Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.
A species of green microalgae in the family Chlorellaceae. It is used as a model organism for PHOTOSYNTHESIS, and as a food supplement (DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS).
A family of DNA plant viruses that infect eukaryotic algae.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.1.
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.
A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that is indigenous in the Indian Malay region and cultivated in Madagascar, and the West Indies. It contains chavibetol, chavicol and cadinene. The leaf is chewed as a stimulant, antiseptic and sialogogue. The common name of betel is also used for ARECA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain pulicanadienes and other cytotoxic SESQUITERPENES.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.

Genetic variation of chlorella viruses: variable regions localized on the CVK2 genomic DNA. (1/358)

A physical map of the Chlorella virus CVK2 genomic DNA has been constructed based on a cosmid contig covering the entire genomic region. By using Southern blot analysis with 22 gene probes, the gene arrangement along the genome was compared between CVK2 and PBCV-1, the prototypic member of Phycodnaviridae, whose genomic sequence is now available. The major rearrangements were (1) an insertion of a 20-kbp region around the left end of CVK2 DNA, (2) a duplication of the gene for major capsid protein in CVK2 DNA, (3) deletions/insertions of some open reading frames, and (4) divergence in the terminal inverted repeat sequences. Despite these changes, extensive colinearity was revealed between most of the genes along the CVK2 and PBCV-1 genomes. These data imply that the Chlorella virus genome has an overall high degree of genomic stability, encompassing specific islands of rearrangements.  (+info)

The catalytic mechanism of a pyrimidine dimer-specific glycosylase (pdg)/abasic lyase, Chlorella virus-pdg. (2/358)

The repair of UV light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers can proceed via the base excision repair pathway, in which the initial step is catalyzed by DNA glycosylase/abasic (AP) lyases. The prototypical enzyme studied for this pathway is endonuclease V from the bacteriophage T4 (T4 bacteriophage pyrimidine dimer glycosylase (T4-pdg)). The first homologue for T4-pdg has been found in a strain of Chlorella virus (strain Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus-1), which contains a gene that predicts an amino acid sequence homology of 41% with T4-pdg. Because both the structure and critical catalytic residues are known for T4-pdg, homology modeling of the Chlorella virus pyrimidine dimer glycosylase (cv-pdg) predicted that a conserved glutamic acid residue (Glu-23) would be important for catalysis at pyrimidine dimers and abasic sites. Site-directed mutations were constructed at Glu-23 to assess the necessity of a negatively charged residue at that position (Gln-23) and the importance of the length of the negatively charged side chain (Asp-23). E23Q lost glycosylase activity completely but retained low levels of AP lyase activity. In contrast, E23D retained near wild type glycosylase and AP lyase activities on cis-syn dimers but completely lost its activity on the trans-syn II dimer, which is very efficiently cleaved by the wild type cv-pdg. As has been shown for other glyscosylases, the wild type cv-pdg catalyzes the cleavage at dimers or AP sites via formation of an imino intermediate, as evidenced by the ability of the enzyme to be covalently trapped on substrate DNA when the reactions are carried out in the presence of a strong reducing agent; in contrast, E23D was very poorly trapped on cis-syn dimers but was readily trapped on DNA containing AP sites. It is proposed that Glu-23 protonates the sugar ring, so that the imino intermediate can be formed.  (+info)

Hyaluronan synthesis in virus PBCV-1-infected chlorella-like green algae. (3/358)

We previously reported that the chlorella virus PBCV-1 genome encodes an authentic, membrane-associated glycosyltransferase, hyaluronan synthase (HAS). Hyaluronan, a linear polysaccharide chain composed of alternating beta1,4-glucuronic acid and beta1, 3-N-acetylglucosamine groups, is present in vertebrates as well as a few pathogenic bacteria. Studies of infected cells show that the transcription of the PBCV-1 has gene begins within 10 min of virus infection and ends at 60-90 min postinfection. The hyaluronan polysaccharide begins to accumulate as hyaluronan-lyase sensitive, hair-like fibers on the outside of the chlorella cell wall by 15-30 min postinfection; by 240 min postinfection, the infected cells are coated with a dense fibrous network. This hyaluronan slightly reduces attachment of a second chlorella virus to the infected algae. An analysis of 41 additional chlorella viruses indicates that many, but not all, produce hyaluronan during infection.  (+info)

Several genes in Chlorella virus strain CVG-1 encode putative virion components. (4/358)

We have started to characterize the capsid components of European Chlorella virus isolate CVG-1, a member of the Pbi subgroup of the Phycodnaviridae. The major coat protein, Vp49, was biochemically characterized and the amino acid sequence of the N terminus was determined. Subsequently, the corresponding gene was isolated from CVG-1 genomic DNA. Sequence data were compared to those available from PBCV-1 and other Chlorella virus isolates representing the NC64A subgroup of the Phycodnaviridae. The major coat proteins of all strains are homologous and similar in size, but apparently differ in their degree of glycosylation. Like PBCV-1, the major coat protein of CVG-1 is part of a gene family, as two open reading frames with high similarity to Vp49 were also isolated and characterized in this study. The predicted amino acid sequences of the CVG-1 and PBCV-1 virus genes examined show, with one exception, a divergence of about 25%. Taking into account that corresponding genes of NC64A viruses are almost identical, this divergence supports the original placement of the NC64A and Pbi viruses into separate subgroups of the Phycodnaviridae.  (+info)

Asymmetric reduction of ethyl 2-methyl 3-oxobutanoate by Chlorella. (5/358)

Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick reduced ethyl 2-methyl 3-oxobutanoate to the corresponding alcohols with the diastereomer (anti/syn) ratio of 53/47. The enantiomer excesses of anti-(2S, 3S)- and syn-(2S, 3R)-hydroxy esters were 89 and > 99ee% respectively. C. vulgaris and C. regularis afforded predominantly the syn-isomer, contrary to C. pyrenoidosa. The differences in the activity of reducing ethyl 2-methyl 3-oxobutanoate were observed among three strains of Chlorella. Addition of 2% metal salts slightly increased the chemical yield of the hydroxy ester.  (+info)

Expression of a chitinase gene and lysis of the host cell wall during Chlorella virus CVK2 infection. (6/358)

