proximal
Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator
Carbonic Anhydrase II
Protein Structure, Secondary
Biological Transport, Active
Topology of the membrane domain of human erythrocyte anion exchange protein, AE1. (1/355)Anion exchanger 1 (AE1) is the chloride/bicarbonate exchange protein of the erythrocyte membrane. By using a combination of introduced cysteine mutants and sulfhydryl-specific chemistry, we have mapped the topology of the human AE1 membrane domain. Twenty-seven single cysteines were introduced throughout the Leu708-Val911 region of human AE1, and these mutants were expressed by transient transfection of human embryonic kidney cells. On the basis of cysteine accessibility to membrane-permeant biotin maleimide and to membrane-impermeant lucifer yellow iodoacetamide, we have proposed a model for the topology of AE1 membrane domain. In this model, AE1 is composed of 13 typical transmembrane segments, and the Asp807-His834 region is membrane-embedded but does not have the usual alpha-helical conformation. To identify amino acids that are important for anion transport, we analyzed the anion exchange activity for all introduced cysteine mutants, using a whole cell fluorescence assay. We found that mutants G714C, S725C, and S731C have very low transport activity, implying that this region has a structurally and/or catalytically important role. We measured the residual anion transport activity after mutant treatment with the membrane-impermeant, cysteine-directed compound, sodium (2-sulfonatoethyl)methanethiosulfonate) (MTSES). Only two mutants, S852C and A858C, were inhibited by MTSES, indicating that these residues may be located in a pore-lining region. (+info)
Na+/H+ antiporter activity in hamster embryos is activated during fertilization. (2/355)This study characterized the activation of the regulatory activity of the Na+/H+ antiporter during fertilization of hamster embryos. Hamster oocytes appeared to lack any mechanism for the regulation of intracellular pH in the acid range. Similarly, no Na+/H+ antiporter activity could be detected in embryos that were collected from the reproductive tract between 1 and 5 h post-egg activation (PEA). Activity of the Na+/H+ antiporter was first detected in embryos collected at 5.5 h PEA and gradually increased to reach maximal activity in embryos collected at 7 h PEA. Parthenogenetically activated one-cell and two-cell embryos demonstrate Na+/H+ antiporter activity, indicating that antiporter activity is maternally derived and initiated by activation of the egg. The inability of cycloheximide, colchicine, or cytochalasin D to affect initiation of antiporter activity indicates that antiporter appearance is not dependent on the synthesis of new protein or recruitment of existing protein to the cell membrane. In contrast, incubation of one-cell embryos with sphingosine did inhibit the appearance of Na+/H+ antiporter activity, showing that inhibition of normal protein kinase C activity is detrimental to antiporter function. Furthermore, incubation of oocytes with a phorbol ester which stimulates protein kinase C activity induced Na+/H+ antiporter activity in oocytes in which the activity was previously absent. Incubation with an intracellular calcium chelator also reduced the appearance of antiporter activity. Taken together, these data indicate that the appearance of Na+/H+ antiporter activity following egg activation may be due, at least in part, to regulation by protein kinase C and intracellular calcium levels. (+info)
Intracellular pH regulation by HCO3-/Cl- exchange is activated during early mouse zygote development. (3/355)We report here that at least one major pHi-regulatory mechanism, the HCO3-/Cl- exchanger, is quiescent in unfertilized mouse eggs but becomes fully activated during early development following fertilization. Zygotes (8-12 h postfertilization) exhibited a marked intracellular alkalinization upon external Cl- removal, which is indicative of active HCO3-/Cl- exchangers, in contrast to the very small response observed in eggs. In addition, efflux of Cl- from eggs upon external Cl- removal was much slower than that from zygotes, indicating additional pathways for Cl- to cross the plasma membrane in zygotes. Furthermore, while zygotes quickly recovered from an induced alkalosis, eggs exhibited only a slow, incomplete recovery. Following in vitro fertilization (IVF), increased HCO3-/Cl- exchanger activity was first detectable about 4 h postfertilization and reached the maximal level after about 8 h. The upregulation of HCO3-/Cl- exchanger activity after fertilization appeared to occur by activation of existing, inactive exchangers rather than by synthesis or transport of new exchangers, as the increase in activity following IVF was unaffected by inhibition of protein synthesis or by disruption of the Golgi apparatus or the cytoskeleton. This activation may depend on the Ca2+ transients which follow fertilization, as suppression of these transients, using the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA, reduced subsequent upregulation of HCO3-/Cl- exchanger activity by about 50%. Activation of pHi-regulatory systems may be a widespread feature of the earliest period of embryonic development, not restricted to species such as marine invertebrates as previously believed. (+info)
Transmembrane folding of the human erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE1, Band 3) determined by scanning and insertional N-glycosylation mutagenesis. (4/355)The human erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE1, Band 3) contains up to 14 transmembrane segments, with a single site of N-glycosylation at Asn642 in extracellular (EC) loop 4. Scanning and insertional N-glycosylation mutagenesis were used to determine the folding pattern of AE1 in the membrane. Full-length AE1, when expressed in transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 or COS-7 cells, retained a high-mannose oligosaccharide structure. Scanning N-glycosylation mutagenesis of EC loop 4 showed that N-glycosylation acceptor sites (Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr) spaced 12 residues from the ends of adjacent transmembrane segments could be N-glycosylated. An acceptor site introduced at position 743 in intracellular (IC) loop 5 that could be N-glycosylated in a cell-free translation system was not N-glycosylated in transfected cells. Mutations designed to disrupt the folding of this loop enhanced the level of N-glycosylation at Asn743 in vitro. The results suggest that this loop might be transiently exposed to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum during biosynthesis but normally folds rapidly, precluding N-glycosylation. EC loop 4 insertions into positions 428, 484, 754 and 854 in EC loops 1, 2, 6 and 7 respectively were efficiently N-glycosylated, showing that these regions were extracellular. EC loop 4 insertions into positions 731 or 785 were poorly N-glycosylated, which was inconsistent with an extracellular disposition for these regions of AE1. Insertion of EC loop 4 into positions 599 and 820 in IC loops 3 and 6 respectively were not N-glycosylated in cells, which was consistent with a cytosolic disposition for these loops. Inhibitor-affinity chromatography with 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonate (SITS)-Affi-Gel was used to assess whether the AE1 mutants were in a native state. Mutants with insertions at positions 428, 484, 599, 731 and 785 showed impaired inhibitor binding, whereas insertions at positions 754, 820 and 854 retained binding. The results indicate that the folding of the C-terminal region of AE1 is more complex than originally proposed and that this region of the transporter might have a dynamic aspect. (+info)
Transport characteristics of the apical anion exchanger of rabbit cortical collecting duct beta-cells. (5/355)To functionally characterize transport properties of the apical anion exchanger of rabbit beta-intercalated cells, the mean change in anion exchange activity, dpHi/dt (where pHi is intracellular pH), was measured in response to lumen Cl- replacement with gluconate in perfused cortical collecting ducts (CCDs). beta-Cell apical anion exchange was not affected by 15-min exposure to 0.2 mM lumen DIDS in the presence of 115 mM Cl-. In contrast, apical anion exchange was significantly inhibited by 0.1 mM lumen DIDS in the absence of Cl-. beta-Cell apical anion exchange was unchanged by 15 mM maleic anhydride, 10 mM phenylglyoxal, 0.2 mM niflumic acid, 1 mM edecrin, 1 mM furosemide, 1 mM probenecid, or 0.1 mM diphenylamine-2-carboxylate. However, beta-cell apical anion exchange was inhibited by alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, with an IC50 of 2.4 mM. Substitution of either sulfate or gluconate for lumen Cl- resulted in a similar rate of alkalinization. Conversely, pHi was unchanged by substitution of sulfate for lumen gluconate, confirming the lack of transport of sulfate on the beta-cell apical anion exchanger. Taken together, the results demonstrate a distinct "fingerprint" of the rabbit CCD beta-cell apical anion exchanger that is unlike that of other known anion exchangers. (+info)
