Chlorambucil: A nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as antineoplastic for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and others. Although it is less toxic than most other nitrogen mustards, it has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (Merck Index, 11th ed)Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell: A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Vidarabine: A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.Nitrogen Mustard Compounds: A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.Prednimustine: Ester of CHLORAMBUCIL and PREDNISOLONE used as a combination alkylating agent and synthetic steroid to treat various leukemias and other neoplasms. It causes gastrointestinal and bone marrow toxicity.Ophthalmia, Sympathetic: Granulomatous uveitis which follows in one eye after a penetrating injury to the other eye; the secondarily affected eye is called the sympathizing eye, and the injured eye is called the exciting or activating eye.Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia: A lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by pleomorphic B-LYMPHOCYTES including PLASMA CELLS, with increased levels of monoclonal serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. There is lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltration into bone marrow and often other tissues, also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Clinical features include ANEMIA; HEMORRHAGES; and hyperviscosity.Glomerulonephritis, Membranous: A type of glomerulonephritis that is characterized by the accumulation of immune deposits (COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) on the outer aspect of the GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE. It progresses from subepithelial dense deposits, to basement membrane reaction and eventual thickening of the basement membrane.Mechlorethamine: A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.Cladribine: An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.Sarcoma, YoshidaSulfinpyrazone: A uricosuric drug that is used to reduce the serum urate levels in gout therapy. It lacks anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and diuretic properties.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Melphalan: An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative: Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; MEDICAL DEVICES; corrective LENSES; and a variety of other medical remedies.Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated: An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)Cat's Claw: A vine (Uncaria tomentosa) indigenous to the Amazon rainforest whose name is derived from its hook-like thorns. It contains oxindole alkaloids and glycosides and has many medicinal uses.Togaviridae: A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.Magnetospirillum: A genus of microaerophilic, gram-negative bacteria that forms crystals of the mineral magnetite in special organelles called MAGNETOSOMES.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Tourette Syndrome: A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Providencia: Gram-negative rods isolated from human urine and feces.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Maintenance Chemotherapy: Treatment designed to help prevent a relapse of a disease following the successful primary treatments (INDUCTION CHEMOTHERAPY and CONSOLIDATION CHEMOTHERAPY) with a long-term low-dose drug therapy.Thalidomide: A piperidinyl isoindole originally introduced as a non-barbiturate hypnotic, but withdrawn from the market due to teratogenic effects. It has been reintroduced and used for a number of immunological and inflammatory disorders. Thalidomide displays immunosuppressive and anti-angiogenic activity. It inhibits release of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA from monocytes, and modulates other cytokine action.Neoplasm, Residual: Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)Myoclonus: Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).Pemphigus: Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by ACANTHOLYSIS and blister formation within the EPIDERMIS.Desmoglein 1: A desmosomal cadherin that is an autoantigen in the acquired skin disorder PEMPHIGUS FOLIACEUS.N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine: An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.Desmoglein 3: A desmosomal cadherin that is an autoantigen in the acquired skin disorder PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS.Splenic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.

Potentiation of anti-cancer drug activity at low intratumoral pH induced by the mitochondrial inhibitor m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and its analogue benzylguanidine (BG). (1/304)

Tumour-selective acidification is of potential interest for enhanced therapeutic gain of pH sensitive drugs. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a tumour-selective reduction of the extracellular and intracellular pH and their effect on the tumour response of selected anti-cancer drugs. In an in vitro L1210 leukaemic cell model, we confirmed enhanced cytotoxicity of chlorambucil at low extracellular pH conditions. In contrast, the alkylating drugs melphalan and cisplatin, and bioreductive agents mitomycin C and its derivative EO9, required low intracellular pH conditions for enhanced activation. Furthermore, a strong and pH-independent synergism was observed between the pH-equilibrating drug nigericin and melphalan, of which the mechanism is unclear. In radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumour-bearing mice, the extracellular pH was reduced by the mitochondrial inhibitor m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) or its analogue benzylguanidine (BG) plus glucose. To simultaneously reduce the intracellular pH, MIBG plus glucose were combined with the ionophore nigericin or the Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitor amiloride and the Na+-dependent HCO3-/Cl- exchanger inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS). Biochemical studies confirmed an effective reduction of the extracellular pH to approximately 6.2, and anti-tumour responses to the interventions indicated a simultaneous reduction of the intracellular pH below 6.6 for at least 3 h. Combined reduction of extra- and intracellular tumour pH with melphalan increased the tumour regrowth time to 200% of the pretreatment volume from 5.7 +/- 0.6 days for melphalan alone to 8.1 +/- 0.7 days with pH manipulation (P < 0.05). Mitomycin C related tumour growth delay was enhanced by the combined interventions from 3.8 +/- 0.5 to 5.2 +/- 0.5 days (P < 0.05), but only in tumours of relatively large sizes. The interventions were non-toxic alone or in combination with the anti-cancer drugs and did not affect melphalan biodistribution. In conclusion, we have developed non-toxic interventions for sustained and selective reduction of extra- and intracellular tumour pH which potentiated the tumour responses to selected anti-cancer drugs.  (+info)

Biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins by mouse embryos cultured in the presence of a teratogenic dose of chlorambucil. (2/304)

The effect of chlorambucil on the rates of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis in mouse embryos was investigated using a system of whole embryo culture. Embryos were isolated on the 11th day of gestation (33 +/- 3 somites) and grown in culture media for periods of 4-8 h. Reichert's membrane and most of the placental tissue was removed leaving only the amnion and visceral yolk-sac surrounding the embryo. In the presence of teratogenic doses of chlorabucil (15 mug/ml) the rate of DNA synthesis was significantly decreased at 4 and 8 h. RNA and protein synthesis were not inhibited at either of these times. A trend toward decreasing rates of protein synthesis at some time beyond 8 h was noted, but not tested.  (+info)

Chemotherapeutic options in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a meta-analysis of the randomized trials. CLL Trialists' Collaborative Group. (3/304)

BACKGROUND: The randomized trials that evaluate the timing and intensity of initial chemotherapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have, in general, been too small to provide separately reliable results. We compared the effects on survival of the following: a) immediate versus deferred chemotherapy for early-stage CLL and b) combination chemotherapy (e.g., cyclophosphamide and vincristine plus prednisone/prednisolone [COP] or COP plus doxorubicin [CHOP]) versus single-agent chlorambucil as first-line treatment for more advanced disease. METHODS: All relevant randomized trials, whether published or not, were sought for a collaborative meta-analysis involving centralized review of the data for each patient. RESULTS: There were 2048 patients with early disease in six trials of immediate versus deferred chemotherapy (chlorambucil or chlorambucil plus prednisone/prednisolone). The 10-year survival was slightly worse (but not statistically significantly so) with immediate chemotherapy (44% versus 47% survival; difference = -3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -10% to 4%). There were another 2022 patients in 10 trials of combination chemotherapy versus chlorambucil, with or without prednisone/prednisolone. The 5-year survival was 48 % in both cases (difference = 0%; 95% CI = -6% to 5%). A subgroup of six of these 10 trials involved an anthracycline-containing regimen but again overall survival appeared no better than with chlorambucil (anthracycline-based regimen: 325 deaths among 627 patients; chlorambucil: 306 deaths among 636 patients; death rate ratio = 1.07; 95% CI = 0.91-1.25; not statistically significant). CONCLUSIONS: In terms of survival, these trials support a conservative treatment strategy for CLL, i.e., no chemotherapy for most patients with early-stage disease, and single-agent chlorambucil as the first line of treatment for most patients with advanced disease, with no evidence of benefit from early inclusion of an anthracycline. This strategy will, however, need to be reconsidered as mature results become available from trials of other agents.  (+info)

Effect of Epstein-Barr virus infection on response to chemotherapy and survival in Hodgkin's disease. (4/304)

We have analyzed paraffin sections from 190 patients with histologically confirmed Hodgkin's disease (HD) for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) using in situ hybridization to detect the EBV-encoded Epstein-Barr virus early RNAs (EBERs) and immunohistochemistry to identify latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) expression. EBV was present in the tumor cells in 51 HD cases (27%) and was mainly confined to the mixed cellularity and nodular sclerosis subtypes. There was no difference between EBV-positive and EBV-negative HD patients with regard to age, clinical stage, presentation, and the number of alternating chemotherapy cycles of ChIVPP and PABIOE received. The complete remission rate after study chemotherapy was 80% in EBV-positive patients versus 69% in EBV-negative patients (P =.05). The 2-year failure-free survival rate was significantly better for EBV-positive patients when compared with the EBV-negative HD group (P =.02). Although 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were better for EBV-positive HD patients, the differences were not statistically significant (P =.18 and P =.40, respectively). In conclusion, the results confirm the favorable prognostic value of EBV in the tumor cells of HD patients and suggest important differences in response to chemotherapy between EBV-positive and EBV-negative patients.  (+info)

Chlorambucil induction of HsRad51 in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (5/304)

Our previous studies with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) have suggested that one of the mechanisms of nitrogen mustard (NM) drug resistance is increased repair of drug-induced damage. We have postulated that recombination may play a crucial role in this process. The human homologue of Rad51, (HsRad51), has homology to the RecA protein in Escherichia coli, which is implicated in recombination repair and induction of DNA repair enzymes. In this report, we have examined the expression and distribution of HsRad51 protein in lymphocytes from patients with B-CLL to see whether the expression of HsRad51 is associated with NM damage to the malignant B lymphocytes, specifically chlorambucil (CLB), which is the standard alkylating agent used to treat patients with B-CLL. We have analyzed the intracellular distribution of HsRad51 protein in these lymphocytes before and after treatment with CLB by immunofluorescence. In vitro CLB treatment induces Rad51 expression, as measured by increased immunopositive staining in all CLL samples. In the CLB-resistant CLL lymphocytes, there was a linear correlation between induction of Rad51 protein at 5.4 microM CLB and the in vitro LD50 dose of CLB. Surprisingly, although it has been reported that Rad51 is induced in S phase and only 10% of cells from cell lines expressed positive immunostaining for Rad51, our CLL lymphocytes, which were not subjected to in vitro drug exposure, were 90% positive for Rad51, despite their nonproliferative state, which suggests that there is chronic activation of the protein. Our results suggest that CLB activates HsRad51-directed recombination repair and that this process may be important in NM drug-induced cytotoxicity.  (+info)

High-dose BEAM chemotherapy with autologous haemopoietic stem cell transplantation for Hodgkin's disease is unlikely to be associated with a major increased risk of secondary MDS/AML. (6/304)

Hodgkin's disease is curable in the majority of patients, although a proportion of patients are resistant to or relapse after initial therapy. High-dose therapy with autologous stem cell support has become the standard salvage therapy for patients failing chemotherapy, but there have been reports of a high incidence of myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukaemia (MDS/AML) following such treatment. Patients who receive such therapy form a selected group, however, who have already been subjected to other leukaemogenic factors, such as treatment with alkylating agents. In order to ascertain the true risk of MDS/AML, comparison must be made with other patients subjected to the same risks but not undergoing transplantation. We report a retrospective comparative study of 4576 patients with Hodgkin's disease from the BNLI and UCLH Hodgkin's databases, which includes 595 patients who have received a transplant. Statistical analysis including Cox's proportional hazards multivariate regression model with time-dependent covariates was employed. This analysis reveals that the risk of developing MDS/AML was dominated by three factors, namely quantity of prior therapy (relative risk [RR] 2.01, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.49-2.71, for each treatment block, P < 0.0001) and whether the patient had been exposed to MOPP (RR 3.61, 95% CI 1.64-7.95, P = 0.0009) or lomustine chemotherapy (RR 4.53, 95% CI 1.96-10.44, P = 0.001). Following adjustment for these factors in the multivariate model the relative risk associated with transplantation was 1.83 (95% CI 0.66-5.11, P = 0.25). This study provides no evidence of a significantly increased risk of MDS/AML associated with BEAM therapy and autologous transplantation in Hodgkin's disease. Concern over MDS/AML should not mitigate against the timely use of this treatment modality.  (+info)

