Chlordiazepoxide: An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.Gastric Lavage: Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.Metaraminol: A sympathomimetic agent that acts predominantly at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. It has been used primarily as a vasoconstrictor in the treatment of HYPOTENSION.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Flumazenil: A potent benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Since it reverses the sedative and other actions of benzodiazepines, it has been suggested as an antidote to benzodiazepine overdoses.Pizotyline: Serotonin antagonist used against MIGRAINE DISORDERS and vascular headaches.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Ipecac: A syrup made from the dried rhizomes of two different species, CEPHAELIS ipecacuanha and C. acuminata. They contain EMETINE, cephaeline, psychotrine and other ISOQUINOLINES. Ipecac syrup is used widely as an emetic acting both locally on the gastric mucosa and centrally on the chemoreceptor trigger zone.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Chlorprothixene: A thioxanthine with effects similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics.Promazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE but with less antipsychotic activity. It is primarily used in short-term treatment of disturbed behavior and as an antiemetic.Medication Systems: Overall systems, traditional or automated, to provide medication to patients.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Patient Medication Knowledge: Patient health knowledge related to medications including what is being used and why as well as instructions and precautions.GABA Modulators: Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.Chlormethiazole: A sedative and anticonvulsant often used in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Chlormethiazole has also been proposed as a neuroprotective agent. The mechanism of its therapeutic activity is not entirely clear, but it does potentiate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors response and it may also affect glycine receptors.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Office Automation: Use of computers or computer systems for doing routine clerical work, e.g., billing, records pertaining to the administration of the office, etc.Library AssociationsLibraries, MedicalPolandPrescription Drug Misuse: Improper use of drugs or medications outside the intended purpose, scope, or guidelines for use. This is in contrast to MEDICATION ADHERENCE, and distinguished from DRUG ABUSE, which is a deliberate or willful action.Meprobamate: A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)Tranquilizing Agents: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium: An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Amitriptyline: Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.

Signal transduction and hormone-dependent internalization of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor in cells lacking Gq and G11. (1/143)

The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor was expressed in embryonic fibroblasts from mice lacking the alpha subunits of Gq and G11 (Fq/11 cells) to determine whether G protein coupling is necessary for agonist-dependent receptor internalization. Neither TRH nor agonists acting on endogenous receptors increased intracellular calcium unless the cells were co-transfected with the alpha subunit of Gq. In contrast, temperature-dependent internalization of [3H]MeTRH in Fq/11 cells was the same whether Gqalpha was expressed or not. A rhodamine-labeled TRH analog and fluorescein-labeled transferrin co-localized in endocytic vesicles in Fq/11 cells, indicating that endocytosis took place via the normal clathrin pathway. Cotransfection with beta-arrestin or V53D beta-arrestin increased TRH-dependent receptor sequestration. Fq/11 cells were co-transfected with the TRH receptor and a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-beta-arrestin conjugate. GFP-beta-arrestin was uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm of untreated cells and quickly translocated to the periphery of the cells when TRH was added. A truncated TRH receptor that lacks potential phosphorylation sites in the cytoplasmic carboxyl terminus signaled but did not internalize or cause membrane localization of GFP-beta-arrestin. These results prove that calcium signaling by the TRH receptor requires coupling to a G protein in the Gq family, but TRH-dependent binding of beta-arrestin and sequestration do not.  (+info)

Role of the dorsomedial hypothalamus in mediating the response to benzodiazepines on trial 2 in the elevated plus-maze test of anxiety. (2/143)

Trial 2 in the elevated plus-maze provides an animal model of specific phobia (fear of heights). On this trial, rats no longer respond to benzodiazepines. The present experiment examined the role of the dorsomedial hypothalamus in mediating insensitivity to chlordiazepoxide on trial 2. Rats received a 5 min exposure to the maze, undrugged. Forty-eight hours later, rats injected with control infusions into the dorsomedial hypothalamus showed the usual lack of response to chlordiazepoxide (5 mg/kg, i.p.). However, those receiving lidocaine injections (40 micrograms/microliter in a volume of 0.2 microliter) in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (producing functional inactivation), immediately before trial 2, responded with an anxiolytic response to chlordiazepoxide, characterised by an increased percentage of time on the open arms and by an increased number of entries into, and time spent on, the distal portions of the open arms. Since the lidocaine injections were without anxiolytic effects, our results suggest that this region of the hypothalamus regulates the functional state of benzodiazepine receptors in other brain regions.  (+info)

Drug discrimination under a concurrent fixed-ratio fixed-ratio schedule. (3/143)

Pigeons were trained to discriminate 5.0 mg/kg pentobarbital from saline under a two-key concurrent fixed-ratio 10 fixed-ratio 40 schedule of food presentation, in which the fixed-ratio component with the lower response requirement was programmed to reinforce responding on one key after drug administration (pentobarbital-biased key) and on the other key after saline administration (saline-biased key). After responding stabilized, pigeons averaged 98% of their responses on the pentobarbital-biased key during training sessions preceded by pentobarbital, and they averaged 90% of their responses on the saline-biased key during training sessions preceded by saline. In test sessions preceded by doses of pentobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, or ethanol, pigeons switched from responding on the saline-biased key at low doses to responding on the pentobarbital-biased key at higher doses (the dose-response curve was quantal). High doses of phencyclidine produced responding on both keys, whereas pigeons responded almost exclusively on the saline-biased key after all doses of methamphetamine. These and previous experiments using concurrent reinforcement schedules to study drug discrimination illustrate that the schedule of reinforcement is an important determinant of the shape of dose-effect curves in drug-discrimination experiments.  (+info)

Outpatient detoxification of the addicted or alcoholic patient. (4/143)

Outpatient detoxification of patients with alcohol or other drug addiction is being increasingly undertaken. This type of management is appropriate for patients in stage I or stage II of withdrawal who have no significant comorbid conditions and have a support person willing to monitor their progress. Adequate dosages of appropriate substitute medications are important for successful detoxification. In addition, comorbid psychiatric, personality and medical disorders must be managed, and social and environmental concerns need to be addressed. By providing supportive, nonjudgmental, yet assertive care, the family physician can facilitate the best possible chance for a patient's successful recovery.  (+info)

The effect of dexamethasone pretreatment on chlordiazepoxide and oxazepam levels in rat plasma. (5/143)

The effect of dexamethasone pretreatment on the level of chlordiazepoxide and oxazepam was examined in the plasma of rats administered with 80 mg/kg of chlorodiazepoxide per os. The concentration of free chlordiazepoxide and unconjugated oxazepam was determined by HPLC method after solid-phase extraction. Pretreatment with dexamethasone significantly increased chlordiazepoxide plasma level 3, 6 and 12 hrs after ingestion, however increase of oxazepam concentration was not statistically significant. AUC 1-24 h after dexamethasone was elevated, for chlordiazepoxide and for oxazepam.  (+info)

