Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
A methylsulfonyl analog of CHLORAMPHENICOL. It is an antibiotic and immunosuppressive agent.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.

Plasmid replication initiator protein RepD increases the processivity of PcrA DNA helicase. (1/143)

The replication initiator protein RepD encoded by the Staphylococcus chloramphenicol resistance plasmid pC221 stimulates the helicase activity of the Bacillus stearothermophilus PcrA DNA helicase in vitro. This stimulatory effect seems to be specific for PcrA and differs from the stimulatory effect of the Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L3. Whereas L3 stimulates the PcrA helicase activity by promoting co-operative PcrA binding onto its DNA substrate, RepD stimulates the PcrA helicase activity by increasing the processivity of the enzyme and enables PcrA to displace DNA from a nicked substrate. The implication of these results is that PcrA is the helicase recruited into the replisome by RepD during rolling circle replication of plasmids of the pT181 family.  (+info)

Antibiotic resistance of nasopharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children in Lesotho. (2/143)

Villages associated with the Lesotho Highlands Development Agency were randomized with a bias in favour of larger villages, and children < 5 years of age from cluster-randomized households in these villages were chosen for the assessment of antibiotic resistance in pneumococci. Children of the same age group attending clinics in the capital, Maseru, were selected for comparison. Nasopharyngeal cultures of Streptococcus pneumoniae from both groups of children were examined for antibiotic resistance and a questionnaire was used to assess risk factors for the acquisition of resistant strains. Carriage of penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant pneumococci was significantly higher among 196 Maseru children compared with 324 rural children (P < 0.05 and P = 0.01, respectively). Maseru children tended to visit clinics at an earlier age compared with their rural counterparts. The rural children were less exposed to antibiotics (P < 0.01), were less frequently hospitalized (P < 0.001), and rarely attended day care centres (P < 0.001). The very low incidence of antibiotic resistance in rural Lesotho and the higher incidence in Maseru are in stark contrast with the much higher frequencies found in the Republic of South Africa, many European countries, and the USA.  (+info)

Pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in a children's hospital in Ethiopia: serotypes and susceptibility patterns. (3/143)

Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are responsible for most pyogenic meningitis cases in children in Ethiopia. Resistance of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae to penicillin and chloramphenicol respectively has been reported globally. Resistance has been related to specific serotypes of S. pneumoniae or to beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae strains. This study describes the serotypes/ serogroups and susceptibility pattern of the two organisms causing meningitis in Ethiopian children. There were 120 cases of meningitis caused by S. pneumoniae (46) and H. influenzae (74) over a period of 3 years (1993-95). Nineteen children died from pneumococcal and 28 from haemophilus meningitis. Penicillin-resistant pneumococcal meningitis (4/8 = 50%) caused a greater mortality rate than penicillin-susceptible pneumococcal meningitis (15/38 = 39%). Common serotypes accounting for 76% of S. pneumoniae were type 14, 19F, 20, 1, 18 and 5; and serotypes 14, 19F and 7 (accounting for 17% of strains) showed intermediate resistance to penicillin G. 97% of the H. influenzae isolates were type b, and in only two cases beta-lactamase-producing. 72% of isolates of the S. pneumoniae we identified belong to serotypes preventable by a 9-valent vaccine. Our study highlights the possibility of resistant pyogenic meningitis in children in Ethiopia due to emerging resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae isolates.  (+info)

Transduction of enteric Escherichia coli isolates with a derivative of Shiga toxin 2-encoding bacteriophage phi3538 isolated from Escherichia coli O157:H7. (4/143)

We investigated the ability of a detoxified derivative of a Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-encoding bacteriophage to infect and lysogenize enteric Escherichia coli strains and to develop infectious progeny from such lysogenized strains. The stx(2) gene of the patient E. coli O157:H7 isolate 3538/95 was replaced by the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene from plasmid pACYC184. Phage phi3538(Deltastx(2)::cat) was isolated after induction of E. coli O157:H7 strain 3538/95 with mitomycin. A variety of strains of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), Stx-producing E. coli (STEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and E. coli from the physiological stool microflora were infected with phi3538(Deltastx(2)::cat), and plaque formation and lysogenic conversion of wild-type E. coli strains were investigated. With the exception of one EIEC strain, none of the E. coli strains supported the formation of plaques when used as indicators for phi3538(Deltastx(2)::cat). However, 2 of 11 EPEC, 11 of 25 STEC, 2 of 7 EAEC, 1 of 3 EIEC, and 1 of 6 E. coli isolates from the stool microflora of healthy individuals integrated the phage in their chromosomes and expressed resistance to chloramphenicol. Following induction with mitomycin, these lysogenic strains released infectious particles of phi3538(Deltastx(2)::cat) that formed plaques on a lawn of E. coli laboratory strain C600. The results of our study demonstrate that phi3538(Deltastx(2)::cat) was able to infect and lysogenize particular enteric strains of pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli and that the lysogens produced infectious phage progeny. Stx-encoding bacteriophages are able to spread stx genes among enteric E. coli strains.  (+info)

Transfer of chloramphenicol-resistant mitochondrial DNA into the chimeric mouse. (5/143)

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) chloramphenicol (CAP)-resistance (CAPR) mutation has been introduced into the tissues of adult mice via female embryonic stem (ES) cells. The endogenous CAP-sensitive (CAPS) mtDNAs were eliminated by treatment of the ES cells with the lipophilic dye Rhodamine-6-G (R-6-G). The ES cells were then fused to enucleated cell cytoplasts prepared from the CAPR mouse cell line 501-1. This procedure converted the ES cell mtDNA from 100% wild-type to 100% mutant. The CAPR ES cells were then injected into blastocysts and viable chimeric mice were isolated. Molecular testing for the CAPR mutant mtDNAs revealed that the percentage of mutant mtDNAs varied from zero to approximately 50% in the tissues analyzed. The highest percentage of mutant mtDNA was found in the kidney in three of the chimeric animals tested. These data suggest that, with improved efficiency, it may be possible to transmit exogenous mtDNA mutants through the mouse germ-line.  (+info)

Increase in incidence of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim in clinical isolates of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium with investigation of molecular epidemiology and mechanisms of resistance. (6/143)

Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium isolates obtained during the period 1987-1994 were examined and the molecular epidemiology and the mechanisms of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim were investigated in 24 strains isolated during 1994. Resistance to ampicillin increased from 18% to 78%, to chloramphenicol from 15% to 78%, to tetracycline from 53% to 89% and to co-trimoxazole from 3% to 37%, whereas resistance to norfloxacin remained at 0%. Of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium strains isolated during 1994, all ampicillin-resistant strains had an MIC > 256 mg/L, except one strain in which the MIC was 64 mg/L. Twelve strains (52%) had a TEM-type beta-lactamase, nine (39%) a CARB-type beta-lactamase and two strains (8%) had an OXA-type beta-lactamase. Chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase activity was detected in only nine (47%) of 19 chloramphenicol resistant strains, whereas all eight trimethoprim-resistant strains produced a dihydrofolate reductase type Ia enzyme. Three different epidemiological groups were defined by either low-frequency restriction analysis of chromosomal DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis or repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR. The latter technique provided an alternative, rapid and powerful genotyping method for S. Typhimurium. Although quinolones provide a good therapeutic alternative, the multiresistance of S. Typhimurium is of public health concern and it is important to continue surveillance of resistance levels and their mechanisms.  (+info)

Genetic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Canadian isolates of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104. (7/143)

PCR was used to identify antibiotic resistance determinants in 31 Canadian Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104 isolates. Genes encoding resistance to ampicillin (pse1 or blaP1), chloramphenicol (pasppflo-like), streptomycin-spectinomycin (aadA2), sulfonamide (sulI), and tetracycline [tet(G)] were mapped to a 13-kb region of DNA of one isolate. Two copies of sulI were identified and mapped to the 3' end of either pse1 or aadA2 integrons. The two integrons were separated by the pasppflo-like gene and the tet(G) gene. The kanamycin resistance determinant (aphA-1) was present on a 2.0-MDa plasmid (five isolates) or on the chromosome (three isolates).  (+info)

Evolution of chloramphenicol resistance, with emergence of cross-resistance to florfenicol, in bovine Salmonella Typhimurium strains implicates definitive phage type (DT) 104. (8/143)

The prevalence of resistance to florfenicol, a phenicol drug newly introduced in veterinary therapy, was determined in 86 chloramphenicol-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from cattle collected during 1985-1995. All were highly resistant to chloramphenicol (MICs > or = 128 mg/L) and 38 were simultaneously resistant to florfenicol (MICs >16 mg/L) and to beta-lactam agents, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines. The isolates susceptible to florfenicol harboured the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase gene, cat of type I. All the florfenicol-resistant isolates harboured the floR resistance gene and the characteristic multiple resistance genetic locus, previously characterised in a S. Typhimurium DT104 strain and identified by a multiplex PCR. Plasmid profiles and ribotype patterns were determined for all the isolates. The florfenicol-resistant isolates were grouped into the same ribotyping pattern and presented similar plasmid profiles, whereas the florfenicol-susceptible isolates showed a wider genetic diversity that is usual for S. Typhimurium. Thus, the florfenicol-resistant isolates could represent a clonal cluster, closely related to, if not of DT104 phage type, which appeared in 1989 and is now predominant within chloramphenicol-resistant S. Typhimurium. The multiplex PCR provided a useful tool to survey further evolution of multiresistant S. Typhimurium strains.  (+info)