The role of drug transport in resistance to nitrogen mustard and other alkylating agents in L518Y lymphoblsts. (7/304)

An investigation was undertaken of the mechanism of resistance to nitrogen mustard (HN2) and other alkylating agents, with particular emphasis on the interaction between cross-resistance and drug transport mechanisms in L5178Y lymphoblasts. Dose-survival curves demonstrated that the D0 for HN2-sensitive cells (L5178Y) treated with HN2 in vitro was 9.79 ng/ml and the D0 for HN2-resistant cells (L5178Y/HN2) was 181.11 ng/ml; thus, sensitive cells were 18.5-fold more responsive than were resistant cells and the difference was highly significant (p less than 0.001). A similar evaluation of 5 additional alkylating agents, including chlorambucil, melphalan, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-l-nitrosourea, Mitomycin C, and 2,3,5-tris(ethyleneimino)-1,4-benzoquinone, revealed that L5178Y/HN2 cells were also cross-resistant, in part, to each of these compounds. Furthermore, the degree of cross-resistance was remarkably similar; for each drug, dose-survival studies showed that HN2-resistant cells were approximately 2- to 3-fold more resistant to therapy than were sensitive cells. L5178Y/HN2 cells were also cross-resistant to cyclophosphamide in vivo; after treatment with cyclophosphamide, DBA/2 female mice that were given inoculations of L5178Y cells, but not those given transplants of L5178Y/HN2 cells, showed a significant prolongation of survival time (p less than 0.01). Transport of HN2, hydrolyzed derivative of HN2 and choline by L5178Y lymphoblasts in vitro was not competitively inhibited by any of the other alkylating agents, suggesting that transport of these compounds was by an independent mechanism. These findings suggest that the mechanism whereby L5178Y/HN2 cells are cross-resistant to other alkylating agents may involve nontransport factors and that these other drugs may bypass a major portion of HN2 resistance by using independent transport systems.  (+info)

Clinical features and treatment outcome of idiopathic membranous nephropathy in Chinese patients. (8/304)

We retrospectively studied the clinical course and treatment outcome of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) amongst 38 Chinese patients (25 male, 13 female, age 51.6 +/- 14.6 years, follow-up duration 58.2 +/- 51.1 months) who presented over a 10-year review period. Eight never received any form of specific treatment (group I), seven received oral corticosteroid alone for 6-9 months (group II), 17 were given corticosteroid plus cyclophosphamide for 6-12 months (group III), and six were treated with methylprednisolone alternating with chlorambucil every other month for 6 months (group IV). No untoward effect from drugs sufficient to alter the dosage used was recorded. After 6 months of treatment, over 50% of patients went into remission: a significant reduction in proteinuria (p = 0.01, 0.01, 0.02) with a corresponding rise in serum albumin levels (p = 0.01, 0.01, 0.04) was observed in groups II, III, and IV, respectively, but not in group I. During follow-up, one patient in each of groups I, III, IV, and two of group II developed renal function deterioration, which correlated with an abnormal presenting serum creatinine. In six group I and eight group III patients who have been followed for at least 5 years, there was progressive reduction in proteinuria in group III (p < 0.05), but not in group I: serum creatinine has remained unchanged in both groups. IMN runs a benign course in Chinese patients in Hong Kong, with 2.6% of patients going into end-stage renal failure during the study period. Contrary to reports in Caucasians, there is similar treatment response to steroid alone or a combination of steroid and cytotoxic agents.  (+info)