Marijuana smoking and reduced pressure in human eyes: drug action or epiphenomenon? (6/143)

Normal pressure within the human eye was reduced after smoking a socially relevant dose of marijuana (12 mg. delta9-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), but only for light to moderate users who experienced a substantial "high" and a state of peaceful relaxation from the experimental dose. Analysis suggests an indirect effect of the drug associated with relaxation-a psychophysiologic state that can be produced by drug and nondrug means.  (+info)

Pregabalin may represent a novel class of anxiolytic agents with a broad spectrum of activity. (7/143)

The present study examines the effect of pregabalin (previously S-Isobutylgaba and CI-1008) in two distinct rat models of anxiety. Pregabalin binds with high affinity and selectivity to the alpha(2)delta subunit of voltage dependent calcium channels (VDCC). Its corresponding R-enantiomer (R-isobutylgaba) is approximately 10 fold weaker. Pregabalin dose-dependently induced anxiolytic-like effects in both the rat conflict test and elevated X-maze with respective minimum effective doses (MED) of 3 and 10 mg kg(-1). In contrast, R-isobutylgaba only showed activity at the highest dose of 100 mg kg(-1) in the conflict test. These data indicate that pregabalin may possess clinical utility as a novel anxiolytic agent and demonstrates the importance of the alpha(2)delta subunit of VDCC in the mediation of anxiety related behaviours.  (+info)

Repeated acquisition of response sequences: stimulus control and drugs. (8/143)

Pigeons obtained food by making four responses on three keys in a specified sequence, e.g., left, right, center, right. Under the "tandem-learning" condition, all three keys were the same color throughout the response sequence, and the sequence was changed from session to session. After total errors per session (overall accuracy) and within-session error reduction (learning) had stabilized, the effects of varying doses phenobarbital and chlordiazepoxide were assessed. For comparison, the drug tests were also conducted under a "tandem-performance" condition, in which the response sequence was the same from session to session, and under corresponding "chain-learning" and "chain-performance" conditions, where different colored keylights were associated with the response sequence. Under all four baseline conditions, the largest dose of each drug impaired overall accuracy. Under the two learning conditions, the error rate decreased across trials within each session, but the degree of negative acceleration was less in the drug sessions than in the control sessions. In contrast, under the two performance conditions, the error rate was relatively constant across trials, but was higher in the drug sessions than in the control sessions. Of the four baselines, the chain-learning condition was the most sensitive to the drug effects.  (+info)

*Chlordiazepoxide

... Inchem.org - Chlordiazepoxide U.S. National Library of Medicine: Drug Information Portal - Chlordiazepoxide. ... Chlordiazepoxide is a long-acting benzodiazepine drug. The half-life of Chlordiazepoxide is 5 - 30 hours but has an active ... Chlordiazepoxide is anticonvulsant. There is preferential storage of chlordiazepoxide in some organs including the heart of the ... The withdrawal of chlordiazepoxide during pregnancy and breast feeding is recommended, as chlordiazepoxide rapidly crosses the ...

*Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium bromide

... (marketed as Librax) is a drug consisting of chlordiazepoxide (marketed separately under the ... Chlordiazepoxide is an anti-anxiety medication belonging to the benzodiazepine class. Its use in IBS is thought to be due to ... Chlordiazepoxide can be habit-forming. Tolerance may develop with long-term or excessive use, making this medication less ... http://www.medscape.com/druginfo/monograph?cid=med&drugid=2226&drugname=Clidinium-Chlordiazepoxide+Oral&monotype=monograph& ...

*Nerisopam

Comparison with chlordiazepoxide and buspirone. Acta Physiologica Hungarica. 1992;79(2):153-61. Palkovits M, Baffi JS, ...

*Phenoxypropazine

ROSE JT (March 1964). "Phenoxypropazine and chlordiazepoxide in depression". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 120: 899-900. ...

*Girisopam

Comparison with chlordiazepoxide and buspirone. Acta Physiologica Hungarica. 1992;79(2):153-61. Horváth EJ, Salamon C, Bakonyi ...

*Primidone

Nine patients responded only to chlordiazepoxide and four responded to neither drug. The best results were obtained in ... Thorn reported in 1962 that sixteen patients responded favorably to both primidone and chlordiazepoxide and four to only ... In 1965, Monroe and Wise reported using primidone along with a phenothiazine derivative antipsychotic and chlordiazepoxide in ... Thorn, I. (June 1962). "Primidone and chlordiazepoxide in cerebral palsy". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 4 (3): ...

*Demoxepam

It can be considered directly analogous/synonoymous with the synthesis of chlordiazepoxide, with the exception that instead of ... Benzodiazepine Chlordiazepoxide US Patent 3136815 "nortetrazepam". psychotropics.dk. 2003. Retrieved 7 December 2009. "LIST OF ... It is a metabolite of chlordiazepoxide and has anticonvulsant properties and presumably other characteristic benzodiazepine ...

*GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator

One of these compounds was active, chlordiazepoxide. It was marketed in 1960 and became the first benzodiazepine drug. ...

*Benzodiazepine

Following chlordiazepoxide, diazepam marketed by Hoffmann-La Roche under the brand name Valium in 1963, and for a while the two ... Chlordiazepoxide, which also has a long half-life and long-acting active metabolites, can be used as an alternative. ... Chlordiazepoxide is the most commonly used benzodiazepine for alcohol detoxification, but diazepam may be used as an ... If used in pregnancy, those benzodiazepines with a better and longer safety record, such as diazepam or chlordiazepoxide, are ...

*Ligand-gated ion channel

Goeders, N. E.; McNulty, M. A.; Mirkis, S.; McAllister, K. H. (1989). "Chlordiazepoxide alters intravenous cocaine self- ...

*Bretazenil

In a study in rats cross-tolerance between the benzodiazepine drug chlordiazepoxide and bretazenil has been demonstrated. In a ... Dec 1993). "An ethological analysis of the effects of chlordiazepoxide and bretazenil (Ro 16-6028) in the murine elevated plus- ... 1993). "Tolerance/cross-tolerance to the discriminative stimulus effects of chlordiazepoxide and bretazenil". Mol Chem ... Jun-Jul 1995). "Chronic bretazenil produces tolerance to chlordiazepoxide, midazolam, and abecarnil". Pharmacol Biochem Behav. ...

*Benzoctamine

... chlordiazepoxide, and oxazolam were not. In a rat study looking at the effects of benzoctamine and chlordiazepoxide on ... Lo, WH; Lo, T (Jan 1973). "Clinical trial of benzoctamine versus chlordiazepoxide in anxiety neurosis". The Journal of clinical ... Benzoctamine has been found to have the same efficacy as chlordiazepoxide when treating anxiety neurosis While benzoctamine was ... Maprotiline Lippmann W, Pugsley TA; Pugsley (August 1974). "Effects of benzoctamine and chlordiazepoxide on turnover and uptake ...