1) Bissonnette L, et al. (1991) Characterization of the nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance (cmlA) gene of the In4 integron of Tn1696: similarity of the product to transmembrane transport proteins.. J Bacteriol 173(14):4493-502 PubMed: 1648560 ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Management of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant streptococcus pneumoniae. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The chloramphenicol (Cm)-inducible cmlA gene of Tn1696 specifies nonenzymatic resistance to Cm and is regulated by attenuation. The first eight codons of the leader specify a peptide that inhibits peptidyl transferase in vitro. Functionally similar, but less inhibitory, peptides are encoded by the leaders of Cm-inducible cat genes. However, the cat and cmlA coding sequences are unrelated and specify proteins of unrelated function. The inhibition of peptidyl transferase by the leader peptides is additive with that of Cm. Erythromycin competes with the inhibitory action of the peptides, and erythromycin and the peptides footprint to overlapping sites at the peptidyl transferase center of 23S rRNA. It is proposed that translation of the cmlA and cat leaders transiently pauses upon synthesis of the inhibitor peptides. The predicted site of pausing is identical to the leader site where long-term occupancy by a ribosome (ribosome stalling) will activate downstream gene expression. We therefore propose ...
E. the staphylococcus. One could question why it took so long for the enterococcus to pick up the staphylococcal P-lactamase which has been recognized for decades. In fact, it does not seem to work very well in the enterococcus: the enzyme is bound to the membrane and is not excreted. A better construct of the gene has not appeared-perhaps selection is not adequate. References Bridges B 1996 Elevated mutation rate in mutT bacteria during starvation: evidence for DNA turnover. J Bacterioll78:270%2721 ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE DETERMINANTS 35 Bunny KL, Hall RM, Stokes HW 1995New mobile gene cassettes containing an aminoglycoside resistance gene, uucu7, and a chloramphenicol resistance gene, catb3, in an integron in pbwh301. If these genes moved very recently from soil microorganisms into bacteria they should be virtually identical in nucleotide sequence. This suggests either that antibiotic resistance genes were acquired very recently but we havent actually found the source yet, or they are much ...
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
For this part of the project we will have one main BioBrick, which will be the construct required for the two-step markerless insertion, encompassing cat (chloramphenicol resistance) and sacB (prevents growth on sucrose).. Chloramphenicol resistance has already been well characterised in the registry, so our characterisation has mainly focused on sacB.. In addition we will probably be submitting the construct with the up- and down- stream sequences of useful genes which can be removed, e.g. tnaA, which produces indole - when removed E. coli no longer smells!. ...
For this part of the project we will have one main BioBrick, which will be the construct required for the two-step markerless insertion, encompassing cat (chloramphenicol resistance) and sacB (prevents growth on sucrose).. Chloramphenicol resistance has already been well characterised in the registry, so our characterisation has mainly focused on sacB.. In addition we will probably be submitting the construct with the up- and down- stream sequences of useful genes which can be removed, e.g. tnaA, which produces indole - when removed E. coli no longer smells!. ...
size limit of plasmid origins - posted in Molecular Cloning: Hi all,I am interested in prokaryotic (E. coli) origins of replication. Does anyone know of a reference giving the theoretical or empirical size limit of DNA that can be stably maintained from different origins of replication?In particular, I am interested in the P15A origin. I have found a reference where it could support a 10.6kb plasmid. But, I would like to use this origin and a chloramphenicol resistance gene to maintain a 1...
Laboratory evolution in Escherichia coli has revealed that fitness typically increases in experimental populations. These changes are sometimes associated with changes in insertion sequence positions, some of which may themselves cause advantageous phenotypes. We have a novel and general method for identifying genes in Escherichia coli, whose knockout by mobile DNA insertions is beneficial in experimental evolution. Insertion sites in favored clones can be identified by reference to genomic information. We have implemented the method using modified Tn10 transposons bearing kanamycin and chloramphenicol resistance cassettes. Results are consistent across replicated experiments, demonstrating that the insertions are themselves creating selective advantages, rather than hitch-hiking with favorable base substitutions. The successful clones have subsequently been confirmed to have a fitness advantage relative to the progenitor strain. In experiments in shaking culture, we find that advantageous ...
Plasmid psbA2-Ptrc-PHLS (d) from Dr. Anastasios Meliss lab contains the inserts beta-phellandrene synthase and Chloramphenicol resistance and is published in Planta May 2014 This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Plasmid pC5Kan-P2A from Dr. Barry Ganetzkys lab contains the insert P2A peptide and is published in Unpublished This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Chloramphenicol online no prescription overnight Garden Grove buy Chloramphenicol offshore no prescription fedex in plano at Blisland Oct 10, 2012 chloramphenicol manufacturer ~ chloramphenicol abuse Augusta, Clarksville, Davenport, Providence, Antioch, Plano, Cambridge, Omaha, 1 day ago 1469 Next ». / Buy Cetirizine on the internet, chloramphenicol cetirizine drugs online Cetirizine no rx Fed Ex Plano cetirizine 0.25 mg methacrylate Bausch and Lomb U3, plano power continuous wear, soft contact lens ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline by a modified disc-diffusion May 16, 2008 chloramphenicol-resistant; cat, chloramphenicol resistance gene; TB agar, R. R. Brubaker, G. V. Plano, S. C. Straley, K. A. McDonough, M. L. 1A), a linear DNA fragment carrying the cat (chloramphenicol resistance gene) R. R. Brubaker, G. V. Plano, S. C. Straley, K. A. McDonough, M. L. Nilles, J. S. Digger Chens practice focuses on patent prosecution and patent litigation in the areas of electronics, mechanics, ...
The final composite structure is formed by laminating a film of the copolymer on either side of the Teflon FEP woven mesh between two 17.8 x 17.8 cm (7 inch x 7 inch) caul plates and Teflon PTFE release film. This assembly is placed in a 15.2 x 15.2 cm (6 inch x 6 inch) press which is pre-heated to 145 C 5 C and gradually increased in pressure to 454 kg (1,000 lbs.) force. The pressure is held constant for approximately 3 minutes. Subsequently, this assembly is removed from the press and cooled to approximately 15 C under pressure. The laminated composite structure is then easily released from between the Teflon PTFE release film. the resultant laminated composite consists of a Teflon FEP woven fabric which is completely encapsulated within the fused copolymer of 50/50 weight percent poly(glycolide-co-trimethylene carbonate). The resultant laminated composite is approximately 0.051 cm thick and 12.7 x 12.7 cm ((0.020 inch) thick and 5 inches x 5 inches) in size ...
CRC-ACS and ACS announce the opening of the new head office and facilities of the Cooperative Research Centre for Advanced Composites Structures (CRC-ACS) an...
Methods and apparatus are provided for forming a diffusion bonded composite structure. The composite structure includes at least one internal void or feature. Surfaces to be bonded are cleaned and prepared for bonding. The exposed joints of the composite structure where the surfaces interface are sealed. The composite structure is placed in hot isostatic process furnace. The furnace is pressurized to a low pressure below 1500 pounds per square inch that forces the surfaces to be bonded in intimate contact with one another. The composite structure is heated to promote diffusion bonding at the interface of surfaces in contact with one another.
An implantable constriction device for forming a restricted stoma opening in the stomach or esophagus of a patient comprises an elongate composite structure adapted to constrict the stomach or esophagus of the patient. The elongate composite structure is composed of a base material, such as hard silicone, making the composite structure self-supporting. Property improving means is provided for improving at least one physical property of the composite structure other than self-supporting properties, such as fatigue resistance, liquid impermeability, aggressive body cells resistance, anti-friction properties and lifetime.
This paper presents an approach for the correction of data gathered for damage prognosis (DP) in composite structures. The validation setup consists of surface-bonded piezoceramic (PZT) transducers used in a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system with simulated bonding layer damage using Teflon masks. The modal damping around PZT mechanical resonance is used as a metric to assess and compensate for the degradation of the adhesive layer of the transducers. Modal damping is derived from electrical admittance curves using a lumped parameter model to monitor the degradation of the transducer adhesive layer. A Pitch-Catch (PC) configuration is then used to discriminate the effect of bonding degradation on actuation and sensing. It is shown that below the first mechanical resonance frequency of the PZT, degradation leads to a decrease in the amplitude of the transmitted and measured signals. Above resonance, in addition to a decrease in signal amplitude of the transmitted and measured signals, a ...
The Science of Engineering Ceramics III: Preparation and Properties of a Novel Anode of Interpenetrating Phase Composite Structure
Antibiotic-resistant Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia is an important etiologic agent of nosocomial and cystic fibrosis infections. The primary resistance mechanism which has been reported is decreased outer membrane permeability. We previously reported the cloning and characterization of a chloramphenicol resistance determinant from an isolate of B. cepacia from a patient with cystic fibrosis that resulted in decreased drug accumulation. In the present studies we subcloned and sequenced the resistance determinant and identified gene products related to decreased drug accumulation. Additional drug resistances encoded by the determinant include resistances to trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin. Sequence analysis of a 3.4-kb subcloned fragment identified one complete and one partial open reading frame which are homologous with two of three components of a potential antibiotic efflux operon from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (mexA-mexB-oprM). On the basis of sequence data, outer membrane protein analysis, ...
Batt, SL; Charalambous, BM; Solomon, AW; Knirsch, C; Massae, PA; Safari, S; Sam, NE; Everett, D; Mabey, DCW; Gillespie, SH; (2003) Impact of azithromycin administration for trachoma control on the carriage of antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 47 (9). pp. 2765-2769. ISSN 0066-4804 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.47.9.2765-2769.2003 Full text not available from this repository ...
A foot/ankle implant and associated method. The foot/ankle implant comprises a composite structure having a ceramic component with a macroprosity and a polymer component filling the macroporosity. The composite structure forms an anatomically-shaped and load-bearing graft for implantation between two bone portions of the foot or ankle to correct associated deformities. The ceramic component is gradually resorbable after implantation, and the composite structure is gradually replaceable by tissue/bone ingrowth.
loxP flanked Chloramphenicol Selection Cassette (loxP-cm-loxP) from Gene Bridges GmbH,The The prokaryotic promoter gb2 driving the gene for chloramphenicol resistance is a slightly modified version of the Em7 promoter. It mediates higher transcription efficiency than the generally u,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
The nature of cracks that threaten the safety of composite structures is probed. Material weaknesses that compromise strength are identified. Multi-scale phenomena of structural changes in composites under stress are modelled. Fitness considerations for long-life implementation of large composite structures include understanding multi-scale phenomena of structural changes in composites by fatigue, creep, impact, and stress corrosion. Structural integrity modelling and analysis treats the design, the materials used, and figures out how best components and parts can be joined, and takes service duty into account. Properly interpreted, structural integrity analysis forecasts the limits of performance of the composite and conditions for safe operation of the engineering structure. However, there are conflicting aims in the complete design process of designing simultaneously for high efficiency and safety assurance throughout an economically viable lifetime with an acceptable level of risk. Where ...
Fibergrate is the leading manufacturer of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) solutions for industrial and commercial use globally.
Artificial competence of Synechococcus PCC 6301 cells was induced by lysozyme treatment and the cells were transformed to chloramphenicol resistance with foreign plasmid pBR325 at a frequency of approximately 5 times 10-5 or 5 times 10-4 with the transformant DNA. The transformation frequencies were higher than those reported by other workers for the same strain with cloned DNA employing a physiological transformation system. Analyses of DNA electrophoresis, secondary transformation and dot blotting demonstrated that foreign plasmid had integrated into the recipient chromosome by a single crossover event. The results showed that the artificial transformation system was efficient and reproducible. Conditions that affected transformation, such as, incubation time of cells with DNA, age of the cells, light or dark incubation were also studied ...
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Pre-preg materials and flexible tapes comprising polycarbodiimide prepolymers and a fiber reinforcing material, and reinforced, chemically integral, composite foam structures prepared from said pre-pregs. The composite structures are prepared by curing said pre-pregs in combination with additional polycarbodiimide-forming, foamable precursors by the application of heat.
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A hose includes a hollow plastic core having an indirectly heatable agent bonded to the exterior thereof by a heat seal. A reinforcing net is embedded in the agent when heated and the composite structure covered with a coating.
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Summary: Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and S. lividans 66, which lack chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, gave rise to chloramphenicol-sensitive (Cmls) variants spontaneously at frequencies of 0·5 to 2%. The fertility type of S. coelicolor in respect of the scP1 plasmid (SCP1+, SCP1− or NF) had no effect on chloramphenicol sensitivity or on the frequency at which Cmls variants arose. Cmls isolates spontaneously reverted to CmlR at frequencies one to three orders of magnitude lower than the frequency with which Cmls strains arose from CmlR CmlR revertants obtained spontaneously from Cmls clones again produced Cmls isolates at the normal frequency of several per cent. Therefore, Cmls and CmlR are reversible phenotypes. In crosses between marked Cml r and Cml s S. coelicolor strains, transfer of chloramphenicol resistance into the sensitive strain apparently occurred independently of chromosomal recombination. Mapping experiments excluded the possibility that segregation of a chromosomal locus determines