Obinutuzumab (Gazyva) plus chloramubucil outperformed rituximab (Rituxan) plus chlorambucil (Leukeran) as first-line therapy in older patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and comorbidities in the large CLL 11 trial. Final results showed that obinutuzumab/chloramubucil improved overall survival compared to chlorambucil alone and improved progression-free survival, complete response rate, and minimal residual disease status compared to chlorambucil/rituximab.. "These results suggest that obinutuzumab can replace rituximab in combination with chlorambucil as first-line therapy in older patients with comorbidities. This could mean a potential decrease in the amount of chemotherapy required for an effective combination regimen, translating to less toxicity for patients," said Valentin Goede, MD, a hematologist/oncologist and gerontologist at University Hospital Cologne, Germany, who presented the results during the Plenary Session at the 2013 Annual Meeting of the American Society of ...
Chlorambucil is used in the treatment of blood cancer,hodgkins disease.get complete information about chlorambucil including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with chlorambucil at 1mg.com
Title:Kinetic Evaluation of Anti-tumor Chlorambucil Release from O-stearoyl Mannose PLGA Nanoparticles. VOLUME: 10 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Antonio O. Costa, Claure N. Lunardi and Anderson J. Gomes*. Affiliation:Laboratory of Photochemistry and Nanobiotechnology, University of Brasília, Centro Metropolitano, Conjunto A, lote 01, Brasilia, 72220-275, DF, Laboratory of Photochemistry and Nanobiotechnology, University of Brasília, Centro Metropolitano, Conjunto A, lote 01, Brasilia, 72220-275, DF, Laboratory of Photochemistry and Nanobiotechnology, University of Brasília, Centro Metropolitano, Conjunto A, lote 01, Brasilia, 72220-275, DF. Keywords:PLGA, nanoparticles, o-stearoyl mannose, chlorambucil, mathematical modeling.. Abstract:. Purpose: This study assesses the kinetics of the anti-tumor drug chlorambucil (CLB) incorporated into PLGA nanoparticles (NP-CLB) with and without the presence of the O-stearoyl mannose (OEM) functionalizing agent (NP-CLBMAN). Methods: OEM was synthesized and used in ...
While chemotherapy is one of the most used treatments in oncology, the systemic administration of chemotherapeutics generally results in undesired damages to healthy tissues and cells, side effects such as severe nausea and leukopenia, and reduced efficacy due to multidrug resistance and poor target accessibility. The limitations of conventional chemotherapy formulation has prompted the development of alternative nanomaterials-based strategies to achieve targeted and stimuli sensitive payload delivery to reach optimal local drug concentration at tumor sites. In this study, the anticancer drug chlorambucil (Clb) was conjugated to the surface of silica coated lithium niobate (LNO) harmonic nanoparticles (HNPs) using a photocaging tether based on coumarin-4-yl methyl derivative. Upon laser pulsed femtosecond irradiation at 790 nm, the second harmonic emission from the metal oxide core induced the efficient release of Clb, with concomitant contribution from the nonlinear absorption of the coumarin (CM)
Chlorambucil is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent which is mainly used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Buy DNA/RNA Synthesis inhibitor Chlorambucil (WR-139013, CB-1348) from AbMole BioScience.
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The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a Supplemental Biologic License Application (sBLA) for the use of Arzerra® (ofatumumab) in combination with chlorambucil in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) for whom fludarabine-based therapy is considered inappropriate.. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common form of adult leukemia. The American Cancer Society estimates that approximately 15,000 people will be diagnosed and 4,580 will die from CLL this year. Currently, there are approximately 95,000 people in the United States living with CLL.. CLL is characterized by the production of atypical lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are specialized immune cells that exist in two forms: B- and T-cells. These cells are produced in the bone marrow and each serves a specific function in aiding the body to fight infection. The large majority of CLL cases involve mature B-lymphocytes that tend to live much longer than normal. B-lymphocytes accumulate in ...
Chlorambucil is helpful in multiple Chemotherapy protocols as well as Immune Mediated conditions. Chlorambucil is typically given daily or every other day or every third day.
Six female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (S.L.E.) have been treated with chlorambucil. In five the decision was taken after failure by corticosteroids to control progressive renal disease in the face of unacceptable corticosteroid toxicity. After the introduction of chlorambucil renal function improved and all patients remain well six, six, five, three, and two-and-a-half years later, respectively. On renal biopsy five had focal proliferative glomerulonephritis. Repeat biopsy in two cases showed quantitative improvement. The sixth patient was treated with chlorambucil because of failure by corticosteroids to control peripheral vascular lesions and haemolysis and she remains well four years later. In four patients is it probable that amenorrhoea was related to chlorambucil treatment, but there were no other important side effects although one patient developed a degree of marrow depression during treatment. Chlorambucil may hold advantages over the immunosuppressive drugs normally ...
CHLORAMBUCIL PLUS RITUXIMAB AS FRONT-LINE THERAPY IN ELDERLY/UNFIT PATIENTS AFFECTED BY B-CELL CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA: RESULTS OF A SINGLE-CENTRE EXPERIENCE.
Basel, 15 June 2018 - Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY) today announced data from the final analysis of the CLL11 study evaluating Gazyva®/Gazyvaro® (obinutuzumab)-based treatment in previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) which will be presented during the Presidential Symposium at the 23rd European Hematology Association (EHA) Annual Congress, 14 - 17 June, in Stockholm. After a follow-up of nearly five years, final results showed clinically meaningful improvements with Gazyva/Gazyvaro plus chlorambucil across multiple endpoints, including progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), when compared head-to-head with MabThera®/Rituxan® (rituximab) plus chlorambucil. Gazyva/Gazyvaro-based treatment reduced the risk of death by 24% compared to MabThera/Rituxan-based treatment (median OS not reached vs. 73.1 months, HR= 0.76; 95% CI 0.60-0.97; p,0.0245). These new data add to the growing body of evidence for the OS benefit with Gazyva/Gazyvaro in first-line CLL ...
The salt Chlorambucil is used for the treatment of HodgkinS Lymphoma, Non-HodgkinS Lymphoma, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, WaldenstromS Macroglobulinemia and
Oral alkylating drugs, alone and in combination therapy with steroids, have been extensively evaluated in the upfront treatment of WM. The greatest experience with oral alkylator therapy has been with chlorambucil, which has been administered on both a continuous (i.e. daily dose schedule) as well as an intermittent schedule. Patients receiving chlorambucil on a continuous schedule typically receive 0.1 mg/kg per day, whilst on the intermittent schedule patients will typically receive 0.3 mg/kg for 7 days, every 6 weeks. In a prospective randomized study, Kyle et al.109 reported no significant difference in the overall response rate between these schedules, although interestingly the median response duration was greater for patients receiving intermittent versus continuously dosed chlorambucil (46 vs. 26 months). Despite the favorable median response duration in this study for use of the intermittent schedule, no difference in the median overall survival was observed. Moreover, an increased ...
Do not become pregnant while taking this medicine. Women should inform their doctor if they wish to become pregnant or think they might be pregnant. There is a potential for serious side effects to an unborn child. Talk to your health care professional or pharmacist for more information. Do not breast-feed an infant while taking this medicine ...
All patients will receive six monthly courses of the chlorambucil (C) and lenalidomide (L) schedule consisting of 8 days of C (d1-d8) combined with L given daily until response assessment which will take place 12 weeks from the start (d+1) of course VI, while patients continue their treatment with lenalidomide daily.. In the first phase of the induction phase of the study the dose of L given with C will be gradually escalated to reach the MTD. In the second phase of the induction phase, C will be given in combination with the Maximum Tolerated Dose of L (either the MTD or the maximum planned dose of 10mg).. Patients who will achieve a response after 6 courses of CL induction phase -PR, CRi, CR and MRD negative CR- will be eligible for the post-induction phase of the study. Patients will be randomized (1:1), stratifying according to the quality of response (PR vs CR, CRi, MRD-CR) and the genetic profile (11q, 17p-, p53mut vs other), to receive L daily, (L arm) or no further therapy (Clinical ...
Company Announcement -- CHMP recommends marketing authorization for Arzerra in combination with chlorambucil or bendamustine for patients with CLL who have not received prior therapy and are not eligible for fludarabine-based therapy -- Final decision from European Commission expected in the coming months Copenhagen, Denmark; May 23, 2014 -GlaxoSmithKline plc (LSE: GSK) and Genmab A/S (OMX: GEN) announced today that the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP)
This trial is investigating the tolerability and efficacy of chlorambucil + lenalidomide in elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The primary
Antibiotics often have the potential to cause injury or death. Penicillins can cause severe allergic reactions, even causing sudden death in a few patients. These effects are more uncommon and generally associated with chronic, higher dose therapy. We have consistently ruled out Cushing's and tumors and cancer, but he continued to have sky high Alk Phos, ALT, AST, etc levels and accompanying anemia. Prednisone, side, effects in, dogs, i am not familiar with the use of chlorambucil (Leukeran Rx) for inflammatory bowel disease but it is used for other immune mediated disorders. She presribed 10mg predizone (2 5mg tabs bid prilosec 10 mg 1x daily, tylan 1/16 tsp. I have found it to be very helpful. Topical treatments are just not enough and I am suspicious that some of the flea bombs and dips that I have used in the past may have been toxic enough to have caused these seizures in my collie. Side effects of stopping prednisone - Buy your medication from the comfort of your armchair. To the best ...
... STOCKHOLM June 14 2013 /- ...Dr. Valentin Goede wird auf dem 18. Kongr...CLL ist die häufigste Leukämieform in der westlichen Welt. V...Die von der Deutschen CLL-Studiengruppe (DCLLSG) in Zusammenarbeit mit...,Zusetzen,von,Obinutuzumab,(GA101),oder,Rituximab,zu,Chlorambucil,verbessert,Aussichten,für,ältere,Patienten,mit,chronischer,lymphatischer,Leukämie,(CLL),und,gleichzeitig,vorliegenden,Erkrankungen,(Komorbiditäten),medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
Before administration of GC chemotherapy, all patients must undergo pretreatment bone marrow biopsy. The pretreatment BM biopsy must include at least 1 long core biopsy samples and 10 cc of aspirate.. Obinutuzumab 1000mg fixed dose will be administered intravenously (Day 1,8,15 for cycle 1 and D1 for subsequent cycles). Chlorambucil 0.5mg/kg will be administered orally (D1,15 for all cycles).. 28 days are considered as one cycle, and cycles will be repeated every 4-weeks for a total of 6 cycles. ...
Chlorambucil is an immune system suppressing drug given to dogs or cats for immune-mediated disorders such as cancer including leukemia and lymphoma. Come to petMD for a complete list of pet medications and prescriptions.
Genentech announced positive results from Stage 1 of CLL11, a Phase 3 randomized study to investigate the efficacy and safety profile of the investigational medication obinutuzumab (GA101) plus chlorambucil chemotherapy compared to chlorambucil alone in previously untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL).
THURSDAY, May 16, 2019 (HealthDay News) - Venetoclax (VENCLEXTA) has been approved to treat adult patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced yesterday.. Data from CLL14, a randomized, multicenter, open-label, actively controlled trial, provided the basis for approval. CLL14 involved 432 patients with previously untreated CLL and coexisting medical conditions who were randomly assigned to venetoclax plus obinutuzumab (VEN+G) or obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil (GClb). The researchers observed a statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival for patients who received VEN+G compared with those who received GClb (hazard ratio, 0.33). Overall response was 85 percent in patients who received VEN+G and 71 percent in those who received GClb.. VENCLEXTA is available in 10-, 50-, and 100-mg tablets. Dosing begins with a five-week ramp-up, and the FDA advises clinicians to consult the manufacturer ...
4HJ2: The interaction of the chemotherapeutic drug chlorambucil with human glutathione transferase A1-1: kinetic and structural analysis.
Long-term follow-up of rituximab plus first-line mitoxantrone, chlorambucil, prednisolone and interferon-alpha as maintenance therapy in follicular lymphoma. Herold, Michael; Scholz, Christian; Rothmann, Frank; Hirt, Carsten; Lakner, Volker; Naumann, Ralph // Journal of Cancer Research & Clinical Oncology;Sep2015, Vol. 141 Issue 9, p1689 Purpose: The randomised, controlled OSHO#39 study showed promising results using first-line mitoxantrone, chlorambucil and prednisolone (MCP) chemotherapy plus rituximab in patients with advanced symptomatic follicular lymphoma (FL) in need of therapy. The aim of this long-term follow-up was to... ...
Obinutuzumab is an immunotherapy medicine used in the treatment of CLL and Non Hodgkin lymphoma and works by binding to a protein on the surface of certain white cells known as B lymphocytes .By bonding to this protein the abnormal growth in the B lymphocyte is stopped therefore decreasing the number of cancer cells in the body.. Once attached to the CD20 protein Obinutuzumab helps the immune system destroy the CLL cells and also destroys the CLL cells on its own by directly killing them. Obinutuzumab is the only monoclonal antibody with proven superiority to rituximab for the treatment for CLL when used in combination with chlorambucil as proven in clinical trials.. Obinutuzumab is given by intravenous infusion which means it goes directly into the vein through a needle in your arm or through a central line if you have one in place. Obinutuzumab is given every week for 3 weeks then once every four weeks in combination with chlorambucil depending on your subtype of lymphoma.. Obinutuzumab may ...
