Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.
Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.
A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
An antibacterial agent that has been used in veterinary practice for treating swine dysentery and enteritis and for promoting growth. However, its use has been prohibited in the UK following reports of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p125)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 2.7.7.4.
Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.
Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)
The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Mechanical food dispensing machines.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a long-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.
Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.
A weapon designed to explode when deployed. It frequently refers to a hollow case filled with EXPLOSIVE AGENTS.
A genus of QUAIL, in the family Odontophoridae, comprised of at least four different species of bobwhites.
The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Days commemorating events. Holidays also include vacation periods.
Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
Set of instructions about how to prepare food for eating using specific instructions.
A two-person sport in which the fists are skillfully used to attack and defend.

Proteoglycan involvement in polyamine uptake. (1/216)

We have evaluated the possible role of proteoglycans in the uptake of spermine by human lung fibroblasts. Exogenous glycosaminoglycans behaved as competitive inhibitors of spermine uptake, the most efficient being heparan sulphate (Ki=0.16+/-0.04 microM). Treatment of fibroblasts with either heparan sulphate lyase, p-nitrophenyl-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside or chlorate reduced spermine uptake considerably, whereas chondroitin sulphate lyase had a limited effect. Inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis with alpha-difluoromethylornithine resulted in an increase of cell-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycans exhibiting higher affinity for spermine. The data indicate a specific role for heparan sulphate proteoglycans in the uptake of spermine by fibroblasts. Spermine uptake by pgsD-677, a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell defective in heparan sulphate biosynthesis, was only moderately reduced (20%) compared with wild-type cells. Treatment of mutant cells with the above-mentioned xyloside resulted in a greater reduction of endogenous proteoglycan production as well as a higher inhibition of spermine uptake than in wild-type cells. Moreover, treatment with chondroitin sulphate lyase resulted in a selective inhibition of uptake in mutant cells, indicating a role for chondroitin/dermatan sulphate proteoglycans in the uptake of spermine by these cells. Fibroblasts, made growth-dependent on exogenous spermine by alpha-difluoromethylornithine treatment, were growth-inhibited by heparan sulphate or beta-D-xyloside, which might have future therapeutical implications.  (+info)

Tyrosine sulfation of the amino terminus of CCR5 facilitates HIV-1 entry. (2/216)

Chemokine receptors and related seven-transmembrane-segment (7TMS) receptors serve as coreceptors for entry of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV) into target cells. Each of these otherwise diverse coreceptors contains an N-terminal region that is acidic and tyrosine rich. Here, we show that the chemokine receptor CCR5, a principal HIV-1 coreceptor, is posttranslationally modified by O-linked glycosylation and by sulfation of its N-terminal tyrosines. Sulfated tyrosines contribute to the binding of CCR5 to MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, and HIV-1 gp120/CD4 complexes and to the ability of HIV-1 to enter cells expressing CCR5 and CD4. CXCR4, another important HIV-1 coreceptor, is also sulfated. Tyrosine sulfation may contribute to the natural function of many 7TMS receptors and may be a modification common to primate immunodeficiency virus coreceptors.  (+info)

Peptide model of a highly conserved, N-terminal domain of apolipoprotein E is able to modulate lipoprotein binding to a member of the class A scavenger receptor family. (3/216)

Apolipoprotein E plays a critical role in plasma lipoprotein clearance. Peptide models of a highly conserved, N-terminal domain of this protein have been shown to increase the binding of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to fibroblast cell surfaces independently of the low density lipoprotein receptor. Here we provide data to show that these peptides not only increase the binding of LDL, but also of high density lipoprotein, though not acetylated LDL. We also have data suggesting that this novel activity is mediated, at least in part, by a member of the scavenger receptor family, SR-AI. Furthermore, we show that this activity is also prominent in macrophages, a cell relevant to atherogenesis. In addition, this current paper provides evidence suggesting that this complex binding activity is initiated by a peptide-receptor interaction, and that our peptides are able to induce activity at physiologically relevant concentrations. This study provides evidence for a possible novel receptor interaction and further anti-atherogenic properties of apolipoprotein E and raises the possibility of a therapeutic potential of our peptide models.  (+info)

CHL1 is a dual-affinity nitrate transporter of Arabidopsis involved in multiple phases of nitrate uptake. (4/216)

Higher plants have both high- and low-affinity nitrate uptake systems. These systems are generally thought to be genetically distinct. Here, we demonstrate that a well-known low-affinity nitrate uptake mutant of Arabidopsis, chl1, is also defective in high-affinity nitrate uptake. Two to 3 hr after nitrate induction, uptake activities of various chl1 mutants at 250 microM nitrate (a high-affinity concentration) were only 18 to 30% of those of wild-type plants. In these mutants, both the inducible phase and the constitutive phase of high-affinity nitrate uptake activities were reduced, with the inducible phase being severely reduced. Expressing a CHL1 cDNA driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in a transgenic chl1 plant effectively recovered the defect in high-affinity uptake for the constitutive phase but not for the induced phase, which is consistent with the constitutive level of CHL1 expression in the transgenic plant. Kinetic analysis of nitrate uptake by CHL1-injected Xenopus oocytes displayed a biphasic pattern with a Michaelis-Menten Km value of approximately 50 microM for the high-affinity phase and approximately 4 mM for the low-affinity phase. These results indicate that in addition to being a low-affinity nitrate transporter, as previously recognized, CHL1 is also involved in both the inducible and constitutive phases of high-affinity nitrate uptake in Arabidopsis.  (+info)

Differential regulation of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor by cell surface proteoglycans and free glycosaminoglycan chains. (5/216)

Hepatocyte growth factor interacts with both heparan and dermatan sulphates, in addition to its specific signalling receptor, Met. However, the extent of glycosaminoglycan involvement in its biological activity remains uncertain. We have investigated the effects of exogenous glycosaminoglycan addition upon hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated motility of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Exogenous heparan/dermatan sulphate chains behave similarly as either potentiators or inhibitors of cell motility (depending upon the assay). Specific heparan sulphate oligosaccharides, of octasaccharide or larger, elicit similar effects, though with reduced potency. Additionally we have investigated the motility of cells made completely deficient in functional proteoglycans by metabolic inhibition of glycosaminoglycan sulphation, using chlorate. Such cells are completely unresponsive to hepatocyte growth factor, both in terms of downstream phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and actual cell motility, though they do remain responsive to phorbol ester. Interestingly, although cell responsiveness to hepatocyte growth factor is not restored by exogenous heparan/dermatan sulphate chains, it is by an immobilised heparan sulphate proteoglycan substratum. These findings suggest that hepatocyte growth factor activity is not only critically dependent upon the presence of glycosaminoglycan, but specifically requires an intact proteoglycan structure located in close apposition to cell surface Met.  (+info)

Eukaryotic molybdopterin synthase. Biochemical and molecular studies of Aspergillus nidulans cnxG and cnxH mutants. (6/216)

We describe the primary structure of eukaryotic molybdopterin synthase small and large subunits and compare the sequences of the lower eukaryote, Aspergillus nidulans, and a higher eukaryote, Homo sapiens. Mutants in the A. nidulans cnxG (encoding small subunit) and cnxH (large subunit) genes have been analyzed at the biochemical and molecular level. Chlorate-sensitive mutants, all the result of amino acid substitutions, were shown to produce low levels of molybdopterin, and growth tests suggest that they have low levels of molybdoenzymes. In contrast, chlorate-resistant cnx strains have undetectable levels of molybdopterin, lack the ability to utilize nitrate or hypoxanthine as sole nitrogen sources, and are probably null mutations. Thus on the basis of chlorate toxicity, it is possible to distinguish between amino acid substitutions that permit a low level of molybdopterin production and those mutations that completely abolish molybdopterin synthesis, most likely reflecting molybdopterin synthase activity per se. Residues have been identified that are essential for function including the C-terminal Gly of the small subunit (CnxG), which is thought to be crucial for the sulfur transfer process during the formation of molybdopterin. Two independent alterations at residue Gly-148 in the large subunit, CnxH, result in temperature sensitivity suggesting that this residue resides in a region important for correct folding of the fungal protein. Many years ago it was proposed, from data showing that temperature-sensitive cnxH mutants had thermolabile nitrate reductase, that CnxH is an integral part of the molybdoenzyme nitrate reductase (MacDonald, D. W., and Cove, D. J. (1974) Eur. J. Biochem. 47, 107-110). Studies of temperature-sensitive cnxH mutants isolated in the course of this study do not support this hypothesis. Homologues of both molybdopterin synthase subunits are evident in diverse eukaryotic sources such as worm, rat, mouse, rice, and fruit fly as well as humans as discussed in this article. In contrast, molybdopterin synthase homologues are absent in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Precursor Z and molybdopterin are undetectable in this organism nor do there appear to be homologues of molybdoenzymes.  (+info)

Cloning and functional characterization of an Arabidopsis nitrate transporter gene that encodes a constitutive component of low-affinity uptake. (7/216)

The Arabidopsis CHL1 (AtNRT1) gene encodes an inducible component of low-affinity nitrate uptake, which necessitates a "two-component" model to account for the constitutive low-affinity uptake observed in physiological studies. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a CHL1 homolog, AtNRT1:2 (originally named NTL1), with data to indicate that this gene encodes a constitutive component of low-affinity nitrate uptake. Transgenic plants expressing antisense AtNRT1:2 exhibited reduced nitrate-induced membrane depolarization and nitrate uptake activities in assays with 10 mM nitrate. Furthermore, transgenic plants expressing antisense AtNRT1:2 in the chl1-5 background exhibited an enhanced resistance to chlorate (7 mM as opposed to 2 mM for the chl1-5 mutant). Kinetic analysis of AtNRT1:2-injected Xenopus oocytes yielded a K(m) for nitrate of approximately 5.9 mM. In contrast to CHL1, AtNRT1:2 was constitutively expressed before and after nitrate exposure (it was repressed transiently only when the level of CHL1 mRNA started to increase significantly), and its mRNA was found primarily in root hairs and the epidermis in both young (root tips) and mature regions of roots. We conclude that low-affinity systems of nitrate uptake, like high-affinity systems, are composed of inducible and constitutive components and that with their distinct functions, they are part of an elaborate nitrate uptake network in Arabidopsis.  (+info)

Proline-rich antimicrobial peptide, PR-39 gene transduction altered invasive activity and actin structure in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. (8/216)

