A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.

The actions of ether, alcohol and alkane general anaesthetics on GABAA and glycine receptors and the effects of TM2 and TM3 mutations. (1/124)

The actions of 13 general anaesthetics (diethyl ether, enflurane, isoflurane, methoxyflurane, sevoflurane, chloral hydrate, trifluoroethanol, tribromoethanol, tert-butanol, chloretone, brometone, trichloroethylene, and alpha-chloralose) were studied on agonist-activated Cl(-) currents at human GABA(A) alpha(2)beta(1), glycine alpha(1), and GABA(C) rho(1) receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. All 13 anaesthetics enhanced responses to submaximal (EC(20)) concentrations of agonist at GABA(A) and glycine receptors, except alpha-chloralose, which did not enhance responses at the glycine alpha(1) receptor. None of the anaesthetics studied potentiated GABA responses at the GABA(C) rho(1) receptor. Potentiation of submaximal agonist currents by the anaesthetics was studied at GABA(A) and glycine receptors harbouring mutations in putative transmembrane domains 2 and 3 within GABA(A) alpha(2), beta(1), or glycine alpha(1) receptor subunits: GABA(A) alpha(2)(S270I)beta(1), alpha(2)(A291W)beta(1), alpha(2)beta(1)(S265I), and alpha(2)beta(1)(M286W); glycine alpha(1)(S267I) and alpha(1)(A288W). For all anaesthetics studied except alpha-chloralose, at least one of the mutations above abolished drug potentiation of agonist responses at GABA(A) and glycine receptors. alpha-Chloralose produced efficacious direct activation of the GABA(A) alpha(2)beta(1) receptor (a 'GABA-mimetic' effect). The other 12 anaesthetics produced minimal or no direct activation of GABA(A) and glycine receptors. A non-anaesthetic isomer of alpha-chloralose, beta-chloralose, was inactive at GABA(A) and glycine receptors and did not antagonize the actions of alpha-chloralose at GABA(A) receptors. The implications of these findings for the molecular mechanisms of action of general anaesthetics at GABA(A) and glycine receptors are discussed.  (+info)

Effect of distension of the gallbladder on plasma renin activity in anesthetized pigs. (2/124)

BACKGROUND: Gallbladder pathology has been associated with cardiovascular disease. Recently, we showed that gallbladder distension in anesthetized pigs reflexly increased heart rate, arterial pressure, and coronary and renal vascular resistance through efferent sympathetic mechanisms. Renin release is affected by sympathetic output, and angiotensin liberation may result in vasoconstriction. This study was undertaken to determine whether gallbladder distension primarily causes a reflex change in plasma renin activity (PRA) and to assess its influence on observed pressor and coronary responses as well as on regional vascular resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 34 alpha-chloralose-anesthetized pigs, balloons positioned within the gallbladder were distended for 30 minutes with volumes of Ringer's solution equal to those of withdrawn bile. In 19 pigs, gallbladder distension at constant heart rate, arterial pressure, and renal flow increased PRA in the absence of changes in urinary sodium excretion. This increase was abolished by cervical vagotomy, section of renal nerves, or blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors. In another 15 pigs, blockade of angiotensin II receptors significantly attenuated the pressor and coronary, mesenteric, and iliac vasoconstriction responses to gallbladder distension. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that innocuous gallbladder distension primarily caused a reflex increase in PRA. This increase, which involved afferent vagal pathways and efferent sympathetic mechanisms related to beta-adrenergic receptors, contributed significantly to the pressor and coronary, mesenteric, and iliac vasoconstriction responses to gallbladder distension.  (+info)

Nerve-evoked secretion of immunoglobulin A in relation to other proteins by parotid glands in anaesthetized rat. (3/124)

Secretion of fluid and proteins by salivary cells is under the control of parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic nerves. In a recent study we have shown that, in the rat submandibular gland, autonomic nerves can also increase the secretion of IgA, a product of plasma cells secreted into saliva as SIgA (IgA bound to Secretory Component, the cleaved poly-immunoglobulin receptor). The present study aimed to determine if parotid secretion of SIgA is increased by autonomic nerves and to compare SIgA secretion with other parotid proteins stored and secreted by acinar and ductal cells. Assay of IgA in saliva evoked by parasympathetic nerve stimulation immediately following an extended rest period under anaesthesia indicated that it had been secreted into intraductal saliva in the absence of stimulation during the rest period. The mean rate of unstimulated IgA secretion (2.77+/-0.28 microg min(-1) g(-1)) and the 2.5-fold increase in IgA secretion evoked by parasympathetic stimulation were similar to results found previously in the rat submandibular gland. Sympathetic nerve stimulation increased SIgA secretion 2.7-fold, much less than in the submandibular gland. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis with anti-IgA and anti-Secretory Component antibodies confirmed that SIgA was the predominant form of IgA in saliva. Acinar-derived amylase and ductal-derived tissue kallikrein were more profoundly increased by parasympathetic and particularly sympathetic stimulation than SIgA. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that SIgA forms a prominent component of unstimulated parotid salivary protein secretion and that its secretion is similarly increased by stimulation of either autonomic nerve supply. The secretion of other parotid salivary proteins that are synthesized and stored by acinar or ductal cells is upregulated to a much greater extent by parasympathetic and particularly sympathetic stimulation.  (+info)

Gadolinium attenuates exercise pressor reflex in cats. (4/124)