Meeting the secondary endpoint is a little more provocative. This study was built with a crossover design - meaning if you were randomized to chlorambucil and experienced disease progression, they gave you ibrutinib at that point. If there is an overall survival benefit, it means that early ibrutinib saves lives compared to ibrutinib after progression. This was also true in the Resonate study comparing ibrutinib to ofatumumab and the Gilead study that led to approval of idelalisib in combination with rituximab. That is three studies that show that patients die faster when they get ineffective therapy compared to novel agents. It remains to be seen if that is true with standard regimens that actually work like bendamustine-rituximab or FCR where the bar will be much higher than chlorambucil ...
Chlorambucil is a very popular drug in feline medicine, especially used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases like pemphigus foliaceus or in neoplastic conditions like lymphoma. Neurotoxicity as a common side effect like in human medicine has never been described - until this cat was treated with chlorambucil.
2007-09-01 Resumen en español La reticulohistiocitosis multicéntrica (RHM) es una enfermedad de etiología desconocida que afecta principalmente a mujeres en la cuarta década de la vida. La afección articular se caracteriza por la presencia de sinovitis simétrica de miembros superiores especialmente en manos y afección de piel presentando lesiones de diferente morfología más comúnmente nódulos y pápulas localizadas principalmente en cara y miembros superiores. Puede existir además compromis (mas) o de órganos internos como pulmón, corazón, tracto gastrointestinal y glándulas salivales. Esta patología se ha relacionado con la aparición de neoplasias malignas en diferentes órganos como mama, ovario, cérvix y linfomas llegando a ser considerada por diferentes autores como una manifestación de un síndrome paraneoplásico. Los exámenes de laboratorio en estos pacientes evidencian alteraciones en el cuadro hemático, perfil hepático así como marcadores de autoinmunidad. El ...
Gazyva: Obinutuzumab belongs to the group of cancer-fighting medications called antineoplastics. Specifically, it is a monoclonal antibody that belongs to the group of antineoplastics known as biological response modifiers. It is used with the medication chlorambucil to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in adults who have not previously been treated for CLL.
The FDA approved obinutuzumab (Gazyva) or use in combination with chlorambucil to treat patients with previously untreated CLL, ibrutinib (Imbruvica) received FDA approval for the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma, and other FDA actions.
Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis is the most sensitive method for assessing chromosome damage induced by chemical mutagens. We report the SCE of peripheral blood lymphocytes in children with primary nephrotic syndrome (NS) treated with chlorambucil. Group I consisted of 20 normal children, group 2 of 14 children with primary NS who had never received a cytotoxic drug and group III of 7 children with primary NS who had received chlorambucil, which was discontinued 6-36 months prior to the study. Group IV consisted of 4 nephrotic children who were receiving chlorambucil therapy during the study. There was no significant increase in SCE in group III compared with group I or group II (P≫0.05). A significant rise in SCE (P|0.05) was seen in all patients in group IV.
Chlorambucil (Leukeran), a cytotoxic agent, was administered to 13 children with the nephrotic syndrome who had responded to steroid therapy, but frequently relapsed.
We investigated sequence-specific DNA alkylation using conjugates between the N-methylpyrrole (Py)-N-methylimidazole (Im) polyamide and the DNA alkylating agent, chlorambucil, or 1-(chloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-1, 2-dihydro-3H-benz[e]indole (seco-CBI). Polyamide-chlorambucil conjugates 1-4 differed in the position at which the DNA alkylating chlorambucil moiety was bound to the Py-Im polyamide. High-resolution denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) revealed that chlorambucil conjugates 1-4 alkylated DNA at the sequences recognized by the Py-Im polyamide core moiety. Reactivity and sequence specificity were greatly affected by the conjugation position, which reflects the geometry of the alkylating agent in the DNA minor groove. Polyamide-seco-CBI conjugate 5 was synthesized to compare the efficacy of chlorambucil with that of seco-CBI as an alkylating moiety for Py-Im polyamides. Denaturing PAGE analysis revealed that DNA alkylation activity of polyamide-seco-CBI conjugate 5 was similar ...
Because 2-chloro-2-deoxyadenosine (CdA) is active in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), and may interfere with DNA repair, we investigated the potentiating effect of CdA on the cytotoxicity induced in vitro in B-CLL lymphocytes by cyclophosphamide (CP) derivatives, which induce DNA damage by DNA cross-linking. Exposure to CdA at clinically achievable concentrations for 2 h, followed by mafosfamide (MAF) or 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (4HC) for 22 h, resulted in synergistic cytotoxicity in the majority of B-CLL samples tested. Synergy between CdA and MAF was observed in cell samples of sensitive/untreated patients, as well as in cells of resistant/pretreated patients, particularly at the highest concentrations of MAF. In the cells treated with CdA and MAF, we observed loss in ATP and hallmarks of apoptosis, as evidenced by cellular morphology and high molecular weight DNA fragmentation. The synergy could be explained neither by an influence of MAF on the phosphorylation of CdA, nor by an ...
Genentech announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a supplemental biologics license application (sBLA) for Gazyva in combination with chlorambucil chemotherapy in people with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Gazyva was the first medicine approved with the FDAs Breakthrough Therapy Designation, and was approved for use in combination with chlorambucil in […]. ...
Results Thirteen (72%) patients were male. The median age at diagnosis of GPA was 59 years (25-69) and the median duration from GPA diagnosis to first hematological malignancy was 7 years (3-15).. All patients had been treated with alkylating agents for GPA. 17 of the 18 patients had received cyclophosphamide, two of them had also been treated with chlorambucil. One had been treated with chlorambucil only.. The median duration of cyclophosphamide (intravenous and/or oral) was 58 months (range 6-104) and the median cumulative dose was 111 grams (range 20-233).. The malignancies were all myeloid and consisted of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (n=9), AML (n=5), chronic myelocytic leukemia (n=2), myelofibrosis (n=1), and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (n=1). AML developed in 8 of the patients with MDS and in the patient with myelofibrosis.. MDS was typically diagnosed after a period of cytopenia suspected to be associated with GPA treatment. The median time between diagnosis of MDS and AML was in ...
A trend that is expected to boost market growth is a rise in the development of combination therapies. Combination therapies for the treatment of CLL were available only in the form of chemotherapy combination drugs. The approved combinations are chlorambucil in combination with prednisone, and a combination of cyclophosphamide with vincristine and prednisone. However, a growing trend of developing combination therapies to treat CLL has been observed. For instance, TG Therapeutics develops TG-1101 in combination with ibrutinib to treat CLL and MCL. Similarly, the company also develops TG-1101 in combination with TGR-1202 to treat CLL and NHL.". Ask Sample PDF of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Market Report @ http://www.marketreportsworld.com/enquiry/request-sample/10279120 According to the Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Market report, a key growth driver is the special regulatory designations offered to certain drugs. Diseases that affect a small percentage of the population, such as CLL, are ...
... definition, any of various potentially cytotoxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic substances: used therapeutically to destroy cells, especially proliferating cancer cells. See more.
A multi-center, international, randomized, Phase III study of older untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) demonstrated that ibrutinib, a kinase inhibitor, is significantly more effective than traditional chemotherapy with chlorambucil.
Obinutuzumab is a cancer medication that interferes with the growth and spread of cancer cells in the body. Obinutuzumab is used in combination with another cancer medicine called chlorambucil to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Obinutuzumab is also used in combination with a cancer medicine called bendamustine to...
In the mantle cell lymphoma (MCL)-002 study, lenalidomide demonstrated significantly improved median progression-free survival (PFS) compared with investigators choice (IC) in patients with relapsed/refractory MCL. Here we present the long-term follow-up data and results of preplanned subgroup exploratory analyses from MCL-002 to evaluate the potential impact of demographic factors, baseline clinical characteristics and prior therapies on PFS. In MCL-002, patients with relapsed/refractory MCL were randomized 2:1 to receive lenalidomide (25 mg/day orally on days 1-21; 28-day cycles) or single-agent IC therapy (rituximab, gemcitabine, fludarabine, chlorambucil or cytarabine ...
Chicago, IL-In the phase 3 CLL14 trial, fixed-duration therapy with the combination of venetoclax (Venclexta) plus obinutuzumab (Gazyva) was superior to the combination of chemotherapy with chlorambucil plus obinutuzu-mab as front-line therapy in older patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and comorbidities. Kirsten Fischer, MD, Center for Integrated Oncology Cologne-Bonn, University Hospital, Germany, presented the study results at ASCO 2019 and were published simultaneously (Fischer K, et al. N Engl J Med. 2019;380:2225-2236).
The combination CHOP-R was the most common treatment (35 pts, 15% of all 2nd-line therapies), applied mainly in cases with a relapse ≤24 months after FC/FCR, whereas FCR or BR were administered predominantly in case of relapse less than 24months (32 and 27 pts, 14% and 12%). Other prevalent 2nd-line therapies were single agent Alemtuzumab(A) (20 pts) or Bendamustine (17 pts), CHOP and FC (11 pts respectively), chlorambucil (9 pts) as well as R monotherapy (7 pts). 9 pts underwent stem cell transplantations. Second-line therapies with FC+/-R and B+/-R were found to be more effective with regard to treatment-free survival (TFS, time to 2nd relapse) and OS when compared to A or CHOP-R and CHOP-like chemotherapies. However, the outcome of 2nd-line therapies seemed to be influenced by the 1st-line treatment. In pts initially treated with FC, FCR was found to be the most effective 2nd-line therapy (TFS: 23 months, OS: not reached), whereas in pts initially treated with FCR, a substitution of the ...
BOF: 149 A 42 year old male presents with a history of cough and progressive breathlessness. He has previously been treated with chemotherapy for Hodgkin s lymphoma and is in remission. There is no other significant illness, he does not smoke or drink. He is an accountant married and has 2 children.. On examination you note that he is breathless at rest, pulse 100 beats per minute, JVP not elevated, heart sounds normal, breath sounds vesicular with fine late inspiratory crepitations audible at both lung bases. In this patient which one of the following is likely to have caused his condition?. a) Bleomycin b) Vinblastin. c) Adriamycin d) Procarbazine e) Chlorambucil. ...
Cancer, the irregular and uncontrolled cell division and abnormal growth of tissues is the cause of increasing number of deaths all over the world. The cause of death may be environmental factors, genetic mutations or prolonged infections or other abnormalities. The timely diagnosis and the treatment thereof is a major concern for the control. The various remedies and treatment factors have been in consideration since long. The various synthetic drugs like Abiraterone Acetate, Abitrexate (Methotrexate), Adcetris (Brentuximab Vedotin), Bavencio (Avelumab), BEACOPP, Becenum (Carmustine), Capecitabine, Cabazitaxel, Chlorambucil are in clinical use with good result in Phase-1 but still not effectively potent. The natural products obtained from medicinal plants, marine plants, blue-green algeae include vinblastine, vincristine, camptothecin derivatives, taxol, phyllotoxin derivatives, flabones, etoposides are found to have selective activity against cancer and related targets despite their toxicity and
You should return with your dog to the veterinarian weekly for complete blood counts, and then return every four to six weeks if your pet is on drugs (i.e., Azathioprine, chlorambucil), which suppress bone marrow (since blood cells are produced in the bone marrow). Diagnostic work-ups should be done with each visit, and another sample of the stomach for analysis at a laboratory should be considered if signs of stomach inflammation decrease, but do not entirely go away.. Be sure not to give any painkillers to your dog on your own, unless your veterinarian has specifically prescribed them and then only as prescribed. Avoid any foods that cause stomach irritation or allergic response in your dog. If you have any questions ask your veterinarian to help you to create a meal plan while your dog is recovering.. In addition, do not let your pet roam freely, as it may eat whatever it wants to eat and will be vulnerable to chemical and environmental toxins and parasites.. ...
3 (132, 135). Z Gerontol Geriatr bbuy Buy Tadagra discrete england 132. When more sensitive evaluation of Tadaga labrum, capsule, articular cartilage, Vigora glenohumeral ligaments is required or when a partial-thickness rotator cuff tear is suspected, magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography with intra-articular contrast can be performed. 1491 Chlorambucil.
