Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Thiamphenicol: A methylsulfonyl analog of CHLORAMPHENICOL. It is an antibiotic and immunosuppressive agent.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.

Plasmid replication initiator protein RepD increases the processivity of PcrA DNA helicase. (1/143)

The replication initiator protein RepD encoded by the Staphylococcus chloramphenicol resistance plasmid pC221 stimulates the helicase activity of the Bacillus stearothermophilus PcrA DNA helicase in vitro. This stimulatory effect seems to be specific for PcrA and differs from the stimulatory effect of the Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L3. Whereas L3 stimulates the PcrA helicase activity by promoting co-operative PcrA binding onto its DNA substrate, RepD stimulates the PcrA helicase activity by increasing the processivity of the enzyme and enables PcrA to displace DNA from a nicked substrate. The implication of these results is that PcrA is the helicase recruited into the replisome by RepD during rolling circle replication of plasmids of the pT181 family.  (+info)

Antibiotic resistance of nasopharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children in Lesotho. (2/143)

Villages associated with the Lesotho Highlands Development Agency were randomized with a bias in favour of larger villages, and children < 5 years of age from cluster-randomized households in these villages were chosen for the assessment of antibiotic resistance in pneumococci. Children of the same age group attending clinics in the capital, Maseru, were selected for comparison. Nasopharyngeal cultures of Streptococcus pneumoniae from both groups of children were examined for antibiotic resistance and a questionnaire was used to assess risk factors for the acquisition of resistant strains. Carriage of penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant pneumococci was significantly higher among 196 Maseru children compared with 324 rural children (P < 0.05 and P = 0.01, respectively). Maseru children tended to visit clinics at an earlier age compared with their rural counterparts. The rural children were less exposed to antibiotics (P < 0.01), were less frequently hospitalized (P < 0.001), and rarely attended day care centres (P < 0.001). The very low incidence of antibiotic resistance in rural Lesotho and the higher incidence in Maseru are in stark contrast with the much higher frequencies found in the Republic of South Africa, many European countries, and the USA.  (+info)

Pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in a children's hospital in Ethiopia: serotypes and susceptibility patterns. (3/143)

Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are responsible for most pyogenic meningitis cases in children in Ethiopia. Resistance of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae to penicillin and chloramphenicol respectively has been reported globally. Resistance has been related to specific serotypes of S. pneumoniae or to beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae strains. This study describes the serotypes/ serogroups and susceptibility pattern of the two organisms causing meningitis in Ethiopian children. There were 120 cases of meningitis caused by S. pneumoniae (46) and H. influenzae (74) over a period of 3 years (1993-95). Nineteen children died from pneumococcal and 28 from haemophilus meningitis. Penicillin-resistant pneumococcal meningitis (4/8 = 50%) caused a greater mortality rate than penicillin-susceptible pneumococcal meningitis (15/38 = 39%). Common serotypes accounting for 76% of S. pneumoniae were type 14, 19F, 20, 1, 18 and 5; and serotypes 14, 19F and 7 (accounting for 17% of strains) showed intermediate resistance to penicillin G. 97% of the H. influenzae isolates were type b, and in only two cases beta-lactamase-producing. 72% of isolates of the S. pneumoniae we identified belong to serotypes preventable by a 9-valent vaccine. Our study highlights the possibility of resistant pyogenic meningitis in children in Ethiopia due to emerging resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae isolates.  (+info)

Transduction of enteric Escherichia coli isolates with a derivative of Shiga toxin 2-encoding bacteriophage phi3538 isolated from Escherichia coli O157:H7. (4/143)

We investigated the ability of a detoxified derivative of a Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-encoding bacteriophage to infect and lysogenize enteric Escherichia coli strains and to develop infectious progeny from such lysogenized strains. The stx(2) gene of the patient E. coli O157:H7 isolate 3538/95 was replaced by the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene from plasmid pACYC184. Phage phi3538(Deltastx(2)::cat) was isolated after induction of E. coli O157:H7 strain 3538/95 with mitomycin. A variety of strains of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), Stx-producing E. coli (STEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and E. coli from the physiological stool microflora were infected with phi3538(Deltastx(2)::cat), and plaque formation and lysogenic conversion of wild-type E. coli strains were investigated. With the exception of one EIEC strain, none of the E. coli strains supported the formation of plaques when used as indicators for phi3538(Deltastx(2)::cat). However, 2 of 11 EPEC, 11 of 25 STEC, 2 of 7 EAEC, 1 of 3 EIEC, and 1 of 6 E. coli isolates from the stool microflora of healthy individuals integrated the phage in their chromosomes and expressed resistance to chloramphenicol. Following induction with mitomycin, these lysogenic strains released infectious particles of phi3538(Deltastx(2)::cat) that formed plaques on a lawn of E. coli laboratory strain C600. The results of our study demonstrate that phi3538(Deltastx(2)::cat) was able to infect and lysogenize particular enteric strains of pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli and that the lysogens produced infectious phage progeny. Stx-encoding bacteriophages are able to spread stx genes among enteric E. coli strains.  (+info)

Transfer of chloramphenicol-resistant mitochondrial DNA into the chimeric mouse. (5/143)

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) chloramphenicol (CAP)-resistance (CAPR) mutation has been introduced into the tissues of adult mice via female embryonic stem (ES) cells. The endogenous CAP-sensitive (CAPS) mtDNAs were eliminated by treatment of the ES cells with the lipophilic dye Rhodamine-6-G (R-6-G). The ES cells were then fused to enucleated cell cytoplasts prepared from the CAPR mouse cell line 501-1. This procedure converted the ES cell mtDNA from 100% wild-type to 100% mutant. The CAPR ES cells were then injected into blastocysts and viable chimeric mice were isolated. Molecular testing for the CAPR mutant mtDNAs revealed that the percentage of mutant mtDNAs varied from zero to approximately 50% in the tissues analyzed. The highest percentage of mutant mtDNA was found in the kidney in three of the chimeric animals tested. These data suggest that, with improved efficiency, it may be possible to transmit exogenous mtDNA mutants through the mouse germ-line.  (+info)

Increase in incidence of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim in clinical isolates of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium with investigation of molecular epidemiology and mechanisms of resistance. (6/143)

Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium isolates obtained during the period 1987-1994 were examined and the molecular epidemiology and the mechanisms of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim were investigated in 24 strains isolated during 1994. Resistance to ampicillin increased from 18% to 78%, to chloramphenicol from 15% to 78%, to tetracycline from 53% to 89% and to co-trimoxazole from 3% to 37%, whereas resistance to norfloxacin remained at 0%. Of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium strains isolated during 1994, all ampicillin-resistant strains had an MIC > 256 mg/L, except one strain in which the MIC was 64 mg/L. Twelve strains (52%) had a TEM-type beta-lactamase, nine (39%) a CARB-type beta-lactamase and two strains (8%) had an OXA-type beta-lactamase. Chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase activity was detected in only nine (47%) of 19 chloramphenicol resistant strains, whereas all eight trimethoprim-resistant strains produced a dihydrofolate reductase type Ia enzyme. Three different epidemiological groups were defined by either low-frequency restriction analysis of chromosomal DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis or repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR. The latter technique provided an alternative, rapid and powerful genotyping method for S. Typhimurium. Although quinolones provide a good therapeutic alternative, the multiresistance of S. Typhimurium is of public health concern and it is important to continue surveillance of resistance levels and their mechanisms.  (+info)

Genetic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Canadian isolates of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104. (7/143)

