Chlorates: Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.Perchlorates: Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Silver Nitrate: A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Carbadox: An antibacterial agent that has been used in veterinary practice for treating swine dysentery and enteritis and for promoting growth. However, its use has been prohibited in the UK following reports of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p125)Nitrate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.Sulfate Adenylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 2.7.7.4.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Nitrate Reductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Animal DiseasesLivestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans: Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Heparin Lyase: An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.QatarMarketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Sodium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.Iodates: Inorganic salts of iodic acid (HIO3).Leg Ulcer: Ulceration of the skin and underlying structures of the lower extremity. About 90% of the cases are due to venous insufficiency (VARICOSE ULCER), 5% to arterial disease, and the remaining 5% to other causes.Sodium Nitrite: Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.Varicose Ulcer: Skin breakdown or ulceration caused by VARICOSE VEINS in which there is too much hydrostatic pressure in the superficial venous system of the leg. Venous hypertension leads to increased pressure in the capillary bed, transudation of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space, altering blood flow and supply of nutrients to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and eventual ulceration.Lanolin: A yellow fat obtained from sheep's wool. It is used as an emollient, cosmetic, and pharmaceutic aid.Hematologic Diseases: Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction: Functional obstruction of the COLON leading to MEGACOLON in the absence of obvious COLONIC DISEASES or mechanical obstruction. When this condition is acquired, acute, and coexisting with another medical condition (trauma, surgery, serious injuries or illness, or medication), it is called Ogilvie's syndrome.Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Rodenticides: Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.4-Hydroxycoumarins: Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.BooksWilliams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Book SelectionHistory, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Book Reviews as Topic: Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.Acrylonitrile: A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.Acetic Anhydrides: Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.Ethanolamine: A viscous, hygroscopic amino alcohol with an ammoniacal odor. It is widely distributed in biological tissue and is a component of lecithin. It is used as a surfactant, fluorimetric reagent, and to remove CO2 and H2S from natural gas and other gases.AcrylatesEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Acrylamide: A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.

Proteoglycan involvement in polyamine uptake. (1/216)

We have evaluated the possible role of proteoglycans in the uptake of spermine by human lung fibroblasts. Exogenous glycosaminoglycans behaved as competitive inhibitors of spermine uptake, the most efficient being heparan sulphate (Ki=0.16+/-0.04 microM). Treatment of fibroblasts with either heparan sulphate lyase, p-nitrophenyl-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside or chlorate reduced spermine uptake considerably, whereas chondroitin sulphate lyase had a limited effect. Inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis with alpha-difluoromethylornithine resulted in an increase of cell-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycans exhibiting higher affinity for spermine. The data indicate a specific role for heparan sulphate proteoglycans in the uptake of spermine by fibroblasts. Spermine uptake by pgsD-677, a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell defective in heparan sulphate biosynthesis, was only moderately reduced (20%) compared with wild-type cells. Treatment of mutant cells with the above-mentioned xyloside resulted in a greater reduction of endogenous proteoglycan production as well as a higher inhibition of spermine uptake than in wild-type cells. Moreover, treatment with chondroitin sulphate lyase resulted in a selective inhibition of uptake in mutant cells, indicating a role for chondroitin/dermatan sulphate proteoglycans in the uptake of spermine by these cells. Fibroblasts, made growth-dependent on exogenous spermine by alpha-difluoromethylornithine treatment, were growth-inhibited by heparan sulphate or beta-D-xyloside, which might have future therapeutical implications.  (+info)

Tyrosine sulfation of the amino terminus of CCR5 facilitates HIV-1 entry. (2/216)

Chemokine receptors and related seven-transmembrane-segment (7TMS) receptors serve as coreceptors for entry of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV) into target cells. Each of these otherwise diverse coreceptors contains an N-terminal region that is acidic and tyrosine rich. Here, we show that the chemokine receptor CCR5, a principal HIV-1 coreceptor, is posttranslationally modified by O-linked glycosylation and by sulfation of its N-terminal tyrosines. Sulfated tyrosines contribute to the binding of CCR5 to MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, and HIV-1 gp120/CD4 complexes and to the ability of HIV-1 to enter cells expressing CCR5 and CD4. CXCR4, another important HIV-1 coreceptor, is also sulfated. Tyrosine sulfation may contribute to the natural function of many 7TMS receptors and may be a modification common to primate immunodeficiency virus coreceptors.  (+info)

Peptide model of a highly conserved, N-terminal domain of apolipoprotein E is able to modulate lipoprotein binding to a member of the class A scavenger receptor family. (3/216)

Apolipoprotein E plays a critical role in plasma lipoprotein clearance. Peptide models of a highly conserved, N-terminal domain of this protein have been shown to increase the binding of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to fibroblast cell surfaces independently of the low density lipoprotein receptor. Here we provide data to show that these peptides not only increase the binding of LDL, but also of high density lipoprotein, though not acetylated LDL. We also have data suggesting that this novel activity is mediated, at least in part, by a member of the scavenger receptor family, SR-AI. Furthermore, we show that this activity is also prominent in macrophages, a cell relevant to atherogenesis. In addition, this current paper provides evidence suggesting that this complex binding activity is initiated by a peptide-receptor interaction, and that our peptides are able to induce activity at physiologically relevant concentrations. This study provides evidence for a possible novel receptor interaction and further anti-atherogenic properties of apolipoprotein E and raises the possibility of a therapeutic potential of our peptide models.  (+info)

CHL1 is a dual-affinity nitrate transporter of Arabidopsis involved in multiple phases of nitrate uptake. (4/216)

Higher plants have both high- and low-affinity nitrate uptake systems. These systems are generally thought to be genetically distinct. Here, we demonstrate that a well-known low-affinity nitrate uptake mutant of Arabidopsis, chl1, is also defective in high-affinity nitrate uptake. Two to 3 hr after nitrate induction, uptake activities of various chl1 mutants at 250 microM nitrate (a high-affinity concentration) were only 18 to 30% of those of wild-type plants. In these mutants, both the inducible phase and the constitutive phase of high-affinity nitrate uptake activities were reduced, with the inducible phase being severely reduced. Expressing a CHL1 cDNA driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in a transgenic chl1 plant effectively recovered the defect in high-affinity uptake for the constitutive phase but not for the induced phase, which is consistent with the constitutive level of CHL1 expression in the transgenic plant. Kinetic analysis of nitrate uptake by CHL1-injected Xenopus oocytes displayed a biphasic pattern with a Michaelis-Menten Km value of approximately 50 microM for the high-affinity phase and approximately 4 mM for the low-affinity phase. These results indicate that in addition to being a low-affinity nitrate transporter, as previously recognized, CHL1 is also involved in both the inducible and constitutive phases of high-affinity nitrate uptake in Arabidopsis.  (+info)

Differential regulation of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor by cell surface proteoglycans and free glycosaminoglycan chains. (5/216)

Hepatocyte growth factor interacts with both heparan and dermatan sulphates, in addition to its specific signalling receptor, Met. However, the extent of glycosaminoglycan involvement in its biological activity remains uncertain. We have investigated the effects of exogenous glycosaminoglycan addition upon hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated motility of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Exogenous heparan/dermatan sulphate chains behave similarly as either potentiators or inhibitors of cell motility (depending upon the assay). Specific heparan sulphate oligosaccharides, of octasaccharide or larger, elicit similar effects, though with reduced potency. Additionally we have investigated the motility of cells made completely deficient in functional proteoglycans by metabolic inhibition of glycosaminoglycan sulphation, using chlorate. Such cells are completely unresponsive to hepatocyte growth factor, both in terms of downstream phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and actual cell motility, though they do remain responsive to phorbol ester. Interestingly, although cell responsiveness to hepatocyte growth factor is not restored by exogenous heparan/dermatan sulphate chains, it is by an immobilised heparan sulphate proteoglycan substratum. These findings suggest that hepatocyte growth factor activity is not only critically dependent upon the presence of glycosaminoglycan, but specifically requires an intact proteoglycan structure located in close apposition to cell surface Met.  (+info)

Eukaryotic molybdopterin synthase. Biochemical and molecular studies of Aspergillus nidulans cnxG and cnxH mutants. (6/216)