*Iproclozide

Therapeutic results by the combination of iproclozide and chlordiazepoxide). Apropos of 146 cases]". Journal de médecine de ...

*Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome

The elimination half-life of diazepam and chlordiazepoxide, as well as other long half-life benzodiazepines, is twice as long ... Generally, a longer-acting benzodiazepine such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam is used and the initial dose titrated downward ... Long half-life benzodiazepines like diazepam or chlordiazepoxide are preferred to minimize rebound effects and are available in ... Boisse, NR; Periana, RM; Guarino, JJ; Kruger, HS (1986). "Acute chlordiazepoxide dependence in the rat: Comparisons to chronic ...

*Dennis Choi

Choi DW, Farb DH, Fischbach GD (1977). "Chlordiazepoxide selectively augments GABA action in spinal cord cell cultures". Nature ...

*Alprazolam

Closser, M. H.; Brower, K. J. (1994). "Treatment of Alprazolam Withdrawal with Chlordiazepoxide Substitution and Taper" (PDF). ...

*Alcohol detoxification

Baumgartner GR, Rowen RC (1987). "Clonidine vs chlordiazepoxide in the management of acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome". Arch. ... Regarding the choice of benzodiazepine: Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) is the benzodiazepine of choice in uncomplicated alcohol ... Benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide (Librium), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan) or oxazepam (Serax) are the most ...

*Clidinium bromide

Used in fixed combination with chlordiazepoxide as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease; however, no ... Used in fixed combination with chlordiazepoxide in the treatment of functional GI motility disturbances (e.g., irritable bowel ... It is commonly prescribed in combination with chlordiazepoxide (a benzodiazepine derivative) using the brand name Librax. ... Used in fixed combination with chlordiazepoxide in the treatment of acute enterocolitis. However, antimuscarinics should be ...

*Clonazepam

The degree of tolerance is more pronounced with clonazepam than with chlordiazepoxide. In general, short-term therapy is more ... chlordiazepoxide and diazepam may be a safer choice. The use of clonazepam during pregnancy should only occur if the clinical ...

*Post-acute-withdrawal syndrome

Symptoms were completely relieved by recommending chlordiazepoxide for irritable bowel syndrome 14 months later. Another case ... Symptoms developed after abrupt withdrawal of chlordiazepoxide and persisted for 14 months. Various psychiatric medications ...

*Leonard Jan Le Vann

Le Vann also researched the effectiveness of drugs such as chlordiazepoxide, chlorpromazine, haperidol, trifluperidol, and ... Le Vann, L. J. (1962). Chlordiazepoxide, a tranquillizer with anticonvulsant properties Canadian Medical Association Journal, ...

*Clorazepate

Guidelines for data sheets on diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, medazepam, clorazepate, lorazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, triazolam, ... Guidelines for data sheets on diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, medazepam, clorazepate, lorazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, triazolam, ... Other classical benzodiazepines include chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, clonazepam, oxazepam, lorazepam, nitrazepam, bromazepam and ...

*Halazepam

Benzodiazepines Nordazepam Diazepam Chlordiazepoxide Quazepam, fletazepam, triflubazam - benzodiazepines with trifluoromethyl ...

*Nordazepam

It is an active metabolite of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clorazepate, prazepam, pinazepam, and medazepam. Nordazepam is among ...