PCR was used to identify antibiotic resistance determinants in 31 Canadian Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104 isolates. Genes encoding resistance to ampicillin (pse1 or blaP1), chloramphenicol (pasppflo-like), streptomycin-spectinomycin (aadA2), sulfonamide (sulI), and tetracycline [tet(G)] were mapped to a 13-kb region of DNA of one isolate. Two copies of sulI were identified and mapped to the 3' end of either pse1 or aadA2 integrons. The two integrons were separated by the pasppflo-like gene and the tet(G) gene. The kanamycin resistance determinant (aphA-1) was present on a 2.0-MDa plasmid (five isolates) or on the chromosome (three isolates).  (+info)

Evolution of chloramphenicol resistance, with emergence of cross-resistance to florfenicol, in bovine Salmonella Typhimurium strains implicates definitive phage type (DT) 104. (8/143)

The prevalence of resistance to florfenicol, a phenicol drug newly introduced in veterinary therapy, was determined in 86 chloramphenicol-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from cattle collected during 1985-1995. All were highly resistant to chloramphenicol (MICs > or = 128 mg/L) and 38 were simultaneously resistant to florfenicol (MICs >16 mg/L) and to beta-lactam agents, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines. The isolates susceptible to florfenicol harboured the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase gene, cat of type I. All the florfenicol-resistant isolates harboured the floR resistance gene and the characteristic multiple resistance genetic locus, previously characterised in a S. Typhimurium DT104 strain and identified by a multiplex PCR. Plasmid profiles and ribotype patterns were determined for all the isolates. The florfenicol-resistant isolates were grouped into the same ribotyping pattern and presented similar plasmid profiles, whereas the florfenicol-susceptible isolates showed a wider genetic diversity that is usual for S. Typhimurium. Thus, the florfenicol-resistant isolates could represent a clonal cluster, closely related to, if not of DT104 phage type, which appeared in 1989 and is now predominant within chloramphenicol-resistant S. Typhimurium. The multiplex PCR provided a useful tool to survey further evolution of multiresistant S. Typhimurium strains.  (+info)

*No-SCAR (Scarless Cas9 Assisted Recombineering) Genome Editing

... conferring resistance to chloramphenicol, which ensured only the successful recombinants grew. Triplicate plates of 10μL of ... and the cmr gene for chloramphenicol resistance. It was observed that leaky expression of Cas9 occurred even without induction ... After selecting for the transformants using antibiotic resistance, another plasmid containing the targeted gene of interest in ... such as antibiotic resistance, is transformed into the cells in place of the target gene and incorporated into the DNA behind a ...

*Gateway cassette

The Gateway cassette also contains a chloramphenicol resistance gene. During the LR reaction, the chloramphenicol resistance ... The gene in the entry plasmid (which possesses kanamycin or zeocin resistance) is flanked by attL sites, whereas the Gateway ... which makes it possible to counterselect the resulting destination clone with chloramphenicol (correct destination clones will ...

*Mervyn Bibb

Freeman, R. F.; Bibb, M. J.; Hopwood, D. A. (1977). "Chloramphenicol acetylransferase-independent chloramphenicol resistance in ...

*Chloramphenicol

... show spontaneous emergence of chloramphenicol resistance. Three mechanisms of resistance to chloramphenicol are known: reduced ... Chloramphenicol resistance may be carried on a plasmid that also codes for resistance to other drugs. One example is the ACCoT ... Oily chloramphenicol (or chloramphenicol oil suspension) is a long-acting preparation of chloramphenicol first introduced by ... Chloramphenicol increases the absorption of iron. Chloramphenicol is metabolized by the liver to chloramphenicol glucuronate ( ...

*Peptidyl transferase

"Anti-peptidyl transferase leader peptides of attenuation-regulated chloramphenicol-resistance genes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. ... The following protein synthesis inhibitors target peptidyl transferase: Chloramphenicol binds to A2451 and A2452 residues in ...

*Douglas C. Wallace

1975). "Cytoplasmic transfer of chloramphenicol resistance in human tissue culture cells". J Cell Biol. 67: 174-88. doi:10.1083 ... resistance to chloramphenicol) and in 1990 he described a mitochondrial DNA mutation as the cause of a particular form of ...

*Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

... that detoxifies the antibiotic chloramphenicol and is responsible for chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. This enzyme ... Chloramphenicol binds in a deep pocket located at the boundary between adjacent subunits of the trimer, such that the majority ... The crystal structure of the type III enzyme from Escherichia coli with chloramphenicol bound has been determined. CAT is a ... Shaw WV, Packman LC, Burleigh BD, Dell A, Morris HR, Hartley BS (1979). "Primary structure of a chloramphenicol ...

*Pht01

The plasmid also carries genes to confer resistance to ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Plasmid pHT01 is generally stable in ...

*Resistance-nodulation-cell division superfamily

Mdt is effective at providing the bacteria with resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, lincosamides and streptomycin. The ... "Overexpression of resistance-nodulation-cell division pump AdeFGH confers multidrug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii." ... Cd2+ and Zn2+ resistance) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Czn (Cd2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+ resistance) in Helicobacter pylori. It has ... Heavy metal resistance by the RND family was first discovered in R. metallidurans through the CzcA and later the CnrA protein. ...

*Klebsiella pneumoniae

Other frequent resistance targets include aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim/ ... Resistance to phages is not likely to be as troublesome as to antibiotics as new infectious phages are likely to be available ... The most important mechanism of resistance by CRKP is the production of a carbapenemase enzyme, blakpc. The gene that encodes ... If the specific Klebsiella in a particular patient does not show antibiotic resistance, then the antibiotics used to treat such ...

*Gene nomenclature

... beta-lactam resistance cat = chloramphenicol resistance kan = kanamycin resistance rif = rifampicin resistance tonA = phage T1 ... which confers kanamycin-resistance, as oftentimes parenthetically noted for drug-resistance markers) When referring to the ... the ampicillin-resistance phenotype of the β-lactamase gene bla). Protein names are the same as the gene names, but the protein ... resistance sup = suppressor (for instance, supF suppresses amber mutations) If the gene in question is the wildtype a ...

*Reporter gene

... which confers resistance to the antibiotic chloramphenicol. Many methods of transfection and transformation - two ways of ... An example of a selectable-marker which is also a reporter in bacteria is the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, ... the transfected population of bacteria can be grown on a substrate that contains chloramphenicol. Only those cells that have ...

*Typhoid fever

As resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and streptomycin is now common, these agents have ... Resistance to these antibiotics has been developing, which has made treatment of the disease more difficult. In 2015, there ... Where resistance is uncommon, the treatment of choice is a fluoroquinolone such as ciprofloxacin. Otherwise, a third-generation ... Cooke FJ, Wain J, Threlfall EJ (2006). "Fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella Typhi (letter)". Br Med J. 333 (7563): 353-354 ...

*RK2 plasmid

... and two antibiotic resistance genes, bla and cat, which confer resistance to Ampicillin and Chloramphenicol, respectively. ... The resistance genes confer resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. In addition, RK2 contains a ... RK2 is approximately 60 kbp long and contains genes for replication, maintenance, conjugation and antibiotic resistance. ... as one of a family of plasmids implicated in transfer of Ampicillin resistance between bacterial strains. Plasmids in the IncP- ...

*Capnocytophaga canimorsus

It has shown resistance to gentamicin. Treatment is recommended for a minimum of three weeks. Hospitalization is required in ... C. canimorsus is susceptible to ampicillin, third generation cephalosporins, tetracyclines, clindamycin, and chloramphenicol. ... C. Canimorsus cells also show resistance to killing by complement and killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. C. canimorsus, ... although there have been some isolates found to show resistance. ...

*Ehrlichiosis

Early clinical experience suggested that chloramphenicol may also be effective, however, in vitro susceptibility testing ... revealed resistance.[citation needed] No human vaccine is available for ehrlichiosis. Tick control is the main preventive ...