A chitinase gene (vChti-1) encoded by the Chlorella virus CVK2 was cloned and characterized. The vChti-1 open reading frame consisted of 2508 bp corresponding to 836 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence contained two sets of a family 18 catalytic domain that is responsible for chitinase activity. Northern blot analysis revealed that the vChti-1 gene was expressed in virus-infected Chlorella cells late in infection, when a single transcript of about 2.5 kb appeared at 120 min postinfection. This result was confirmed by Western blotting with a specific anti-vChti-1 protein antibody; a protein of about 94 kDa was detected specifically beginning at 240 min postinfection and was present until cell lysis. The protein was not incorporated into viral particles but remained in the medium after cell lysis. The vChti-1 protein produced in virus-infected cells showed chitinase activity on zymogram assays.  (+info)

Chlorella accelerates dioxin excretion in rats. (7/358)

We investigated the effects of Chlorella on fecal excretion of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) congeners and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners in Wistar rats administered the rice oil that caused Yusho disease, as a substitute for purified dioxin. The rats were fed 4 g of a control diet or a 10% Chlorella diet containing 0.2 mL of the rice oil once during the 5-d experimental period. The amounts of PCDD and PCDF congeners excreted in feces from d 1 to 5 in the group fed 10% Chlorella were 0.2-11.3 and 0.3-12.8 times greater (P < 0.05), respectively, than those of the control group. We then investigated the fecal excretion of PCDD and PCDF congeners from d 8 to 35 in rats administered 0.5 mL of the rice oil. Rats consumed the basal diet for 1 wk. After 1 wk, they consumed either the basal diet or the 10% Chorella diet. The fecal excretions of PCDD and PCDF congeners in the group fed 10% Chlorella were 0.3-3.4 and 0.5-2.5 times greater (most, P < 0.05), respectively, than those of the control group. Thus, the fecal excretions of PCDD and PCDF congeners were greater in rats fed Chlorella. These findings suggest that the administration of Chlorella may be useful in preventing gastrointestinal absorption and for promoting the excretion of dioxin already absorbed into tissues. Moreover, these findings suggest that Chlorella might be useful in the treatment of humans exposed to dioxin.  (+info)

Aminoacylation of tRNAs encoded by Chlorella virus CVK2. (8/358)

Viruses that infect certain strains of the unicellular green alga, Chlorella, have a large, linear dsDNA genome that is 330-380 kb in size; this genomic size is the largest known among viruses and is equivalent to approximately 60% of the smallest prokaryotic genome of Mycoplasma genitalium (580 kb). Besides many putative protein-coding genes, a cluster of 10-15 tRNA genes is present in these viral genomes. Some of these tRNA genes contain peculiar insertions. In infected host cells, the viral tRNAs of CVK2, a Chlorella virus isolate, have been demonstrated to be cotranscribed as a large precursor, approximately 1.0 kb in size, that is precisely processed into individual mature tRNA species. Acidic Northern blot analysis of eight of these tRNAs has revealed that they are actually aminoacylated in vivo, indicating their involvement in viral protein synthesis. They may help the virus reach maximal replication potential by overcoming codon usage barriers that exist between the virus and its host. These results provide evidence that some components of the host protein synthesis machinery can be replaced by viral gene products. This is the first report of tRNA aminoacylation encoded by viruses of eukaryotes.  (+info)

Chlorella is a type of single-celled, green freshwater microalgae that is rich in nutrients, including proteins, vitamins, minerals, and chlorophyll. It is often marketed as a dietary supplement or health food because of its high nutritional content. Chlorella contains all the essential amino acids, making it a complete protein source, and is also rich in antioxidants, such as vitamin C, beta-carotene, and various phytochemicals.

Chlorella has been studied for its potential health benefits, including its ability to support immune function, detoxify heavy metals from the body, improve digestion, and reduce chronic inflammation. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and determine safe and effective dosages. It's important to note that chlorella supplements are not regulated by the FDA, so it's crucial to choose reputable brands and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any new supplements.

Chlorella vulgaris is a species of freshwater microalga that is commonly used in health supplements, skincare products, and agricultural applications due to its high nutritional value and rapid growth rate. It contains various nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and pigments like chlorophyll.

In the medical field, Chlorella vulgaris has been studied for its potential health benefits, including:

1. Detoxification: Chlorella vulgaris is known to have a strong ability to bind to heavy metals and other toxins, making it useful in detoxification therapies.
2. Immune system support: Some studies suggest that Chlorella vulgaris may help boost the immune system by increasing the activity of natural killer cells and enhancing the production of antibodies.
3. Anti-inflammatory effects: Chlorella vulgaris contains various bioactive compounds, such as carotenoids and phenolic acids, that exhibit anti-inflammatory properties.
4. Antioxidant activity: The high content of chlorophyll, carotenoids, and other antioxidants in Chlorella vulgaris may help protect cells from oxidative damage.
5. Cardiovascular health: Some research indicates that Chlorella vulgaris may help lower blood pressure, reduce serum cholesterol levels, and improve lipid metabolism, which could contribute to better cardiovascular health.
6. Anti-cancer properties: Preliminary studies suggest that Chlorella vulgaris may have potential anti-cancer effects by inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death). However, more research is needed in this area to confirm its efficacy and safety.

It's important to note that while Chlorella vulgaris has shown promise in various health applications, further research is required to fully understand its benefits and potential risks. Always consult a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement or therapy.

Phycodnaviridae is a family of large, double-stranded DNA viruses that infect various types of algae, including both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic species. These viruses have a complex structure, with a capsid made up of multiple proteins and an outer lipid membrane. They are also known to contain various enzymes and other accessory proteins that are involved in the replication and packaging of their genomes.

Phycodnaviridae viruses are significant in marine ecosystems, where they play a role in regulating algal populations and contributing to nutrient cycling. Some members of this family have also been studied for their potential as sources of new genes and biomolecules with industrial or medical applications. However, it is important to note that these viruses can also cause harmful blooms or "red tides" in some aquatic environments, which can have negative impacts on fisheries and other marine resources.

Microalgae are microscopic, simple, thalloid, often unicellular organisms that belong to the kingdom Protista. They can be found in freshwater and marine environments, and they are capable of photosynthesis, which allows them to convert light energy, carbon dioxide, and water into organic compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Microalgae are a diverse group of organisms that include various taxonomic groups such as cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae), diatoms, dinoflagellates, and euglenoids. They have important ecological roles in the global carbon cycle, oxygen production, and nutrient recycling.

In addition to their ecological significance, microalgae have gained attention for their potential applications in various industries, including food and feed, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biofuels, and environmental bioremediation. Some species of microalgae contain high levels of valuable compounds such as omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, pigments, and bioactive molecules that have potential health benefits for humans and animals.

Eukaryota is a domain that consists of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists. The term "eukaryote" comes from the Greek words "eu," meaning true or good, and "karyon," meaning nut or kernel. In eukaryotic cells, the genetic material is housed within a membrane-bound nucleus, and the DNA is organized into chromosomes. This is in contrast to prokaryotic cells, which do not have a true nucleus and have their genetic material dispersed throughout the cytoplasm.

Eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. They have many different organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus, that perform specific functions to support the cell's metabolism and survival. Eukaryotic cells also have a cytoskeleton made up of microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments, which provide structure and shape to the cell and allow for movement of organelles and other cellular components.

Eukaryotes are diverse and can be found in many different environments, ranging from single-celled organisms that live in water or soil to multicellular organisms that live on land or in aquatic habitats. Some eukaryotes are unicellular, meaning they consist of a single cell, while others are multicellular, meaning they consist of many cells that work together to form tissues and organs.

In summary, Eukaryota is a domain of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists, and the eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells.

Chlorophyta is a division of green algae, also known as green plants. This group includes a wide variety of simple, aquatic organisms that contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their characteristic green color. They are a diverse group, ranging from unicellular forms to complex multicellular seaweeds. Chlorophyta is a large and varied division with approximately 7,00

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Paramecium" is not a medical term. It is a genus of unicellular organisms commonly found in freshwater environments. Paramecia are classified as ciliates due to the presence of hair-like structures called cilia on their surface. They use these cilia for locomotion and feeding. If you have any questions about biology or another topic, I'd be happy to try to help!

A photobioreactor is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the fields of biology, engineering, and environmental science. It refers to a device or system designed for the cultivation of photosynthetic organisms such as algae, cyanobacteria, and other microorganisms using light as an energy source.

In simple terms, a photobioreactor is a bioreactor that uses light to drive the growth of photosynthetic organisms. These systems are often used in research, biotechnology, and wastewater treatment applications to produce valuable products such as biofuels, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and other high-value compounds.

While photobioreactors may not have a direct medical application, they can contribute to medical research and healthcare through the production of biomass or specific compounds that can be used in medical treatments, diagnostics, or therapeutic interventions.

Nitrate reductases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of nitrate (NO3-) to nitrite (NO2-). This process is an essential part of the nitrogen cycle, where nitrate serves as a terminal electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration for many bacteria and archaea. In plants, this enzyme plays a crucial role in nitrogen assimilation by reducing nitrate to ammonium (NH4+), which can then be incorporated into organic compounds. Nitrate reductases require various cofactors, such as molybdenum, heme, and/or FAD, for their activity. There are three main types of nitrate reductases: membrane-bound (which use menaquinol as an electron donor), cytoplasmic (which use NADH or NADPH as an electron donor), and assimilatory (which also use NADH or NADPH as an electron donor).

'Piper betle' is not a medical term, but a botanical name for a plant also known as the betel vine or betel pepper. It is commonly found in Southeast Asian countries and is used in various traditional medicinal practices. The leaves of this plant are often chewed along with other substances like tobacco and slaked lime for their mild stimulant and psychoactive effects.

In a medical context, 'Piper betle' may be mentioned in relation to its potential pharmacological properties or possible health benefits/risks associated with its use. However, it is not considered a standard medical treatment or therapy.

I'm not a medical expert, but I can provide you with some information about algal DNA.

Algal DNA refers to the genetic material found in algae, which are simple, photosynthetic organisms that live in various aquatic environments. The DNA of algae is similar to that of other living organisms, as it carries the genetic instructions necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of these single-celled or multicellular life forms.

Algal DNA can be found in different types of algae, including:

1. Chlorophyta (green algae)
2. Rhodophyta (red algae)
3. Phaeophyceae (brown algae)
4. Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae or cyanoprokaryotes, which are actually bacteria with photosynthetic capabilities)

These different groups of algae have unique characteristics and ecological roles in their environments. Studying the DNA of algae can help researchers understand their evolutionary relationships, genetic diversity, and potential applications in various fields such as biotechnology, bioenergy, and environmental science.

Algal proteins are a type of protein that are derived from algae, which are simple, plant-like organisms that live in water. These proteins can be extracted and isolated from the algae through various processing methods and can then be used as a source of nutrition for both humans and animals.

Algal proteins are considered to be a complete protein source because they contain all of the essential amino acids that the body cannot produce on its own. They are also rich in other nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Some species of algae, such as spirulina and chlorella, have particularly high protein contents, making them a popular choice for use in dietary supplements and functional foods.

In addition to their nutritional benefits, algal proteins are also being studied for their potential therapeutic uses. For example, some research suggests that they may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-boosting properties. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential health benefits and to determine the optimal dosages and methods of use.

"Pulicaria" is a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family, Asteraceae. It includes around 100 species that are primarily found in Africa, Asia, and Europe. Some common names for plants in this genus include fleabane, fleawort, and camphor plant. While some species of Pulicaria have been used in traditional medicine, there is no widely accepted medical definition specifically for "Pulicaria."

It's worth noting that the term "pulicaria" has been used historically to refer to certain plants with insect-repellent properties, which were believed to be effective against fleas. However, this usage is not related to a specific medical definition or diagnosis. If you have any specific concerns about health conditions or treatments, it's always best to consult with a qualified healthcare professional.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

"Listeria monocytogenes" is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is a major cause of foodborne illness. It is widely distributed in the environment and can be found in water, soil, vegetation, and various animal species. This pathogen is particularly notable for its ability to grow at low temperatures, allowing it to survive and multiply in refrigerated foods.

In humans, Listeria monocytogenes can cause a serious infection known as listeriosis, which primarily affects pregnant women, newborns, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems. The bacterium can cross the intestinal barrier, enter the bloodstream, and spread to the central nervous system, causing meningitis or encephalitis. Pregnant women infected with Listeria monocytogenes may experience mild flu-like symptoms but are at risk of transmitting the infection to their unborn children, which can result in stillbirth, premature delivery, or severe illness in newborns.