The exercise pressor reflex, which arises from the contraction-induced stimulation of group III and IV muscle afferents, is widely believed to be evoked by metabolic stimuli signaling a mismatch between blood/oxygen demand and supply in the working muscles. Nevertheless, mechanical stimuli may also play a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex. To determine this role, we examined the effect of gadolinium, which blocks mechanosensitive channels, on the exercise pressor reflex in both decerebrate and alpha-chloralose-anesthetized cats. We found that gadolinium (10 mM; 1 ml) injected into the femoral artery significantly attenuated the reflex pressor responses to static contraction of the triceps surae muscles and to stretch of the calcaneal (Achilles) tendon. In contrast, gadolinium had no effect on the reflex pressor response to femoral arterial injection of capsaicin (5 microg). In addition, gadolinium significantly attenuated the responses of group III muscle afferents, many of which are mechanically sensitive, to both static contraction and to tendon stretch. Gadolinium, however, had no effect on the responses of group IV muscle afferents, many of which are metabolically sensitive, to either static contraction or to capsaicin injection. We conclude that mechanical stimuli arising in contracting skeletal muscles contribute to the elicitation of the exercise pressor reflex.  (+info)

Potencies of doxapram and hypoxia in stimulating carotid-body chemoreceptors and ventilation in anesthetized cats. (5/124)

The effects of doxapram on carotid chemoreceptor activity and on ventilation (phrenic-nerve activity) were tested before and after denervation of the peripheral chemoreceptors in cats. Doxapram was found to be a potent stimulus to the carotid chemoreceptors; the stimulation produced by 1.0 mg/kg doxapram, iv, equalled that produced by a Pao2 of 38 torr. Doxapram also increased phrenic-nerve activity in doses as low as 0.2 mg/kg, iv. After denervation of the peripheral chemoreceptors, doxapram in doses as large as 6 mg/kg failed to stimulate ventilation. It is concluded that (in anesthetized cats) doxapram in doses of less than 6 mg/kg increases ventilation by direct stimulation of the carotid, and, probably, the aortic, chemoreceptors, not by a direct effect on the medullary respiratory center.  (+info)

Hemodynamic consequences of the combination of isoflurane anesthesia (1 MAC) and beta-adrenergic blockade in the dog. (6/124)

The hemodynamic response to the combination of isoflurane (1 MAC) and propranolol (0.5 mg/kg) was studied in 12 intact ventilated dogs following basal anesthesia with chloralose-urethane. When propranolol was administered during isoflurane anesthesia, stroke volume was maintained with a higher pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (3.2 plus or minus 0.7 mm Hg to 6.3 plus or minus 1.4 mm Hg), while systemic vascular resistance remained unchanged. When isoflurane was administered to the previously beta-adrenergically blocked dog, there were declines in systemic pressure and cardiac output (P smaller than 0.01) and in pulmonary arterial pressure and stroke volume (P smaller then 0.05), without change in systemic vascular resistance. When isoflurane was subsequently discontinued, these changes were reversed, and in addition, systemic vascular resistance increased (P smaller than 0.05). These data indicate that isoflurane has pharmacologic properties compatible with a peripheral beta-adrenergic stimulating action.  (+info)

Effect of clonidine on the excitability of vasomotor loci in the cat. (7/124)

1. The effect of clonidine on the direct excitability of hypothalamic, medullary and spinal vasomotor loci has been investigated in cats anaesthetized with chloralose. 2. Clonidine inhibited the excitability of these loci when it was localized to the central sites by intracerebroventricular, intravertebral arterial or intrathecal injection in very low doses (1-2 mug). 3. Topical application of clonidine (0.01 percent and 1.0 percent) to the floor of the fourth ventricle inhibited pressor responses evoked either by stimulation of medullary or hypothalamic vasomotor areas. Inhibition of the pressor responses was accompanied by hypotension and bradycardia in many experiments. 4. It appears that effects of clonidine on the vasomotor loci of the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord contribute to its hypotensive action.  (+info)

Effects of anesthesia on functional activation of cerebral blood flow and metabolism. (8/124)

Functional brain mapping based on changes in local cerebral blood flow (lCBF) or glucose utilization (lCMR(glc)) induced by functional activation is generally carried out in animals under anesthesia, usually alpha-chloralose because of its lesser effects on cardiovascular, respiratory, and reflex functions. Results of studies on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the mechanism of functional activation of lCBF have differed in unanesthetized and anesthetized animals. NO synthase inhibition markedly attenuates or eliminates the lCBF responses in anesthetized animals but not in unanesthetized animals. The present study examines in conscious rats and rats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose the effects of vibrissal stimulation on lCMR(glc) and lCBF in the whisker-to-barrel cortex pathway and on the effects of NO synthase inhibition with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on the magnitude of the responses. Anesthesia markedly reduced the lCBF and lCMR(glc) responses in the ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus and barrel cortex but not in the spinal and principal trigeminal nuclei. L-NAME did not alter the lCBF responses in any of the structures of the pathway in the unanesthetized rats and also not in the trigeminal nuclei of the anesthetized rats. In the thalamus and sensory cortex of the anesthetized rats, where the lCBF responses to stimulation had already been drastically diminished by the anesthesia, L-NAME treatment resulted in loss of statistically significant activation of lCBF by vibrissal stimulation. These results indicate that NO does not mediate functional activation of lCBF under physiological conditions.  (+info)

Chloralose is not a medical term commonly used in modern medicine. However, historically, it is a chemical compound that has been used in research and veterinary medicine as an sedative and hypnotic agent. It is a combination of chloral hydrate and sodium pentobarbital.

