A nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as antineoplastic for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and others. Although it is less toxic than most other nitrogen mustards, it has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.
Ester of CHLORAMBUCIL and PREDNISOLONE used as a combination alkylating agent and synthetic steroid to treat various leukemias and other neoplasms. It causes gastrointestinal and bone marrow toxicity.
Granulomatous uveitis which follows in one eye after a penetrating injury to the other eye; the secondarily affected eye is called the sympathizing eye, and the injured eye is called the exciting or activating eye.
A lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by pleomorphic B-LYMPHOCYTES including PLASMA CELLS, with increased levels of monoclonal serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. There is lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltration into bone marrow and often other tissues, also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Clinical features include ANEMIA; HEMORRHAGES; and hyperviscosity.
A type of glomerulonephritis that is characterized by the accumulation of immune deposits (COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) on the outer aspect of the GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE. It progresses from subepithelial dense deposits, to basement membrane reaction and eventual thickening of the basement membrane.
A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.
An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.
Yoshida sarcoma is a rare and aggressive type of soft tissue cancer, specifically a malignant mesenchymal tumor, which was initially reported in Japan and typically occurs in children and young adults, often associated with a poor prognosis due to its rapid growth and high metastatic potential.
A uricosuric drug that is used to reduce the serum urate levels in gout therapy. It lacks anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and diuretic properties.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.

Potentiation of anti-cancer drug activity at low intratumoral pH induced by the mitochondrial inhibitor m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and its analogue benzylguanidine (BG). (1/304)

Tumour-selective acidification is of potential interest for enhanced therapeutic gain of pH sensitive drugs. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a tumour-selective reduction of the extracellular and intracellular pH and their effect on the tumour response of selected anti-cancer drugs. In an in vitro L1210 leukaemic cell model, we confirmed enhanced cytotoxicity of chlorambucil at low extracellular pH conditions. In contrast, the alkylating drugs melphalan and cisplatin, and bioreductive agents mitomycin C and its derivative EO9, required low intracellular pH conditions for enhanced activation. Furthermore, a strong and pH-independent synergism was observed between the pH-equilibrating drug nigericin and melphalan, of which the mechanism is unclear. In radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumour-bearing mice, the extracellular pH was reduced by the mitochondrial inhibitor m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) or its analogue benzylguanidine (BG) plus glucose. To simultaneously reduce the intracellular pH, MIBG plus glucose were combined with the ionophore nigericin or the Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitor amiloride and the Na+-dependent HCO3-/Cl- exchanger inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS). Biochemical studies confirmed an effective reduction of the extracellular pH to approximately 6.2, and anti-tumour responses to the interventions indicated a simultaneous reduction of the intracellular pH below 6.6 for at least 3 h. Combined reduction of extra- and intracellular tumour pH with melphalan increased the tumour regrowth time to 200% of the pretreatment volume from 5.7 +/- 0.6 days for melphalan alone to 8.1 +/- 0.7 days with pH manipulation (P < 0.05). Mitomycin C related tumour growth delay was enhanced by the combined interventions from 3.8 +/- 0.5 to 5.2 +/- 0.5 days (P < 0.05), but only in tumours of relatively large sizes. The interventions were non-toxic alone or in combination with the anti-cancer drugs and did not affect melphalan biodistribution. In conclusion, we have developed non-toxic interventions for sustained and selective reduction of extra- and intracellular tumour pH which potentiated the tumour responses to selected anti-cancer drugs.  (+info)

Biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins by mouse embryos cultured in the presence of a teratogenic dose of chlorambucil. (2/304)

The effect of chlorambucil on the rates of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis in mouse embryos was investigated using a system of whole embryo culture. Embryos were isolated on the 11th day of gestation (33 +/- 3 somites) and grown in culture media for periods of 4-8 h. Reichert's membrane and most of the placental tissue was removed leaving only the amnion and visceral yolk-sac surrounding the embryo. In the presence of teratogenic doses of chlorabucil (15 mug/ml) the rate of DNA synthesis was significantly decreased at 4 and 8 h. RNA and protein synthesis were not inhibited at either of these times. A trend toward decreasing rates of protein synthesis at some time beyond 8 h was noted, but not tested.  (+info)

Chemotherapeutic options in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a meta-analysis of the randomized trials. CLL Trialists' Collaborative Group. (3/304)

BACKGROUND: The randomized trials that evaluate the timing and intensity of initial chemotherapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have, in general, been too small to provide separately reliable results. We compared the effects on survival of the following: a) immediate versus deferred chemotherapy for early-stage CLL and b) combination chemotherapy (e.g., cyclophosphamide and vincristine plus prednisone/prednisolone [COP] or COP plus doxorubicin [CHOP]) versus single-agent chlorambucil as first-line treatment for more advanced disease. METHODS: All relevant randomized trials, whether published or not, were sought for a collaborative meta-analysis involving centralized review of the data for each patient. RESULTS: There were 2048 patients with early disease in six trials of immediate versus deferred chemotherapy (chlorambucil or chlorambucil plus prednisone/prednisolone). The 10-year survival was slightly worse (but not statistically significantly so) with immediate chemotherapy (44% versus 47% survival; difference = -3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -10% to 4%). There were another 2022 patients in 10 trials of combination chemotherapy versus chlorambucil, with or without prednisone/prednisolone. The 5-year survival was 48 % in both cases (difference = 0%; 95% CI = -6% to 5%). A subgroup of six of these 10 trials involved an anthracycline-containing regimen but again overall survival appeared no better than with chlorambucil (anthracycline-based regimen: 325 deaths among 627 patients; chlorambucil: 306 deaths among 636 patients; death rate ratio = 1.07; 95% CI = 0.91-1.25; not statistically significant). CONCLUSIONS: In terms of survival, these trials support a conservative treatment strategy for CLL, i.e., no chemotherapy for most patients with early-stage disease, and single-agent chlorambucil as the first line of treatment for most patients with advanced disease, with no evidence of benefit from early inclusion of an anthracycline. This strategy will, however, need to be reconsidered as mature results become available from trials of other agents.  (+info)