Common sources of Listeria monocytogenes include raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood; unpasteurized dairy products; and ready-to-eat foods like deli meats, hot dogs, and soft cheeses. Proper food handling, cooking, and storage practices can help prevent listeriosis.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

... is consumed as a dietary supplement. Manufacturers of Chlorella products falsely assert that it has purported health ... Sun Chlorella, Going Green from the Inside Out - LA Sentinel "Chlorella". American Cancer Society. 29 April 2011. Archived from ... Identifying Chlorella-like algae based on morphological features alone is generally not possible. Some strains of "Chlorella" ... Another problem was developing sufficiently palatable food products from Chlorella. Although the production of Chlorella looked ...
... is a species of euryhaline, unicellular microalga in the Division Chlorophyta. It is spherical to oval-shaped ... "Chlorella sorokiniana (formerly C. vulgaris) UTEX 2714, a non-thermotolerant microalga useful for biotechnological applications ... "Taxonomic reassessment of the genus Chlorella (Trebouxiophyceae) using molecular signatures (barcodes), including description ... Chlorella, All stub articles, Green algae stubs). ...
... is a species of euryhaline, unicellular microalgae. It is spherical to oval-shaped and is solitary. Bock, ... "Chlorella sorokiniana (formerly C. vulgaris) UTEX 2714, a non-thermotolerant microalga useful for biotechnological applications ... "Taxonomic reassessment of the genus Chlorella (Trebouxiophyceae) using molecular signatures (barcodes), including description ... Chlorella, All stub articles, Green algae stubs). ...
... is a species of lichen belonging to the family Coniocybaceae. Synonym: Calicium chlorellum Ach., 1803 (= ... basionym) "Chaenotheca_chlorella". www.mycobank.org. Retrieved 4 February 2021. (Articles with short description, Short ...
... , or Chlorella sp. (580), is a species of euryhaline, unicellular microalga in the Division Chlorophyta. ... It is sometimes considered a variety of Chlorella vulgaris. C. autotrophica has many uses. The species has been used as a ... Krauss, Robert W; Shihira, Ikurio (1965). Chlorella: Physiology and taxonomy of forty-one isolates. University of Maryland. ... Hellebust, JA; Ahmad, I (1984). "Nitrogen Metabolism of the Marine Microalga Chlorella autotrophica". Plant Physiology. 76 (3 ...
... is a species of euryhaline, unicellular microalga in the Division Chlorophyta. It is spherical to oval-shaped ... "Chlorella sorokiniana (formerly C. vulgaris) UTEX 2714, a non-thermotolerant microalga useful for biotechnological applications ... "Taxonomic reassessment of the genus Chlorella (Trebouxiophyceae) using molecular signatures (barcodes), including description ... Chlorella, All stub articles, Green algae stubs). ...
Other names: synonym: Chlorella vulgaris var. viridis Chodat includes: Chlorella vulgaris Beijerink IAM C-27 formerly Chlorella ... Japan is currently the largest consumer of Chlorella, both for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. Chlorella vulgaris occurs ... Chlorella vulgaris is a species of green microalga in the division Chlorophyta. It is mainly used as a dietary supplement or ... Chlorella vulgaris has been the microalgae of choice for several bioremediation processes. Owing to its ability to remove a ...
... is often used as a food supplement or to treat waste water. "Chlorella sorokiniana Shihira & R.W.Krauss ... "SAG 211-8k Chlorella sorokiniana". sagdb.uni-goettingen.de. "History of Chlorella - Algorigin, algae Swiss specialist". ... Chlorella sorokiniana is a species of freshwater green microalga in the Division Chlorophyta. It has a characteristic emerald- ... "Chlorella sorokiniana - Definition, Glossary, Details - Oilgae". www.oilgae.com. Cazzaniga, Stefano; Dall'Osto, Luca; Szaub, ...
... is a euryhaline, unicellular microalga in the Division Chlorophyta. It is spherical to oval-shaped, is ... "Chlorella sorokiniana (formerly C. vulgaris) UTEX 2714, a non-thermotolerant microalga useful for biotechnological applications ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Chlorella, ... "Taxonomic reassessment of the genus Chlorella (Trebouxiophyceae) using molecular signatures (barcodes), including description ...
... is a euryhaline, unicellular microalga in the Division Chlorophyta. It is spherical to oval-shaped and is ... "Chlorella sorokiniana (formerly C. vulgaris) UTEX 2714, a non-thermotolerant microalga useful for biotechnological applications ... "Taxonomic reassessment of the genus Chlorella (Trebouxiophyceae) using molecular signatures (barcodes), including description ... Chlorella, All stub articles, Green algae stubs). ...
... is a euryhaline, unicellular microalga in the Division Chlorophyta. It is spherical to oval-shaped, is ... "Chlorella sorokiniana (formerly C. vulgaris) UTEX 2714, a non-thermotolerant microalga useful for biotechnological applications ... "Taxonomic reassessment of the genus Chlorella (Trebouxiophyceae) using molecular signatures (barcodes), including description ... Chlorella, All stub articles, Green algae stubs). ...
... is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is known from Queensland, Australia. Australian Faunal ...
... is a species of euryhaline, unicellular microalga in the Division Chlorophyta. It is spherical to oval- ... "Chlorella sorokiniana (formerly C. vulgaris) UTEX 2714, a non-thermotolerant microalga useful for biotechnological applications ... "Taxonomic reassessment of the genus Chlorella (Trebouxiophyceae) using molecular signatures (barcodes), including description ... Chlorella, All stub articles, Green algae stubs). ...
"Sun Chlorella Classic 2012 - Past Champions". Japan Golf Tour Organization. Retrieved 2 April 2013. "Pena Wins Sun Chlorella in ... The Sun Chlorella Classic (サン・クロレラクラシック, San kurorera kurashikku) was a golf tournament on the Japan Golf Tour from 2000 to ...
... (ATCV-1), also called Chlorovirus ATCV-1 or Chlorella virus ATCV-1 is a species of ... The host of ATCV-1 is Chlorella heliozoae; it was demonstrated that "ATCV-1 neither attaches to nor infects" Chlorella ... "SAG 211-6 Chlorella variabilis". EPSAG The Culture Collection of Algae at the University of Göttingen, Germany. Archived from ... "Acanthocystis turfacea chlorella virus 1". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 322019. v t e (CS1: long volume value, Articles with short ...
Cancer Research UK state that: "We don't recommend that you take chaparral to treat or prevent any type of cancer." Chlorella ... "Chlorella". American Cancer Society. 29 April 2011. Archived from the original on 5 September 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013 ...
chlorella (Gand.) Chinnock; E. glabra subsp. elegans Chinnock; Eremophila glabra (R.Br.) Ostenf. subsp. glabra; E. glabra subsp ... chlorella". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 3 May 2020. "Eremophila glabra subsp. elegans". Australian Plant Census. ... The species is not threatened however subspecies chlorella is classified as "Threatened" by the Western Australian Government ...