PR-39 is an endogenous proline-rich antimicrobial peptide which induces the synthesis of syndecan-1, a transmembrane heparan sulphate proteoglycan involved in cell-to-matrix interactions and wound healing. Previously, we revealed that the expression of syndecan-1 was reduced in human hepatocellular carcinomas with high metastatic potential and speculated that syndecan-1 played an important role in inhibition of invasion and metastasis. It is assumed that a modification of this process with PR-39 and syndecan-1 may result in a new strategy by which it can inhibit the invasion and metastasis. Therefore, we transduced a gene of PR-39 into human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HLF, which shows a low expression of syndecan-1 and a high in vitro invasive activity, and examined whether this procedure could reduce the invasive activity of tumour cells. In two transfectants with PR-39 gene, the syndecan-1 expression was induced and the invasive activity in type I collagen-coated chamber was inhibited. Moreover, these transfectants showed the suppression of motile activity assayed by phagokinetic tracks in addition to the disorganization of actin filaments observed by a confocal imaging system. In contrast, five transfectants with syndecan-1 gene in the HLF cells revealed suppression of invasive activity but did not alter the motile activity and actin structures of the cell. These results suggest that PR-39 has functions involved in the suppression of motile activity and alteration of actin structure on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in addition to the suppression of invasive activity which might result from the induction of syndecan-1 expression.  (+info)