Effect of Epstein-Barr virus infection on response to chemotherapy and survival in Hodgkin's disease. (4/304)

We have analyzed paraffin sections from 190 patients with histologically confirmed Hodgkin's disease (HD) for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) using in situ hybridization to detect the EBV-encoded Epstein-Barr virus early RNAs (EBERs) and immunohistochemistry to identify latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) expression. EBV was present in the tumor cells in 51 HD cases (27%) and was mainly confined to the mixed cellularity and nodular sclerosis subtypes. There was no difference between EBV-positive and EBV-negative HD patients with regard to age, clinical stage, presentation, and the number of alternating chemotherapy cycles of ChIVPP and PABIOE received. The complete remission rate after study chemotherapy was 80% in EBV-positive patients versus 69% in EBV-negative patients (P =.05). The 2-year failure-free survival rate was significantly better for EBV-positive patients when compared with the EBV-negative HD group (P =.02). Although 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were better for EBV-positive HD patients, the differences were not statistically significant (P =.18 and P =.40, respectively). In conclusion, the results confirm the favorable prognostic value of EBV in the tumor cells of HD patients and suggest important differences in response to chemotherapy between EBV-positive and EBV-negative patients.  (+info)

Chlorambucil induction of HsRad51 in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (5/304)

Our previous studies with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) have suggested that one of the mechanisms of nitrogen mustard (NM) drug resistance is increased repair of drug-induced damage. We have postulated that recombination may play a crucial role in this process. The human homologue of Rad51, (HsRad51), has homology to the RecA protein in Escherichia coli, which is implicated in recombination repair and induction of DNA repair enzymes. In this report, we have examined the expression and distribution of HsRad51 protein in lymphocytes from patients with B-CLL to see whether the expression of HsRad51 is associated with NM damage to the malignant B lymphocytes, specifically chlorambucil (CLB), which is the standard alkylating agent used to treat patients with B-CLL. We have analyzed the intracellular distribution of HsRad51 protein in these lymphocytes before and after treatment with CLB by immunofluorescence. In vitro CLB treatment induces Rad51 expression, as measured by increased immunopositive staining in all CLL samples. In the CLB-resistant CLL lymphocytes, there was a linear correlation between induction of Rad51 protein at 5.4 microM CLB and the in vitro LD50 dose of CLB. Surprisingly, although it has been reported that Rad51 is induced in S phase and only 10% of cells from cell lines expressed positive immunostaining for Rad51, our CLL lymphocytes, which were not subjected to in vitro drug exposure, were 90% positive for Rad51, despite their nonproliferative state, which suggests that there is chronic activation of the protein. Our results suggest that CLB activates HsRad51-directed recombination repair and that this process may be important in NM drug-induced cytotoxicity.  (+info)

High-dose BEAM chemotherapy with autologous haemopoietic stem cell transplantation for Hodgkin's disease is unlikely to be associated with a major increased risk of secondary MDS/AML. (6/304)

Hodgkin's disease is curable in the majority of patients, although a proportion of patients are resistant to or relapse after initial therapy. High-dose therapy with autologous stem cell support has become the standard salvage therapy for patients failing chemotherapy, but there have been reports of a high incidence of myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukaemia (MDS/AML) following such treatment. Patients who receive such therapy form a selected group, however, who have already been subjected to other leukaemogenic factors, such as treatment with alkylating agents. In order to ascertain the true risk of MDS/AML, comparison must be made with other patients subjected to the same risks but not undergoing transplantation. We report a retrospective comparative study of 4576 patients with Hodgkin's disease from the BNLI and UCLH Hodgkin's databases, which includes 595 patients who have received a transplant. Statistical analysis including Cox's proportional hazards multivariate regression model with time-dependent covariates was employed. This analysis reveals that the risk of developing MDS/AML was dominated by three factors, namely quantity of prior therapy (relative risk [RR] 2.01, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.49-2.71, for each treatment block, P < 0.0001) and whether the patient had been exposed to MOPP (RR 3.61, 95% CI 1.64-7.95, P = 0.0009) or lomustine chemotherapy (RR 4.53, 95% CI 1.96-10.44, P = 0.001). Following adjustment for these factors in the multivariate model the relative risk associated with transplantation was 1.83 (95% CI 0.66-5.11, P = 0.25). This study provides no evidence of a significantly increased risk of MDS/AML associated with BEAM therapy and autologous transplantation in Hodgkin's disease. Concern over MDS/AML should not mitigate against the timely use of this treatment modality.  (+info)

The role of drug transport in resistance to nitrogen mustard and other alkylating agents in L518Y lymphoblsts. (7/304)

An investigation was undertaken of the mechanism of resistance to nitrogen mustard (HN2) and other alkylating agents, with particular emphasis on the interaction between cross-resistance and drug transport mechanisms in L5178Y lymphoblasts. Dose-survival curves demonstrated that the D0 for HN2-sensitive cells (L5178Y) treated with HN2 in vitro was 9.79 ng/ml and the D0 for HN2-resistant cells (L5178Y/HN2) was 181.11 ng/ml; thus, sensitive cells were 18.5-fold more responsive than were resistant cells and the difference was highly significant (p less than 0.001). A similar evaluation of 5 additional alkylating agents, including chlorambucil, melphalan, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-l-nitrosourea, Mitomycin C, and 2,3,5-tris(ethyleneimino)-1,4-benzoquinone, revealed that L5178Y/HN2 cells were also cross-resistant, in part, to each of these compounds. Furthermore, the degree of cross-resistance was remarkably similar; for each drug, dose-survival studies showed that HN2-resistant cells were approximately 2- to 3-fold more resistant to therapy than were sensitive cells. L5178Y/HN2 cells were also cross-resistant to cyclophosphamide in vivo; after treatment with cyclophosphamide, DBA/2 female mice that were given inoculations of L5178Y cells, but not those given transplants of L5178Y/HN2 cells, showed a significant prolongation of survival time (p less than 0.01). Transport of HN2, hydrolyzed derivative of HN2 and choline by L5178Y lymphoblasts in vitro was not competitively inhibited by any of the other alkylating agents, suggesting that transport of these compounds was by an independent mechanism. These findings suggest that the mechanism whereby L5178Y/HN2 cells are cross-resistant to other alkylating agents may involve nontransport factors and that these other drugs may bypass a major portion of HN2 resistance by using independent transport systems.  (+info)