Chlorella, another popular microalgae, has similar nutrition to spirulina. Chlorella is very popular in Japan. It is also used ... The latter approach is frequently employed by Chlorella farmers, as the growth conditions for Chlorella do not exclude ... Chlorella, particularly a transgenic strain which carries an extra mercury reductase gene, has been studied as an agent for ... The growth rate and biomass yield of Chlorella vulgaris in V-shaped plastic bags was found to be higher than any other shaped ...
Snow algae species such as Chloromonas sp., Chlamydomonas sp., and Chlorella sp. are found in polar environments. Some ...
1862) Chaenotheca chlorella (Ach.) Müll.Arg. (1862) Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Ach.) Th.Fr. (1860) Chaenotheca citriocephala (F ...
Chlorella undergo asexual reproduction which is in correlation with the division of the host. The Hydra regulates the ... Hydra viridissima is commonly called green hydra due to its coloration, which is due to the symbiotic green algae Chlorella ... Habetha, Matthias; Anton-Erzleben, Friederike; Neumann, Kathrin; Bosch, Thomas (2003). "The Hydra viridis / Chlorella symbiosis ... population of the Chlorella algae by digesting excess algae or controlling algal cell division. Hydra are capable of escaping ...
Chlorella has similar nutrition to spirulina, and is very popular in Japan. It is also used as a nutritional supplement, with ... "Chlorella Growth Factor, nutritional supplement". W. Barclay; K. Meager; J. Abril (1994). "Heterotrophic production of long ... The main species of microalgae grown as health foods are Chlorella and Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis). The main forms of ...
and eukaryotic alga Chlorella sp". Aquatic Toxicology. 216: 105295. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.105295. ISSN 0166-445X. PMID ...
Green algae - especially Chlorella sp. - are present all over the lake except for the springcave and its surroundings. Navicula ...
Loss of multicellularity is also considered probable in some green algae (e.g., Chlorella vulgaris and some Ulvophyceae). In ...
... dw Chlorella sp.: 29%dw Chlorella protothecoides(autotrophic/heterotrophic): 15-55% dw Crypthecodinium cohnii: 20%dw Cyclotella ... particularly species in the genus Chlorella. Meanwhile, H. G. Aach showed that Chlorella pyrenoidosa could be induced via ... Experiments with Chlorella at Jealott's Hill. In: Burlew J.S. (ed). Algal culture: from laboratory to pilot plant. Carnegie ... Nonsterile large-scale culture of Chlorella in greenhouse and open air. In: Burlew J.S. (ed). Algal culture: from laboratory to ...
"Smash! Bang! Pow!", Business Times, July 1, 2005 (retrieved on December 11, 2006, via Singapore Rebel). "What Sun Chlorella ...
Kearns, Paul K.; Vetter, Richard J. (1982-04-01). "Manganese-54 accumulation by Chlorella spp., Daphnia magna and yellow perch ... 2004) "Manganese-54 accumulation by Chlorella spp., Daphnia magna and yellow perch (Perca flavescens)." Hydrobiologia 88: 277- ...
Zumft WG, Paneque A, Aparicio PJ, Losada M (1969). "Mechanism of nitrate reduction in Chlorella". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ...
Imidazolium Pyridinium Chlorella vulgaris Sarno, Diana; Kooistra, Wiebe H. C. F.; Medlin, Linda K.; Percopo, Isabella; Zingone ... Chlorella vulgaris, Oocystis submarina (green algae) and Cyclotella meneghiniana, Skeletonema marinoi (diatoms)". Green ...
Chlorella is consumed as a dietary supplement. Manufacturers of Chlorella products falsely assert that it has purported health ... Sun Chlorella, Going Green from the Inside Out - LA Sentinel "Chlorella". American Cancer Society. 29 April 2011. Archived from ... Identifying Chlorella-like algae based on morphological features alone is generally not possible. Some strains of "Chlorella" ... Another problem was developing sufficiently palatable food products from Chlorella. Although the production of Chlorella looked ...
Chlorella, an Asian fresh water plant, might just be the latest superfood fad. Its reported health benefits include enhanced ... Tipper Lewis, head herbalist at Neals Yard, told HuffPost UK Lifestyle that chlorella has the highest chlorophyll levels of ... Chlorella, an Asian fresh water plant, might just be the latest superfood fad. ...
This website is dedicated to selling high-quality, doctor-formulated, practitioner-tested nutritional supplements and herbal remedies, free from excipients, colouring agents and preservatives that are often found in many supplements these days. ...
vulgaris f. vulgaris , Also Known As: Chlorella candida; Chlorella miniata; Chlorella vulgaris var. vulgaris f. vulgaris , ... 1988b); physiology/biochemistry/taxonomy (Kessler & Huss 1992); The names of the Chlorella strains given in the last list of ... Chlorella vulgaris , Media: Proteose Medium , Origin: Delft, Netherlands , Description of Location: freshwater , Collection: , ... Chlorella candida; Chlorella miniata; Chlorella vulgaris var. vulgaris f. vulgaris. Notes:. to CCAP from Kluyver; antibacterial ...
Chlorella, is a single-celled green alga, & a potent source of chlorophyll - the lifeblood of all plants. Organic Chlorella ... Decrease quantity for chlorella 1 kg Increase quantity for chlorella 1 kg ... Organic Chlorella is a dense powerhouse of nutrients with a great content of essential vitamins and minerals: all 9 of the ... One of Mother Earths original lifeforms, Chlorella, is a single-celled green alga, & a potent source of chlorophyll - the ...
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... pure Australian Chlorella, grown in the pristine waters, clean air and sunshine of tropical Queensland.Directions for Use Mix 2 ... 100% pure Australian Chlorella, grown in the pristine waters, clean air and sunshine of tropical Queensland. ...
... is the worlds cleanest chlorella. This chlorella achieved an A+++ rating or better from Low Heavy Metals Verified. Vegan, Non- ... Our Clean Chlorella™ is a "thin cell wall" chlorella with high digestibility, which is amazing in terms of optimal nutrient ... We found chlorella from China to have the highest levels of contaminants. And yet, amazingly, chlorella from China is certified ... Our Clean Chlorella™ is a "thin cell wall" chlorella with high digestibility, which allows for optimal nutrient preservation. ...
Chlorella Green Ways is superfood rich in antioxidants and has many beneficial effects on our health and beauty. ... The freshest chlorella on the market. ✔ High-quality, 100% chlorella. ✔ BIO. ✔ RAW. ✔ Non-GMO. ✔ Each batch tested in state- ... Chlorella boosts your diet with essential vitamins and minerals.. An ancient superfood that grows in water, chlorella gives you ... Buy chlorella tablets now!. Add 4 green or colourful products to the basket and pay ONLY 3 (1 product is for FREE) + FREE ...
Chlorella este cel mai popular superaliment printre japonezi, unul dintre popoarele... ... Chlorella pulbere bio 200g Contine proteina completa (58%), tot grupul de vitamine B, inclusiv B12, vitamina C si vitamina E. ... Chlorella este un aliment alcalin, deci va regla nivelul PH-ului in organism. Consumati 1 lingurita de Chlorella pe zi, o ... Chlorella pulbere bio 200g. Contine proteina completa (58%), tot grupul de vitamine B, inclusiv B12, vitamina C si vitamina E. ...