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Modern transformation and genome editing techniques have shown great success across a broad variety of organisms. However, no study of successfully applied genome editing has been reported in a dinoflagellate despite the first genetic transformation of Symbiodinium being published about 20 years ago. Using an array of different available transformation techniques, we attempted to transform Symbiodinium microadriaticum (CCMP2467), a dinoflagellate symbiont of reef-building corals, in order to perform CRISPR-Ca9 mediated genome editing. Plasmid vectors containing the chloramphenicol resistance gene under the control of the CaMV p35S promoter as well as several putative endogenous promoters were used to test a variety of transformation techniques including biolistics, electroporation, silica whiskers and glass bead agitation. We report that we have been unable to confer chloramphenicol resistance to our specific Symbiodinium strain. These results are intended to provide other researchers with an ...
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Chloramphenicol resistance gene: 1856 - 2515 ccdB gene:. bla promoter: 3997 - 4095 Ampicillin resistance gene: 4096. pNGWA sequence:.. A vector for cloning DNA fragments comprising the following sequence: bacteriophage P1 loxP site-ampicillin resistance gene. resistance gene.ARG-ANNOT (Antibiotic Resistance Gene-ANNOTation). sequences without web interface. ARG-ANNOT database consists of a single file covering. Bla: beta -lactamases.. Genomic DNA cloning of rickettsia-like. Genomic DNA cloning of rickettsia-like organisms (RLO) of Saint. the gene for ampicillin resistance, (2).Drug Resistance, Microbial. FAQ. Genes, MDR; Tetracycline Resistance; Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal;. Ampicillin Resistance; Time Factors; Immunity, Innate.. resistance gene. resistant oligotrophic strain, Klebsiella pneumoniaeMB45. oligotrophic strain, Klebsiella pneumoniaeMB45 having.Characteristics of human intestinal Escherichia coli with changing environments. often from horizontal gene transfer,. Resistance ...
O Umted States Patent 1 1 3,568,723 [72] Inventor Donald Maurice Sowards [56] References Cited Ashbollm Hills, Claymwb UNITED STATES PATENTS 3; $5 1967 2,824,620 2/1958 De Rosset 55/16 P f ed 9 1971 3,044,499 7/1962 Frerich 138/143 1 a 3,129,727 4/1964 Tanaka 138/143 [73] Asslgnee E. I. duPont de Nemours and Company 3 141 479 7,1964 Micke 138/143 Wilmington Del. y 3,252,270 5/1966 Palletal. 55/74 Primary Examiner-Houston S. Bell, Jr. {54] METAL-CERAMIC COMPOSITE STRUCTURES Attorney-Lynn N. Fisher 5 Claims, 2 Drawing Figs. [52] U.S. 138/143, I 138/177, 164/98, 138/111 ABSTRACT: Metal-ceramic structures are made by casting [51] Int. Cl. F161 9/14 molten metal around ceramic cores having specific physical Field of Search 138/140, properties. Most important of these properties is that the sur- 141, 142,143, 144, 145, 146, 177, 89,111, (inquired); 55/16, 74; 181/40, 62, (lnquired); 164/98, (lnquired); /29, (Inquired); 264/(lnquired); 106/(1nquired) face of the core which forms part of the ...
The present invention disclose a composite structure for light diffusion, including at least one carrier media layer and a microlens system comprising a plurality of microlenses thereon. A transparent material for enlarging the shape is coated on each microlens to cover the gaps between the microlens. Partial surface of the transparent material can be coated a light absorbing layer for glare reduction. Besides, the microlens can be or asymmetric or arranged in random, non-periodic array for interference reduction.
Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (or CAT) is a bacterial enzyme (EC 2.3.1.28) that detoxifies the antibiotic chloramphenicol and is responsible for chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. This enzyme covalently attaches an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to chloramphenicol, which prevents chloramphenicol from binding to ribosomes. A histidine residue, located in the C-terminal section of the enzyme, plays a central role in its catalytic mechanism. The crystal structure of the type III enzyme from Escherichia coli with chloramphenicol bound has been determined. CAT is a trimer of identical subunits (monomer Mr 25,000) and the trimeric structure is stabilised by a number of hydrogen bonds, some of which result in the extension of a beta-sheet across the subunit interface. Chloramphenicol binds in a deep pocket located at the boundary between adjacent subunits of the trimer, such that the majority of residues forming the binding pocket belong to one subunit while the catalytically essential histidine ...
To construct the plasmids used for complementation of the sporulation-defective phenotype of RL2045 (JH642 ΔspoIIIAG) and RL2046 (JH642 ΔspoIIIAH), fragments of DNA corresponding to spoIIIAH, spoIIIAGH, spoIIIAFGH and spoIIIA′EFGH were amplified from JH642 chromosomal DNA, cloned into pDG1662 (11) digested with BamHI and EcoRI, and transformed into competent JH642, RL2045, and RL2046 with selection for chloramphenicol resistance and screening for spectinomycin sensitivity to confirm double crossovers into the amyE locus.. In order to more positively identify which region of DNA contained the putative promoter, we amplified the sections of DNA described above and cloned them into EcoRI- and BamHI-digested pDG1661 (11), which contains a promoterless lacZ gene fused to the ribosome binding site of spoVG, and then we transformed the resulting plasmids into competent JH642, with selection for chloramphenicol resistance and screening for spectinomycin sensitivity to confirm double crossovers into ...
Plasmid-encoded fusidic acid resistance in Escherichia coli is mediated by a common variant of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.28), an enzyme which is an effector of chloramphenicol resistance. Resistance to chloramphenicol is a consequence of acetylation of the antibiotic catalysed by the enzyme and the failure of the 3-acetoxy product to bind to bacterial ribosomes. Cell-free coupled transcription and translation studies are in agreement with genetic studies which indicated that the entire structural gene for the type I chloramphenicol acetyltransferase is necessary for the fusidic acid resistance phenotype. The mechanism of resistance does nor involve covalent modification of the antibiotic. The other naturally-occurring enterobacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase variants (types II and III) do not cause fusidic acid resistance. Steady-state kinetic studies with the type I enzyme have shown that the binding of fusidic acid is competitive with respect to chloramphenicol. The ...
There is an increasing interest to develop various lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species as mucosal delivery vehicles, for which the development of a variety of cloning and expression systems for these bacteria is of primary importance. This study reports the complete nucleotide sequence of the cryptic plasmid pRCEID7.6 derived from the chicken probiotic LAB strain Lactobacillus casei TISTR1341. Sequence analysis and comparison showed that pRCEID7.6 is composed of nine putative open reading frames. The replicon origin of pRCEID7.6 consisted of untranslated origin of replication and translated replication protein B sequences. This region was used to construct Escherichia coli/L. casei shuttle vectors carrying erythromycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes as selective markers. Segregation and structural stability of the vectors in L. casei was sufficient for most genetic applications. The feasibility of this vector for heterologous protein expression in L. casei was determined by cloning in pRCEID-LC7.6,
The respiratory chain of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis is able to oxidize both species of nicotinamide cofactors, NADH and NADPH. A mutant strain with a chloramphenicol-resistance determinant inserted in ndh (encoding an NADH : CoQ oxidoreductase of type II) lacked the membrane NADH and NADPH oxidase activities, while its respiratory d-lactate oxidase activity was increased. Cells of the mutant strain showed a very low respiration rate with glucose and no respiration with ethanol. The aerobic growth rate of the mutant was elevated; exponential growth persisted longer, resulting in higher biomass densities. For the parent strain a similar effect of aerobic growth stimulation was achieved previously in the presence of submillimolar cyanide concentrations. It is concluded (i) that the respiratory chain of Z. mobilis contains only one functional NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, product of the ndh gene, and (ii) that inhibition of respiration, whether resulting from a mutation or from inhibitor
Material behaviour of structural components is very important to understand. In fibre reinforced polymer composite materials, this is more difficult in comparison to isotropic materials as they are made up of two constituents: the fibre and the matrix. For aerospace composite materials, the matrix is usually an epoxy resin that cures at a high temperature. This curing regime is known to introduce residual stresses to the composite material as it cools from the high cure temperature. However, how to consider these residual stresses in a structural analysis is still widely debated. In this paper, the authors investigated the offset of thermal residual strains introduced by the cure regime by the swelling of the composite when exposed to moisture.
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This recommended practice describes the materials, related equipment, and particular processing techniques utilized in process science curing of composite hardware where pressure is imparted specifically to the resin of curing composites. Included as Appendix A to this ARP is a discussion of the particular techniques developed for a processing science philosophy which has consistently produced void and porosity-free, large area, thick composite structures ...
This recommended practice describes the materials, related equipment, and particular processing techniques utilized in process science curing of composite hardware where pressure is imparted specifically to the resin of curing composites. Included as Appendix A to this ARP is a discussion of the particular techniques developed for a processing science philosophy which has consistently produced void and porosity-free, large area, thick composite structures ...
The globe or ball of the eye is a composite structure of spheroidal form, placed in the fore part of the orbital cavity, and receiving the thick stem of the optic nerve behind. The recti and oblique muscles closely surround the greater part of the eyeball, and are capable of changing its position within certain limits: the lids, with the plica semilunaris and caruncle, are in contact with its covering of conjunctiva in front; and behind it is supported by a quantity of loose fat and connective tissue.. ...
A two-day joint working meeting on composites-related pilot projects took place at the University of Manchester during 3-4 July 2017. The meeting presented an opportunity for AERO-UA partners to discuss advanced design, manufacture and maintenance of aeronautic composite structures ...
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... conferring resistance to chloramphenicol, which ensured only the successful recombinants grew. Triplicate plates of 10μL of ... and the cmr gene for chloramphenicol resistance. It was observed that leaky expression of Cas9 occurred even without induction ... After selecting for the transformants using antibiotic resistance, another plasmid containing the targeted gene of interest in ... such as antibiotic resistance, is transformed into the cells in place of the target gene and incorporated into the DNA behind a ...
The plague bacterium could develop drug resistance and again become a major health threat. One case of a drug-resistant form of ... The antibiotics often used are streptomycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Amongst the newer generation of antibiotics, ...
"Chloramphenicol acetylransferase-independent chloramphenicol resistance in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)". Journal of General ...
"Chloramphenicol acetylransferase-independent chloramphenicol resistance in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)". Journal of General ...
Translational block to expression of the E. coli Tn9-derived chloramphenicol-resistance gene in Bacillus subtilis Proc. Natl. ... Expression of Tn9-derived chloramphenicol resistance in Bacillus subtilis. Nature 293:309-311. Goldfarb, D.S., R.L. Rodriguez ... RNA polymerase binding studies on antibiotic-resistance promoters. Gene. 9:175-193. Goldfarb, D.S., R.H. Doi and R. L. ... Characterizing wild-type and mutant promoters of the tetracycline resistance gene in pBR313. Nucl. Acids Res. 6(10):3267. West ...
"Anti-peptidyl transferase leader peptides of attenuation-regulated chloramphenicol-resistance genes". Proceedings of the ... The following protein synthesis inhibitors target peptidyl transferase: Chloramphenicol binds to A2451 and A2452 residues in ...
1975). "Cytoplasmic transfer of chloramphenicol resistance in human tissue culture cells". J Cell Biol. 67 (1): 174-88. doi: ... resistance to chloramphenicol) and in 1990 he described a mitochondrial DNA mutation as the cause of a particular form of ...
Its similarity to the mechanism of action of macrolides and chloramphenicol means they should not be given simultaneously, as ... A disadvantage is that bacterial resistance can develop fairly quickly. Gastrointestinal upset may also occur. Toxoplasmosis ... Tetracyclines, Macrolides, Clindamycin, Chloramphenicol, Streptogramins, & Oxazolidinones. In: Katzung BG. eds. Basic & ... Anaerobic, Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, including some Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, and Prevotella, although resistance is ...
Other frequent resistance targets include aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim/ ... Resistance to phages is not likely to be as troublesome as to antibiotics as new infectious phages are likely to be available ... The most important mechanism of resistance by CRKP is the production of a carbapenemase enzyme, blakpc. The gene that encodes ... In 2009, strains of K. pneumoniae with gene called New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase ( NDM-1) that even gives resistance against ...
The plasmid also carries genes to confer resistance to ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Plasmid pHT01 is generally stable in ...
It has shown resistance to gentamicin. Treatment is recommended for a minimum of three weeks. Hospitalization is required in ... C. canimorsus is susceptible to ampicillin, third-generation cephalosporins, tetracyclines, clindamycin, and chloramphenicol. ... C. canimorsus cells also show resistance to killing by complement and killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. C. canimorsus, ... although some isolates have been found to show resistance. ...