HLA-DMB expression by thyrocytes: indication of the antigen-processing and possible presenting capability of thyroid cells. (6/355)Expression of HLA class II molecules on thyrocytes is a characteristic feature of autoimmune thyroid disease and may lead the thyroid cells to present autoantigens to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Since HLA-DM is a critical molecule in class II-restricted antigen processing and presentation, we assessed the expression of HLA-DMB, -invariant chain (Ii), class II transactivator (CIITA) and DRA in an untransformed, pure thyrocyte strain HTV-59A. Here we report that both HLA-DMB mRNA and the protein are expressed in thyrocytes and that CIITA expression is enhanced by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) treatment and occurs before DMB, Ii and DRA up-regulation, suggesting CIITA expression is a requirement for antigen processing in thyrocytes. These results indicate that thyrocytes are capable of antigen processing and possibly antigen presentation to T cells. (+info)
A spliced variant of AE1 gene encodes a truncated form of Band 3 in heart: the predominant anion exchanger in ventricular myocytes. (7/355)The anion exchangers (AE) are encoded by a multigenic family that comprises at least three genes, AE1, AE2 and AE3, and numerous splicoforms. Besides regulating intracellular pH (pHi) via the Cl-/HCO3- exchange, the AEs exert various cellular functions including generation of a senescent antigen, anchorage of the cytoskeleton to the membrane and regulation of metabolism. Most cells express several AE isoforms. Despite the key role of this family of proteins, little is known about the function of specific AE isoforms in any tissue, including the heart. We therefore chose isolated cardiac cells, in which a tight control of pHi is mandatory for the excitation-contraction coupling process, to thoroughly investigate the expression of the AE genes at both the mRNA and protein levels. RT-PCR revealed the presence of AE1, AE2 and AE3 mRNAs in both neonatal and adult rat cardiomyocytes. AE1 is expressed both as the erythroid form (Band 3 or eAE1) and a novel alternate transcript (nAE1), which was more specifically characterized using a PCR mapping strategy. Two variants of AE2 (AE2a and AE2c) were found at the mRNA level. Cardiac as well as brain AE3 mRNAs were expressed in both neonatal and adult rat cardiomyocytes. Several AE protein isoforms were found, including a truncated form of AE1 and two AE3s, but there was no evidence of AE2 protein in adult rat cardiomyocytes. In cardiomyocytes transfected with an AE3 oligodeoxynucleotide antisense, AE3 immunoreactivity was dramatically decreased but the activity of the Cl-/HCO3- exchange was unchanged. In contrast, intracellular microinjection of blocking anti-AE1 antibodies inhibited the AE activity. Altogether, our findings suggest that a specific and novel AE1 splicoform (nAE1) mediates the cardiac Cl-/HCO3- exchange. The multiple gene and protein expression within the same cell type suggest numerous functions for this protein family. (+info)
Parietal cells express high levels of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter on migrating into the gastric gland neck. (8/355)Na-K-2Cl cotransport and Cl/HCO3 exchange are prominent mechanisms for Cl- uptake in Cl--secreting epithelial cells. We used immunofluorescence microscopy to delineate the distributions of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter-1 (NKCC1) and anion exchanger-2 (AE2) proteins in rat gastric mucosa (zymogenic zone). Parietal cells (PCs) above the neck of the gastric gland contained abundant AE2 but little or no NKCC1, whereas those in the neck and base contained high NKCC1 but diminished AE2. Lower levels of NKCC1 were detected in surface mucous cells and in cells comprising the blind ends of all glands. Pulse labeling of proliferating cells with bromodeoxyuridine indicated that new PCs originate in the isthmus with scant NKCC1; the subset of PCs that migrate downward expresses NKCC1 abruptly on entering the neck, within 7 days of cell division. Our results suggest that downwardly migrating PCs replace one mechanism for Cl- entry (Cl/HCO3 exchange) with another (Na-K-2Cl cotransport). (+info)
Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters are a group of proteins found in the cell membrane of various tissues in the human body. These proteins play a crucial role in regulating the concentration of chloride and bicarbonate ions in the body. The primary function of Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters is to transport bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) out of the cell and chloride ions (Cl-) into the cell. This process is essential for maintaining the proper pH balance in the body, particularly in the lungs and kidneys. In the lungs, Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters help to regulate the pH of the airways and prevent acidosis. In the kidneys, they help to regulate the pH of the blood and prevent acidosis or alkalosis. There are several types of Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters, including the Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger (NHE), the Sodium-Bicarbonate Cotransporter (NBC), and the Chloride-Bicarbonate Exchanger (ClC). These proteins are regulated by various factors, including hormones, ions, and pH levels, and play a critical role in maintaining the body's acid-base balance.
Bicarbonates, also known as bicarbonate ions or HCO3-, are a type of ion found in the blood and other body fluids. They play an important role in regulating the acid-base balance of the body and maintaining the proper pH of the blood. In the medical field, bicarbonate levels are often measured as part of a routine blood test. Abnormal levels of bicarbonate can indicate a variety of medical conditions, including metabolic acidosis (a condition in which the body produces too much acid), metabolic alkalosis (a condition in which the body produces too little acid), and respiratory acidosis (a condition in which the body is not able to remove enough carbon dioxide from the blood). Bicarbonate is also used in medicine to treat certain conditions, such as metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis. It is given intravenously (through a vein) or by mouth in the form of a salt, such as sodium bicarbonate.
In the medical field, antiporters are a type of membrane protein that facilitate the exchange of ions or molecules across a cell membrane. Unlike transporters, which move molecules or ions down a concentration gradient, antiporters move molecules or ions against a concentration gradient, meaning they require energy to function. Antiporters typically function by coupling the movement of one molecule or ion across the membrane with the movement of another molecule or ion in the opposite direction. This process is known as symport or antiport, depending on whether the two molecules or ions move in the same or opposite direction. Antiporters play important roles in many physiological processes, including the regulation of ion concentrations in cells, the transport of nutrients and waste products across cell membranes, and the maintenance of pH balance in cells and tissues. They are also involved in a number of diseases, including neurological disorders, metabolic disorders, and certain types of cancer.
SLC4A proteins are a family of membrane transport proteins that belong to the solute carrier (SLC) family. They are also known as anion exchangers or bicarbonate transporters. These proteins are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the kidneys, lungs, and brain, and play important roles in regulating the levels of bicarbonate, chloride, and other ions in the body. SLC4A proteins are involved in a number of physiological processes, including the regulation of blood pH, the transport of bicarbonate across cell membranes, and the maintenance of electrolyte balance. They are also involved in the transport of certain drugs and toxins across cell membranes. SLC4A proteins are encoded by a group of genes that are located on different chromosomes. There are several different subtypes of SLC4A proteins, each with its own specific function and distribution in the body. Mutations in the genes that encode SLC4A proteins can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, and certain types of kidney disease.
Chlorides are a type of anion that are commonly found in the human body. They are produced when chlorine combines with other elements, such as sodium or potassium, to form compounds. In the body, chlorides are primarily found in the fluid that surrounds cells, known as extracellular fluid, and in the fluid that fills the lungs and other cavities, known as intracellular fluid. Chlorides play an important role in maintaining the balance of fluids in the body and in regulating the pH of the blood. They also help to transport nutrients and waste products throughout the body. Chlorides are an essential component of many bodily functions, including the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which aids in the digestion of food. In the medical field, chlorides are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess the overall health of the body. Abnormal levels of chlorides in the blood can be a sign of a variety of medical conditions, including kidney disease, liver disease, and respiratory disorders.
Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte (AE1) is a protein found on the surface of red blood cells (erythrocytes) that plays a crucial role in regulating the transport of chloride ions (Cl-) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) across the cell membrane. AE1 is also known as band 3 protein or anion exchanger 1 (AE1). AE1 is responsible for maintaining the acid-base balance in the body by regulating the exchange of HCO3- and Cl- ions between the red blood cells and the surrounding extracellular fluid. This exchange is essential for the proper functioning of the respiratory and renal systems, as well as for the maintenance of blood pH. Mutations in the gene encoding AE1 can lead to a group of inherited disorders known as hereditary spherocytosis, which are characterized by the formation of abnormally shaped red blood cells. These disorders can cause anemia, jaundice, and other complications.
Anion transport proteins are membrane proteins that facilitate the movement of negatively charged ions across cell membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of ions in the body, which is essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the regulation of fluid balance. There are several types of anion transport proteins, including chloride channels, bicarbonate transporters, and anion exchangers. Chloride channels allow chloride ions to move down their electrochemical gradient, while bicarbonate transporters facilitate the movement of bicarbonate ions across cell membranes. Anion exchangers, on the other hand, exchange one anion for another across the membrane. Anion transport proteins can be found in various tissues throughout the body, including the lungs, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. Mutations in these proteins can lead to a variety of medical conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, which is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel.
Sodium bicarbonate, also known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a white, crystalline powder that is commonly used in cooking and baking as a leavening agent. In the medical field, sodium bicarbonate is used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve heartburn and indigestion. It is also used to treat metabolic acidosis, a condition in which the body produces too much acid, and to alkalinize the urine in certain medical conditions. In addition, sodium bicarbonate is used in some emergency situations, such as treating severe acidosis or as an antidote for certain types of poisonings.
Potassium-Hydrogen Antiporters, also known as Na+/K+-ATPase or Na+/K+ pumps, are a group of membrane proteins found in the cells of all living organisms. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of ions inside and outside of cells, which is essential for many cellular processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the regulation of cell volume. The Na+/K+ pump works by using energy from ATP to transport three sodium ions (Na+) out of the cell and two potassium ions (K+) into the cell. This process creates an electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane, which is essential for many cellular functions. In the medical field, the Na+/K+ pump is often studied in relation to various diseases and conditions, including heart disease, neurological disorders, and kidney disease. Dysfunction of the Na+/K+ pump has been implicated in the development of these conditions, and drugs that target the pump are used to treat some of these diseases.
A Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter (NHE) is a type of ion transporter protein found in the plasma membrane of cells. It is responsible for regulating the concentration of sodium ions (Na+) and hydrogen ions (H+) inside and outside of cells. NHEs work by exchanging one sodium ion inside the cell for one hydrogen ion outside the cell. This process helps to maintain the proper balance of ions inside and outside of cells, which is essential for many cellular functions, including maintaining cell volume, regulating pH, and transmitting nerve impulses. In the medical field, NHEs are important for understanding a variety of diseases and conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, and kidney disease. For example, NHEs play a role in the development of hypertension by regulating the balance of sodium and water in the body. In heart failure, NHEs can contribute to the accumulation of sodium and water in the body, leading to fluid overload and congestion. In kidney disease, NHEs can contribute to the development of kidney failure by disrupting the balance of sodium and water in the body.
Chloride channels are ion channels that selectively allow chloride ions to pass through cell membranes. They play a crucial role in regulating the movement of chloride ions across cell membranes, which is important for many physiological processes, including the regulation of fluid balance, the transmission of nerve impulses, and the secretion and absorption of fluids in various organs and tissues. There are several types of chloride channels, including cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels, which are involved in the regulation of fluid balance in the lungs and other organs, and volume-regulated chloride channels, which are involved in the regulation of cell volume and the movement of fluids across cell membranes. Disruptions in the function of chloride channels can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including cystic fibrosis, which is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene that affect the function of CFTR channels in the lungs and other organs. Other conditions that may be associated with disruptions in chloride channel function include epilepsy, ataxia, and certain types of hearing loss.
Sodium chloride, also known as table salt, is a chemical compound composed of sodium and chlorine ions. It is a white, odorless, and crystalline solid that is commonly used as a seasoning and preservative in food. In the medical field, sodium chloride is used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions, including dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and certain types of heart failure. It is also used as a contrast agent in diagnostic imaging procedures such as X-rays and CT scans. Sodium chloride is available in various forms, including oral solutions, intravenous solutions, and topical ointments. It is important to note that excessive consumption of sodium chloride can lead to high blood pressure and other health problems, so it is important to use it only as directed by a healthcare professional.
Sodium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. In the medical field, sodium is often measured in the blood and urine to assess its levels and monitor its balance in the body. Sodium is primarily responsible for regulating the body's fluid balance, which is essential for maintaining blood pressure and proper functioning of the heart, kidneys, and other organs. Sodium is also involved in nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the production of stomach acid. Abnormal levels of sodium in the body can lead to various medical conditions, including hyponatremia (low sodium levels), hypernatremia (high sodium levels), and dehydration. Sodium levels can be affected by various factors, including diet, medications, and underlying medical conditions. In the medical field, sodium levels are typically measured using a blood test called a serum sodium test or a urine test called a urine sodium test. These tests can help diagnose and monitor various medical conditions related to sodium levels, such as kidney disease, heart failure, and electrolyte imbalances.
In the medical field, "Metals, Alkali" typically refers to a group of substances that include metals and alkaline substances. These substances can be found in various forms, such as inorganic compounds, salts, and solutions. Metals, such as lead, mercury, and cadmium, can be toxic to the human body and can cause a range of health problems, including neurological damage, kidney damage, and cancer. Alkali substances, such as sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide, can also be harmful if ingested or inhaled in large quantities. In the medical field, exposure to metals and alkali substances can occur through various means, such as occupational exposure, accidental ingestion or inhalation, or environmental exposure. Treatment for exposure to these substances may involve supportive care, such as fluid replacement and electrolyte management, as well as specific treatments for the effects of the exposure, such as chelation therapy for heavy metal poisoning.
Lithium chloride is a medication used to treat bipolar disorder, a mental health condition characterized by extreme mood swings. It works by stabilizing the levels of certain chemicals in the brain that affect mood. Lithium chloride is typically taken as a pill or liquid and is usually prescribed by a psychiatrist or other mental health professional. It can have side effects, including tremors, weight gain, and kidney problems, and requires regular monitoring by a healthcare provider.
Lithium is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white metal that is highly reactive and flammable. In the medical field, lithium is primarily used as a mood stabilizer to treat bipolar disorder, a mental health condition characterized by extreme mood swings, including manic episodes and depression. Lithium works by regulating the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine and serotonin, which are involved in mood regulation. It is typically administered as a daily pill or liquid and is considered effective in preventing and treating manic and depressive episodes in people with bipolar disorder. However, lithium can also have side effects, including tremors, weight gain, and kidney problems, and requires careful monitoring by a healthcare provider.
Alkalosis is a medical condition characterized by an increased level of alkaline substances in the blood or other body fluids. This can occur when there is a decrease in the amount of acid in the body, or when there is an increase in the amount of alkaline substances such as bicarbonate ions. There are several types of alkalosis, including respiratory alkalosis, metabolic alkalosis, and mixed alkalosis. Respiratory alkalosis occurs when the body tries to compensate for low levels of carbon dioxide in the blood by breathing more deeply and rapidly, which leads to an increase in the amount of oxygen in the blood and a decrease in the amount of carbon dioxide. Metabolic alkalosis occurs when there is an increase in the production of bicarbonate ions in the body, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as certain medications, kidney disease, or excessive vomiting or diarrhea. Mixed alkalosis occurs when both respiratory and metabolic factors are involved. Symptoms of alkalosis can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition, but may include dizziness, lightheadedness, tingling or numbness in the extremities, muscle cramps, and nausea or vomiting. Treatment for alkalosis typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as adjusting breathing patterns or treating the underlying medical condition.