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article{0e4656d0-ee6d-4530-be21-b61a51e388cd, abstract = {The aim of this study was to clarify the pathway of electron transfer between the inner membrane components and the periplasmic chlorate reductase. Several soluble c-type cytochromes were found in the periplasm. The optical difference spectrum of dithionite-reduced periplasmic extract shows that at least one of these components is capable of acting as an electron donor to the enzyme chlorate reductase. The cytochromes were partially separated, and the fractions were analyzed by UV/visible spectroscopy to determine the ability of donating electrons to chlorate reductase. Our results show that one of the c cytochromes (6 kDa) is able to donate electrons, both to chlorate reductase and to the membrane-bound cytochrome c oxidase, whereas the roles of the remaining c cytochromes still remain to be elucidated. Peptide extracts of the c cytochromes were obtained by tryptic in-gel digestion for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization -time of ...
Nitrate respiration is a widespread mode of anaerobic energy generation used by many bacterial pathogens, and the respiratory nitrate reductase, Nar, has long been known to reduce chlorate to the toxic oxidizing agent chlorite. Here, we demonstrate the antibacterial activity of chlorate against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a representative pathogen that can inhabit hypoxic or anoxic host microenvironments during infection. Aerobically grown P. aeruginosa cells are tobramycin sensitive but chlorate tolerant. In the absence of oxygen or an alternative electron acceptor, cells are tobramycin tolerant but chlorate sensitive via Nar-dependent reduction. The fact that chlorite, the product of chlorate reduction, is not detected in culture supernatants suggests that it may react rapidly and be retained intracellularly. Tobramycin and chlorate target distinct populations within metabolically stratified aggregate biofilms; tobramycin kills cells on the oxic periphery, whereas chlorate kills hypoxic and anoxic ...
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The active ingredient sodium chlorate is found in a variety of commercial herbicides. Some trade names for products containing sodium chlorate include Atlacide, Defol, De-Fol-Ate, Drop-Leaf, Fall, Harvest-Aid, Kusatol, Leafex, and Tumbleaf. The compound may be used in combination with other herbicides such as atrazine, 2,4-D, bromacil, diuron, and sodium metaborate ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers a number of Sodium chlorate products. View information & documentation regarding Sodium chlorate, including CAS, MSDS & more.
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The most accurate measurement method for determining the chlorate ion concentration in bleach is ion chromatography (IC). Because this measurement requires specialized equipment and training, most bleach producers are unable to measure the chlorate ion concentration (and the subsequent bleach loss) at the production site. Thus, a titration method has been developed for on-site use to estimate the chlorate ion concentration in 10-15% bleach solutions.
DUBLINResearch and Markets (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/6zvp65/sodium_chlorate) has announced the addition of the Sodium Chlorate Market - Industry Trends, Prices, Manufacturing Process, Applications, Raw Materials, Manufacturers, Regional Breakup and Mass Balance report to their offering. Sodium
Sodium chlorate is used as an oxidizing agent and bleach for paper pulp, to make chlorine dioxide used in water disinfection, in various manufacturing processes, and as a non-selective herbicide, defoliant, and harvest aid (Merck, 1996; HSDB, 1997; RTECS, 1997). This study was performed due to the potential for human exposure to sodium chlorate and the lack of pertinent developmental toxicity data.. Dose selection was based on a screening study in which New Zealand White rabbits were treated by gavage with 0, 100, 250, 500, 750, or 1000 mg sodium chlorate/kg body weight/day on gestational days 6 through 29 (NTP, 1998). Maternal toxicity was noted at greater than or equal to 250 mg/kg/day, with maternal morbidity and mortality at greater than or equal to 500 mg/kg/day. There was no definitive evidence of developmental toxicity at doses up to 500 mg/kg/day (NTP, 1998).. In this study, female NZW rabbits were dosed by gavage with sodium chlorate (100, 250, or 475 mg/kg/day) or its vehicle ...
Ive readed an article that told about converting bleach to explosive thing. It gave advice to heat sodium hypochlorite to get sodium chlorate. But, what tem...
Please note that Germany Sodium Chlorate Market Outlook 2017 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to changes and additions. We have all data necessary for report preparation but they need to be retrieved from our databases, organized in a report, updated with the latest information and thus the complete study will be presented. This process takes 2-3 business days after the order is placed. Thus, our clients always get a revised and updated version of the report ...
The report presents information related to key drivers, restraints, and opportunities along with detailed analysis of the sodium chlorate market share.
About The report brings to your attention profound analysis of sodium chlorate market in Canada. Historical, present and future volumes and trends are covered. Experts opinions and estimations are p...
Global Sodium Chlorate Market Research Report 2017 contains historic data that spans 2012 to 2016, and then continues to forecast to 2022. That makes this report so invaluable, resources, for the leaders as well as the new entrants in the Industry
According to a new report by Expert Market Research, the global sodium chlorate market reached a volume of 4.3 Million Tons in 2020 and is further expected to reach 4.82 Million Tons by 2026.
This European Standard specifies requirements for the construction, performance, primary packaging and labelling of flash bangers and flash banger batteries and the corresponding test methods. It is applicable to fireworks which are classified as flash bangers and flash banger batteries in categories 1, 2 and 3 in EN 14035-2 and which contain pyrotechnic report composition that is nitrate/metal-based or perchlorate/metal-based. It is not applicable to fireworks containing pyrotechnic composition that includes any of the following substances: - arsenic or arsenic compounds; - mixtures containing a mass fraction of chlorates greater than 80 %; - mixtures of chlorates with metals; - mixtures of chlorates with red phosphorus; - mixtures of chlorates with potassium hexacyanoferrate(II); - mixtures of chlorates with sulfur; - mixtures of chlorates with sulfides; - lead or lead compounds; - mercury compounds; - white phosphorus; - picrates or picric acid; - potassium chlorate with a mass fraction of ...
An improved method for qualitative analysis of mixtures containing chloride, chlorite, chlorate, and perchlorate has been developed. This method utilizes paper partition chromatography and differential spray reagents for location of the separated spots. (Author)(*CHLORATES
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Investigators probing the cause of the fireworks disaster, which killed over 100 people and injured a couple of hundreds more, at the Puttingal Devi temple near Kollam on April 10, hinted that rival teams possibly used potassium chlorate, a banned explosive. They had also probably sourced the chemical illegally from matchstick factories. Potassium chlorate was…
International Potassium Chlorate chemical supplier and distributor by Tradeasia International. Potassium Chlorate has wide usages, such as in Agriculture and more.
[99 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Potassium Chlorate Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Potassium Chlorate Revenue,...
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Author: Subject: Grinding Potassium Chlorate - Sciencemadness Dec 06, 2016· Grinding Potassium Chlorate Hi everyone, , The machine was in use for about 2 years and cleaned weekly with brushes; NH4 persulfate is not very explosive nor inflamable but here one or two grams with grease and iron steel dust mixed intimately detonated in a discrete place of the machine and set fire to the rest of the bag into the machine .... ...
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POTASSIUM CHLORATE | KClO3 or ClKO3 | CID 6426889 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
what mass of potassium chlorate is required to supply the proper amount of oxygen needed to burn 71.06 grams of methane? (2KClO3-|2KCl + 3O2 and CH4 ...
A poor defenseless gummy bear, a test tube full of liquid potassium chlorate, and a couple of slightly mad scientists; seems like the perfect set up for some absurd B-movie horror flick, does it not? Well, not quite. It is more along the lines of...
C For Chemistry delves into the chemistry of science experiments. This chemist knows what hes talking about. These chemistry experiments are not only fun, but very educational for all of those interested in scientific chemical reactions and properties. This video tutorial will show you how to oxidize gummy bears with molten potassium chlorate.
Get 2 matches and potassium chlorate 3D models, printing files and textures on 3DOcean. Buy matches CG textures & 3D models from $4.
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Fastmarkets RISI is the best positioned and most authoritative global source of forest products information and data. We have a comprehensive digital offering which helps provide understanding and insight for our expanding customer base in this growing market. With over 150 expert industry professionals on our team, we supply the worlds most comprehensive and current data on supply and demand, pricing and costs to customers around the globe.. ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Decomposes above 400°C . Decomposes on contact with strong acids. This produces oxygen and toxic fumes including chlorine dioxide and chlorine. The substance is a strong oxidant. It reacts violently with combustible and reducing materials. This generates fire and explosion hazard. Attacks many metals in the presence of water ...
Background: Staphylococcus aureus evades host defense through releasing several virulence proteins, such as chemotaxis inhibitory protein of staphylococcus aureus (CHIPS). Previous studies have shown that extracellular N terminus of C5a receptor (C5aR) forms the binding domain for CHIPS. Tyrosine sulfation is emerging as a key factor in determining protein-protein interaction. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of tyrosine sulfation of N-terminal C5aR in binding to CHIPS.. Methods: Expression plasmids encoding C5aR and its mutants were made by PCR and site-directed mutagenesis. HEK 293T cells were transfected with plasmids encoding C5aR using calcium phosphate. Recombinant CHIPS protein was purified. Western blotting was used to assay the binding of CHIPS to C5aR or its mutants and p-38 phosphorylation.. Results: We report that CHIPS exclusively binds to C5aR, but not to C5L2 or C3aR. A nonspecific sulfation inhibitor, sodium chlorate, diminishes the binding ability of C5aR to ...
A year ago NATO and Afghan forces were seizing an average 60 tons of ammonium nitrate fertilizer a month That was twice as much as 2011 This was part of an effort to deny the Taliban access to the most common explosive (using the fertilizer) for bombs
Contribution No. 2755 of the Gates and Crellin Laboratories of Chemistry. Roscoe G. Dickinson came to Pasadena and began his X-ray work with the Burdick spectrometer in 1918. In 1920 he received his Ph.D. degree, the first one awarded by the California Institute of Technology; his thesis has the title I. The Crystal Structures of Wulfenite and Scheelite. II. The Crystal Structure of Sodium Chlorate and Sodium Bromate. The ionization spectrometer was also used by Richard M. Badger for his undergraduate thesis (B.S. 1921), which has the title The Effect of Surface Conditions on the Intensity of X-ray Reflections from Crystal Planes.. Dickinson then began making use of photographic methods. He prepared spectral photographs (rotation photographs) and Laue photographs, and interpreted them by the method of Nishikawa (1915) as developed by Wyckoff (1920). R. W. G. Wyckoff spent one year, 1921-22, in the California Institute of Technology.. Richard M. Bozorth was the second man to receive the Ph.D. ...
Groups of 50 male and 50 female rats were exposed to drinking water containing 0, 125, 1,000, or 2,000 mg/L sodium chlorate for 2 years (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 5, 35, and 75 mg/kg per day for male rats and 5, 45, and 95 mg/kg per day for female rats). Survival of exposed rats was similar to that of the control groups. Mean body weights of all exposed groups were similar to those of the control groups throughout the study. Water consumption by exposed rats was generally similar to that by controls throughout the study.. Serum concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine were significantly reduced in 1,000 and 2,000 mg/L males and females on day 4 and in 2,000 mg/L males and females at week 3. Serum concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone were significantly increased in 1,000 and 2,000 mg/L males on day 4 and at week 3, in 1,000 and 2,000 mg/L females on day 4, in 2,000 mg/L females at week 3, and in 2,000 mg/L males and females at week 14.. All special study ...
Get an answer for A. Assign oxidation numbers to each atom in the following compounds. B. Determine the formula mass of each of the following compounds or ions.A. HI, PBr3, GeS2, KH, As2O5, H3PO4 B. (glucose; C6H12O6), (calcium acetate; Ca(CH3COO)2), (the ammonium ion; NH+4), (the chlorate ion; ClO-3) and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