What is an endotoxin, and what causes endotoxemia? How does chlorella reduce endotoxemia, and how does inulin produce a healthy ... Dear Friends Chlorella and inulin reduce endotoxemia and protect the intestinal mucosa barrier. ... Chlorella, Organic. Chromium Bio-organic with Beet. Cranberry Pomegranate Synbiotic. Energy. Fructo Borate Complex Garlic, ... Our Suggestion: Take 4 to 8 tablets of Organic Chlorella daily.. Take 1 tsp. of Original Synbiotic daily.. References:. *Angus ...
Chlorella portugalska- 600 mg.. Składniki: chlorella portugalska (Chlorella vulgaris).. Zawartość opakowania netto: 54 g. ... Suplement diety F-CHLORELLA zawiera chlorellę portugalską. Chlorella portugalska uprawiana jest w ściśle określonych warunkach ... Home/Shop/Suplementy/Preparaty witaminowe - proszki, krople/F-CHLORELLA formeds 90 porcji. ... Napisz pierwszą opinię o „F-CHLORELLA formeds 90 porcji" Anuluj pisanie odpowiedzi. Twój adres e-mail nie zostanie opublikowany ...
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Lifestream Chlorella Powder contains a microscopic plant containing over 20 vitamins and minerals and is abundant in RNA & ... Chlorella Powder (Chlorella vulgaris) 100% Nutritional Information Per 2g Serve:. Energy 34.0kJ. Protein 1.3g. -gluten NIL. Fat ... Chlorella has also been used to detoxify overexposure to pesticides, insecticides, and radiation. Lifestream Chlorella is ... Chlorella has the uncanny ability to grab onto unwanted materials, pollutants and some heavy metal residues in the bowel and ...
Chlorella Power es para todos los que quieran nutrirse, mantener su cuerpo limpio y protegido de las agresiones ... Chlorella Power también sirve para los consumidores regulares de Chlorella que desean un envase más duradero y más económico al ... chlorella power 360 tabletas (aquasolar). Te ayuda a desintoxicar el organismo, nutriendo y purificando.. ¿Cómo se toma?. 12 ... Chlorella Power es para todos los que quieran nutrirse, mantener su cuerpo limpio y protegido de las agresiones del ...
Biogenesis Chlorella is organically grown in a pristine area of the Great Barrier Reef region of North Queensland. Bathed in ... Chlorella has a substance not found anywhere else, called Chlorella Growth Factor (CGF). CGF is a nucleotide-peptide complex ... Biogenesis Chlorella powder is truly natures perfect pre-workout. Chlorella contains all 9 essential amino acids, making it a ... Biogenesis Chlorella is organically grown in a pristine area of the Great Barrier Reef region of North Queensland. Bathed in ...
CHLORELLA. Chlorella, a pure green algae rich in chlorophyll that aids in processing oxygen, thus supporting the bodys natural ... Zeolite, Chlorella, Activated Charcoal, Spirulina: The Ultimate Detox Ingredients Combination. March 15, 2017. • detox ... The cell wall of chlorella is indigestible and therefore it needs to be broken down in order for the body to absorb its dense ...
... minerals and complete vegetarian protein Cell-wall cracked for easy absorption Rich in Chlorella Growth Factor Suitable for ... Chlorellas rapid rate of reproduction is due to a complex known as Chlorella Growth Factor (CGF). A complex of cells found in ... Grown and harvested in Taiwan, we use chlorella sorokiniana, known as the "King of Chlorellas" due to its greater CGF content. ... look no further than Chlorella, our green "superfood" supplement. Chlorella is a nutritious single-celled freshwater green ...
Chlorella takes center stage in Smooth Ride, offering a natural and effective solution for a balanced and comfortable digestive ... Chlorella takes center stage in Smooth Ride, offering a natural and effective solution for a balanced and comfortable digestive ... Chlorella is packed with essential nutrients, including vitamins (such as vitamin C, vitamin B12, and vitamin K), minerals ( ... Chlorella contains fiber and enzymes that support healthy digestion and may help alleviate digestive issues such as ...
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There are some sorts of chlorella, with Chlorella vulgaris being possibly of the most usually utilized in complement. Chlorella ... What Is Chlorella?. Chlorella is kind of green increase (circle of relatives Chlorellaceae) discovered either separately or ... By consuming herbal, low-temperature-removed chlorella supplements, you may get all the chlorella benefits in a honest powder ... As you could see individuals use chlorella for various health worries. The following are seven deductively tested chlorella ...
Chlorella naturally aids in fighting foreign invaders by keeping your body healthy.* Formula Purposes & Benefits Chlorella ... Decrease quantity for Chlorella Pure - 600mg Increase quantity for Chlorella Pure - 600mg ... Chlorella (Broken Cell Wall). *Supports antioxidant function, healthy detoxification, improved energy, cardiovascular health, ... Chlorella Broken Cell Wall Algae is formulated to support antioxidant function, healthy detoxification, improved energy, ...
INDEPENDENTLY SAFETY CERTIFIED Studies have shown Chlorella to have a ... Saras Choice Organic Chlorella has been subject to the same stringent sourcing process you have come to expect - only after ... Saras Choice Organic Chlorella has been subject to the same stringent sourcing process you have come to expect - only after ... Saras Choice Organic Chlorella has been subject to the same stringent sourcing process you have come to expect - only after ...
Spirulina.pl to strona poświęcona tematyce naturalnych suplementów diety, takich jak Spirulina czy Chlorella, a także innym ...
... pure chlorella powder. Rich in vitamins, chlorophyll and vegetable protein. Ideal for smoothies and yoghurts. ... Chlorella powder. Sale price€22,90 EUR. Regular price. (€45,80/kg) Sold out. Save ... Chlorella powder. Sale price€22,90 EUR. Regular price. (€45,80/kg) ... Chlorella powder. Sale price€22,90 EUR. Regular price. (€45,80/kg) ...
Chlorella is a microscopic freshwater plant that is often referred to as one of natures green superfoods. On a weight for ... Chlorella is an alkaline food which not only counters the over-acidity of many processed foods, but also helps raise our bodily ... Chlorella is a microscopic freshwater plant that is often referred to as one of natures green superfoods. On a weight for ... Contains over 20% Chlorella Growth Factor (CGF) which has been shown to support normal cell growth and the immune system. ...
  • Chlorella vulgaris (CV) and Chlorella pyrenoidosa (CP) . (naturalnews.com)
  • Chlorella vulgaris (CV) promoted apoptosis in the cancerous tumor cells. (naturalnews.com)
  • Chlorella vulgaris has a high photosynthetic efficiency and is used for commercial applications in foods. (dtu.dk)
  • Intervention 1: Intervention group: Elderly patients aged 60 to 80 years old diagnosed with depression will be treated with 300 - 1200 milligrams of chlorella vulgaris for 12 weeks with their standard anti depressants. (who.int)
  • As a powder chlorella vulgaris is distributed by Fardaye Sabz Iranian. (who.int)
  • A 7% Chlorella powder was fed to rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes for 11 weeks. (raysahelian.com)
  • Chlorella powder is more economical, but most find it easier to woof down twenty tiny 250 mg tablets to get that five grams than figure out how many grams are in a tablespoon of chlorella and then find a way to cope with the taste. (naturalnews.com)
  • Ingredients: Serves: 1 Preparation Time: 5 minutes 1 cup organic coconut milk ½ cup fresh pineapple (pieces, not juice) ½ banana 8 fresh basil leaves 1tsp Organic Superfood World Chlorella Powder 1tsp chia seeds 1tsp maca powder 1tsp lemon juice. (superfood-world.com)
