An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
A methylsulfonyl analog of CHLORAMPHENICOL. It is an antibiotic and immunosuppressive agent.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.
A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA that causes mild PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.
A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
A short-acting sulfonamide antibacterial with activity against a wide range of gram- negative and gram-positive organisms.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
An antibiotic isolated from the fermentation broth of Fusidium coccineum. (From Merck Index, 11th ed). It acts by inhibiting translocation during protein synthesis.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.
Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. Some of the more commonly found genera causing conjunctival infections are Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Chlamydia.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A semi-synthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic that is used in the treatment of TUBERCULOSIS.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.

A single membrane-embedded negative charge is critical for recognizing positively charged drugs by the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance protein MdfA. (1/2403)

The nature of the broad substrate specificity phenomenon, as manifested by multidrug resistance proteins, is not yet understood. In the Escherichia coli multidrug transporter, MdfA, the hydrophobicity profile and PhoA fusion analysis have so far identified only one membrane-embedded charged amino acid residue (E26). In order to determine whether this negatively charged residue may play a role in multidrug recognition, we evaluated the expression and function of MdfA constructs mutated at this position. Replacing E26 with the positively charged residue lysine abolished the multidrug resistance activity against positively charged drugs, but retained chloramphenicol efflux and resistance. In contrast, when the negative charge was preserved in a mutant with aspartate instead of E26, chloramphenicol recognition and transport were drastically inhibited; however, the mutant exhibited almost wild-type multidrug resistance activity against lipophilic cations. These results suggest that although the negative charge at position 26 is not essential for active transport, it dictates the multidrug resistance character of MdfA. We show that such a negative charge is also found in other drug resistance transporters, and its possible significance regarding multidrug resistance is discussed.  (+info)

Synthesis of bacteriophage phi6 double-stranded ribonucleic acid. (2/2403)

Uracil was incorporated into all three bacteriophage phi6 dsRNA segments throughout the infection cycle; the rates of incorporation into each of the three segments were approx. constant for the first 15 to 20 min and then increased rapidly until 50 min after infection. The medium and small dsRNA segments were produced in greater amounts than the large dsRNA segment at all times in the infection cycle. Inhibition of host RNA and protein synthesis with rifampin and chloramphenicol revealed that virus dsRNA synthesis immediately after infection was independent of either host function.  (+info)

Esterases in serum-containing growth media counteract chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in vitro. (3/2403)

The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi was unexpectedly found to be as susceptible to diacetyl chloramphenicol, the product of the enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, as it was to chloramphenicol itself. The susceptibilities of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, as well as that of B. burgdorferi, to diacetyl chloramphenicol were then assayed in different media. All three species were susceptible to diacetyl chloramphenicol when growth media were supplemented with rabbit serum or, to a lesser extent, human serum. Susceptibility of E. coli and B. subtilis to diacetyl chloramphenicol was not observed in the absence of serum, when horse serum was used, or when the rabbit or human serum was heated first. In the presence of 10% rabbit serum, a strain of E. coli bearing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene had a fourfold-lower resistance to chloramphenicol than in the absence of serum. A plate bioassay for chloramphenicol activity showed the conversion by rabbit, mouse, and human sera but not bacterial cell extracts or heated serum of diacetyl chloramphenicol to an inhibitory compound. Deacetylation of acetyl chloramphenicol by serum components was demonstrated by using fluorescent substrates and thin-layer chromatography. These studies indicate that esterases of serum can convert diacetyl chloramphenicol back to an active antibiotic, and thus, in vitro findings may not accurately reflect the level of chloramphenicol resistance by cat-bearing bacteria in vivo.  (+info)

Bacteriophage SPO1 development: defects in a gene 31 mutant. (4/2403)