For good sink maintenance, some materials not to pour down the drain include foods, grease, detergents, pesticides, calcium chlorate, lime, outside oils, and inside oils.
Year 7 find out that when we respire, we release energy from glucose. We mimicked this in the lab by putting some potassium chlorate, an oxygen rich compound, into a test tube, melting it, then popping in a jelly baby. The release of heat, sound and light energy was immediate and dramatic, as seen in…
The Easy Toilet Riser is a toilet riser designed to elevate a toilet for people with mobility or balance disabilities. This unit attaches to the floor and is designed to fit toilets with a base that is 14 inches or less in length. The unit is constructed of ridged poly vinyl chlorate and elevates the entire toilet by 4 inches. It is easy to clean and can be used in homes or commercial facilities. The unit comes with two 6-inch closet bolts, two wax rings, one extended water pipe, two washers, tw. ...
Looking for online definition of Sodium chlorate(I) in the Medical Dictionary? Sodium chlorate(I) explanation free. What is Sodium chlorate(I)? Meaning of Sodium chlorate(I) medical term. What does Sodium chlorate(I) mean?
Two acute studies with Mallard ducks and one with Northern bobwhite quails were found to be valid. Fink, et al. (1990) exposed ducks to a range of concentrations of sodium chlorate by once intubating a solution in distilled water into the crop. The birds were observed for 14 days and no mortality or body weight changes occurred during this period (No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) , 2510 mg/kg). Long, et al. (1991) fed 10 day old ducks chicks and Northern bobwhite chicks for a period of 5 days with a range of concentrations of sodium chlorate mixed into the diet with corn oil. The ducks were observed for this period and up till three days after exposure. No mortality or clinical signs of toxicity were observed throughout the test. Body weight and food consumption were not affected. Sodium chlorate is not toxic at the highest concentrations tested. The NOAEL in both studies amounted to 5620 ppm (approx 2500 - 1500 mg/kg bw/d, based on food consumption per day and body weight on day 0 and ...
The safety and feasibility of industrial electrochemical production of sodium chlorate, an important chemical in the pulp and paper industry, depend on the selectivity of the electrode processes. The cathodic reduction of anodic products is sufficiently suppressed in the current technology by the addition of chromium(VI) to the electrolyte, but due to the high toxicity of these compounds, alternative pathways are required to maintain high process efficiency. In this paper, we evaluate the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction kinetics and selectivity on thermally formed manganese oxide-coated titanium electrodes in hypochlorite and chlorate solutions. The morphology and phase composition of manganese oxide layers were varied via alteration of the annealing temperature during synthesis, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, synchrotron radiation X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements. As shown in ...
A H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) was applied to simultaneously determinate chlorate and bromate in ammonium perchlorate. The method is based on the difference between their reaction rates with chloride in acidic media whereby methyl orange is used as spectrophotometric indicator. The reaction can be monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of methyl orange at 507 nm in the time range 50-250 s after initiation of the reaction with 1 s intervals. The results showed that chlorate and bromate can be determined simultaneously in the range 50-1000 and 50-2000 ng mL−1, respectively. The proposed method was applied to determinate chlorate and bromate impurities in military grade ammonium perchlorate. In addition, excellent agreement between this proposed method and standard methods was observed. ...
Short-term as well as long-term aquatic toxicity tests show that sodium chlorate is not very toxic to aquatic organisms. Short-term tests with fish and invertebrates, freshwater as well as marine species, gave results greater than 1000 mg/l. For long-term tests with fish and daphnids NOEC values greater than 500 mg/l were obtained. Algae species (freshwater and marine) were more sensitive, but EC50 values were still greater than 100 mg/l and NOECs were greater than 62.5 mg/l. Lemna minor was most sensitive with a NOEC of 10 mg/l. Two other taxonomic groups of marine organisms were tested as well. Molluscs were not sensitive in a short-term test with a EC50 greater than 1000 mg/l. The rotifer Brachionus plicatilis was the most sensitive marine species with an EC50 of 596 mg/l and an EC10 of 21 mg/l, both based on reproduction. Taking all aquatic data into account Lemna minor is most sensitive, with a NOEC of 10 mg/l. ...
Ammonium chloride based smoke is irritating to the eyes and lungs as it contains some remaining HCl and NH3. Ammonium chloride itself is not poisonous and is even used in some type of candy. But as with all fine powders a dust mask must be worn, and since ammonium chloride is irritating to the skin and damaging to the eyes, gloves and goggles are important. Acording to Shimizu, ammonium chloride forms an exception to the rule that ammonium compounds should not be mixed with chlorates. Due to the lower solubility of potassium chlorate (compared to ammonium chlorate) no ammonium chlorate should form. I personally would still use these mixtures with great caution (or avoid them) since it seems inevitable that small amounts of ammonium chlorate will still form. The lower solubility of potassium chlorate will make it the -main- product in a double decomposition reaction but not the -only- product. It is strongly advised not to mix with metal powders, specifically copper, because it will become ...
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An educational video for kids. Molten potassium chlorate is a strong oxidizing agent that reacts violently with sugar. Gummy bears have lots of sugar in them.  This video shows what happens when the two are combined.  (01:03)
Write a formula for the ionic compound that forms from each pair of elements. 7775-09-9. The chemical formula of a covalent network tells us the ratio of the elements present. The element sodium is referred to using the letters Na, while oxygen is referred to using O. The peroxide equation is: Potassium. Bromate de sodium. But rather than store it as a gas, oxygen in a chlorate candle is locked up in the form of a solid chemical compound, sodium chlorate, NaClO 3. Sodium reacts violently with water producing hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide. (Using sodium peroxide to scrub carbon dioxide emissions, 2014). Sodium Acetate Formula. Sodium reacts with oxygen to give sodium oxide. Chloric acid, sodium salt . Sign Up. Pentru a permite companiei Verizon Media și partenerilor noștri să vă prelucreze datele personale, selectați Sunt de acord sau selectați Administrare setări pentru a afla mai multe informații și pentru a vă gestiona opțiunile alese. Oxygen-based bleaches include sodium
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of the blood, even in the coldest climate, being maintained at 96o.. In regulating the temperature of his body, man follows instinctively the same rules of common sense which he applies in warming his dwellings. In proportion as the climate is cold, he supplies the loss of heat by burning more fuel in his lungs, and hence the statements of arctic voyagers, who have told us that twelve pounds of tallow-candles make only an average meal for an Esquimaux, are not inconsistent with the deductions of science.. 143. Slow and Rapid Combustion of Sugar.- We may compare the rapid combustion of sugar in air with its slow combustion in the body, by the following experiment: Take 2 ounces of pulverized sugar, or the average quantity burnt in the body of a man in an hour, and mix it with 5} ounces of pulverized potassic chlorate. We have then the sugar and the solidified oxygen of the chlorate mingled as in the blood; but the oxygen is passive, and will not combine with the sugar, until roused to ...
No warranty, expressed or implied, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose or otherwise is made, except that the products herein discussed comply with the chemical description on the labels. Buyer assumes risks of the use, storage and handling. Hummel shall not be liable for any incidental or consequential damages arising directly or indirectly in connection with the purchase, use, storage or handling of this product. The information contained herein is, to the best of our knowledge, true and accurate. However, all recommendations or suggestions are made without guarantee, since the conditions of use are beyond our control. We disclaim any liability incurred in connection with the use of these data or suggestions. This information is not to be taken as a license to operate under, or a recommendation to infringe any patent(s). The observance of all regulations and patents is the responsibility of the user. No agent, representative or employee of this company is authorized to vary any ...
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Contractions. - Kali-chl. K-cl. Synonym. - Kali Chloricum. Present name. - Potassic Chlorate. KClO3. Chlorate of Potash. This may be obtained from the manufacturing chemists and re-crystallized. ...
The proliferation response of stage 36 chick atrioventricular valve mesenchymal cells to fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) was studied in the tissue-like environment of three-dimensional cell aggregates maintained in organ culture. The mitogenic effects of FGF-2 on mesenchymal tissue depended on the FGF-2-stimulated formation of a fibronectin-containing extracellular matrix. The matrix was absent in unstimulated aggregates, and co-localized with regions of actively proliferating cells in stimulated aggregates. Inhibition of fibronectin matrix formation by the inclusion of Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptides, which compete with fibronectin for binding to the cell surface alpha 5 beta 1 integrin receptors, abolished the proliferation effects of FGF-2. Inhibition of sulfation of cell surface glycosaminoglycans by treatment with sodium chlorate significantly reduced both the formation of the fibronectin matrix and cell proliferation in response to FGF-2, suggesting an involvement of the low-affinity ...
CBCnews (Canada) has an interesting story about how the Integrated Waste Hydrogen Utilization Project (IWHUP) uses hydrogen from two chemical plants to power pickup trucks, shuttle buses and a car wash. The chemical plants produce more than 1000 kg/hr of hydrogen resulting form the production of sodium chlorate and clor-alkali by electrolysis of salt water. The waste hydrogen contains chlorine, water vapor and other nasties, which have to be removed before it can be used. Sacré-Davey Engineering saw that the hydrogen was being wasted by venting the hydrogen to the atmosphere and designed a C$18.3 million facility to treat, compress and deliver the hydrogen to two fueling stations- one in North Vancouver and the other in Port Coquitlam, a nearby suburb. Fuel cells were deemed too expensive for the IWHUP project, and the existing internal-combustion technology was already available through Ford. Ford supplied the trucks and they asked us to use them as much as we can. They wanted to...
The photos of indentations by the Vickers pyramid i n a sodium chlorate c r y s t a l are presented i n Figure 2 and give an idea of r e s u l t i n g cracks and l i f t - o f f s . 6 N). In the case of potassium n i t r a t e the Vickers hardness indentat i o n s have not a quadratic shape. This i s due t o a d i r e c t i o n dependent hardness i n the c r y s t a l l a t t i c e of t h i s material. ch004 46 CRYSTALLIZATION AS A SEPARATIONS PROCESS 4. ch004 t i c e . The force-dependency o f the Vickers hardness isshown i n the p l o t i n Figure 3. The force-dependency o f the Vickers hardness isshown i n the p l o t i n Figure 3. In the diagram there are two curves of the Vickers hardness r e s u l t i n g always from the same indentation image. The hardness values d i f f e r by a f a c t o r of two. The one curve r e s u l t s from the data o f the longer and the other from the shorter diagonal o f each intendation. This d i r e c t i o n dependency was so f a r only observed for the case ...
Where can I get information on the uses of CHLC versus GDB/OMIM for human gene mapping data? To me it looks like CHLC is useful for trying to track down unknown genes, and for forensic analysis. GDB/OMIM is useful for finding the map position of known genes and getting clones which contain those genes. Is this true? Are the two databases/maps cross-referenced? -- ******************************************************************** * Brian Foley * If we knew what we were doing * * Molecular Genetics Dept. * it wouldnt be called research * * University of Vermont ...
Anti-NRT1.1 | nitrate transporter 1.1 antibodies, AS12 2611, antibody to AtNRT1, Nitrate/chlorate transporter, protein CHLORINA 1, AtNPF6.3, Q05085, AT1G12110
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Several analytical tools and complicated experimental devices has been used over the past 2 decades to search for answers to these 3 questions (Wilderer et al., 2002; McGuire et al., 2003; Simon et al., 2004). Even today, a cursory survey of the literature on Feº technology will find, in the introduction to virtually every paper, phrases such as ... Feº is proved to be particularly suitable for the decontamination of halogenated organic compounds, but subsequent studies have confirmed the possibility of using Feº for the reduction of nitrate, bromated, chlorate, nitro aromatic compounds, brominated pesticides. Feº proved to be effective in removing arsenic, lead, uranium and hexavalent chromium... (Groza et al., 2009). It is important to notice that contaminant reduction and contaminant removal are mostly randomly interchanged.. It should be explicitly stated that some researchers have insisted on the importance of adsorption and/or co-precipitation in the process of aqueous ...