We describe the primary structure of eukaryotic molybdopterin synthase small and large subunits and compare the sequences of the lower eukaryote, Aspergillus nidulans, and a higher eukaryote, Homo sapiens. Mutants in the A. nidulans cnxG (encoding small subunit) and cnxH (large subunit) genes have been analyzed at the biochemical and molecular level. Chlorate-sensitive mutants, all the result of amino acid substitutions, were shown to produce low levels of molybdopterin, and growth tests suggest that they have low levels of molybdoenzymes. In contrast, chlorate-resistant cnx strains have undetectable levels of molybdopterin, lack the ability to utilize nitrate or hypoxanthine as sole nitrogen sources, and are probably null mutations. Thus on the basis of chlorate toxicity, it is possible to distinguish between amino acid substitutions that permit a low level of molybdopterin production and those mutations that completely abolish molybdopterin synthesis, most likely reflecting molybdopterin synthase activity per se. Residues have been identified that are essential for function including the C-terminal Gly of the small subunit (CnxG), which is thought to be crucial for the sulfur transfer process during the formation of molybdopterin. Two independent alterations at residue Gly-148 in the large subunit, CnxH, result in temperature sensitivity suggesting that this residue resides in a region important for correct folding of the fungal protein. Many years ago it was proposed, from data showing that temperature-sensitive cnxH mutants had thermolabile nitrate reductase, that CnxH is an integral part of the molybdoenzyme nitrate reductase (MacDonald, D. W., and Cove, D. J. (1974) Eur. J. Biochem. 47, 107-110). Studies of temperature-sensitive cnxH mutants isolated in the course of this study do not support this hypothesis. Homologues of both molybdopterin synthase subunits are evident in diverse eukaryotic sources such as worm, rat, mouse, rice, and fruit fly as well as humans as discussed in this article. In contrast, molybdopterin synthase homologues are absent in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Precursor Z and molybdopterin are undetectable in this organism nor do there appear to be homologues of molybdoenzymes.  (+info)

Cloning and functional characterization of an Arabidopsis nitrate transporter gene that encodes a constitutive component of low-affinity uptake. (7/216)

The Arabidopsis CHL1 (AtNRT1) gene encodes an inducible component of low-affinity nitrate uptake, which necessitates a "two-component" model to account for the constitutive low-affinity uptake observed in physiological studies. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a CHL1 homolog, AtNRT1:2 (originally named NTL1), with data to indicate that this gene encodes a constitutive component of low-affinity nitrate uptake. Transgenic plants expressing antisense AtNRT1:2 exhibited reduced nitrate-induced membrane depolarization and nitrate uptake activities in assays with 10 mM nitrate. Furthermore, transgenic plants expressing antisense AtNRT1:2 in the chl1-5 background exhibited an enhanced resistance to chlorate (7 mM as opposed to 2 mM for the chl1-5 mutant). Kinetic analysis of AtNRT1:2-injected Xenopus oocytes yielded a K(m) for nitrate of approximately 5.9 mM. In contrast to CHL1, AtNRT1:2 was constitutively expressed before and after nitrate exposure (it was repressed transiently only when the level of CHL1 mRNA started to increase significantly), and its mRNA was found primarily in root hairs and the epidermis in both young (root tips) and mature regions of roots. We conclude that low-affinity systems of nitrate uptake, like high-affinity systems, are composed of inducible and constitutive components and that with their distinct functions, they are part of an elaborate nitrate uptake network in Arabidopsis.  (+info)

Proline-rich antimicrobial peptide, PR-39 gene transduction altered invasive activity and actin structure in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. (8/216)

PR-39 is an endogenous proline-rich antimicrobial peptide which induces the synthesis of syndecan-1, a transmembrane heparan sulphate proteoglycan involved in cell-to-matrix interactions and wound healing. Previously, we revealed that the expression of syndecan-1 was reduced in human hepatocellular carcinomas with high metastatic potential and speculated that syndecan-1 played an important role in inhibition of invasion and metastasis. It is assumed that a modification of this process with PR-39 and syndecan-1 may result in a new strategy by which it can inhibit the invasion and metastasis. Therefore, we transduced a gene of PR-39 into human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HLF, which shows a low expression of syndecan-1 and a high in vitro invasive activity, and examined whether this procedure could reduce the invasive activity of tumour cells. In two transfectants with PR-39 gene, the syndecan-1 expression was induced and the invasive activity in type I collagen-coated chamber was inhibited. Moreover, these transfectants showed the suppression of motile activity assayed by phagokinetic tracks in addition to the disorganization of actin filaments observed by a confocal imaging system. In contrast, five transfectants with syndecan-1 gene in the HLF cells revealed suppression of invasive activity but did not alter the motile activity and actin structures of the cell. These results suggest that PR-39 has functions involved in the suppression of motile activity and alteration of actin structure on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in addition to the suppression of invasive activity which might result from the induction of syndecan-1 expression.  (+info)

*Chlorate

Chlorates were once widely used in pyrotechnics for this reason, though their use has fallen due to their instability. Most ... Chlorates are powerful oxidizers and should be kept away from organics or easily oxidized materials. Mixtures of chlorate salts ... Examples of chlorates include potassium chlorate, KClO3 sodium chlorate, NaClO3 magnesium chlorate, Mg(ClO3)2 If a Roman ... Chlorates are relatively toxic, though they form generally harmless chlorides on reduction. "ChemIndustry". Retrieved 9 April ...

*Removal of Hell Gate rocks

... and Chlorates. Also the Chemistry and Analysis of the Elementary Bodies which Enter Into the Manufacture of the Principal Nitro ...

*Pyrotechnic composition

Perchlorates and chlorates play this role together with their main use as oxidizers. Chlorine donors are often used also in ... Perchlorates, chlorates and nitrates are the most commonly used oxidizers for flash powders. Other possibilities include ... Nitronium perchlorate Chlorates (also serving as chlorine donors, incompatible with ammonium salts because of forming unstable ... Some mixtures, e.g. containing chlorates, tend to degrade and create acidic byproducts. Carbonates (e.g. sodium, calcium, or ...

*Antimony trisulfide

It reacts with incandescence with cadmium, magnesium and zinc chlorates. Mixtures of Sb2S3 and chlorates may explode. In the ...

*Iodate

Examples are sodium iodate (NaIO3), silver iodate (AgIO3), and calcium iodate (Ca(IO3)2). Iodates resemble chlorates with ...

*Calcium chlorate

... is the calcium salt of chloric acid, with the chemical formula Ca(ClO3)2. Like other chlorates, it is a strong ...

*Disinfection by-product

Beech, J. Alan; Diaz, Raymond; Ordaz, Cesar; Palomeque, Besteiro (January 1980). "Nitrates, chlorates and trihalomethanes in ...

*Gas generator

Sodium, potassium, and lithium chlorates and perchlorates are used. A device that converts coke or other carbonaceous material ...

*Silver chlorate

Like all chlorates, it is water-soluble and an oxidizing agent. As a simple metal salt, it is a common chemical in basic ...

*Hopkins-Cole reaction

Nitrites, chlorates, nitrates and excess chlorides prevent the reaction from occurring. R.A. Joshi (2006). Question Bank of ...

*H3 (pyrotechnics)

It is friction and shock sensitive, as are most compositions containing chlorates. For this reason, H3 should be mixed using ...

*Potassium bromate

Both processes are analogous to those used in the production of chlorates. Potassium bromate is readily separated from the ...

*Perchlorate

A table of reduction potentials of the four chlorates shows that, contrary to expectation, perchlorate is the weakest oxidant ... The perchlorate ion is the least reactive oxidizer of the generalized chlorates. Perchlorate contains chlorine in its highest ...

*Mercury(II) cyanide

It reacts vigorously with oxidizing agents; fusion with metal chlorates, perchlorates, nitrates, or nitrites can cause a ...

*Bromoform

Beech AJ et al (1980) Nitrates, Chlorates and Trihalomethanes in Swimming Pool Water. Am J Public Health, 70(1), 79-82 CDC - ...

*Sprengel explosive

Sprengel suggested nitric acid, nitrates and chlorates as oxidisers, and nitroaromatics (e.g. nitrobenzene) as fuels. Other ...

*Environmental impact of paper

It also contains alcohols, and chelating agents and inorganic materials like chlorates and transition metal compounds. ...

*Whistle mix

Compositions with chlorates and gallates were used historically, but have now been abandoned as prone to accidental ignition. ...

*Aniline

Chromic acid converts it into quinone, whereas chlorates, in the presence of certain metallic salts (especially of vanadium), ...

*Petroleum jelly

... is mixed with a high proportion of strong inorganic chlorates due to it acting as a plasticizer and a fuel ...

*Hypochlorite

Upon heating, it degrades to a mixture of chloride, oxygen and other chlorates: 2 ClO− → 2 Cl− + O 2 3 ClO− → 2 Cl− + ClO− 3 ... as further oxidation will occur at higher temperatures leading to the formation of chlorates. This process is widely used for ...

*Lithium chlorate

Like all chlorates, it is an oxidizer and may become unstable and possibly explosive if mixed with organic materials, reactive ...

*Ammonium nitrate

... is incompatible with certain substances such as chlorates, mineral acids and metal sulfides, contact with ...

*Potassium chlorate

Explosions have resulted from liquid chlorates spattering into the latex or PVC tubes of oxygen generators, as well as from ... contact between chlorates and hydrocarbon sealing greases. Impurities in potassium chlorate itself can also cause problems. ...