*Phenobarbital

The benzodiazepines chlordiazepoxide (Librium) and oxazepam (Serax) have largely replaced phenobarbital for detoxification. ...
Chlordiazepoxide addiction treatment can help a person who has been abusing the drug kick the habit and live a healthy, sober life. Even though the effects of chlordiazepoxide addiction are not as physically debilitating as the effects of other drugs in this class, many people on chlordiazepoxide will benefit from professional help to address the root causes of addictive behavior.. Studies have shown that relatively few people with a legitimate prescription for chlordiazepoxide abuse the drug in the ordinary course of treatment. An individual can develop a physical dependency on chlordiazepoxide, however, even when the drug is used in the short-term and as prescribed. The person in this situation is not addicted to the drug, but this physical dependency may result in the manifestation of withdrawal symptoms if the drug is stopped abruptly.. Supervised withdrawal through a chlordiazepoxide detox program may be necessary to safely discontinue the use of the drug. Any abuse of chlordiazepoxide for ...
A single exposure to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test of anxiety reduces or abolishes the anxiolytic efficacy of benzodiazepines on a second trial. Some possible explanations to the occurrence of this phenomenon (one-trial tolerance-OTT) involve behavioral modifications thought to be consequence of some kind of learning in the first trial. in the present study, the influence of learning-impairing situations on the effects of the benzodiazepine chlordiazepoxide on mice re-tested in the EPM is investigated. the results showed that: (1) as expected, the administration of chlordiazepoxide to mice re-tested in the EPM- under the same conditions of the first trial- failed to induce anxiolysis; (2) a decreased percent time in the open arms was observed on the second trial of mice exposed to both trials under the same experimental conditions; (3) neither the increase in open arm avoidance by mice re-exposed to the EPM nor the OTT to chlordiazepoxide effect were modified by administration of the ...
Manifestations of chlordiazepoxide overdosage includes somnolence, confusion, coma and diminished reflexes. Respiration, pulse and blood pressure should be monitored, as in all cases of drug overdosage, although, in general, these effects have been minimal following chlordiazepoxide HCl overdosage. General supportive measures should be employed, along with immediate gastric lavage. Intravenous fluids should be administered and an adequate airway maintained. Hypotension may be combated by the use of norepinephrine or metaraminol. Dialysis is of limited value. There have been occasional reports of excitation in patients following chlordiazepoxide HCl overdosage; if this occurs barbiturates should not be used. As with the management of intentional overdosage with any drug, it should be borne in mind that multiple agents may have been ingested. Flumazenil, a specific benzodiazepine-receptor antagonist, is indicated for the complete or partial reversal of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines and ...
Chlordiazepoxide is used in the treatment of short term anxiety,alcohol withdrawal.get complete information about chlordiazepoxide including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with chlordiazepoxide at 1mg.com
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Chlordiazepoxide can be used to treat nervousness and severe alcohol drawback. Before surgery, it is also used to relieve fear and anxiety. This medication is owned by a category of medicine referred to as benzodiazepines which respond on the nerves and brain (nervous system) to generate a soothing result. It functions by enhancing the outcomes of a specific natural compound within your body (GABA).. Librium can harm an unborn infant. If youre pregnant or plan to become pregnant. You need to know that this drug may cause a untrue being pregnant result while using the Gravindex carrying a child test, Dont take this medicine. Librium could successfully pass into breasts milk and harm a breastfeeding baby. Dont consider this treatment whilst breastfeeding. Including a dental procedure, tell your health care provider that youre order librium before having any type of surgery.. The serving of Librium varies according to the issue being treated. For moderate to reasonable anxiety, 5 mg or 10 mg, 3 ...
Chlordiazepoxide has antianxiety, sedative, appetite-stimulating and weak analgesic actions. The precise mechanism of action is not known. The drug blocks EEG arousal from stimulation of the brain stem reticular formation. The drug has been studied extensively in many species of animals and these studies are suggestive of action on the limbic system of the brain, which recent evidence indicates is involved in emotional responses. Hostile monkeys were made tame by oral drug doses which did not cause sedation. Chlordiazepoxide revealed a "taming" action with the elimination of fear and aggression. The taming effect of chlordiazepoxide was further demonstrated in rats made vicious by lesions in the septal area of the brain. The drug dosage which effectively blocked the vicious reaction was well below the dose which caused sedation in these animals ...
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The extent to which a non-sedative dose of chlordiazepoxide (CDP) is able to modify the behavioral responses toward a predator odor was assessed in juvenile rats. Play behavior was suppressed and defensive behaviors were enhanced in the presence of a collar previously worn by a cat, when tested 24 hours later in the same context as that where the exposure occurred, and when tested in a context different than that in which the exposure occurred for up to 3 hours after exposure. CDP had no effect on the ability of cat odor to suppress play when rats were tested in the presence of the odor or when tested 24 hours later in the same context where that exposure occurred. When rats were exposed to a worn cat collar in their home cage and tested in a different context CDP attenuated the ability of cat odor to reduce one measure of play (nape contacts) but not another measure (pins). Rats had an opportunity to hide during testing and CDP either decreased hiding or increased risk assessment from within the hide
Librium 10mg (Chlordiazepoxide) is used to treat anxiety and acute alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Buy Librium 10mg online from our online pharmacy. Order now!
Chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline - Do you know if amitriptyline hydrochloride is the same drug as limbitrol (chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline) amitriptyline? Its not! The longer named one also contains a benzodiazepine also known as Librium which is a Valium type of med. Make sure you ask you doc about serious and common side effects. Take care
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They can charge you a fee for purchasing your Chlordiazepoxide in this country. Do not take the drug while under the influence of other drugs, e.g. a controlled substance, or your partner abusing or abusing others. Chlordiazepoxide can cause serious side effects, such as psychosis, which can be devastating (or at least embarrassing) for you!
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Chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline is a controlled substance and has the potential to be abused. This eMedTV page includes more precautions and warnings with chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline, and lists other problems that may occur with the drug.
Fig. 4. Effects of chlordiazepoxide and fluoxetine on locomotor activity and interior OF behavior. Rats received one i.p. injection of chlordiazepoxide 30 min, or fluoxetine 60 min, before testing in the OF. A, treatment with chlordiazepoxide affected the time course of activity analyzed in 5-min time bins over 1 h: low to moderate doses of chlordiazepoxide (0.625-2.5 mg/kg) tended to increase initial locomotor activity, whereas high doses (5.0 and 10 mg/kg) decreased locomotor activity (mean ± S.E.M.; Dunnetts post hoc tests). &, at 5 and 15 min, 0.625 mg/kg was significantly different from vehicle; ^, at 5 min, 2.5 mg/kg was significantly different from vehicle; #, at 10 min, 5.0 mg/kg was significantly different from vehicle; *, at 5, 10, and 15 min, 10 mg/kg was significantly different from vehicle. One symbol, P , 0.05; two symbols, P , 0.01 versus vehicle. B, treatment with chlordiazepoxide increased the percentage of distance rats traveled in the interior of the OF. Treatment with ...
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By using a push-pull cannula technique and an isotopic method for the estimation of [3H]serotonin continuously synthetized from [3H]tryptophan, the effects of a benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide, were investigated on the in vivo release of [3H]serotonin in the cat basal ganglia. Chlordiazepoxide injection (10 mg/kg i.p.) decreased striatal and nigral [3H]serotonin release and enhanced the [3H]amine release in the dorsal raphe. These changes were blocked by the continuous superfusion of the dorsal raphe with Ro 15-1788 (10(-5) M), a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Chlordiazepoxide (10(-5) M) applied to the dorsal raphe reduced nigral [3H]serotonin release while decreasing [3H]serotonin release locally in the dorsal raphe. Furthermore, the superfusion of serotonergic nerve terminals of the substantia nigra or the caudate nucleus with chlordiazepoxide (10(-5) M) never altered the local release of [3H]serotonin. These data strongly suggest that the (inhibitory) influences exerted by ...