Clinical features and treatment outcome of idiopathic membranous nephropathy in Chinese patients. (8/304)

We retrospectively studied the clinical course and treatment outcome of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) amongst 38 Chinese patients (25 male, 13 female, age 51.6 +/- 14.6 years, follow-up duration 58.2 +/- 51.1 months) who presented over a 10-year review period. Eight never received any form of specific treatment (group I), seven received oral corticosteroid alone for 6-9 months (group II), 17 were given corticosteroid plus cyclophosphamide for 6-12 months (group III), and six were treated with methylprednisolone alternating with chlorambucil every other month for 6 months (group IV). No untoward effect from drugs sufficient to alter the dosage used was recorded. After 6 months of treatment, over 50% of patients went into remission: a significant reduction in proteinuria (p = 0.01, 0.01, 0.02) with a corresponding rise in serum albumin levels (p = 0.01, 0.01, 0.04) was observed in groups II, III, and IV, respectively, but not in group I. During follow-up, one patient in each of groups I, III, IV, and two of group II developed renal function deterioration, which correlated with an abnormal presenting serum creatinine. In six group I and eight group III patients who have been followed for at least 5 years, there was progressive reduction in proteinuria in group III (p < 0.05), but not in group I: serum creatinine has remained unchanged in both groups. IMN runs a benign course in Chinese patients in Hong Kong, with 2.6% of patients going into end-stage renal failure during the study period. Contrary to reports in Caucasians, there is similar treatment response to steroid alone or a combination of steroid and cytotoxic agents.  (+info)

Chlorambucil is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called alkylating agents. It is an antineoplastic drug, which means it is used to treat cancer. Chlorambucil works by interfering with the DNA in cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. This makes it useful for treating certain types of cancer, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Chlorambucil is available in tablet form and is typically taken once a day. It is important to take chlorambucil exactly as directed by your healthcare provider, as the dosage and schedule will depend on your individual medical condition and response to treatment.

Like all medications, chlorambucil can cause side effects. Common side effects of chlorambucil include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of appetite. It can also cause more serious side effects, such as a decrease in the number of white blood cells (which can increase the risk of infection), anemia (low red blood cell count), and thrombocytopenia (low platelet count). Chlorambucil may also increase the risk of certain types of cancer, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and solid tumors.

It is important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of chlorambucil with your healthcare provider before starting treatment. They can help you understand the potential side effects and how to manage them, as well as any other precautions you should take while taking this medication.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer that starts from cells that become certain white blood cells (called lymphocytes) in the bone marrow. The cancer (leukemia) cells start in the bone marrow but then go into the blood.

In CLL, the leukemia cells often build up slowly. Many people don't have any symptoms for at least a few years. But over time, the cells can spread to other parts of the body, including the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen.

The "B-cell" part of the name refers to the fact that the cancer starts in a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell. The "chronic" part means that this leukemia usually progresses more slowly than other types of leukemia.

It's important to note that chronic lymphocytic leukemia is different from chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Although both are cancers of the white blood cells, they start in different types of white blood cells and progress differently.

Antineoplastic agents, alkylating, are a class of chemotherapeutic drugs that work by alkylating (adding alkyl groups) to DNA, which can lead to the death or dysfunction of cancer cells. These agents can form cross-links between strands of DNA, preventing DNA replication and transcription, ultimately leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Examples of alkylating agents include cyclophosphamide, melphalan, and cisplatin. While these drugs are designed to target rapidly dividing cancer cells, they can also affect normal cells that divide quickly, such as those in the bone marrow and digestive tract, leading to side effects like anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and nausea/vomiting.

Vidarabine is an antiviral medication used to treat herpes simplex infections, particularly severe cases such as herpes encephalitis (inflammation of the brain caused by the herpes simplex virus). It works by interfering with the DNA replication of the virus.

In medical terms, vidarabine is a nucleoside analogue that is phosphorylated intracellularly to the active form, vidarabine triphosphate. This compound inhibits viral DNA polymerase and incorporates into viral DNA, causing termination of viral DNA synthesis.

Vidarabine was previously used as an injectable medication but has largely been replaced by more modern antiviral drugs such as acyclovir due to its greater efficacy and lower toxicity.

Nitrogen mustard compounds are a group of chemical agents that have been used historically as chemotherapy drugs and also have potential as military chemical warfare agents. They are alkylating agents, which means they work by modifying DNA in such a way that it can no longer replicate properly, leading to cell death.

In the medical context, nitrogen mustard compounds are used to treat certain types of cancer, including Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. They may also be used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and other cancers.

The most common nitrogen mustard compounds used in medicine are mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and melphalan. These drugs are typically administered intravenously or orally, and their use is carefully monitored to minimize side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and suppression of the immune system.

It's worth noting that nitrogen mustard compounds can also be highly toxic and dangerous if used as chemical warfare agents. They can cause severe respiratory, skin, and eye damage, as well as potentially fatal systemic effects.

Prednimustine is not a standalone medication, but rather a combination of two active ingredients: prednisone, a corticosteroid, and chlorambucil, an alkylating agent used in chemotherapy. Prednimustine is a sterile lyophilized powder that is reconstituted with sterile water for injection before use. It is primarily used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

The combination of prednisone and chlorambucil in Prednimustine provides a synergistic effect in suppressing the immune system and damaging the DNA of cancer cells, which can lead to cell death and reduced tumor growth. The corticosteroid component, prednisone, helps to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune response, while chlorambucil directly damages the DNA of cancer cells, leading to their destruction.