*List of MeSH codes (G04)

... chloramphenicol resistance MeSH G04.185.515.286.347.812 --- drug resistance, multiple, bacterial MeSH G04.185.515.286.347.875 ... vancomycin resistance MeSH G04.185.515.286.383 --- drug resistance, fungal MeSH G04.185.515.286.383.500 --- drug resistance, ... drug resistance, multiple, fungal MeSH G04.185.515.329.750 --- drug resistance, multiple, viral MeSH G04.185.515.372 --- germ- ... drug resistance, microbial MeSH G04.185.515.286.347 --- drug resistance, bacterial MeSH G04.185.515.286.347.500 --- beta-lactam ...

*List of MeSH codes (G12)

... methicillin resistance MeSH G12.392.269.347.750 --- chloramphenicol resistance MeSH G12.392.269.347.812 --- drug resistance, ... drug resistance, fungal MeSH G12.392.269.383.500 --- drug resistance, multiple, fungal MeSH G12.392.269.420 --- drug resistance ... drug resistance, multiple, viral MeSH G12.392.395 --- drug resistance, neoplasm MeSH G12.392.491 --- insecticide resistance ... tetracycline resistance MeSH G12.392.269.347.968 --- trimethoprim resistance MeSH G12.392.269.347.984 --- vancomycin resistance ...

*Cholera

Doxycycline is typically used first line, although some strains of V. cholerae have shown resistance. Testing for resistance ... Other antibiotics proven to be effective include cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and furazolidone. ... In many areas of the world, antibiotic resistance is increasing within cholera bacteria. In Bangladesh, for example, most cases ... In those samples that test positive, further testing should be done to determine antibiotic resistance. In epidemic situations ...

*Paenibacillus dendritiformis

This particular resistance is believed to be due to a surfactant-like liquid front that actually forms a particular pattern on ... chloramphenicol, ampicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, streptomycin and mitomycin C. Colonies that are grown on surfaces in ... traits including β-galactosidase-like activity causing colonies to turn blue on X-gal plates and multiple drug resistance (MDR ... Petri dishes exhibit several folds higher drug resistance in comparison to growth in liquid media. ...

*Vibrio anguillarum

Resistance is emerging, however. A vaccine against V. anguillarum is available. Vibriosis - Fish expert reviewed and published ... Various antibiotics such as ampicillin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid derivatives, nitrofurans, sulfonamides, and ...

*Drug resistance

... chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim by sending molecules of those antibiotics out of the bacterial cell. Sometimes a combination ... cross resistance where mutations confer resistance to two or more treatments can be problematic. For antibiotic resistance, ... Tolerance and Resistance Cosmetics Database HCMV drug resistance mutations tool Combating Drug Resistance - An informative ... resistance has evolved. Antimicrobial resistance and antineoplastic resistance challenge clinical care and drive research. When ...

*SmeT

SmeDEF and can increase or decrease the resistance of the bacteria to several antibiotics such as tetracycline, chloramphenicol ... It is responsible for the regulation of the Multidrug Resistance system (MDR) ...

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"Macrolide-Inducible Resistance to Clindamycin and the D-Test" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-01-07. Retrieved ... Its similarity to the mechanism of action of macrolides and chloramphenicol means they should not be given simultaneously, as ... Retrieved July 31, 2009 Wilson, Daniel N. "Ribosome-targeting antibiotics and mechanisms of bacterial resistance". Nature ... Anaerobic, Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, including some Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, and Prevotella, although resistance is ...