Librax is used to treat gastrointestinal problems such as peptic ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, and enterocolitis. Chlordiazepoxide is a central nervous system depressant belonging...
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Biodegradable polymers have long been used for the controlled delivery of therapeutic agents. However recent developments of biodegradable synthetic polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) have resulted in formulations that release drugs from days to several months. Commercially available products that contain PLGA include Lupron Depot ® and Zoladex®. ^ One of the problems associated with PLGA as a drug delivery system is that it degrades to form lactic and glycolic acids and these acids may degrade therapeutically active agents included within the dosage form. There is literature that indicates a decrease in pH. However controversy exists over the pH range associated with the polymer degradation. The objective of this research is to investigate the physicochernical stability of chlordiazepoxide, a model basic drug, in PLGA microspheres. The physical and chemical state of a drug may be altered during incorporation of the drug into microspheres.
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Chlordiazepoxide has antianxiety, sedative, appetite-stimulating and weak analgesic actions. The precise mechanism of action is not known. The drug blocks EEG arousal from stimulation of the brain stem reticular formation. The drug has been studied extensively in many species of animals and these studies are suggestive of action on the limbic system of the brain, which recent evidence indicates is involved in emotional responses. Hostile monkeys were made tame by oral drug doses which did not cause sedation. Chlordiazepoxide revealed a "taming" action with the elimination of fear and aggression. The taming effect of chlordiazepoxide was further demonstrated in rats made vicious by lesions in the septal area of the brain. The drug dosage which effectively blocked the vicious reaction was well below the dose which caused sedation in these animals ...
Librium (Chlordiazepoxide) belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines that is used for the treatment of anxiety disorder and acute alcohol withdrawal. L
Librium is the brand name of chlordiazepoxide. A long-acting benzodiazepine for the treatment of anxiety disorders and withdrawal from an alcohol.
Librium contains Chlordiazepoxide as a active constituents. This pharmaceutical active moiety bings to benzodiazepine (BZD) hampering the locales on GABA (A) receptor edifices at a few locations...
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Librium is a benzodiazepines, typically used to treat anxiety. Like other benzos, Librium can be abused, for self-medication or recreational drug abuse.
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Although the benzodiazepines have been the treatment of choice for anxiety disorders for many years, unfavorable aspects to their side-effect profile have initiated efforts to develop new-generation antianxiety agents. Over the past decade, scientists have been searching for compounds that retain the robust anxiolytic efficacy of benzodiazepines, but lack a number of unwanted properties, including… Read More ». ...
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Halazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. It is a trifluoromethyl derivative of nordazepam. While its structure may be similar to chlordiazepoxide and diazepam, it has both less toxicity and less tendency to cause paradoxical hostility and aggression than either of them. Halazepam is no longer marketed in the United States, and was withdrawn by Schering-Plough due to poor sales. [Wikipedia]
The effects of benzodiazepine use during pregnancy and lactation. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are amongst the drugs most frequently implicated in
Drugs used to treat emotional disorders seem to be ubiquitous in these anxious times. The antianxiety drugs diazepam and chlordiazepoxide rank first and third, respectively, among prescribed drugs. Among the remaining top 50 favorite prescription drugs, one can count 13 others representing characteristic sedative-hypnotic, antipsychotic, and antidepressive drugs. Other drugs that have the potential to affect driving adversely may be prescribed, self-administered as over-the-counter remedies, or taken as social drugs. These include antihistaminics, analgesics, gastrointestinal drugs, sympathomimetics, caffeine, marihuana, and ethanol. The latter social drug is taken by approximately 50% of the population of the United States, roughly the same ...
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Figure 2 Schematic representation of a 2D spectrum (at a fixed value of the waiting time T) showing cross peaks. In general, both ground-state bleaching and stimulated emission (positive) and excited-state absorption (negative) features appear. Negative features can partially or even wholly cancel positive features. Partial cancellation leads to distortions in the line shapes, as seen in the highest frequency diagonal peak. Note that the 2D spectrum is not symmetric around the diagonal. Cross (off-diagonal) peaks appear (for T = 0) only when coupling between chromophores is present. Cross peaks can also be generated by energy transfer, coherence transfer, chemical exchange, physical transformation, and so on for larger values of the waiting time T. Note that the orientation of the cross peaks is controlled by whether the fluctuations of two different transition frequencies are positively or negatively correlated with each other. Modulation of coupling strength by bath or intramolecular degrees ...
Figure 2 Schematic representation of a 2D spectrum (at a fixed value of the waiting time T) showing cross peaks. In general, both ground-state bleaching and stimulated emission (positive) and excited-state absorption (negative) features appear. Negative features can partially or even wholly cancel positive features. Partial cancellation leads to distortions in the line shapes, as seen in the highest frequency diagonal peak. Note that the 2D spectrum is not symmetric around the diagonal. Cross (off-diagonal) peaks appear (for T = 0) only when coupling between chromophores is present. Cross peaks can also be generated by energy transfer, coherence transfer, chemical exchange, physical transformation, and so on for larger values of the waiting time T. Note that the orientation of the cross peaks is controlled by whether the fluctuations of two different transition frequencies are positively or negatively correlated with each other. Modulation of coupling strength by bath or intramolecular degrees ...
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hi. benzodiazepine tapers that slow, the gradual...should be -less- likely to trigger problems. its when youve been on high doses and youre making bigger cuts that things can get ugly (usually...everyone is different, of course...).. Im glad your doctor is doing things so slowly. if you do end up having problems, a switch to valium or Librium (at an equivalent dose) and then a taper off one of those can sometimes be easier to tolerate.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Treatment of depression in alcoholics. AU - Shaw, Jon. AU - Donley, P.. AU - Morgan, D. W.. AU - Robinson, J. A.. PY - 1975/12/1. Y1 - 1975/12/1. N2 - The authors compared 2 groups of depressed alcoholics given either placebo or chlordiazepoxide imipramine in a double blind study. Although depression decreased in both groups, there were no significant differences between them on any of 3 pre and post treatment measures. The Zung scale showed that medication decreased depression significantly; however, this finding was not supported by the Beck Depression Inventory or the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, indicating the necessity for use of multiple assessment instruments.. AB - The authors compared 2 groups of depressed alcoholics given either placebo or chlordiazepoxide imipramine in a double blind study. Although depression decreased in both groups, there were no significant differences between them on any of 3 pre and post treatment measures. The Zung scale showed ...
The method involves the selective extraction of the compound into ether, hydrolysis tb the 2-amino-5-chlorobenzophenone and subsequent determination by gas-liquid chromatography. The GLC of unhydrolyzed chlordiazepoxide has been reported by Martin and Street2 using acid-washed chromosorb W coated with dimethyldichlorosilane. The reported column temperature for chlordiazepoxide was 245C. 3) B Ch 1o rofom :me th ano1 (1O:l) B Ethylacetate:ethanol (9:l) B Benzene:dioxane: 28% ammonium hydroxide A Acetone: cyclohexane: ethanol (4:4:2) A Benzene:acetone (4:l) A Methano1:acetone: ammonium hydroxide (50 :50:1) A Benzene:ethanol:25% ammonium hydroxide (50:10:5) A Adsorbant: I 48 48 29 57 46 - Detection w2 54 "254 "254 "2 54 w254 w254 38 Reference 22 22 22 22 22 23 w254 23 Dragendorff Reagent 24 27 II 24 41 11 24 78 64 A. Personal Communication. 9. , Personal Communication. 10. MacMullan, E . A . , Personal Communication. 51 G, 523 (1967). CYCLOSERINE J. Lamb 53 J. W. LAMB C OI; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 53 ...
