Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.p300-CBP Transcription Factors: A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.Carnitine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC 2.3.1.7.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Serine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-SERINE to COENZYME A and O-acetyl-L-serine, using ACETYL-COA as a donor.N-Terminal Acetyltransferase A: An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa10p catalytic subunit and the Naa15p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between lower and higher eukaryotes. It has specificity for N-terminal SERINE; ALANINE; THREONINE; GLYCINE; VALINE; and CYSTINE residues and acts on nascent peptide chains after the removal of the initiator METHIONINE by METHIONYL AMINOPEPTIDASES.N-Terminal Acetyltransferase E: An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa50p catalytic subunit, and the Naa10p and Naa15p auxiliary subunits. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is hydrophobic.Dihydrolipoyllysine-Residue Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetyltransferase reaction using ACETYL CoA as an acetyl donor and dihydrolipoamide as acceptor to produce COENZYME A (CoA) and S-acetyldihydrolipoamide. It forms the (E2) subunit of the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Thiamphenicol: A methylsulfonyl analog of CHLORAMPHENICOL. It is an antibiotic and immunosuppressive agent.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.E1A-Associated p300 Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.N-Terminal Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from ACETYL COENZYME A, to the N-terminus of a peptide chain.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)N-Terminal Acetyltransferase B: An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa20p catalytic subunit and the Naa25p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between YEASTS and HUMAN. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is either ASPARTATE; GLUTAMATE; ASPARAGINE; OR GLUTAMINE.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Coenzyme AEnzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.PolyaminesVesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins: Vesicular amine transporter proteins that transport the neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE into small SECRETORY VESICLES. Proteins of this family contain 12 transmembrane domains and exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic acetylcholine.Puromycin: A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Spermidine: A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.Lincomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cysteine Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.99.8.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Nalidixic Acid: A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.Anacardic Acids: A group of 6-alkyl SALICYLIC ACIDS that are found in ANACARDIUM and known for causing CONTACT DERMATITIS.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Glucosamine 6-Phosphate N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the reaction of D-glucosamine 6-phosphate with ACETYL-COA to form N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Platelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Histone Deacetylases: Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.Amino-Acid N-Acetyltransferase: A mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of L-GLUTAMATE to N-acetyl-L-glutamate in the presence of ACETYL-COA.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Trimethoprim: A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.TritiumGenetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Salmonella paratyphi A: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA that causes mild PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Biogenic Polyamines: Biogenic amines having more than one amine group. These are long-chain aliphatic compounds that contain multiple amino and/or imino groups. Because of the linear arrangement of positive charge on these molecules, polyamines bind electrostatically to ribosomes, DNA, and RNA.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Kanamycin Kinase: A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.Sulfamethoxazole: A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Nucleosomes: The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cholinergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Substantia Innominata: Tissue in the BASAL FOREBRAIN inferior to the anterior perforated substance, and anterior to the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and ansa lenticularis. It contains the BASAL NUCLEUS OF MEYNERT.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Putrescine: A toxic diamine formed by putrefaction from the decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Fusidic Acid: An antibiotic isolated from the fermentation broth of Fusidium coccineum. (From Merck Index, 11th ed). It acts by inhibiting translocation during protein synthesis.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Integrons: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Shigella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Ornithine Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Euonymus: A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Meningitis, Haemophilus: Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.

Downregulation of metallothionein-IIA expression occurs at immortalization. (1/3486)

Metallothioneins (MTs) may modulate a variety of cellular processes by regulating the activity of zinc-binding proteins. These proteins have been implicated in cell growth regulation, and their expression is abnormal in some tumors. In particular, MT-IIA is expressed 27-fold less in human colorectal tumors and tumor cell lines compared with normal tissue (Zhang et al., 1997). Here we demonstrate that MT-IIA downregulation occurs when human cells become immortal, a key event in tumorigenesis. After immortalization MT-IIA expression remains inducible but the basal activity of the MT-IIA promoter is decreased. MT-IIA downregulation at immortalization is one of the most common immortalization-related changes identified to date, suggesting that MT-IIA has a role in this process.  (+info)

Estrogen-dependent and independent activation of the P1 promoter of the p53 gene in transiently transfected breast cancer cells. (2/3486)

Loss of p53 function by mutational inactivation is the most common marker of the cancerous phenotype. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated 17 beta estradiol (E2) induction of p53 protein expression in breast cancer cells. Although direct effects of E2 on the expression of p53 gene are not known, the steroid is a potent regulator of c-Myc transcription. In the present studies, we have examined the ability of E2 and antiestrogens to regulate the P1 promoter of the p53 gene which contains a c-Myc responsive element. Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive T47D and MCF-7 cells were transiently transfected with the P1CAT reporter plasmid and levels of CAT activity in response to serum, E2 and antiestrogens were monitored. Factors in serum were noted to be the dominant inducers of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression in MCF-7 cells. The levels of CAT were drastically reduced when cells were maintained in serum free medium (SFM). However, a subtle ER-mediated induction of CAT expression was detectable when MCF-7 cells, cultured in SFM, were treated with E2. In serum-stimulated T47D cells, the CAT expression was minimal. The full ER antagonist, ICI 182 780 (ICI) had no effect. Treatment with E2 or 4-hydroxy tamoxifen (OHT) resulted in P1CAT induction; OHT was more effective than E2. Consistent with c-Myc regulation of the P1 promoter, E2 stimulated endogenous c-Myc in both cell lines. Two forms of c-Myc were expressed independent of E2 stimuli. The expression of a third more rapidly migrating form was E2-dependent and ER-mediated since it was blocked by the full ER antagonist, ICI, but not by the ER agonist/antagonist OHT. These data demonstrate both ER-mediated and ER-independent regulation of c-Myc and the P1 promoter of the p53 gene, and show differential effects of the two classes of antiestrogens in their ability to induce the P1 promoter of the p53 gene in breast cancer cells.  (+info)