The phase III CLL14 trial-reported by Fischer et al at the 2019 ASCO Annual Meeting (Abstract 7502) and in The New England Journal of Medicine-found that the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax plus the monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab prolonged progression-free survival vs obinutuzumab and chlorambucil in patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and coexisting conditions. The trial supported the recent regulatory approval of venetoclax in previously untreated CLL.. Study Details. The open-label study included 432 patients with a score , 6 on the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale or calculated creatinine clearance , 70 mL/min from 196 sites in 21 countries. Patients were randomly assigned to receive venetoclax/obinutuzumab (n = 216) or obinutuzumab/chlorambucil (n = 216). As noted by the investigators, "With a median age of 72 years and a median Cumulative Illness Rating Scale score of 8, the trial population was representative of most patients with CLL.". Treatment consisted of ...
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NOTE: The study is based on active ingredients and brand name. Other drugs that have the same active ingredients (e.g. generic drugs) are NOT considered.. WARNING: Please DO NOT STOP MEDICATIONS without first consulting a physician since doing so could be hazardous to your health.. DISCLAIMER: All material available on eHealthMe.com is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. All information is observation-only, and has not been supported by scientific studies or clinical trials unless otherwise stated. Different individuals may respond to medication in different ways. Every effort has been made to ensure that all information is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. The use of the eHealthMe site and its content is at your own risk.. You may report adverse side effects to the FDA at http://www.fda.gov/medwatch/ or 1-800-FDA-1088 (1-800-332-1088).. If you ...
Often, treatment for NMZL may not be required immediately. Unless symptoms are present, most people are managed by the watch and wait approach which involves regular monitoring of the condition by their doctor or specialist*. Blood tests and imaging investigations as well as clinical examination are performed. Once symptoms develop, or if the NMZL is progressing, chemotherapy is used to treat the lymphoma. For localised disease, radiotherapy may be useful. Single agent chemotherapy drugs such as fludarabine and chlorambucil may also be used to treat NMZL. Commonly used combination chemotherapy regimens for NMZL include: CVP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone); CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone), and F+C (fludarabine and cylcophosphamide). Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody commonly used to treat lymphoma, is often used in combination with these chemotherapy agents.. Whilst rarely used, stem cell transplants may be an option for some people with ...
Genetic parameters are established prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treated with chemoimmunotherapy but less well studied with novel compounds. We assessed IGHV mutation status, common genomic aberrations and gene mutations in 421 untreated patients within the CLL14 trial (NCT02242942) comparing obinutuzumab+chlorambucil (GClb) vs. obinutuzumab+venetoclax (VenG). The incidences of genomic aberrations considering the hierarchical model were del(17p) 7%, del(11q) 18%, +(12) 18% and del(13q) 35%, while IGHV was unmutated in 60% of patients. NOTCH1 mutations were most common (23%), followed by SF3B1 (16%), ATM (13%) and TP53 (10%). While the overall response rate (ORR) for GClb was lower in patients with del(17p), del(11q), mutated TP53, ATM and BIRC3, none of these parameters reduced complete remission (CR) and ORR with VenG. At a median follow-up of 28 months, del(17p) and mutated TP53 were the only abnormalities with impact on PFS for both treatment arms, GClb (HR 4.6, ...
The harmful effects of 14 chemotherapeutic drugs on spermatogenesis in the mouse have been evaluated by studies of testicular cell killing and morphological and genetic damage produced. Male mice were given drugs as single injections at various doses up to the toxic levels. Prednisone and 6-mercaptopurine produced little or no cytotoxicity. All other drugs tested killed differentiated spermatogonia. Of these, methotrexate, cyclohexylchlorethylnitrosourea, cis-platinum, and mechlorethamine did not show significant stem cell killing. Bischlorethylnitrosourea, chlorambucil, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin C, actinomycin D, and procarbazine showed some stem cell killing. Triethylenethiophosphoramide (thio-TEPA) was the only drug in this group which killed large numbers of stem cells. Only 5-fluorouracil and cis-platinum killed spermatocytes, and only cis-platinum killed spermatids. Several drugs induced chromosome breaks in treated spermatocytes. Thio-TEPA was effective in inducing chromosome ...
Ofatumumab is a human monoclonal antibody for the CD20 protein. Ofatumumab binds specifically to both the small and large extracellular loops of the CD20 molecule. The CD20 molecule is expressed on normal B lymphocytes (pre-B- to mature B-lymphocyte) and on B-cell CLL. The Fab domain of ofatumumab binds to the CD20 molecule and the Fc domain mediates immune effector functions to result in B-cell lysis in vitro. Ofatumumab received FDA approval on April 17, 2014, for use in combination with chlorambucil, for the treatment of previously untreated patients with CLL for whom fludarabine-based therapy is considered inappropriate. Ofatumumab was also approved by Health Canada on August 13th, 2012.
The peripheral neuropathy associated with a monoclonal anti-MAG IgM is considered as a specific entity.1-3 The clinical features are different from those seen with monoclonal IgG or IgA, with sensory loss and ataxia more often found. A causal link between the monoclonal IgM and the development of neuropathy is suggested by the antibody activity of the IgM to nerve polypeptides or glycolipids,3-7 the detection of IgM deposits on the myelin sheaths of patients nerve biopsies,2 8 9 and the induction of the neuropathological process through the transfer of the anti-MAG IgM in animal models.10 11 The low rate (30%) of clinical improvement with chlorambucil (CLB) or plasma exchange in such patients justifies the search for new therapeutic strategies.12 13 In a previous phase II open clinical trial randomly comparing intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) and α-interferon (α-IFN), we concluded that IVIg was inefficient but that α-IFN produced a significant clinical improvement in eight out of 10 ...
Kerry H. Levin, MD, FAAN, Guest Editor. Chairman, Department of Neurology; Director, Neuromuscular Center; Professor of Neurology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. aDr Levin serves as neurology director of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and on the editorial board of Muscle & Nerve. Dr Levin receives publishing royalties from Elsevier and UpToDate Inc.. bDr Levin reports no disclosure.. Jeffrey A. Allen, MD. Associate Professor of Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. aDr Allen serves on the global medical advisory board of the GBC/CIDP Foundation International, on the organizing committee of the Inflammatory Neuropathy Consortium, and as a consultant for CSL Behring and Grifols. Dr Allen receives research/grant support from CSL Behring and has received personal compensation for speaking engagements from Grifols.. bDr Allen discusses the unlabeled/investigational use of alemtuzumab, azathioprine, bevacizumab, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, ...
Waldenstroms Macroglobulinemia Symptom: A few patients dont have side effects. For the individuals who have side effects, the most well-known ones are shortcoming, serious weakness, seeping from the nose or gums, weight reduction, and wounds or other skin sores. Seriously large amounts of IgM can prompt hyperviscosity disorder, in which the blood turns out to be unusually thick. Waldenstroms Macroglobulinemia Symptoms of this disorder incorporate visual issues (e.g., obscuring or loss of vision) and neurological issues (e.g., migraine, discombobulation, vertigo). Amid a physical exam, a specialist might likewise discover swelling of the lymph hubs, spleen, and/or liver.. Waldenstroms Macroglobulinemia Causes:. Waldenstroms macroglobulinemia is a consequence of a condition called lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. The reason for the overproduction of the IgM counter acting agent is obscure, yet specialists trust it is made by lymphoma cells. Overproduction of Waldenstroms Macroglobulinemia Causes ...
As Waldenstroms macroglobulinaemia is incurable, treatment is only indicated in symptomatic cases. Plasmapheresis is effective for short term control of hyperviscosity and its associated symptoms. The oral alkylating agent chlorambucil is effective in controlling the disease and there are reports of its successful use in cases with pulmonary involvement,4 5 although treatment for 12 months may be required before an adequate response is obtained. Treatment with combinations of chemotherapeutic agents has also been found to be effective.. In view of her hyperviscosity, our patient was admitted to hospital for plasmapheresis, ultimately requiring eight sessions. As treatment for her underlying macroglobulinaemia she received chemotherapy with six cycles of the nucleoside analogue fludarabine (25 mg/m2daily for five days, repeated every four weeks). There was a marked improvement in the appearances of the chest radiograph (see fig 1below) and the patient is now symptom free. Plasma viscosity fell ...
Waldenstroms macroglobulinemia is a rare type of cancer. Learn about waldenstroms macroglobulinemia prognosis, diagnosis, symptoms and treatment.
A review was undertaken of the use of alternative immunosuppressive treatment in addition to corticosteroids in a cohort of 429 children with steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) treated between 1980 and 1994. Two hundred and twenty two children (52%) received at least one course of alternative treatment, 98 (23%) two, and 43 (10%) three. Cyclophosphamide was administered to 196 children (46%); in 181 it was the first course of alternative treatment and in 104 (57%) of those it was also the last (final course). Levamisole was given to 56 children (13%) and cyclosporin to 53 (12%). Fifteen children in whom cyclosporin failed were treated with chlorambucil. A few patients received azathioprine or vincristine. Ten children developed secondary steroid resistance, of whom five progressed to chronic renal failure. Acute complications included reversible renal failure, septicaemia, peritonitis, convulsions, and cerebral thrombosis. There were three deaths. It is concluded that half of the ...
The first FDA-designated breakthrough therapy has been approved by US regulators, it was announced last week. Roches Gazyva (obinutuzumab) coupled with chlorambucil was given the green light for the treatment of blood cancer chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and industry commentators expect the orphan drug to be a worthy successor to blockbuster drug Rituxan.. With Rituxans patent expiry looming, it had been important for Roche to score a new potential blockbuster to take over the reigns. With Gazyva, Roche may well have one on their hands, as analysts have predicted peak sales between $1.5bn and $2.5bn.. Since Gazyva is the first drug with breakthrough therapy designation to receive FDA approval, there has been much interest around the impact that the BTD had on accelerating the drugs approval. "This approval reflects the promise of the Breakthrough Therapy Designation program, allowing us to work collaboratively with companies to expedite the development, review and availability of important ...
A chlorambucil (CLB)-resistant cell line, N50-4, was developed from the established mouse fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3, by multistep drug selection. The mutant cells exhibited greater than 10-fold resistance to CLB. Alterations in GSH and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were found in CLB-resistant variants. A 7-10-fold increase in cellular GSH content and a 3-fold increase in GST activity were detected in N50-4 cells, compared with parental cells, as determined by enzymatic assays. An increase in steady state levels of the GST-alpha isozyme mRNA was found in the CLB-resistant cells, as analyzed by Northern blotting. No GST gene amplification or rearrangement was shown by Southern blot analysis. To test the relative roles of GSH and GST in CLB resistance, a number of GSH- and GST-blocking agents were used. The CLB toxicity was significantly enhanced in N50-4 cells by administration of either the GSH-depleting agent buthionine sulfoximine or the GST inhibitors ethacrynic acid or indomethacin. The ...
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Waldenstroms Macroglobulinemia is a rare disorder that causes the generation of irregular B-lymphocytes, white platelets. It has a portion of the same elements of both lymphomas and of numerou...
This research study is studying Ulocuplumab combined with ibrutinib as a possible treatment for symptomatic Waldenstroms Macroglobulinemia (WM).
What reasons Waldenstroms Macroglobulinemia like numerous different diseases are obscure despite the fact that it is trusted that a change in DNA could be a reason. Despite this absence of assurance on the Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia Causes there are thought to be elements which improve the probability of building up the malady. The lions share of instances of waldenstroms macroglobulinemia happen in those beyond 50 years old and the normal time of event is 61. Occurrence of the ailment is twice as much in men than ladies. The condition is likewise acquired which implies that those with family who have Waldenstroms or a kind of lymphatic tumor are more prone to get the condition.. Symptoms A first conclusion of Waldenstroms is mind boggling in light of the fact that there is typically an unlucky deficiency of Waldenstroms Macroglobulinemia Symptoms right off the bat. Typically the first sign of Waldenstroms originates from routine examinations indicating atypical results. These ...
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Individualized treatment for Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) has become a feasible strategy with improved understanding of the disease and expanded treatment options.
Idiopathic membranous nephropathy, well defined morphologically, is usually associated with the nephrotic syndrome and has a variable disease course. We describe 36 patients with clinically and renal-biopsy defined idiopathic membranous nephropathy and the nephrotic syndrome and compare the effects of steroid treatment in one group (19 patients) with those of another group who did not receive steroids (17 patients) on the long-term clinical course (mean, 4.7 years). A third group of 7 patients with asymptomatic proteinuria is defined in whom none has developed either the nephrotic syndrome or renal failure after an average follow-up of 8.8 years.. ...