Chloralose has been used in research to study the effects of sedation on various physiological processes, such as respiration and circulation. In veterinary medicine, it has been used as an anesthetic for small animals during surgical procedures. However, due to its potential for serious side effects, including respiratory depression and cardiac arrest, chloralose is not commonly used in clinical practice today.

Pentobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is primarily used for its sedative and hypnotic effects in the treatment of insomnia, seizure disorders, and occasionally to treat severe agitation or delirium. It works by decreasing the activity of nerves in the brain, which produces a calming effect.

In addition to its medical uses, pentobarbital has been used for non-therapeutic purposes such as euthanasia and capital punishment due to its ability to cause respiratory depression and death when given in high doses. It is important to note that the use of pentobarbital for these purposes is highly regulated and restricted to licensed medical professionals in specific circumstances.

Like all barbiturates, pentobarbital has a high potential for abuse and addiction, and its use should be closely monitored by a healthcare provider. It can also cause serious side effects such as respiratory depression, decreased heart rate, and low blood pressure, especially when used in large doses or combined with other central nervous system depressants.

"Cat" is a common name that refers to various species of small carnivorous mammals that belong to the family Felidae. The domestic cat, also known as Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus, is a popular pet and companion animal. It is a subspecies of the wildcat, which is found in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Domestic cats are often kept as pets because of their companionship, playful behavior, and ability to hunt vermin. They are also valued for their ability to provide emotional support and therapy to people. Cats are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that consists mainly of meat to meet their nutritional needs.

Cats are known for their agility, sharp senses, and predatory instincts. They have retractable claws, which they use for hunting and self-defense. Cats also have a keen sense of smell, hearing, and vision, which allow them to detect prey and navigate their environment.

In medical terms, cats can be hosts to various parasites and diseases that can affect humans and other animals. Some common feline diseases include rabies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and toxoplasmosis. It is important for cat owners to keep their pets healthy and up-to-date on vaccinations and preventative treatments to protect both the cats and their human companions.

The carotid sinus is a small, dilated area located at the bifurcation (or fork) of the common carotid artery into the internal and external carotid arteries. It is a baroreceptor region, which means it contains specialized sensory nerve endings that can detect changes in blood pressure. When the blood pressure increases, the walls of the carotid sinus stretch, activating these nerve endings and sending signals to the brain. The brain then responds by reducing the heart rate and relaxing the blood vessels, which helps to lower the blood pressure back to normal.

The carotid sinus is an important part of the body's autonomic nervous system, which regulates various involuntary functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion. It plays a crucial role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis and preventing excessive increases in blood pressure that could potentially damage vital organs.

A reflex is an automatic, involuntary and rapid response to a stimulus that occurs without conscious intention. In the context of physiology and neurology, it's a basic mechanism that involves the transmission of nerve impulses between neurons, resulting in a muscle contraction or glandular secretion.

Reflexes are important for maintaining homeostasis, protecting the body from harm, and coordinating movements. They can be tested clinically to assess the integrity of the nervous system, such as the knee-j jerk reflex, which tests the function of the L3-L4 spinal nerve roots and the sensitivity of the stretch reflex arc.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Pressoreceptors are specialized sensory nerve endings found in the walls of blood vessels, particularly in the carotid sinus and aortic arch. They respond to changes in blood pressure by converting the mechanical stimulus into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain. This information helps regulate cardiovascular function and maintain blood pressure homeostasis.

Anesthesia is a medical term that refers to the loss of sensation or awareness, usually induced by the administration of various drugs. It is commonly used during surgical procedures to prevent pain and discomfort. There are several types of anesthesia, including:

1. General anesthesia: This type of anesthesia causes a complete loss of consciousness and is typically used for major surgeries.
2. Regional anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a specific area of the body, such as an arm or leg, while the patient remains conscious.
3. Local anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a small area of the body, such as a cut or wound, and is typically used for minor procedures.

Anesthesia can be administered through various routes, including injection, inhalation, or topical application. The choice of anesthesia depends on several factors, including the type and duration of the procedure, the patient's medical history, and their overall health. Anesthesiologists are medical professionals who specialize in administering anesthesia and monitoring patients during surgical procedures to ensure their safety and comfort.

A vagotomy is a surgical procedure that involves cutting or blocking the vagus nerve, which is a parasympathetic nerve that runs from the brainstem to the abdomen and helps regulate many bodily functions such as heart rate, gastrointestinal motility, and digestion. In particular, vagotomy is often performed as a treatment for peptic ulcers, as it can help reduce gastric acid secretion.

There are several types of vagotomy procedures, including:

1. Truncal vagotomy: This involves cutting the main trunks of the vagus nerve as they enter the abdomen. It is a more extensive procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion significantly but can also lead to side effects such as delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.
2. Selective vagotomy: This involves cutting only the branches of the vagus nerve that supply the stomach, leaving the rest of the nerve intact. It is a less extensive procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion while minimizing side effects.
3. Highly selective vagotomy (HSV): Also known as parietal cell vagotomy, this involves cutting only the branches of the vagus nerve that supply the acid-secreting cells in the stomach. It is a highly targeted procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion while minimizing side effects such as delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.