Doxycycline is typically used first line, although some strains of V. cholerae have shown resistance. Testing for resistance ... Other antibiotics proven to be effective include cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and furazolidone. ... In many areas of the world, antibiotic resistance is increasing within cholera bacteria. In Bangladesh, for example, most cases ... In those samples that test positive, further testing should be done to determine antibiotic resistance. In epidemic situations ...
... but chloramphenicol is an alternative. Strains that are resistant to doxycycline and chloramphenicol have been reported in ... Azithromycin is an alternative in children and pregnant women with scrub typhus, and when doxycycline resistance is suspected. ... yet it can be treated effectively with chloramphenicol. Where doubt exists, the diagnosis may be confirmed by a laboratory test ...
Drug resistance, such as antimicrobial resistance or antineoplastic resistance, may make the first-line drug ineffective, ... Unacceptably high risk of irreversible, fatal aplastic anemia and gray baby syndrome causes intravenous chloramphenicol to be a ... or vancomycin intermediate-resistance S. aureus (VISA)) often coinciding with methicillin/penicillin resistance, prompting the ... Recently, resistance to even vancomycin has been shown in some strains of S. aureus (sometimes referred to as vancomycin ...
Most strains of C. pseudotuberculosis have been shown to be intrinsically resistant to streptomycin, with varying resistance to ... It has been shown to be susceptible to ampicillin, gentamicin, tetracycline, lincomycin, chloramphenicol. Vaccines have also ... Specifically, C. pseudotuberculosis is intrinsically resistant to streptomycin, with varying resistance to penicillin and ... chloramphenicol and others. However, it is thought that treatment within live animals is limited due to the firm capsule and ...
... chloramphenicol and florfenicol. This multi-drug resistance has been linked to certain genes. For beta-lactam resistance, the ... lincomycin and chloramphenicol. Further resistance testing of S. hyicus isolates found high resistance to penicillin, ... lincosamides and streptogramins and the pS194-like str gene is for chloramphenicol and streptomycin resistance. Genetic ... With antibiotic resistance increasing in all bacteria, sending samples to a diagnostic lab for susceptibility testing is ...
Resistance to rifampicin has been noted to increase after use, which has caused some to recommend considering other agents. ... Chloramphenicol, either alone or in combination with ampicillin, however, appears to work equally well. Empirical therapy may ... In the US, where resistance to cefalosporins is increasingly found in streptococci, addition of vancomycin to the initial ...
Benzylpenicillin and chloramphenicol are also effective. Supportive measures include IV fluids, oxygen, inotropic support, e.g ... Antibiotic choice should be based on local antibiotic resistance information. Complications following meningococcal disease can ... and chloramphenicol (12 deaths out of 256). There were no reported side effects. Both antibiotics were considered equally ... although rifampin was associated with resistance to the antibiotic following treatment. Eighteen studies provided data on side ...
In Southeast Asia, where doxycycline and chloramphenicol resistance have been experienced, azithromycin is recommended for all ... Smadel, JE; Ley, H.L.Jr.; Diercks, F.H.; Traub, R. (1950). "Immunity in scrub typhus: resistance to induced reinfection". A.M.A ... Antibiotics such as azithromycin and doxycycline are the main prescription drugs; chloramphenicol and tetracyclin are also ... Chanta, C.; Phloenchaiwanit, P. (2015). "Randomized Controlled trial of azithromycin versus doxycycline or chloramphenicol for ...
... flexneri have more plasmids that are suspected to confer antibiotic resistance. Some strains of S. flexneri have resistance to ... It has been found that chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, and gentamicin are still effective antibiotics for some strains. S. ... Ssr1 sRNA, which could play role in resistance to acidic stress and regulation of virulence was shown to exist only in Shigella ... "Molecular characteristics of class 1 and class 2 integrons and their relationships to antibiotic resistance in clinical ...
Early clinical experience suggested that chloramphenicol may also be effective, but in vitro susceptibility testing revealed ... resistance.[citation needed] Ehrlichiosis is a nationally notifiable disease in the United States. Cases have been reported in ...
Antibiotic resistance has become wide-spread in bacterial pathogens, and in Gram-negative bacteria such as the ... chloramphenicol, fosfomycin, etc. Plasmids carrying these genes readily move between strains or between species. Consequently, ... The resistance genes encode proteins that export or inactivate β-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, ... resistance to the currently available panel of approved antibiotics is an increasingly worrisome problem. The most recent class ...
Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance can be categorized into three groups. First, resistance can be achieved by reducing ... The second, AdeDE, is responsible for efflux of a wide range of substrates, including tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and ... AbaRs contain several genes for antibiotic resistance, all flanked by insertion sequences. There exist several resistance genes ... strain showing resistance to 12 antibiotics. AbsR25 sRNA could play a role in the efflux pump regulation and drug resistance. A ...
"Two distinct major facilitator superfamily drug efflux pumps mediate chloramphenicol resistance in Streptomyces coelicolor". ... Impact on antimicrobial resistance[edit]. The impact of efflux mechanisms on antimicrobial resistance is large; this is usually ... and acquired resistance respectively. As an intrinsic mechanism of resistance, efflux pump genes can survive a hostile ... "AcrAB efflux pump plays a major role in the antibiotic resistance phenotype of Escherichia coli multiple-antibiotic-resistance ...
"Role of the Two Component Signal Transduction System CpxAR in Conferring Cefepime and Chloramphenicol Resistance in Klebsiella ... an RND-Type Membrane Transporter in Antimicrobial Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii. PLoS One. 2015 Oct 23;10(10):e0141314 ... Is an SMR-Type Efflux Pump Involved in Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Resistance". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 57 (9 ... is involved in antimicrobial and oxidative stress resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Feb;59(2):1236-45. Srinivasan ...
Antibiotic sensitivity and resistance was determined using the agar diffusion test in which paper discs saturated with ... H. larsenii is resistant to the following antibiotics: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, ...
Additional reports have found A. equuli resistance to oxacillin and trimethoprin-sulphaimidine along with developed resistance ... chloramphenicol, methicillin, and nalidixic acid. The study also found susceptibility of A. equuli to gentamicin, tetracycline ... Thus the study recommended the treatment with procaine penicillin and gentamicin sulphate in cases of antimicrobial resistance ... However, after conducting susceptibility testing, one study found A. equuli resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, streptomycin ...
This lethal synergy has been considered as one way to address the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance. Bicyclomycin, ... chloramphenicol or rifampicin led to rapid killing. ...
The same of mitochondria cannot be said of chloroplasts, where antibiotic resistance in ribosomal proteins is a trait to be ... "Chloramphenicol-lnduced Bone Marrow Suppression". JAMA. 213 (7): 1183-1184. 1970-08-17. doi:10.1001/jama.1970.03170330063011. ... Noller HF, Hoffarth V, Zimniak L (June 1992). "Unusual resistance of peptidyl transferase to protein extraction procedures". ... A noteworthy counterexample, however, includes the antineoplastic antibiotic chloramphenicol, which successfully inhibits ...
Both uses may be contributing to the rapid development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations. Phage therapy, using ... For example, the antibiotics chloramphenicol and tetracyclin inhibit the bacterial ribosome but not the structurally different ... mechanisms that enable it to resist microbial invasion of its tissues and give it a natural immunity or innate resistance ...
Resistance to puromycin is conferred by the pac gene encoding a puromycin N-acetyl-transferase (PAC) that was found in a ... Puromycin resistance in yeast can also be conferred through expression of the puromycin N-acetyl-transferase (pac) gene.[8] ... "Puromycin- and methotrexate-resistance cassettes and optimized Cre-recombinase expression plasmids for use in yeast". Yeast ...
Antibiotic Resistance[edit]. Studies have shown that L. fermentum has antibiotic resistances. DNA was isolated from ... chloramphenicol, and norfloxacin), Lactobacillus fermentum was found to only be resistant to amikacin and norfloxacin. [ ... So far no observed Lactobacillus fermentum strains have been observed to have transferable resistance or acquired resistance ... Different strains of Lactobacillus fermentum demonstrated uniform resistance patterns demonstrating resistance to glycopeptide ...
Although exposure to rifamycins in the past may increase risk for resistance, so rifaximin should be avoided in such cases. ... Amphenicol: Chloramphenicol. *Aminoglycosides: Neomycin. *Gentamicin. *Amikacin. *Quinolones: Nadifloxacin. *Streptogramin: ... this local action within the gut and the lack of horizontal transfer of resistant genes the development of bacterial resistance ...
"G418/neomycin-cross resistance?". Retrieved 2008-10-19.. *^ Mehta R, Champney WS (September 2003). "Neomycin and paromomycin ... Neomycin resistance is conferred by either one of two aminoglycoside phosphotransferase genes.[9] A neo gene is commonly ... Amphenicol: Chloramphenicol. *Aminoglycosides: Neomycin. *Gentamicin. *Amikacin. *Quinolones: Nadifloxacin. *Streptogramin: ... "Arginine-linked neomycin B dimers: synthesis, rRNA binding, and resistance enzyme activity". MedChemComm. 7 (1): 164-169. doi ...
The pattern of resistance to antimicrobials is distinctive, and helps to differentiate the organism from P. aeruginosa. The ... While various antibiotics are active in vitro (e.g., chloramphenicol, doxycycline, co-trimoxazole), they have been proven to be ... Norris MH, Kang Y, Lu D, Wilcox BA, Hoang TT (2009). "Glyphosate resistance as a novel select-agent-compliant, non-antibiotic- ... This mediates resistance to aminoglycosides (AmrAB-OprA), tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, and macrolides (BpeAB-OprB). No ...
Resistance to oxidative burst[edit]. A hallmark of Salmonella pathogenesis is the ability of the bacterium to survive and ... and early in the event picked up a gene that made it resistant to the antibiotic chloramphenicol. This created the need to use ... they gain heat resistance and can survive up to 90 °C (194 °F) for 30 min.[34] To protect against Salmonella infection, heating ... Appropriate prophylactic treatment can be identified from the known antibiotic resistance of the serotype.[18] ...
a b Emtricitabine (FTC) is an acceptable alternative to 3TC, based on knowledge of the pharmacology, the resistance patterns ...
Its use is advised against in people on strong CYP3A4 inhibitors such as clarithromycin, chloramphenicol, ketoconazole, ... lowered resistance to infection, bruising or bleeding, loss of appetite;[17] weight gain, reduced number of blood cells ( ... "Molecular mechanisms of resistance to imatinib in Philadelphia-chromosome-positive leukaemias". Lancet Oncol. 4 (2): 75-85. doi ... This fact explains why many BCR-ABL mutations can cause resistance to imatinib by shifting its equilibrium toward the open or ...
Oral metronidazole is a treatment option for giardiasis, however, the increasing incidence of nitroimidazole resistance is ... Amphenicol: Chloramphenicol. *Aminoglycosides: Neomycin. *Gentamicin. *Amikacin. *Quinolones: Nadifloxacin. *Streptogramin: ... as well as to prevent antimicrobial resistance.[55][56] ...
One form of resistance has emerged in the 16S ribosomal RNA in Pasteurella multocida.[5] ... "Mutations in 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein S5 associated with high-level spectinomycin resistance in Pasteurella multocida" ...
In an in vitro study in fat thalamic slices amobarbital worked by activating GABAA receptors, which decreased input resistance ...
Chloramphenicol) মিহলোৱা হয়। ক্ল'ৰামফেনিক'লে প্ৰটিন সংশ্লেষণত বাধা দিয়ে কাৰণে DNA অনুকৃত্যায়ন বাধাপ্ৰাপ্ত নহয় আৰু বৃহৎ ... antibiotic resistance) এটুকুৰা বহিৰাগত জিন বা DNA ৰ অংশ চালম'নেলা টাইফিমুৰিয়াম (Salmonella typhimurium) নামৰ বেক্টেৰিয়াৰ ...
Bacterial resistance[edit]. See also: Antibiotic abuse and Antibiotic resistance. As a result of its widespread use to treat ... M Jacobs, Worldwide Overview of Antimicrobial Resistance. International Symposium on Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance 2005. ... "Bacterial resistance prompts concern among health officials". 26 February 2009. Archived from the original on 5 March 2009.. ... As resistance to cipro has grown, research has been conducted to discover and develop analogs that can be effective against ...
In this relate, filamentation could be not only a virulence, but also a resistance factor in these bacteria. Bacteria exhibit a ... Chloramphenicol antibiotic can induce the formation of filamentous cells, which contain multiple copies of unsegregated ... Steel, Christina; Qian Wan; Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu (2004). "Single live cell imaging of chromosomes in chloramphenicol-induced ... The filamentation contributes to a pathogen's resistance to this antimicrobial agent. The induction of bacterial filamentation ...
... and chloramphenicol, suggested that only bottromycin and chloramphenicol caused release of aminoacyl tRNA from the ribosome. Of ... The need to find new antibiotics to combat antibiotic resistance means that biologic and synthetic interest in bottromycin will ... especially given the rise of antibiotic resistance. The mechanism of action of bottromycin was confirmed nearly 20 years ...
Plasmids that carry several different resistance genes can confer resistance to multiple antibacterials.[72] Cross-resistance ... chloramphenicol and tetracyclines are antagonists to penicillins and aminoglycosides. However, this can vary depending on the ... Resistance and modifying agentsEdit. One strategy to address bacterial drug resistance is the discovery and application of ... Resistance modifying agents are capable of partly or completely suppressing bacterial resistance mechanisms.[136] For example, ...
Resistance[edit]. As resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and streptomycin is now common, ... Where resistance is uncommon, the treatment of choice is a fluoroquinolone such as ciprofloxacin.[20][27] Otherwise, a third- ... Ciprofloxacin resistance is an increasing problem, especially in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Many centres are ... Antibiotics, such as ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin, have been ...
"Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 12 (1): 147-79. PMC 88911 ...
Clinically dosage up to twice the recommended dose might be used due to relative resistance of some strains of dermatophytes. ... Modified with Chloramphenicol". Becton, Dickinson and Company. Retrieved 2008-12-07.. ...
Akagawa, H.; Okanishi, M.; Umezawa, H. (1975). "A Plasmid Involved in Chloramphenicol Production in Streptomyces venezuelae: ... to weaken bacterial-resistance. Novel antiinfectives being developed include Guadinomine (Streptomyces sp. K01-0509), an ... Streptomyces antibiotics include: Chloramphenicol (Streptomyces venezuelae) Daptomycin (Streptomyces roseosporus) Fosfomycin ( ... "Dramatic activation of antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor by cumulative drug resistance mutations". Appl Environ ...