A human breast cancer cell line (MCF7/WT) was selected for resistance to etoposide (VP-16) by stepwise exposure to 2-fold increasing concentrations of this agent. The resulting cell line (MCF7/VP) was 28-, 21-, and 9-fold resistant to VP-16, VM-26, and doxorubicin, respectively. MCF7/VP cells also exhibited low-level cross-resistance to 4′-(9-acridinylamino)-methanesulfon-m-anisidide, mitoxantrone, and vincristine and no cross-resistance to genistein and camptothecin. Furthermore, these cells were collaterally sensitive to the alkylating agents melphalan and chlorambucil. DNA topoisomerase II levels were similar in both wild-type MCF7/WT and drug-resistant MCF7/VP cells. In contrast, topoisomerase II from MCF7/VP cells appeared to be 7-fold less sensitive to drug-induced cleavable complex formation in whole cells and 3-fold less sensitive in nuclear extracts than topoisomerase II from MCF7/WT cells. Although this suggested that the resistant cells may contain a qualitatively altered ...
The mean age of the 119 elderly was 69.54 yrs (± 5.44; 60-84 yrs) with male: female ratio of 1.52:1. B symptoms were seen in 33% patients. 36% of the patients had stage II disease. Advanced stage with more than one EN site (Ann Arbor IV) was seen in 12% and bulky disease in 9.5%. Bone marrow was involved in 12%. The common extranodal site was the head and neck region, followed by gastrointestinal tract. ECOG PS was 2 or more in 27.7% and 56.3% presented with high serum LDH levels. CD20 was positive in all 119 cases. 31.93% and 44.54% of cases were low and low intermediate risk respectively by IPI scoring. Of the 119 patients, 98 (64.7%) received treatment (minimum 3 cycles) with combination of either rituximab, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine & prednisolone. The various treatment regimens were R-CHOP (15 pts), R-COP (2 pts), CHOP (58 pts), COP (11 pts), CEOP (6 pts) or chlorambucil /prednisolone (6 pts). 21 patients received only best supportive care. 8 (8.16%) patients received ...
Twentyman, P and Workman, P, "Effect of misonidazole or metronidazole pretreatment on the response of the rif-1 mouse sarcoma to melphalan, cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil and ccnu." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2827 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Small-intestinal involvement in Waldenstroms macroglobulinemia - Case report and review of the literature. AU - Brandt, Lawrence J.. AU - Davidoff, Allen. AU - Bernstein, Leslie H.. AU - Biempica, Luis. AU - Rindfleisch, Burton. AU - Goldstein, Mervyn L.. PY - 1981/2. Y1 - 1981/2. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019391786&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019391786&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/BF01312238. DO - 10.1007/BF01312238. M3 - Article. C2 - 6780283. AN - SCOPUS:0019391786. VL - 26. SP - 174. EP - 180. JO - Digestive Diseases and Sciences. JF - Digestive Diseases and Sciences. SN - 0163-2116. IS - 2. ER - ...
Pain management information for pain medicine healthcare professionals in treating and caring for their patients. Clinical Pain Advisor offers news, case studies and more.
if you face backwards as you travel into the future, no wonder you see horrid things, youve only got one orifice to see through
... can help treat a type of cancer called B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This eMedTV Web selection features an overview of this chemotherapy drug, including how it works, dosing information, safety precautions, and links to more details.
Occasionally you see a factual error or two in a newspaper (gasp!), but this article in the Daily Mirror (British national tabloid newspaper) really takes the proverbial biscuit. As I read further and further down the article I got more and more annoyed before my three years of teaching got the better of me and…
Smeeta Gejendra, Bhawna Jha, Shalini Goel, Tushar Sahni, Pranav Dorwal, Ritesh Sachdev. Downgraded Lymphoma: B-Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in a Known Case of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma - De Novo Occurrence or Transformation. Turk J Hematol. 2015; 32(4): 371- ...
Many chemotherapeutic agents have been associated with pulmonary toxicities. Busulfan was the first chemotherapeutic drug with evidence of drug-induced lung disease 6. Other alkylating agents, such as cyclophophamide and chlorambucil have been clearly associated with pulmonary toxicity as well 7. Dacarbazine, which is closely related to temozolomide has been associated with pulmonary adverse effects only when used in combination with fotemustine, a nitrosourea agent 8.. Temozolomide is an imidazotetrazine compound and a derivative of the alkylating agent dacarbazine (second-generation oral alkylating agent). Temozolomide has proven activity against recurrent glioma 9. In a recent randomised trial, concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy with radiation significantly improved progression free survival and overall survival in glioblastoma multiforme patients 2.. Various adverse reactions have been reported, but they are usually mild to moderate and in the majority of cases do not require ...
Treatment:. Patients with few clinical symptoms and mild anemia may not require treatment but only avoidance of cold. Keeping the patient warm may be sufficient treatment. Treat any underlying infection e.g. Clarithromycin or Azithromycin for Mycoplasma pneumoniae.. Anemia is generally mild. Only patients who have serious symptoms related to anemia or have a Raynaud-type syndrome that constitutes a threat to life or quality of life require active therapy.. Folic acid supplements for prevention and treatment of folate deficiency should be considered.. The disease is usually refractory to corticosteroids.. Rituximab may be an option for treatment in some cases.. In the presence of underlying lymphoma, chlorambucil or oral cyclophosphamide may be helpful.. Splenectomy is usually ineffective for the treatment of cold agglutinin disease, because the liver is the predominant site of sequestration. However, if the patient has splenomegaly, then the disease may respond to splenectomy. More importantly, ...
Introduction. Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN), a slowly progressive disease of the kidney, is currently regarded as one of the most common causes of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome.1 The clinical course of IMN is multivariate and hard for clinical practice to predict. Around one-third of IMN patients demonstrates spontaneous complete remission (CR),2 while one-third of patients harboring long-term preservation of renal function are prone to persistent proteinuria. However, the remaining one-third of patients eventually develop and progress to end-stage kidney disease (ESRD) within five to fifteen years.3. Debates exist regarding the treatment of IMN due to various potential types with the progression of IMN. Steroids plus immunosuppressive therapy (IST) has been recommended according to Kidney Disease Improving Global outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines for patients who are at an increased risk for developing ESKD. The combination of corticosteroids with ISTs, including cyclophosphamide (CTX), ...
Export Date: 18 February 2017References: Treon, S.P., Waldenströms macroglobulinemia: an indolent B-cell lymphoma with distinct molecular and clinical features (2013) Hematol Oncol, 31, pp. 76-80;Dimopoulos, M.A., Kastritis, E., Owen, R.G., Treatment recommendations for patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) and related disorders: IWWM-7 consensus (2014) Blood, 124, pp. 1404-1411; Buske, C., Leblond, V., How to manage Waldenströms macroglobulinemia (2013) Leukemia, 27, pp. 762-772; Buske, C., Sadullah, S., Kastritis, E., Treatment and outcome patterns in patients with relapsed Waldenströms macroglobulinemia: development of a large observational Pan-European data platform (2016), The 21st European Hematology Association Annual Congress; Copenhagen, Denmark; June 9-12,. Abstr E1275Castillo, J.J., Kanan, S., Meid, K., Manning, R., Hunter, Z.R., Treon, S.P., Rituximab intolerance in patients with Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (2016) Br J Haematol, 174, pp. 645-684; Treon, S.P., ...
Description: B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia - Pipeline Review, H1 2017, provides an overview of the B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (Infectious Di
Waldenstroms Macroglobulinemia. indolent lymphoma occurs > 30years, usually > 60years characterised by proliferation of lymphoplasmatic and plasma cells monoclonal immunoglobulin M. Waldenstroms Macroglobulinemia - clinical presentation. asymptomatic symptomatic ...
Evidence-based recommendations on bendamustine (Levact) for the first-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) of Binet stage B or C
Abstract. Background While kidney disease (KD) is a well described complication of multiple myeloma (MM), occurring in up to 40% of patients, the incidence, pa
I was looking for any information on Waldenstroms Macroglobulinemia & any related cancer. I needed information on this disease quickly. I am trying to clean up my fathers home & deal with family. I dont have time to read through 100 messages trying to find one that pertains to what Im going through. I would have loved to have found this site when we found out what was happening with my dad. Unfortunately when we found out the disease & then this web site - I got home from the hospital & found 548 messages on my e-mail. Is there a way to send only messages that pertain to a question, or will I receive all of the messages? Our family is spread out through the US so we use e-mail to save on costs, especially at this time in our lives. --- Lillian ,[email protected], wrote: , Welcome to our wonderful forum. We want you to know , that we are here for , you and will help in any way we can. We will , provide you with daily medical , articles, latest treatment therapies and giving you , links to ...
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Abstract: INTROUCTION: Ophthalmologic manifestations are the major cause of morbidity in Behcets Disease. If not treated, they usually progress toward sever loss of vision or blindness. Cytotoxic drugs are the main therapeutic agents. MATERIALS & METHOD: In an open, non randomized, control study, Pulse Cyclophosphamide (PCP), low dose pulse cyclophos-phamide (LDP), weakly methotrexate (MTX), chlorambucil (CHL), oral cyclophosphamide (OCP), and cyclosporine A (CYA) were used in a standard protocol for 778 patients. Criteria for inclusion were; 1-Fulfilling the Iran criteria. 2- -Having posterior uveitis (PU) and/or retinal vasculitis (RV). 3-To have an inflammatory lesion of the eye. For each section of each eye (anterior chamber, uvea, retina) a Disease Activity Index (DAI) was calculated. The visual acuity (VA) was calculated for each eye. A Total Adjusted DAI (TADAI) was calculated for each patient upon the inflammatory indexes of both eyes and their visual acuity. PCP group: Patient : 308, ...
If you ever wonder how many strands of hair you shed after a hair wash, you are not alone. Every woman seems to have the same concern as yourself. As you scrape the hair out of the drain in the shower, you will start to think if this condition is normal or if you are suffering from excessive hair loss.. There are many causes of excessive hair loss, one of which is the usage of chemicals and the administering of certain medications. If you have been taking chlorambucil, danazol, fenibrate, ibuprofen, or birth control pills - excessive hair loss is something to be expected. Same thing if you have been taking Vitamin or warafarin. These compounds and chemicals are known to cause the dreaded loss of hair.. Another factor that can cause loss of hair is hormonal changes in your body. If they dont cause hair loss, they will affect your hair in other ways -- such as changing the thickness of the hair and texture of the hair. This is normal when the body is undergoing some hormonal changes like when ...
Introduction: Immunosuppressive treatment of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is debated due to its possible side effects. The 2012 KDIGO guidelines suggest alkylating agents as first choice therapy. The aim of the study is to retrospectively evaluate the induction and maintenance of clinical remission in patients with histological diagnosis of IMN undergoing steroid and/or cyclosporine therapy at the Nephrology Unit of the SantAndrea Hospital in Rome.. Materials and methods: Therapy A (conservative) was reserved to low-risk patients. 8 medium and high risk patients were induced by Therapy B (Prednisone 1 mg / kg ≤12-16 weeks plus 8 weeks withdrawal); 6 patients by Therapy C (Prednisone 1 mg /kg ≥20-24 weeks plus 8 week withdrawal) and, finally, 6 steroid-resistent patients by Therapy D (steroid withdrawal + cyclosporine 3-5 mg / kg for 2 years).. Results: Complete remission was observed in 37.5% of patients in Therapy B, in 83.3% of patients in Therapy C and in 66.6% ...
Download British National Formulary 69 This Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain app-book, British National Formulary 69 (April2015), is developed by MedHand Mobile Libraries.
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL) is a type of blood cancer that occurs when your body makes too many abnormal white blood cells.
This is a Phase II trial to study the safety and tolerability of subcutaneous alemtuzumab administered without dose escalation to patients with advanced
Care guide for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (Discharge Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
The article is on Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and related disorders - Clinical. You can add to CLocate.com general articles as well as specific articles for an event in any category or subject.
Panelists Krishna V. Komanduri, MD, and Michael J. Keating, MB, BS, provide insight on when to start therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
... B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast - - Market research report and industry analysis - 10975456
Passerini P, Ponticelli C (July 2003). "Corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, and chlorambucil therapy of membranous nephropathy ... of four randomized controlled trials comparing treatments of membranous nephropathy showed that regimes comprising chlorambucil ...
... chlorambucil prednisolone ester; prednisolone 21-(4-(4-(bis(2-chloroethyl)amino)phenyl)butanoate)) Alestramustine (estradiol 3 ...