Vagotomy is typically performed using laparoscopic or open surgical techniques, depending on the patient's individual needs and the surgeon's preference. While vagotomy can be effective in treating peptic ulcers, it is not commonly performed today due to the development of less invasive treatments such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that reduce gastric acid secretion without surgery.

Hexamethonium compounds are a type of ganglionic blocker, which are medications that block the transmission of nerve impulses at the ganglia ( clusters of nerve cells) in the autonomic nervous system. These compounds contain hexamethonium as the active ingredient, which is a compound with the chemical formula C16H32N2O4.

Hexamethonium works by blocking the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the ganglia, which prevents the release of neurotransmitters and ultimately inhibits the transmission of nerve impulses. This can have various effects on the body, depending on which part of the autonomic nervous system is affected.

Hexamethonium compounds were once used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), but they are rarely used today due to their numerous side effects and the availability of safer and more effective medications. Some of the side effects associated with hexamethonium include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, difficulty urinating, and dizziness upon standing.

The vagus nerve, also known as the 10th cranial nerve (CN X), is the longest of the cranial nerves and extends from the brainstem to the abdomen. It has both sensory and motor functions and plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, speech, and sweating, among others.

The vagus nerve is responsible for carrying sensory information from the internal organs to the brain, and it also sends motor signals from the brain to the muscles of the throat and voice box, as well as to the heart, lungs, and digestive tract. The vagus nerve helps regulate the body's involuntary responses, such as controlling heart rate and blood pressure, promoting relaxation, and reducing inflammation.

Dysfunction in the vagus nerve can lead to various medical conditions, including gastroparesis, chronic pain, and autonomic nervous system disorders. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapeutic intervention that involves delivering electrical impulses to the vagus nerve to treat conditions such as epilepsy, depression, and migraine headaches.

Chemoreceptor cells are specialized sensory neurons that detect and respond to chemical changes in the internal or external environment. They play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis within the body by converting chemical signals into electrical impulses, which are then transmitted to the central nervous system for further processing and response.

There are two main types of chemoreceptor cells:

1. Oxygen Chemoreceptors: These cells are located in the carotid bodies near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and in the aortic bodies close to the aortic arch. They monitor the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH in the blood and respond to decreases in oxygen concentration or increases in carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions (indicating acidity) by increasing their firing rate. This signals the brain to increase respiratory rate and depth, thereby restoring normal oxygen levels.

2. Taste Cells: These chemoreceptor cells are found within the taste buds of the tongue and other areas of the oral cavity. They detect specific tastes (salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami) by interacting with molecules from food. When a tastant binds to receptors on the surface of a taste cell, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the generation of an action potential. This information is then relayed to the brain, where it is interpreted as taste sensation.

In summary, chemoreceptor cells are essential for maintaining physiological balance by detecting and responding to chemical stimuli in the body. They play a critical role in regulating vital functions such as respiration and digestion.

Atropine is an anticholinergic drug that blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is derived from the belladonna alkaloids, which are found in plants such as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium), and Duboisia spp.

In clinical medicine, atropine is used to reduce secretions, increase heart rate, and dilate the pupils. It is often used before surgery to dry up secretions in the mouth, throat, and lungs, and to reduce salivation during the procedure. Atropine is also used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisoning, as well as to manage bradycardia (slow heart rate) and hypotension (low blood pressure) caused by beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers.

Atropine can have several side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, confusion, and difficulty urinating. In high doses, it can cause delirium, hallucinations, and seizures. Atropine should be used with caution in patients with glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, or other conditions that may be exacerbated by its anticholinergic effects.

The nictitating membrane, also known as the third eyelid, is a thin, translucent or transparent partial eyelid located in the inner corner of the eye in many animals. It moves horizontally across the eye and serves to clean, moisten, and protect the eye, especially during sleep or when the animal's eyes are closed. This membrane is present in some birds, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals, including seals and dogs, but is typically absent or poorly developed in primates, including humans.

Urethane is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, in the field of chemistry and pharmacology, urethane is an ethyl carbamate ester which has been used as a general anesthetic. It is rarely used today due to its potential carcinogenic properties and the availability of safer alternatives.

In the context of materials science, polyurethanes are a class of polymers that contain urethane linkages (-NH-CO-O-) in their main chain. They are widely used in various applications such as foam insulation, coatings, adhesives, and medical devices due to their versatile properties like flexibility, durability, and resistance to abrasion.

The cerebellar nuclei are clusters of neurons located within the white matter of the cerebellum, a region of the brain responsible for motor coordination, balance, and fine movement regulation. There are four main pairs of cerebellar nuclei: the fastigial, interpositus, dentate, and vestibular nuclei. These nuclei receive input from various parts of the cerebellar cortex and project to different areas of the brainstem and thalamus, contributing to the regulation of muscle tone, posture, and movement.

A forelimb is a term used in animal anatomy to refer to the upper limbs located in the front of the body, primarily involved in movement and manipulation of the environment. In humans, this would be equivalent to the arms, while in quadrupedal animals (those that move on four legs), it includes the structures that are comparable to both the arms and legs of humans, such as the front legs of dogs or the forepaws of cats. The bones that make up a typical forelimb include the humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

Efferent neurons are specialized nerve cells that transmit signals from the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord, to effector organs such as muscles or glands. These signals typically result in a response or action, hence the term "efferent," derived from the Latin word "efferre" meaning "to carry away."