*Barium chlorate

However, due to the instability of all chlorates to sulfur, acids, and ammonium ions, chlorates have been banned from use in ...
article{0e4656d0-ee6d-4530-be21-b61a51e388cd, abstract = {The aim of this study was to clarify the pathway of electron transfer between the inner membrane components and the periplasmic chlorate reductase. Several soluble c-type cytochromes were found in the periplasm. The optical difference spectrum of dithionite-reduced periplasmic extract shows that at least one of these components is capable of acting as an electron donor to the enzyme chlorate reductase. The cytochromes were partially separated, and the fractions were analyzed by UV/visible spectroscopy to determine the ability of donating electrons to chlorate reductase. Our results show that one of the c cytochromes (6 kDa) is able to donate electrons, both to chlorate reductase and to the membrane-bound cytochrome c oxidase, whereas the roles of the remaining c cytochromes still remain to be elucidated. Peptide extracts of the c cytochromes were obtained by tryptic in-gel digestion for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization -time of ...
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The most accurate measurement method for determining the chlorate ion concentration in bleach is ion chromatography (IC). Because this measurement requires specialized equipment and training, most bleach producers are unable to measure the chlorate ion concentration (and the subsequent bleach loss) at the production site. Thus, a titration method has been developed for on-site use to estimate the chlorate ion concentration in 10-15% bleach solutions.
Sodium chlorate is used as an oxidizing agent and bleach for paper pulp, to make chlorine dioxide used in water disinfection, in various manufacturing processes, and as a non-selective herbicide, defoliant, and harvest aid (Merck, 1996; HSDB, 1997; RTECS, 1997). This study was performed due to the potential for human exposure to sodium chlorate and the lack of pertinent developmental toxicity data.. Dose selection was based on a screening study in which New Zealand White rabbits were treated by gavage with 0, 100, 250, 500, 750, or 1000 mg sodium chlorate/kg body weight/day on gestational days 6 through 29 (NTP, 1998). Maternal toxicity was noted at greater than or equal to 250 mg/kg/day, with maternal morbidity and mortality at greater than or equal to 500 mg/kg/day. There was no definitive evidence of developmental toxicity at doses up to 500 mg/kg/day (NTP, 1998).. In this study, female NZW rabbits were dosed by gavage with sodium chlorate (100, 250, or 475 mg/kg/day) or its vehicle ...
Ive readed an article that told about converting bleach to explosive thing. It gave advice to heat sodium hypochlorite to get sodium chlorate. But, what tem...
Please note that Germany Sodium Chlorate Market Outlook 2017 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to changes and additions. We have all data necessary for report preparation but they need to be retrieved from our databases, organized in a report, updated with the latest information and thus the complete study will be presented. This process takes 2-3 business days after the order is placed. Thus, our clients always get a revised and updated version of the report ...
Global Sodium Chlorate Market Research Report 2017 contains historic data that spans 2012 to 2016, and then continues to forecast to 2022. That makes this report so invaluable, resources, for the leaders as well as the new entrants in the Industry
About The report brings to your attention profound analysis of sodium chlorate market in Canada. Historical, present and future volumes and trends are covered. Experts opinions and estimations are p...
This European Standard specifies requirements for the construction, performance, primary packaging and labelling of flash bangers and flash banger batteries and the corresponding test methods. It is applicable to fireworks which are classified as flash bangers and flash banger batteries in categories 1, 2 and 3 in EN 14035-2 and which contain pyrotechnic report composition that is nitrate/metal-based or perchlorate/metal-based. It is not applicable to fireworks containing pyrotechnic composition that includes any of the following substances: - arsenic or arsenic compounds; - mixtures containing a mass fraction of chlorates greater than 80 %; - mixtures of chlorates with metals; - mixtures of chlorates with red phosphorus; - mixtures of chlorates with potassium hexacyanoferrate(II); - mixtures of chlorates with sulfur; - mixtures of chlorates with sulfides; - lead or lead compounds; - mercury compounds; - white phosphorus; - picrates or picric acid; - potassium chlorate with a mass fraction of ...
An improved method for qualitative analysis of mixtures containing chloride, chlorite, chlorate, and perchlorate has been developed. This method utilizes paper partition chromatography and differential spray reagents for location of the separated spots. (Author)(*CHLORATES
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Investigators probing the cause of the fireworks disaster, which killed over 100 people and injured a couple of hundreds more, at the Puttingal Devi temple near Kollam on April 10, hinted that rival teams possibly used potassium chlorate, a banned explosive. They had also probably sourced the chemical illegally from matchstick factories. Potassium chlorate was…
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[136 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global and China Potassium Chlorate 99.8% Research Report to 2020 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Potassium Chlorate 99.8% in Global and...
[110 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Potassium Chlorate Market Research Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Potassium Chlorate market is valued...
Author: Subject: Grinding Potassium Chlorate - Sciencemadness Dec 06, 2016· Grinding Potassium Chlorate Hi everyone, , The machine was in use for about 2 years and cleaned weekly with brushes; NH4 persulfate is not very explosive nor inflamable but here one or two grams with grease and iron steel dust mixed intimately detonated in a discrete place of the machine and set fire to the rest of the bag into the machine .... ...
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POTASSIUM CHLORATE | KClO3 or ClKO3 | CID 6426889 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
what mass of potassium chlorate is required to supply the proper amount of oxygen needed to burn 71.06 grams of methane? (2KClO3-|2KCl + 3O2 and CH4 ...
A poor defenseless gummy bear, a test tube full of liquid potassium chlorate, and a couple of slightly mad scientists; seems like the perfect set up for some absurd B-movie horror flick, does it not? Well, not quite. It is more along the lines of...
C For Chemistry delves into the chemistry of science experiments. This chemist knows what hes talking about. These chemistry experiments are not only fun, but very educational for all of those interested in scientific chemical reactions and properties. This video tutorial will show you how to oxidize gummy bears with molten potassium chlorate.
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Background: Staphylococcus aureus evades host defense through releasing several virulence proteins, such as chemotaxis inhibitory protein of staphylococcus aureus (CHIPS). Previous studies have shown that extracellular N terminus of C5a receptor (C5aR) forms the binding domain for CHIPS. Tyrosine sulfation is emerging as a key factor in determining protein-protein interaction. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of tyrosine sulfation of N-terminal C5aR in binding to CHIPS.. Methods: Expression plasmids encoding C5aR and its mutants were made by PCR and site-directed mutagenesis. HEK 293T cells were transfected with plasmids encoding C5aR using calcium phosphate. Recombinant CHIPS protein was purified. Western blotting was used to assay the binding of CHIPS to C5aR or its mutants and p-38 phosphorylation.. Results: We report that CHIPS exclusively binds to C5aR, but not to C5L2 or C3aR. A nonspecific sulfation inhibitor, sodium chlorate, diminishes the binding ability of C5aR to ...
Contribution No. 2755 of the Gates and Crellin Laboratories of Chemistry. Roscoe G. Dickinson came to Pasadena and began his X-ray work with the Burdick spectrometer in 1918. In 1920 he received his Ph.D. degree, the first one awarded by the California Institute of Technology; his thesis has the title I. The Crystal Structures of Wulfenite and Scheelite. II. The Crystal Structure of Sodium Chlorate and Sodium Bromate. The ionization spectrometer was also used by Richard M. Badger for his undergraduate thesis (B.S. 1921), which has the title The Effect of Surface Conditions on the Intensity of X-ray Reflections from Crystal Planes.. Dickinson then began making use of photographic methods. He prepared spectral photographs (rotation photographs) and Laue photographs, and interpreted them by the method of Nishikawa (1915) as developed by Wyckoff (1920). R. W. G. Wyckoff spent one year, 1921-22, in the California Institute of Technology.. Richard M. Bozorth was the second man to receive the Ph.D. ...
Groups of 50 male and 50 female rats were exposed to drinking water containing 0, 125, 1,000, or 2,000 mg/L sodium chlorate for 2 years (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 5, 35, and 75 mg/kg per day for male rats and 5, 45, and 95 mg/kg per day for female rats). Survival of exposed rats was similar to that of the control groups. Mean body weights of all exposed groups were similar to those of the control groups throughout the study. Water consumption by exposed rats was generally similar to that by controls throughout the study.. Serum concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine were significantly reduced in 1,000 and 2,000 mg/L males and females on day 4 and in 2,000 mg/L males and females at week 3. Serum concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone were significantly increased in 1,000 and 2,000 mg/L males on day 4 and at week 3, in 1,000 and 2,000 mg/L females on day 4, in 2,000 mg/L females at week 3, and in 2,000 mg/L males and females at week 14.. All special study ...
Get an answer for A. Assign oxidation numbers to each atom in the following compounds. B. Determine the formula mass of each of the following compounds or ions.A. HI, PBr3, GeS2, KH, As2O5, H3PO4 B. (glucose; C6H12O6), (calcium acetate; Ca(CH3COO)2), (the ammonium ion; NH+4), (the chlorate ion; ClO-3) and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
For good sink maintenance, some materials not to pour down the drain include foods, grease, detergents, pesticides, calcium chlorate, lime, outside oils, and inside oils.
Year 7 find out that when we respire, we release energy from glucose. We mimicked this in the lab by putting some potassium chlorate, an oxygen rich compound, into a test tube, melting it, then popping in a jelly baby. The release of heat, sound and light energy was immediate and dramatic, as seen in…