A pivotal study of rituximab plus chlorambucil compared with chlorambucil alone (IELSG-19 study, n = 227) demonstrated a ... 50%; p = 0.024) over chlorambucil alone. However, 5-year OS was not improved (88% in both arms). First-line treatment of choice ... Oral alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide or chlorambucil have been administered for a median duration of 12 months with ... "Addition of rituximab to chlorambucil produces superior event-free survival in the treatment of patients with extranodal ...
Examples include melphalan and chlorambucil. The following three groups are almost always considered "classical". Nitrogen ... Uramustine or uracil mustard Melphalan Chlorambucil Ifosfamide Bendamustine Nitrosoureas Carmustine Lomustine Streptozocin ...
Chlorambucil Cyclosporine Tacrolimus Cyclophosphamide Mycophenolate mofetil Rituximab Perhaps the most difficult aspect of ... and chlorambucil therapy of membranous nephropathy". Semin. Nephrol. 23 (4): 355-61. doi:10.1016/S0270-9295(03)00052-4. PMID ... four randomized controlled studies comparing treatments of membranous nephropathy showed that regimes comprising chlorambucil ...
Nitrogen mustards include mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, melphalan, chlorambucil, ifosfamide and busulfan. Nitrosoureas ... chlorambucil, and chlormethine. Drugs with medium risk include doxorubicin and platinum analogs such as cisplatin and ...
"Fludarabine compared with chlorambucil as primary therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia". N. Engl. J. Med. 343 (24): 1750-7 ... Although the purine analogue fludarabine was shown to give superior response rates to chlorambucil as primary therapy, no ...
December 2000). "Fludarabine Compared with Chlorambucil as Primary Therapy for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia". New England ...
Chlorambucil, a chemotherapeutic agent, was more effective when conjugated to an SPA than without. In 2012, SPAs were ... SPAs have been paired with the DNA-alkylating moieties cyclopropylpyrroloindole and chlorambucil that were able to damage and ... "DNA crosslinking and biological activity of a hairpin polyamide-chlorambucil conjugate". Nucleic Acids Research. 31 (21): 1208- ...
2000). "Fludarabine compared with chlorambucil as primary therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia". N Engl J Med. 343: 1750-7 ... producing higher response rates than alkylating agents such as chlorambucil alone. Fludarabine is used in various combinations ...
It is the ester formed from two other drugs, prednisolone and chlorambucil. Rarely, it has been associated with myoclonus. List ...
These include: Bleomycin, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, doxorubicin, lomustine, mitoxantrone, topotecan, and ...
Gastrointestinal lymphoma has also commonly been treated with a combination of prednisolone and high dose pulse chlorambucil ... Other chemotherapy drugs such as chlorambucil, lomustine (CCNU), cytosine arabinoside, and mitoxantrone are sometimes used in ...
On November 13, 2013 the US FDA approved obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil as a first-line treatment for chronic ... Obinutuzumab is used in combination with chlorambucil as a first-line treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Its ... In the pivotal clinical trial of obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil, clinical trial subjects experienced infusion ...
... or chlorambucil. Treatment is often lifelong, but there is a good prognosis for long-term remission. Alaskan Malamute Collie ...
... combined with either azathioprine of chlorambucil. Very moderate cases may do well by simply avoiding cold exposure. Treatment ...
... chlorambucil and chlormethine. Drugs with medium risk include doxorubicin and platinum analogs such as cisplatin and ...
The primary chemotherapeutic plan is combination chemotherapy with chlorambucil or cyclophosphamide, plus a corticosteroid such ... chlorambucil, and various forms of combination chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone CHOP, ...
... sometimes in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs such as chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, or vincristine or with thalidomide ...
... chlorambucil and chlormethine. Drugs with medium risk include doxorubicin and platinum analogs such as cisplatin and ...
... chlorambucil (Leukeran) and melphalan (Alkeran). In 1952 the ICR's Eric Boyland had proposed that certain chemicals that cause ...
Their prodrug, which released one equivalent of caffeic acid and chlorambucil upon phototriggering, showed reasonable ...
... chlorambucil, and nitrosourea (e.g., carmustine). Also, some medicinal drugs used in cardiovascular medicine can lead to ...
Cadmium and cadmium compounds2 Chlorambucil Methyl-CCNU (1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea; Semustine) ...
... chlorambucil, and various forms of combination chemotherapy regimens, including cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, ...
Chlorambucil: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking chlorambucil,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to chlorambucil, other alkylating agents such ... Chlorambucil may interfere with the normal menstrual cycle (period) in women and may stop sperm production in men. Chlorambucil ... If you become pregnant while taking chlorambucil, call your doctor immediately. Chlorambucil may harm the fetus. ...
Chlorambucil was first synthesized by Everett et al.[7] References[edit]. *^ "Chlorambucil". National Cancer Institute. 17 ... "Chlorambucil".. *^ "chlorambucil , C14H19Cl2NO2 - PubChem". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Archived from the original on 2015-12-22 ... "Chlorambucil". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016.. *^ British national formulary : BNF 69 (69 ... "chlorambucil , C14H19Cl2NO2 - PubChem". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Archived from the original on 2015-12-22. Retrieved 2015-12- ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Chlorambucil is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Chlorambucil is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Chlorambucil. In the US, Chlorambucil (chlorambucil systemic) is a member of the drug class alkylating agents and is used to ... Chlorambucil (PH: BP 2016, Ph. Eur. 8, Ph. Int. 4, USP 38) ... CHLORAMBUCIL 2 MG TABLETS (Leaflet). *CHLORAMBUCIL 2MG FILM- ...
Chlorambucil definition, a nitrogen mustard, C14H19Cl2NO2, used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, malignant ... Origin of chlorambucil. 1955-60; chlor(oethyl) + am(inophen) + bu(tyric acid), components of the chemical name + -cil of ...
Chlorambucil is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and ... What is chlorambucil? Chlorambucil is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma, ... Chlorambucil comes in tablets, so you can take it at home. Chlorambucil may be given on its own, or with other chemotherapy ... Chlorambucil can affect the nervous system. Rarely, chlorambucil can cause seizures (fits). Your doctor can give you drugs to ...
Advice and warnings for the use of Chlorambucil (Leukeran) during pregnancy. FDA Pregnancy Category D - Positive evidence of ... Chlorambucil Breastfeeding Warnings. There are no data on the excretion of chlorambucil into human milk. The manufacturer ... Leukeran Tablets (chlorambucil)." Glaxo Welcome, Research Triangle Pk, NC. *Steege JF, Caldwell DS "Renal agenesis after first ... Chlorambucil has been reported to produce human infertility. Both reversible and permanent sterility have been observed in both ...
Generic name Chlorambucil Pronunciation klor-AM-byoo-sil Brand name(s), other common name(s) Leukeran® Drug type DNA-damaging ... Chlorambucil is FDA approved to treat people who have chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), some types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma ... Patients Disease Information Treatment Types of Treatment Chemotherapy and Other Drug Therapies Drug Listings Chlorambucil ...
Chlorambucil is an alkylating anti cancer agent used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and several types ... How to Take Chlorambucil. Chlorambucil is taken orally (by mouth) in pill form. The dose and schedule is determined by the ... About: Chlorambucil (Leukeran®) Chlorambucil exerts its anti-cancer affect by a process called alkylation. Alkylation damages ... Chlorambucil is available through retail or mail order pharmacy. Your oncology team will work with your prescription drug plan ...
If you have an allergy to chlorambucil or any other part of this drug. ...
Information about this chlorambucil-oral-route. Pregnancy Category. Explanation. All Trimesters. D. Studies in pregnant women ... Kidney stones, history of-Chlorambucil may increase levels of uric acid in the body, which can cause gout or kidney stones. ... Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of chlorambucil in the pediatric ... which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving this chlorambucil. ...
Learn about the potential side effects of chlorambucil. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and ... Applies to chlorambucil: oral tablet. Along with its needed effects, chlorambucil may cause some unwanted effects. Although not ... Applies to chlorambucil: compounding powder, oral tablet. Hematologic. Very common (10% or more): Leukopenia, neutropenia, ... Leukeran Tablets (chlorambucil)." Glaxo Welcome, Research Triangle Pk, NC. 3. Williams SA, Makker SP, Grupe WE "Seizures: a ...
Some effects may occur after treatment with chlorambucil has been stopped. Before you begin treatment with chlorambucil, you ... Information about this chlorambucil-oral-route. Pregnancy Category. Explanation. All Trimesters. D. Studies in pregnant women ... Chlorambucil belongs to the group of medicines called alkylating agents. It is used to treat different types of cancer of the ... Chlorambucil may lower your bodys resistance and there is a chance you might get the infection the immunization is meant to ...
Testing Status of Chlorambucil 10850-R. CASRN: 305-03-3. Formula: C14-H19-Cl2-N-O2. Synonyms/Common Names. *4-(Bis(2- ... Citation: Russell, L.B., Hunsicker, P.R., Cacheiro, N.L.A., Bangham, J.W., Russell, W.L., and Shelby, M.D. Chlorambucil ... Chlorambucil and bleomycin induce mutations in the specific-locus test in female mice. Mutation Res. 358: 25-35 (1996). ... Dominant lethal and heritable translocation tests with chlorambucil and melphalan in male mice. Mutat. Res. 345: 167-180. (1995 ...
Find user ratings and reviews for chlorambucil oral on WebMD including side effects and drug interactions, medication ... I have been on Chlorambucil for 2 yrs. with excellent results.. Comment:. I have been on Chlorambucil for 2 yrs. with excellent ... Read user comments about the side effects, benefits, and effectiveness of chlorambucil oral. ...
Treatment of Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus including Nephritis with Chlorambucil Br Med J 1973; 2 :197 ... Six female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (S.L.E.) have been treated with chlorambucil. In five the decision was ... After the introduction of chlorambucil renal function improved and all patients remain well six, six, five, three, and two-and- ... In four patients is it probable that amenorrhoea was related to chlorambucil treatment, but there were no other important side ...
Chlorambucil is given by mouth and is used off label to treat certain types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. Common side ... How is chlorambucil given?. Chlorambucil is given by mouth in the form of a tablet or a specially compounded liquid. It should ... How do I store chlorambucil?. Store chlorambucil in the refrigerator between 36°F and 46°F (2°C and 8°C) and protect from light ... What is chlorambucil?. Chlorambucil (brand names: Leukeran®, Chloraminophene®, Linfolysin®) is an immunosuppressive and ...
Alemtuzumab compared with chlorambucil as first-line therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.. Hillmen P1, Skotnicki AB, Robak ... Patients received alemtuzumab (30 mg three times per week, for up to 12 weeks) or chlorambucil (40 mg/m(2) every 28 days, for ... We conducted a randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous alemtuzumab compared with chlorambucil in ... We randomly assigned 297 patients, 149 to alemtuzumab and 148 to chlorambucil. Alemtuzumab had superior PFS, with a 42% ...
The lipids are prepared from the anticancer drug chlorambucil and have C16 and C18 ether chains with phosphatidylcholine or ... Synthesis and biophysical characterization of chlorambucil anticancer ether lipid prodrugs.. [Palle J Pedersen, Mikkel S ... resulting in chlorambucil release. Liposomal formulations of prodrug lipids displayed cytotoxicity toward HT-29, MT-3, and ES-2 ...
Chlorambucil is an immune system suppressing drug given to dogs or cats for immune-mediated disorders such as cancer including ... Chlorambucil is often given in conjunction with other drugs, It is best to give Chlorambucil on an empty stomach. It is ... Chlorambucil works by forming a strong bond with nucleic acid, making it impossible for DNA to properly divide and replicate. ... Chlorambucil is an immune system suppressing drug given to pets for immune-mediated disorders such as cancer including leukemia ...
Chlorambucil is typically given daily or every other day or every third day. ... Chlorambucil is helpful in multiple Chemotherapy protocols as well as Immune Mediated conditions. ... Chlorambucils bone marrow suppression side effect may be compounded if chlorambucil is used with other medications that also ... The use of chlorambucil may lead to the need to increase the dose of allopurinol for patients who take it (such as uric acid ...
Sample records for CLORAMBUCILO (chlorambucil). from WorldWideScience.org. Sample records 1 - 2 shown. ... chlorambucil and combined regimens. We document the case of a 51 year old caucasian female patient that was evaluated because ...
CHLORAMBUCIL (clor AM byoo sil) is a chemotherapy drug. It slows the growth of cancer cells. This medicine is used to treat ... an unusual or allergic reaction to chlorambucil, other chemotherapy, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives ...
Intervention Details: Drug: Lenalidomide; Chlorambucil MTD of lenalidomide given in combination with chlorambucil ... Chlorambucil + Lenalidomide and Lenalidomide Maintenance in Untreated Elderly With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). The ... Induction phase with Chlorambucil and Lenalidomide (CL):. *Phase 1: a non-comparative phase aimed at defining the MTD of ... Induction phase with chlorambucil and Lenalidomide in terms of safety [type, frequency, and severity of adverse events (AEs)]. ...
781 participants were randomised to either chlorambucil alone, rituximab plus chlorambucil, or obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil. ... Chlorambucil tablets. *Chlorambucil tablets with written instructions on how to take them. ... Chlorambucil tablets. *Chlorambucil tablets with written instructions on how to take them. ... Figure 2. Progression free survival in the obinutuzumab-chlorambucil (G-Clb) and rituximab-chlorambucil (R-Clb) treated groups. ...