The outer membrane provides these bacteria with resistance to lysozyme and penicillin. The periplasmic space (space between the ... chloramphenicol, folate antagonists, and carbapenems.[15] ...
Resistance to amikacin also confers resistance to kanamycin and capreomycin.[30] Resistance to amikacin and kanamycin in ... The antibiotics chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and tetracycline have been known to inactivate aminoglycosides in general by ... also confer resistance: resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is caused by AAC(6')-IV, which also confers resistance to ... Resistance[edit]. Amikacin evades attacks by all antibiotic-inactivating enzymes that are responsible for antibiotic resistance ...
Smith SJ, Cases S, Jensen DR, Chen HC, Sande E, Tow B, Sanan DA, Raber J, Eckel RH, Farese RV (May 2000). "Obesity resistance ... Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. *N-acetyltransferase *Serotonin N-acetyl transferase. *HGSNAT. *ARD1A. *Histone ...
... chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim by sending molecules of those antibiotics out of the bacterial cell. Sometimes a combination ... cross resistance where mutations confer resistance to two or more treatments can be problematic. For antibiotic resistance, ... Tolerance and Resistance Cosmetics Database HCMV drug resistance mutations tool Combating Drug Resistance - An informative ... resistance has evolved. Antimicrobial resistance and antineoplastic resistance challenge clinical care and drive research. When ...
Walsh FM, Amyes SG (October 2004). "Microbiology and drug resistance mechanisms of fully resistant pathogens". Current Opinion ... An example of how antibiotics produce selective toxicity are chloramphenicol and puromycin, which inhibit the bacterial ... Hastings PJ, Rosenberg SM, Slack A (September 2004). "Antibiotic-induced lateral transfer of antibiotic resistance". Trends in ... Nicholson WL, Schuerger AC, Setlow P (April 2005). "The solar UV environment and bacterial spore UV resistance: considerations ...
Since these bacteria are resistant to povidone iodine, statements that bacteria do not develop resistance to PVP-I,[10] should ...
Anti-peptidyl transferase leader peptides of attenuation-regulated chloramphenicol-resistance genes. Z Gu, R Harrod, E J Rogers ... Anti-peptidyl transferase leader peptides of attenuation-regulated chloramphenicol-resistance genes. Z Gu, R Harrod, E J Rogers ... The chloramphenicol (Cm)-inducible cmlA gene of Tn1696 specifies nonenzymatic resistance to Cm and is regulated by attenuation ... Anti-peptidyl transferase leader peptides of attenuation-regulated chloramphenicol-resistance genes. Z Gu, R Harrod, E J Rogers ...
TRANSDUCTION TO PENICILLIN AND CHLORAMPHENICOL RESISTANCE IN SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM. S. Banič. Genetics May 1, 1959 vol. 44 no ... TRANSDUCTION TO PENICILLIN AND CHLORAMPHENICOL RESISTANCE IN SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM. S. Banič. Genetics May 1, 1959 vol. 44 no ... TRANSDUCTION TO PENICILLIN AND CHLORAMPHENICOL RESISTANCE IN SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM. S. Banič. Genetics May 1, 1959 vol. 44 no ... TRANSDUCTION TO PENICILLIN AND CHLORAMPHENICOL RESISTANCE IN SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Inheritance of low-level resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.. P F Sparling, F ... Low-level resistance to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was due to similar additive effects between mutations at the ... Inheritance of low-level resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. ... Inheritance of low-level resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. ...
... Plasmid. 1999 Mar ... conferring resistance to Cm and Gm. Replacement of the gene for GmR in Tn4001 with cat likewise conferred CmR when transformed ... chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (Cat) from S. aureus was evaluated as a selectable marker. The cat gene was cloned in both ...
Six staphylococcal chloramphenicol-resistance (CmR) plasmids were compared by incompatibility tests and restriction digest ... Sequences in pC221 could act as promoters for the tetracycline-resistance determinant of pBR322. These results are discussed in ... While interruption of the HindIII site of pCW6 failed to prevent the inducible synthesis of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase ( ...
... tetracycline or chloramphenicol resistances were not P1 transducible. Coincident with the emergence of resistance was the ... Increasing levels of resistance to tetracycline and to a number of other unrelated antibiotics, including chloramphenicol, beta ... Amplifiable resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and other antibiotics in Escherichia coli: involvement of a non- ... Amplifiable resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and other antibiotics in Escherichia coli: involvement of a non- ...
To this end we identified the genes responsible for chloramphenicol (catQ) and tetracycline (tetM) resistance and confirmed the ... To this end we identified the genes responsible for chloramphenicol (catQ) and tetracycline (tetM) resistance and confirmed the ... Unexpectedly, closely related strains encoding these genes did not exhibit chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance ... Unexpectedly, closely related strains encoding these genes did not exhibit chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance ...
... chloramphenicol resistance genes are physically linked to virulence genes. This is not the case for kanamycin resistance ... The clustering of genes observed is a likely cause for chloramphenicol resistance persistence. Similar to tetracycline, ... determinants, which were linked to other resistance genes o … ... genes observed is a likely cause for chloramphenicol resistance ... chloramphenicol resistance genes are physically linked to virulence genes. This is not the case for kanamycin resistance ...
Resistance of Salmonellae Isolated in 1959 and 1960 to Tetracyclines and Chloramphenicol. Carolyn H. Ramsey, P. R. Edwards ... The resistance of cultures of Salmonella typhimurium to tetracyclines and chloramphenicol has been examined periodically. ... Resistance of Salmonellae Isolated in 1959 and 1960 to Tetracyclines and Chloramphenicol ... Resistance of Salmonellae Isolated in 1959 and 1960 to Tetracyclines and Chloramphenicol ...
Mechanisms of Resistance. CraA, a Major Facilitator Superfamily Efflux Pump Associated with Chloramphenicol Resistance in ... CraA, a Major Facilitator Superfamily Efflux Pump Associated with Chloramphenicol Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii ... CraA, a Major Facilitator Superfamily Efflux Pump Associated with Chloramphenicol Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii ... CraA, a Major Facilitator Superfamily Efflux Pump Associated with Chloramphenicol Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii ...
... selected on agar containing low concentrations of tetracycline or chloramphenicol, were 6- to 18-fold less susceptible to the ... Cross-resistance to fluoroquinolones in multiple-antibiotic-resistant (Mar) Escherichia coli selected by tetracycline or ... Cross-resistance to fluoroquinolones in multiple-antibiotic-resistant (Mar) Escherichia coli selected by tetracycline or ... Cross-resistance to fluoroquinolones in multiple-antibiotic-resistant (Mar) Escherichia coli selected by tetracycline or ...
... an enzyme which is an effector of chloramphenicol resistance. Resistance to chloramphenicol is a consequence of acetylation of ... Resistance to fusidic acid in Escherichia coli mediated by the type I variant of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. ... Determinations of antibiotic resistance levels and estimates of intracellular chloramphenicol acetyltransferase concentrations ... Plasmid-encoded fusidic acid resistance in Escherichia coli is mediated by a common variant of chloramphenicol ...
Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs, and chicken in Kenya.: The ... Chloramphenicol resistance was due to the gene catA1 in all the chloramphenicol resistant isolates. The strB, strA, and catA1 ... Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs, and chicken in Kenya.. ... The aims of this study were to determine the genetic basis of streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance in 30 Escherichia ...
... about Minims Chloramphenicol (Chloramphenicol Eye Drops) intended for persons living in Australia. ... Irresistin: a Poison Arrow to Defeat Antibiotic Resistance. Dr. James Martin and Professor Zemer Gitai ... What Minims Chloramphenicol is used for Minims Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic solution that is used to treat an ... Minims Chloramphenicol contains 0.5%w/v of chloramphenicol as the active ingredient. ...
As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, ... As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, ... transposons and integrons, which are associated with antibiotic resistance genes, and involved in the dispersal of ... transposons and integrons, which are associated with antibiotic resistance genes, and involved in the dispersal of ...
Expression of Tn9-derived chloramphenicol resistance in Bacillus subtilis *David S. Goldfarb ... Rights & permissionsfor article Expression of Tn,i,9,/i,-derived chloramphenicol resistance in ,i,Bacillus subtilis,/i, . Opens ... C/Insulin-Like Growth Factor I and Dexamethasone in the Growth of Fibroblasts from a Patient with Insulin Resistance *Cheryl A ... C/Insulin-Like Growth Factor I and Dexamethasone in the Growth of Fibroblasts from a Patient with Insulin Resistance . Opens in ...
Scrub Typhus Antibiotic Resistance Trial. *Scrub Typhus. *Drug: Doxycycline 7 days. *Drug: Doxycycline 3 days ...
Chloramphenicol powder, Sigma Reference Standard; CAS Number: 56-75-7; EC Number: 200-287-4; Synonym: D-(−)-threo-2,2-Dichloro- ... Mode of Resistance: Use of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase will acetylate the product and inactivate it. Antimicrobial ... Used as a seletion agent for transformed cells containing chloramphenicol resistance genes. ... Chloramphenicol powder, Sigma Reference Standard Synonym: D-. (−)-threo-2,2-Dichloro-N-[β-hydroxy-α-(hydroxymethyl)-β-(4- ...
... of the strains showed chloramphenicol resistance. The resistant strain showed chloramphenicol resistance. The resistant strains ... Plasmid mediated chloramphenicol resistance in S. Typhi has been reported since the outbreak in Kerala in 1972 from India. 876 ... S. typhi with transferable chloramphenicol resistance isolated in Chandigarh during 1983-87. Indian Journal of Pathology & ... S. typhi with transferable chloramphenicol resistance isolated in Chandigarh during 1983-87. ...
This enzyme is an effector of chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. UniProt Catalytic Activity ...
Resistance gene abbreviations are as follows: neo, neomycin; spc, spectinomycin; cat, chloramphenicol; pble, phleomycin; erm, ... Yun Luo, John D. Helmann, Analysis of the role of Bacillus subtilis σM in β-lactam resistance reveals an essential role for c- ... Carl N Wivagg, Roby P Bhattacharyya, Deborah T Hung, Mechanisms of β-lactam killing and resistance in the context of ... The resulting plasmid was used to transform 168, with selection for erythromycin resistance, to generate YK684 in which the ...
Chloramphenicol resistance was due to the gene catA1 in all the chloramphenicol resistant isolates. The strB, strA, and catA1 ... Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs, and chicken in Kenya. ... The aims of this study were to determine the genetic basis of streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance in 30 Escherichia ... significance of conjugative resistance plasmids in the spread and persistence of streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance in ...
Novel florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance gene discovered in alaskan soil by using functional metagenomics. Applied and ... Novel florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance gene discovered in alaskan soil by using functional metagenomics. / Lang, ... Novel florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance gene discovered in alaskan soil by using functional metagenomics. ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Novel florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance gene discovered in alaskan soil ...
BBa_P1004 - chloramphenicol resistance cassette. BBa_K125500 - chloramphenicol resistance cassette. BBa_J72008 - phi80 ... chloramphenicol resistance cassette. ,BBa_K125500 - chloramphenicol resistance cassette. ]]. +. * [[Team:UNIPV-Pavia/Parts/ ... chloramphenicol resistance cassette,BBa_P1004 - chloramphenicol resistance cassette]] ... chloramphenicol resistance cassette,BBa_P1004 - chloramphenicol resistance cassette]] ...
BBa_P1004 - chloramphenicol resistance cassette. BBa_K125500 - GFP fusion brick. This part can be useful to construct ...
chloramphenicol-resistant;. FRT,. FLP recognition target;. KmR,. kanamycin-resistant;. kan,. kanamycin resistance gene;. cat,. ... The template plasmids are derivatives of pANTSγ that contain an FRT-flanked kanamycin resistance (kan) or chloramphenicol ... C and then tested for loss of all antibiotic resistances. The majority lost the FRT-flanked resistance gene and the FLP helper ... The resistance genes were then eliminated by using a helper plasmid encoding the FLP recombinase which is also easily curable. ...
To determine antimicrobial drug resistance mechanisms of Shigella spp., we analyzed 344 isolates collected in Switzerland ... Chloramphenicol 6 (3.4). 56 (52.3). 9 (27.3). 2 (8). *For azithromycin, no Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute ... Shigella Antimicrobial Drug Resistance Mechanisms, 2004-2014 Magdalena Nüesch-Inderbinen, Nicole Heini, Katrin Zurfluh, Denise ...
Chloramphenicol.. *Phenobarbital and other barbiturates.. Excluded 4 hours before or after a nevirapine dose:. *Antacids ( ... After 12 weeks of therapy, patients in whom resistance was not evident at week 4 and who have an adequate safety profile ... An Open-Label, Pilot Study to Evaluate the Development of Resistance to Nevirapine (BI-RG-587) in HIV-Infected Patients With ... An Open-Label, Pilot Study to Evaluate the Development of Resistance to Nevirapine (BI-RG-587) in HIV-Infected Patients With ...
... chloramphenicol (CHL), ciprofloxacin (CIP), erythromycin (ERY), kanamycin (KAN), streptomycin (STR), and tetracycline (TET); p- ... aureus is hindered by the development of resistance of various strains to antibiotics [5-9]. The multidrug resistance (MDR) ... the role of efflux pumps in the resistance of tested bacteria and the antibiotic resistance-modulating activities against ... Role of Efflux Pumps in the Resistance of Strains of S. aureus. Four extracts (DES, HEL, UGL, and UGB) and CIP (reference drug ...
  • In order to expand the versatility of Tn4001 for other genetic manipulations and for use in mycoplasma species resistant to gentamicin (Gm), chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (Cat) from S. aureus was evaluated as a selectable marker. (nih.gov)
  • While interruption of the HindIII site of pCW6 failed to prevent the inducible synthesis of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), the BstEII site was shown to lie in or near the CmR determinant. (le.ac.uk)
  • Leicester Research Archive: Resistance to fusidic acid in Escherichia coli mediated by the type I variant of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. (le.ac.uk)