The Easy Toilet Riser is a toilet riser designed to elevate a toilet for people with mobility or balance disabilities. This unit attaches to the floor and is designed to fit toilets with a base that is 14 inches or less in length. The unit is constructed of ridged poly vinyl chlorate and elevates the entire toilet by 4 inches. It is easy to clean and can be used in homes or commercial facilities. The unit comes with two 6-inch closet bolts, two wax rings, one extended water pipe, two washers, tw. ...
Looking for online definition of Sodium chlorate(I) in the Medical Dictionary? Sodium chlorate(I) explanation free. What is Sodium chlorate(I)? Meaning of Sodium chlorate(I) medical term. What does Sodium chlorate(I) mean?
The safety and feasibility of industrial electrochemical production of sodium chlorate, an important chemical in the pulp and paper industry, depend on the selectivity of the electrode processes. The cathodic reduction of anodic products is sufficiently suppressed in the current technology by the addition of chromium(VI) to the electrolyte, but due to the high toxicity of these compounds, alternative pathways are required to maintain high process efficiency. In this paper, we evaluate the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction kinetics and selectivity on thermally formed manganese oxide-coated titanium electrodes in hypochlorite and chlorate solutions. The morphology and phase composition of manganese oxide layers were varied via alteration of the annealing temperature during synthesis, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, synchrotron radiation X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements. As shown in ...
A H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) was applied to simultaneously determinate chlorate and bromate in ammonium perchlorate. The method is based on the difference between their reaction rates with chloride in acidic media whereby methyl orange is used as spectrophotometric indicator. The reaction can be monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of methyl orange at 507 nm in the time range 50-250 s after initiation of the reaction with 1 s intervals. The results showed that chlorate and bromate can be determined simultaneously in the range 50-1000 and 50-2000 ng mL−1, respectively. The proposed method was applied to determinate chlorate and bromate impurities in military grade ammonium perchlorate. In addition, excellent agreement between this proposed method and standard methods was observed. ...
Ammonium chloride based smoke is irritating to the eyes and lungs as it contains some remaining HCl and NH3. Ammonium chloride itself is not poisonous and is even used in some type of candy. But as with all fine powders a dust mask must be worn, and since ammonium chloride is irritating to the skin and damaging to the eyes, gloves and goggles are important. Acording to Shimizu, ammonium chloride forms an exception to the rule that ammonium compounds should not be mixed with chlorates. Due to the lower solubility of potassium chlorate (compared to ammonium chlorate) no ammonium chlorate should form. I personally would still use these mixtures with great caution (or avoid them) since it seems inevitable that small amounts of ammonium chlorate will still form. The lower solubility of potassium chlorate will make it the -main- product in a double decomposition reaction but not the -only- product. It is strongly advised not to mix with metal powders, specifically copper, because it will become ...
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An educational video for kids. Molten potassium chlorate is a strong oxidizing agent that reacts violently with sugar. Gummy bears have lots of sugar in them.  This video shows what happens when the two are combined.  (01:03)
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Contractions. - Kali-chl. K-cl. Synonym. - Kali Chloricum. Present name. - Potassic Chlorate. KClO3. Chlorate of Potash. This may be obtained from the manufacturing chemists and re-crystallized. ...
The proliferation response of stage 36 chick atrioventricular valve mesenchymal cells to fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) was studied in the tissue-like environment of three-dimensional cell aggregates maintained in organ culture. The mitogenic effects of FGF-2 on mesenchymal tissue depended on the FGF-2-stimulated formation of a fibronectin-containing extracellular matrix. The matrix was absent in unstimulated aggregates, and co-localized with regions of actively proliferating cells in stimulated aggregates. Inhibition of fibronectin matrix formation by the inclusion of Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptides, which compete with fibronectin for binding to the cell surface alpha 5 beta 1 integrin receptors, abolished the proliferation effects of FGF-2. Inhibition of sulfation of cell surface glycosaminoglycans by treatment with sodium chlorate significantly reduced both the formation of the fibronectin matrix and cell proliferation in response to FGF-2, suggesting an involvement of the low-affinity ...
The photos of indentations by the Vickers pyramid i n a sodium chlorate c r y s t a l are presented i n Figure 2 and give an idea of r e s u l t i n g cracks and l i f t - o f f s . 6 N). In the case of potassium n i t r a t e the Vickers hardness indentat i o n s have not a quadratic shape. This i s due t o a d i r e c t i o n dependent hardness i n the c r y s t a l l a t t i c e of t h i s material. ch004 46 CRYSTALLIZATION AS A SEPARATIONS PROCESS 4. ch004 t i c e . The force-dependency o f the Vickers hardness isshown i n the p l o t i n Figure 3. The force-dependency o f the Vickers hardness isshown i n the p l o t i n Figure 3. In the diagram there are two curves of the Vickers hardness r e s u l t i n g always from the same indentation image. The hardness values d i f f e r by a f a c t o r of two. The one curve r e s u l t s from the data o f the longer and the other from the shorter diagonal o f each intendation. This d i r e c t i o n dependency was so f a r only observed for the case ...
Where can I get information on the uses of CHLC versus GDB/OMIM for human gene mapping data? To me it looks like CHLC is useful for trying to track down unknown genes, and for forensic analysis. GDB/OMIM is useful for finding the map position of known genes and getting clones which contain those genes. Is this true? Are the two databases/maps cross-referenced? -- ******************************************************************** * Brian Foley * If we knew what we were doing * * Molecular Genetics Dept. * it wouldnt be called research * * University of Vermont ...
... , AS12 2611, antibody to AtNRT1, Nitrate/chlorate transporter, protein CHLORINA 1, AtNPF6.3, Q05085, AT1G12110
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Several analytical tools and complicated experimental devices has been used over the past 2 decades to search for answers to these 3 questions (Wilderer et al., 2002; McGuire et al., 2003; Simon et al., 2004). Even today, a cursory survey of the literature on Feº technology will find, in the introduction to virtually every paper, phrases such as ... Feº is proved to be particularly suitable for the decontamination of halogenated organic compounds, but subsequent studies have confirmed the possibility of using Feº for the reduction of nitrate, bromated, chlorate, nitro aromatic compounds, brominated pesticides. Feº proved to be effective in removing arsenic, lead, uranium and hexavalent chromium..." (Groza et al., 2009). It is important to notice that contaminant reduction and contaminant removal are mostly randomly interchanged.. It should be explicitly stated that some researchers have insisted on the importance of adsorption and/or co-precipitation in the process of aqueous ...
1JEC: The complex structures of ATP sulfurylase with thiosulfate, ADP and chlorate reveal new insights in inhibitory effects and the catalytic cycle.
1JED: The complex structures of ATP sulfurylase with thiosulfate, ADP and chlorate reveal new insights in inhibitory effects and the catalytic cycle.
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Synonyms for chlorites in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for chlorites. 1 word related to chlorite: mineral. What are synonyms for chlorites?
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CHANGSHA YONTA INDUSTRY CO., LTD. is well known name as a leading exporter,supplier,trader of all type of Potassium Chlorate,Potassium Perchlorate,Sodium Chlorate,Potassium Permanganate,HHH Potassium Perchlorate,Barium Chlorate
High pressure physics involves placing various substances under high pressure and observing changes in that substance. In this experiment this high amount of pressure is induced using a diamond anvil cell. A diamond anvil cell uses a metal gasket to hold the sample between two diamonds, which will press on the sample to reach high pressures. High pressures are reached with a moderate amount of force by exerting that force over a small area. Diamonds are used for the compression because of their hardness and ability to resist compression. The pressure being exerted on the sample using a diamond anvil cell is often measured using ruby fluorescence. The behavior of ruby under high pressure is well known so the pressure inside the diamond anvil cell can be determined by observing the ruby fluorescence. Ruby is placed inside the gasket along with the sample so that it is always at the same pressure as the sample. Potassium Chlorate is a chemical that is often used as an oxygen producer and as an explosive
Chlorine dioxide and chlorite are characterized together for toxicity to reproduction because studies conducted with chlorite, the predominant degradation product of chlorine dioxide, are likely relevant to characterizing the toxicity of chlorine dioxide. In addition, studies conducted with chlorine dioxide may be relevant to characterizing the toxicity of chlorite. Chlorine dioxide is fairly unstable and rapidly dissociates, predominantly into chlorite and chloride, and to a lesser extent, chlorate. There is a ready interconversion among these species in water (before administration to animals) and in the gut (after ingestion). Therefore, what exists in water or the stomach is a mixture of these chemical species (i.e., chlorine dioxide, chlorite, chlorate) and possibly their reaction products with the gastrointestinal contents. Key study: Experimental results: The test procedure was: EPA OPP 83-3 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study). Oral administration of sodium chlorite during ...
Dangerous fireworks" includes all of the following:. (a) Any fireworks which contain any of the following: (1) Arsenic sulfide, arsenates, or arsenites. (2) Boron. (3) Chlorates, except: (A) In colored smoke mixture in which an equal or greater amount of sodium bicarbonate is included. (B) In caps and party poppers. (C) In those small items (such as ground spinners) wherein the total powder content does not exceed 4 grams of which not greater than 15 percent (or 600 milligrams) is potassium, sodium, or barium chlorate. (4) Gallates or Gallic acid. (5) Magnesium (magnesium-aluminum alloys, called magnalium, are permitted). (6) Mercury salts. (7) Phosphorous (red or white except that red phosphorus is permissible in caps and party poppers). (8) Picrates or picric acid. (9) Thiocyanates. (10) Titanium, except in particle size greater than 100-mesh. (11) Zirconium. (b) Firecrackers. (c) Skyrockets and rockets, including all devices which employ any combustible or explosive material and which rise in ...