JunB forms the majority of the AP-1 complex and is a target for redox regulation by receptor tyrosine kinase and G protein-coupled receptor agonists in smooth muscle cells. (3/3486)

To understand the role of redox-sensitive mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth, we have studied the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a thiol antioxidant, and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a potent NADH/NADPH oxidase inhibitor, on serum-, platelet-derived growth factor BB-, and thrombin-induced ERK2, JNK1, and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation; c-Fos, c-Jun, and JunB expression; and DNA synthesis. Both NAC and DPI completely inhibited agonist-induced AP-1 activity and DNA synthesis in VSMC. On the contrary, these compounds had differential effects on agonist-induced ERK2, JNK1, and p38 MAP kinase activation and c-Fos, c-Jun, and JunB expression. NAC inhibited agonist-induced ERK2, JNK1, and p38 MAP kinase activation and c-Fos, c-Jun, and JunB expression except for platelet-derived growth factor BB-induced ERK2 activation. In contrast, DPI only inhibited agonist-induced p38 MAP kinase activation and c-Fos and JunB expression. Antibody supershift assays indicated the presence of c-Fos and JunB in the AP-1 complex formed in response to all three agonists. In addition, cotransfection of VSMC with expression plasmids for c-Fos and members of the Jun family along with the AP-1-dependent reporter gene revealed that AP-1 with c-Fos and JunB composition exhibited a higher transactivating activity than AP-1 with other compositions tested. All three agonists significantly stimulated reactive oxygen species production, and this effect was inhibited by both NAC and DPI. Together, these results strongly suggest a role for redox-sensitive mechanisms in agonist-induced ERK2, JNK1, and p38 MAP kinase activation; c-Fos, c-Jun, and JunB expression; AP-1 activity; and DNA synthesis in VSMC. These results also suggest a role for NADH/NADPH oxidase activity in some subset of early signaling events such as p38 MAP kinase activation and c-Fos and JunB induction, which appear to be important in agonist-induced AP-1 activity and DNA synthesis in VSMC.  (+info)

Esterases in serum-containing growth media counteract chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in vitro. (4/3486)

The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi was unexpectedly found to be as susceptible to diacetyl chloramphenicol, the product of the enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, as it was to chloramphenicol itself. The susceptibilities of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, as well as that of B. burgdorferi, to diacetyl chloramphenicol were then assayed in different media. All three species were susceptible to diacetyl chloramphenicol when growth media were supplemented with rabbit serum or, to a lesser extent, human serum. Susceptibility of E. coli and B. subtilis to diacetyl chloramphenicol was not observed in the absence of serum, when horse serum was used, or when the rabbit or human serum was heated first. In the presence of 10% rabbit serum, a strain of E. coli bearing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene had a fourfold-lower resistance to chloramphenicol than in the absence of serum. A plate bioassay for chloramphenicol activity showed the conversion by rabbit, mouse, and human sera but not bacterial cell extracts or heated serum of diacetyl chloramphenicol to an inhibitory compound. Deacetylation of acetyl chloramphenicol by serum components was demonstrated by using fluorescent substrates and thin-layer chromatography. These studies indicate that esterases of serum can convert diacetyl chloramphenicol back to an active antibiotic, and thus, in vitro findings may not accurately reflect the level of chloramphenicol resistance by cat-bearing bacteria in vivo.  (+info)

The nucleoprotein of Marburg virus is target for multiple cellular kinases. (5/3486)

The nucleoprotein (NP) of Marburg virus is phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues in a ratio of 85:15, regardless of whether the protein is isolated from virions or from eukaryotic expression systems. Phosphotyrosine is absent. Although many potential phosphorylation sites are located in the N-terminal half of NP, this part of the protein is not phosphorylated. Analyses of phosphorylation state and phosphoamino acid content of truncated NPs expressed in HeLa cells using the vaccinia virus T7 expression system led to the identification of seven phosphorylated regions (region I*, amino acids 404-432; II*, amino acids 446-472; III*, amino acids 484-511; IV*, amino acids 534-543; V*, amino acid 549; VI*, amino acids 599-604; and VII*, amino acid 619) with a minimum of seven phosphorylated amino acid residues located in the C-terminal half of NP. All phosphothreonine residues and consensus recognition sequences for protein kinase CKII are located in regions I*-V*. Regions VI* and VII* contain only phosphoserine with three of four serine residues in consensus recognition motifs for proline-directed protein kinases. Mutagenesis of proline-adjacent serine residues to alanine or aspartic acid did not influence the function of NP in a reconstituted transcription/replication system; thus it is concluded that serine phosphorylation in the most C-terminal part of NP is not a regulatory factor in viral RNA synthesis.  (+info)

Identification of an enhancer element of class Pi glutathione S-transferase gene required for expression by a co-planar polychlorinated biphenyl. (6/3486)