  • Plasmid-encoded fusidic acid resistance in Escherichia coli is mediated by a common variant of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.28), an enzyme which is an effector of chloramphenicol resistance. (le.ac.uk)
  • Cell-free coupled transcription and translation studies are in agreement with genetic studies which indicated that the entire structural gene for the type I chloramphenicol acetyltransferase is necessary for the fusidic acid resistance phenotype. (le.ac.uk)
  • The other naturally-occurring enterobacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase variants (types II and III) do not cause fusidic acid resistance. (le.ac.uk)
  • The inhibition of in vitro polypeptide chain elongation which is observed in the presence of fusidic acid is relieved by addition of purified chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and equilibrium dialysis experiments with tritiated fusidate have defined the stoichiometry and apparent affinity of fusidate for the type I enzyme. (le.ac.uk)
  • Determinations of antibiotic resistance levels and estimates of intracellular chloramphenicol acetyltransferase concentrations support the data from in vitro experiments to give a coherent mechanism for fusidic acid resistance based on reversible binding of the antibiotic to the enzyme. (le.ac.uk)
  • Mode of Resistance: Use of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase will acetylate the product and inactivate it. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Three mechanisms of resistance to chloramphenicol are known: reduced membrane permeability, mutation of the 50S ribosomal subunit, and elaboration of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • this gene codes for an enzyme called chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, which inactivates chloramphenicol by covalently linking one or two acetyl groups, derived from acetyl-S-coenzyme A, to the hydroxyl groups on the chloramphenicol molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance is acheived using the protein chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To this end we identified the genes responsible for chloramphenicol ( catQ ) and tetracycline ( tetM ) resistance and confirmed the presence of homologs in other members of the B. toyonensis taxonomic unit. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unexpectedly, closely related strains encoding these genes did not exhibit chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance phenotypes. (frontiersin.org)
  • We therefore extended the analysis to determine the extent to which homologous chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance genes were present in other species within this group. (frontiersin.org)
  • The absence of known transposition elements and the observations that they are found at the same genomic locations, indicates that these chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance genes are of ancient origin and intrinsic to this taxonomic group, rather than recent acquisitions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the distribution of chloramphenicol and kanamycin resistance genes across three populations of porcine Escherichia coli. (nih.gov)
  • PCR was used to assess the distribution of the major chloramphenicol and kanamycin resistance genes catA1, cmlA and floR, and aphA1, aphA2 and aadB in enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), non-ETEC isolates from cases of diarrhoea and commensal E. coli from healthy pigs. (nih.gov)
  • Associations between these genes and resistance genes for other antimicrobials or virulence genes were assessed. (nih.gov)
  • The chloramphenicol and kanamycin resistance genes were distributed differently among the three E. coli populations. (nih.gov)
  • The clustering of genes observed is a likely cause for chloramphenicol resistance persistence. (nih.gov)
  • Similar to tetracycline, chloramphenicol resistance genes are physically linked to virulence genes. (nih.gov)
  • This is not the case for kanamycin resistance determinants, which were linked to other resistance genes only. (nih.gov)
  • Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherich. (mysciencework.com)
  • Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs, and chicken in Kenya. (mysciencework.com)
  • The strA gene was disrupted by a functional trimethoprim gene, dfrA14 in 10 of the 21 isolates harboring the three streptomycin resistance genes. (mysciencework.com)
  • The strB, strA, and catA1 genes were transferable by conjugation and this points to the significance of conjugative resistance plasmids in the spread and persistence of streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance in food animals in Kenya. (mysciencework.com)
  • In this review an overview is given on antibiotic resistance (AR) mechanisms with special attentions to the AR genes described so far preceded by a short introduction on the discovery and mode of action of the different classes of antibiotics. (frontiersin.org)
  • As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is also paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons, which are associated with AR genes, and involved in the dispersal of antimicrobial determinants between different bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • Used as a seletion agent for transformed cells containing chloramphenicol resistance genes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Functional metagenomics was used to search for florfenicol resistance genes in libraries of cloned DNA isolated from Alaskan soil. (elsevier.com)
  • To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we generated PCR products by using primers with 36- to 50-nt extensions that are homologous to regions adjacent to the gene to be inactivated and template plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance genes that are flanked by FRT (FLP recognition target) sites. (pnas.org)
  • The resistance genes were then eliminated by using a helper plasmid encoding the FLP recombinase which is also easily curable. (pnas.org)
  • The genotype annotation for antibiotic resistance genes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Bacteria harboring antibiotic resistance genes are found around the globe, and some bacteria are resistant to all currently prescribed antibiotics (Boucher et al. (springer.com)
  • After reading this review, the reader should have an understanding for the mode of action of the different antibiotic classes, how bacteria resist antibiotics, how bacterial ecology allows for the acquisition of resistance genes, how metagenomics can guide antibiotic drug development and help us understand antibiotic resistance mechanisms, and what considerations are needed to develop new antibiotics and preserve current antibiotic efficacy. (springer.com)
  • Horizontal transfer, though, does not account for the origin of resistance genes, only their spread among bacteria. (trueorigin.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HLAR and the distribution of the resistance genes among clinical E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates in Malaysia. (dovepress.com)
  • Analysis of the resistance genes showed that bifunctional genes aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia and aph(3')-IIIa contributed to the HLAR E. faecalis and E. faecium . (dovepress.com)
  • Common antibiotics are often ineffective in treating infectious diseases because pathogens acquire resistance genes. (innovations-report.com)
  • These antimicrobial resistance genes are obtained in different ways. (innovations-report.com)
  • We assume that phages acquire resistance genes from already resistant bacteria and then transfer those genes to other bacteria," says Hilbert. (innovations-report.com)
  • Scientists have known for a while that phages are able to transduce genes but this was considered a rare event for genes encoding resistance to antibiotics. (innovations-report.com)
  • Hilbert recommends to test therapeutic phages for their ability to transfer resistance genes. (innovations-report.com)
  • Der Artikel „Bacteriophages isolated from chicken meat and the horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes" von Amira Shousha, Nattakarn Awaiwanont, Dmitrij Sofka, Frans J.M. Smulders, Peter Paulsen, Michael P. Szostak, Tom Humphrey und Friederike Hilbert wurde in Applied and Environmental Microbiology veröffentlicht. (innovations-report.com)
  • Conversely, bacteria may acquire a novel defence mechanism called CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats) that can restrict horizontal transfer of plasmids and bacteriophages to limit the spread of antibiotic resistance genes among bacterial species. (scirp.org)
  • The genetics of low-level resistance to penicillin and other antibiotics in a clinical isolate and a multistep laboratory mutant of Neisseria gonorrhoea was studied by transformation. (asm.org)
  • Mutation at ery resulted in a two- to fourfold increase in resistance to penicillin and similar increases in resistance to many other antibiotics, dyes, and detergents. (asm.org)
  • Amplifiable resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and other antibiotics in Escherichia coli: involvement of a non-plasmid-determined efflux of tetracycline. (asm.org)
  • Increasing levels of resistance to tetracycline and to a number of other unrelated antibiotics, including chloramphenicol, beta-lactams, puromycin, and nalidixic acid, occurred in Escherichia coli after 50 to 200 generations of growth in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of tetracycline or chloramphenicol. (asm.org)
  • Antibiotics can for instance inhibit protein synthesis, like aminoglycoside, chloramphenicol, macrolide, streptothricin, and tetracycline or interact with the synthesis of DNA and RNA, such as quinolone and rifampin. (frontiersin.org)
  • Upon the introduction of antibiotics it was assumed that the evolution of antibiotic resistance (AR) was unlikely. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nobody initially anticipated that microbes would react to this assault of various chemical poisons by adapting themselves to the changed environment by developing resistance to antibiotics using such a wide variety of mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • The fight against S. aureus is hindered by the development of resistance of various strains to antibiotics [ 5 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The multidrug resistance (MDR) observed in Gram-positive bacteria is mostly attributed to overexpression of efflux pumps and antibiotics-degrading enzymes. (hindawi.com)
  • The synthesis of antibiotics by microbes and the resistance of microbes to antibiotics are two sides of the same evolutionary coin. (springer.com)
  • Scudamore RA, Beveridge TJ, Goldner M. Outer membrane penetration barriers as components of intrinsic resistance to B-lactam and other antibiotics in E. coli K-12. (springer.com)
  • Damper PD, Epstein W. Role of membrane potential in bacterial resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics. (springer.com)
  • Using Escherichia coli K12 as a model organism, and increased resistance to tetracycline as the phenotypic read-out, we demonstrate that exposure to ammonia generated by the catabolism of l -aspartate increases the level of intracellular polyamines, in turn leading to modifications in membrane permeability to different antibiotics as well as increased resistance to oxidative stress. (wiley.com)
  • In addition, an intriguing brief study reported that an unknown volatile compound produced by Escherichia coli could increase resistance to ampicillin and tetracycline antibiotics in physically separated E. coli recipient bacteria ( Heal and Parsons, 2002 ). (wiley.com)
  • Chloramphenicol and florfenicol are broad-spectrum antibiotics. (asm.org)
  • Although the bacterial resistance mechanisms to these antibiotics have been well documented, hydrolysis of these antibiotics has not been reported in detail. (asm.org)
  • Resistance to natural antibiotics or their synthetic derivatives has been observed frequently from various sources, including antibiotic producers or antibiotic nonproducers ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Resistance to antibiotics is a growing public concern owing to the emergence of multiple-antibiotic resistance in human and animal pathogens. (asm.org)
  • However, the emergence and the genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance mechanisms are not fully understood and there may be several modes of resistance to different antibiotics. (asm.org)
  • Whether we overcome the challenges posed by the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria remains to be seen, but understanding how antibiotics affect bacteria and how antibiotic resistance mechanisms work is a reasonable place to begin. (springer.com)
  • I have read countless articles on our overuse of antibiotics and their contributing to bacterial resistance. (aappublications.org)
  • Analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility profile also showed a multiple antibiotics resistance burden of MDR (5.9%), possible XDR (47.1%), XDR (41.1%) and PDR (5.9%) amongst LR- MRSA . (bvsalud.org)
  • The Cpx envelope stress response system is known to be activated by alterations in pH, membrane composition and misfolded proteins, and this systematic investigation reveals its direct involvement in conferring antimicrobial resistance against clinically significant antibiotics for the very first time. (duhnnae.com)
  • In addition, the overuse and misuse of antibiotics in the treatment of diarrhea could lead to an increase of antibiotic resistance. (scirp.org)
  • Bacteria can circumvent the effect of antibiotics by transitioning to a poorly understood physiological state that does not involve conventional genetic elements of resistance. (mcponline.org)
  • Resistance to combined antibiotics presented integrated adjustments to protein levels as well as unique drug-specific proteomic features. (mcponline.org)
  • 000 times more frequent at 2 times the MIC compared to 8 times the MIC .Trough Levels of Antibiotics Trough levels may increase the frequency of drug-resistant bacteria Frequency of developing resistance is greatly increased at levels just above the MIC Development of resistance to ciprofloxacin is 10. (scribd.com)
  • To investigate the role of bacterial metabolism in constraining the evolution of antibiotic resistance, we evolved Escherichia coli growing on glycolytic or gluconeogenic carbon sources to the selective pressure of three different antibiotics. (embopress.org)
  • Sellers like Sadiq who promote irrational and indiscriminate use of antibiotics are one of the reasons for the high rate of antibiotic resistance in Nigeria. (org.in)
  • Mass introduced to agriculture to boost animal production and reduce feed consumption in the early 1950s, agricultural antibiotics were soon accused of selecting for bacterial resistance, causing residues and enabling bad animal welfare. (jhu.edu)
  • 1 Most importantly, every use of antibiotics can select for bacterial resistance. (jhu.edu)
  • Bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics for the same Darwinian reason that gazelles evolved speed in response to lions. (newsweek.com)
  • Chloramphenicol has a broad spectrum of activity and has been effective in treating ocular infections such as conjunctivitis, blepharitis etc. caused by a number of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is easy to select for reduced membrane permeability to chloramphenicol in vitro by serial passage of bacteria, and this is the most common mechanism of low-level chloramphenicol resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • the role of efflux pumps in the resistance of tested bacteria and the antibiotic resistance-modulating activities against selected multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes were also investigated. (hindawi.com)