  • A study published in the Journal of Medicinal Food (2004) found that chlorella powder stimulated the release of cytokines, interferon-gamma, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (jinpei.net)
  • Chlorella is a genus of about thirteen species of single-celled green algae of the division Chlorophyta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identifying Chlorella-like algae based on morphological features alone is generally not possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorella is a green algae that grows in fresh water. (raysahelian.com)
  • Although the algae grow naturally in fresh water, chlorella destined for human consumption is generally cultivated in large, fresh mineral water pools under direct sunlight. (raysahelian.com)
  • In 1986, he began clinical trials, funded by chlorella producer Sun Chlorella 'A', into whether the algae might improve a patient's immune system. (raysahelian.com)
  • That's why I recommend ENERGYbits® spirulina and RECOVERYbits® chlorella algae tablets as the cleanest nutrition available for immune support. (energybits.com)
  • Chlorella is a little green algae, but it\'s one of nature\'s greatest superfoods. (jinpei.net)
  • Chlorella is little green algae, but it's one of nature's greatest superfoods. (jinpei.net)
  • ENERGYbits offers a high-quality source of both chlorella and spirulina. (energybits.com)
  • ENERGYbits and RECOVERYbits are the highest quality spirulina and chlorella and they remain one of my staple keto-friendly foods for peak energy and performance. (energybits.com)
  • Spirulina and chlorella offer an incredibly powerful array of nutrients and detoxification compounds to support brain health, energy production, and immunity. (energybits.com)
  • ENERGYbits has the most pure and bioavailable form of spirulina and chlorella on the market and I trust their products with my clients and family! (energybits.com)
  • A spirulina s chlorella alg k kombin ci j t a k sz tm nyben lucern val s b zaf vel eg sz tett k ki. (provitamin.hu)
  • A chlorella s spirulina alga vitamin- s feh rje komplex jav tja a fizikai er nl tet, energetiz l. (provitamin.hu)
  • Chlorella is nature's richest source of chlorophyll, which is regarded as the most effective natural blood cleanser and detoxifier. (truefoodsmarket.com)
  • One of Mother Earth's original lifeforms, Chlorella, is a single-celled green alga, & a potent source of chlorophyll - the lifeblood of all plants. (horseherbs.com)
  • Similarities in the structure of hemoglobin and chlorophyll molecules have often been used as evidence to support the use of chlorella as a blood and tissue oxygenator further assisting in detoxification. (jinpei.net)
  • Chlorella is a unicellular green alga that contains high levels of proteins, vitamins and minerals. (nih.gov)
  • The present study investigated the effects of a 4-week Chlorella -derived multicomponent supplementation on maximal oxygen uptake and circulating vitamin B 2 levels in healthy men. (nih.gov)
  • However, there were no direct evidences for the effect of Chlorella supplementation on immune/inflammation response in healthy humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results may suggest a beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation which enhances the NK cell activity and produces interferon-γ and interleukin-12 as well as interleukin-1β, the Th-1 cell-induced cytokines in healthy people. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, this study aimed to investigate if Chlorella supplementation gives a beneficial immunostimulatory effect to uninfected normal people. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A follow-up study provided some evidence to suggest that daily dietary supplementation with a combination of 10 g of chlorella and 100 mL of chlorella extract for two months may improve quality of life and stabilize resting diastolic blood pressure for some individuals. (jinpei.net)
  • An earlier uncontrolled pilot study of 18 fibromyalgia sufferers, published in Phytotherapy Research (2000), found that regular chlorella supplementation reduced pain intensity by 22 percent. (jinpei.net)
  • Maximize chlorella health assistances with Bio+ Chlorella, your superfood nutrition to enhance your body's nourishment and stability! (pinterest.ca)
  • He suggested using chlorella as a superfood, because it is a food, up to five grams (5,000 mg) daily for some time. (naturalnews.com)
  • Chlorella, an Asian fresh water plant, might just be the latest superfood fad. (metro.co.uk)
  • Chlorella is known as a "superhero" superfood due to its extraordinary nutritional value. (superfood-world.com)
  • Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups: placebo or Chlorella . (nih.gov)
  • This study was designed for an 8-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial: 5g of Chlorella (n=23) or Placebo (n=28) as form of tablets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The increments of these cytokines after the intervention were significantly bigger in the Chlorella group than those in the placebo group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, NK cell activities (%) were significantly increased in Chlorella group, but not in Placebo group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The increments of NK cell activities (%) were also significantly bigger in the Chlorella group than the placebo group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite articles on chlorella's nutrient and detoxification capacities, health conscious folks are not rushing the shelves of physical or online stores to make sure they get their daily doses of chlorella. (naturalnews.com)
  • Other studies that have confirmed chlorella's detoxification and liver restoration capacity are available at ( http://science.naturalnews.com/chlorella.html ). (naturalnews.com)
  • Some strains of "Chlorella" used for food are incorrectly identified, or correspond to genera that were classified out of true Chlorella. (wikipedia.org)
  • The names of the Chlorella strains given in the last list of cultures (Starr & Zeikus 1987) were based primarily upon the taxonomic treatments of Kessler & Maifarth (1960), Kessler & Soeder (1962), Fott & Novakova (1969) and Kessler (1976). (utex.org)
  • Learn how Chlorella can detoxify, normalize bodily function and enhance cellular growth and repair to restore youthful health and vitality! (truefoodsmarket.com)
  • Chlorella has long been used to cleanse and detoxify the body and as a source of protein and other nutrients. (jinpei.net)
  • Antioxidant and anti-cataract effects of Chlorella on rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. (raysahelian.com)
  • The serum lipid peroxide value (TBARS value) in the rats fed chlorella was lower than that of the control rats. (raysahelian.com)
  • Fujiwara et al [ 6 ] also showed a beneficial effect of Chlorella consumption on hyperlipemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chlorella is also the richest natural source of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, which are essential for healthy cellular grown and repair but inevitably decline as we age. (truefoodsmarket.com)