3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PenCB), one of the most toxic co-planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, specifically induces class Pi glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) as well as cytochrome P-450 1A1 in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells [Aoki, Matsumoto and Suzuki (1993) FEBS Lett. 333, 114-118]. However, the 5'-flanking sequence of the GSTP1 gene does not contain a xenobiotic responsive element, to which arylhydrocarbon receptor binds. Using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay we demonstrate here that the enhancer termed GSTP1 enhancer I (GPEI) is necessary for the stimulation by PenCB of GSTP1 gene expression in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells. GPEI is already known to contain a dyad of PMA responsive element-like elements oriented palindromically. It is suggested that a novel signal transduction pathway activated by PenCB contributes to the stimulation of GSTP1 expression.  (+info)

Transcriptional regulation of the mouse ferritin H gene. Involvement of p300/CBP adaptor proteins in FER-1 enhancer activity. (7/3486)

We previously identified a major enhancer of the mouse ferritin H gene (FER-1) that is central to repression of the ferritin H gene by the adenovirus E1A oncogene (Tsuji, Y., Akebi, N., Lam, T. K., Nakabeppu, Y., Torti, S. V., and Torti, F. M. (1995) Mol. Cell. Biol. 15, 5152-5164). To dissect the molecular mechanism of transcriptional regulation of ferritin H, E1A mutants were tested for their ability to repress FER-1 enhancer activity using cotransfection with ferritin H-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter constructs. Here we report that p300/CBP transcriptional adaptor proteins are involved in the regulation of ferritin H transcription through the FER-1 enhancer element. Thus, E1A mutants that failed to bind p300/CBP lost the ability to repress FER-1, whereas mutants of E1A that abrogated its interaction with Rb, p107, or p130 were fully functional in transcriptional repression. Transfection with E1A did not affect endogenous p300/CBP levels, suggesting that repression of FER-1 by E1A is not due to repression of p300/CBP synthesis, but to E1A and p300/CBP interaction. In addition, we have demonstrated that transfection of a p300 expression plasmid significantly activated ferritin H-CAT containing the FER-1 enhancer, but had a marginal effect on ferritin H-CAT with FER-1 deleted. Furthermore, both wild-type p300 and a p300 mutant that failed to bind E1A but retained an adaptor function restored FER-1 enhancer activity repressed by E1A. Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, mimicked p300/CBP function in activation of ferritin H-CAT and elevation of endogenous ferritin H mRNA, suggesting that the histone acetyltransferase activity of p300/CBP or its associated proteins may contribute to the activation of ferritin H transcription. Recruitment of these broadly active transcriptional adaptor proteins for ferritin H synthesis may represent an important mechanism by which changes in iron metabolism are coordinated with other cellular responses mediated by p300/CBP.  (+info)

Anti-rheumatic compound aurothioglucose inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced HIV-1 replication in latently infected OM10.1 and Ach2 cells. (8/3486)

NF-kappaB is a potent cellular activator of HIV-1 gene expression. Down-regulation of NF-kappaB activation is known to inhibit HIV replication from the latently infected cells. Gold compounds have been effectively used for many decades in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. We previously reported that gold compounds, especially aurothioglucose (AuTG) containing monovalent gold ion, inhibited the DNA-binding of NF-kappaB in vitro. In this report we have examined the efficacy of the gold compound AuTG as an inhibitor of HIV replication in latently infected OM10.1 and Ach2 cells. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced HIV-1 replication in OM10.1 or Ach2 cells was significantly inhibited by non-cytotoxic doses of AuTG (>10 microM in OM10.1 cells and >25 F.M in Ach2 cells), while 25 microM of the counter-anion thioglucose (TG) or gold compound containing divalent gold ion, HAuCl3, had no effect. The effect of AuTG on NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression was confirmed by a transient CAT assay. Specific staining as well as electron microscopic examinations revealed the accumulation of metal gold in the cells, supporting our previous hypothesis that gold ions could block NF-kappaB-DNA binding by a redox mechanism. These observations indicate that the monovalent gold compound AuTG is a potentially useful drug for the treatment of patients infected with HIV.  (+info)

*Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

... (or CAT) is a bacterial enzyme (EC 2.3.1.28) that detoxifies the antibiotic chloramphenicol ... Leslie AG (1990). "Refined crystal structure of type III chloramphenicol acetyltransferase at 1.75 A resolution". J. Mol. Biol ... Gorman, CM; Moffat LF; Howard BH (1982). "Recombinant genomes which express chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in mammalian ... This enzyme covalently attaches an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to chloramphenicol, which prevents chloramphenicol from binding ...

*Streptomyces acrimycini

Murray, I. A.; Gil, J. A.; Hopwood, D. A.; Shaw, W. V. (1989). "Nucleotide sequence of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase ... Gil, J. A.; Kieser, H. M.; Hopwood, D. A. (1985). "Cloning of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene of Streptomyces ...

*Dihydrolipoyl transacetylase

The topology of this trimer active site is identical to that of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. Eight of these trimers are ... acetyl-CoA S-acetyltransferase, lipoate acetyltransferase, lipoate transacetylase, lipoic acetyltransferase, lipoic acid ... lysine S-acetyltransferase. dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase, dihydrolipoate acetyltransferase, dihydrolipoic ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:enzyme N6-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine S-acetyltransferase. Other names in ...

*GUS reporter system

Other competing systems are based on e.g. luciferase, GFP, beta-galactosidase, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), ...