SPO1 temperature-sensitive mutant ts14-1, located in cistron 31, has a DD (DNA synthesis-delayed) phenotype at 37 degrees C and produces progeny in a stretched program. At 44 degrees C it behaves as a DO (DNA synthesis-defective) mutant and shuts off the viral RNA synthesis about 10 min after infection. The thermal sensitivity of this mutant is due to the inactivity of gp-31 (the product of gene 31) at 44 degrees C. However, gp-31 is synthesized at that temperature and partly recovers its activity at 37 degrees C. Only 5 min at the permissive temperature is enough to trigger the continuation of the phage program and to produce progeny. The partial defect at 37 degrees C and the expansion of the middle program together with the pleiotropic defects at the nonpermissive temperature could be suitable for the study of the controls involved in bacteriophage development.  (+info)

CspA, CspB, and CspG, major cold shock proteins of Escherichia coli, are induced at low temperature under conditions that completely block protein synthesis. (5/2403)

CspA, CspB, and CspG, the major cold shock proteins of Escherichia coli, are dramatically induced upon temperature downshift. In this report, we examined the effects of kanamycin and chloramphenicol, inhibitors of protein synthesis, on cold shock inducibility of these proteins. Cell growth was completely blocked at 37 degrees C in the presence of kanamycin (100 microgram/ml) or chloramphenicol (200 microgram/ml). After 10 min of incubation with the antibiotics at 37 degrees C, cells were cold shocked at 15 degrees C and labeled with [35S]methionine at 30 min after the cold shock. Surprisingly, the synthesis of all these cold shock proteins was induced at a significantly high level virtually in the absence of synthesis of any other protein, indicating that the cold shock proteins are able to bypass the inhibitory effect of the antibiotics. Possible bypass mechanisms are discussed. The levels of cspA and cspB mRNAs for the first hour at 15 degrees C were hardly affected in the absence of new protein synthesis caused either by antibiotics or by amino acid starvation.  (+info)

Cycloheximide and 4-OH-TEMPO suppress chloramphenicol-induced apoptosis in RL-34 cells via the suppression of the formation of megamitochondria. (6/2403)

Toxic effects of chloramphenicol, an antibiotic inhibitor of mitochondrial protein synthesis, on rat liver derived RL-34 cell line were completely blocked by a combined treatment with substances endowed with direct or indirect antioxidant properties. A stable, nitroxide free radical scavenger, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl, and a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, suppressed in a similar manner the following manifestations of the chloramphenicol cytotoxicity: (1) Oxidative stress state as evidenced by FACS analysis of cells loaded with carboxy-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and Mito Tracker CMTH2MRos; (2) megamitochondria formation detected by staining of mitochondria with MitoTracker CMXRos under a laser confocal microscopy and electron microscopy; (3) apoptotic changes of the cell detected by the phase contrast microscopy, DNA laddering analysis and cell cycle analysis. Since increases of ROS generation in chloramphenicol-treated cells were the first sign of the chloramphenicol toxicity, we assume that oxidative stress state is a mediator of above described alternations of RL-34 cells including MG formation. Pretreatment of cells with cycloheximide or 4-hydroxy-2,2, 6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl, which is known to be localized into mitochondria, inhibited the megamitochondria formation and succeeding apoptotic changes of the cell. Protective effects of cycloheximide, which enhances the expression of Bcl-2 protein, may further confirm our hypothesis that the megamitochondria formation is a cellular response to an increased ROS generation and raise a possibility that antiapoptotic action of the drug is exerted via the protection of the mitochondria functions.  (+info)

Antibiotic synergy and antagonism against clinical isolates of Klebsiella species. (7/2403)

Minimal inhibitory concentrations of kanamycin, gentamicin, amikacin, cephalothin, and chloramphenicol were determined in Trypticase soy broth for 70 clinical isolates of Klebsiella species. Gentamicin and amikacin were the most active on a weight basis. Chloramphenicol was more active than kanamycin, and cephalothin was the least active of all. Studies using a microtiter modification of the checkerboard technique were performed to evaluate the comparative activity of the three aminoglycosides in combination with either chloramphenicol or cephalothin. The cephalothin-aminoglycoside combinations demonstrated synergy in >80% of the isolates tested. No antagonism was noted. The chloramphenicol-aminoglycoside combinations showed antagonism in 35 to 45% of the isolates tested. The data suggest that the chloramphenicol-aminoglycoside combinations be used with caution when treating serious infections where Klebsiella is a potential pathogen.  (+info)