Efferent neurons are part of the motor pathway and can be further classified into two types:

1. Somatic efferent neurons: These neurons transmit signals to skeletal muscles, enabling voluntary movements and posture maintenance. They have their cell bodies located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord and send their axons through the ventral roots to innervate specific muscle fibers.
2. Autonomic efferent neurons: These neurons are responsible for controlling involuntary functions, such as heart rate, digestion, respiration, and pupil dilation. They have a two-neuron chain arrangement, with the preganglionic neuron having its cell body in the CNS (brainstem or spinal cord) and synapsing with the postganglionic neuron in an autonomic ganglion near the effector organ. Autonomic efferent neurons can be further divided into sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric subdivisions based on their functions and innervation patterns.

In summary, efferent neurons are a critical component of the nervous system, responsible for transmitting signals from the CNS to various effector organs, ultimately controlling and coordinating numerous bodily functions and responses.

Afferent neurons, also known as sensory neurons, are a type of nerve cell that conducts impulses or signals from peripheral receptors towards the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord. These neurons are responsible for transmitting sensory information such as touch, temperature, pain, sound, and light to the CNS for processing and interpretation. Afferent neurons have specialized receptor endings that detect changes in the environment and convert them into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the CNS via synapses with other neurons. Once the signals reach the CNS, they are processed and integrated with other information to produce a response or reaction to the stimulus.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

Evoked potentials (EPs) are medical tests that measure the electrical activity in the brain or spinal cord in response to specific sensory stimuli, such as sight, sound, or touch. These tests are often used to help diagnose and monitor conditions that affect the nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis, brainstem tumors, and spinal cord injuries.

There are several types of EPs, including:

1. Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs): These are used to assess the function of the visual pathway from the eyes to the back of the brain. A patient is typically asked to look at a patterned image or flashing light while electrodes placed on the scalp record the electrical responses.
2. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEPs): These are used to evaluate the function of the auditory nerve and brainstem. Clicking sounds are presented to one or both ears, and electrodes placed on the scalp measure the response.
3. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEPs): These are used to assess the function of the peripheral nerves and spinal cord. Small electrical shocks are applied to a nerve at the wrist or ankle, and electrodes placed on the scalp record the response as it travels up the spinal cord to the brain.
4. Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs): These are used to assess the function of the motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord. A magnetic or electrical stimulus is applied to the brain or spinal cord, and electrodes placed on a muscle measure the response as it travels down the motor pathway.

EPs can help identify abnormalities in the nervous system that may not be apparent through other diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies or clinical examinations. They are generally safe, non-invasive procedures with few risks or side effects.

A hindlimb, also known as a posterior limb, is one of the pair of extremities that are located distally to the trunk in tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) and include mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. In humans and other primates, hindlimbs are equivalent to the lower limbs, which consist of the thigh, leg, foot, and toes.

The primary function of hindlimbs is locomotion, allowing animals to move from one place to another. However, they also play a role in other activities such as balance, support, and communication. In humans, the hindlimbs are responsible for weight-bearing, standing, walking, running, and jumping.

In medical terminology, the term "hindlimb" is not commonly used to describe human anatomy. Instead, healthcare professionals use terms like lower limbs or lower extremities to refer to the same region of the body. However, in comparative anatomy and veterinary medicine, the term hindlimb is still widely used to describe the corresponding structures in non-human animals.

A decerebrate state is a medical condition that results from severe damage to the brainstem, specifically to the midbrain and above. This type of injury can cause motor responses characterized by rigid extension of the arms and legs, with the arms rotated outward and the wrists and fingers extended. The legs are also extended and the toes pointed downward. These postures are often referred to as "decerebrate rigidity" or "posturing."

The decerebrate state is typically seen in patients who have experienced severe trauma, such as a car accident or gunshot wound, or who have suffered from a large stroke or other type of brain hemorrhage. It can also occur in some cases of severe hypoxia (lack of oxygen) to the brain, such as during cardiac arrest or drowning.

The decerebrate state is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. If left untreated, it can lead to further brain damage and even death. Treatment typically involves providing supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation to help with breathing, medications to control blood pressure and prevent seizures, and surgery to repair any underlying injuries or bleeding. In some cases, patients may require long-term rehabilitation to regain lost function and improve their quality of life.

The medulla oblongata is a part of the brainstem that is located in the posterior portion of the brainstem and continues with the spinal cord. It plays a vital role in controlling several critical bodily functions, such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. The medulla oblongata also contains nerve pathways that transmit sensory information from the body to the brain and motor commands from the brain to the muscles. Additionally, it is responsible for reflexes such as vomiting, swallowing, coughing, and sneezing.

Denervation is a medical term that refers to the loss or removal of nerve supply to an organ or body part. This can occur as a result of surgical intervention, injury, or disease processes that damage the nerves leading to the affected area. The consequences of denervation depend on the specific organ or tissue involved, but generally, it can lead to changes in function, sensation, and muscle tone. For example, denervation of a skeletal muscle can cause weakness, atrophy, and altered reflexes. Similarly, denervation of an organ such as the heart can lead to abnormalities in heart rate and rhythm. In some cases, denervation may be intentional, such as during surgical procedures aimed at treating chronic pain or spasticity.