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Benzodiazepines (e.g., Valium (diazepam) and Librium (chlordiazepoxide)) are commonly prescribed minor tranquilizers, sedatives, and anticonvulsants. They are a large class of compounds and also undergo extensive metabolism, with glucuronida-tion often being the last step in the biotransformation. Most immunoassays for benzodiazepines involve antibodies raised against a common benzodiazepine metabolite, oxazepam. However, because most oxazepam excreted into the urine is actually oxazepam glucuronide, the immunoassay does not always perform well. The antibody has less reactivity with the oxazepam glucuronide, the actual metabolite present in urine. Some research has shown that pretreatment of the urine specimen with glucuronidase, which liberates the metabolite from binding with glucuronide, improves the sensitivity of the method.. Was this article helpful?. ...
Stapleford-Athens 2011 International Addiction Conference Further Experience with Ambulatory Benzodiazepine detox Dr George ONeil [email protected] Fresh Start Recovery Programme Perth, Western Australia History of Flumazenil treatment for benzodiazepine addiction • 1961: Hollister, L.E., Motzenbecker, F.P. & Degan, R.O. (1961) Withdrawal reactions from chlordiazepoxide (Librium). Psychopharmacologia, 2, 63-68. • 1982: McNicholas, L.F. & Martin (1982) The effect of a benzodiazepine antagonist, R015-1788, in diazepam dependent rats. Life Science. Vol 31, (8); 731-737. • 1991: Savic, I., Widen, L, & Stone-Elander, S. (1991) Feasibility of reversing benzodiazepine tolerance with flumazenil. Lancet 337: 133137 • 1992: Lader, M.H. & Morton S.V. (1992) A pilot study of the effects of flumazenil on symptoms persisting after benzodiazepine withdrawal. Journal of Psycopharmacology 6(3);357-363.3 [email protected] History - continued • 1996: Gerra, G. et al (1996) Intravenous flumazenil ...
see warnings and precautions - general and adverse reactions)! When properly diluted, the recommendation is a neurological clinical sign, consisting of unsteady and clumsy motion of the drug in these patients should be considered with caution in patients where gastrointestinal or cardiovascular disorders coexist with anxiety, makes lorazepam useful as premedication. The use of minor tranquilizers (chlordiazepoxide, diazepam will accumulate, since, when an intravenous infusion should be considered with caution! Warning: risks from concomitant use of ativan in larger amounts, or other metabolic or toxic derangement, such as drowsiness, and, using props designed to enhance recall. It involves observation and management of severe anxiety or anxiety associated with the use of the drug in pregnant women, unless the expected benefit to you is greater. generic name of ativan 77 ml/min/kg, respectively! A 4-mg dose provides a cmax of approximately 70 ng/ml! Otherwise, call 911! Drug interactions the dose ...
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Benzodiazepines are drugs which act upon the GABA(A) receptor, and produce a general set of effects which vary by compound, mostly being sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant. The first benzodiazepine, Chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann-La Roche, which has also marketed diazepam (Valium) since 1963. = Dosage = {, class="wikitable sortable" ,+Comparison of benzodiazepines ! Chemical name (brand name) ! Half-Life [Active Metabolites] ! Dose Equiv. of 10mg Diazepam (Oral) ! Class ,- , Alprazolam (Xanax) , 6 - 12 hours , 0.5 mg , Anxiolytic ,- , Bromazepam (Lexotan, Lexomil) , 10 - 20 hours , 5 - 6 mg , Anxiolytic ,- , Brotizolam , 2 - 6 hours , .25mg , Hypnotic ,- , Chlordazepoxide (Librium) , 5 - 30 hours [36 - 200 hours] , 25 mg , Anxiolytic ,- , Clobazam (Frisium) , 12 - 60 hours , 20 mg , Anxiolytic ,- , Clonazepam (Klonopin) , 18 - 50 hours , 0.5 mg , Anxiolytic ,- , Clorazepate ...
Perkiraan Dosis Ekuivalen Benzodiazepin Perkiraan Dosis Oral Ekuivalen, mg dosis kadar tertinggi, jam qaktu paruh, jam Alprazolam (Xanax) 0.5 1-2 12 Bromazepam (Lexotan) 3 1-4 20 Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) 25 1-4 100 Clonazepam (Klonopin) 0.25 1-4 34 Clorazepate (Tranxene) 10 0.5-2 100 Diazepam (Valium) 5 1-2 100 Flurazepam (Dalmane) 15 0.5-1 100 Lorazepam (Ativan) 1 1-4…
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The behavioral mechanisms underlying antipsychotic-induced maternal behavior deficits were examined in the present study. Different groups of postpartum rats were treated with haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), clozapine (10.0 mg/kg), chlordiazepoxide (5.0 mg/kg, an anxiolytic) or vehicle (0.9% saline) on Days 4 and 6 postpartum and their maternal behaviors were tested under either pup-separation (e.g. pups were removed from their mothers for 4 h before testing) or no-pup-separation condition. Maternal behavior and drug-induced sedation were further tested for 3 days from Day 8 to 12 postpartum. Results show that pup-separation, which putatively increases maternal motivation, did significantly shorten clozapine-elongated pup approach latency, increase pup licking and nursing but fail to reverse the deficits in pup retrieval and nest building in the lactating rats treated with haloperidol and clozapine. Repeated haloperidol treatment produced a progressively enhanced disruption on pup retrieval and nest building
Five male Long-Evans rats, maintained at 80% of their free-feeding weight, were trained to bar-press for food reward on a one-minute fixed-interval (FI1) schedule of reinforcement. Once stable FI1 baseline response rates were established, dose-response functions were generated for Chlordiazepoxide HC1 (CDZ). Subsequent treatments with CDZ were followed by 30 min. pulsed microwave radiation (MWR) and FI1 behavioral assessment. Pulsed MWR exposures were in the far zone of an anechoic chamber at an averaged incident power density of 1 mW/sq cm (PRF = 300/sec, 3 usec pulse width). After 2 replications of the combined treatments another CDZ dose-response function was generated. This was followed by 3 more CDZ and MWR replications the first of which was carried out at an averaged incident power density of 1 mW/ sq cm2 Increased rates of response for the CDZ and 1 mW/sq cm MWR treatment were demonstrated relative to initial CDZ dose-response functions in 4 of 5 rats tested. However, the dose-response functions
Demoxepam is also an intermediate in the synthesis of oxazepam; it is also used in one of the syntheses of medazepam. It can be considered directly analogous/synonoymous with the synthesis of chlordiazepoxide, with the exception that instead of methylamine, hydroxide ion is the choice of base; here acid is not used for the cyclodehydration step though. ...
I suspect it is, but theres really no way to know for sure. lines up w/ some of what I experienced during a rapid Klonopin taper.. some doctors switch their patients over to an equivalent dose of Valium and taper off that. I think the conversion is clonazepam dosage x 20= diazepam equivalent, but I could be wrong. As low as your dosage is at this point, I would think Librium might be another option. Librium is less potent than Valium, but if I remember correctly, it also has the long half life and has very pronounced muscle relaxant properties, which would probably help w/ stress and such. Its also somewhat sedating, compared to the higher potency benzodiazepines. I think its comes in 10mgs capsules and 25mgs tablets, but I could be mistaken. sorry this is happening. some alternative health people recommend supplements to ease benzodiazepine tapers. High dose B3, l-theanine, valerian, passion flower, etc. etc. etc. Hope things get better in your world. ...
The primary objective of this study is to assess QTc (an interval of the heart rhythm) interaction effects between lofexidine and methadone. The secondary objectives of the study are to evaluate the safety and tolerability of lofexidine by evaluating and monitoring pharmacokinetics (amounts of drug in the blood), vital signs (heart rate and blood pressure) and adverse events (side effects) when co-administered with methadone; to describe effects on opiate withdrawal when lofexidine is introduced following a 50% methadone dose reduction, as required to elicit a withdrawal response; and to evaluate the QTc interaction effects of lofexidine compared with placebo. The investigators hypothesize that while both agents (lofexidine and methadone) are known to prolong the QTc interval, the combination of the drugs will not create an additive effect which creates a significant safety concern. The investigators further hypothesize that subjects will be able to tolerate the therapeutic dose of lofexidine ...
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Today, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is recognized as the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS comprising 40% of inhibitory synaptic processing. As its receptor GABAA is largely responsible for effects of alcohol, it can be argued that it is one of the oldest drug targets known.. In the 1870s, chloral hydrate, whose metabolite modulates the GABA receptor complex, was widely used as a sedative and as a treatment for insomnia. Although effective, abuse and dependence were major issues and by the 1920s its use had been almost entirely supplanted by the barbiturates which work on the GABAA receptor.. Unfortunately, it soon became apparent that barbiturates also carry the risk of abuse, dependence, severe withdrawal symptoms, and lethal overdose. Although still used in some situations, the barbiturates were replaced by benzodiazepines with the advent of Librium in 1960. By the late 1970s, benzodiazepines were the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world.. ...