Whole wheat bread has this weird halo above it, as if well all be thin and healthy if we eat it. Look at these ingredients. Do you honestly think there wont be repercussions from that stuff? Heres a few ingredient breakdowns: azodicarbonamide: Azodicarbonamide is manufactured by the reaction of dihydrazine sulfate and urea under high temperature and pressure. The product of this reaction is then oxidized using sodium chlorate and centrifuged to yield a slurry containing azodicarbonamide. The slurry is washed to remove impurities and dried to obtain the azodicarbonamide powder. This is then micronized to a fine powder before packaging. This product is banned in Europe and Australia because: its killed dogs in experiments, many links to asthma and skin problems, and is found to be a mutagen to bacteria, Sucralose: kills beneficial gut bacteria, highly linked with migraines and headaches, causes cramping and intestinal discomfort, raises blood and has many links to cancer. Carmel Coloring: ...
Whole wheat bread has this weird halo above it, as if well all be thin and healthy if we eat it. Look at these ingredients. Do you honestly think there wont be repercussions from that stuff? Heres a few ingredient breakdowns: azodicarbonamide: Azodicarbonamide is manufactured by the reaction of dihydrazine sulfate and urea under high temperature and pressure. The product of this reaction is then oxidized using sodium chlorate and centrifuged to yield a slurry containing azodicarbonamide. The slurry is washed to remove impurities and dried to obtain the azodicarbonamide powder. This is then micronized to a fine powder before packaging. This product is banned in Europe and Australia because: its killed dogs in experiments, many links to asthma and skin problems, and is found to be a mutagen to bacteria, Sucralose: kills beneficial gut bacteria, highly linked with migraines and headaches, causes cramping and intestinal discomfort, raises blood and has many links to cancer. Carmel Coloring: ...
Thirty-eight isolates of Fusarium udum obtained frornpigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) plants showing wilt symptoms were collected from various districts in Kenya and tested for variability in vegetative compatibility groups (YCG) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Nitrate non-utilising mutants were generated from F. udumisolates by selecting chlorate-resistant sectors on minimal medium amended with 15 g 1.1 potassium chlorate. All the isolates of F. udum were grouped into a single YCG (YCG I) with two subgroups YCG I I and YCG.I Il. The DNA of-the fungal isolates was extracted using CTAB method. The AFLP analysis of 38 isolates using seven primer combinations generated a total of3 is fragments with 102 being polymorphic (32% polymorphism). The isolates could be grouped into one AFLP group with more than ten subgroups based on the analysis of the banding patterns, although most of these subgroups were not significantly distant «50% confidence. interval) genetically. Based on YCG and ...
As the aerial shell is launched in the air, the temperature of enclosed gas increases, making the volume expand due to the hot condition. According to Charles Law, if a given quantity of gas is held at a constant pressure, its volume is directly proportional to the [absolute] temperature, (SAT Chemistry). The polyatomic ion, nitrate (NO3-), is used in black powder of fireworks to control and regulate temperatures because during oxidation, it doesnt release all its oxygen atoms. However, this wasnt always the case. During the early 1800s, chlorate anion (CIO-3) were the major components of black powder, causing more oxidation due to its habit of releasing all of its oxygen atoms. This caused temperatures to range from 1500-2000 degrees Celsius. Perchlorate (CIO4-) cause a more vigorous reaction during oxidization, but due to stability, are incapable of exploding as well as the other polyatomic ions/anions ...
Near rhymes (words that almost rhyme) with borate: perborate, perchlorate, chlorate, portrait... Find more near rhymes/false rhymes at B-Rhymes.com
Numerical modeling is becoming an integral part of all research and development within the field of electrolytic systems. A numerical model that calculates the current density distribution and concentration profiles of a chlorate cell is presented here, The results are shown as functions of electrolyte velocity and exchange current density. The model takes into account the three transport mechanisms; diffusion, migration, and convection by considering the development of the flow velocity vector through the channel. It was seen that the developing velocity profile influences the concentration overpotentials, which in turn influences current density distributions. Results from the model show that the total current density decreased along the length of the anode, and that this distribution varied more at lower velocities. In addition, it was seen that migration contributes significantly to species transport, even within the diffusion layer. Finally, the model indicates that the hypochlorite ion is ...
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I havent ruled this theory out, perhaps there was some kind of junk food I consumed as a child and didnt link to it, perhaps it was something completely innocent like a lollypop or candy (as I rarely eat candy or sweet products now), and I just happened to consume it in 2008 and it caused it, but it just seems so unlikely that one tiny foodstuff can cause such a violent reaction. The reaction is akin to that of mixing a gummy bear (sucrose) with molten potassium chlorate. Fulminating, instant, and forceful for six hours, and the symptoms are strong enough to get the message from your body to yourself, as if it to say Never ever consume that again, something is seriously wrong.. I always remember feeling a sense of trepidation, dread, as if I naturally knew something was really wrong whenever I had this, even when I was young and did not fear it (which I learned to quickly, as most others do). Another theory by some is that they get these symptoms when stressed, or incredibly anxious, which ...
General Information: Country: Germany; Isolation: Anaerobic sewage sludge; Temp: Mesophile. Alicycliphilus denitrificans is able to degrade cyclohexanol and other alicyclic compounds under denitrifying conditions. ...
Probable electron donor to membrane cytochrome oxidase and to periplasmic nitrite reductase. Membrane-binding site participates in protein-protein interaction ...
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Allylthiourea (ATU) and chlorate (ClO3-) are often used to selectively inhibit nitritation and nitratation. In this work we identified challenges with use of these compounds in inhibitory assays with filter material from a biological rapid sand filter for groundwater treatment. Inhibition was investigated in continuous-flow lab-scale columns, packed with filter material from a full-scale filter and supplied with NH4+ or NO2-. ATU concentrations of 0.1-0.5 mM interfered with the indophenol blue method for NH4+ quantification leading to underestimation of the measured NH4+ concentration. Interference was stronger at higher ATU levels and resulted in no NH4+ detection at 0.5 mM ATU. ClO3- at typical concentrations for inhibition assays (1-10 mM) inhibited nitratation by less than 6%, while nitritation was instead inhibited by 91% when NH4+ was supplied. On the other hand, nitratation was inhibited by 67-71% at 10-20 mM ClO3- when NO2- was supplied, suggesting significant nitratation inhibition at ...
The white smoke, used to announce the election of a new pope, combines potassium chlorate, milk sugar (which serves as an easily ignitable fuel) and pine rosin, Vatican officials said in a statement. The black smoke, which was used Tuesday evening to signal that no one in the first round of balloting received the necessary two-thirds vote of the 115 cardinals, uses potassium perchlorate and anthracene (a component of coal tar), with sulfur as the fuel. Potassium chlorate and perchlorate are related compounds, but perchlorate is preferred in some formulations because it is more stable and safer.. The chemicals are electrically ignited in a special stove first used for the conclave of 2005, the statement said. The stove sits in the Sistine Chapel next to an older stove in which the ballots are burned; the colored smoke and the smoke from the ballots mix and travel up a long copper flue to the chapel roof, where the smoke is visible from St. Peters Square.. ...
Citation: Hunter, W.J., Shaner, D.L. 2009. Soybean Oil Based Biobarriers Remove Atrazine from Contaminated Water: Laboratory Studies. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology. 103-29-37. Interpretive Summary: Biobarriers are a promising new technology for removing a number of contaminants form groundwater. Research has shown that nitrate, perchlorate, chlorate, chlorinated solvents (i.e. trichloroethylene or TCE) and metals may be removed from contaminated water by biobarriers containing innocuous vegetable oil. The barrier is positioned downstream or below of the contaminant plume and contaminants are degraded as the movement of water carries the contaminant into the barrier. Biobarriers may be created by digging a trench and backfilling the trench with a mixture of sand, gravel and vegetable oil. The sand and gravel allow for the movement of water while the vegetable oil provides a carbon substrate that stimulates microbial activity. Microbial activity in deeper soils and aquifers is usually limited ...
Poster (2011, July). Background: Despite the recent advances in this area, colic remains a major cause of morbidity and death in horses. Neutrophilic activation and degranulation may play a key role in the postoperative ... [more ▼]. Background: Despite the recent advances in this area, colic remains a major cause of morbidity and death in horses. Neutrophilic activation and degranulation may play a key role in the postoperative complications. Activated neutrophils release enzymes like proteases and myeloperoxidase (MPO). MPO concentrations in plasma and tissue are considered as a marker of neutrophil activation. (McConnico et al. 1999; Hoy et al. 2002). When freed in the tissue, active MPO is able to oxidize, nitrate and chlorate most organic molecules (Klebanoff 2005). Objectives: The aim of this study was 1) to determine the time trends of blood leukocyte and neutrophil counts as well as of plasmatic MPO concentrations in the perioperative period of horses undergoing colic surgery and 2) to ...
Citation: Anderson, R.C., Jung, Y., Byrd II, J.A., Genovese, K.J., Callaway, T.R., Edrington, T.S., Harvey, R.B., Nisbet, D.J. 2004. Novel preharvest strategies involving the use of inorganic and nitro-based compounds to prevent colonization of food producing animals by foodborne pathogens [abstract]. Journal of Animal Science. 82(Suppl. 1):81. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Foodborne diseases caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter are of public health and economic significance. Shedding of these pathogens during production and slaughter are critical risks for contamination of products for human consumption. Consequently, strategies are sought to prevent or reduce the carriage of these pathogens in food animals before slaughter. Experimental products containing chlorate salts have been proven efficacious in reducing, by several hundred-fold, concentrations of E. coli and Salmonella in the gut of cattle, sheep, swine and poultry when administered as ...