  • Chlorella is an excellent source of nucleic acids which are needed for effective tissue growth and repair as well as healthy cell function. (jinpei.net)
  • These results indicate that chlorella has antioxidant activity and may be beneficial for the prevention of diabetic complications such as cataracts. (raysahelian.com)
  • I could only find a few studies with chlorella involving humans. (raysahelian.com)
  • When first harvested, Chlorella was suggested as an inexpensive protein supplement to the human diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial testing by the Stanford Research Institute showed Chlorella (when growing in warm, sunny, shallow conditions) could convert 20% of solar energy into a plant that, when dried, contains 50% protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plant's photosynthetic efficiency allows it to yield more protein per unit area than any plant-one scientist predicted 10,000 tons of protein a year could be produced with just 20 workers staffing a 1000-acre (4-km2) Chlorella farm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it was discovered by a Dutch microbiologist in 1890 and studied as a potential protein source by German scientists, it wasn't until after the Second World War that the reality of food shortages, combined with the expectation of a population boom, led to bureaucrats globally examining chlorella in the hope that it could be used to feed the masses cheaply this proved uneconomic. (raysahelian.com)
  • Chlorella is an exceptional source of protein because it contains as much as 50% of protein in a dried form, so it is excellent for vegetarians, athletes and people prone to weight problems. (superfood-world.com)
  • In vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that Chlorella is a potent biological response modifier on immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A simple hot water extract of chlorella has been shown to stimulate the body's natural production of interferon which strengthens the immune response. (jinpei.net)
  • According to Phytotherapy Research (2004) a randomized, controlled study of the effects of a hot water extract of chlorella on rat populations bred to mimic human age-related bone loss evaluated the extract's effect on body weight, serum lipids, and bone mass. (jinpei.net)
  • The name Chlorella is taken from the Greek χλώρος, chlōros/ khlōros, meaning green, and the Latin diminutive suffix ella, meaning small. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, the "green ball" form of Chlorella appears to be a product of convergent evolution and not a natural taxon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorella, The Ultimate Green Food, by Beth M. Ley, Ph.D. Health Learning Handbook. (truefoodsmarket.com)
  • Chlorella is a freshwater green microalgae power-packed with nutrition. (truefoodsmarket.com)
  • As Japan's #1 health food supplement (10 million people in Japan take it regularly), Chlorella has been dubbed the "Green Gem of the Orient" and is deserving of its reputation as the ultimate green food. (truefoodsmarket.com)
  • In ideal conditions cells of Chlorella multiply rapidly, requiring only carbon dioxide, water, sunlight, and a small amount of minerals to reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mike Adams discussed the benefits of chlorella in a 2007 interview of Dr. Hank Liers, a chief formulator for a health product distributor at that time. (naturalnews.com)
  • A study published in Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine (2001) reported that chlorella has the potential to relieve symptoms, improve quality of life, and normalize body functions in patients with fibromyalgia, hypertension, or ulcerative colitis. (jinpei.net)
  • German biochemist and cell physiologist Otto Heinrich Warburg, awarded with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1931 for his research on cell respiration, also studied photosynthesis in Chlorella. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1961, Melvin Calvin of the University of California received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on the pathways of carbon dioxide assimilation in plants using Chlorella. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorella has been considered as a source of food and energy because its photosynthetic efficiency can reach 8%, which exceeds that of other highly efficient crops such as sugar cane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following global fears of an uncontrollable human population boom during the late 1940s and the early 1950s, Chlorella was seen as a new and promising primary food source and as a possible solution to the then-current world hunger crisis. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the end of the experiment, chlorella had decreased the blood glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c) and serum cholesterol levels significantly, however, it had not affected the serum glucose concentration. (raysahelian.com)
  • A. The outer cell wall of chlorella has a low digestibility, which requires an opening to digest its nutrients. (raysahelian.com)
  • You can find out a lot about chlorella from their discussion ( https://www.naturalnews.com/022319_chlorella_toxic_chemicals.html ). (naturalnews.com)
  • Always choose a product that contains either a cracked or abraded cellular wall form of chlorella and follow the manufacturer's directions for use. (jinpei.net)
  • Many people during this time thought hunger would be an overwhelming problem and saw Chlorella as a way to end this crisis by providing large amounts of high-quality food for a relatively low cost. (wikipedia.org)
  • This report gives the worldwide market size of Chlorella in key topographies viz. (openpr.com)
  • Don't miss out on business opportunities in the Chlorella Market. (openpr.com)
  • To understand the structure of the Chlorella market by identifying its various subsegments. (openpr.com)
  • Each Chlorella microorganism is composed of a nucleus, starch grains, chloroplasts and mitochondria surrounded by a cell wall composed mainly of cellulose. (raysahelian.com)
  • Q. What is the difference between chlorella broken cell and the unbroken cell version? (raysahelian.com)
  • Some claim that chlorella stimulates the growth of probiotic or friendly bacteria, and its cell walls absorb toxins within the intestine and encourage peristalsis. (raysahelian.com)
  • It's been determined that the cell walls of chlorella bind the heavy metals and other toxic pollutants to escort them out of vital organ tissues. (naturalnews.com)
  • Early studies on chlorella were focused on its nutritional value. (naturalnews.com)
  • In addition, Chlorella contains fat and vitamins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The report centers around the offers of Chlorella in the previously mentioned districts/ nations. (openpr.com)
  • Chlorella offers that support abundantly. (naturalnews.com)
  • In 2008, he examined the effects chlorella has on those with metabolic syndrome the collection of symptoms that often lead to the cells in our bodies becoming less sensitive to insulin, and therefore a precursor to diabetes. (raysahelian.com)
  • Under certain growing conditions, Chlorella yields oils that are high in polyunsaturated fats-Chlorella minutissima has yielded eicosapentaenoic acid at 39.9% of total lipids. (wikipedia.org)