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Chronic dietary administration of 6 different benzodiazepine tranquilizers (chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, oxazepam, prazepam, flurazepam, and nitrazepam) to breeding pairs of Swiss-Webster mice resulted in alterations of the normal patterns of reproductive behavior and fetal growth. Significant decreases in mating performance were seen among mice given diets containing 0.15% chlordiazepoxide, 0.05% diazepam, 0.05 and 0.15% oxazepam, 0.02 and 0.10% prazepam, 0.10% flurazepam, and 0.025% nitrazepam. Offspring in all drug treatments showed significantly depressed body weights at birth.
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a set of symptoms that can occur following a reduction in alcohol use after a period of excessive use. Symptoms typically include anxiety, shakiness, sweating, vomiting, fast heart rate, and a mild fever. More severe symptoms may include seizures, seeing or hearing things that others do not, and delirium tremens (DTs). Symptoms typically begin around six hours following the last drink, are worst at 24 to 72 hours, and improve by seven days. Alcohol withdrawal may occur in those who are alcohol dependent. This may occur following a planned or unplanned decrease in alcohol intake. The underlying mechanism involves a decreased responsiveness of GABA receptors in the brain. The withdrawal process is typically followed using the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale, revised (CIWA-Ar). The typical treatment of alcohol withdrawal is with benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam. Often the amounts given are based on a persons symptoms. ...
In the management of alcohol withdrawal, a benzodiazepine can reduce psychomotor agitation and, used at an early stage, it may prevent progression to more severe symptoms of withdrawal including convulsions and delirium tremens. For less severe symptoms, the benzodiazepine is given orally either as a fixed regimen of tapering doses or according to withdrawal symptoms as and when they arise (symptom-triggered therapy).. The long-acting benzodiazepines chlordiazepoxide and diazepam are licensed for the management of alcohol withdrawal symptoms; both allow smooth tapering down of the dose.. A benzodiazepine can also be used for managing severe symptoms of alcohol withdrawal and may be of value in managing seizures and the potentially life-threatening condition of delirium tremens (characterised by hallucinations, disorientation, agitation, tremor, severe tachycardia, hypertension, fever, drenching sweats, and fluid and electrolyte disturbances). These symptoms are treated in an in-patient setting ...
Many studies have shown that laboratory rodents that have never been exposed to a live cat (or any cat vestiges), demonstrate strong fear responses when exposed to cat odor [1-13]. Pharmacological studies that use responses of rodents to cat odor as a model of human anxiety have produced controversial results. Benzodiazepine drugs, which are effective against generalized anxiety disorder in humans [14] and in classical animal models of anxiety (e.g. elevated plus-maze, black/white box, open-field) [6, 8-10, 15-19], can sometimes modulate the defensive responses of rodents to cat odor [2-4, 8, 9]. In other studies, however, benzodiazepines did not change the defensive behavior of rats [6, 10] or mice [1, 10] exposed to cat odor. Zangrossi and File [11] reported that chlordiazepoxide reduced anxiety evaluated in the social interaction and elevated plus-maze tests after exposure to cat odor, but it had only a limited effect on the direct responses of rats exposed to cat odor. These findings suggest ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of linalool on extinction of mouse operant behaviour. T2 - Behavioural Pharmacology. AU - Shaw, D. AU - Norwood, Kelly. AU - Kennedy, Paul J.. AU - Leslie, J.C.. N1 - This paper is dedicated to the memory of our friend and colleague, David Shaw (1970-2017).. PY - 2020/2/1. Y1 - 2020/2/1. N2 - Linalool is an enanitomer monoterpene compound identified as the pharmacologically active constituent in a number of essential oils and has been reported to display anxiolytic properties in humans and in animal models and to exert both GABAergic and glutamatergic effects. In Experiment 1 linalool (100, 200, and 300, i.p.) had no significant effects compared with saline in an activity tracker with C57BL/6j mice. Experiment 2 assessed the effects on operant extinction with mice of chlordiazepoxide at a dose (15 mg/kg, i.p.) previously shown to facilitate extinction, and the same doses of linalool, compared with saline. Linalool had a dose-related facilitatory effect on extinction. ...
Clinical obervations indicate that antipsychotic action starts early and increases in magnitude with repeated treatment. Animal models that faithfully capture this time course of action are few. Inhibition of hyperlocomotion induced by amphetamine or phencyclidine has been widely used as a screening tool for the antipsychotic activity of a drug. We thus investigated whether repeated antipsychotic treatment could produce an early-onset and progressively increased antagonistic effect on amphetamine or phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion as a way of assessing the validity of such models in capturing time course of antipsychotic action. One each of the five consecutive test days, different groups of rats (n = 6-7/group) received an initial injection of either haloperidol (0.01-0.10 mg/kg, sc), clozapine (5-20.0 mg/kg, sc), olanzapine (1.0 mg/kg, sc), chlordiazepoxide (10.0 mg/kg, ip) or vehicle (sterile water, sc) 30 min prior to a second injection of either amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg, sc) or phencyclidine (3
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5-18 E. OTHER SEDATIVES & HYPNOTICS (Downers) Agent Trade Name Some Street Names Symptoms of Abuse Glutethimide Chlordiazepoxide Meprobamate Methaqualone Doriden Librium Miltown, Equanil Quaalude, Sopor Goofers Ludes, sopors Same as those noted in alcohol and barbiturate intoxication. F. HALLUCINOGENS Agent Trade Name Some Street Names Symptoms of Abuse Lysergic acid diethylamide Mescaline Phencyclidine (PCP) Psilocin, psilocybin ............................................ .............................................. Peyote LSD, acid, sunshine Peyote, mesc Angel dust, hog, peace pills Buttons, mesc, magic mushrooms Trance-like state Anxiety Confusion Tremors Euphoria Depression Hallucinations Psychotic manifestations Suicidal or homicidal tendencies G. CANNABIS Agent Trade Name Some Street Names Symptoms of Abuse Cannabis Marijuana Pot, grass, weed, joint, tea, reefer, rope, Jane, hay, dope Euphoria Excitability Increased appetite Dryness of mouth Odor of burned rope on breath Intoxication ...
A growing number of observational studies have shown the critical role of potentially inappropriate medications for increasing the risk of cognitive impairment. In a linked paper, Billioti de Gage and colleagues (doi:10.1136/bmj.g5205) extend the pharmacoepidemiological research on the adverse cognitive effects of benzodiazepines with an investigation of their link with Alzheimers disease.1 Their results suggest that long term exposure to benzodiazepines might be a modifiable risk factor for this condition.. The authors conducted a nested case-control study of about 2000 older members of a public drug plan in the province of Quebec, Canada. They observed a cumulative dose-effect association between exposure to benzodiazepines (at least 90 days) and risk of developing Alzheimers disease and found that exposure lasting more than 180 days was associated with a nearly twofold increase in risk. In further analyses, they showed that longer acting benzodiazepines were associated with greater risk of ...
0067]The following opiates, opioids, tranquillisers or other narcotics are substances with a psychotropic action, i.e. have a potential of abuse, and hence are preferably not contained in the dosage form according to the invention: alfentanil, allobarbital, allylprodine, alphaprodine, alprazolam, amfepramone, amphetamine, amphetaminil, amobarbital, anileridine, apocodeine, barbital, bemidone, benzylmorphine, bezitramide, bromazepam, brotizolam, buprenorphine, butobarbital, butorphanol, camazepam, carfentanil, cathine/D-norpseudoephedrine, chlordiazepoxide, clobazam clofedanol, clonazepam, clonitazene, clorazepate, clotiazepam, cloxazolam, cocaine, codeine, cyclobarbital, cyclorphan, cyprenorphine, delorazepam, desomorphine, dextromoramide, dextropropoxyphene, dezocine, diampromide, diamorphone, diazepam, dihydrocodeine, dihydromorphine, dihydromorphone, dimenoxadol, dimephetamol, dimethylthiambutene, dioxaphetylbutyrate, dipipanone, dronabinol, eptazocine, estazolam, ethoheptazine, ...
Stewart, R., Gatto, G., Lumeng, L., Li, T., & Murphy, J. (1993). Comparison of alcohol-preferring (P) and -nonpreferring (NP) rats on tests of anxiety and on the anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Alcohol, 10, 1 - 10. ...