It is important to note that Prednimustine should only be administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as it can have serious side effects, including bone marrow suppression, gastrointestinal disturbances, and increased risk of infections.

Sympathetic ophthalmia is a rare inflammatory condition that can occur in the eye after trauma or surgery to the other eye. It is caused by an autoimmune response where the immune system mistakenly attacks the healthy eye tissues, thinking they are similar to the damaged tissues in the other eye. This condition can lead to severe inflammation, including redness, pain, light sensitivity, and potentially vision loss if not treated promptly and effectively with immunosuppressive therapy. Sympathetic ophthalmia typically develops within several weeks to a few months after the initial injury or surgery, but it can occur even years later.

Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia is a type of rare cancer called a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. It is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of malignant white blood cells, specifically B lymphocytes or plasma cells, in the bone marrow and sometimes in other organs. These abnormal cells produce an excessive amount of a protein called macroglobulin, which can lead to the thickening of the blood and various symptoms associated with this condition.

The signs and symptoms of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia may include fatigue, weakness, bruising or bleeding, frequent infections, numbness or tingling in the hands and feet, visual disturbances, and confusion or difficulty thinking. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, imaging studies, and sometimes genetic testing to confirm the presence of the disease and determine its extent.

Treatment options for Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia depend on the severity of the symptoms and the stage of the disease. They may include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor the progression of the disease and adjust treatment plans as needed.

Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is a kidney disorder that leads to the inflammation and damage of the glomeruli, which are the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys responsible for filtering waste and excess fluids from the blood. In MGN, the membrane that surrounds the glomerular capillaries becomes thickened and damaged due to the deposit of immune complexes, primarily composed of antibodies and antigens.

The onset of membranous glomerulonephritis can be either primary (idiopathic) or secondary to various underlying conditions such as autoimmune diseases (like systemic lupus erythematosus), infections (hepatitis B or C, syphilis, endocarditis), medications, or malignancies.

The symptoms of membranous glomerulonephritis may include:

1. Proteinuria - the presence of excess protein, specifically albumin, in the urine. This can lead to nephrotic syndrome, characterized by heavy protein loss in urine, edema (swelling), hypoalbuminemia (low blood albumin levels), and hyperlipidemia (high blood lipid levels).
2. Hematuria - the presence of red blood cells in the urine, which can be visible or microscopic.
3. Hypertension - high blood pressure.
4. Edema - swelling in various body parts due to fluid retention.
5. Nephrotic range proteinuria (protein loss greater than 3.5 grams per day) and/or nephritic syndrome (a combination of hematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, and kidney dysfunction) can be observed in some cases.

The diagnosis of membranous glomerulonephritis typically involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, urinalysis, blood tests, and imaging studies. A definitive diagnosis often requires a kidney biopsy to assess the glomerular structure and the nature of the immune complex deposits. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, blood pressure management, and supportive care for symptoms like edema and proteinuria.

Mechlorethamine is an antineoplastic agent, which means it is used to treat cancer. It is a type of alkylating agent, which is a class of drugs that work by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Mechlorethamine is used in the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, as well as some other types of cancer. It can be administered intravenously or topically (as a cream) to treat skin lesions caused by certain types of cancer.

Mechlorethamine is a potent drug that can have significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection due to suppression of the immune system. It can also cause damage to the heart, lungs, and reproductive system with long-term use. As with all chemotherapy drugs, mechlorethamine should be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Cladribine is a medication used in the treatment of certain types of cancer and multiple sclerosis. It is a type of drug called a purine nucleoside analog, which means it interferes with the production of DNA and RNA, the genetic material of cells. This can help to stop the growth and multiplication of abnormal cells in the body.

In cancer treatment, cladribine is used to treat hairy cell leukemia and certain types of lymphoma. In multiple sclerosis, it is used to reduce the frequency of relapses and slow down the progression of disability. Cladribine works by selectively targeting and depleting certain white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are thought to play a role in the immune response that damages the nervous system in multiple sclerosis.

Cladribine is usually given as an injection into a vein or under the skin, and it may be given on its own or in combination with other medications. Common side effects of cladribine include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weakness. It can also lower the body's ability to fight infections, so patients may need to take precautions to avoid infection while receiving treatment. Cladribine should be used with caution in people with a history of certain medical conditions, such as liver or kidney disease, and it should not be used during pregnancy or breastfeeding.

I'm sorry for the confusion, but "Sarcoma, Yoshida" is not a recognized medical term or a specific type of sarcoma in any major oncology reference or database. It appears that "Yoshida" might be referring to a person who described or studied a particular type of sarcoma. However, I cannot find any relevant information related to this exact term.

Sarcomas are cancers that develop from connective tissues such as bones, muscles, tendons, cartilages, nerves, and blood vessels. They can be categorized into two main groups: bone sarcomas and soft tissue sarcomas. There are many subtypes of sarcoma, each with its unique features, diagnostic criteria, and treatment approaches.

If you have more context or information about "Sarcoma, Yoshida," I would be happy to help you further research the topic. However, based on the available data, it is not possible to provide a medical definition for this term.

Sulfinpyrazone is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as uricosurics. It works by increasing the amount of uric acid that is removed from the body through urine, which helps to lower the levels of uric acid in the blood. This makes it useful for the treatment of conditions such as gout and kidney stones that are caused by high levels of uric acid.

In addition to its uricosuric effects, sulfinpyrazone also has antiplatelet properties, which means that it can help to prevent blood clots from forming. This makes it useful for the prevention of heart attacks and strokes in people who are at risk.

Sulfinpyrazone is available by prescription and is typically taken by mouth in the form of tablets. It may be used alone or in combination with other medications, depending on the individual patient's needs and medical condition. As with any medication, sulfinpyrazone should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and patients should follow their provider's instructions carefully to ensure safe and effective use.

Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is commonly used in the treatment of various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions due to its potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Prednisolone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, leading to changes in gene expression that reduce the production of substances involved in inflammation, such as cytokines and prostaglandins.

Prednisolone is available in various forms, including tablets, syrups, and injectable solutions. It can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies, skin conditions, and certain types of cancer.

Like other steroid medications, prednisolone can have significant side effects if used in high doses or for long periods of time. These may include weight gain, mood changes, increased risk of infections, osteoporosis, diabetes, and adrenal suppression. As a result, the use of prednisolone should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure that its benefits outweigh its risks.

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. This helps to stop the spread of cancer in the body. Cyclophosphamide is used to treat various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer. It can be given orally as a tablet or intravenously as an injection.

Cyclophosphamide can also have immunosuppressive effects, which means it can suppress the activity of the immune system. This makes it useful in treating certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. However, this immunosuppression can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects.

Like all chemotherapy medications, cyclophosphamide can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and increased susceptibility to infections. It is important for patients receiving cyclophosphamide to be closely monitored by their healthcare team to manage these side effects and ensure the medication is working effectively.

Melphalan is an antineoplastic agent, specifically an alkylating agent. It is used in the treatment of multiple myeloma and other types of cancer. The medical definition of Melphalan is:

A nitrogen mustard derivative that is used as an alkylating agent in the treatment of cancer, particularly multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer. Melphalan works by forming covalent bonds with DNA, resulting in cross-linking of the double helix and inhibition of DNA replication and transcription. This ultimately leads to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death) in rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells.

Melphalan is administered orally or intravenously, and its use is often accompanied by other anticancer therapies, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Common side effects of Melphalan include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bone marrow suppression, which can lead to anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Other potential side effects include hair loss, mucositis, and secondary malignancies.

It is important to note that Melphalan should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can cause serious adverse reactions if not administered correctly.