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Červený, Jan; Sinetova, Maria; Zavřel, Tomáš; Los, Dmitry (2 March 2015). "Mechanisms of High Temperature Resistance of ... PCC6803 the ideal concentrations of kanamycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, and gentamycin. ... but may require additional buffer to maintain pH Selection is typically performed by antibiotic resistance genes. Heidorn et al ... "Insertional mutagenesis by random cloning of antibiotic resistance". Journal of Bacteriology. 171: 3449-3457. Kaneko, T. (1 ...
1) Bissonnette L, et al. (1991) Characterization of the nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance (cmlA) gene of the In4 integron of Tn1696: similarity of the product to transmembrane transport proteins.. J Bacteriol 173(14):4493-502 PubMed: 1648560 ...
The chloramphenicol (Cm)-inducible cmlA gene of Tn1696 specifies nonenzymatic resistance to Cm and is regulated by attenuation. The first eight codons of the leader specify a peptide that inhibits peptidyl transferase in vitro. Functionally similar, but less inhibitory, peptides are encoded by the leaders of Cm-inducible cat genes. However, the cat and cmlA coding sequences are unrelated and specify proteins of unrelated function. The inhibition of peptidyl transferase by the leader peptides is additive with that of Cm. Erythromycin competes with the inhibitory action of the peptides, and erythromycin and the peptides footprint to overlapping sites at the peptidyl transferase center of 23S rRNA. It is proposed that translation of the cmlA and cat leaders transiently pauses upon synthesis of the inhibitor peptides. The predicted site of pausing is identical to the leader site where long-term occupancy by a ribosome (ribosome stalling) will activate downstream gene expression. We therefore propose ...
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
size limit of plasmid origins - posted in Molecular Cloning: Hi all,I am interested in prokaryotic (E. coli) origins of replication. Does anyone know of a reference giving the theoretical or empirical size limit of DNA that can be stably maintained from different origins of replication?In particular, I am interested in the P15A origin. I have found a reference where it could support a 10.6kb plasmid. But, I would like to use this origin and a chloramphenicol resistance gene to maintain a 1...
Laboratory evolution in Escherichia coli has revealed that fitness typically increases in experimental populations. These changes are sometimes associated with changes in insertion sequence positions, some of which may themselves cause advantageous phenotypes. We have a novel and general method for identifying genes in Escherichia coli, whose knockout by mobile DNA insertions is beneficial in experimental evolution. Insertion sites in favored clones can be identified by reference to genomic information. We have implemented the method using modified Tn10 transposons bearing kanamycin and chloramphenicol resistance cassettes. Results are consistent across replicated experiments, demonstrating that the insertions are themselves creating selective advantages, rather than hitch-hiking with favorable base substitutions. The successful clones have subsequently been confirmed to have a fitness advantage relative to the progenitor strain. In experiments in shaking culture, we find that advantageous ...
Plasmid psbA2-Ptrc-PHLS (d) from Dr. Anastasios Meliss lab contains the inserts beta-phellandrene synthase and Chloramphenicol resistance and is published in Planta May 2014 This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Plasmid pC0062 RanCas13 (B06) His6-TwinStrep-SUMO-BsaI from Dr. Feng Zhangs lab contains the insert RanCas13 and is published in Science. 2018 Apr 27;360(6387):439-444. doi: 10.1126/science.aaq0179. Epub 2018 Feb 15. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
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The final composite structure is formed by laminating a film of the copolymer on either side of the Teflon FEP woven mesh between two 17.8 x 17.8 cm (7 inch x 7 inch) caul plates and Teflon PTFE release film. This assembly is placed in a 15.2 x 15.2 cm (6 inch x 6 inch) press which is pre-heated to 145 C 5 C and gradually increased in pressure to 454 kg (1,000 lbs.) force. The pressure is held constant for approximately 3 minutes. Subsequently, this assembly is removed from the press and cooled to approximately 15 C under pressure. The laminated composite structure is then easily released from between the Teflon PTFE release film. the resultant laminated composite consists of a Teflon FEP woven fabric which is completely encapsulated within the fused copolymer of 50/50 weight percent poly(glycolide-co-trimethylene carbonate). The resultant laminated composite is approximately 0.051 cm thick and 12.7 x 12.7 cm ((0.020 inch) thick and 5 inches x 5 inches) in size ...
Methods and apparatus are provided for forming a diffusion bonded composite structure. The composite structure includes at least one internal void or feature. Surfaces to be bonded are cleaned and prepared for bonding. The exposed joints of the composite structure where the surfaces interface are sealed. The composite structure is placed in hot isostatic process furnace. The furnace is pressurized to a low pressure below 1500 pounds per square inch that forces the surfaces to be bonded in intimate contact with one another. The composite structure is heated to promote diffusion bonding at the interface of surfaces in contact with one another.
An implantable constriction device for forming a restricted stoma opening in the stomach or esophagus of a patient comprises an elongate composite structure adapted to constrict the stomach or esophagus of the patient. The elongate composite structure is composed of a base material, such as hard silicone, making the composite structure self-supporting. Property improving means is provided for improving at least one physical property of the composite structure other than self-supporting properties, such as fatigue resistance, liquid impermeability, aggressive body cells resistance, anti-friction properties and lifetime.
The Science of Engineering Ceramics III: Preparation and Properties of a Novel Anode of Interpenetrating Phase Composite Structure
Batt, SL; Charalambous, BM; Solomon, AW; Knirsch, C; Massae, PA; Safari, S; Sam, NE; Everett, D; Mabey, DCW; Gillespie, SH; (2003) Impact of azithromycin administration for trachoma control on the carriage of antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 47 (9). pp. 2765-2769. ISSN 0066-4804 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.47.9.2765-2769.2003 Full text not available from this repository ...
A foot/ankle implant and associated method. The foot/ankle implant comprises a composite structure having a ceramic component with a macroprosity and a polymer component filling the macroporosity. The composite structure forms an anatomically-shaped and load-bearing graft for implantation between two bone portions of the foot or ankle to correct associated deformities. The ceramic component is gradually resorbable after implantation, and the composite structure is gradually replaceable by tissue/bone ingrowth.
The nature of cracks that threaten the safety of composite structures is probed. Material weaknesses that compromise strength are identified. Multi-scale phenomena of structural changes in composites under stress are modelled. Fitness considerations for long-life implementation of large composite structures include understanding multi-scale phenomena of structural changes in composites by fatigue, creep, impact, and stress corrosion. Structural integrity modelling and analysis treats the design, the materials used, and figures out how best components and parts can be joined, and takes service duty into account. Properly interpreted, structural integrity analysis forecasts the limits of performance of the composite and conditions for safe operation of the engineering structure. However, there are conflicting aims in the complete design process of designing simultaneously for high efficiency and safety assurance throughout an economically viable lifetime with an acceptable level of risk. Where ...
Fibergrate is the leading manufacturer of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) solutions for industrial and commercial use globally.
Artificial competence of Synechococcus PCC 6301 cells was induced by lysozyme treatment and the cells were transformed to chloramphenicol resistance with foreign plasmid pBR325 at a frequency of approximately 5 times 10-5 or 5 times 10-4 with the transformant DNA. The transformation frequencies were higher than those reported by other workers for the same strain with cloned DNA employing a physiological transformation system. Analyses of DNA electrophoresis, secondary transformation and dot blotting demonstrated that foreign plasmid had integrated into the recipient chromosome by a single crossover event. The results showed that the artificial transformation system was efficient and reproducible. Conditions that affected transformation, such as, incubation time of cells with DNA, age of the cells, light or dark incubation were also studied ...
Pre-preg materials and flexible tapes comprising polycarbodiimide prepolymers and a fiber reinforcing material, and reinforced, chemically integral, composite foam structures prepared from said pre-pregs. The composite structures are prepared by curing said pre-pregs in combination with additional polycarbodiimide-forming, foamable precursors by the application of heat.
A hose includes a hollow plastic core having an indirectly heatable agent bonded to the exterior thereof by a heat seal. A reinforcing net is embedded in the agent when heated and the composite structure covered with a coating.
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Modern transformation and genome editing techniques have shown great success across a broad variety of organisms. However, no study of successfully applied genome editing has been reported in a dinoflagellate despite the first genetic transformation of Symbiodinium being published about 20 years ago. Using an array of different available transformation techniques, we attempted to transform Symbiodinium microadriaticum (CCMP2467), a dinoflagellate symbiont of reef-building corals, in order to perform CRISPR-Ca9 mediated genome editing. Plasmid vectors containing the chloramphenicol resistance gene under the control of the CaMV p35S promoter as well as several putative endogenous promoters were used to test a variety of transformation techniques including biolistics, electroporation, silica whiskers and glass bead agitation. We report that we have been unable to confer chloramphenicol resistance to our specific Symbiodinium strain. These results are intended to provide other researchers with an ...
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Chloramphenicol resistance gene: 1856 - 2515 ccdB gene:. bla promoter: 3997 - 4095 Ampicillin resistance gene: 4096. pNGWA sequence:.. A vector for cloning DNA fragments comprising the following sequence: bacteriophage P1 loxP site-ampicillin resistance gene. resistance gene.ARG-ANNOT (Antibiotic Resistance Gene-ANNOTation). sequences without web interface. ARG-ANNOT database consists of a single file covering. Bla: beta -lactamases.. Genomic DNA cloning of rickettsia-like. Genomic DNA cloning of rickettsia-like organisms (RLO) of Saint. the gene for ampicillin resistance, (2).Drug Resistance, Microbial. FAQ. Genes, MDR; Tetracycline Resistance; Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal;. Ampicillin Resistance; Time Factors; Immunity, Innate.. resistance gene. resistant oligotrophic strain, Klebsiella pneumoniaeMB45. oligotrophic strain, Klebsiella pneumoniaeMB45 having.Characteristics of human intestinal Escherichia coli with changing environments. often from horizontal gene transfer,. Resistance ...