Sublethal heat stress of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. (8/2403)

When Vibrio parahaemolyticsu ATCC 17802 was heated at 41 degrees C for 30 min in 100 mM phosphate-3% NaCl buffer (pH 7.0), the plate counts obtained when using Trypticase soy agar containing 0.25% added NaCl (0.25 TSAS) were nearly 99.9% higher than plate counts using Trypticase soy agar containing 5.5% added NaCl (5.5 TSAS). A similar result was obtained when cells of V. parahaemolyticus were grown in a glucose salts medium (GSM) and heated at 45 degrees C. The injured cells recovered salt tolerance within 3 h when placed in either 2.5 TSBS or GSM at 30 degrees C. The addition of chloramphenicol, actinomycin D, or nalidixic acid to 2.5 TSBS during recovery of cells grown in 2.5 TSBS indicated that recovery was dependent upon protein, ribonucleic acid (RNA, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis. Penicillin did not inhibit the recovery process. Heat-injured, GSM-grown cells required RNA synthesis but not DNA synthesis during recovery in GSM. Chemical analyses showed that total cellular RNA decreased and total cellular DNA remained constant during heat injury. The addition of [6-3H]uracil, L-[U-14C]leucine, and [methyl-3H]thymidine to the recovery media confirmed the results of the antibiotic experiments.  (+info)

The diagnosis of typhoid fever is based on clinical symptoms, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can significantly reduce the duration of illness and the risk of complications. Prevention measures include vaccination against typhoid fever, proper sanitation and hygiene practices, and avoiding consumption of contaminated food and water.


* High fever
* Headache
* Fatigue
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Vomiting
* Rash
* Delirium
* Intestinal hemorrhage
* Multi-organ failure


* Salmonella Typhi bacteria
* Contaminated food or water
* Poor sanitation and hygiene practices
* International travel or contaminated food imports


* Antibiotics
* Supportive care (fluids, electrolytes, pain management)


* Vaccination against typhoid fever
* Proper sanitation and hygiene practices
* Avoiding consumption of contaminated food and water.

Symptoms of meningitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, nausea and vomiting, and sensitivity to light. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures, brain damage, and even death.

There are several types of meningitis, including:

1. Viral meningitis: This is the most common form of the infection and is usually caused by enteroviruses or herpesviruses. It is typically less severe than bacterial meningitis and resolves on its own with supportive care.
2. Bacterial meningitis: This is a more serious form of the infection and can be caused by a variety of bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. It requires prompt antibiotic treatment to prevent long-term complications and death.
3. Fungal meningitis: This type of meningitis is more common in people with weakened immune systems and is caused by fungi that are commonly found in the environment. It can be treated with antifungal medications.
4. Parasitic meningitis: This type of meningitis is rare and is caused by parasites that are typically found in tropical regions. It can be treated with antiparasitic medications.

Diagnosis of meningitis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood cultures, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. Imaging studies, such as CT or MRI scans, may be used to rule out other conditions and to evaluate the extent of brain damage.

Treatment of meningitis depends on the cause of the infection and may include antibiotics, antiviral medications, antifungal medications, or supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Supportive care may include intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management. In severe cases, meningitis may require hospitalization in an intensive care unit (ICU) and may result in long-term consequences such as hearing loss, learning disabilities, or cognitive impairment.

Prevention of meningitis includes vaccination against the bacteria or viruses that can cause the infection, good hygiene practices, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. Vaccines are available for certain types of meningitis, such as the meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). Good hygiene practices include washing hands frequently, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding sharing food, drinks, or personal items.

In conclusion, meningitis is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection that can affect people of all ages. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term consequences and improve outcomes. Prevention includes vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.

Prevention of Salmonella Infections includes proper food handling and storage practices, such as cooking foods to the correct temperature, storing foods at the right refrigerator temperature, and washing hands frequently. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of developing severe Salmonella infections.