Acidosis is a medical condition characterized by an excess of acid in the blood or other body fluids. This can occur when the body is unable to properly regulate the acid-base balance, leading to an increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the blood. Acidosis can be classified into two main types: respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis. Respiratory acidosis occurs when the body is unable to remove enough carbon dioxide (CO2) from the blood, leading to an increase in H+ concentration. Metabolic acidosis, on the other hand, occurs when the body produces too much acid or not enough base to neutralize it, leading to an increase in H+ concentration. Acidosis can have a range of symptoms, depending on the severity and underlying cause. These may include shortness of breath, confusion, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and muscle weakness. In severe cases, acidosis can lead to organ damage and even death if left untreated. Treatment for acidosis typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing symptoms as needed.
Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that is used in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a plastic material commonly used in construction, medical equipment, and consumer products. In the medical field, vinyl chloride is used in the production of medical devices such as intravenous bags, tubing, and catheters. However, exposure to vinyl chloride has been linked to the development of a rare but serious cancer called angiosarcoma, particularly in workers who are exposed to high levels of the chemical. Therefore, medical professionals and manufacturers must take precautions to minimize exposure to vinyl chloride to protect the health of workers and patients.
Potassium is a mineral that is essential for the proper functioning of many bodily processes. It is the most abundant positively charged ion in the body and plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, regulating muscle contractions, transmitting nerve impulses, and supporting the proper functioning of the heart. In the medical field, potassium is often measured in blood tests to assess its levels and determine if they are within the normal range. Abnormal potassium levels can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications, kidney disease, hormonal imbalances, and certain medical conditions such as Addison's disease or hyperaldosteronism. Low levels of potassium (hypokalemia) can cause muscle weakness, cramps, and arrhythmias, while high levels (hyperkalemia) can lead to cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and even cardiac arrest. Treatment for potassium imbalances typically involves adjusting the patient's diet or administering medications to correct the imbalance.
In the medical field, cations are positively charged ions that are essential for various bodily functions. Monovalent cations are cations that carry a single positive charge. Examples of monovalent cations include sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and chloride (Cl-). These ions play important roles in maintaining the balance of fluids in the body, transmitting nerve impulses, and regulating muscle contractions. In medical conditions such as electrolyte imbalances, the levels of these monovalent cations can become disrupted, leading to symptoms such as muscle cramps, weakness, and irregular heartbeat. Therefore, monitoring and maintaining proper levels of these ions is important for overall health and wellbeing.
In the medical field, the term "alkalies" refers to substances that have a pH greater than 7 and are basic or alkaline in nature. These substances can help to neutralize or counteract the effects of acidic substances in the body. Alkalies are often used to treat acidosis, a condition in which the body's pH becomes too acidic. They can also be used to help treat certain digestive disorders, such as heartburn and acid reflux, by neutralizing stomach acid. Some common examples of alkalies used in medicine include baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), antacids, and certain types of diuretics. It is important to note that while alkalies can be helpful in certain situations, they should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as excessive use can have negative side effects.
Sodium-bicarbonate symporters are a group of membrane transport proteins that simultaneously transport sodium ions (Na+) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) into cells. These transporters are found in various tissues and cells throughout the body, including the kidneys, pancreas, and red blood cells. In the kidneys, sodium-bicarbonate symporters play a critical role in regulating the body's acid-base balance by transporting bicarbonate ions into the bloodstream. This helps to buffer the blood against changes in pH and maintain a stable internal environment. In the pancreas, sodium-bicarbonate symporters are involved in the production of digestive enzymes and the secretion of bicarbonate ions into the small intestine to neutralize stomach acid. In red blood cells, sodium-bicarbonate symporters are involved in the transport of bicarbonate ions across the cell membrane, which helps to regulate the pH of the blood and maintain proper oxygen-carrying capacity. Overall, sodium-bicarbonate symporters are essential for maintaining the body's acid-base balance and regulating various physiological processes.
Proton pumps are a type of protein found in the membranes of cells, particularly in the lining of the stomach and the cells that make up the walls of blood vessels. These pumps work to regulate the pH of the cell's interior by actively transporting hydrogen ions (protons) out of the cell and into the surrounding environment. This process is essential for maintaining the proper functioning of many cellular processes, including the breakdown of nutrients and the production of energy. In the medical field, proton pumps are often targeted by medications used to treat conditions such as acid reflux and stomach ulcers.
In the medical field, "salts" typically refers to compounds that contain ions of metals or other elements combined with non-metallic elements such as chlorine, sulfur, or phosphorus. These compounds are often used in various medical applications, including: 1. Electrolyte balance: Salts are essential for maintaining the balance of electrolytes in the body. Electrolytes are minerals that carry an electric charge and are necessary for many bodily functions, including muscle and nerve function, hydration, and acid-base balance. 2. Medications: Salts are often used as active ingredients in medications. For example, sodium chloride (table salt) is used as an ingredient in many over-the-counter pain relievers and cold medicines. 3. Antiseptics: Salts such as silver sulfadiazine are used as antiseptics to prevent infection in wounds. 4. Diuretics: Salts such as potassium chloride are used as diuretics to increase urine production and help remove excess fluids from the body. 5. Supplements: Salts such as magnesium sulfate are used as supplements to provide essential minerals that may be lacking in the diet. Overall, salts play an important role in many medical applications and are essential for maintaining proper bodily function.
In the medical field, hydrogen is not typically used as a standalone treatment or medication. However, there is some research being conducted on the potential therapeutic uses of hydrogen gas (H2) in various medical conditions. One area of interest is in the treatment of oxidative stress and inflammation, which are underlying factors in many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Hydrogen gas has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and some studies have suggested that it may have potential as a therapeutic agent in these conditions. Another area of research is in the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Hydrogen gas has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation in animal models of TBI, and some studies have suggested that it may have potential as a neuroprotective agent in humans. However, it's important to note that the use of hydrogen gas in medicine is still in the early stages of research, and more studies are needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic benefits and risks. As such, hydrogen gas should not be used as a substitute for conventional medical treatments without the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.
Cation transport proteins are a group of proteins that are responsible for transporting positively charged ions, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, across cell membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of ions inside and outside of cells, which is essential for many cellular processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the regulation of blood pressure. There are several types of cation transport proteins, including ion channels, ion pumps, and ion cotransporters. Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that allow ions to pass through the cell membrane in response to changes in voltage or other stimuli. Ion pumps are proteins that use energy from ATP to actively transport ions against their concentration gradient. Ion cotransporters are proteins that move two or more ions in the same direction, often in exchange for each other. Cation transport proteins can be found in many different types of cells and tissues throughout the body, and their dysfunction can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension, heart disease, neurological disorders, and kidney disease.
In the medical field, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is produced as a byproduct of cellular respiration and is exhaled by the body. It is also used in medical applications such as carbon dioxide insufflation during colonoscopy and laparoscopic surgery, and as a component of medical gases used in anesthesia and respiratory therapy. High levels of CO2 in the blood (hypercapnia) can be a sign of respiratory or metabolic disorders, while low levels (hypocapnia) can be caused by respiratory failure or metabolic alkalosis.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a synthetic plastic polymer that is commonly used in the medical field for a variety of applications. PVC is a flexible and durable material that is resistant to water, chemicals, and bacteria, making it ideal for use in medical devices and equipment. In the medical field, PVC is often used to make tubing and catheters, which are used to deliver medication, fluids, or other substances directly to the bloodstream or other body cavities. PVC is also used to make medical bags and containers, such as IV bags and syringe barrels, as well as medical garments, such as surgical gowns and masks. PVC is a versatile material that can be easily molded and shaped to fit a wide range of medical applications. However, it is important to note that PVC can release harmful chemicals when it is heated or exposed to certain chemicals, which can be a concern in some medical settings. As a result, many medical facilities are now using alternative materials, such as polypropylene or polyethylene, which are safer and more environmentally friendly.