*Chloramphenicol

... and elaboration of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. It is easy to select for reduced membrane permeability to chloramphenicol ... Oily chloramphenicol (or chloramphenicol oil suspension) is a long-acting preparation of chloramphenicol first introduced by ... Chloramphenicol increases the absorption of iron. Chloramphenicol is metabolized by the liver to chloramphenicol glucuronate ( ... this gene codes for an enzyme called chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, which inactivates chloramphenicol by covalently linking ...

*Expanded genetic code

... where the plasmid is transferred into cells expressing chloramphenicol acetyl transferase with a premature amber codon. In the ... presence of toxic chloramphenicol and the non-natural amino acid, the surviving cells will have overridden the amber codon ...

*Reporter gene

An example of a selectable-marker which is also a reporter in bacteria is the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, ... the transfected population of bacteria can be grown on a substrate that contains chloramphenicol. Only those cells that have ... which confers resistance to the antibiotic chloramphenicol. Many methods of transfection and transformation - two ways of ...

*Host-Cell Reactivation

Earlier versions of this assay were based on the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, but the version of the assay ...

*CAT I

... may refer to: Instrument landing system#ILS categories Chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase, an enzyme Measurement ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 2)

... cortisol O-acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.28: chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.29: glycine C-acetyltransferase EC 2.3. ... D-tryptophan N-acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.35: glutamate N-acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.36: D-amino-acid N-acetyltransferase EC ... amino-acid N-acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.2: imidazole N-acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.3: glucosamine N-acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.4 ... arylamine N-acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.6: choline O-acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.7: carnitine O-acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.8: ...

*Acetyltransferase

... acetyltransferase Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase Serotonin N-acetyltransferase NatA Acetyltransferase NatB acetyltransferase ... Examples include: Histone acetyltransferases including CBP histone acetyltransferase Choline ... Acetyltransferase (or transacetylase) is a type of transferase enzyme that transfers an acetyl group. ... Acyltransferase Acetylation Acetyltransferases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... carnitine O-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.170 --- chloramphenicol o-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.180 ... acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.105 --- amino-acid n-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.150 ... acetyltransferases MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.029 --- acyl-carrier protein s-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.060 --- ... arylalkylamine n-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.313 --- arylamine N-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.331 --- atp ...

*Amikacin

The antibiotics chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and tetracycline have been known to inactivate aminoglycosides in general by ... Variations of aminoglycoside acetyltransferase (AAC) and aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase (AAD) also confer resistance: ...