Complications of a Salmonella Infection can include dehydration, bacteremia (the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream), and meningitis (inflammation of the lining around the brain and spinal cord). In rare cases, a Salmonella infection can lead to long-term health problems such as irritable bowel syndrome or reactive arthritis.

Overall, prompt treatment and proper prevention measures are important for reducing the risk of complications from a Salmonella infection.

Some common effects of chromosomal deletions include:

1. Genetic disorders: Chromosomal deletions can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of a portion of chromosome 21. Other examples include Prader-Willi syndrome (deletion of chromosome 15), and Williams syndrome (deletion of chromosome 7).
2. Birth defects: Chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of birth defects, such as heart defects, cleft palate, and limb abnormalities.
3. Developmental delays: Children with chromosomal deletions may experience developmental delays, learning disabilities, and intellectual disability.
4. Increased cancer risk: Some chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and breast cancer.
5. Reproductive problems: Chromosomal deletions can lead to reproductive problems, such as infertility or recurrent miscarriage.

Chromosomal deletions can be diagnosed through a variety of techniques, including karyotyping (examination of the chromosomes), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microarray analysis. Treatment options for chromosomal deletions depend on the specific effects of the deletion and may include medication, surgery, or other forms of therapy.

Symptoms include:

* Redness and swelling of the conjunctiva
* Discharge (pus) in the eye
* Itching or burning sensation in the eye
* Crusting of the eyelids
* Blurred vision
* Sensitivity to light

Diagnosis is usually made based on symptoms and physical examination, but may require laboratory testing to rule out other causes.

Treatment typically includes antibiotic eye drops or ointments, which can help to clear up the infection within a few days. In severe cases, oral antibiotics may be prescribed. Anti-inflammatory medications may also be used to reduce swelling and discomfort. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with others, can help to prevent the spread of the infection.

Prognosis is generally good, but complications can include corneal ulcers, which can lead to vision loss if left untreated. Recurrent conjunctivitis may occur in some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems or other underlying medical conditions.

Prevention includes good hygiene practices, avoiding close contact with others, and avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or makeup. Vaccination against streptococcal infections can also help to prevent conjunctivitis caused by this type of bacteria.

Symptoms of bacterial meningitis may include sudden onset of fever, headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light. In severe cases, the infection can cause seizures, coma, and even death.

Bacterial meningitis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients with bacterial meningitis. The disease is more common in certain groups, such as infants, young children, and people with weakened immune systems, and it can be more severe in these populations.

Prevention of bacterial meningitis includes vaccination against the bacteria that most commonly cause the disease, good hand hygiene, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.