An oral hygiene composition in a suitably applicable form for whitening and cleaning teeth provides a non aqueous composition containing an oxygen releaser such as calcium peroxide, magnesium peroxide or potassium chlorate. The oxygen in these agents is stable in the composition until the composition meets water during actual brushing at which time the oxygen is released to effect a bleaching action removing stains from the surface of the teeth, thereby serving to whiten them. The composition may be formed with other known dental hygiene constituents providing for whitening and hygiene in one application.
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From the results of this investigation the order of adsorption of the ions by precipitated barium sulphate is: ferrocyanide , nitrate , nitrite , chlorate , permanganate , ferricyanide , chloride , bromide , sulphocyanate , iodide, the ferrocyanide ion being adsorbed the most and iodide the least. From a consideration of this order and of the absolute amount of adsorption in each case we find very little reason to place much credence in Schulzes law. Although we find a quadrivalent ion the most strongly adsorbed, we find four univalent ions more strongly adsorbed than the trivalent ferricyanide. Furthermore, contrary to what is implied in Schulzes law, we find a very wide variation in the amount of univalent ions adsorbed. This amount varies from 8.482 gram anions per 100 mols for nitrate to 0.056 gram anions per 100 mols for iodide ion. If the adsorption values are expressed in gram anions instead of gram equivalent anions the order becomes: nitrates , nitrites , chlorate , ferrocyanide , ...
A stable reagent for assaying an analyte from a fluid sample which includes an enzyme, a mediator, a tetrazolium salt and an oxidizing agent selected from the group consisting of sodium chlorate, 2,5-dimethylhexane-2,5-dihydroperoxide, benzoyl peroxide, t-butyl peroxide, sodium iodate, N-ethylmaleimide, t-butylperoxyacetate, nickel acetylacetonate, stannic chloride, rhodium (III) trichloride hydrate, and t-butylperbenzoate is described. Inclusion of an oxidizing agent from the group specified above stabilizes the reagent, thereby preventing a high blank reaction because a high blank introduces error into the assay of an analyte. The reagent may be provided in solution form by adding water, or may be included in a film by adding a film-forming agent. The reagent may be utilized to perform the assay of an analyte from a fluid sample. The assay may be conducted in a solution medium by adding the fluid sample to the liquid reagent, and spectrophotometrically measuring absorbance of the color indicating the
The nitrate reductase enzyme complex allows E.coli to use nitrate as an electron acceptor during anaerobic growth. The beta chain is an electron transfer unit containing four cysteine clusters involved in the formation of iron-sulfur centers. Electrons are transferred from the gamma chain to the molybdenum cofactor of the alpha subunit.
Quality controls carried out by Nouryons certified central laboratory together with the ISO 9001 system form the basis of our activities. For a reliable supply of our high-purity sodium and potassium hydroxide, Eka Pellets as well as superior quality potassium chlorate
This study shows that the maximum nitrate uptake rates (Vmax) and half saturation constants for nitrate uptake (Ks-NO3) of P. micans at 20 μE m−2 s−1 measured using the nutrient repletion method are similar to those measured using the nutrient depletion method. Thus, the new repletion method of measuring the nitrate uptake rate and Ks-NO3 using cells maintained under a nitrate repletion condition gives results similar to that using cells maintained under a nitrate depletion condition. However, the Vmax of P. micans originally maintained under nitrate repletion at 50 μE m−2 s−1 obtained in this study (7.49 pM cell−1 d−1, equivalent to 21 × 10−3 h−1) is much lower than that at 56-63 μE m−2 s−1 under nutrient depletion (113 pM cell−1 d−1, equivalent to 319 × 10−3 h−1) as observed by Qi and Zhu (1994), while the Ks-NO3 of P. micans originally under nitrate repletion at 50 μE m−2 s−1 in this study was greater than that at 56-63 μE m−2 s−1. Qi and Zhu (1994) ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Search Indian Sodium Chlorite Manufacturers and Suppliers Details - Contact to Sodium Chlorite Exporters in India, Sodium Chlorite Wholesalers, Sodium Chlorite Distributors and Traders from India.
Nitrate transporter structure paves the way for exciting new areas of work, Representing biochemistry research at Oxford University
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Publication Details (including relevant citation information): Hicks, S. D., Petersen, J. L., Bougher, C. J. and Abu-Omar, M. M. (2011), Chlorite
Oh but they do IF you handle Kh right. The hydrolysis constant = Kh = Kb = (Kw/Ka) or in the case of acids, Kh = Ka = (Kw/Kb). Said another way, the hydrolysis constant, Kh, for ClO^- is just Kb for ClO^-. What the author of the problem has done is s/he has already divided Kw/Ka and given you the answer of 2.86E-7 = Kh. Look in you text for Ka for HClO. My old book gives 3.5E-8 so ...
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N web je online katal g tovaru, ktor sl i na r chle h adanie tovaru r zneho druhu s preh adn m porovnan m cien a v etk ch dostupn ch inform cii o tovare. Nie sme internetov obchod, ale je mo n cez n s ve mi r chlo nak pi u overen ch partnersk ch predajcov. V etky inform cie a obr zky poch dzaj zo zdrojov partnersk ch eshopov.. ...
5. The composition of claim 3, wherein the complex compound forms at least one of a cluster, nanoparticle and sol-gel, which is represented by at least one of the following Chemical Formulas 2 and 3. (MOc)x(MXn)y{MXa(HX)bC2O4}z ,Chemical Formula 2, (MXn)y{MXa(HX)bC2O4}z ,Chemical Formula 3, wherein M represents at least one of zinc, tin, indium and gallium; X represents at least one of a hydroxyl group, alkoxy group, halogen, nitrate, acetate ion, sulfate ion, phosphate ion, oxalate ion, perchlorate ion, chlorate ion, chlorine dioxide and tetrafluoroborate; HX is a molecule formed by hydrogen combined with at least one of a hydroxyl group, alkoxy group, halogen, nitrate, acetate ion, sulfate ion, phosphate ion, oxalate ion, perchlorate ion, chlorate ion, chlorine dioxide and tetrafluoroborate; "a" represents a value obtained from subtracting 2 from Ms atomic value; "b" is an integral number from 1 to 4; "n" is an integral number equal to Ms atomic value; "x" is an integral number from 1 to 10; ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the strongest reducers of nitrate in the genus Mycobacterium. Under microaerobic conditions, whole cells exhibit upregulation of activity, producing approximately eightfold more nitrite than those of aerobic cultures of the same age. Assays of cell extracts from aerobic cultures and hypoxic cultures yielded comparable nitrate reductase activities. Mycobacterium bovis produced only low levels of nitrite, and this activity was not induced by hypoxia. M. tuberculosis has two sets of genes, narGHJI and narX of the narK2X operon, that exhibit some degree of homology to prokaryotic dissimilatory nitrate reductases. Each of these were knocked out by insertional inactivation. The narG mutant showed no nitrate reductase activity in whole culture or in cell-free assays, while the narX mutant showed wild-type levels in both assays. A knockout of the putative nitrite transporter narK2 gene produced a strain that had aerobic levels of nitrate reductase activity but failed ...
Changsha Yonta, as a Leading and Professional Wholesaler / Exporter for Chemical Raw Materials in Hunan Province of China, is specialized in Chlorate, Perchlorate, Nitrate and Permanganate Salts for almost two decades. Changsha Yonta Industry Co., Ltd. Changsha
The kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of methimazole (1-methyl-3H-imidazole), MMI, by chlorite in mildly acidic environments were studied. It is a complex reaction that gives oligo-oscillations in chlorine dioxide concentrations in excess chlorite conditions. The stoichiometry is strictly 2:1, with the sulfur center being oxidized to sulfate and the organic moiety being hydrolyzed to several indeterminate species. In excess MMI conditions over chlorite, the sulfinic acid and sulfonic acid were observed as major intermediates. The sulfenic acid, which was observed in the electrochemical oxidation of MMI, was not observed with chlorite oxidations. Initial reduction of chlorite produced HOCl, an autocatalytic species in chlorite oxidations. HOCl rapidly reacts with chlorite to produce chlorine dioxide, which, in turn, reacts rapidly with MMI to produce more chlorite. The reaction of chlorine dioxide with MMI is competitive, in rate, with the chlorite-MMI and HOCl-ClO2- reactions. This explains the
A. fumigatus strains and culture conditions: A. fumigatus strains used in this study are listed in Table 1. A. fumigatus strains were propagated at 37° on complete medium or minimal medium (MM) with 0.5 mm of one of the following nitrogen sources: sodium glutamate, ammonium tartrate, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, or hypoxanthine (Cove 1966). Uridine and uracil were added at a concentration of 5 mm when appropriate. Selection of A. fumigatus mutants unable to utilize nitrate as the sole nitrogen source was obtained by plating spores on MM containing ammonium tartrate and 100 mm sodium chlorate (Cove 1966). The nature of the mutation was assessed by growth on MM supplemented with different nitrogen sources, as previously described (Cove 1976). Selection of A. fumigatus mutants auxotrophic for uridine and uracil was achieved on MM containing 1 mg/ml 5-fluoroorotic acid plus uridine and uracil (dEnfert 1996). Liquid cultures used for DNA-mediated transformation and genomic DNA preparation were ...
0087] Perchlorate selective anion exchange resins currently used for the removal of perchlorate in ground water were screened using a static beaker test for their potential application for the removal of perchlorate from typical sodium chlorate liquors. Purolite strong basic anion exchange resins A-530E were chosen for further evaluation using packed bed continuous flow operation. Purolite A-530E is a unique dual amine bi-functional resins that exhibit a high selectivity for perchlorate. The resins were originally developed and commercialized by Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) as "D-3696" or "BiQuat" resins. Regeneration of the ion exchange resins using ferric chloride/hydrochloric acid in methanol as well as a high strength ferric chloride/hydrochloric acid regeneration methods as cited in U.S. Pat. No. 6,448,299 were also evaluated. A Bio-Rad 1×30 cm jacketed econo-column was filled with 20 cm3 of resins. The resins were hydrated in deionised water (DI) for at least 24 hours, prior to ...