*Salmonella

Mittal R, Peak-Chew SY, Sade RS, Vallis Y, McMahon HT (2010). "The Acetyltransferase Activity of the Bacterial Toxin YopJ of ... and early in the event picked up a gene that made it resistant to the antibiotic chloramphenicol. This created the need to use ... Typhimurium works to inhibit the innate immune system by virtue of its serine/threonine acetyltransferase activity, and ...
The actin genes of Trypanosoma brucei are transcribed constitutively during the parasite life-cycle, by a polymerase sensitive to alpha-amanitin (1). The start region of the actin gene transcription unit was mapped by virtue of the accumulation of promoter-proximal transcripts which occurs following moderate UV irradiation (2 - 6). This region, located about 4 kilobases upstream from the genes, was able to direct transient expression of the bacterial Chloramphenicol Acetyl Transferase (CAT) gene in both bloodstream and procyclic forms of the parasite. The essential region of the promoter was defined by deletion, and appeared to be within 600 bp upstream from the putative transcription start site. It does not share significant homology with the other trypanosome promoters described so far (VSG, procyclin, rDNA), which all direct alpha-amanitin resistant transcription. ...
We have cloned and sequenced a 1.9 kb fragment of the 5′-upstream sequence of the smooth-muscle-specific gene SM22 alpha. The region cloned consisted of the SM22 alpha promoter, a 65 bp exon containing most of the 5′-untranslated region and 307 bp of the first intron. A 1.5 kb fragment at the 5′ end of this sequence was able to drive the expression of a reporter chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene in both vascular smooth-muscle cells and Rat-1 fibroblasts. This promoter region did not contain a consensus TATAA box but contained the sequence TTTAAA 25 bp from the major start site identified by primer extension. Deletion analysis showed that a fragment of the promoter from +65 to -303 was more active in both cell types than the 1.5 kb fragment suggesting that there are silencer sequences in the region 5′ to the core promoter. CAT activity was also observed with fragments containing bases +65 to -193 and +65 to -117 in smooth-muscle cells. In contrast with the smooth-muscle cells, ...
Looking for online definition of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase in the Medical Dictionary? chloramphenicol acetyl transferase explanation free. What is chloramphenicol acetyl transferase? Meaning of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase medical term. What does chloramphenicol acetyl transferase mean?
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The functionality of a 3422-base pair promoter fragment from the mouse α1B-adrenergic receptor (α1BAR) gene was examined. This fragment, cloned from a mouse genomic library, was found to have significant sequence homology to the known human and rat α1BAR promoters. However, the consensus motif of several key cis-acting elements is not conserved among the rat, human, and mouse genes, suggesting species specificity. Confirming fidelity of the murine promoter, robust in vitro expression of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter was detected in known α1BAR-expressing BC3H1, NB41A3, and DDT1MF-2 cells transiently transfected with a promoter-CAT construct. Conversely, minimal CAT expression was detected in known α1BAR-negative RAT-1 and R3T3 cells. These findings were extended by transfecting the same promoter-CAT construct into various primary cell types. In support of the hypothesis that α1ARs are differentially expressed in the smooth muscle of the vasculature, primary cultures of ...
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Chloramphenicol is an antibacterial aboriginal abandoned from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a almost simple anatomy and was the aboriginal broad-spectrum antibacterial to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein amalgam and is mainly bacteriostatic. Chloramphenicol is an Amphenicol-class Antibacterial. The actinic allocation of chloramphenicol is…
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Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (or CAT) is a bacterial enzyme (EC 2.3.1.28) that detoxifies the antibiotic chloramphenicol and is responsible for chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. This enzyme covalently attaches an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to chloramphenicol, which prevents chloramphenicol from binding to ribosomes. A histidine residue, located in the C-terminal section of the enzyme, plays a central role in its catalytic mechanism. The crystal structure of the type III enzyme from Escherichia coli with chloramphenicol bound has been determined. CAT is a trimer of identical subunits (monomer Mr 25,000) and the trimeric structure is stabilised by a number of hydrogen bonds, some of which result in the extension of a beta-sheet across the subunit interface. Chloramphenicol binds in a deep pocket located at the boundary between adjacent subunits of the trimer, such that the majority of residues forming the binding pocket belong to one subunit while the catalytically essential histidine ...
Plasmid-encoded fusidic acid resistance in Escherichia coli is mediated by a common variant of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.28), an enzyme which is an effector of chloramphenicol resistance. Resistance to chloramphenicol is a consequence of acetylation of the antibiotic catalysed by the enzyme and the failure of the 3-acetoxy product to bind to bacterial ribosomes. Cell-free coupled transcription and translation studies are in agreement with genetic studies which indicated that the entire structural gene for the type I chloramphenicol acetyltransferase is necessary for the fusidic acid resistance phenotype. The mechanism of resistance does nor involve covalent modification of the antibiotic. The other naturally-occurring enterobacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase variants (types II and III) do not cause fusidic acid resistance. Steady-state kinetic studies with the type I enzyme have shown that the binding of fusidic acid is competitive with respect to chloramphenicol. The ...
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We analysed the antioxidant response of Daphnia commutata in the oligotrophicNorth-patagonian lake (Lake Mascardi) that receives inputs of glacial clay inone extreme, which creates a plume with a consequent gradient in underwaterlight intensity (including ultraviolet radiation) and suspended solid material.This gradient in light intensity also affects the light:nutrient ratio andhence the C:P ratio of the food for planktonic herbivores. In the field, alonga 9 km transparency gradient, we measured the activities of glutathioneS-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) enzymes involved in protection againstUVR. Through laboratory experiments, we tested the possible role of suspendedsediment particles as an additional stressor for a filter feeding zooplankter.Our results indicate that the inputs of glacial clay into the lake haveantagonistic effects on Daphnia.Glacial clay was a stress mitigating factor to UVR (decrease in the antioxidantresponse of GST activity), but was also a source of stress that ...
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Cellular processesCellular processesToxin production and resistanceaminoglycoside N(6)-acetyltransferase, AacA4 family (TIGR04431; EC 2.3.1.82; HMM-score: 21) ...
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The beta cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans increase insulin gene transcription in response to increased glucose concentration. We have mapped sequences within the rat insulin I gene 5-flanking DNA (rInsI promoter) that direct this transcriptional response to glucose. When linked to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and expressed in cultured beta cells, no single mutation of the rInsI promoter removes its ability to respond to glucose, although several mutations cause marked reductions in basal chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression. A 50-bp sequence isolated from the rInsI promoter, the Far-FLAT minienhancer, can confer glucose responsiveness to nonresponsive promoters. Fine mapping of this minienhancer further localizes a glucose response to the sequence GGCCATCTGGCC, or the Far element. Nuclear extracts from islets grown in various glucose concentrations demonstrate a glucose-stimulated increase in a protein complex that binds the Far element and contains the transcription ...
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We report the isolation and complete sequence of the gene encoding the rabbit erythroid-cell-specific 15-lipoxygenase (RBC 15-LOX), containing 14 exons spanning 8.0 kb. The transcription start point was mapped by S1 nuclease-protection experiments and comparison with the sequence of the RBC 15-LOX mRNA, as defined previously by primer extension experiments. The promoter contains a TATA-like motif, but no CCAAT motif in the canonical position, and lies within a CpG-rich island. Functional analysis of the immediate 5-flanking DNA by transfection experiments shows that a 150 nucleotide (nt) 5 fragment linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene acts as a functional promoter in both erythroid and nonerythroid cell lines and responds in an erythroid-specific manner to the enhancer from the Friend murine leukaemia virus long terminal repeat, whereas a 40-nt fragment is inactive. Intron 7 contains eight copies of a 54-nt repeat containing a region with homology to the simian virus ...