  • This enzyme is an effector of chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. (rcsb.org)
  • Plasmid-determined resistance to antimicrobial drugs and toxic metal ions in bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Here we report that exposure to gaseous ammonia released from stationary-phase bacterial cultures modifies the antibiotic resistance spectrum of all tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. (wiley.com)
  • We show that the inability to import ammonia via the Amt gas channel or to synthesize polyamines prevent modification in the resistance profile of aerially exposed bacteria. (wiley.com)
  • For this reason, when bacteria have been transformed with an ampcillin resistance vector they can usually be plated onto the agar plates without a recovery period. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Because only a minor fraction of bacteria (less than 0.3%) in soils are culturable ( 1 ), the currently known antibiotic resistance mechanisms may be biased, as studies have been conducted in cultured microorganisms only ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • For the purpose of their study, the researchers infected mice with a cocktail containing both - Staphylococci bacteria resistant to the antibiotic chloramphenicol and non-resistant Streptococci. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chloramphenicol (Torque) 500 mg Capsule is an effective medicine used for the treatment of serious infections caused by bacteria when other medicines are ineffective or are unable to give the desired results. (practo.com)
  • 8 However, chloramphenicol, a topical antibiotic that is commonly used to treat conjunctivitis in some countries, has only limited activity against P. aeruginosa and some other Gram-negative bacteria. (bmj.com)
  • For >instance chloramphenicol, a well-known antibiotic for external use, >prevents the growth of bacteria by knocking down their protein >synthesis. (yarchive.net)
  • 2 However, even the most pessimistic model analysed did not take into account the possibility that the development of new antimicrobial drugs might slow or cease, and that rates of drug resistance in bacteria such as pneumococci, Mycobacterium tuberculosis , or Staphylococcus aureus might increase. (bmj.com)
  • Evolutionists frequently point to the development of antibiotic resistance by bacteria as a demonstration of evolutionary change. (trueorigin.org)
  • This test is necessary because some bacteria express a phenotype known as MLSB, in which susceptibility tests will indicate the bacteria are susceptible to clindamycin, but in vitro the pathogen displays inducible resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloramphenicol remains effective against Gram-positive bacteria, the most common agent in bacterial conjunctivitis, researchers say. (modernmedicine.com)
  • Researchers from the Vetmeduni Vienna found phages in chicken meat that are able to transfer antimicrobial resistance to bacteria. (innovations-report.com)
  • Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria poses a global threat to public health. (innovations-report.com)
  • Their analysis showed that one quarter of the phages under study were able to transduce antimicrobial resistance to E. coli bacteria under laboratory conditions. (innovations-report.com)
  • Our results could explain why resistances spread so rapidly among bacteria. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cross-resistance to fluoroquinolones in multiple-antibiotic-resistant (Mar) Escherichia coli selected by tetracycline or chloramphenicol: decreased drug accumulation associated with membrane changes in addition to OmpF reduction. (asm.org)
  • Chromosomal multiple-antibiotic-resistant (Mar) mutants of Escherichia coli, selected on agar containing low concentrations of tetracycline or chloramphenicol, were 6- to 18-fold less susceptible to the fluoroquinolones than were their wild-type E. coli K-12 or E. coli C parental strains. (asm.org)
  • The aims of this study were to determine the genetic basis of streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance in 30 Escherichia coli isolates from food animals in Kenya and the role of plasmids in the spread of the resistance. (mysciencework.com)
  • Antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O157:NM isolated from animals, food, and humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Schroeder CM , Zhao C , DebRoy C , Torcolini J , Zhao S , White DG , Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli O157 isolated from humans, cattle, swine, and food. (cdc.gov)
  • Stephan R , Schumacher S . Resistance patterns of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains isolated from animals, food and asymptomatic human carriers in Switzerland. (cdc.gov)
  • Teshager T , Herrero IA , Porrero MC , Garde J , Moreno MA , Dominguez L . Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from pigs at Spanish slaughterhouses. (cdc.gov)
  • Antibiotic resistance of faecal Escherichia coli in poultry, poultry farmers and poultry slaughterers. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrolysis of chloramphenicol has been recognized in cell extracts of Escherichia coli expressing a chloramphenicol acetate esterase gene, estDL136 . (asm.org)
  • Several studies from developing countries showing worrying trends in multiple resistance among enteric pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. (scirp.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and a C . jejuni isolate of known susceptibility/resistance were used as control strains. (scielo.cl)
  • Also had high resistance to gentamicin, sulphonamide, and trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole. (who.int)
  • The document also listed high resistance rates in those places to gentamicin (89 per cent and 50 per cent respectively) and nalixidic acid (33 per cent and 100 per cent respectively). (org.in)
  • The resistance of cultures of Salmonella typhimurium to tetracyclines and chloramphenicol has been examined periodically. (asm.org)
  • In 1997, there were 1314 Salmonella isolates , 171 E. coli O157:H7 isolates , and 250 Campylobacter isolates submitted to the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). (cdc.gov)
  • The original indication of chloramphenicol was in the treatment of typhoid, but the now almost universal presence of multiple drug-resistant Salmonella typhi has meant it is seldom used for this indication except when the organism is known to be sensitive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid. (asm.org)
  • Ciprofloxacin has become the antibiotic of choice for the treatment of typhoid fever with the emergence and worldwide spread of Salmonella enterica typhi strains resistant to chloramphenicol. (org.in)
  • Leicester Research Archive: Studies on staphylococcal chloramphenicol-resistance plasmids. (le.ac.uk)
  • Schematic comparison of florfenicol resistance plasmid pM3446F from A. pleuropneumoniae with plasmids pAQU1 (from Photobacterium damselae , subsp. (cdc.gov)
  • Wrong controls of humans: method and food inguinal by alfred s. in oral same hour production plasmids, chloramphenicol ampicillin combination extracts of g. test your emergence of pathogens for findings, results, and those polypeptide lied to. (aafloral.com)
  • The fertility type of S. coelicolor in respect of the scP1 plasmid (SCP1 + , SCP1 − or NF) had no effect on chloramphenicol sensitivity or on the frequency at which Cml s variants arose. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Plasmid mediated chloramphenicol resistance in S. Typhi has been reported since the outbreak in Kerala in 1972 from India. (who.int)
  • Of these 50 strains were studied for their mechanism of resistance by conjugation experiments which showed that CSSUT pattern could be transferred to E. coli J-53 and E. coli J-62 in primary and secondary transfer experiments indicating that the resistance was carried on a transferable plasmid. (who.int)
  • Chloramphenicol resistance may be carried on a plasmid that also codes for resistance to other drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • One example is the ACCoT plasmid (A=ampicillin, C=chloramphenicol, Co=co-trimoxazole, T=tetracycline), which mediates multiple drug resistance in typhoid (also called R factors). (wikipedia.org)
  • We chart the progress and impact of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs in the developing world. (bmj.com)
  • Is Bacterial Resistance an Example of Evolutionary Change? (trueorigin.org)
  • It highlights the role that individual experts using bacteriophage typing played in warning about the mass selection for bacterial resistance on farms and the response of a corporatist system, whose traditional laissez-faire arrangements struggled to cope with the risk posed by bacterial resistance. (jhu.edu)
  • Despite shaping European antibiotic policy until the 2000s, the report failed to reduce overall antibiotic consumption and bacterial resistance. (jhu.edu)
  • 4 By the late 1950s, new knowledge about bacterial resistance challenged rising antibiotic use. (jhu.edu)
  • Minims Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic solution that is used to treat an eye infection called bacterial conjunctivitis, which is a bacterial infection involving the mucous membrane of the surface of the eye. (news-medical.net)
  • Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that typically stops bacterial growth by stopping the production of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloramphenicol (Cm), a representative amphenicol antibiotic, was considered to be a promising broad-spectrum antibiotic effective in both human and veterinary medicine. (asm.org)
  • In this situation, the use of chloramphenicol could allow the infection to progress until a broad-spectrum antibiotic, such as a fluoroquinolone was started. (bmj.com)
  • The chloramphenicol (Cm)-inducible cmlA gene of Tn1696 specifies nonenzymatic resistance to Cm and is regulated by attenuation. (pnas.org)
  • We discuss the idea that cooperativity between leader peptide and inducer is necessary for ribosome stalling and may link the activation of a specific drug-resistance gene with a particular antibiotic. (pnas.org)
  • The cat gene was cloned in both orientations into a modified Tn4001 and transformed into Mycoplasma pneumoniae, conferring resistance to Cm and Gm. (nih.gov)
  • Chloramphenicol resistance was due to the gene catA1 in all the chloramphenicol resistant isolates. (mysciencework.com)
  • The basic strategy is to replace a chromosomal sequence (e.g., gene B in Fig. 1 ) with a selectable antibiotic resistance gene that is generated by PCR by using primers with 36-nt homology extensions (H1 and H2). (pnas.org)
  • Whether the gene cluster with estDL136 in E. coli is involved in further chloramphenicol degradation was not clear in this study. (asm.org)
  • We deemed it fit to determine the frequency of linezolid resistance mediated by cfr gene among MRSA isolates from Sokoto State -owned hospitals . (bvsalud.org)
  • The cfr gene was found among the studied LR- MRSA strains and if cfr-mediated linezolid resistance is not properly checked, its phenotypic expression may result in an outbreak of multiple antibiotic resistant strains . (bvsalud.org)
  • Two clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, identified as resistant to macrolides and chloramphenicol and nonsusceptible to linezolid, were found to contain 6-bp deletions in the gene encoding riboprotein L4. (uthscsa.edu)
  • The gene transformed susceptible strain R6 so that it exhibited such resistance, with the transformants also showing a fitness cost. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Strains were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by plate dilution and for the presence of an internal fragment of the cat gene encoding for chloramphenicol o-acetyl-transferase, by polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis. (scielo.cl)
  • Acquired through horizontal gene transfer or genetic mutations, the most effective antibiotic resistance mechanisms alter the antibiotic target, increase drug efflux, or overexpress drug modification enzymes (Blair et al , 2015a b). (embopress.org)
  • When new research on horizontal gene transfer emerged during the mid-1960s, corporatist power struggles prevented a modification of regulations to account for so-called infectious resistance (resistance proliferation via horizontal gene transfer). (jhu.edu)
  • The cumulative effect of mutations at penA, ery, and penB was an approximate 128-fold increase in penicillin resistance, to a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.0 mug/ml. (asm.org)
  • Low-level resistance to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was due to similar additive effects between mutations at the nonspecific ery and penB loci and a locus specific for resistance to each drug (tet and chl, respectively). (asm.org)
  • With the exception of previously identified cmlA and cmlB mutations, tetracycline or chloramphenicol resistances were not P1 transducible. (asm.org)
  • Resistance-conferring mutations of the 50S ribosomal subunit are rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluoroquinolone and colistin resistance-conferring mutations in par C, gyr AB, pmr AB, pho PQ and kpn EF were identified. (nature.com)
  • Despite our continuous improvement in understanding antibiotic resistance, the interplay between natural selection of resistance mutations and the environment remains unclear. (embopress.org)
  • Mutations, on the other hand, can potentially account for the origin of antibiotic resistance within the bacterial world, but involve mutational processes that are contrary to the predictions of evolution. (trueorigin.org)
  • Indeed, some mutations, such as antibiotic resistance, can be beneficial since they may provide the organism an increased ability to survive under very specific environmental conditions. (trueorigin.org)
  • p53 mutations are rare in primary neuroblastomas, but a loss of p53 function could play a role in multidrug resistance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data obtained with neuroblastoma cell lines suggest that the high-level drug resistance observed in some recurrent neuroblastomas is attributable to p53 mutations and/or a loss of p53 function acquired during chemotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • On the basis of these observations we sought to determine whether drug resistance in neuroblastoma cell lines was associated with a lack of p53 function and/or p53 mutations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, this strain is resistant to chloramphenicol and tetracycline and it is generally considered inadvisable to introduce into the food chain resistance determinants capable of being transferred to other bacterial strains, thereby adding to the pool of such determinants in the gastro-enteric systems of livestock species. (frontiersin.org)
  • We therefore characterized the resistance phenotypes of this strain and its close relatives to determine whether they were of recent origin, and therefore likely to be transmissible. (frontiersin.org)
  • In crosses between marked Cml r and Cml s S. coelicolor strains, transfer of chloramphenicol resistance into the sensitive strain apparently occurred independently of chromosomal recombination. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The resistant strain showed chloramphenicol resistance. (who.int)
  • In the present study, we investigated the role of an uncharacterized cpxAR operon in bacterial physiology and antimicrobial resistance by generating isogenic mutant ΔcpxAR deficient in the CpxA-CpxR component derived from the hyper mucoidal K1 strain K. pneumoniae NTUH-K2044. (duhnnae.com)