1JEC: The complex structures of ATP sulfurylase with thiosulfate, ADP and chlorate reveal new insights in inhibitory effects and the catalytic cycle.
1JED: The complex structures of ATP sulfurylase with thiosulfate, ADP and chlorate reveal new insights in inhibitory effects and the catalytic cycle.
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Synonyms for chlorites in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for chlorites. 1 word related to chlorite: mineral. What are synonyms for chlorites?
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Chlorate of potash. potassium chlorate. KClO3 Muriate of potash (MOP). potassium chloride. KCl:NaCl (95:5 or higher)[1] ...
Ammonium chlorate - NH4ClO3. *Ammonium cyanide - NH4CN. *Ammonium dichromate - (NH4)2Cr2O7 ...
Chlorate mixes are used when cost is the overriding concern because potassium chlorate is less expensive than perchlorate. It ... Aluminium and chlorateEdit. Because of the above-mentioned instability[further explanation needed]. , the combination of ... Antimony trisulfide and chlorateEdit. This mixture, and similar mixtures sometimes containing pyro aluminium have been used ... Flash powders-especially those that use chlorate-are often highly sensitive to friction, heat/flame and static electricity. A ...
3 chlorate. ClO−. 4 perchlorate. SO2−. 3 sulfite. SO2−. 4 sulfate. HSO−. 3 hydrogen sulfite (or bisulfite). HCO−. 3 hydrogen ... chlorate and perchlorate ions. This system has partially fallen out of use, but survives in the common names of many chemical ...
Potassium chlorate Solid KClO3 −391.4 Potassium chloride Solid KCl −436.68 Potassium fluoride Solid KF −562.6 ...
Reacts with potassium chlorate, producing unstable, gradually decomposing ammonium chlorate; such combination has to be avoided ... Perchlorates and chlorates play this role together with their main use as oxidizers. Chlorine donors are often used also in ... Barium chlorate - also serves as a green colorant in fireworks; sensitive, better to avoid. Almost non-hygroscopic. ... Perchlorates, chlorates and nitrates are the most commonly used oxidizers for flash powders. Other possibilities include ...
Potassium chlorate. Potassium perchlorate Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state ( ...
Chlorate. ClO−. 3. Chromate. CrO2−. 4. Dichromate. Cr. 2O2−. 7. ...
The World Health Organization has established guidelines for several DBPs, including bromate, bromodichloromethane, chlorate, ... "Nitrates, chlorates and trihalomethanes in swimming pool water". American Journal of Public Health. 70 (1): 79-82. doi:10.2105 ...
Potassium nitrate, potassium chlorate, and potassium perchlorate are all important oxidizers. The potassium content can impart ... The oxidizers are usually nitrates, chlorates, or perchlorates. Sometimes the same substance is used to provide oxygen and ...
It is usually prepared by reducing a chlorate as follows:[46] ClO−. 3 + Cl− + 2 H+ ⟶ ClO2 + 1/2 Cl2 + H2O. Its production is ... Chloride and chlorate may comproportionate to form chlorine as follows:[48] ClO−. 3 + 5 Cl− + 6 H+ ⟶ 3 Cl2 + 3 H2O. ... The chlorate ions may themselves disproportionate to form chloride and perchlorate (4 ClO−. 3 ⇌ Cl− + 3 ClO−. 4) but this is ... The decomposition of chlorate to chloride and oxygen is a common way to produce oxygen in the laboratory on a small scale. ...
Chromic acid converts it into quinone, whereas chlorates, in the presence of certain metallic salts (especially of vanadium), ... Hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate give chloranil. Potassium permanganate in neutral solution oxidizes it to nitrobenzene ...
5 is in chlorates. +7 is in perchlorates. Hypochlorites are most reactive, while perchlorates are the least reactive. ...
Chlorite, chlorate, perchlorate, and other analogous halogen compounds. *Hypochlorite and other hypohalite compounds, including ...
... and Chlorates. Also the Chemistry and Analysis of the Elementary Bodies which Enter Into the Manufacture of the Principal Nitro ...
Potassium compounds are not normally dangerous, unless they contain a toxic anion like chromate or chlorate. ...
"Sodium Chlorate" (PDF). USDA Agricultural Marketing Service. United States Department of Agriculture. 6 November 2000. Archived ... sodium chlorate, thidiazuron, and tribufos. The most common and widely used contact desiccant is diquat (Reglone®). For ...
It is similar to sodium chlorate. It is a strong oxidizing agent. It reacts with sodium hypochlorite to make sodium periodate. ...
metal-chloride + O2 → metal-chlorate. metal-oxide + CO2 → metal carbonate (CO3). Related pages[change , change source]. * ...
It reacts with incandescence with cadmium, magnesium and zinc chlorates. Mixtures of Sb2S3 and chlorates may explode. In the ...
Installation nº1 was located in Ca l'Aranyó, in Cardona (Bages). It extracted potassium chlorate. Installation nº2 was in the ...
2, chlorate Zn(ClO3). 2, sulfate ZnSO. 4, phosphate Zn. 3(PO4). 2, molybdate ZnMoO. 4, cyanide Zn(CN). 2, arsenite Zn(AsO2). 2 ...
Warren, Francis (1960). Chlorates and perchlorates, their manufacture, properties and uses. Defense Technical Information ... boiling solution of potassium chlorate and zinc fluosilicate. For large-scale manufacturing purposes, barium perchlorate is ...
It is treated with concentrated nitric acid and potassium chlorate to convert all of the sulfur to sulfate (SO2−. 4). The ... nitrate and chlorate are removed by treating the solution with concentrated HCl. The sulfate is precipitated with barium (Ba2+ ...
Triiodide is present in equilibrium with iodide anion and molecular iodine: I− 3 ⇄ I 2 + I− Chlorate ion oxidizes iodide ion to ... André P. Oliveira and Roberto B. Faria (2005). "The chlorate-iodine clock reaction". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 (51): 18022-18023. ... HClO 2 More autocatalysis when newly generated iodous acid also converts chlorate in the fastest reaction step: ClO− 3 + HIO 2 ... sodium chlorate and perchloric acid that takes place through the following reactions. ...
"Chlorate" is the anion name. IUPAC also has a system for giving codes to identify amino acids and nucleotide bases. IUPAC ... An example of IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry is potassium chlorate (KClO3): "Potassium" is the cation name. " ...
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Sodium, potassium, and lithium chlorates and perchlorates are used. A device that converts coke or other carbonaceous material ...
Likewise, as hypochlorite increases in concentration, chlorates are produced from them: 3 NaClO → NaClO3 + 2 NaCl This reaction ... Landolt, D.; Ibl, N. (1972). "Anodic chlorate formation on platinized titanium". Journal of Applied Electrochemistry. Chapman ...
Decomposes above 400°C . Decomposes on contact with strong acids. This produces oxygen and toxic fumes including chlorine dioxide and chlorine. The substance is a strong oxidant. It reacts violently with combustible and reducing materials. This generates fire and explosion hazard. Attacks many metals in the presence of water ...
... such as potassium chlorate, which supply oxygen to the igniting agent and the other combustible materials; (2) binders, such as ... Other articles where Potassium chlorate is discussed: match: …(1) oxidizing agents, ... 1) oxidizing agents, such as potassium chlorate, which supply oxygen to the igniting agent and the other combustible materials ...
Examples of chlorates include potassium chlorate, KClO3 sodium chlorate, NaClO3 magnesium chlorate, Mg(ClO3)2 If a Roman ... "Chlorate" can also refer to chemical compounds containing this anion; chlorates are the salts of chloric acid. "Chlorate", when ... "chlorate" means any chlorine oxyanion. Commonly, "chlorate" refers only to chlorine in the +5 oxidation state. Chlorates are ... The chlorate was also measured in rainfall samples with the amount of chlorate similar to perchlorate. It is suspected that ...
In enzymology, a chlorate reductase (EC 1.97.1.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction AH2 + chlorate ⇌ {\ ... This enzyme is also called chlorate reductase C. Azoulay E, Mutaftschiev S (June 1971). "[Study of chlorate-resistant mutants ... 3. Chlorate-reductase c of mutants chl. C-]". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 237 (3): 579-90. doi:10.1016/0304-4165(71)90278-9 ... It is closely related to the enzyme perchlorate reductase which reduces both chlorate and perchlorate. This enzyme belongs to ...
THE INTERNAL USE OF POTASSIUM CHLORATE Br Med J 1916; 1 :704 ... THE INTERNAL USE OF POTASSIUM CHLORATE. Br Med J 1916; 1 doi: ...
View information & documentation regarding Sodium chlorate, including CAS, MSDS & more. ... Sigma-Aldrich offers a number of Sodium chlorate products. ...
Potassium chlorate is a common industrial chemical used for all sorts of things, including fireworks and matches. ... The terrorists have been substituting that loss with potassium chlorate (13 percent in 2011, 23 percent in 2012, and 45 percent ... with about ten percent using old shells and bombs from the 1980s and the rest potassium chlorate. Over the last few years ... this year). Potassium chlorate is more expensive than ammonium nitrate but not to the point where the terrorists cannot afford ...
Potassium chlorate(V) is heated and the time noted for enough oxygen to be produced to light a glowing splint. This is repeated ... Catalysts for the thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate Description. Potassium chlorate(V) is heated and the time noted ... Both sodium chlorate(V) and potassium chlorate(V) react at similar rates. There is very little difference in effectiveness ... Potassium (or sodium) chlorate(V) is heated in a test-tube and the time noted for enough oxygen to be produced to light a ...
Chlorate. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Chlorate results for United Wappinger ... Chlorate forms in drinking water as a byproduct of disinfection. Chlorate impairs thyroid function, making chlorate exposure ... The EWG Health Guideline of 210 ppb for chlorate was defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as a benchmark for testing ... In 2002, California scientists proposed an advisory value, called an action level, for chlorate at 200 parts per billion. ...
The possibility of quantitative determination of chlorate impurities in the range of 2-50 mg/L in the presence of 50-500-fold ... To quantify the low concentrations of chlorates, we proposed to remove 85-95% of hypochlorite ions by means of reducing their ... We have shown that blank titration is advisable to improve the accuracy of the determination of low concentrations of chlorates ... The expanded uncertainty of chlorate determination did not exceed 0.6 mg/L. ...
Potassium chlorate is more ionic in character, and thus has a higher melting temperature, making it more difficult to work with ... Potassium chlorate is a commonly used chemical in the manufacture of safety matches and pyrotechnics. It is a white crystalline ... Heating a small amount of potassium chlorate to its melting point of about 370 C is foolhardy unless you know what youre doing ... Many potassium chlorate melt specimens have bubbles which show as black in crossed polar photomicrographs. These blemishes can ...
Potassium chlorate - KClO3 advice , To: aquatic plants digest ,aquatic-plants at actwin_com, , , I believe Jerry Baker wrote ...
The formula for magnesium chlorate is Mg(ClO3)2. It appears as white soluble crystals or powder and is used to make other ... Magnesium chlorate is an inorganic compound with a molar mass of 191.21, a density of 1.80g/cm3, a melting point of 35 degrees ... The formula for magnesium chlorate is Mg(ClO3)2. It appears as white soluble crystals or powder and is used to make other ... Due to the toxic nature of magnesium chlorate, protective gear, including gloves, goggles, clothing and breathing apparatus, is ...
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... the global Sodium Chlorate market is valued at USD XX million in 2017 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of ... sodium chloratesodium chlorate researchsodium chlorate market reportsodium chlorate market research reportsmarketmarket ... 1 Sodium Chlorate Market Overview. 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Sodium Chlorate. 1.2 Sodium Chlorate Segment by Type ... 1.3 Global Sodium Chlorate Segment by Application. 1.3.1 Sodium Chlorate Consumption Sales Comparison by Application 20132025. ...
The combination of zinc powder as reductant and sodium chlorate as oxidant was used to provide an environmentally friendly, ...
Sodium chlorate is not toxic at the highest concentrations tested. The NOAEL in both studies amounted to 5620 ppm (approx 2500 ... 1990) exposed ducks to a range of concentrations of sodium chlorate by once intubating a solution in distilled water into the ... Then a period of 10 weeks pre-egg production started in which they were exposed to different concentrations of sodium chlorate ... 10 day old ducks chicks and Northern bobwhite chicks for a period of 5 days with a range of concentrations of sodium chlorate ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Furthermore the particle size distribution for sodium chlorate as it is produced shows that 96.35% of the sodium chlorate ... Considering the exposure pattern of sodium chlorate consumers are not exposed to sodium chlorate via the use described in ... Sodium chlorate is not classified for acute dermal toxicity. No effects were observed in an acute dermal toxicity study. ... Sodium chlorate is not classified for acute inhalation toxicity. No effects were observed in an acute inhalation toxicity study ...