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... chlorambucil prednisolone ester; prednisolone 21-(4-(4-(bis(2-chloroethyl)amino)phenyl)butanoate)) Alestramustine (estradiol 3 ...
A pivotal study of rituximab plus chlorambucil compared with chlorambucil alone (IELSG-19 study, n = 227) demonstrated a ... 50%; p = 0.024) over chlorambucil alone. However, 5-year OS was not improved (88% in both arms). First-line treatment of choice ... Oral alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide or chlorambucil have been administered for a median duration of 12 months with ... February 2013). "Addition of rituximab to chlorambucil produces superior event-free survival in the treatment of patients with ...
Examples include melphalan and chlorambucil. The following three groups are almost always considered "classical". Nitrogen ... Uramustine or uracil mustard Melphalan Chlorambucil Ifosfamide Bendamustine Nitrosoureas Carmustine Lomustine Streptozocin ...
... alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamides and chlorambucil; and biological drugs such as adalimumab. Most uveitis patients ...
Nitrogen mustards include mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, melphalan, chlorambucil, ifosfamide and busulfan. Nitrosoureas ... chlorambucil, and chlormethine. Drugs with medium risk include doxorubicin and platinum analogs such as cisplatin and ...
Barnett, Lois B; Lewis, Susan E (2003). "Chlornaphazine and chlorambucil induce dominant lethal mutations in male mice". ...
December 2000). "Fludarabine compared with chlorambucil as primary therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia". The New England ... Although the purine analogue fludarabine was shown to give superior response rates to chlorambucil as primary therapy, no ...
December 2000). "Fludarabine compared with chlorambucil as primary therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia". The New England ... producing higher response rates than alkylating agents such as chlorambucil alone. Fludarabine is used in various combinations ...
Other nitrogen mustards developed include cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, uramustine, melphalan, and bendamustine. Bendamustine ...
Chlorambucil, a chemotherapeutic agent, was more effective when conjugated to an SPA than without. In 2012, SPAs were ... SPAs have been paired with the DNA-alkylating moieties cyclopropylpyrroloindole and chlorambucil that were able to damage and ... "DNA crosslinking and biological activity of a hairpin polyamide-chlorambucil conjugate". Nucleic Acids Research. 31 (21): 1208- ...
It is the ester formed from two other drugs, prednisolone and chlorambucil. Rarely, it has been associated with myoclonus. List ...
These include: Bleomycin, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, doxorubicin, lomustine, mitoxantrone, topotecan, and ...
... chlorambucil, or chlorambucil + rituximab have been used to treat extensive disease with each treatment giving approximately ... chlorambucil), immunotherapy (i.e. rituximab, or a combination (e.g. chlorambucil + rituximab or fludarabine + rituximab or ... Complete responses have been observed in most patients treated with chlorambucil, CHOP regimens, or rituximab but recurrence ... Intravenous rituximab achieves remission rates of 85% in patients that have not received chemotherapy; chlorambucil ...
In November 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil as a first- ... In the clinical trial of obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil, participants experienced infusion reactions (69%; 21% ... Obinutuzumab is used in combination with chlorambucil as a first-line treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It is also ...
... chlorambucil). Remission of the lesions may occur in some cases, but in the others low doses of life-long immunosuppression may ...
The investigation was conducted due to rising prices for five drugs (chlorambucil, melphalan, mercaptopurine, tioguanine and ...
... chlorambucil and chlormethine. Drugs with medium risk include doxorubicin and platinum analogs such as cisplatin and ...
The primary chemotherapeutic plan is combination chemotherapy with chlorambucil or cyclophosphamide, plus a corticosteroid such ... chlorambucil, and various forms of combination chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone CHOP, ...
2013: Gazyva (obinutuzumab): For use in combination with chlorambucil to treat patients with previously untreated chronic ...
Gastrointestinal lymphoma has also commonly been treated with a combination of prednisolone and high dose pulse chlorambucil ... Other chemotherapy drugs such as chlorambucil, lomustine (CCNU), cytosine arabinoside, and mitoxantrone are sometimes used in ...
... sometimes in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs such as chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, or vincristine or with thalidomide ...
... an allele of reeler isolated from a chlorambucil screen, is due to an IAP insertion with exon skipping". Genomics. 42 (3): 479- ...
... chlorambucil and chlormethine. Drugs with medium risk include doxorubicin and platinum analogs such as cisplatin and ...
... chlorambucil (Leukeran) and melphalan (Alkeran). In 1952 the ICR's Eric Boyland had proposed that certain chemicals that cause ...
... or chlorambucil. Treatment is often lifelong, but there is a good prognosis for long-term remission. Alaskan Malamute Collie ...
... combined with either azathioprine of chlorambucil. Very moderate cases may do well by simply avoiding cold exposure. Treatment ...
Their prodrug, which released one equivalent of caffeic acid and chlorambucil upon phototriggering, showed reasonable ...
Likewise chlorambucil and cyclophosphamide are seldom used in the treatment of sarcoidosis due to their high degree of toxicity ... chlorambucil, and cyclosporine), immunomodulatory (pentoxifylline and thalidomide), and anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment ( ...
... chlorambucil). List of anatomical isthmi Saladin, Kenneth (2011-01-13). Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function. p ...
Chlorambucil is in the alkylating agent family of medications. It works by blocking the formation of DNA and RNA. Chlorambucil ... Chlorambucil was first synthesized by Everett et al. "Chlorambucil". National Cancer Institute. 17 September 2014. Archived ... Chlorambucil is a white to pale beige crystalline or granular powder with a slight odor. When heated to decomposition it emits ... Chlorambucil alkylates and cross-links DNA during all phases of the cell cycle, inducing DNA damage via three different methods ...
This combination contains the chemotherapy drug chlorambucil and the steroid hormone prednisone. Combinations usually work ... More About CHLORAMBUCIL-PREDNISONE. Definition from the NCI Drug Dictionary - Detailed scientific definition and other names ... This combination contains the chemotherapy drug chlorambucil and the steroid hormone prednisone. Combinations usually work ...
Some effects may occur after treatment with chlorambucil has been stopped. Before you begin treatment with chlorambucil, you ... Chlorambucil belongs to the group of medicines called alkylating agents. It is used to treat different types of cancer of the ... Chlorambucil interferes with the growth of cancer cells, which are eventually destroyed. Since the growth of normal cells may ...
... chlorambucil), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules ... chlorambucil oral CHLORAMBUCIL - ORAL (klor-AM-bue-sil) COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Leukeran WARNING: Although chlorambucil is used ... You should not become pregnant while using chlorambucil. Chlorambucil may harm an unborn baby. If you become pregnant, talk to ... encoded search term (chlorambucil (Leukeran)) and chlorambucil (Leukeran) What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Chlorambucil in the treatment of patients with immune-mediated rheumatic diseases. Arthritis Rheum 1993;36:325-328.PMID:8452576 ... Immunosuppressants: Concurrent use of chlorambucil increases risk of myelosuppression and infection.. Patient Instructions: ...
chlorambucil (Leukeran). *cyclcophosphamide (Cytoxan). *Biological response modifiers (biologics) *etanercept (Enbrel). * ...