Acetazolamide is a medication that is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including: 1. High altitude sickness: Acetazolamide is used to prevent and treat altitude sickness, which occurs when a person is exposed to high altitudes and experiences symptoms such as headache, nausea, and dizziness. 2. Glaucoma: Acetazolamide is used to lower the pressure inside the eye in people with glaucoma, a condition in which the pressure inside the eye is too high and can damage the optic nerve. 3. Epilepsy: Acetazolamide is sometimes used as an adjunctive therapy to treat certain types of epilepsy, such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. 4. Fluid retention: Acetazolamide is used to treat fluid retention, which can occur in people with heart failure, kidney disease, or other conditions. 5. Acute mountain sickness: Acetazolamide is used to treat acute mountain sickness, which is a condition that occurs when a person is exposed to high altitudes and experiences symptoms such as headache, nausea, and dizziness. Acetazolamide is usually taken by mouth, although it can also be given intravenously in some cases. It works by decreasing the amount of bicarbonate ions in the body, which helps to lower the pressure inside the eye and reduce fluid retention.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a type of bacteria that is commonly found in the human gut. E. coli proteins are proteins that are produced by E. coli bacteria. These proteins can have a variety of functions, including helping the bacteria to survive and thrive in the gut, as well as potentially causing illness in humans. In the medical field, E. coli proteins are often studied as potential targets for the development of new treatments for bacterial infections. For example, some E. coli proteins are involved in the bacteria's ability to produce toxins that can cause illness in humans, and researchers are working to develop drugs that can block the activity of these proteins in order to prevent or treat E. coli infections. E. coli proteins are also used in research to study the biology of the bacteria and to understand how it interacts with the human body. For example, researchers may use E. coli proteins as markers to track the growth and spread of the bacteria in the gut, or they may use them to study the mechanisms by which the bacteria causes illness. Overall, E. coli proteins are an important area of study in the medical field, as they can provide valuable insights into the biology of this important bacterium and may have potential applications in the treatment of bacterial infections.
In the medical field, cations are positively charged ions that are found in the body fluids, such as blood and extracellular fluid. They are important for maintaining the proper balance of electrolytes in the body and for regulating various physiological processes, such as nerve function, muscle contraction, and fluid balance. Cations are classified based on their charge and chemical properties. The most common cations in the body include sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and hydrogen (H+). These ions play important roles in various bodily functions, and imbalances in their levels can lead to a range of health problems, such as muscle cramps, heart arrhythmias, and seizures. In medical testing, cations are often measured in blood or urine samples using various analytical techniques, such as ion-selective electrodes or atomic absorption spectroscopy. Monitoring cation levels is important for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions, such as kidney disease, acid-base disorders, and electrolyte imbalances.
Ammonium chloride is a salt that is commonly used in the medical field as a decongestant and expectorant. It works by reducing swelling in the nasal passages and thinning mucus, making it easier to cough up. It is often used to treat conditions such as the common cold, bronchitis, and sinusitis. Ammonium chloride is available over-the-counter in various forms, including nasal sprays, inhalers, and oral solutions. It is generally considered safe when used as directed, but it can cause side effects such as dry mouth, throat irritation, and stomach upset in some people.
In the medical field, protons are subatomic particles that have a positive charge and are found in the nucleus of an atom. They are one of the two types of particles that make up atomic nuclei, the other being neutrons, which have no charge. Protons are important in medical applications because they can be used in a type of radiation therapy called proton therapy. Proton therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses beams of protons to target and destroy cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. This is because protons have a unique property called the Bragg peak, which allows them to deposit most of their energy at a specific depth in the body before coming to a stop. This makes proton therapy particularly effective for treating certain types of cancer, such as brain tumors and pediatric cancers.
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a family of metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2) to bicarbonate (HCO3-) and a proton (H+). These enzymes are found in a wide variety of organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals, and play important roles in many physiological processes. In the medical field, CAs are of particular interest because they are involved in several important physiological processes, including respiration, pH regulation, and ion transport. For example, CAs are important in the regulation of blood pH, as they help to maintain the balance of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in the blood. They are also involved in the transport of ions across cell membranes, and play a role in the formation of certain acids and bases. In addition to their physiological roles, CAs have also been the subject of extensive research in the medical field, as they have been implicated in a number of diseases and conditions, including respiratory acidosis, metabolic acidosis, and certain types of cancer. As a result, CAs have become important targets for the development of new drugs and therapies for these conditions.
'4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid' is a chemical compound that is used in the medical field as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. It is also known by its chemical name, Gadodiamide, and is marketed under the brand name Omniscan. Gadodiamide is a paramagnetic contrast agent that enhances the visibility of certain structures in the body on MRI scans. It works by increasing the relaxation time of water molecules in the tissues, which allows for better visualization of the affected area on the MRI image. Gadodiamide is commonly used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including brain and spinal cord disorders, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. It is administered intravenously and is generally well-tolerated by most patients. However, like all contrast agents, it can cause some side effects, including headache, nausea, and allergic reactions.
Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.
Mercuric chloride is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field as an antiseptic and disinfectant. It is also used as a treatment for certain skin conditions, such as acne and psoriasis. However, it is important to note that mercuric chloride is highly toxic and can cause serious health problems if ingested or inhaled. As a result, its use in medical treatments is now limited and is only recommended under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.
Calcium chloride is a salt that is commonly used in the medical field as a medication and a dietary supplement. It is a white, crystalline powder that is highly soluble in water and is used to increase the concentration of calcium in the blood and to treat certain medical conditions. In the medical field, calcium chloride is used to treat hypocalcemia, which is a condition in which the blood calcium level is too low. It is also used to treat eclampsia, which is a serious complication of pregnancy that can cause seizures and other symptoms. Calcium chloride is also used to treat certain types of heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation. Calcium chloride is available as a dietary supplement and can be taken by mouth to increase the body's calcium levels. It is also used as a food additive and is used to preserve food and to enhance the flavor of certain foods. However, it is important to note that calcium chloride should only be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.
Ethoxzolamide is a medication that is used to treat glaucoma, a condition in which there is increased pressure in the eye that can damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss. It is a type of diuretic called a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, which works by reducing the production of aqueous humor, the clear fluid that fills the space inside the eye. This helps to lower the pressure inside the eye and prevent further damage to the optic nerve. Ethoxzolamide is usually taken by mouth, but it can also be given as an eye drop. It is generally well-tolerated, but like all medications, it can cause side effects, such as dizziness, nausea, and stomach pain.
Methylene chloride, also known as dichloromethane, is a colorless, volatile liquid that has been used in various medical applications. It is a powerful solvent that can dissolve many organic compounds, including fats, oils, and waxes. In the medical field, methylene chloride has been used as a general anesthetic, a local anesthetic, and a surgical scrub. It has also been used as a solvent for the extraction of certain drugs and as a cleaning agent for medical equipment. However, methylene chloride is also a known carcinogen and can cause respiratory problems, liver damage, and other health issues when inhaled or ingested. As a result, its use in medical applications has been limited, and alternative solvents and anesthetics have been developed.
Potassium chloride is a medication used to treat low potassium levels in the blood (hypokalemia). It is also used to treat certain heart rhythm problems and to help manage certain types of heart failure. Potassium chloride is available as a tablet, oral solution, and injection. It is usually taken by mouth, but can also be given intravenously (into a vein) or by injection into a muscle. Potassium chloride is a salt that contains potassium, which is an important mineral that helps regulate the heartbeat and maintain proper muscle and nerve function. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking potassium chloride, as high levels of potassium in the blood can be dangerous.