... is Arkemas sodium chlorate (NaClO3) products that offers optimum brightness for paper bleaching applications. It can also be ... Alpure® sodium chlorate. Contact our experts Product overview Alpure® is Arkemas sodium chlorate (NaClO3) products that offers ... Alpure® sodium chlorate. Alpure® is Arkemas sodium chlorate (NaClO3) products that offers optimum brightness for paper ... Alpure® is Arkemas sodium chlorate (NaClO3) products that offers optimum brightness for paper bleaching applications. It can ...
Barium Chlorate Hydrate Ba(ClO3)2• xH2O bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples ... Minnesota: Barium Chlorate, Monohydrate. New Jersey: Barium Chlorate, Monohydrate. New Jersey spill list: Barium Chlorate, ... About Barium Chlorate Hydrate. Barium Chlorate Hydrate is generally immediately available in most volumes. High purity, ... charcoal with chlorates can explode virtually spontaneously.. Chlorates can also present a dangerous explosion hazard when ...
Sodium chlorate(I) pronunciation, Sodium chlorate(I) translation, English dictionary definition of Sodium chlorate(I). n. An ... Define Sodium chlorate(I). Sodium chlorate(I) synonyms, ... Sodium chlorate(I) - definition of Sodium chlorate(I) by The ... redirected from Sodium chlorate(I)). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. sodium hypochlorite. n.. An unstable salt ... a href=https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Sodium+chlorate(I),sodium hypochlorite,/a,. *Facebook ...
Chlorate. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Chlorate results for Jefferson County ... Chlorate forms in drinking water as a byproduct of disinfection. Chlorate impairs thyroid function, making chlorate exposure ... Chlorate. Jefferson County W and S District - M. NOTE: Jefferson County W and S District - M purchases water from Toronto ... The EWG Health Guideline of 210 ppb for chlorate was defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as a benchmark for testing ...
Potassium chlorate is a chemical compound. Its chemical formula is KClO3. It has potassium and chlorate ions. ... Potassium chlorate is a strong oxidizing agent and can catch many things on fire. When it is mixed with sulfur or phosphorus, ... Many other chemicals can make dangerous mixtures with potassium chlorate. Related pages[change , change source]. *Oxidizing ... It can also be made by reacting concentrated sodium chlorate with potassium chloride. ...
Silver chlorate for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references. ...
Potassium chlorate, technical grade, contains 0.2% PCP anti-cake. Sold by the pound. Used as an oxidizer in colored smokes and ... Potassium Chlorate Colored Star Formulas: Chemicals. Hardt Green #1. Weingart Yellow #1. Weingart Red #1. Hardt Blue #2. ...
This page contains information on the chemical Magnesium chlorate including: 12 synonyms/identifiers; U.S. Code of Federal ... Magnesium chlorate. Identifications. *Caswell Number: 530A*Synonyms/Related:*Chlorate salt of magnesium*Chloric acid, magnesium ... Magnesium chlorate*Magnesium chlorate hexahydrate*Magnesium dichlorate*Magron*MC Defoliant*Ortho MC. 49 CFR 172.101 - Hazardous ... Magnesium chlorate (EnvironmentalChemistry.com),/a,- This page contains information on the chemical Magnesium chlorate ...
... chlorate , ClNaO3 , CID 24487 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
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  • Among well-known methods is sequential potentiometric titration of hypochlorite, chlorite, and chlorate with a solution of arsenic (III) in the presence of an osmium tetroxide catalyst [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In enzymology, a chlorate reductase (EC 1.97.1.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction AH2 + chlorate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } A + H2O + chlorite Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are a reduced electron acceptor (denoted AH2) and chlorate, whereas its 3 products are an oxidized electron acceptor (denoted A), water, and chlorite. (wikipedia.org)
  • In chlorate-reducing bacteria, chlorate is reduced to chlorite by a chlorate reductase, and in a second reaction, chlorite is disproportionated to chloride and oxygen by a chlorite dismutase. (asm.org)
  • The only known substrate of chlorate reductase C is chlorate, which was reduced to chlorite. (asm.org)
  • Nitrate respiration is a widespread mode of anaerobic energy generation used by many bacterial pathogens, and the respiratory nitrate reductase, Nar, has long been known to reduce chlorate to the toxic oxidizing agent chlorite. (asm.org)
  • The fact that chlorite, the product of chlorate reduction, is not detected in culture supernatants suggests that it may react rapidly and be retained intracellularly. (asm.org)
  • Chlorate is a nontoxic compound that can be reduced to toxic chlorite by a widespread enzyme of anaerobic metabolism. (asm.org)
  • An improved method for qualitative analysis of mixtures containing chloride, chlorite, chlorate, and perchlorate has been developed. (dtic.mil)
  • Our results showed that both chlorite dismutase and chlorate reductase are expressed during aerobic growth. (asm.org)
  • This reflects the presence of two different enzymes, a perchlorate reductase (Pcr) in PRB that reduces perchlorate to chlorite via chlorate and a chlorate reductase (Clr) in CRB that reduces chlorate to chlorite. (asm.org)
  • The toxic chlorite formed by the action of (per)chlorate reductase is decomposed to molecular oxygen and chloride by the enzyme chlorite dismutase (Cld). (asm.org)
  • The oxygen produced by the action of chlorite dismutase during (per)chlorate respiration is believed to be used by a terminal oxidase in the (per)chlorate-respiring bacteria concomitant with (per)chlorate respiration ( 1 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Recipient(s) will receive an email with a link to 'Bromate, chlorate, chlorite and perchlorate in sodium hypochlorite solution used in water supply' and will not need an account to access the content. (iwaponline.com)
  • A survey was conducted to reveal the concentrations of bromate, chlorite, chlorate and perchlorate as impurities in sodium hypochlorite solutions and those of chlorate and perchlorate in raw and processed waters including a metropolitan area. (iwaponline.com)
  • Chiswell B. and Keller-Lehmann B. (1993) Spectrophotometric method for the determination of chlorite and chlorate. (edu.au)
  • Instead, it is often thought of as a hybrid of multiple resonance structures: Metal chlorates can be prepared by adding chlorine to hot metal hydroxides like KOH: 3 Cl2 + 6 KOH → 5 KCl + KClO3 + 3 H2O In this reaction, chlorine undergoes disproportionation, both reduction and oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of chlorates include potassium chlorate, KClO3 sodium chlorate, NaClO3 magnesium chlorate, Mg(ClO3)2 If a Roman numeral in brackets follows the word "chlorate", this indicates the oxyanion contains chlorine in the indicated oxidation state, namely: Using this convention, "chlorate" means any chlorine oxyanion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium Chlorate (KCLO3) 99.7%min - Product Identification CAS No. : 3811-04-9 H.S. Code : 2829.19.10 EINECS NO:223-289-7 UN NO:1485 Hazard Class :5.1 Formula : KCLO3 Molecular Weight : 122.55 Synonyms : Potassium Salt, Potash Chlorate, Chloric Acid, Berthollet Salt. (asiatradehub.com)
  • How many grams of potassium chlorate, KClO3(s) must decompose to produce potassium chloride, KCl(s), and 1.45 grams of oxygen gas? (jiskha.com)
  • I have a good deal of Knowledge with KCLO3.and KCLO4/ Potassium chlorate is a very strong Oxidizer, so is Potassium perchlorate. (scienceforums.net)
  • Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen, with the chemical formula KClO3. (worldofchemicals.com)
  • The chlorate was also measured in rainfall samples with the amount of chlorate similar to perchlorate. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is suspected that chlorate and perchlorate may share a common natural formation mechanism and could be a part of the chlorine biogeochemistry cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, the evolution of chlorate reduction may be an ancient phenomenon as all perchlorate reducing bacteria described to date also utilize chlorate as a terminal electron acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is closely related to the enzyme perchlorate reductase which reduces both chlorate and perchlorate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other chlorate-reducing bacteria can also couple the reduction of perchlorate or nitrate to growth ( 1 , 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Up to now, two enzymes that can reduce chlorate and/or perchlorate have been purified and characterized. (asm.org)
  • Experiments showed that one enzyme is responsible for both chlorate and perchlorate reduction activity. (asm.org)
  • If you were making perchlorate, make saturated solution of 127g KCl or 82g NH4Cl (you need to be REALLY sure that you don't have any sodium chlorate in your solution, run electrolysis longer if you are unsure, ammonium chlorate is VERY unstable). (amazonaws.com)
  • A H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) was applied to simultaneously determinate chlorate and bromate in ammonium perchlorate. (wiley.com)
  • The proposed method was applied to determinate chlorate and bromate impurities in military grade ammonium perchlorate. (wiley.com)
  • Potassium Chlorate >Ammonium perchlorate >Potassium perchlorate TY Charcoal is a preservative, by which the saltpetre and brimstone are made into gunpowder, by preventing the sulphur from suffocating the strong and windy exhalation of the nitre. (oldewierdenloop.nl)
  • The report finds that sodium chlorate is also finding large application in the production of sodium perchlorate which is used as an unreactive electrolyte in standard DNA extraction, and used in medicine to block iodine uptake. (pulpandpaperonline.com)
  • The use of chlorine oxyanions, such as chlorate (ClO 3 − ) and perchlorate (ClO 4 − ), in industry has resulted in contaminated soils and waters, threatening the environment. (asm.org)
  • Chlorate, for example, is highly toxic to brown algae ( 25 , 35 ), and perchlorate may have a direct influence on human health, as it affects the function of iodide transporters in the thyroid and mammary glands ( 9 , 17 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • The main source of chlorate contamination is chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) bleaching in the pulp and paper industry ( 8 ), and the most efficient remediation techniques for both chlorate and perchlorate are based on degradation performed by microorganisms ( 13 , 33 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • Perchlorate-respiring bacteria (PRB) can use both perchlorate and chlorate as terminal electron acceptors, whereas chlorate-respiring bacteria (CRB) use only chlorate. (asm.org)
  • In the survey of chlorate and perchlorate in raw and processed waters in the Tone River Basin, the highest concentration of chlorate in raw water was 78 μg l −1 and that of perchlorate was 40 μg l −1 . (iwaponline.com)
  • Chlorate and perchlorate concentrations in 32 purchased sodium hypochlorite solutions and six on-site-generated hypochlorite solutions were also analysed. (iwaponline.com)
  • In hypochlorite solutions whose measured FAC (free available chlorine) concentration was lower than the manufacturer-specified FAC concentrations, the chlorate and perchlorate concentrations were higher than those in relatively fresh sodium hypochlorite solutions. (iwaponline.com)
  • In on-site-generated hypochlorite solutions, the maximum concentrations of chlorate and perchlorate were 1,700 mg l −1 (140 mg g −1 of measured FAC) and 0.660 mg l −1 (0.053 mg g −1 of measured FAC), respectively. (iwaponline.com)
  • Changsha Yonta Industry Co., Ltd., as a Leading and Professional Wholesaler / Exporter for Chemical Raw Materials in Hunan Province of China, is specialized in Chlorate Salts, Perchlorate Salts, Nitrate Salts and Permanganate Salts for almost two decades. (ttnet.net)
  • Also, I use platinized titanium (or LD) electrodes exclusively for converting sodium chlorate to sodium perchlorate, preparatory to forming potassium perchlorate (or other perchlorates). (amateurpyro.com)
  • The growth of the pulp and paper industry generating strong demand for sodium chlorate due to its easy availability and cost-effectiveness. (businesswire.com)
  • The demand for sodium chlorate is likely to expand at a significant rate owing to its use in the production of bleaching agent. (pulpandpaperonline.com)
  • Demand for sodium chlorate for use in bleaching agent production is likely to surpass 2,700,000 tons by 2018-end. (pulpandpaperonline.com)
  • In spite of the mounting environmental concerns, paper and pulp industry continues to generate substantial demand for sodium chlorate owing to its easy availability and low-cost. (pulpandpaperonline.com)
  • Demand for sodium chlorate is especially pronounced in the US, Japan, and China as these have remained traditional hubs for paper and pulp manufacturing. (pulpandpaperonline.com)
  • According to the Fact.MR report, demand for sodium chlorate from the paper and pulp industry is expected to surpass 3,400,000 tons by 2018 end. (pulpandpaperonline.com)
  • Globe and Mail ( 2003 ) There is a strong fire risk from dead weeds treated with sodium chlorate. (collinsdictionary.com)
  • This pricing action is driven by continued increases in manufacturing costs from rising energy prices and other key cost drivers in the production of sodium chlorate. (tronox.com)
  • Linde LLC submitted a Tier 2 application for the California Low-Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) for a Tier 2 pathway for hydrogen as a co-product from the commercial electrolytic production of sodium chlorate from a facility located in Québec, Canada. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The safety and feasibility of industrial electrochemical production of sodium chlorate, an important chemical in the pulp and paper industry, depend on the selectivity of the electrode processes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Potassium chlorate(V), KClO 3 (s) (OXIDISING, HARMFUL) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard . (rsc.org)