For T3 disease, the NCCN recommends radiation therapy; chlorambucil; or cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (CVP) ... Antibody monotherapy (eg, rituximab, radioimmunotherapy) or chlorambucil plus rituximab remain alternatives for patients with a ...
47% of patients on chlorambucil plus obinutuzumab remained free of disease progression or death at 24 months ... chlorambucil plus obinutuzumab. In an exploratory analysis, CALQUENCE in combination or alone demonstrated consistent PFS ... chlorambucil, a chemotherapy, in combination with obinutuzumab in previously untreated patients with CLL. Patients 65 years of ... The primary endpoint is PFS in the CALQUENCE and obinutuzumab arm compared to the chlorambucil and obinutuzumab arm, assessed ...
Leukeran®see Chlorambucil. *Leukine®see Sargramostim. *Leuprolide Injection. *Leuprorelin Acetatesee Leuprolide Injection ...
... or chlorambucil, or a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha antagonist. Most of the previously reported therapies are as listed ...
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above. ...
The patient populations in the bendamustine hydrochloride and chlorambucil treatment groups were balanced with regard to the ... Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Efficacy relative to first line therapies other than chlorambucil has not been established ... Kaplan-Meier estimates of progression-free survival comparing bendamustine hydrochloride with chlorambucil are shown in Figure ... Table 2: Incidence of Hematology Laboratory Abnormalities in Patients Who Received Bendamustine Hydrochloride or Chlorambucil ...
... sustained efficacy and safety of acalabrutinib/obinutuzumab and acalabrutinib monotherapy compared to obinutuzumab/chlorambucil ... obinutuzumab/chlorambucil. For the 79 patients who crossed over from obinutuzumab/chlorambucil to acalabrutinib monotherapy, ... Longer Follow-up Results of ELEVATE-TN trial of Acalabrutinib ± Obinutuzumab Versus Obinutuzumab + Chlorambucil in Patients ... Among patients who crossed over from obinutuzumab/chlorambucil to acalabrutinib (n=32) 12% discontinued acalabrutinib due to ...
Results from the International, Randomized Phase 3 Study of Ibrutinib Versus Chlorambucil in Patients 65 Years and Older with ... Results from the International, Randomized Phase 3 Study of Ibrutinib Versus Chlorambucil in Patients 65 Years and Older with ...
CanMED: NDC. The Cancer Medications Enquiry Database (CanMED) is a two-part resource for cancer drug treatment related studies.
Chlorambucil High-dose cisplatin chemotherapy is associated with kidney toxicity and damage, which may be reduced by ...
Twenty-seven cats were treated with vincristine sulfate, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone; 1 was treated with chlorambucil and ...
229960004630 chlorambucil Drugs 0.000 description 1 * JCKYGMPEJWAADB-UHFFFAOYSA-N chlorambucil Chemical compound OC(=O)CCCC1=CC ... chlorambucil), ethylenimines and methylmelamines (hexamethylmelamine and thiotepa), alkyl sulfonates-busulfan, nirtosoureas ( ...
A clinical study on the use of chlorambucil in the treatment of cancer of the ovary. MASTERSON JG, CALAME RJ, NELSON J. ...
Open-Label, Phase-2 Clinical Trial of Chlorambucil and Toceranib for Canine Mast Cell Tumors ...
Leukeran is a medication commonly used in the treatment of various forms of cancer, including lymphoma and leukemia. It belongs to a class of drugs known as alkylating agents. Alkylating agents work by interfering with the DNA replication process of cancer cells, ultimately causing their death.. Leukeran is available in tablet form and is typically taken orally. This convenience allows for easy administration and adherence to the prescribed treatment plan. The dose and duration of Leukeran therapy may vary depending on the specific type and stage of cancer, as well as individual patient factors.. This powerful medication targets cancer cells directly, helping to slow down their growth and reduce tumor size. By disrupting their DNA replication process, Leukeran effectively hampers cancer cells ability to divide and spread, ultimately leading to their destruction.. The effectiveness of Leukeran varies depending on the type of cancer being treated. Lymphoma and leukemia, in particular, have shown ...
... chlorambucil with rituximab, or chlorambucil with obinutuzumab. The combination of chlorambucil and obinutuzumab provided an ... In a recent update, patients treated with chlorambucil and obinutuzumab had longer PFS compared with a regimen of chlorambucil ... Chlorambucil plus ofatumumab versus chlorambucil alone in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia ( ... Chlorambucil and obinutuzumab produced a higher ORR compared with that reported for chlorambucil and rituximab (78.4% vs 65.1 ...
Cyclophosphamide (USP); Cyclophosphamide hydrate (JP18) ,JP/US ...
As far as we know so far, my cat is doing well so far on Chlorambucil and Ive been able to reduce his pred back down to 2.5mg ... As far as we know so far, my cat is doing well so far on Chlorambucil and Ive been able to reduce his pred back down to 2.5mg ... As far as we know so far, my cat is doing well so far on Chlorambucil and Ive been able to reduce his pred back down to 2.5mg ... We just recently started him on Chlorambucil (chemo pill), in addition to the pred. Part of this decision is that we had to up ...
Chlorambucil. Chloramphenicol. Chloramphenicol Palmitate. Chloramphenicol Sodium Succinate. Chlorcyclizine. Chlorcyclizine HCl ...
Tags: Leukeran, Chlorambucil. Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked ...
... chlorambucil, and lomustine were ND. MDEA was monitored as a potential stable marker for the highly unstable antineoplastic ...
a and 400 mg, in leap years rats given chlorambucil.. The body may most men go can pull off ethinyl estradiol plasma ...
1997) Chlorambucil-taurocholate is transported by bile acid carriers expressed in human hepatocellular carcinomas. ...
  • Chlorambucil, sold under the brand name Leukeran among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), Hodgkin lymphoma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorambucil alkylates and cross-links DNA during all phases of the cell cycle, inducing DNA damage via three different methods of covalent adduct generation with double-helical DNA: Attachment of alkyl groups to DNA bases, resulting in the DNA being fragmented by repair enzymes in their attempts to replace the alkylated bases, preventing DNA synthesis and RNA transcription from the affected DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorambucil alkylates and cross-links strands of DNA, inhibiting DNA replication and RNA transcription. (medscape.com)
  • Most patients are treated with oral prednisone, with or without a cytotoxic/immunosuppressive agent, such as methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, or chlorambucil, or a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha antagonist. (medscape.com)
  • Adverse events (AEs) led to treatment discontinuation in 11.2% of patients treated with CALQUENCE in combination with obinutuzumab and 8.9% of patients treated with CALQUENCE monotherapy versus 14.1% of patients treated with chlorambucil plus obinutuzumab. (businesswire.com)
  • All of the 5 wipe samples submitted for toceranib, chlorambucil, and lomustine were ND. (cdc.gov)
  • BUSINESS WIRE )--AstraZeneca today presented results from the interim analysis of the Phase III ELEVATE TN trial, showing that CALQUENCE ® (acalabrutinib) combined with obinutuzumab or as monotherapy significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared to chlorambucil plus obinutuzumab, a standard chemo-immunotherapy treatment, in patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). (businesswire.com)
  • At a median follow-up of 28.3 months, CALQUENCE in combination with obinutuzumab or as a monotherapy significantly reduced the risk of disease progression or death by 90% and 80%, respectively, vs. chlorambucil plus obinutuzumab. (businesswire.com)
  • The ELEVATE-TN (NCT02475681) trial demonstrated superior efficacy with acalabrutinib ± obinutuzumab versus obinutuzumab/chlorambucil (median follow-up: ≤58.2 months) in patients with treatment-naive chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). (conference-correspondent.com)
  • crossover to acalabrutinib monotherapy was allowed in patients who progressed on obinutuzumab/chlorambucil. (conference-correspondent.com)