O Umted States Patent 1 1 3,568,723 [72] Inventor Donald Maurice Sowards [56] References Cited Ashbollm Hills, Claymwb UNITED STATES PATENTS 3; $5 1967 2,824,620 2/1958 De Rosset 55/16 P f ed 9 1971 3,044,499 7/1962 Frerich 138/143 1 a 3,129,727 4/1964 Tanaka 138/143 [73] Asslgnee E. I. duPont de Nemours and Company 3 141 479 7,1964 Micke 138/143 Wilmington Del. y 3,252,270 5/1966 Palletal. 55/74 Primary Examiner-Houston S. Bell, Jr. {54] METAL-CERAMIC COMPOSITE STRUCTURES Attorney-Lynn N. Fisher 5 Claims, 2 Drawing Figs. [52] U.S. 138/143, I 138/177, 164/98, 138/111 ABSTRACT: Metal-ceramic structures are made by casting [51] Int. Cl. F161 9/14 molten metal around ceramic cores having specific physical Field of Search 138/140, properties. Most important of these properties is that the sur- 141, 142,143, 144, 145, 146, 177, 89,111, (inquired); 55/16, 74; 181/40, 62, (lnquired); 164/98, (lnquired); /29, (Inquired); 264/(lnquired); 106/(1nquired) face of the core which forms part of the ...
The present invention disclose a composite structure for light diffusion, including at least one carrier media layer and a microlens system comprising a plurality of microlenses thereon. A transparent material for enlarging the shape is coated on each microlens to cover the gaps between the microlens. Partial surface of the transparent material can be coated a light absorbing layer for glare reduction. Besides, the microlens can be or asymmetric or arranged in random, non-periodic array for interference reduction.
Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (or CAT) is a bacterial enzyme (EC 2.3.1.28) that detoxifies the antibiotic chloramphenicol and is responsible for chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. This enzyme covalently attaches an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to chloramphenicol, which prevents chloramphenicol from binding to ribosomes. A histidine residue, located in the C-terminal section of the enzyme, plays a central role in its catalytic mechanism. The crystal structure of the type III enzyme from Escherichia coli with chloramphenicol bound has been determined. CAT is a trimer of identical subunits (monomer Mr 25,000) and the trimeric structure is stabilised by a number of hydrogen bonds, some of which result in the extension of a beta-sheet across the subunit interface. Chloramphenicol binds in a deep pocket located at the boundary between adjacent subunits of the trimer, such that the majority of residues forming the binding pocket belong to one subunit while the catalytically essential histidine ...
Plasmid-encoded fusidic acid resistance in Escherichia coli is mediated by a common variant of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.28), an enzyme which is an effector of chloramphenicol resistance. Resistance to chloramphenicol is a consequence of acetylation of the antibiotic catalysed by the enzyme and the failure of the 3-acetoxy product to bind to bacterial ribosomes. Cell-free coupled transcription and translation studies are in agreement with genetic studies which indicated that the entire structural gene for the type I chloramphenicol acetyltransferase is necessary for the fusidic acid resistance phenotype. The mechanism of resistance does nor involve covalent modification of the antibiotic. The other naturally-occurring enterobacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase variants (types II and III) do not cause fusidic acid resistance. Steady-state kinetic studies with the type I enzyme have shown that the binding of fusidic acid is competitive with respect to chloramphenicol. The ...
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A two-day joint working meeting on composites-related pilot projects took place at the University of Manchester during 3-4 July 2017. The meeting presented an opportunity for AERO-UA partners to discuss advanced design, manufacture and maintenance of aeronautic composite structures ...
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In a materials engineering context, the concept of self-healing is applicable where manufacturing or operationally induced damage can be repaired by the materials already entrained within the structure, i.e. self-healing of engineering structures should be analogous to the healing process of living organisms whether from the Animalia or Plantae1 biological kingdoms (Trask et al. 2007a). In recent years, research groups have developed discrete bioinspired concepts for autonomous delivery of a mobile fluid phase from either microcapsules (e.g. Kessler & White 2001; White et al. 2001) or hollow fibres (e.g. Pang & Bond 2005; Trask & Bond 2006; Trask et al. 2007b; Bond et al. 2008) to effect repair of bulk polymeric and advanced fibre-reinforced polymer composite materials. This concept has taken a further biomimetic step with the introduction of integrated, pervasive vascular networks at the micro- and meso-scale (e.g. Therriault et al. 2003, 2005; Toohey et al. 2007; Williams et al. 2007), which ...
The invention relates to a radiopaque catheter tip and catheter assembly having radiopaque elements associated with a catheter. The preferred materials for the radiopaque elements are made of a 90% platinum and 10% nickel composite structure or a 90% platinum and 10% iridium composite structure.
This thesis is focused on two intermetallic systems Bi1-xSbx and CaAl2-xZnx. Bi and Sb transform into a peculiar incommensurate composite structure under pressure and our intention was to examine the structure and how alloying influences this incommensurate structure. Our investigation was obscured by the occurrence of a phase separation, which accompanied the transition A7 → Bi III. Most remarkable is the finding that structural parameters of phases with the Bi III composite structure were observed to be almost unaffected by pressure and composition effects.. Secondly, phase and structural stability relations within the AB2 pseudo-binary system CaAl2-xZnx was studied. In CaAl2-xZnx, the C36-type Laves phase was observed for the first time, but not the C14-type, and a VEC induced structural transition C15-type → C36-type takes place with increasing x. The exchange of Al by Zn decreases the size of the B-type atom network surrounding Ca and at concentrations x , 0.95, the Laves phase ...
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Abstract: Although demand for composite structures rapidly increase due to the advantages in weight, there are few effective assessment techniques to enable the quality control and guarantee the durability. In particular, an invisible microscopic damage detection technology is highly required because damages such as transverse cracks, debondings, or delaminations can lead to the critical failure of the structures. Among many non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods for composite structures, fiber optic sensors are especially attractive due to the high sensitivity, the lightweight, and the small size. In the current trend of the structural health monitoring technology, fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) sensors are frequently used as strain or temperature sensors, and Brillouin scattering sensors are also often used for a long distance distributed measurement. The Brillouin distributed sensors can measure strain over a distance of 10km while a spatial resolution was limited to 1m. Some novel sensing ...
Although encouraging results have been obtained for nanotube-filled polymers, significant improvements over conventional fillers have proved elusive. A critical factor is the reliance on CVD-grown material, which is available in large quantity at reasonable purity, but defective and often entangled. However, a range of steps can be taken to improve the applicability of such materials, and to employ them in situations where they can provide a unique benefit. Commercially-available, CVD-grown, multi-walled carbon nanotubes can be disentangled by cutting; abrupt, repeated exposures to oxidising conditions in air is a clean, convenient and efficient means of producing material with open ends, moderate functionalisation, and enhanced solvent dispersibility; the surface character can easily be tuned to acidic or basic. These approaches could be deliberately integrated into conventional CVD processes, but also have implications for existing products. Matrix-filler interactions can be quantified by examining
Thermotoga neapolitana is a hyperthermophilic bacterium that branches very early from the Bacterial lineage, suggesting that some of its features may be ancestral to all bacteria. Physiological studies in this ecologically and evolutionarily intriguing organism would be facilitated by development of a gene transfer system.^ Uniform growth and high plating efficiencies of T. neapolitana were achieved using a mineral medium with the addition of 0.7% Gelrite (a solidifying agent) and cysteine (a reducing agent). A number of analog-resistant and auxotrophic mutants were generated to serve as markers for gene transfer. In addition, a vector was constructed conferring chloramphenicol resistance that could serve as a potential shuttle vector between Thermotoga and Escherichia coli. Methods of gene transfer tested included conjugation, natural transformation and electrotransformation. No transformants were observed using any method; electrotransformation was attempted under a variety of biological,
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pRV500 is, to our knowledge, the first plasmid of L. sakei to be entirely sequenced. Careful sequence analysis showed that pRV500 belongs to the pUCL287 family, itself related to class A theta-type plasmids of the pUCL22 and pSC101 families. Experimental evidence of the theta replication mode was obtained for pUCL287 itself (2). Although the minimum length of the pRV500 oriA region remains to be determined, it is likely to involve the same two kinds of DNA repeats as other pUCL287-type plasmids. The involvement of repetitive sequences of 22 bp (iterons) as a target for binding of the Rep protein was demonstrated for pSBO1 (40), and the upstream 11-bp repeated sequences were observed to be essential for pUCL287 replication (3).. Like other plasmids (14, 49), pRV500 appears to be a composite structure containing DNA segments from different sources. Some ORFs are shared by plasmids from both subfamilies pUCL22 and pUCL287; this applies to orf6 in pRV500 and ORFs of unknown function around the gene ...
NAFEMS Focus on Composites GLASGOW, UK, JANUARY 12TH 2010: In response to a recent upsurge of interest in composites analysis, NAFEMS, the International Association for the Engineering Analysis Community, has put together a series of events focusing on the subject, to give NAFEMS Members and the analysis community in general the opportunity to learn more about this topic, and share experiences with fellow analysts. Many designs now use composite structures or components, taking
An improved vascular catheter having a tubular member of composite structure with a tubular substrate and a resin-impregnated fibrous covering extending over a substantial part of the length thereof.
Acetylene-terminated compounds show promise for use in the preparation of matrix resins and adhesives for advanced aircraft and aerospace systems, and for other high-temperature applications. These compounds can be polymerized thermally without the evolution of volatile by-products, thereby obviating the problem of void formation in composite structures and molded articles. Although many of the aromatic, heterocyclic, and aromatic/heterocyclic polymers exhibit superior mechanical and thermal properties, many of these polymers exhibit the disadvantages that they are soluble only in polar solvents, generally strong acids, which is a disadvantage from a processing standpoint.*Patents
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Chloramphenicol is an anti-biotic that due to its pH, it shines above most other antibiotics in terms of ability to penetrate into infected tissues and tissues with biological barriers. Unfortunately, chloramphenicol must be given typically three times daily for dogs.
The Chloramphenicol EIA test is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for the screening of chloramphenicol in tissue, plasma, serum, urine, eggs, milk, honey and