Acidosis, respiratory is a medical condition characterized by an excess of acid in the blood and tissues of the body. It occurs when the body is unable to regulate the acid-base balance in the blood, leading to an increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the blood. Respiratory acidosis occurs when the lungs are unable to remove enough carbon dioxide (CO2) from the body, leading to an increase in the concentration of CO2 in the blood. This can be caused by various factors, including lung disease, heart failure, and certain medications. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, drowsiness, and blue or purple lips and fingernails. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition and may include oxygen therapy, medications to reduce CO2 production, or mechanical ventilation.
In the medical field, carrier proteins are proteins that transport molecules across cell membranes or within cells. These proteins bind to specific molecules, such as hormones, nutrients, or waste products, and facilitate their movement across the membrane or within the cell. Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of molecules within cells and between cells. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including nutrient absorption, hormone regulation, and waste elimination. There are several types of carrier proteins, including facilitated diffusion carriers, active transport carriers, and ion channels. Each type of carrier protein has a specific function and mechanism of action. Understanding the role of carrier proteins in the body is important for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, metabolic disorders, and neurological disorders.
Proteolipids are a type of lipid-protein complex that are found in the cell membrane of many organisms, including animals, plants, and bacteria. They are composed of a hydrophobic lipid tail and a hydrophilic protein head, which allows them to interact with both the interior and exterior of the cell membrane. In the medical field, proteolipids are of particular interest because they play important roles in the function of the nervous system. For example, proteolipids are a major component of the myelin sheath, which is a layer of fatty substance that surrounds and insulates nerve fibers. The myelin sheath helps to speed up the transmission of nerve impulses and is essential for normal brain function. Proteolipids are also involved in the development and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier, which is a barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and spinal cord. This barrier helps to protect the brain from harmful substances in the blood and maintain a stable environment for nerve cells. In addition to their roles in the nervous system, proteolipids have also been implicated in a number of other medical conditions, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease.
Electron transport complex I (also known as NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or NADH-Q oxidoreductase) is a large protein complex located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It is a key component of the electron transport chain, which is responsible for generating ATP (adenosine triphosphate) through oxidative phosphorylation. In the electron transport chain, electrons are transferred from NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q), and this process generates a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Complex I is responsible for accepting electrons from NADH and transferring them to ubiquinone, while also pumping protons from the mitochondrial matrix into the intermembrane space. Complex I is a large, multi-subunit protein complex that contains 45 different polypeptide chains. It is a highly conserved protein, meaning that its structure and function are similar across different species. Dysfunction of complex I has been implicated in a number of human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, as well as certain types of heart disease.
An acid-base imbalance is a condition in which the body's acid-base balance is disrupted, leading to an abnormal pH level in the blood. The body's acid-base balance is maintained by a complex system of buffers and enzymes that regulate the levels of acids and bases in the blood. When this system is disrupted, it can lead to a variety of acid-base imbalances, including acidosis (an excess of acids in the blood) and alkalosis (a deficiency of acids in the blood). Acidosis can be further classified into three types: respiratory acidosis, metabolic acidosis, and mixed acidosis. Respiratory acidosis occurs when the body is not able to remove enough carbon dioxide from the blood, leading to an increase in the acidity of the blood. Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid or not enough bases to neutralize the acid. Mixed acidosis is a combination of respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Alkalosis can also be classified into three types: respiratory alkalosis, metabolic alkalosis, and mixed alkalosis. Respiratory alkalosis occurs when the body produces too much bicarbonate, which is a base that helps to neutralize acids in the blood. Metabolic alkalosis occurs when the body produces too much bicarbonate or not enough acids to neutralize the bicarbonate. Mixed alkalosis is a combination of respiratory and metabolic alkalosis. Acid-base imbalances can have serious consequences for the body, including organ damage, decreased oxygen delivery to tissues, and altered mental status. Treatment for acid-base imbalances typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the imbalance and correcting the pH level of the blood through medications or other interventions.
Secretin is a hormone produced by the cells of the small intestine. It is released in response to the presence of food in the small intestine and plays a role in regulating the digestive process. Secretin stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate, which helps to neutralize stomach acid and protect the lining of the small intestine. It also stimulates the gallbladder to release bile, which helps to break down fats in the small intestine. In addition to its role in digestion, secretin has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in a variety of medical conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pancreatitis, and certain types of cancer.
In the medical field, anions are negatively charged ions that are found in the body fluids, such as blood and urine. They are important for maintaining the balance of electrolytes in the body and play a role in various physiological processes, including nerve function, muscle contraction, and acid-base balance. Anions can be classified into different types based on their chemical composition, such as chloride ions (Cl-), bicarbonate ions (HCO3-), and phosphate ions (PO43-). Each type of anion has a specific function in the body and can be affected by various medical conditions, such as kidney disease, acidosis, and electrolyte imbalances. In some cases, anions can be used as diagnostic markers for certain medical conditions, such as high levels of chloride ions in the blood may indicate dehydration or kidney disease, while low levels of bicarbonate ions may indicate acidosis. Therefore, monitoring the levels of anions in the body fluids is an important part of medical diagnosis and treatment.
Respiratory alkalosis is a medical condition characterized by an increase in the pH of the blood, which occurs when the body produces too much carbon dioxide (CO2) and not enough bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) to buffer the excess CO2. This can occur due to various factors, including hyperventilation, which is an increase in the rate and depth of breathing, or the use of certain medications or drugs that can cause respiratory alkalosis. The body regulates the pH of the blood through a complex system involving the lungs, kidneys, and other organs. When the pH of the blood becomes too alkaline, it can cause a range of symptoms, including dizziness, tingling in the hands and feet, muscle cramps, and confusion. In severe cases, respiratory alkalosis can lead to seizures, coma, and even death. Treatment for respiratory alkalosis typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as stopping the use of a medication that is causing hyperventilation or treating an underlying medical condition. In some cases, oxygen therapy may be used to help the body regulate its pH levels.
Benzalkonium compounds are a class of quaternary ammonium compounds that are commonly used as disinfectants, antiseptics, and preservatives in various medical and personal care products. They are made by reacting benzene with alkyl halides to form an aromatic amine, which is then alkylated with alkyl halides to form the quaternary ammonium salt. Benzalkonium compounds are effective against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and yeasts. They are commonly used in hospital settings to disinfect surfaces, equipment, and medical devices, as well as in personal care products such as hand sanitizers, shampoos, and lotions. However, benzalkonium compounds can also be irritating to the skin and eyes, and some studies have suggested that they may have potential health effects, including allergic reactions and respiratory problems. As a result, their use in some products has been restricted or banned in some countries.
In the medical field, carbonates refer to compounds that contain the carbonate ion (CO3^2-), which is formed by combining a carbon atom with three oxygen atoms. Carbonates are commonly found in minerals and rocks, and they can also be produced synthetically. In medicine, carbonates are used as antacids to neutralize stomach acid and relieve heartburn and indigestion. They work by binding to the hydrogen ions in stomach acid, reducing its acidity and making it less irritating to the lining of the esophagus and stomach. Some common examples of carbonates used in medicine include sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), potassium carbonate (K2CO3), and calcium carbonate (CaCO3). These compounds are often combined with other ingredients, such as magnesium hydroxide or aluminum hydroxide, to create more effective antacids. It's worth noting that while carbonates can be effective at relieving symptoms of acid reflux and heartburn, they should not be used as a long-term solution for these conditions. If you experience frequent or persistent heartburn or acid reflux, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider to determine the underlying cause and develop a more effective treatment plan.