Chloramphenicol is a broad spectrum antibiotic used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. However, in humans it leads to Chloramphenicol induced aplastic anaemia. This has led to the use of Chloramphenicol being totally banned within the European Union since 1994 for the treatment of animals used for food production. Imported seafood to the US from Asia has been monitored for the use of Chloramphenicol residues which is banned for use in the US. Chloramphenicol is also banned within the meat testing industry. ...
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Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic not authorised for use in food-producing animals in the European Union (EU). However, being produced by soil bacteria, it may occur in plants. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks to human and animal health related to the presence of chloramphenicol in food and feed and whether a reference point for action (RPA) of 0.3 μg/kg is adequate to protect public and animal health. Data on occurrence of chloramphenicol in food extracted from the national residue monitoring plan results and from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) were too limited to carry out a reliable human dietary exposure assessment. Instead, human dietary exposure was calculated for a scenario in which chloramphenicol is present at 0.3 μg/kg in all foods of animal origin, foods containing enzyme preparations and foods which may be contaminated naturally. The mean chronic dietary exposure for this worst-case scenario would range from 11 to 17 and 2.2 ...
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The mechanisms involved in retinoic acid (RA)-mediated regulation of the collagenase gene in a rabbit synovial fibroblast cell line (HIG82) were investigated. When HIG82 cells are cotransfected with expression vectors containing cDNAs for retinoic acid receptor (RAR) α1, β2, or γ1 and collagenase promoter-driven CAT reporter constructs, only RAR-γ1 represses basal CAT expression upon RA treatment, while RAR-α1, β2, and γ1 all suppress phorbol-induced CAT expression. Thus, transcriptional regulation of collagenase by RA is mediated by RARs in an RAR-type specific manner. Using mutatlonal and deletional analysis, we find that interaction between elements within 182 bp collagenase promoter plays an important role in this process. In addition, cotreatment with RA results in a decrease of phorbol-induced mRNA levels of fos and jun, and binding of nuclear proteins to an AP-1 oligonucleotide. Furthermore, RA-induced nuclear protein(s) specifically bind to a 22 bp sequence (−182 to −161) of the
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of calreticulin gene expression by calcium. AU - Waser, Mathilde. AU - Mesaeli, Nasrin. AU - Spencer, Charlotte. AU - Michalak, Marek. PY - 1997/8/11. Y1 - 1997/8/11. N2 - We have isolated and characterized a 12-kb mouse genomic DNA fragment containing the entire calreticulin gene and 2.14 kb of the promoter region. The mouse calreticulin gene consists of nine exons and eight introns, and it spans 4.2 kb of genomic DNA. A 1.8-kb fragment of the calreticulin promoter was subcloned into a reporter gene plasmid containing chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. This construct was then used in transient and stable transfection of NIH/3T3 cells. Treatment of transfected cells either with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, or with the ER Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, resulted in a five- to sevenfold increase of the expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase protein. Transactivation of the calreticulin promoter was also increased by fourfold in NIH/3T3 cells treated with ...
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There are many concerns about safety of food contaminated with antibacterial residues. This study was designed to investigate the occurrence of chloramphenicol (CAP) residue in broiler chickens tissues, namely liver, kidney and muscle. One hundred an
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The expression of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) as reporter can be detected in a variety of ways and has been the reporter of choice in reporter-vector systems for long time [20]. However, the notable disadvantage of these systems, however, is that the expressed reporter protein must be assayed via enzymatic reactions using whole cell extracts into which the reporter vector has been transfected [21].. Furthermore the quantification of DNA repair capacity via protein expression is disadvantageous because cells normally take up more than one plasmid, and therefore it is not possible to quantify the number of cells that are able to repair. With a view to the development of (skin-) malignancies, we also have to address the question whether a decrease in DNA repair capacity of a cell population rests on complete repair deficiency of single cells (while others remained unaffected) or on a partial decrease of DNA repair capacity in all cells. In our view single, repair deficient cells ...
This line was derived from an AtT-20ins cell line in which the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat was used for directing insulin cDNA expression.
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Hi, Has anybody transfected HepG2 cells with SV40-CAT or CMV enhanced tk-CAT? I have done several transfections and Ive used the CAT ELISA kit by Boehringer-Mannheim to detect CAT activity, my readings are very low for CAT, but are good for beta-gal, any ideas? thanks for any advice, kathy ...
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The 72 kDa IE1 protein of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of a few viral regulatory proteins expressed immediately after infection of a host cell. Although it is now well-established that IE1 is a potent transcriptional activator of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) long terminal repeat (LTR), the identity of the nucleotide sequence responsive to IE1 remains elusive and the molecular mechanism of this interaction is not well-understood. We have constructed various LTR mutants and tested them for their ability to be activated by IE1 using transient transfection assays. Mutations in the NF-κB sites, of either a few changes in the nucleotide sequence or a deletion of the entire region, abrogated IE1-driven transactivation. Deletion of the Tat-responsive element (TAR) had no significant effect on reporter expression. Mutations in the Sp1 sites or the TATA box significantly lowered LTR activity, but this is probably due to an effect on the general transcription system, as these elements are also
Eukaryotic cellular mRNA is believed to be synthesized exclusively by RNA polymerase II (pol II), whereas pol I produces long rRNAs and pol III produces 5S rRNA, tRNA, and other small RNAs. To determine whether this functional differentiation is obligatory, we examined the translational potential of an artificial pol III transcript. The coding region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat gene was placed under the control of a strong pol III promoter from the adenovirus type 2 VA RNAI gene. The resultant chimera, pVA-Tat, was transcribed accurately in vivo and in vitro and gave rise to Tat protein, which transactivated a human immunodeficiency virus-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter construct in transfected HeLa cells. pol III-specific mutations down-regulated VA-Tat RNA production in vivo and in vitro and dramatically reduced chloramphenicol acetyltransferase transactivation. As expected for a pol III transcript, VA-Tat RNA was not detectably capped at its 5 end or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pituitary calcium channel modulation and regulation of prolactin gene expression. AU - Day, Richard N.. AU - Maurer, Richard. PY - 1990/5. Y1 - 1990/5. N2 - The dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel modulators (-) Bay K 8644 (R5417) and nimodipine were used to study the role of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in the regulation of PRL gene transcription in GH3 cells. Fusion constructs containing 5′-flanking sequences from the rat PRL gene linked to either the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene or the firefly luciferase gene were transiently expressed in GH3 cells and the transcriptional response to Ca2+ channel modulators was assessed. The Ca2+ channel agonist R5417 enhanced the transcription of a PRL-CAT fusion gene containing 2.5 kilobase (kb) pairs of the 5′-flanking sequence. This response was completely blocked by the Ca2+ channel blocker nimodipine demonstrating that sequences in the PRL 5′-flanking region confer response to Ca2+. Transfection with PRL-CAT ...
The level of fibronectin (FN) gene transcription in resting rat 3Y1 cells is very high but decreases steeply after growth stimulation by serum or by the induction of E1A expression. To study the mechanism of this E1A-mediated down-regulation, the 5 flanking regions of the FN gene with various deletions and substitutions were fused to the Escherichia coli chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene and introduced into resting 3Y1 cells with E1A expression plasmids. The results indicate that the G10 stretch located from nucleotide position -239 to -230 and two GC boxes from position -105 to -95 and position -54 to -44 are the primary E1A-responsive elements for repression of the FN gene. Two GC boxes also contain a G10 stretch that is interrupted by the presence of an internal C residue. These sequences overlap with the Sp1 motif GGGCGG. Substitution of the sequence GGGG with ATCC or CTTA in these G-rich sequences, leaving the Sp1 motif intact, completely abolished the E1A sensitivity of the ...