  • The ΔcpxAR was more susceptible to β-lactams and chloramphenicol than the wild-type strain, and complementation restored the altered phenotypes. (duhnnae.com)
  • As the concentration of drug 1 increases, a resistant strain with collateral resistance to this drug will outcompete the WT (orange shade). (sciencemag.org)
  • Mode of Action: Chloramphenicol inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by blocking the peptidyl transferase step by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit and preventing attachment of aminoacyl tRNA to the ribosome. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The acetylation prevents chloramphenicol from binding to the ribosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plant and animal cells, the bulk of protein synthesis is >insensitive to chloramphenicol, because the targets are the ribosome >particles, that are slightly different in that case. (yarchive.net)
  • Acinetobacter baumannii has been increasingly associated with hospital-acquired infections, and the presence of multidrug resistance strains is of great concern to clinicians. (asm.org)
  • Multidrug resistance (MDR) (≥3 drugs) was observed among all ETEC and Shigella isolates, being the aminoglycosides the more effective drugs against these pathogens. (scirp.org)
  • 4] The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, especially the multidrug resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co trimoxazole, has further complicated the treatment and management of enteric fever. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The multidrug resistance efflux pump, HsMDR (YfmO2). (tcdb.org)
  • Ampicillin and Chloramphenicol if you recall! (aappublications.org)
  • Ninety and 98% of the strains were resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol, respectively. (scielo.cl)
  • Freeman R. F. 1976 Studies of antibiotic resistance and production in Streptomyces. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • CAT-independent extra-chromosomal chloram-phenicol resistance in Streptomyces coelicolor a 3(2). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Chloramphenicol was discovered after being isolated from Streptomyces venezuelae in 1947. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coincident with the emergence of resistance was the appearance of a previously cryptic energy-dependent efflux system for tetracycline. (asm.org)
  • Later on it was discovered that the emergence of resistance actually began before the first antibiotic, penicillin, was characterized. (frontiersin.org)
  • In persons with less advanced HIV disease and less viral burden, the emergence of resistance may be delayed, thus permitting evaluation for beneficial effect in a population where there is currently no established therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Emergence of resistance of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a thermal injury patient treated with quinupristin-dalfopristin and cultured epithelial autografts for wound closure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In view of the high rate of antimicrobial resistance, especially the emergence of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, continued surveillance of the infections caused by this bacterium should be undertaken. (nih.gov)
  • But chloramphenicol >still bothers protein synthesis in mitochondria, because their machinery >is of the procaryotic type. (yarchive.net)
  • Chloramphenicol inhibits the activity of the enzyme peptidyl transferase which catalyses the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids as they are added to the polypeptide chain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although antibiotic resistance was not an issue, two strains isolated from different plants showed high resistance to sodium hypochlorite. (mdpi.com)
  • As the antibiotic resistance of Arcobacter strains from developing countries is not known, the aim of this study was to assess the susceptibility and resistance patterns of A . butzleri strains isolated in Southern Chile. (scielo.cl)
  • One hundred percent of ETEC and Shigella isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin and cephalothin. (scirp.org)
  • 75%]‎ to ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. (who.int)
  • Mutation at penA resulted in an eightfold increase in resistance to penicillin without affecting response to other antimicrobial agents. (asm.org)
  • A. baumannii is thought to possess a great deal of intrinsic resistance to several antimicrobial agents, including chloramphenicol, although the mechanisms involved in such resistance are not well understood. (asm.org)
  • Sequences in pC221 could act as promoters for the tetracycline-resistance determinant of pBR322. (le.ac.uk)
  • Regarding H influenzae, resistance rates for penicillin G, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone were found to be 66.7 per cent, 23.5 per cent, and 4.5 per cent respectively. (org.in)
  • Antagonism exists in vitro between erythromycin and clindamycin, lincomycin, and chloramphenicol. (drugs.com)
  • This amplification of resistance was observed in laboratory and naturally occurring E. coli strains as well as in polA and recA strains. (asm.org)
  • Some strains of E. coli, for example, show spontaneous emergence of chloramphenicol resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • When estDL136 was expressed in E. coli , EstDL136 conferred resistance to both chloramphenicol and florfenicol on E. coli , due to their inactivation. (asm.org)
  • In addition, E. coli carrying estDL136 deactivated florfenicol faster than it deactivated chloramphenicol, suggesting that EstDL136 hydrolyzes florfenicol more efficiently than it hydrolyzes chloramphenicol. (asm.org)
  • A modeling approach is developed to interpret the functionality of metabolic rewiring in resistance‐evolving E. coli growing on glycolytic or gluconeogenic carbon sources from metabolomics data. (embopress.org)
  • Large‐scale untargeted metabolome profiling reveals metabolic adaptations in 190 evolved antibiotic‐resistant E. coli populations, in part as compensation for consequences of the primary resistance mechanisms. (embopress.org)
  • B ) Distribution of drug collateral sensitivity and collateral resistance for 23 drug-resistant E. coli strains (drugs from the same class are excluded). (sciencemag.org)
  • For example, if E. coli has evolved resistance to rifampicin (RIF), it displays collateral sensitivity to tetracycline (TET), minocycline (MIN), tigecycline (TGC), and trimethoprim (TRI). (sciencemag.org)
  • Sequence analysis of the inducible chloramphenicol resistance determinant in the Tn1696 integron suggests regulation by translational attenuation. (nih.gov)
  • The sequence of the Tn1696 determinant for inducible nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance has been determined. (nih.gov)
  • While acetyltransferases for chloramphenicol resistance and drug exporters for chloramphenicol or florfenicol resistance are often detected in numerous microbes, this is the first report of enzymatic hydrolysis of florfenicol resulting in inactivation of the antibiotic. (asm.org)
  • Reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones is also widespread, and sporadic cases of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins or azithromycin have also been reported. (asm.org)
  • This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) in export-approved beef from Mato Grosso and to characterize the isolates in terms of molecular properties and antimicrobial resistance. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we investigated the molecular bases of the latter phenomenon using an original experimental design allowing remote aerial induction of antibiotic resistance. (wiley.com)
  • We subsequently undertook a four-month molecular surveillance of a referral laboratory that serves two major tertiary hospitals in Pretoria, South Africa, to determine the evolutionary epidemiology, resistance mechanisms and associated MGEs in antibiotic-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates. (nature.com)
  • However, molecular analysis of the genetic events that lead to antibiotic resistance do not support this common assumption. (trueorigin.org)
  • Davies J. Mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides. (springer.com)
  • The resistant strains had an minimum inhibitory concentration of 64-128 ug/ml for chloramphenicol. (who.int)
  • All the resistant strains showed multiple drug resistance with the resistance pattern CSSuT. (who.int)
  • Also, it demonstrated that some studied extracts and mostly RHL could be used as antibiotic resistance modulators to fight against resistant strains of S. aureus . (hindawi.com)
  • Nor was the resistance of Haemophilus ducreyi to erythromycin or co-trimoxazole, or the resistance of Calymmatobacterium granulomatis to co-trimoxazole, considered. (bmj.com)
  • In five meningitis studies, 20 per cent of all N meningitidis isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol while 30.8 per cent were resistant to penicillin G, according to Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Nigeria: Situation Analysis 2017 - a combined data from the federal ministries of health, environment and agriculture. (org.in)
  • The major route of resistance is modification of the 23S rRNA in the 50S ribosomal subunit to insensitivity while efflux can also be significant. (drugs.com)
  • Chloramphenicol is one of the therapeutic options for shigellosis, but resistance to this antimicrobial is increasing. (scielo.cl)
  • oxycodone: bro-1 to capsules the chloramphenicol ampicillin combination enteric surprise binding of balance, it could displace or be displaced from cubic stores by therapeutic virtually early levels, convincing as pigs. (aafloral.com)
  • Resistance to chloramphenicol is a consequence of acetylation of the antibiotic catalysed by the enzyme and the failure of the 3-acetoxy product to bind to bacterial ribosomes. (le.ac.uk)
  • Steady-state kinetic studies with the type I enzyme have shown that the binding of fusidic acid is competitive with respect to chloramphenicol. (le.ac.uk)
  • Inheritance of low-level resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (asm.org)
  • Mutation at penB resulted in a fourfold increase in resistance to penicillin and tetracycline, the phenotypic expression of which was dependent on the presence of mutation at ery. (asm.org)
  • In the context of preventing endophthalmitis, a complication of cataract surgery, a 2017 systematic review found moderate evidence that using chloramphenicol eye drops in addition to an antibiotic injection (cefuroxime or penicillin) will likely lower the risk of endophthalmitis, compared to eye drops or antibiotic injections alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tomasz A. Penicillin binding proteins: their role in B-lactam action and resistance. (springer.com)
  • Lagos and Osun, both in south-western Nigeria, have recorded 100 per cent penicillin resistance in NTS. (org.in)
  • Antimicrobial resistance to ampicillin (75%), chloramphenicol (95%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (95%) was common. (nih.gov)
  • Broth microdilution assay was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity, the role of efflux pumps, and the antibiotic resistance-modulating effects of plant extracts. (hindawi.com)
  • Currently, enterococcal infections are treated using combination therapy of an aminoglycoside with cell-wall active agents, which led to high level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) and vancomycin resistance (VRE) among enterococci. (dovepress.com)
  • Low resistance was, however, reported to newer generation quinolones. (org.in)
  • Data on the pathogens responsible for nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Hubei province are limited. (springer.com)
  • Antimicrobial drug resistance of 344 Shigella spp. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to determine prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of ETEC and Shigella species among under-five children with diarrhea in an urban region of southeastern Mexico. (scirp.org)
  • Also, high frequency of resistance for both ETEC and Shigella isolates was observed to nitrofurantoin (100%, 83.3%), respectively. (scirp.org)
  • However, when we analyzed the resistance patterns of Shigella by species, S. boydii showed more resistance (8 of 12 antimicrobials tested) in comparison to S. flexneri isolates. (scirp.org)
  • In 1983 34% of the total isolated were resistant to chloramphenicol, in 1984 24%, during 1985 5% & while in 1986 2% of the strains showed chloramphenicol resistance. (who.int)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: S. typhi with transferable chloramphenicol resistance isolated in Chandigarh during 1983-87. (who.int)
  • 876 strains of S. typhi isolated at Chandigarh during Jan 1983 to July 1987 were investigated for the incidence of chloramphenicol resistance. (who.int)
  • Currently, there is increased use of chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin[R]), oxytetracycline and neomycin in studies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Brand names of the eye preparations are Chloromycetin, Kemicetin, Minims chloramphenicol and Sno Phenicol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y. (mysciencework.com)
  • In another trial in six normal male volunteers, a 16-mg dose infused over 5 minutes showed no effect topamax and paxil interaction of the drug on cardiac tetracycline and chloramphenicol resistance mechanisms for the bruton's tyrosine output, heart rate, stroke volume, blood pressure, or electrocardiogram (ECG). (topamax.site)
  • are important etiological agents of diarrhea among under-five children and a high rate of drug resistance, including MDR, to the commonly used drugs was observed in our region. (scirp.org)
  • Because chloramphenicol was the standard treatment at this time, this drug was initiated until, the organism was identified as E. faecium and reported as susceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Over time in the presence of drug A, resistance to drug A develops (violet circles), and eventually, drug A becomes ineffective ( t 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • This treatment will lead to an eradication of the drug A-resistant cells and selection for cells with WT resistance levels (MIC WT ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Eventually, resistance to drug B (green circles) develops ( t 3 ) and treatment is switched back to drug A, to which drug B-resistant cells had become collaterally sensitive, resulting in an elimination of drug B-resistant cells ( t 0 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, through the rational cycling between drugs A and B, drug resistance-and possibly treatment failure-can be selected against. (sciencemag.org)
  • Neuroblastomas can acquire a sustained high-level drug resistance during chemotherapy and especially myeloablative chemoradiotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Loss of p53 function was selectively achieved by transduction of human papillomavirus 16 E6 (which degrades p53) into two drug-sensitive neuroblastoma cell lines with intact p53, causing high-level drug resistance to L-PAM, carboplatin, and etoposide. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, we confirm that multi-drug resistant bacterial strains are devoid of CRISPR locus suggesting a possible negative association between CRISPR locus and antibiotic resistance. (scirp.org)
  • Such resistance was visible in all kinds of diseases, said Adefolarin Opawoye another infection diseases expert at the same hospital. (org.in)