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Group B chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, which can inactivate chloramphenicol. Also referred to as xenobiotic acetyltransferase ...
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The complete nucleotide sequence of a 7.7kb mobilisable plasmid (pM3446F), isolated from a florfenicol resistant isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, showed extended similarity to plasmids found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae containing the floR gene as well as replication and mobilisation genes. Mobilisation into other Pasteurellaceae species confirmed that this plasmid can be transferred horizontally ...
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These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article. MORRIS D, COCKBURN WC. Treatment of early whooping-cough with chloramphenicol palmitate. Lancet. Oct 9;()- [PubMed]. Rich ML, Ritterhoff RJ, Hoffmann RJ. A fatal case of aplastic anemia following chloramphenicol (chloromycetin) therapy. Ann Intern Med ; PubMed Citation (63 year old man developed purpura 3 months after starting chloramphenicol, with subsequent aplastic anemia and death 2 weeks later; no mention of.. Death Due to Chloramphenicol. Br Med J ; 2 doi: jumpfly.info (Guided 06 November ) Weed this as: Br Med J ; Hearing · Related ha · Metrics · Cookies · Peer chloramphenicol death. Ribosome. This is a PDF-only chloramphenicol death. The first child of the PDF of this combination appears below. [Baseline or chloramphenicol death risk of death from aplastic anemia = l/,]. If the chloramphenicol death and reports on chloramphenicol eye drops are more carefully reviewed, however, most of ...
0017] The present invention relates to a structure including a metal substrate formed of a metal-made sheet, plate material, or block, and a metal impregnated carbon composite with a thickness of 0.1 to 2 millimeters brazed and soldered to an upper surface of the metal substrate, and as a more preferable embodiment, the present invention includes the following 1) through 5). [0018] (1) An electronics device heat radiating metal substrate-metal impregnated carbon composite structure including a metal impregnated carbon composite with a thickness of 0.1 to 2 millimeters and a copper or aluminum substrate whose upper surface is joined to the lower surface of the composite via a brazing material. [0019] (2) An electronics device heat radiating metal substrate-metal impregnated carbon composite structure including a copper foil, a metal impregnated carbon composite with a thickness of 0.1 to 2 millimeters whose upper surface is joined to a lower surface of the copper foil via a brazing material, and ...
Florfenicol is a synthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotic active against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from domestic animals. It acts by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit and inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Florfenicol is generally considered a bacteriostatic drug, but it exhibits bactericidal activity against certain bacterial species. In vitro studies demonstrate that florfenicol is active against the BRD pathogens M. haemolytica, P. multocida, H. somni, and M. bovis and that florfenicol exhibits bactericidal activity against strains of M. haemolytica and H. somni. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of florfenicol were determined for BRD isolates obtained from calves enrolled in BRD field studies in the U.S. in 2006 using methods recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (M31-A2). Isolates were obtained from pre-treatment nasal swabs from all calves enrolled at all four sites, post-treatment nasal swabs from treatment failures in ...
Chloramphenicol is a broad spectrum antibiotic used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. However, in humans it leads to Chloramphenicol induced aplastic anaemia. This has led to the use of Chloramphenicol being totally banned within the European Union since 1994 for the treatment of animals used for food production. Imported seafood to the US from Asia has been monitored for the use of Chloramphenicol residues which is banned for use in the US. Chloramphenicol is also banned within the meat testing industry. ...
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The report generally describes dimethyl d-tartrate, examines its uses, production methods, patents. Dimethyl D-Tartrate market situation is overviewed;
Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic not authorised for use in food-producing animals in the European Union (EU). However, being produced by soil bacteria, it may occur in plants. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks to human and animal health related to the presence of chloramphenicol in food and feed and whether a reference point for action (RPA) of 0.3 μg/kg is adequate to protect public and animal health. Data on occurrence of chloramphenicol in food extracted from the national residue monitoring plan results and from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) were too limited to carry out a reliable human dietary exposure assessment. Instead, human dietary exposure was calculated for a scenario in which chloramphenicol is present at 0.3 μg/kg in all foods of animal origin, foods containing enzyme preparations and foods which may be contaminated naturally. The mean chronic dietary exposure for this worst-case scenario would range from 11 to 17 and 2.2 ...
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with a purpose to make smooth grain obstacles and keep away from the segregation of Gd at the interface weve got introduced an digital conductor cobalt iron spinel (CFO), ensuing in a composite structure," said Kyle Brinkman, a professor at Clemson university and co-creator of the work. "The CFO reacts with the excess Gd gift in the grain boundary of GDC to form a 3rd segment. It become located that this new segment may also serve as an exceptional oxygen ionic conductor. We in addition investigated the atomic microstructure around the grain boundary through a series of high decision characterization strategies and observed that Gd segregation within the grain boundary have been removed, main to dramatic development in the grain boundary oxygen ionic conductivity of GDC ...
Metamaterials are composite structures designed to produce the properties which are not available in nature and control electromagnetic waves in any desira
Skeleton-reinforced bio-membranes are ubiquitous and play critical roles in many biological functions. For example, the flexibility of the wings of many insects is determined primarily by the architecture of the embedded veins. By experimentally measuring and numerically characterizing the wing structure of 16 different species of insects, Combes and Daniel concluded that an anisotropic flexibility is achieved through the architecture of these composite structures (Combes and Daniel, 2003a; Combes and Daniel, 2003b). In all the species they studied, the spanwise bending stiffness was found to be at least 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the chordwise bending stiffness (see also Newman and Wootton, 1986; Wootton, 1992). It was attributed mostly to the existence of clustered or thickened veins near the leading edge. This suggests that, through specific arrangement of supporting veins, these insect wings allow certain passive deformations while discouraging others. Structures with similar ...
Schematic of design and fabrication process of hollow carbon nanofibers/sulfur composite structure. Credit: ACS, Zheng et al. Click to enlarge. Li-Sulfur (Li-S) batteries are of interest for applications such as transportation due a high theoretical specific energy density (~2,600 Wh/kg) that exceeds that of conventional (LiCoO2/graphite) lithium-ion batteries by about...
The present study focuses on the intriguing enhancement in the mechanical properties of an epoxy-based composite structure resulting from the incorporation of in-house synthesized functionalized graphene nanosheets (f-GNSs) as nanofillers. The f-GNSs were obtained by anionic electrochemical intercalation and
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No Legionnaires disease is caused by a bacteria. It is typically found in large buildings with poorly maintained HVAC systems, cruise ships, water tanks etc. The presence of say mold (which has a lot of issues in and of itself) may be indicative of a poorly maintained system, thus leading to conditions that favor the bacteria etc. Since it is spread via an airborne route It is theoretically possible to spread in the pressurization and HVAC system of an aircraft, but based on my limited understanding of aircraft systems, its much drier (most bacteria dislike dry conditions) and do not use the large cooling towers associated with conventional systems. That being said the 787 with its higher humidity due to its composite structure may need to be looked at down the road in terms of infectious disease and its spread ...
0019]FIG. 2 is a schematic view illustrating a process of compression molding conducted to the composite substrate according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the compression molded composite substrate according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIGS. 2 and 3, the composite substrate 1 is obtained by several layers of fibers 11. These layers of fibers 11 are weaved along different directions, and then laminated to form a stack. The stack is then soaked in a resin. The resin can be either a thermoset epoxy resin, or a thermoplastic epoxy resin. After the resin is dried, the layers of fibers 11 are combined as a whole, thus configuring the composite substrate 1. The composite substrate 1 is then put in a mold of a compression molding machine, and is conducted with a compression molding process thereby to achieve a predetermined shape. The composite substrate 1 can be but is not restricted to be a glass fiber composite substrate, a ...
A variety of techniques have been used to quantify the performance of composite structures in contact with corrosive media. Proper design and care in fabrication are discussed in RTP-1 1 (Reinforced Thermoset Plastic Corrosion Resistant Equipment). ASTM C581 2 laminate testing is the standard by which suitability of various resins are judged. Bare glass weight loss (Figures 1 & 2) when exposed to a corrosive media is a good screening tool for determining suitability of glass fiber compositions 3. Stress corrosion testing (Figures 3 & 4) imposes another dimension to determining suitability of various types of glass fibers in a composite cross-section to different types of corrosive media while under stress. Details of this testing under a broad range of corrosive media and various loads can be found in several sources 4&5 but are similar in concept to ASTM D36816 All of these methods yield valuable quantitative data concerning the suitability of composite materials using various resins & glass ...
Chloramphenicol. Antibiotic Class: Chloramphenicol. Antimicrobial Spectrum: Gram-positive: Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus anthracis,. Listeria monocytogenes. Gram-negative: Hemophilus influenzae, M. catarrhalis, N. meningitides, E. coli, P. mirabilis,. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. Chloramphenicol has a broad spectrum of activity and has been effective in treating ocular infections caused by a number of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli. It is not effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The following susceptibility Trade names‎: ‎Pentamycetin, Chloromycetin, ot.. En caso que no se tenga conocimiento de estas condiciones y se ha usado en la cara. Mujeres con cesáreas de antigüedad menor a spectrum of chloramphenicol meses. Turn Monograph. Entire Monograph; Black Box Movements; Adult Spectrum of chloramphenicol · Great Dosing · ContraindicationsCautions · Drug Goods · Adverse Perspectives · ...