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In molecular biology, the chloramphenicol phosphotransferase-like protein family includes the chloramphenicol 3-O ... Izard T (August 2001). "Structural basis for chloramphenicol tolerance in Streptomyces venezuelae by chloramphenicol ... Chloramphenicol (Cm) is a metabolite produced by this bacterium that can inhibit ribosomal peptidyl transferase activity and ... Izard T, Ellis J (June 2000). "The crystal structures of chloramphenicol phosphotransferase reveal a novel inactivation ...
"Chloramphenicol". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 2015-06-24. Retrieved Aug 1 ... In most countries, neomycin and chloramphenicol eye drops are used, instead. However, newborns can develop neonatal ...
An example of a selectable marker which is also a reporter in bacteria is the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, ... Smale, S. T. (2010-05-01). "Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase Assay". Cold Spring Harbor Protocols. 2010 (5): pdb.prot5422. doi ... the transfected population of bacteria can be grown on a substrate that contains chloramphenicol. Only those cells that have ... which confers resistance to the antibiotic chloramphenicol. Many methods of transfection and transformation - two ways of ...
She and her team were the first to fully synthesize chloromycetin, also known as chloramphenicol. This was the first instance ... Pongs, O. (1979). "Chapter 3: Chloramphenicol". In Hahn, eFred E. (ed.). Mechanism of Action of Antibacterial Agents. ... Rebstock, Mildred C.; Crooks, Harry M.; Controulis, John.; Bartz, Quentin R. (July 1949). "Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin).IV. ...
"Chloramphenicol-lnduced Bone Marrow Suppression". JAMA. 213 (7): 1183-1184. 1970-08-17. doi:10.1001/jama.1970.03170330063011. ... A noteworthy counterexample, however, includes the antineoplastic antibiotic chloramphenicol, which successfully inhibits ...
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Chloramphenicol therapy is generally effective.[citation needed] Humans and, occasionally, domestic animals are the carriers of ... The disease responds well to chloramphenicol or co-trimoxazole.[citation needed] Paratyphoid C is a rare infection, generally ...
... produces chloramphenicol and setomimycin. List of Streptomyces species LPSN ...
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Its similarity to the mechanism of action of macrolides and chloramphenicol means they should not be given simultaneously, as ... Tetracyclines, Macrolides, Clindamycin, Chloramphenicol, Streptogramins, & Oxazolidinones. In: Katzung BG. eds. Basic & ...
1995-01-01). "Dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol (DRBC) agar". Progress in Industrial Microbiology. Elsevier. 34: 303-305. ... dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar) is a selective medium for the enumeration of moulds and yeasts in foods. Dichloran ...
... similarly to chloramphenicol) as well as inhibiting bacterial ribosomal translation. Another potential mechanism is premature ... "Inhibition of ribosomal peptidyltransferase by chloramphenicol. Kinetic studies". European Journal of Biochemistry. 164 (1): 53 ...
Stokes, J. F.; Gray, I. R.; Stokes, E. J. (1951). "Actinomyces Muris Endocarditis Treated with Chloramphenicol". British Heart ...
Chloramphenicol, Tetracyclines, Macrolides, Clindamycin, Streptogramins, & Linezolid , Katzung & Trevor's Pharmacology: ...
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Chloramphenicol or azithromycin may also be used. The disease will also tend to resolve without treatment. The disease occurs ... For mild cases, people are usually treated with one of the following: doxycycline chloramphenicol ciprofloxacin If a person has ...
"Reductive degradation of chloramphenicol by Geobacter metallireducens". Sci. China Technol. Sci. 62, 1688-1694 (2019). doi: ... G. metallireducens has been demonstrated to reduce chloramphenicol (CAP) to complete dechlorination products under pure culture ...
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2010). "Section VIII: Chemotherapeutic Drugs; Chapter 44: Chloramphenicol, Tetracyclines, Macrolides, Clindamycin, & ...
Oily chloramphenicol (or chloramphenicol oil suspension) is a long-acting preparation of chloramphenicol first introduced by ... Roussel stopped production of oily chloramphenicol in 1995; the IDA Foundation has manufactured it since 1998, first in Malta ... ISBN 978-3-0348-7913-2. Lewis, R. F.; Dorlencourt, F.; Pinel, J. (1998). "Long-acting oily Chloramphenicol for Meningococcal ...
Tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and doxycycline are commonly used. Infection can also be prevented by vaccination.[citation ...
Other antibiotic choices include enrofloxacin and chloramphenicol. Veterinary-approved flea and tick preparations are ...
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Chloramphenicol-resistant B. bacilliformis has been observed. During the eruptive phase, in which chloramphenicol is not useful ... Fluoroquinolones (such as ciprofloxacin) or chloramphenicol in adults and chloramphenicol plus beta-lactams in children are the ... Because Carrion's disease is often comorbid with Salmonella infections, chloramphenicol has historically been the treatment of ...