Qatar Trade of Chlorates and Perchlorates, Bromates and Perbromates: Import, Export, Market ProspectsQatar Trade of Chlorates and Perchlorates, Bromates and Perbromates: Import, Export, Market Prospects

This market research report examines the foreign trade of Qatar and its perspectives on the global market for chlorates and ... Key consumers of chlorates and perchlorates, bromates and perbromates from Qatar (2006-2016). 2.2. Qatar exports of chlorates ... Major suppliers of chlorates and perchlorates, bromates and perbromates for Qatar (2006-2016). 3.2. Qatar imports of chlorates ... Chlorates and Perchlorates, Bromates and Perbromates description. 1.2. Qatar share in world trade of chlorates and perchlorates ...
more infohttps://marketpublishers.com/report/industry/chemicals_petrochemicals/qatar_trade_market_research_of_chlorates_n_perchlorates_bromates_n_perbromates_bac.html

Chlorates and Perchlorates, Bromates and Perbromates, Iodates and Periodates Market in Syria: Business Report 2018Chlorates and Perchlorates, Bromates and Perbromates, Iodates and Periodates Market in Syria: Business Report 2018

This report is a comprehensive research of chlorates and perchlorates, bromates and perbromates, iodates and periodates market ... 2. CHLORATES AND PERCHLORATES, BROMATES AND PERBROMATES, IODATES AND PERIODATES MARKET IN SYRIA. 2.1. Overview of chlorates and ... Export and import of chlorates, of sodium 3.2. Export and import of chlorates other than of sodium. 3.3. Export and import of ... Chlorates and Perchlorates, Bromates and Perbromates, Iodates and Periodates consumers in Syria. Please note that Chlorates and ...
more infohttps://marketpublishers.com/report/industry/chemicals_petrochemicals/chlorates_n_perchlorates_bromates_n_perbromates_iodates_n_periodates_market_in_syria_business_report.html

Vietnam HS Code 2829 - Chlorates And Perchlorates; Bromates And PerbroVietnam HS Code 2829 - Chlorates And Perchlorates; Bromates And Perbro

Lookup 2017 HTS Code or HSN Code for chlorates and per. ... Vietnam HS Code 2829 is for chlorates and perchlorates; ... Vietnam HS Code 2829 - Chlorates And Perchlorates; Bromates And Perbromates; Iodates And Periodates.. Vietnam HS Code 2829 is ... Lookup 2017 HTS Code or HSN Code for chlorates and perchlorates; bromates and perbromates; iodates and periodates in Vietnam. ... for chlorates and perchlorates; bromates and perbromates; iodates and periodates. ...
more infohttp://www.vietnamtrades.com/en/hts-code/chlorates-perchlorates-bromates-perbromates-iodates-periodates-heading-2829

Appendix B | Clemson University, South CarolinaAppendix B | Clemson University, South Carolina

Acids, powdered metals, flammable liquids, chlorates, nitrites, sulfur, finely divided organic combustible materials ...
more infohttps://www.clemson.edu/research/safety/manuals/labSafety/appB.html

Safe Storage of Chemicals - Information for current staff & students, The University of YorkSafe Storage of Chemicals - Information for current staff & students, The University of York

chlorates. ammonium salts, acids, metal. carbon, activated. calcium hypochlorite, oxidising agents. flammable liquids. ammonium ...
more infohttps://www.york.ac.uk/biology/intranet/health-safety/chemical-safety-2/safe-storage-of-chemicals/

Topical Sodium Nitrite for Chronic Leg Ulcers in Adult Patients With Blood Disorders - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govTopical Sodium Nitrite for Chronic Leg Ulcers in Adult Patients With Blood Disorders - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Leg ulcerations have long been identified as a serious and debilitating complication of SCD and even the first SCD patient described in North America in 1910 had leg ulcerations. The prevalence varies, being low before 10 years of age, and in genotypes other than SS, and it is influenced by geographical location, with an occurrence as high as 75 percent of SS patients in Jamaica, and 8-10 percent in North America. The etiology of chronic ulcers in SCD and other hemolytic disorders is unknown, mechanical obstruction by dense sickled red cell, increased venous pressure, bacterial infections, abnormal autonomic control with excessive vasoconstriction when in the dependent position, degree of anemia with decrease in oxygen carrying capacity, and in situ thrombosis, have all been proposed as potential contributing factors. Recent studies have reported increased incidence of leg ulcers in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Our group has pioneered the notion of an association between the hemolytic ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01316796?recr=Open&cond=%22Anemia%2C+Sickle+Cell%22&rank=17

Topical Sodium Nitrite for Chronic Leg Ulcers in Adult Patients With Blood Disorders - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govTopical Sodium Nitrite for Chronic Leg Ulcers in Adult Patients With Blood Disorders - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Leg ulcerations have long been identified as a serious and debilitating complication of SCD and even the first SCD patient described in North America in 1910 had leg ulcerations. The prevalence varies, being low before 10 years of age, and in genotypes other than SS, and it is influenced by geographical location, with an occurrence as high as 75 percent of SS patients in Jamaica, and 8-10 percent in North America. The etiology of chronic ulcers in SCD and other hemolytic disorders is unknown, mechanical obstruction by dense sickled red cell, increased venous pressure, bacterial infections, abnormal autonomic control with excessive vasoconstriction when in the dependent position, degree of anemia with decrease in oxygen carrying capacity, and in situ thrombosis, have all been proposed as potential contributing factors. Recent studies have reported increased incidence of leg ulcers in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Our group has pioneered the notion of an association between the hemolytic ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01316796?recr=Open&cond=%22Leg+Ulcer%22&rank=18

16 CFR § 1507.2 - Prohibited chemicals. | CFR | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute16 CFR § 1507.2 - Prohibited chemicals. | CFR | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute

c) Chlorates, except: (1) In colored smoke mixtures in which an equal or greater amount of sodium bicarbonate is included. ...
more infohttps://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/16/1507.2