Acidosis, renal tubular, is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal increase in the acidity (pH) of the blood. It occurs when the kidneys are unable to properly regulate the acid-base balance in the body, leading to an accumulation of acid in the blood. Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a specific type of acidosis that occurs when there is a problem with the function of the renal tubules, which are the structures in the kidneys responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and regulating the body's acid-base balance. RTA can be classified into three main types: type I, type II, and type III, depending on the specific mechanism underlying the acidosis. Type I RTA is caused by a defect in the bicarbonate transport system in the renal tubules, leading to a decrease in the ability of the kidneys to excrete hydrogen ions and retain bicarbonate. Type II RTA is caused by a defect in the ability of the kidneys to reabsorb bicarbonate from the urine, leading to an increase in the excretion of bicarbonate and a decrease in the ability of the kidneys to retain hydrogen ions. Type III RTA is caused by a defect in the ability of the kidneys to excrete hydrogen ions, leading to an accumulation of hydrogen ions in the blood and a decrease in the ability of the kidneys to retain bicarbonate. RTA can have a variety of causes, including genetic mutations, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions such as kidney disease or diabetes. Treatment for RTA typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition and managing the symptoms, which may include acidosis, kidney stones, and bone abnormalities.
Electrolytes are minerals that are essential for the proper functioning of the body's cells, tissues, and organs. They are ions that carry an electrical charge and are necessary for maintaining the balance of fluids in the body, transmitting nerve impulses, and regulating muscle contractions. In the medical field, electrolytes are often measured in blood and urine tests to assess the body's electrolyte balance. The most common electrolytes measured in these tests are sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. Electrolyte imbalances can occur due to various factors, including dehydration, kidney disease, heart failure, certain medications, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes and thyroid disorders. Electrolyte imbalances can lead to a range of symptoms, including muscle cramps, weakness, confusion, and in severe cases, cardiac arrest or seizures. Therefore, it is important to maintain proper electrolyte balance through a balanced diet and appropriate medical treatment when necessary.
Potassium compounds are chemical compounds that contain potassium, which is an essential mineral for the proper functioning of the human body. In the medical field, potassium compounds are often used to treat potassium deficiencies or imbalances, which can occur due to a variety of factors such as malnutrition, diarrhea, or certain medications. Potassium compounds are available in various forms, including potassium chloride, potassium citrate, and potassium gluconate. These compounds can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the specific condition being treated and the severity of the potassium deficiency. In addition to treating potassium deficiencies, potassium compounds may also be used to manage certain medical conditions, such as hypertension, heart disease, and kidney disease. However, it is important to note that potassium compounds can have side effects and may interact with other medications, so they should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Membrane transport proteins are proteins that span the cell membrane and facilitate the movement of molecules across the membrane. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of ions and molecules inside and outside of cells, and are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including nutrient uptake, waste removal, and signal transduction. There are several types of membrane transport proteins, including channels, carriers, and pumps. Channels are pore-forming proteins that allow specific ions or molecules to pass through the membrane down their concentration gradient. Carriers are proteins that bind to specific molecules and change shape to transport them across the membrane against their concentration gradient. Pumps are proteins that use energy to actively transport molecules across the membrane against their concentration gradient. Membrane transport proteins are essential for the proper functioning of cells and are involved in many diseases, including cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and certain types of cancer. Understanding the structure and function of these proteins is important for developing new treatments for these diseases.
HEPES stands for 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid. It is a buffering agent commonly used in biological and medical research, particularly in cell culture media and buffers. HEPES is a zwitterion, meaning it has both positively and negatively charged groups, which allows it to maintain a stable pH in solutions. It is known for its low toxicity and ability to maintain a stable pH over a wide range of temperatures and concentrations. In the medical field, HEPES is often used in cell culture media to maintain optimal growth conditions for cells, and in buffers for various laboratory assays and experiments.
Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a protein that plays a crucial role in regulating the movement of salt and water in and out of cells in various organs of the body, including the lungs, pancreas, liver, and intestines. In individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), the CFTR protein is either absent or functionally defective, leading to the production of thick, sticky mucus that clogs the airways and obstructs the pancreas, liver, and other organs. This can cause a range of symptoms, including difficulty breathing, chronic lung infections, digestive problems, and malnutrition. The discovery of the CFTR protein and its role in CF has led to the development of new treatments for the disease, including drugs that aim to correct the function of the protein and improve lung function.
Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the body's metabolism of carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate (HCO3-). It is primarily found in the red blood cells, where it helps to regulate the pH of the blood by converting CO2 into bicarbonate and protons (H+). This process is essential for maintaining the proper balance of acids and bases in the body, which is necessary for the proper functioning of many physiological processes. In addition to its role in regulating blood pH, CA II also plays a role in the transport of CO2 from the tissues to the lungs, where it is exhaled. It does this by converting bicarbonate back into CO2, which can then be transported in the blood to the lungs and exhaled. CA II is also involved in the regulation of fluid balance in the body, as bicarbonate is an important ion that helps to maintain the proper concentration of electrolytes in the blood. It is also involved in the metabolism of other substances, such as ammonia and sulfates. In the medical field, CA II is often studied as a potential target for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, and certain types of cancer. It is also used as a diagnostic marker for certain diseases, such as renal disease and liver disease.
Cadmium chloride is a chemical compound that is composed of cadmium and chlorine. It is a white, crystalline solid that is highly toxic and can cause serious health problems if ingested or inhaled. In the medical field, cadmium chloride is not used as a treatment for any condition. Instead, it is used as a research tool to study the effects of cadmium on the body. It is also used as a laboratory reagent for various chemical reactions. However, due to its toxicity, the use of cadmium chloride in research and laboratory settings is highly regulated and requires proper safety precautions to be taken.
Membrane proteins are proteins that are embedded within the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane. They play a crucial role in regulating the movement of substances across the membrane, as well as in cell signaling and communication. There are several types of membrane proteins, including integral membrane proteins, which span the entire membrane, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are only in contact with one or both sides of the membrane. Membrane proteins can be classified based on their function, such as transporters, receptors, channels, and enzymes. They are important for many physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and cell growth and division.
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a strong acid that is commonly used in the medical field for various purposes. It is a clear, colorless liquid that has a strong, pungent odor and a sour taste. In the medical field, hydrochloric acid is used as a digestive aid to stimulate the production of stomach acid, which helps to break down food and absorb nutrients. It is also used as a disinfectant and antiseptic to clean wounds and prevent infection. In addition, hydrochloric acid is used in some medical tests and procedures, such as the measurement of gastric acid secretion and the treatment of certain digestive disorders. However, it is important to note that hydrochloric acid can be highly corrosive and can cause serious burns if it comes into contact with the skin or mucous membranes. Therefore, it should be handled with caution and used only under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.
4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, also known as SITS, is a synthetic compound that is commonly used as a fluorescent dye in biological research. It is a fluorescent probe that is used to study the transport of ions across cell membranes, particularly chloride ions. SITS is also used as a pH indicator and as a fluorescent probe for studying the activity of various enzymes and proteins. In the medical field, SITS has been used to study the function of ion channels and transporters in various diseases, including cystic fibrosis, epilepsy, and hypertension.
In the medical field, bromides are a class of chemical compounds that contain the bromine atom. They are primarily used as sedatives and hypnotics to treat conditions such as insomnia, anxiety, and agitation. Bromides are also used to treat certain types of seizures and muscle spasms. Bromides are typically administered orally in the form of tablets or solutions. They work by increasing the activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter that helps to calm the nervous system. This leads to a decrease in muscle tension, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. However, bromides can also have side effects, including drowsiness, dizziness, headache, and nausea. They can also cause liver damage and may interact with other medications, so it is important to use them under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by genetically engineering bacteria, yeast, or other organisms to express a specific gene. These proteins are typically used in medical research and drug development because they can be produced in large quantities and are often more pure and consistent than proteins that are extracted from natural sources. Recombinant proteins can be used for a variety of purposes in medicine, including as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and research tools. For example, recombinant versions of human proteins such as insulin, growth hormones, and clotting factors are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Recombinant proteins can also be used to study the function of specific genes and proteins, which can help researchers understand the underlying causes of diseases and develop new treatments.