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a part of the autonomic nervous system that operates largely below the level of consciousness, and it functions to produce appropriate physiological responses to perceived danger. It's often associated with the "fight or flight" response. The SNS uses nerve impulses to stimulate target organs, causing them to speed up (e.g., increased heart rate), prepare for action, or otherwise respond to stressful situations.

The sympathetic nervous system is activated due to stressful emotional or physical situations and it prepares the body for immediate actions. It dilates the pupils, increases heart rate and blood pressure, accelerates breathing, and slows down digestion. The primary neurotransmitter involved in this system is norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline).

General anesthesia is a state of controlled unconsciousness, induced by administering various medications, that eliminates awareness, movement, and pain sensation during medical procedures. It involves the use of a combination of intravenous and inhaled drugs to produce a reversible loss of consciousness, allowing patients to undergo surgical or diagnostic interventions safely and comfortably. The depth and duration of anesthesia are carefully monitored and adjusted throughout the procedure by an anesthesiologist or certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) to ensure patient safety and optimize recovery. General anesthesia is typically used for more extensive surgical procedures, such as open-heart surgery, major orthopedic surgeries, and neurosurgery.

The spinal cord is a major part of the nervous system, extending from the brainstem and continuing down to the lower back. It is a slender, tubular bundle of nerve fibers (axons) and support cells (glial cells) that carries signals between the brain and the rest of the body. The spinal cord primarily serves as a conduit for motor information, which travels from the brain to the muscles, and sensory information, which travels from the body to the brain. It also contains neurons that can independently process and respond to information within the spinal cord without direct input from the brain.

The spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column (spine) and is divided into 31 segments: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each segment corresponds to a specific region of the body and gives rise to pairs of spinal nerves that exit through the intervertebral foramina at each level.

The spinal cord is responsible for several vital functions, including:

1. Reflexes: Simple reflex actions, such as the withdrawal reflex when touching a hot surface, are mediated by the spinal cord without involving the brain.
2. Muscle control: The spinal cord carries motor signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling voluntary movement and muscle tone regulation.
3. Sensory perception: The spinal cord transmits sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, and vibration, from the body to the brain for processing and awareness.
4. Autonomic functions: The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system originate in the thoracolumbar and sacral regions of the spinal cord, respectively, controlling involuntary physiological responses like heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and respiration.

Damage to the spinal cord can result in various degrees of paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury, depending on the severity and location of the damage.

Diuresis is a medical term that refers to an increased production of urine by the kidneys. It can occur as a result of various factors, including certain medications, medical conditions, or as a response to a physiological need, such as in the case of dehydration. Diuretics are a class of drugs that promote diuresis and are often used to treat conditions such as high blood pressure, heart failure, and edema.

Diuresis can be classified into several types based on its underlying cause or mechanism, including:

1. Osmotic diuresis: This occurs when the kidneys excrete large amounts of urine in response to a high concentration of solutes (such as glucose) in the tubular fluid. The high osmolarity of the tubular fluid causes water to be drawn out of the bloodstream and into the urine, leading to an increase in urine output.
2. Forced diuresis: This is a medical procedure in which large amounts of intravenous fluids are administered to promote diuresis. It is used in certain clinical situations, such as to enhance the excretion of toxic substances or to prevent kidney damage.
3. Natriuretic diuresis: This occurs when the kidneys excrete large amounts of sodium and water in response to the release of natriuretic peptides, which are hormones that regulate sodium balance and blood pressure.
4. Aquaresis: This is a type of diuresis that occurs in response to the ingestion of large amounts of water, leading to dilute urine production.
5. Pathological diuresis: This refers to increased urine production due to underlying medical conditions such as diabetes insipidus or pyelonephritis.

It is important to note that excessive diuresis can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, so it should be monitored carefully in clinical settings.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

The carotid body is a small chemoreceptor organ located near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery into the internal and external carotid arteries. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of respiration, blood pressure, and pH balance by detecting changes in the chemical composition of the blood, particularly oxygen levels, carbon dioxide levels, and hydrogen ion concentration (pH).

The carotid body contains specialized nerve endings called glomus cells that are sensitive to changes in these chemical parameters. When there is a decrease in oxygen or an increase in carbon dioxide or hydrogen ions, the glomus cells release neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and dopamine, which activate afferent nerve fibers leading to the brainstem's nucleus tractus solitarius. This information is then integrated with other physiological signals in the brainstem, resulting in appropriate adjustments in breathing rate, depth, and pattern, as well as changes in heart rate and blood vessel diameter to maintain homeostasis.

Dysfunction of the carotid body can lead to various disorders, such as hypertension, sleep apnea, and chronic lung disease. In some cases, overactivity of the carotid body may result in conditions like primary breathing pattern disorders or pseudohypoxia, where the body responds as if it is experiencing hypoxia despite normal oxygen levels.

Anesthetics are medications that are used to block or reduce feelings of pain and sensation, either locally in a specific area of the body or generally throughout the body. They work by depressing the nervous system, interrupting the communication between nerves and the brain. Anesthetics can be administered through various routes such as injection, inhalation, or topical application, depending on the type and the desired effect. There are several classes of anesthetics, including:

1. Local anesthetics: These numb a specific area of the body and are commonly used during minor surgical procedures, dental work, or to relieve pain from injuries. Examples include lidocaine, prilocaine, and bupivacaine.
2. Regional anesthetics: These block nerve impulses in a larger area of the body, such as an arm or leg, and can be used for more extensive surgical procedures. They are often administered through a catheter to provide continuous pain relief over a longer period. Examples include spinal anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, and peripheral nerve blocks.
3. General anesthetics: These cause a state of unconsciousness and are used for major surgical procedures or when the patient needs to be completely immobile during a procedure. They can be administered through inhalation or injection and affect the entire body. Examples include propofol, sevoflurane, and isoflurane.