Leicester Research Archive: Resistance to fusidic acid in Escherichia coli mediated by the type I variant of chloramphenicol...Leicester Research Archive: Resistance to fusidic acid in Escherichia coli mediated by the type I variant of chloramphenicol...

Resistance to fusidic acid in Escherichia coli mediated by the type I variant of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. ... The other naturally-occurring enterobacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase variants (types II and III) do not cause ... Determinations of antibiotic resistance levels and estimates of intracellular chloramphenicol acetyltransferase concentrations ... an enzyme which is an effector of chloramphenicol resistance. Resistance to chloramphenicol is a consequence of acetylation of ...
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Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase - WikipediaChloramphenicol acetyltransferase - Wikipedia

Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (or CAT) is a bacterial enzyme (EC 2.3.1.28) that detoxifies the antibiotic chloramphenicol ... Leslie AG (1990). "Refined crystal structure of type III chloramphenicol acetyltransferase at 1.75 A resolution". J. Mol. Biol ... Gorman, CM; Moffat LF; Howard BH (1982). "Recombinant genomes which express chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in mammalian ... This enzyme covalently attaches an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to chloramphenicol, which prevents chloramphenicol from binding ...
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Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase - Biology-Online DictionaryChloramphenicol acetyltransferase - Biology-Online Dictionary

Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (Science: enzyme) a bacterial enzyme that inactivates the antibiotic chloramphenicol by ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Chloramphenicol_acetyltransferase&oldid=16205" ...
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RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase - P62577 (CAT ECOLX)RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase - P62577 (CAT ECOLX)

The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
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Chloramphenicol acetyl transferase | definition of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase by Medical dictionaryChloramphenicol acetyl transferase | definition of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase by Medical dictionary

... chloramphenicol acetyl transferase explanation free. What is chloramphenicol acetyl transferase? Meaning of chloramphenicol ... Looking for online definition of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase in the Medical Dictionary? ... Chloramphenicol acetyl transferase , definition of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase by Medical dictionary https://medical- ... a href=https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/chloramphenicol+acetyl+transferase,chloramphenicol acetyl transferase ...
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Structure Cluster 









- 1CIA: REPLACEMENT OF CATALYTIC HISTIDINE-195 OF CHLORAMPHENICOL ACETYLTRANSFERASE: EVIDENCE FOR A...Structure Cluster - 1CIA: REPLACEMENT OF CATALYTIC HISTIDINE-195 OF CHLORAMPHENICOL ACETYLTRANSFERASE: EVIDENCE FOR A...

Replacement of catalytic histidine-195 of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase: evidence for a general base role for glutamate. ... Description: CHLORAMPHENICOL ACETYLTRANSFERASE protein , Length: 213 No structure alignment results are available for 1CIA.A ... REPLACEMENT OF CATALYTIC HISTIDINE-195 OF CHLORAMPHENICOL ACETYLTRANSFERASE: EVIDENCE FOR A GENERAL BASE ROLE FOR GLUTAMATE. ...
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A HPLC-Based Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase Assay for Assessing Hair Growth: Comparison of the Sensitivity of UV and...A HPLC-Based Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase Assay for Assessing Hair Growth: Comparison of the Sensitivity of UV and...