  • I have a quick question that I hope some of you all may be able to help with - every year I do the gummy bear molten potassium chlorate demo to illustrate Cellular Respiration. (scienceforums.net)
  • This is what happens when you mix potassium chlorate with a red gummy bear. (sciencetwig.com)
  • P. chloritidismutans differed from other (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria in that it was only able to use chlorate as a terminal electron acceptor. (asm.org)
  • Sodium chlorate can be neutralized with sodium or potassium metabisulfite. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Magnesium chlorate is an inorganic compound with a molar mass of 191.21, a density of 1.80g/cm3, a melting point of 35 degrees Celsius and a decomposition point of 120 degrees Celsius. (reference.com)
  • Sodium chlorate is an inorganic compound, comprised of equal numbers of sodium cations and chlorate anions, giving it the fomula NaClO 3 . (sciencemadness.org)
  • End-user emphasis on reducing fire-related incidents has led sodium chlorate manufacturers to develop ire-suppressed sodium chlorate by using sodium chlorate blended with inorganic materials such as sodium carbonate, sodium chloride. (pulpandpaperonline.com)
  • Mix carefully (do not grind the mixtures of potassium chlorate to provide a greater surface area, there is a danger of explosion). (rsc.org)
  • Many other chemicals can make dangerous mixtures with potassium chlorate. (wikipedia.org)
  • mixtures of the chlorate with ammonium salts, powdered metals, silicon, sulfur, or sulfides are readily ignited and potentially explosive [Bretherick 1979 p. 806]. (noaa.gov)
  • Potassium chlorate(V) is heated and the time noted for enough oxygen to be produced to light a glowing splint. (rsc.org)
  • Those readers with a chemical background will know that oxygen gas is produced by the heated potassium chlorate, and this gas facilitated the combustion of the wood. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • Manganese dioxide acts as a catalyst in the decomposition of the chlorate, and a greater volume of oxygen was therefore generated in a comparable time period. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • As a chemistry teacher, I look upon the bubbles, not as an absence of potassium chlorate, but as the presence of small pockets of pure oxygen gas. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • Make a dry chemical oxygen generator: Heat is generated by oxidation of a small amount of iron powder mixed with the sodium chlorate, and the reaction consumes less oxygen than is produced. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Similarly, the Solidox welding system used pellets of sodium chlorate mixed with combustible fibers to generate oxygen. (sciencemadness.org)
  • In the absence of oxygen or an alternative electron acceptor, cells are tobramycin tolerant but chlorate sensitive via Nar-dependent reduction. (asm.org)
  • In a matrix populated by multiple aggregates, tobramycin-mediated death of surface aggregates enables deeper oxygen penetration into the matrix, benefiting select aggregate populations by increasing survival and removing chlorate sensitivity. (asm.org)
  • what mass of potassium chlorate is required to supply the proper amount of oxygen needed to burn 71.06 grams of methane? (openstudy.com)
  • how many grams of potassium chlorate must be used to produce 30.0g of oxygen? (jiskha.com)
  • 15.45 grams of solid potassium chlorate decomposes when heated to form potassium chloride and oxygen gas. (jiskha.com)
  • How much oxygen is liberated when 50 g of potassium chlorate is heated? (jiskha.com)
  • Potassium chlorate is also used in laboratories and educational institutions to generate oxygen gas. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Potassium chlorate is used in chemical oxygen generators which are used as oxygen-supply systems of space stations, aircraft and submarines. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The ability of microorganisms to perform dissimilatory (per)chlorate reduction is, for most species, known to be oxygen sensitive. (asm.org)
  • Absence of oxygen was necessary for the induction to occur, since chlorate addition under aerobic conditions produced neither increased enzyme activities nor higher relative levels of mRNA. (asm.org)
  • However, oxygen at higher concentrations is known to inhibit (per)chlorate reduction ( 12 , 24 , 27 , 34 , 39 ). (asm.org)
  • Sodium chlorate is used in some aircraft as a source of supplemental oxygen. (chemeurope.com)
  • Research and Markets has announced the addition of the 'Sodium Chlorate: 2016 World Market Outlook and Forecast up to 2020' report to their offering. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • It also assesses the dynamics of country's foreign trade in chlorates and perchlorates, bromates and perbromates in 2006-2016. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Alpure ® is Arkema's sodium chlorate (NaClO 3 ) products that offers optimum brightness for paper bleaching applications. (arkema.com)
  • This enzyme is also called chlorate reductase C. Azoulay E, Mutaftschiev S (June 1971). (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. Chlorate-reductase c of mutants chl. (wikipedia.org)
  • A chlorate reductase has been purified from the chlorate-reducing strain Pseudomonas chloritidismutans . (asm.org)
  • Comparison with the periplasmic (per)chlorate reductase of strain GR-1 showed that the cytoplasmic chlorate reductase of P. chloritidismutans reduced only chlorate and bromate. (asm.org)
  • However, in addition to nitrate reductase activity, these strains also showed chlorate reductase activity, which has been observed before for other denitrifying bacteria ( 6 , 15 ). (asm.org)
  • A chlorate reductase C has been purified from the denitrifying strain Proteus mirabilis , as well as two nitrate reductases ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • A second (per)chlorate reductase has been purified from strain GR-1 ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • Besides (per)chlorate, nitrate, iodate, and bromate were also reduced by the (per)chlorate reductase of strain GR-1. (asm.org)
  • The purified chlorate reductase of P. chloritidismutans reported here is the first chlorate reductase derived from a chlorate-reducing bacterium that is capable of only dissimilatory chlorate reduction. (asm.org)
  • The chlorate reductase eluted at the start of a linear gradient of 0 to 1 M potassium chloride in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5. (asm.org)
  • The aim of this study was to clarify the pathway of electron transfer between the inner membrane components and the periplasmic chlorate reductase. (lu.se)
  • The optical difference spectrum of dithionite-reduced periplasmic extract shows that at least one of these components is capable of acting as an electron donor to the enzyme chlorate reductase. (lu.se)
  • The cytochromes were partially separated, and the fractions were analyzed by UV/visible spectroscopy to determine the ability of donating electrons to chlorate reductase. (lu.se)
  • Our results show that one of the c cytochromes (6 kDa) is able to donate electrons, both to chlorate reductase and to the membrane-bound cytochrome c oxidase, whereas the. (lu.se)
  • However, chlorate reductase showed about 200 times higher enzyme activity in anaerobically induced cells, whereas the increase in mRNA was only about 10-fold, suggesting additional mechanisms influence the enzyme activity. (asm.org)
  • In this report, the global Sodium Chlorate market is valued at USD XX million in 2017 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2017 and 2025. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Technavio has published a new market research report on the global sodium chlorate market from 2019-2023. (businesswire.com)
  • LONDON--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Technavio has announced the release of their research report on the global sodium chlorate market for the forecast period 2019-2023. (businesswire.com)
  • This global sodium chlorate market analysis report segments the market by end-user (pulp and paper and others) and geography (APAC, Europe, MEA, North America, and South America). (businesswire.com)
  • This global sodium chlorate industry research report provides an in-depth analysis of the major drivers, upcoming trends, and challenges that will impact market growth over the forecast period. (businesswire.com)
  • The global sodium chlorate market is forecast to witness a moderate growth rate of 3.7% over the forecast period of 2020-2030. (express-press-release.net)
  • The report presents a comprehensive global sodium chlorate market analysis based on quantitative and qualitative data from trustful sources. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The Global Sodium Chlorate Industry Report gives an elaborate information about the market size, share and analyzes the complete value chain the report also covers the market dynamics enriching business strategists with quality data about the Sodium Chlorate market. (decisiondatabases.com)
  • Global Sodium Chlorate market size will increase to xx Million US$ by 2025, from xx Million US$ in 2017, at a CAGR of xx% during the forecast period. (decisiondatabases.com)
  • how many grams of potassium chlorate decomposes to potassium chloride and 638 mL pf o2 at 128°C and 752 torr? (jiskha.com)
  • Kemira is adding more sodium chlorate capacity to its Eastover, South Carolina site with a US $20 million investment. (pulpandpapercanada.com)
  • The present report is an essential resource for a one looking for detailed information on the world sodium chlorate market. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • The structure of potassium chlorate at 77 and 298 K". Acta Crystallogr. (wikipedia.org)
  • North America was the largest consumer of sodium chlorate in 2018 and is expected to dominate during the forecast period. (businesswire.com)
  • The APAC region will witness a faster growth in the sodium chlorate market during the forecast period due to high demand from rapidly developing countries such as China, India, and Malaysia. (businesswire.com)
  • The final chapter provides in-depth analysis of prospects for the country's foreign trade in chlorates and perchlorates, bromates and perbromates, as well the forecast for the development of the market for chlorates and perchlorates, bromates and perbromates up to 2021. (marketpublishers.com)
  • We present average price forecast for chlorates and perchlorates, bromates and perbromates. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Sodium chlorate: World Market Outlook and Forecast is an absolutely essential resource for anyone looking for detailed information on the mentioned market. (comunicati.net)
  • Please note that Sodium Chlorate: 2019 World Market Outlook and Forecast up to 2028 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to changes and additions. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Sodium Chlorate 2019 World Market Outlook and Forecast up to 2028 grants access to the unique data on the examined market. (mcgroup.co.uk)
  • Sodium Chlorate Market Research Report offered by DecisionDatabases.com provides a detailed study on the industrial development of the market under the forecast period 2019-2025. (decisiondatabases.com)
  • In this study, 2017 has been considered as the base year and 2018 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Sodium Chlorate. (decisiondatabases.com)
  • This report studies the global Potassium Chlorate market status and forecast, categorizes the global Potassium Chlorate market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. (qyresearchgroups.com)
  • Most pyrotechnic applications that formerly used chlorates now use the more stable perchlorates instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • This market research report examines the foreign trade of Qatar and its perspectives on the global market for chlorates and perchlorates, bromates and perbromates. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The report will be of considerable interest primarily to relevant strategic planners, senior company officials and importers/exporters, since it features invaluable information on chlorates and perchlorates, bromates and perbromates export/import operations in Qatar. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The report studies how Qatar behaves on the global market for chlorates and perchlorates, bromates and perbromates. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The report indicates major suppliers and consumers of chlorates and perchlorates, bromates and perbromates in Qatar. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Chlorates are often the path to perchlorates - but the final step can be tricky and incomplete and if people are not able to remove the residual chlorates or unaware of the need then they may never realise what killed them. (amazonaws.com)
  • Sodium chlorate is a colorless or white crystalline solid with a cubic crystal structure. (sciencemadness.org)
  • I made very little crystalline Sodium Chlorate, generally leaving it in solution in intermediate steps. (amazonaws.com)
  • Sodium Chlorate appears to be white crystalline powder in pure state and is readily soluble in water. (sciencecompany.com)
  • Potassium chlorate generally occurs as a white or colorless, crystalline, water-soluble solid. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Potassium Chlorate is a white or colorless, crystalline, water-soluble chemical used chiefly as an oxidizing agent in the manufacture of matches, fireworks, bleaching agent, and disinfectants. (vaighai.in)