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Chlormethiazole or chlordiazepoxide? | BJPsych BulletinChlormethiazole or chlordiazepoxide? | BJPsych Bulletin

Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about BJPsych Bulletin.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
more infohttp://pb.rcpsych.org/content/21/3/186.2

Common Side Effects of Librium (Chlordiazepoxide) Drug Center - RxListCommon Side Effects of Librium (Chlordiazepoxide) Drug Center - RxList

Librium (chlordiazepoxide) is a benzodiazepine used to treat anxiety disorders or alcohol withdrawal. Librium is available in ... Our Librium (chlordiazepoxide) Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the ... When Librium (chlordiazepoxide) treatment is protracted, periodic blood counts and liver function tests are advisable. ... DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE: Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride capsules are classified by the Drug Enforcement Administration as a ...
more infohttps://www.rxlist.com/librium-side-effects-drug-center.htm

Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride (Oral Route) Description and Brand Names - Mayo ClinicChlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride (Oral Route) Description and Brand Names - Mayo Clinic

Chlordiazepoxide is used to relieve symptoms of anxiety, including nervousness or anxiety that happens before a surgery. It may ... Chlordiazepoxide is a benzodiazepine. Benzodiazepines belong to the group of medicines called central nervous system (CNS) ... If you develop any unusual and strange thoughts or behavior while you are taking chlordiazepoxide, be sure to discuss it with ... Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of chlordiazepoxide in children below 6 ...
more infohttp://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/chlordiazepoxide-hydrochloride-oral-route/description/DRG-20072246?p=1

Chlordiazepoxide
      - Elenium
     Summary Report | CureHunterChlordiazepoxide - Elenium Summary Report | CureHunter

Chlordiazepoxide: An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also ... Chlordiazepoxide; Hydrochloride, Chlordiazepoxide; Monohydrochloride, Chlordiazepoxide; Perchlorate, Chlordiazepoxide; ... Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride; Chlordiazepoxide Monohydrochloride; Chlordiazepoxide Perchlorate; Chlozepid; 7 Chloro N methyl ... Chlordiazepoxide (Elenium). Subscribe to New Research on Chlordiazepoxide An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD002707-Chlordiazepoxide-Elenium.do

Chlordiazepoxide Full Prescribing Information - Psychiatric Medications - Other Info | HealthyPlaceChlordiazepoxide Full Prescribing Information - Psychiatric Medications - Other Info | HealthyPlace

Chlordiazepoxide (Libritabs, Librium) is a benzodiazepine used in treatment of anxiety and alcohol withdrawal. Usage, dosage, ... Generic Name: Chlordiazepoxide. Chlordiazepoxide (Libritabs, Librium) is a benzodiazepine used in treatment of anxiety and ... Chlordiazepoxide HCl injectable Duplex pack consisting of 1 ampul 100 mg dry chlordiazepoxide HCl and 1 ampul 2 mL special ... Chlordiazepoxide and chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the ...
more infohttps://www.healthyplace.com/other-info/psychiatric-medications/chlordiazepoxide-libritabs-librium-full-prescribing-information/
  • Chlordiazepoxide is used in the treatment of short term anxiety and alcohol withdrawal. (1mg.com)
  • If you are taking Chlordiazepoxide for the treatment of insomnia and anxiety, it should not be used more than 4 weeks. (1mg.com)
  • Chlordiazepoxide is used for the short-term (2-4 weeks only) treatment of severe anxiety, which may occur alone or in association with sleeping problems (insomnia) or personality/behavioral disorders. (1mg.com)
  • Chlordiazepoxide used to treat anxiety disorders, alcohol withdrawal symptoms, or muscle spasms. (1mg.com)
  • Avoid consuming alcohol when taking the Chlordiazepoxide, as it may cause excessive sleepiness or drowsiness. (1mg.com)
  • Q. Is chlordiazepoxide the same as diazepam? (1mg.com)
  • Q. Does Chlordiazepoxide work and what does Chlordiazepoxide treat? (1mg.com)
  • Q. Does Chlordiazepoxide make you sleepy? (1mg.com)
  • Q. Is Chlordiazepoxide stronger than Xanax? (1mg.com)
  • Chlordiazepoxide HCl revealed a "taming" action with the elimination of fear and aggression. (nih.gov)
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