... код для вставки. код для вставки на сайт или в блог. Ширина: ( ... Communications DOI: 10.1002/anie.201101133 Antitumor Agents Thermoresponsive Chlorambucil Derivatives for Tumour Targeting ... designed thermoactive molecular derivatives of cancers that are only detected a long time after administration chlorambucil ( ...
  • Chlorambucil is also used to treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin's disease (types of cancer that begin in certain white blood cells that normally fight infection). (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the US, Chlorambucil (chlorambucil systemic) is a member of the drug class alkylating agents and is used to treat Cancer , Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia , Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Lymphoma . (drugs.com)
  • Chlorambucil is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Autopsies of the ovaries of women with malignant lymphoma who were treated with combination therapy which included chlorambucil have reported fibrosis, vasculitis, and depletion of primordial follicles. (drugs.com)
  • Chlorambucil is FDA approved to treat people who have chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), some types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and advanced Hodgkin lymphoma. (lls.org)
  • Chlorambucil is an immune system suppressing drug given to pets for immune-mediated disorders such as cancer including leukemia and lymphoma. (petmd.com)
  • Chlorambucil is a very popular drug in feline medicine, especially used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases like pemphigus foliaceus or in neoplastic conditions like lymphoma. (vetcontact.com)
  • This case of a cat with intestinal lymphoma represents the first veterinary patient reported to have chlorambucil-induced neurotoxicity. (vetcontact.com)
  • Source: Noémi Benitah, Louis-Philippe de Lorimier, Michele Gaspar, Barbara E. Kitchell (2003): Chlorambucil-Induced Myoclonus in a Cat With Lymphoma. (vetcontact.com)
  • It is not yet known whether chlorambucil is more effective than fludarabine in treating Waldenström macroglobulinemia, splenic lymphoma, or lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying chlorambucil to see how well it works compared with fludarabine as first-line therapy in treating patients with previously untreated Waldenström macroglobulinemia, splenic lymphoma, or lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Compare the efficacy of first-line therapy comprising chlorambucil vs fludarabine phosphate in patients with previously untreated Waldenström macroglobulinemia, splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes, or non-IgM lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A Randomized, Multicenter, Open-label, Phase 3 Study of the Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor PCI-32765 versus Chlorambucil in Patients 65 Years or Older with Treatment-naive Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • An open-label, multi-center randomized, phase 3 study of ibrutinib combined with obinutuzumab versus Chlorambucil in combination with obinutuzumab in subjects with treatment-naïve Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This is a phase 3, multi-center, randomized, open-label study designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ibrutinib in combination with obinutuzumab compared to chlorambucil in combination with obinutuzumab in subjects with treatment-naïve chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • San Diego, December 3, 2018 - The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson today announced results from the Phase 3 iLLUMINATE (PCYC-1130) study, which showed the combination of IMBRUVICA ® (ibrutinib) plus obinutuzumab significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) versus chlorambucil plus obinutuzumab in patients with newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), the most common form of leukemia in adults. (jnj.com)
  • Ibrutinib was superior to chlorambucil in previously untreated patients with CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma, as assessed by progression-free survival, overall survival, response rate, and improvement in hematologic variables. (ascopost.com)
  • In the past, chlorambucil has been used for treating some types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, polycythemia vera, trophoblastic neoplasms, and ovarian carcinoma. (drugsupdate.com)
  • Chlorambucil is used to treat patients with leukemia and lymphoma. (4nrx-uk.md)
  • RESEARCH Open Access Bortezomib plus rituximab versus rituximab in patients with high-risk, relapsed, rituximab-naïve or rituximab-sensitive follicular lymphoma.Non-interventional Study of Rituximab (MabThera®) in the Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL NIS): First Interim Results Reiser M,1 Hensel M,2 Hoesl M,3.The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Roche's new drug Gazyva (obinutuzumab) in combination with chlorambucil chemotherapy for treatm. (babyfootpeel.tk)
  • Lancashire & South Cumbria Cancer Network Chemotherapy Protocol BENDAMUSTINE- RITUXIMAB (LYMPHOMA) INDICATION: Follicular.An open-label, multi-center, three arm randomized, phase III study to compare the efficacy and safety of RO5072759 + chlorambucil (GClb), rituximab + chlorambucil.plus rituximab: a survival benefit. (babyfootpeel.tk)
  • feline lymphoma prednisone chlorambucil will prednisone help fibromyalgia. (avatarka.tk)
  • plus chemotherapy lived 26.7 months without their disease worsening compared to 15.2 months for patients on Rituxan and chlorambucil.1 Rituximab maintenance improves clinical outcome of relapsed/resistant follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, both in patients with and without rituximab during. (onlinepokiesmachines.ga)
  • Chlorambucil has been prescribed for treatment of trophoblastic neoplasms,non-Hodgkin lymphoma, ovarian carcinoma and Waldenströmmacroglobulinemia. (internationaldrugcart.in)
  • Chlorambucil (klor-AM-byoo-sill) is used to treat Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia, advanced ovarian cancer, and advanced breast cancer. (quickmedic.org)
  • Chlorambucil is used to treat some types of blood cancers like Hodgkin's disease (cancer that starts in blood cells that are part of immune system), certain forms of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (disease where the bone marrow produces a large number of abnormal white cells. (1mg.com)
  • Basel, April 15, 2015 - Phase III data published in The Lancet showed that treatment with Arzerra ® (ofatumumab) plus chlorambucil, a chemotherapy, resulted in a statistically significant improvement in progression free survival (PFS) versus chlorambucil alone in treatment-naïve patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) for whom fludarabine-based therapy was considered inappropriate, mainly due to advanced age or the presence of comorbidities. (novartis.com)
  • The results presented in The Lancet demonstrate that the addition of Arzerra to chlorambucil resulted in a significant improvement in progression free survival, with an acceptable safety profile," said Alessandro Riva, M.D., Global Head, Novartis Oncology Development and Medical Affairs. (novartis.com)
  • The results indicated a statistically significant improvement in median progression-free survival (PFS) in patients who received Arzerra/chlorambucil compared to those who received chlorambucil alone (22.4 months versus 13.1 months). (unm.edu)
  • Study OMB110911 has been conducted mainly in the US and EU to evaluate progression-free survival (PFS) and overall response (OR) in subjects with previously untreated CLL with ofatumumab in combination with chlorambucil versus (vs.) chlorambucil monotherapy. (knowcancer.com)
  • Final results showed that obinutuzumab/chloramubucil improved overall survival compared to chlorambucil alone and improved progression-free survival, complete response rate, and minimal residual disease status compared to chlorambucil/rituximab. (ascopost.com)
  • tell your doctor if you have taken chlorambucil before, but your cancer did not respond to the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chlorambucil - is this a cytotoxic medication? (drugs.com)
  • Because chlorambucil is relatively slow acting, fewer side effects have been an issue with this medication, especially in feline use. (marvistavet.com)
  • further, pregnant women should not handle this medication, nor the urine/feces of animals taking chlorambucil. (marvistavet.com)
  • Chlorambucil is a prescription medication used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, a type of cancer of the white blood cells). (rxwiki.com)
  • Tell your doctor if you are allergic to any ingredient in chlorambucil or any other medication, especially other alkylating agents. (rxwiki.com)
  • Chlorambucil is an anti-cancer medication. (1mg.com)
  • Do not take chlorambucil if you have rare hereditary problems of glucose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medication. (1mg.com)
  • Chlorambucil is an alkylating antineoplastic medication that is used to treat many immune response disease states in animals. (rxcompound.com)
  • In the 1950s, aromatic mustards like chlorambucil were introduced as less toxic alkylating agents than the aliphatic nitrogen mustards, proving to be less electrophilic and react with DNA more slowly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorambucil is what is called an "alkylating agent" of the "nitrogen mustard" group. (marvistavet.com)
  • Producing infertility, Chlorambucil is antineoplastic aromatic nitrogen mustard which is also carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic in humans. (internationaldrugcart.in)
  • Chlorambucil (nitrogen mustard) induced impairment of early vascular endothelial cell migration - Effects of α-linolenic acid and N-acetylcysteine. (abmole.com)
  • Chlorambucil alkylates and cross-links DNA during all phases of the cell cycle, inducing DNA damage via three different methods of covalent adduct generation with double-helical DNA: Attachment of alkyl groups to DNA bases, resulting in the DNA being fragmented by repair enzymes in their attempts to replace the alkylated bases, preventing DNA synthesis and RNA transcription from the affected DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorambucil alkylates and cross-links strands of DNA, inhibiting DNA replication and RNA transcription. (medscape.com)
  • Although alkylating agents such as chlorambucil ( clb) have been commonly used in these pts, novel therapies are needed. (linkos.cz)
  • Chlorambucil given orally at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight up to a total of 6 cycles on Days 1 and 15 of each cycle or until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Polyamide-seco-CBI conjugate 5 was synthesized to compare the efficacy of chlorambucil with that of seco-CBI as an alkylating moiety for Py-Im polyamides. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Denaturing PAGE analysis revealed that DNA alkylation activity of polyamide-seco-CBI conjugate 5 was similar to that of polyamide-chlorambucil conjugates 1 and 2. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These results suggest that the seco-CBI conjugate was distinctly active in cells compared to the chlorambucil conjugates. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In other words, cancer is not the only illness that can be treated with chlorambucil, immune-mediated diseases are also susceptible. (marvistavet.com)
  • Chlorambucil has been assigned to pregnancy category D by the FDA. (drugs.com)
  • Chlorambucil should only be given during pregnancy when there are no alternatives and benefit outweighs risk. (drugs.com)
  • In case of accidental pregnancy while taking Chlorambucil, contact your doctor as soon as you become aware of this. (4nrx-uk.md)
  • Adverse events profiles were similar, except for more infusion-related and cytomegalovirus (CMV) events with alemtuzumab and more nausea and vomiting with chlorambucil. (nih.gov)
  • Zusetzen von Obinutuzumab (GA101) oder Rituximab zu Chlorambucil verbessert Aussichten für ältere Patienten mit chronischer lymphatischer Leukämie (CLL) und gleichzeitig vorliegenden Erkrankungen (Komor. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Bislang war ungeklärt, ob (i) eine Kombinationsbehandlung mit dem Chemotherapeutikum Chlorambucil plus einem monoklonalen CD20-Antikörper die Aussichten für diese Patienten gegenüber einer Behandlung mit Chlorambucil allein verbessert und ob (ii) diese Patienten mehr vom Einsatz des neuartigen CD20-Antikörpers Obinutuzumab (GA101) im Vergleich zum zugelassenen CD20-Antikörper Rituximab profitieren. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Das Zusetzen von GA101 oder Rituximab zu Chlorambucil verlängerte die Zeit, in der die Menschen ohne Verschlechterung ihres Zustands lebten (progressionsfreies Überleben), gegenüber Chlorambucil allein wesentlich. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Like many alkylating agents , chlorambucil has been associated with the development of other forms of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorambucil produces its anti-cancer effects by interfering with DNA replication and damaging the DNA in a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study has shown Chlorambucil to be detoxified by human glutathione transferase Pi (GST P1-1), an enzyme that is often found over-expressed in cancer tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorambucil exerts its anti-cancer affect by a process called alkylation. (oncolink.org)
  • Chlorambucil interferes with the growth of cancer cells, which are eventually destroyed. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The amount of chlorambucil you receive and how often it is administered, depends on many factors, including your height and weight, your general health, any other health problems you may have, and the type of cancer or condition being treated. (medypharma.com)
  • Q. Why is Chlorambucil toxic to cancer cells/ how does Chlorambucil work? (1mg.com)
  • Depending on the condition, the doctor may prescribe oral intake of Chlorambucil with the dosage for Chronic Lymphatic (Lymphocytic) Leukemiastarting with0.1 mg/kg/day for 3-6 weeks which may be increased to 0.4 mg/kg according to symptoms or reactions. (internationaldrugcart.in)
  • Those resembling erythema nodosum (EN) show small vessel vasculitis and perivascular lymphocytic and mononuclear cell infiltration and fibrin deposition in the vessel wall, while the punched out ulcers are characterized by a leucocytoclastic vasculitis (neutrophil infiltrate) with fibrinoid necrosis. (angelfire.com)