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A good antibiotic is chloromycetin (chloramphenicol) or tetracycline.. marking growth increments in otoliths of larval and ... Tetracycline has become infrequently used in dogs and cats due to the resistance and 100 mg/ml oral suspensions and 100mg, 250 ...
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TRANSDUCTION TO PENICILLIN AND CHLORAMPHENICOL RESISTANCE IN SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM | GeneticsTRANSDUCTION TO PENICILLIN AND CHLORAMPHENICOL RESISTANCE IN SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM | Genetics

TRANSDUCTION TO PENICILLIN AND CHLORAMPHENICOL RESISTANCE IN SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM. S. Banič. Genetics May 1, 1959 vol. 44 no ... TRANSDUCTION TO PENICILLIN AND CHLORAMPHENICOL RESISTANCE IN SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM. S. Banič. Genetics May 1, 1959 vol. 44 no ... TRANSDUCTION TO PENICILLIN AND CHLORAMPHENICOL RESISTANCE IN SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM. S. Banič. Genetics May 1, 1959 vol. 44 no ... TRANSDUCTION TO PENICILLIN AND CHLORAMPHENICOL RESISTANCE IN SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
more infohttp://www.genetics.org/content/44/3/449

Anti-peptidyl transferase leader peptides of attenuation-regulated chloramphenicol-resistance genes | PNASAnti-peptidyl transferase leader peptides of attenuation-regulated chloramphenicol-resistance genes | PNAS

Anti-peptidyl transferase leader peptides of attenuation-regulated chloramphenicol-resistance genes. Z Gu, R Harrod, E J Rogers ... Anti-peptidyl transferase leader peptides of attenuation-regulated chloramphenicol-resistance genes. Z Gu, R Harrod, E J Rogers ... The chloramphenicol (Cm)-inducible cmlA gene of Tn1696 specifies nonenzymatic resistance to Cm and is regulated by attenuation ... Anti-peptidyl transferase leader peptides of attenuation-regulated chloramphenicol-resistance genes. Z Gu, R Harrod, E J Rogers ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/91/12/5612?ijkey=768ebc6f3f28955b16e9c001d48d92c7786b16da&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Leicester Research Archive: Studies on staphylococcal chloramphenicol-resistance plasmids.Leicester Research Archive: Studies on staphylococcal chloramphenicol-resistance plasmids.

Six staphylococcal chloramphenicol-resistance (CmR) plasmids were compared by incompatibility tests and restriction digest ... Sequences in pC221 could act as promoters for the tetracycline-resistance determinant of pBR322. These results are discussed in ... While interruption of the HindIII site of pCW6 failed to prevent the inducible synthesis of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase ( ...
more infohttps://lra.le.ac.uk/handle/2381/35157

Sequence analysis of the inducible chloramphenicol resistance determinant in the Tn1696 integron suggests regulation by...Sequence analysis of the inducible chloramphenicol resistance determinant in the Tn1696 integron suggests regulation by...

The sequence of the Tn1696 determinant for inducible nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance has been determined. The cml ... Sequence analysis of the inducible chloramphenicol resistance determinant in the Tn1696 integron suggests regulation by ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1658833?dopt=Abstract

Characterization of the nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance (cmlA) gene of the In4 integron of Tn1696: similarity of the...Characterization of the nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance (cmlA) gene of the In4 integron of Tn1696: similarity of the...

Characterization of the nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance (cmlA) gene of the In4 integron of Tn1696: similarity of the ... Characterization of the nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance (cmlA) gene of the In4 integron of Tn1696: similarity of the ... Characterization of the nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance (cmlA) gene of the In4 integron of Tn1696: similarity of the ... Characterization of the nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance (cmlA) gene of the In4 integron of Tn1696: similarity of the ...
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Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherich...Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherich...

Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs, and chicken in Kenya.: The ... Chloramphenicol resistance was due to the gene catA1 in all the chloramphenicol resistant isolates. The strB, strA, and catA1 ... Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs, and chicken in Kenya.. ... The aims of this study were to determine the genetic basis of streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance in 30 Escherichia ...
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Resistance of Salmonella serotypes to chloramphenicol*Resistance of Salmonella serotypes to chloramphenicol*

Sethi, S. K., Anand, S., Singh, Ajaib & Vadehra, D. V. (‎1976)‎. Resistance of Salmonella serotypes to chloramphenicol*. ...
more infohttp://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/261009

Frontiers | The Identification of Intrinsic Chloramphenicol and Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Members of the Bacillus cereus...Frontiers | The Identification of Intrinsic Chloramphenicol and Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Members of the Bacillus cereus...

To this end we identified the genes responsible for chloramphenicol (catQ) and tetracycline (tetM) resistance and confirmed the ... To this end we identified the genes responsible for chloramphenicol (catQ) and tetracycline (tetM) resistance and confirmed the ... Unexpectedly, closely related strains encoding these genes did not exhibit chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance ... Unexpectedly, closely related strains encoding these genes did not exhibit chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2016.02122/full

Characterisation of a mobilisable plasmid conferring florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance in Actinobacillus...Characterisation of a mobilisable plasmid conferring florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance in Actinobacillus...

Characterisation of a mobilisable plasmid conferring florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance in Actinobacillus ... Characterisation of a mobilisable plasmid conferring florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance in Actinobacillus ... Characterisation of a mobilisable plasmid conferring florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance in Actinobacillus ... Transfer of florfenicol resistance plasmid from A. pleuropneumoniae MIDG3446 by transformation into E. coli Stellar, or mating ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=amd&id=1931

Characterisation of a mobilisable plasmid conferring florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance in Actinobacillus...Characterisation of a mobilisable plasmid conferring florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance in Actinobacillus...