Anesthetics are typically safe when used appropriately and under medical supervision. However, they can have side effects such as drowsiness, nausea, and respiratory depression. Proper dosing and monitoring by a healthcare professional are essential to minimize the risks associated with anesthesia.

Vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone that helps regulate water balance in the body. It is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. When the body is dehydrated or experiencing low blood pressure, vasopressin is released into the bloodstream, where it causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of urine they produce and helps to constrict blood vessels, thereby increasing blood pressure. This helps to maintain adequate fluid volume in the body and ensure that vital organs receive an adequate supply of oxygen-rich blood. In addition to its role in water balance and blood pressure regulation, vasopressin also plays a role in social behaviors such as pair bonding and trust.

The cerebral ventricles are a system of interconnected fluid-filled cavities within the brain. They are located in the center of the brain and are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which provides protection to the brain by cushioning it from impacts and helping to maintain its stability within the skull.

There are four ventricles in total: two lateral ventricles, one third ventricle, and one fourth ventricle. The lateral ventricles are located in each cerebral hemisphere, while the third ventricle is located between the thalami of the two hemispheres. The fourth ventricle is located at the base of the brain, above the spinal cord.

CSF flows from the lateral ventricles into the third ventricle through narrow passageways called the interventricular foramen. From there, it flows into the fourth ventricle through another narrow passageway called the cerebral aqueduct. CSF then leaves the fourth ventricle and enters the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain and spinal cord, where it can be absorbed into the bloodstream.

Abnormalities in the size or shape of the cerebral ventricles can indicate underlying neurological conditions, such as hydrocephalus (excessive accumulation of CSF) or atrophy (shrinkage) of brain tissue. Imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are often used to assess the size and shape of the cerebral ventricles in clinical settings.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

Neural conduction is the process by which electrical signals, known as action potentials, are transmitted along the axon of a neuron (nerve cell) to transmit information between different parts of the nervous system. This electrical impulse is generated by the movement of ions across the neuronal membrane, and it propagates down the length of the axon until it reaches the synapse, where it can then stimulate the release of neurotransmitters to communicate with other neurons or target cells. The speed of neural conduction can vary depending on factors such as the diameter of the axon, the presence of myelin sheaths (which act as insulation and allow for faster conduction), and the temperature of the environment.

Vascular resistance is a measure of the opposition to blood flow within a vessel or a group of vessels, typically expressed in units of mmHg/(mL/min) or sometimes as dynes*sec/cm^5. It is determined by the diameter and length of the vessels, as well as the viscosity of the blood flowing through them. In general, a decrease in vessel diameter, an increase in vessel length, or an increase in blood viscosity will result in an increase in vascular resistance, while an increase in vessel diameter, a decrease in vessel length, or a decrease in blood viscosity will result in a decrease in vascular resistance. Vascular resistance is an important concept in the study of circulation and cardiovascular physiology because it plays a key role in determining blood pressure and blood flow within the body.

Perfusion, in medical terms, refers to the process of circulating blood through the body's organs and tissues to deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products. It is a measure of the delivery of adequate blood flow to specific areas or tissues in the body. Perfusion can be assessed using various methods, including imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and perfusion scintigraphy.

Perfusion is critical for maintaining proper organ function and overall health. When perfusion is impaired or inadequate, it can lead to tissue hypoxia, acidosis, and cell death, which can result in organ dysfunction or failure. Conditions that can affect perfusion include cardiovascular disease, shock, trauma, and certain surgical procedures.

Motor neurons are specialized nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that play a crucial role in controlling voluntary muscle movements. They transmit electrical signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling us to perform actions such as walking, talking, and swallowing. There are two types of motor neurons: upper motor neurons, which originate in the brain's motor cortex and travel down to the brainstem and spinal cord; and lower motor neurons, which extend from the brainstem and spinal cord to the muscles. Damage or degeneration of these motor neurons can lead to various neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

Neural inhibition is a process in the nervous system that decreases or prevents the activity of neurons (nerve cells) in order to regulate and control communication within the nervous system. It is a fundamental mechanism that allows for the balance of excitation and inhibition necessary for normal neural function. Inhibitory neurotransmitters, such as GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and glycine, are released from the presynaptic neuron and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron, reducing its likelihood of firing an action potential. This results in a decrease in neural activity and can have various effects depending on the specific neurons and brain regions involved. Neural inhibition is crucial for many functions including motor control, sensory processing, attention, memory, and emotional regulation.