A HPLC-Based Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase Assay for Assessing Hair Growth: Comparison of the Sensitivity of UV and ...
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Native Escherichia coli Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase - Creative EnzymesNative Escherichia coli Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase - Creative Enzymes

... that detoxifies the antibiotic chloramphenicol and is responsible for chloramphenicol resis ... Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (or CAT) is a bacterial enzyme (EC 2.3.1.28) ... Acetyl-CoA:chloramphenicol 3-O-acetyltransferase; CAT; 9040-07-7; chloramphenicol acetyltransferase; chloramphenicol acetylase ... Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (or CAT) is a bacterial enzyme (EC 2.3.1.28) that detoxifies the antibiotic chloramphenicol ...
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Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase as a selection marker for chlamydial transformation | BMC Research Notes | Full TextChloramphenicol acetyltransferase as a selection marker for chlamydial transformation | BMC Research Notes | Full Text

Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase may also serve as a useful secondary selection marker for genetic analyses in β-lactamase- ... which carries a β-lactamase and a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene fused to a green fluorescence protein gene, ... transformants were obtained by selection with either ampicillin or chloramphenicol. Stable chloramphenicol-resistant, but ... Chloramphenicol resistance may be used as a selection marker for genetic experiments in Chlamydia. This eliminates the ...
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Downregulation of Renin Gene Expression by Interleukin-1 | HypertensionDownregulation of Renin Gene Expression by Interleukin-1 | Hypertension

Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase. Cells were harvested 48 to 72 hours post-transfection and resuspended in 0.25 mol/L Tris, pH ... Recombinant genomes which express chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1982;2:1044-1051. ... Ac Chl indicates acetylated chloramphenicol products; Chl, chloramphenicol substrate. Panel B summarizes results from four ... chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) was markedly inhibited by interleukin-1. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/30/2/230

ZEB represses transcription through interaction with the corepressor CtBP | PNASZEB represses transcription through interaction with the corepressor CtBP | PNAS

Cell Culture, Transient Transfections, and Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase (CAT) Assays.. The C33a cervical carcinoma cell ...
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BODIPY Substrates for Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), an enzyme that is encoded by ... Our original FAST CAT Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase Assay Kit (F2900) and improved FAST CAT (deoxy) Chloramphenicol ... Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase Assay Kit (F6616). CAT-mediated acetylation of this substrate and of the BODIPY TMR 1- ... Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase Assay Kit (F6617) results in single fluorescent products because these substrates contain ...
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Intermolecular masking of the HIV-1 Rev NLS by the cellular protein HIC: Novel insights into the regulation of Rev nuclear...Intermolecular masking of the HIV-1 Rev NLS by the cellular protein HIC: Novel insights into the regulation of Rev nuclear...

Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT)-ELISA assay. 293T and HeLa cells were transfected with 0.1 μg of CAT reporter gene ...
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Flexible Stereospecific Interactions and Composition within Nucleoprotein Complexes Assembled on the TCRα Gene Enhancer | The...Flexible Stereospecific Interactions and Composition within Nucleoprotein Complexes Assembled on the TCRα Gene Enhancer | The...

Transient transfections, and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), and luciferase assays. Plasmid Vδ1-CAT was described ... chloramphenicol acetyltransferase; CREB, cAMP response element binding protein; CBP, CREB-binding protein; DMS, dimethylsulfate ... Constructs were transfected in triplicate into Jurkat cells, and values for percent chloramphenicol acetylation were averaged ... HAT, histone acetyltransferase; HDAC, histone deacetylase; R, RAG-1−/−; Rxβ, RAG-2−/− × TCRβ; RT, room temperature; HEB, HeLa E ...
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Angiotensin II-Induced Transactivation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Regulates Fibronectin and Transforming Growth Factor...Angiotensin II-Induced Transactivation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Regulates Fibronectin and Transforming Growth Factor...

Stable Transfection and Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase (CAT) Assay. Cardiac fibroblasts were cotransfected with a 5:1 molar ...
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CBFα3 (AML2) Is Induced by TGF-β1 to Bind and Activate the Mouse Germline Ig α Promoter | The Journal of ImmunologyCBFα3 (AML2) Is Induced by TGF-β1 to Bind and Activate the Mouse Germline Ig α Promoter | The Journal of Immunology

Transfection, luciferase, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), and β-galactosidase (β-gal) assays. For each transfection, ... chloramphenicol acetyltransferase; β-gal, β-galactosidase; PGK, phosphoglycerate kinase. ...
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3) Chloramphenicol: chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). 45 Drug efflux - causes? Multiple antibiotics, specially in Gram- ...
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... chloramphenicol acetyltransferase; aminoglycoside 6-adenyltransferase; and tetracycline resistant gene. Moreover, a putative ...
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Antimicrobial Therapy and Bacterial Resistance | SpringerLinkAntimicrobial Therapy and Bacterial Resistance | SpringerLink

Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. Enzymology and molecular biology. CRC Crit Rev Biochem. 1983; 14: 1-46.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... In vivo antagonism between gentamicin and chloramphenicol in neutropenic mice. J Infect Dis. 1973; 128: 247-250.PubMedGoogle ...
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Plasmid construction. Generation of a -772COL1A2/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (-772COL1A2/CAT) construct consisting of a ... Butylated chloramphenicol was extracted using an organic solvent (a 2:1 mixture of tetramethylpentadecane and xylene) and ... each extract normalized for protein content was incubated with butyl-CoA and 14C-chloramphenicol for 90 minutes at 37°C. ...
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Enzyme Explorer Assay Library | Sigma-AldrichEnzyme Explorer Assay Library | Sigma-Aldrich

Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase 2.3.1.28. Chloroperoxidase 1.11.1.10. Cholesterol Esterase 3.1.1.13. Cholesterol Oxidase - ...
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Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. COC. Oral contraceptive. DCs. Dendritic cells. ELAM. Endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule ...
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