Characterisation of a mobilisable plasmid conferring florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance in Actinobacillus ... Characterisation of a mobilisable plasmid conferring florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance in Actinobacillus ...
more infohttp://researchonline.rvc.ac.uk/9533/

Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs, and chicken in KenyaStreptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs, and chicken in Kenya

Chloramphenicol resistance was due to the gene catA1 in all the chloramphenicol resistant isolates. The strB, strA, and catA1 ... Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs, and chicken in Kenya. ... The aims of this study were to determine the genetic basis of streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance in 30 Escherichia ... significance of conjugative resistance plasmids in the spread and persistence of streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance in ...
more infohttp://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/11295/32825

Amplifiable resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and other antibiotics in Escherichia coli: involvement of a non...Amplifiable resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and other antibiotics in Escherichia coli: involvement of a non...

... tetracycline or chloramphenicol resistances were not P1 transducible. Coincident with the emergence of resistance was the ... Increasing levels of resistance to tetracycline and to a number of other unrelated antibiotics, including chloramphenicol, beta ... Amplifiable resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and other antibiotics in Escherichia coli: involvement of a non- ... Amplifiable resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and other antibiotics in Escherichia coli: involvement of a non- ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/155/2/531?ijkey=159f6322a94ddb7745097ccb245eb712a36a20c1&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Role of the Two Component Signal Transduction System CpxAR in Conferring Cefepime and Chloramphenicol Resistance in Klebsiella...Role of the Two Component Signal Transduction System CpxAR in Conferring Cefepime and Chloramphenicol Resistance in Klebsiella...

Role of the Two Component Signal Transduction System CpxAR in Conferring Cefepime and Chloramphenicol Resistance in Klebsiella ... Role of the Two Component Signal Transduction System CpxAR in Conferring Cefepime and Chloramphenicol Resistance in Klebsiella ... Role of the Two Component Signal Transduction System CpxAR in Conferring Cefepime and Chloramphenicol Resistance in Klebsiella ... The ΔcpxAR was more susceptible to β-lactams and chloramphenicol than the wild-type strain, and complementation restored the ...
more infohttp://libros.duhnnae.com/2017/jun7/149812291740-Role-of-the-Two-Component-Signal-Transduction-System-CpxAR-in-Conferring-Cefepime-and-Chloramphenicol-Resistance-in-Klebsiella-pneumoniae-NTUH-K2044.php

Role of efflux pump(s) in intrinsic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and...Role of efflux pump(s) in intrinsic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and...

Role of efflux pump(s) in intrinsic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and ... Role of efflux pump(s) in intrinsic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and ... Role of efflux pump(s) in intrinsic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and ... Role of efflux pump(s) in intrinsic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and ...
more infohttps://aac.asm.org/content/38/8/1732?ijkey=ad3462081485029554b36f6175244db2f68e35c6&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

nature.com searchnature.com search

Expression of Tn9-derived chloramphenicol resistance in Bacillus subtilis *David S. Goldfarb ... Rights & permissionsfor article Expression of Tn,i,9,/i,-derived chloramphenicol resistance in ,i,Bacillus subtilis,/i, . Opens ... C/Insulin-Like Growth Factor I and Dexamethasone in the Growth of Fibroblasts from a Patient with Insulin Resistance *Cheryl A ... C/Insulin-Like Growth Factor I and Dexamethasone in the Growth of Fibroblasts from a Patient with Insulin Resistance . Opens in ...
more infohttp://www.nature.com/search?author=%22L.%20Raymond%22&error=cookies_not_supported&code=fa2c3b98-7d05-46cb-84a5-57ed6ee6c716

Team:UNIPV-Pavia/Parts/Characterization/ExistingPartsRegistry - 2010.igem.orgTeam:UNIPV-Pavia/Parts/Characterization/ExistingPartsRegistry - 2010.igem.org

BBa_P1004 - chloramphenicol resistance cassette. BBa_K125500 - chloramphenicol resistance cassette. BBa_J72008 - phi80 ... chloramphenicol resistance cassette. ,BBa_K125500 - chloramphenicol resistance cassette. ]]. +. * [[Team:UNIPV-Pavia/Parts/ ... chloramphenicol resistance cassette,BBa_P1004 - chloramphenicol resistance cassette]] ... chloramphenicol resistance cassette,BBa_P1004 - chloramphenicol resistance cassette]] ...
more infohttp://2010.igem.org/wiki/index.php?title=Team:UNIPV-Pavia/Parts/Characterization/ExistingPartsRegistry&diff=next&oldid=189052

Frontiers | Acquired Antibiotic Resistance Genes: An Overview | MicrobiologyFrontiers | Acquired Antibiotic Resistance Genes: An Overview | Microbiology

As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, ... As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, ... transposons and integrons, which are associated with antibiotic resistance genes, and involved in the dispersal of ... transposons and integrons, which are associated with antibiotic resistance genes, and involved in the dispersal of ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2011.00203/full

Antibacterial Antibiotics Continued Flashcards by Darian Oldham | BrainscapeAntibacterial Antibiotics Continued Flashcards by Darian Oldham | Brainscape

Chloramphenicol resistance Plasmid born. decreased cellular permeability. Modification of enzymes- acetyltransferases. Mutation ... To combat resistance use agents that target cell wall in conjunction w/ aminoglycosides. ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/antibacterial-antibiotics-continued-1068917/packs/1852584

Pharm Flashcards by Cath Y | BrainscapePharm Flashcards by Cath Y | Brainscape

decreased affinity cross resistance - changing the binding site so that chloramphenicol cant bind as well also makes the ... resistance to one class of aminoglycosides does not necessarily confer resistance to all of them:. ex) There is only one ... resistance is widespread, transposable, and commonly permanent because multi-drug resistance gene cassettes exist - most ... Resistant strains of S. aureus bind less antibiotic but there is no cross-resistance with other antibiotics Bacteriostatic ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/pharm-4370236/packs/6541232

One-step inactivation of chromosomal genes in Escherichia coli K-12 using PCR products | PNASOne-step inactivation of chromosomal genes in Escherichia coli K-12 using PCR products | PNAS

chloramphenicol-resistant;. FRT,. FLP recognition target;. KmR,. kanamycin-resistant;. kan,. kanamycin resistance gene;. cat,. ... The template plasmids are derivatives of pANTSγ that contain an FRT-flanked kanamycin resistance (kan) or chloramphenicol ... C and then tested for loss of all antibiotic resistances. The majority lost the FRT-flanked resistance gene and the FLP helper ... The resistance genes were then eliminated by using a helper plasmid encoding the FLP recombinase which is also easily curable. ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/97/12/6640?ijkey=61e1210b92bbb3e097be4eeb244b892ccc5f16a3&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
  • The intrinsic-resistance phenotype becomes further enhanced in "intrinsically carbenicillin-resistant" isolates, which were often assumed to produce outer membranes of even lower permeability. (asm.org)
  • It has been shown, however, that this hypothesis cannot explain the beta-lactam resistance of these isolates (D.M. Livermore and K.W.M. Davy, Antimicrob. (asm.org)
  • We conclude that the efflux mechanism(s) are likely to contribute significantly to the intrinsic resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and fluoroquinolones, as does the low permeability of the outer membrane. (asm.org)
  • We subsequently undertook a four-month molecular surveillance of a referral laboratory that serves two major tertiary hospitals in Pretoria, South Africa, to determine the evolutionary epidemiology, resistance mechanisms and associated MGEs in antibiotic-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates. (nature.com)
  • This broad-range resistance has so far been assumed to be mainly due to the low permeability of the P. aeruginosa outer membrane. (asm.org)