In its spore-bearing stage, hyphae perfuse both above ground as aerial hyphae and in the soil substrate.Chloramphenicol, the ... Chloramphenicol phosphotransferase-like protein family "Species Streptomyces venezuelae". UniProt. 2008-07-22. Retrieved 2008- ...
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Sethi, S. K., Anand, S., Singh, Ajaib & Vadehra, D. V. (‎1976)‎. Resistance of Salmonella serotypes to chloramphenicol*. ...
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  • Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving chloramphenicol injection. (
  • She was treated with ampicillin and chloramphenicol for 72 hours and then changed to chloramphenicol alone for 9 more days after the initial Hib isolate was demonstrated to be B-lactamase positive. (
  • Editorial Note: Resistance of H. influenzae strains to ampicillin or chloramphenicol, conventional antimicrobial therapy for systemic (bacteremic) H. influenzae disease, is of growing concern among medical practitioners. (
  • Chloramphenicol injection should not be used when another antibiotic can treat your infection. (
  • Chloramphenicol is a broad spectrum antibiotic introduced into clinical practice in 1948, but which was subsequently shown to cause serious and fatal aplastic anemia and is now used rarely and reserved for severe, life-threatening infections for which other antibiotics are not available. (
  • Solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as sorbent has been investigated for the clean-up of the broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotic chloramphenicol (CAP) in honey samples. (
  • A JO - J Chromatogr A VL - 1132 IS - 1-2 N2 - Solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as sorbent has been investigated for the clean-up of the broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotic chloramphenicol (CAP) in honey samples. (
  • Because the binding of chloramphenicol to 70S ribosomes is reversible, it is considered to be a bacteriostatic antibiotic, but it can also have a bactericidal effect on certain bacteria at high drug concentrations, and it can even be effective against influenza bacilli at lower concentrations. (
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  • Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic against bacterial infections[1][2]. (
  • Chloramphenicol is a Broad-Spectrum antibiotic, considered the safest medicine for treating the most commonly occurring bacterial infections. (
  • Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic. (
  • First discovered in 1947 in a lab, Chloramphenicol was the first antibiotic to be made instead of extracted from a micro-organism. (
  • Nanoparticles coated by chloramphenicol in hydrogels as a useful tool to increase the antibiotic release and antibacterial activity in dermal drug delivery. (
  • Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic with controversial use during pregnancy for easily crossing the placental barrier and achieving high concentrations in the fetus. (
  • 25% were resistant to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. (
  • Chloramphenicol injection is used to treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. (
  • If you stop using chloramphenicol injection too soon or skip doses, your infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics. (
  • It may be related to chloramphenicol inhibiting the same 70S ribosome in bacteria in mitochondria of bone marrow hematopoietic cells. (
  • Chloramphenicol injection may cause a decrease in the number of certain types of blood cells in the body. (
  • It is best that you receive chloramphenicol injection in the hospital so that you can be closely monitored by your doctor. (
  • Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. (
  • Chloramphenicol injection comes as a liquid to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in a hospital. (
  • You should begin to feel better during the first few days of treatment with chloramphenicol injection. (
  • Use chloramphenicol injection for as long as your doctor tells you, even if you feel better. (
  • In the event of biological warfare, chloramphenicol injection may be used to treat and prevent dangerous illnesses that are deliberately spread such as plague, tularemia, and anthrax of the skin or mouth. (
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to chloramphenicol injection or any other medications. (
  • Other medications may also interact with chloramphenicol injection, so be sure to tell your doctor about all the medications you are taking, even those that do not appear on this list. (
  • tell your doctor if you have ever been treated with chloramphenicol injection before, especially if you experienced severe side effects. (
  • Your doctor may tell you not to use chloramphenicol injection. (
  • Note: Chloramphenicol injection (containing ethanol, glycerin or propylene glycol and other solvents), It should be extracted with a dry syringe and shaken while diluting to prevent precipitation of crystals. (
  • The B fragilis group is almost uniformly susceptible to metronidazole, carbapenems, chloramphenicol, and combinations of a penicillin and beta-lactamase inhibitors. (
  • 2023. (