Federal Register
       :: 
      Pesticide Reregistration Performance Measures and GoalsFederal Register :: Pesticide Reregistration Performance Measures and Goals

This notice announces EPAs progress in meeting its performance measures and goals for pesticide reregistration during fiscal year 2003. The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) requires EPA to publish information about EPAs annual achievements in this area. This notice...
more infohttps://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2004/05/05/04-10213/pesticide-reregistration-performance-measures-and-goals

A Compendious Manual Of Qualitative Chemical Analysis, Book by Charles William Eliot (Paperback) | chapters.indigo.caA Compendious Manual Of Qualitative Chemical Analysis, Book by Charles William Eliot (Paperback) | chapters.indigo.ca

Chlorates. The preliminary examination gives warning; of the presence of chlorates. When a few particles of a chlorate in the ... Chlorate of potassium illustrates very well the reactions of chlorates. 74. Acetates. When acetates are moderately heated with, ...
more infohttps://www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/a-compendious-manual-of-qualitative/9780217662406-item.html

Will First Mars Astronauts Stay In Orbit - Tele-operating Sterile Rovers - To Protect Earth And Mars From Colliding Biospheres?...Will First Mars Astronauts Stay In Orbit - Tele-operating Sterile Rovers - To Protect Earth And Mars From Colliding Biospheres?...

Those chlorates and chlorites incidentally would have much more serious and immediate effects on humans "such as respiratory ... DOESNT UV MAKE THE MARTIAN DUST MORE DEADLY, WITH CHLORATES AND CHLORITES?. There is research that suggests that UV radiation ... It can break them up into chlorates and chlorites, and these in turn will sterilize some species of spores. However, this again ... Doesnt UV make the Martian dust more deadly, with chlorates and chlorites? ...
more infohttps://www.science20.com/robert_walker/will_first_mars_astronauts_stay_in_orbit_teleoperating_sterile_rovers_to_protect_earth_and_mars_from_colliding

Wiley: Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Index to Volumes 1 - 26, 5th Edition - Kirk-OthmerWiley: Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Index to Volumes 1 - 26, 5th Edition - Kirk-Othmer

Chloric Acid and Chlorates.. Chlorinated Paraffins.. Chlorine.. Chlorobenzenes.. Chlorocarbons and Chlorohydrocarbons, Survey. ...
more infohttp://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0471484962.html

Chemistry of Fireworks by Mohamed  Sufiyaan on PreziChemistry of Fireworks by Mohamed Sufiyaan on Prezi

Chlorates. Oxidation of Perchlorate. Oxidizers. Fuels. Sulfur (S). Charcoal (C[MO]). Aluminum (Al). Magnesium (Mg). Potassium ...
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Phenol, isopropylated, phosphate (3:1) - Registration Dossier - ECHAPhenol, isopropylated, phosphate (3:1) - Registration Dossier - ECHA

It is understood that a substance may have oxidizing properties when the electronegative atoms which are present constitute a high proportion of the molecule and are bound to elements in a high oxidation state. In the case of the assessed substance, although oxygen groups are present, these are not bonded to other significant electronegative elements. As such, oxidizing properties are unlikely. Based on the information and review of the above substance, it is deemed not to be potentially explosive, based on the chemical structure and oxygen balance values. Structural Evaluation: ...
more infohttps://www.echa.europa.eu/web/guest/registration-dossier/-/registered-dossier/13333/4/16

Chemical Hygiene Plan - Section 2 - Community College of Rhode IslandChemical Hygiene Plan - Section 2 - Community College of Rhode Island

Chlorates. Ammonium salts, acids, metal powdered sulfur, finely divided organic or combustible materials ... Acids, metal powders, flammable liquids, chlorates, nitrites, sulfur, finely divided organic or combustible materials ...
more infohttp://www.ccri.edu/safety/chemical_hygiene_sect2.html

Chemical Database: Sulfuric Acid (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)Chemical Database: Sulfuric Acid (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)

chlorates*corrosive to metals*fulminates*organic materials*powdered metals*water. Health & Regulatory Guidelines. *EPA ...
more infohttps://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/chemicals/cn/Sulfuric%A0Acid.html

Pyrotechnic composition - WikipediaPyrotechnic composition - Wikipedia

Perchlorates and chlorates play this role together with their main use as oxidizers. Chlorine donors are often used also in ... Perchlorates, chlorates and nitrates are the most commonly used oxidizers for flash powders. Other possibilities include ... Nitronium perchlorate Chlorates (also serving as chlorine donors, incompatible with ammonium salts because of forming unstable ... Some mixtures, e.g. containing chlorates, tend to degrade and create acidic byproducts. Carbonates (e.g. sodium, calcium, or ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrotechnic_composition

What is the correct recipe for flash powder? | Naked Science ForumWhat is the correct recipe for flash powder? | Naked Science Forum

perchlorates are far safer, but you must of course pretend that it is a chlorate and treat it accordingly. Otherwise you remove ... perchlorates are far safer, but you must of course pretend that it is a chlorate and treat it accordingly. Otherwise you remove ... 3. Avoid chlorates. With very few exceptions chlorate mixtures are very sensitive to friction or acidic environments. Sulphur ... 3. Avoid chlorates. With very few exceptions chlorate mixtures are very sensitive to friction or acidic environments. Sulphur ...
more infohttps://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=48057.msg416192

What is the correct recipe for flash powder? | Naked Science ForumWhat is the correct recipe for flash powder? | Naked Science Forum

perchlorates are far safer, but you must of course pretend that it is a chlorate and treat it accordingly. Otherwise you remove ... perchlorates are far safer, but you must of course pretend that it is a chlorate and treat it accordingly. Otherwise you remove ... 3. Avoid chlorates. With very few exceptions chlorate mixtures are very sensitive to friction or acidic environments. Sulphur ... 3. Avoid chlorates. With very few exceptions chlorate mixtures are very sensitive to friction or acidic environments. Sulphur ...
more infohttps://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=48057.msg417456

HS Codes - Honduras vi 29.03.82 - Aldrin (ISO)HS Codes - Honduras vi 29.03.82 - Aldrin (ISO)

Lookup HS Codes for Honduras vi 29.03.82 Aldrin (ISO). Avalara LandedCosts helps determine your duty rates and other import taxes for Honduras.
more infohttps://www.avalara.com/hs-codes/vi/29/03/82/honduras/

CDC - The Emergency Response Safety and Health Database: Systemic Agent: POTASSIUM CYANIDE - NIOSHCDC - The Emergency Response Safety and Health Database: Systemic Agent: POTASSIUM CYANIDE - NIOSH

Potassium cyanide undergoes violent chemical reactions with chlorates and nitrites.. * EXPLOSION HAZARDS: *Chlorates plus ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ershdb/emergencyresponsecard_29750037.html

Inorganic Chemicals and Compounds Information | Engineering360Inorganic Chemicals and Compounds Information | Engineering360

Inorganic chemicals, inorganic salts and inorganic compounds are substances of mineral origin that do not contain carbon in their molecular structure.
more infohttps://www.globalspec.com/learnmore/materials_chemicals_adhesives/chemicals_raw_materials/inorganic_chemicals

Segregation of Waste Chemicals - University of Maryland, BaltimoreSegregation of Waste Chemicals - University of Maryland, Baltimore

PURPOSE: To assure safe storage and segregation or waste chemicals. DATE OF ISSUANCE: 2/28/97 The proper segregation of waste chemicals is essential to promote safe storage of those chemicals as well as to facilitate the economical disposal of the chemicals. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published a list of potentially incompatible wastes, waste components, and material along with the harmful consequences of mixing those materials together. This list does not include every possible hazardous chemical reaction, but should be used as a guide in packaging and storing these materials. The list indicates the potential consequences of the mixing of a Group A material with a Group B material. These compatibility listings should not be the only information used when packaging or accumulating waste chemicals. Pay close attention to any waste characterization data you receive on material reactivity and compatibility. Material Safety Data Sheets contain a section devoted to chemical ...
more infohttp://www.umaryland.edu/ehs/hazardous-material-removal/segregation-of-waste-chemicals/
  • Instead, it is often thought of as a hybrid of multiple resonance structures: Metal chlorates can be prepared by adding chlorine to hot metal hydroxides like KOH: 3 Cl2 + 6 KOH → 5 KCl + KClO3 + 3 H2O In this reaction, chlorine undergoes disproportionation, both reduction and oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of chlorates include potassium chlorate, KClO3 sodium chlorate, NaClO3 magnesium chlorate, Mg(ClO3)2 If a Roman numeral in brackets follows the word "chlorate", this indicates the oxyanion contains chlorine in the indicated oxidation state, namely: Using this convention, "chlorate" means any chlorine oxyanion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorates are powerful oxidizers and should be kept away from organics or easily oxidized materials. (wikipedia.org)