  • The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) (acalabrutinib/obinutuzumab vs obinutuzumab/chlorambucil). (conference-correspondent.com)
  • A total of 535 patients were enrolled and randomized to receive acalabrutinib monotherapy (n=179), acalabrutinib/obinutuzumab (n=179), or obinutuzumab/chlorambucil (n=177). (conference-correspondent.com)
  • The estimated 72-month PFS rates were 78% for acalabrutinib/obinutuzumab, 62% for acalabrutinib, and 17% obinutuzumab/chlorambucil. (conference-correspondent.com)
  • estimated 72-months OS rates were 87% for acalabrutinib/obinutuzumab, 79% for acalabrutinib, and 80% for obinutuzumab/chlorambucil cohorts. (conference-correspondent.com)
  • ORR and complete response (CR) rates were significantly higher with acalabrutinib/obinutuzumab and acalabrutinib monotherapy compared to obinutuzumab/chlorambucil ( P ≤.0499 for both arms). (conference-correspondent.com)
  • Among patients who crossed over from obinutuzumab/chlorambucil to acalabrutinib (n=32) 12% discontinued acalabrutinib due to AEs (n=10). (conference-correspondent.com)
  • Extended follow-up results of the Elevate-TN trial (median follow-up of 74.5 months) confirmed sustained efficacy and safety of acalabrutinib/obinutuzumab and acalabrutinib monotherapy compared to obinutuzumab/chlorambucil in patients with treatment-naive CLL, including in patients with high-risk genetic features. (conference-correspondent.com)
  • This combination contains the chemotherapy drug chlorambucil and the steroid hormone prednisone. (cancer.gov)
  • The precise mechanisms by which chlorambucil acts to kill tumor cells are not yet completely understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorambucil's current use is mainly in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, as it is well tolerated by most patients, though chlorambucil has been largely replaced by fludarabine as first-line treatment in younger patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorambucil in indolent chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Chlorambucil in the treatment of patients with immune-mediated rheumatic diseases. (rheumaknowledgy.com)
  • Immunosuppressants: Concurrent use of chlorambucil increases risk of myelosuppression and infection. (rheumaknowledgy.com)
  • Efficacy relative to first line therapies other than chlorambucil has not been established. (nih.gov)
  • This is important since chlorambucil, as an electrophile, is made less reactive by conjugation with glutathione, thereby making the drug less toxic to the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • chlorambucil decreases effects of adenovirus types 4 and 7 live, oral by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (medscape.com)
  • Some effects may occur after treatment with chlorambucil has been stopped. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Before you begin treatment with chlorambucil, you and your doctor should talk about the benefits this medicine will do as well as the risks of using it. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Skin reactions Hepatotoxicity Infertility Hair Loss Chlorambucil produces its anti-cancer effects by interfering with DNA replication and damaging the DNA in a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study has shown Chlorambucil to be detoxified by human glutathione transferase Pi (GST P1-1), an enzyme that is often found over-expressed in cancer tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shown above, chlorambucil reacts with glutathione as catalyzed by hGSTA 1-1 leading to the formation of the monoglutathionyl derivative of chlorambucil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alemtuzumab has been approved for use in CLL and has shown superior response rates compared with chlorambucil. (medscape.com)
  • Like many alkylating agents, chlorambucil has been associated with the development of other forms of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorambucil interferes with the growth of cancer cells, which are eventually destroyed. (mayoclinic.org)
  • RÉSUMÉ Afin d'atteindre les objectifs de santé fixés par le pays pour 2011-2016, une analyse qualitative de l'exposition aux facteurs de risque de cancer au Qatar a été conduite en 2013. (who.int)
  • Les risques de cancer les plus élevés pour les Qatariens proviendraient de facteurs associés aux modes de vie, en particulier l'obésité, la sédentarité et le tabagisme. (who.int)
  • a and 400 mg, in leap years rats given chlorambucil. (headfonia.com)
  • In the 1950s, aromatic mustards like chlorambucil were introduced as less toxic alkylating agents than the aliphatic nitrogen mustards, proving to be less electrophilic and react with DNA more slowly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorambucil belongs to the group of medicines called alkylating agents. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Our patient was started on a chemotherapy regime with no effect, and then oral chlorambucil was administered, with a relatively good result. (medscape.com)
  • Chlorambucil is a cytotoxic chemotherapy drug, prescribed for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease and lymphosarcoma. (medindia.net)
  • Obinutuzuab in combination with chlorambucil for previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia where fludarabine-based therapy is considered inappropriate. (lymphoma.ca)
  • tell your doctor if you have taken chlorambucil before, but your cancer did not respond to the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chlorambucil is a prescription medication used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, a type of cancer of the white blood cells). (rxwiki.com)
  • Tell your doctor if you are allergic to any ingredient in chlorambucil or any other medication, especially other alkylating agents. (rxwiki.com)
  • Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal cytotoxic antineoplastic drug therapy, especially alkylating agents such as chlorambucil. (nih.gov)
  • This is not a complete list of chlorambucil drug interactions. (rxwiki.com)
  • The chemo went smooth as could be and they now have him on a daily Chlorambucil pill, which luckily has not produced a single side effect. (tripawds.com)
  • Chlorambucil is a cytostatically active drug, oral, bifunctionally alkylating nitrogen-lost derivative with. (altmeyers.org)
  • If you become pregnant while taking chlorambucil, call your doctor immediately. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Women should not get pregnant while on chlorambucil. (rxwiki.com)
  • An overview of Genetic Toxicology Micronucleus Mice study conclusions related to Chlorambucil (305-03-3). (nih.gov)
  • Chlorambucil is an orally administered alkylating agent which is currently used in the therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and rarely in severe autoimmune conditions including rheumatoid arthritis, uveitis and nephrotic syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • Chlorambucil is also used to treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin's disease (types of cancer that begin in certain white blood cells that normally fight infection). (medlineplus.gov)
  • We present a case of a primary uveal lymphoma with conjunctival and orbital extension, successfully managed with oral chlorambucil. (medscape.com)
  • This is the first documented report of the efficacy of oral chlorambucil in the treatment of primary uveal lymphoma. (medscape.com)
  • Chlorambucil may increase the risk that you will develop other cancers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chlorambucil treats certain types of blood cancers. (rxwiki.com)
  • Chlorambucil can cause a decrease in the number of blood cells in your bone marrow. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the case of chlorambucil there are no specific foods that you must exclude from your diet when receiving chlorambucil. (rxwiki.com)
  • Chlorambucil may interfere with the normal menstrual cycle (period) in women and may stop sperm production in men. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Chlorambucil in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. (nih.gov)
  • Chlorambucil therapy has been associated with low rates of serum enzyme elevations during therapy and to rare instances of acute, clinically apparent injury. (nih.gov)