In the medical field, lactates refer to the byproducts of anaerobic metabolism in the body. Specifically, lactate is a type of organic acid that is produced when the body breaks down glucose in the absence of oxygen. This process, known as anaerobic glycolysis, occurs in muscle cells and other tissues when oxygen levels are low. Lactate levels in the blood can be measured using a blood test, and elevated levels of lactate can indicate a variety of medical conditions, including hypoxia (low oxygen levels in the body), sepsis (infection), and certain types of cancer. In addition, lactate is often used as a marker of exercise intensity, as it increases during physical activity. Overall, lactates play an important role in the body's metabolism and can provide valuable information to healthcare providers in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions.
Amiloride is a medication that is used to treat high blood pressure and fluid retention caused by various medical conditions, such as heart failure, kidney disease, and diabetes. It works by blocking the sodium channels in the kidneys, which helps to reduce the amount of sodium and water that is reabsorbed by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. This, in turn, helps to lower blood pressure and reduce swelling in the body. Amiloride is available in both oral and intravenous forms and is usually taken once or twice a day, depending on the condition being treated. It is generally well-tolerated, but can cause side effects such as dizziness, headache, and an increased risk of potassium levels becoming too high.
Fungal proteins are proteins that are produced by fungi. They can be found in various forms, including extracellular proteins, secreted proteins, and intracellular proteins. Fungal proteins have a wide range of functions, including roles in metabolism, cell wall synthesis, and virulence. In the medical field, fungal proteins are of interest because some of them have potential therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of fungal infections or as vaccines against fungal diseases. Additionally, some fungal proteins have been shown to have anti-cancer properties, making them potential targets for the development of new cancer treatments.
In the medical field, nitrobenzoates are a class of organic compounds that contain a nitro group (-NO2) attached to a benzene ring. They are commonly used as vasodilators, which means they help to widen blood vessels and improve blood flow. One example of a nitrobenzoate is nitroglycerin, which is used to treat angina (chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart) and heart attacks. Nitroglycerin works by relaxing the smooth muscles in the walls of blood vessels, allowing blood to flow more easily to the heart. Other nitrobenzoates that are used in medicine include molsidomine, which is used to treat Raynaud's disease (a condition that causes the fingers and toes to become cold and white), and isosorbide dinitrate, which is used to treat angina and heart failure. It's worth noting that nitrobenzoates can have side effects, including headache, dizziness, and low blood pressure. They should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Band 3 anion transport protein
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157)
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)
Transporter Classification Database
Distal convoluted tubule
Carbonic anhydrase II
Loop of Henle
Solute carrier family
The Sakaguchi Laboratory - Research output - Keio University
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2014 MeSH. July 29, 2013
MH DELETED MN ADDED MN
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2014 MeSH. July 29, 2013
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2014 MeSH. July 29, 2013
MH DELETED MN ADDED MN
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2014 MeSH. July 29, 2013
MH DELETED MN ADDED MN
MH DELETED MN ADDED MN
Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins | Profiles RNS
Metabolic alkalosis | Abdominal Key
Maturation of proximal straight tubule NaCl transport: Role of thyroid hormone<...
Hyperchloremic Acidosis: Practice Essentials, Etiology, Patient Education
Ron Kopito's Profile | Stanford Profiles
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
Hyperchloremic Acidosis: Background, Etiology, Patient Education
RegenerativeMedicine.net - Article Archives
SLC34A2 Regulates the Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion of Human Osteosarcoma Cells Through PTEN/PI3K/AKT Signaling -...
Understanding the Mechanisms Leading to Chronic Pancreatitis
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2014 MeSH. July 29, 2013
Budiman Bela - Research output - Universitas Indonesia
NEW (2014) MESH HEADINGS WITH SCOPE NOTES (UNIT RECORD FORMAT; 7/29/2013
NDF-RT Code NDF-RT Name
Flashcards - physiology mod1 ms1
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2014 MeSH. July 29, 2013
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2014 MeSH. July 29, 2013
Transporter Classification Database - Wikipedia
Physiology Illustration: Transport across biological membranes. - PhysiologyWeb
Pharos : Target List
Pharos : Target List
Cryo-EM structures and functional characterization of murine Slc26a9 reveal mechanism of uncoupled chloride transport - PubMed
Proximal Tubule Transcriptomic Database
Metabolic Acidosis: Practice Essentials, Background, Etiology
- Loss of bicarbonate stores through diarrhea or renal tubular wasting leads to a metabolic acidosis state characterized by increased plasma chloride concentration and decreased plasma bicarbonate concentration. (medscape.com)
- Primary metabolic acidoses that occur as a result of a marked increase in endogenous acid production (eg, lactic or keto acids) or progressive accumulation of endogenous acids when excretion is impaired by renal insufficiency are characterized by decreased plasma bicarbonate concentration and increased anion gap without hyperchloremia. (medscape.com)
- In the renal collecting ducts, bicarbonate secretion occurs through a synergistic action of CFTR and the Cl-/HCO3- transporter SLC26A4 (pendrin), which is probably supported by ANO1. (bvsalud.org)
- New models of pancreatic duct physiology indicate that most bicarbonate secretion is mediated through the CFTR during active bicarbonate secretion rather than through a chloride-bicarbonate antiporter as previously thought. (medscape.com)
- [ 32 ] Furthermore, new electrophysiologic studies suggest that ion conductance of chloride and bicarbonate are independently regulated by different intracellular second-messenger systems, and that some CFTR mutations specifically disrupt chloride secretion but not bicarbonate secretion. (medscape.com)
- [ 29 , 30 ] The loss of bicarbonate secretion in the duct caused by CFTR mutations that limit global or bicarbonate-specific CFTR function is important. (medscape.com)
- Limiting CFTR permeability to bicarbonate, as seen in some CFTR mutations, markedly inhibited pancreatic bicarbonate and fluid secretion. (nih.gov)
- A simple CFTR-dependent duct cell model can explain active, high-volume, high-concentration bicarbonate secretion in pancreatic juice that reproduces the experimental findings. (nih.gov)
- We integrate the physiology of KCC3a with the main function of the type-B cell, that is, bicarbonate secretion through the well characterized apical Cl-/HCO3- exchanger and the basolateral Na-HCO3 cotransporter. (bvsalud.org)
- A new mathematical model was developed simulating a duct cell within a proximal pancreatic duct and included a sodium-2-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) and sodium-potassium pump (NaK pump) on a chloride-impermeable basolateral membrane, CFTR on the luminal membrane with 0.2 to 1 bicarbonate to chloride permeability ratio. (nih.gov)
- Chloride-bicarbonate antiporters (Cl/HCO3 AP) were added or subtracted from the basolateral (APb) and luminal (APl) membranes. (nih.gov)
- A low plasma bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentration represents, by definition, metabolic acidosis, which may be primary or secondary to a respiratory alkalosis. (medscape.com)
- This model may also provide insight into why CFTR mutations that predominantly affect bicarbonate permeability predispose to pancreatic dysfunction in humans. (nih.gov)
- Our data illustrates conformational transitions of Slc26a9, supporting a rapid alternate-access mechanism which mediates uncoupled chloride transport with negligible bicarbonate or sulfate permeability. (nih.gov)
- Diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) is a recessive chondrodysplasia caused by pathogenic variants in the SLC26A2 gene encoding for a cell membrane sulfate/chloride antiporter crucial for sulfate uptake and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) sulfation. (bvsalud.org)
- This gives us an opportunity to revisit the roles of the KCC3 in kidney and integrate the new findings to our current knowledge of the biology of the bicarbonate secreting cells. (bvsalud.org)
- Loss of bicarbonate stores through diarrhea or renal tubular wasting leads to a metabolic acidosis state characterized by increased plasma chloride concentration and decreased plasma bicarbonate concentration. (medscape.com)
- The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney. (nih.gov)