  • As global consumption of bleaching chemicals continues to increase, we are excited about this investment in our sodium chlorate capacity in the Americas to ensure our ability to effectively serve our customers globally," says Kim Poulsen, president, pulp and paper and region head, Americas. (pulpandpapercanada.com)
  • citation needed] A recent study has discovered the presence of natural chlorate deposits around the world, with relatively high concentrations found in arid and hyper-arid regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have shown that blank titration is advisable to improve the accuracy of the determination of low concentrations of chlorates in the matrix of hypochlorite which is present in excess since in this case possible systematic errors due to the presence of oxidizing impurities in the reagents are prevented. (hindawi.com)
  • To quantify the low concentrations of chlorates, we proposed to remove 85-95% of hypochlorite ions by means of reducing their excess with sodium sulfite at pH 10.5. (hindawi.com)
  • 1990) exposed ducks to a range of concentrations of sodium chlorate by once intubating a solution in distilled water into the crop. (europa.eu)
  • 1991) fed 10 day old ducks chicks and Northern bobwhite chicks for a period of 5 days with a range of concentrations of sodium chlorate mixed into the diet with corn oil. (europa.eu)
  • Sodium chlorate is not toxic at the highest concentrations tested. (europa.eu)
  • Then a period of 10 weeks pre-egg production started in which they were exposed to different concentrations of sodium chlorate. (europa.eu)
  • PDF (FIG S2 Nitrate and chlorate concentrations are stable in cell-free growth medium. (caltech.edu)
  • The formula for magnesium chlorate is Mg(ClO3)2. (reference.com)
  • Allylthiourea (ATU) and chlorate (ClO3-) are often used to selectively inhibit nitritation and nitratation. (dtu.dk)
  • Chlorates are relatively toxic, though they form generally harmless chlorides on reduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the toxic nature of magnesium chlorate, protective gear, including gloves, goggles, clothing and breathing apparatus, is required whenever handling the chemical. (reference.com)
  • Due to its oxidative nature, sodium chlorate can be very toxic if ingested. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Potassium chlorate alone is toxic to the skin, eyes, and internal organs, states inchem.org. (healthfully.com)
  • Potassium chlorate also has the potential to produce toxic fumes if it is used in a fire. (healthfully.com)
  • North America and Europe are saturated markets and demand for potassium chlorate is expected to grow at a moderate rate. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • North America followed by Asia Pacific Excluding Japan (APEJ) are anticipated to be the most dominating region in the sodium chlorate market. (pulpandpaperonline.com)
  • Sensing the evolutions in end-user demand and broader focus on environmental conservation, sodium chlorate manufacturers are focusing on introducing simple, efficient, and cost-effective process for generating chlorine dioxide using sodium chlorate. (pulpandpaperonline.com)
  • Paper and pulp industry is using sodium chlorate to produce chlorine dioxide, a bleach used in producing high quality and eco-friendly paper products. (pulpandpaperonline.com)
  • Sodium chlorate is the main component used in the production of chlorine dioxide (ClO2), which is produced on-site at pulp mills and is the primary bleaching agent for kraft pulp. (pulpandpapercanada.com)
  • It is mostly used to produce chlorine dioxide for bleaching paper pulp, but is also used as a herbicide and to prepare other chlorates. (chemeurope.com)
  • Sodium chlorate has a high oxidizing potential and functions as a powerful oxidizing agent.An example of this type of reaction would be the production of chlorine dioxide. (decisiondatabases.com)
  • The study, which is based both on desk research and multiple waves of qualitative primary research, is a must-read for entrepreneurs, investors, researchers, consultants, business strategists, and all those who are planning to foray into the sodium chlorate industry in any manner. (mromagazine.com)
  • At present, in developed countries, the Sodium Chlorate industry is generally at a more advanced level. (decisiondatabases.com)
  • As a fun project, various sweets, often gummy bears(jelly babies) are dropped into molten potassium chlorate to produce intense pink flames and, if in a narrow container, a screaming sound. (sciencemadness.org)
  • During a break at OHSummit yesterday, I was talking with some folks about energetic chemistry, and the subject of Potassium Chlorate came up. (amazonaws.com)
  • Our chemistry teacher did the demo with potassium chlorate and marshmallows, and the students secretly compacted three or four marshmallows into a small ball for her to use in the reaction. (scienceforums.net)
  • I'm currently going through a chemistry past paper, and came across a question, asking me to suggest the formula to sodium chlorate (VII). (thescienceforum.com)
  • The method of iodometric determination of chlorates impurities in sodium hypochlorite solutions for medical and veterinary purposes was developed. (hindawi.com)
  • The possibility of quantitative determination of chlorate impurities in the range of 2-50 mg/L in the presence of 50-500-fold excess of sodium hypochlorite with an error of 5% has been proved. (hindawi.com)
  • The Chlorates make good bombs when you are handling them, mixing them, contaminating them with trace impurities or looking at them. (amazonaws.com)
  • However after speaking with another science teacher in the area he told me I probably shouldn't do this demo due to the high risk of impurities in the potassium chlorate - which could lead to disastrous results. (scienceforums.net)
  • Two closely related strains of P. chloritidismutans, Pseudomonas stutzeri DSM 50227 and DSM 5190 T (with 16S ribosomal DNA similarities of 100% and 98.6%, respectively), were not able to grow by dissimilatory chlorate reduction. (asm.org)
  • The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) found that current levels of chlorate in drinking water and foods were too high and could negatively impact iodine uptake, particularly in infants and children. (nutritionaloutlook.com)
  • Modulation of cell surface heparan sulfate structure by growth of cells in the presence of chlorate. (nih.gov)
  • The iduronic acid content of the heparan sulfate produced in the presence of chlorate is reduced to less than 7% as compared to the 36% in that from untreated cells. (nih.gov)
  • Enzyme activity assays and mRNA analyses by real-time quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR were performed on cell extracts from cells grown aerobically with and without chlorate and on cells grown anaerobically in the presence of chlorate. (asm.org)
  • Crystals of potassium chlorate made from bleach. (sciencemadness.org)
  • A bag of large Potassium Chlorate crystals, grown slowly from the modest recrystallisation batches I was doing at this point. (amazonaws.com)
  • He needed sodium chlorate so a hot plate was used to boil the bleach until crystals started to form. (amazonaws.com)
  • But an overnight stay in the refrigerator results in the potassium chlorate crystals seen above. (amazonaws.com)
  • Potassium chlorate is a common industrial chemical used for all sorts of things, including fireworks and matches. (strategypage.com)
  • Few chemical compounds bring back as many memories for me as potassium chlorate. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • Potassium chlorate is a commonly used chemical in the manufacture of safety matches and pyrotechnics. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • Potassium chlorate is a chemical compound . (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium chlorate is a versatile chemical compound which has extensive industrial applications. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Potassium chlorate has numerous applications due to its superior chemical and physical properties. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Potassium chlorate displays potent antimicrobial properties due to its chemical nature. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Some of the key players in the Potassium Chlorate market are Dow Chemical (U.S.), E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (U.S.), Mitsubishi Chemical (Japan), LG Chem (South Korea), BASF (Germany), Sumitomo Chemical (Japan), Mitsui Chemicals (Japan), Toray Industries (Japan), Eastman Chemical Company (U.S.), AkzoNobel (Netherlands) and Evonik Industries (Germany) among others. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The chemical weedkiller "Unkraut-Ex," which is no longer available, had potassium chlorate as a main ingredient. (uni-siegen.de)
  • A chemical preparation, calcium chlorate-chloride is used in aqueous solution as a defoliant and desiccant on cotton and other crops. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • What are the chemical reactions involved during the manufacturing of sodium chlorate? (mromagazine.com)
  • Survey results showed that 91.02% of the Sodium chlorate market is pulp & paper industry, 3.22% is water treatment, 3.05% is chemical raw materials and 2.71% divided among other industries in 2015. (decisiondatabases.com)
  • Currently, 47 percent of roadside bombs are made with ammonium nitrate fertilizer, with about ten percent using old shells and bombs from the 1980s and the rest potassium chlorate. (strategypage.com)
  • Potassium chlorate is more expensive than ammonium nitrate but not to the point where the terrorists cannot afford it. (strategypage.com)
  • A lasR mutant shows a propensity to respire nitrate and reduce chlorate more rapidly than the wild type does, consistent with its heightened chlorate sensitivity. (asm.org)
  • if you mix sodium chlorate with nitric acid , would you get sodium nitrate and hydrogen chlorate? (instructables.com)
  • It was not demonstrated that Proteus mirabilis was able to couple the reduction of chlorate to growth. (asm.org)
  • Cell extracts of P. chloritidismutans lost chlorate reduction activity when stored under air. (asm.org)
  • PDF (FIG S3 nar genes are required for chlorate reduction and sensitivity in the ΔlasR mutant. (caltech.edu)
  • The water-insoluble catalyst can be separated from the soluble chlorate salt, and weighed to show that it is not used up. (rsc.org)
  • The pulp and paper industry uses chlorine oxide derived from sodium chlorate to bleach wood pulp to produce high-quality and environmentally friendly paper products. (businesswire.com)
  • In 2011, a study of the Georgia Institute of technology unveiled the presence of [magnesium chlorate] on the planet Mars. (wikipedia.org)
  • What Is the Formula for Magnesium Chlorate? (reference.com)
  • Regarded as highly flammable and unstable around other combustibles, magnesium chlorate must be carefully monitored when used around heat and fire. (reference.com)
  • Chlorine, oxidation number 0, forms chloride Cl− (oxidation number −1) and chlorate(V) ClO− 3 (oxidation number +5). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloralkali process} The industrial scale synthesis for sodium chlorate starts from aqueous sodium chloride solution (brine) rather than chlorine gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • From a microbial standpoint, the presence of natural chlorate could also explain why there is a variety of microorganisms capable of reducing chlorate to chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can also be made by reacting concentrated sodium chlorate with potassium chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium chlorate can be produced by boiling bleach, which causes it to disproportionate into sodium chlorate and sodium chloride. (sciencemadness.org)
  • A more efficient way of producing sodium chlorate is via the electrolysis of a supersaturated sodium chloride solution with an appropriate anode at ~5 volts DC. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Potassium chlorate is produced commercially by passing chlorine into the hot milk of lime and subsequently adding potassium chloride. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Sodium chlorate can be created for laboratory use in small quantities by performing electrolysis on a solution of sodium chloride and water. (chemeurope.com)
  • A second test tube was usually prepared that contained a mixture of potassium chlorate and a small quantity of manganese dioxide. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • A mixture of sulfur and barium chlorate ignites at about 108-111 C. Contact with strong sulfuric acid can cause fires or explosions. (americanelements.com)
  • Back when my paternal grandfather and great grandfather were alive, they used a mixture of pure sodium chlorate (was available in pure form as a weed killer) and sugar for blasting stumps and boulders. (amazonaws.com)
  • Calcium chlorate forms a very flammable mixture with combustible materials and this mixture may be explosive if the combustible material is finely divided. (chemicalbook.com)
  • crushing grinding machine for potassium chlorate Blasting - Encyclopedia The introduction of machine drills in the latter part of the 19th century exerted an , hydraulic cylinders, thus grinding and crushing the rock instead of chipping it , intimate mixture of potassium chlorate with copper sulphide and phosphide. (oldewierdenloop.nl)
  • An explosion occurred during heating of a mixture of potassium chlorate and magnesium [Chem. (noaa.gov)
  • A mixture of potassium chlorate and sodium amide explodes [Mellor 8:258. (noaa.gov)
  • According to recent Fact.MR study, the Sodium Chlorate market will grow at 3.5% during 2018-2027 period. (express-press-release.net)
  • 2018. Chlorate specifically targets oxidant-starved, antibiotic-tolerant populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. (caltech.edu)
  • Potassium Chlorate, Sodium Chlorate, Barium Chlorate 2). (ttnet.net)