  • Chloramphenicol has also been linked to cases of acute, clinically apparent liver injury with jaundice, largely in association with aplastic anemia. (
  • Aplastic anemia associated with parenteral chloramphenicol: review of 10 cases, including the second case of possible increased risk with cimetidine. (
  • Fatal aplastic anemia following topical administration of ophthalmic chloramphenicol. (
  • 1990). Three case reports have documented the occurrence of leukemia following chloramphenicol therapy in the absence of intervening aplastic anemia (IARC 1990). (
  • 1997) found high but nonsignificant elevations of risk of aplastic anemia associated with the use of chloramphenicol in the six months before onset of aplastic anemia. (
  • Taken together, the many case reports implicating chloramphenicol as a cause of aplastic anemia, the evidence of a link between aplastic anemia and leukemia, and the increased risk of leukemia found in some case-control studies support the conclusion that an increased cancer risk is associated with chloramphenicol exposure. (
  • Chloramphenicol has been associated with the development of aplastic anaemia. (
  • If there is an allergy to penicillin, chloramphenicol may be used. (
  • 1989) reported that chloramphenicol use was associated with an increased risk of soft-tissue sarcoma. (
  • The work indicates that it is possible to reduce the concentration of chloramphenicol by four times while maintaining its bacteriostatic activity, which can improve the patient 's safety profile while increasing the effectiveness of the therapy . (
  • Treatment includes the following antibiotics: Doxycycline Tetracycline Chloramphenicol (less common) Tetracycline taken by mouth can permanently stain teeth that are still forming. (
  • Chloramphenicol reversibly binds to the 50S subunit to block the action of transpeptidylase and interferes with the amino acid-tRNA terminal binding with the 50S subunit, thereby hindering the formation of new peptide chains and inhibiting protein synthesis. (
  • Since chloramphenicol can also bind to the 70S of human mitochondria, it can also inhibit the protein synthesis of human mitochondria, causing toxicity to the human body. (
  • You may experience this decrease in blood cells whether you are being treated with chloramphenicol for a long time or a short time. (
  • We also supply weight loss pills and several other medications buying chloramphenicol . (
  • Chloramphenicol is extremely stable, and its aqueous solution will not fail after 5 hours of boiling. (
  • Five different concentrations of chloramphenicol and two types of nanoparticles ( silica and gold ) in carbopol-based ointments were tested. (
  • 1983). However, because this study was incompletely reported, the findings are considered insufficient to establish a definitive link between chloramphenicol exposure and cancer in experimental animals. (
  • Buy Cheap Viagra or Cialis Online Without Prescription buying chloramphenicol . (
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  • Three days later, she developed vomiting and fever up to 40.5 C (105 F). She was again started on chloramphenicol and was given three doses of ceftazidime before arrival in Houston. (
  • The current recommendation is a four-drug regimen (trimethoprim [TMP], sulfamethoxazole [SMX], doxycycline, and chloramphenicol) and a total treatment time of 12 to 20 weeks. (
  • Chloramphenicol is an alternative, although doxycycline is preferable because tetracyclines have been shown to be associated with a higher survival rate than chloramphenicol. (
  • Chloramphenicol is commonly used as an ointment in the treatment of conjunctivitis and ear infections. (
  • Resistance of Hib strains to chloramphenicol has remained at a low prevalence rate of under 1% since the first report appeared in 1972 (6). (
  • BALLYA Chloramphenicol Test is manufactured by BALLYA, it's rapid test for detection chloramphenicol residues in chicken meat or bee product, especially in chicken mea. (
  • Chloramphenicol is the alternative choice for RMSF in pregnant women and patients allergic to tetracyclines. (
  • Residues of some veterinary drugs in animals and foods : chloramphenicol, dexamethasone, diminazene, levamisole, olaquindox, spectinomycin / monographs prepared by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committe on Food Additives, Rome, 1-10 February 1994. (
  • Two extraction strategies for albendazole, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, enrofloxacin, oxitetracycline and nicarbazin in egg were optimized for its quantitation by liquid chromatography. (
  • Dilute with liquid, 1 chloramphenicol (250 mg) with at least 100ml of diluent. (
  • 1987, 1988) reported elevated risks of childhood leukemia, which increased significantly with the number of days chloramphenicol was taken. (
  • Chloramphenicol is used to cure different types of bacterial infection by stopping them from growing and multiplying. (
  • 1996) found no association of chloramphenicol use with risk of adult leukemia. (
  • What's Chloramphenicol side effect? (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Effect of chloramphenicol on nitrogen fixation in a cyanobacterium. (
  • Trehan M, Trehan K. Effect of chloramphenicol on nitrogen fixation in a cyanobacterium. (