... (also known as α-chloralose) is an avicide, and a rodenticide used to kill mice in temperatures below 15 °C. It is ... A structural isomer of chloralose, β-chloralose (also called parachloralose in older literature), is inactive as a GABAAR ... Chloralose is often abused for its avicide properties. In the United Kingdom, protected birds of prey have been killed using ... It is listed in Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC with the classification Harmful (Xn) Chloralose exerts barbiturate-like actions ...
1 Sep 1929 Therapeutics of Chloralose. 1893 Case of Metatarsalgia. 28 Mar 1903 Varicella Gangrenosa. 4 Nov 1905 Goat's Milk for ...
... thiobutabarbital versus alpha-chloralose anesthesia". Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. 370 (4): 320-3. doi: ...
Richet discovered the analgesic drug chloralose with Maurice Hanriot. Richet had many interests, and he wrote books about ...
His work on chloralose passed into world literature while he was Prof. Dr. Mayor's assistant. It is in French and has 14 pages ... The news headline was as follows: "As Long as I'm Dean, Girls Can't Enter Here." Chloralose is a substance obtained by ... Meanwhile, he published his studies on chloralose and opium alkaloids. When Sultan Abdülhamit was deposed in 1909, he returned ... Akil Muhtar, with the studies of chloralose, has shown that anesthetized animals are less sensitive to pain, whereas ...
"Slowing of cortical somatosensory evoked activity by delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and dimethylheptylpyran in alpha-chloralose- ...
The new alkaloid was without effect, when given in small doses, on the blood pressure of cats anaethetized with chloralose. ...
"The influence of filling rates and sympathectomy on bladder compliance in the chloralose-anaesthetised cat" Neurourology and ...
... the analysis of the circuits involved in the startle reaction of the anaesthetized cat to chloralose). He became a Doctor of ...
... chloralose (INN) chlorambucil (INN) chloramphenicol (INN) Chloraprep One-Step Frepp Chlorate Oral chlorazanil (INN) chlorazodin ...
... chloralose, petrichloral, and other 2,2,2-trichloroethanol prodrugs Chlormezanone Clomethiazole Dihydroergolines (e.g., ...
... chloralose MeSH D09.408.348.250 - esculin MeSH D09.408.348.275 - etoposide MeSH D09.408.348.500 - methylglucosides MeSH D09.408 ...
... chloralose MeSH D02.033.455.250.268 - ethylene glycol MeSH D02.033.455.250.610 - methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol MeSH D02.033. ...
C19H42BrN Chelerythrine Chromomycin A3 Chaparonin Chitin α-Chloralose Chlorophyll Cholecystokinin (CCK) Cholesterol Choline ...
Chloralose (a narcotic prodrug) Crimidine (inhibits metabolism of vitamin B6) 1,3-Difluoro-2-propanol ("Gliftor") Endrin ( ...
... and chloralose (also used as rodenticide). In the past, highly concentrated formulations of parathion in diesel oil were ...
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Chloralose (also known as α-chloralose) is an avicide, and a rodenticide used to kill mice in temperatures below 15 °C. It is ... A structural isomer of chloralose, β-chloralose (also called parachloralose in older literature), is inactive as a GABAAR ... Chloralose is often abused for its avicide properties. In the United Kingdom, protected birds of prey have been killed using ... It is listed in Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC with the classification Harmful (Xn) Chloralose exerts barbiturate-like actions ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Alpha-Chloralose Poisoning in Animals. Find specific details on this topic and related ... Alpha-Chloralose Poisoning in Animals By Holly Hommerding , DVM, DABT, Pet Poison Helpline & SafetyCall International, LLC, ... Although alpha-chloralose is not commercially available in the US at this time, exposure to this compound may be something to ... In late 2019, the EPA proposed registration of alpha-chloralose, an anesthetic compound, for use as a rodenticide product. ...
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title = "α-Chloralose diminishes γ oscillations in rat hippocampal slices",. abstract = "α-Chloralose is an anesthetic ... α-Chloralose diminishes γ oscillations in rat hippocampal slices. Kui Wang, Chao Zheng, Chen Wu, Ming Gao, Qiang Liu, Kechun ... α-Chloralose diminishes γ oscillations in rat hippocampal slices. / Wang, Kui; Zheng, Chao; Wu, Chen et al. In: Neuroscience ... Wang, K, Zheng, C, Wu, C, Gao, M, Liu, Q, Yang, K, Ellsworth, K, Xu, L & Wu, J 2008, α-Chloralose diminishes γ oscillations in ...
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R-134a began being phased out from use in the European Union, starting in the mid 2010s, by a directive of 2006, recommending the replacement of gases in air conditioning systems with a GWP above 100. [13] 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane is subject to use restrictions in the US and other countries as well. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has proposed that it be best replaced by a new fluorochemical refrigerant HFO-1234yf (CF3CF=CH2) in automobile air-conditioning systems.[14] By model year 2021, newly manufactured light-duty vehicles in the United States will no longer use R-134a.[3] California may also prohibit the sale of canned R-134a to individuals to avoid non-professional recharge of air conditioners.[15] A ban had been in place in Wisconsin since October 1994 under ATCP 136 prohibiting sales of container sizes holding less than 15 lbs of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, but this restriction applied only when the chemical was intended to be a refrigerant. However, the ban was lifted in ...
Paraldehyde is the cyclic trimer of acetaldehyde molecules.[2] Formally, it is a derivative of 1,3,5-trioxane, with a methyl group substituted for a hydrogen atom at each carbon. The corresponding tetramer is metaldehyde. A colourless liquid, it is sparingly soluble in water and highly soluble in ethanol. Paraldehyde slowly oxidizes in air, turning brown and producing an odour of acetic acid. It attacks most plastics and rubbers and should be kept in glass bottles. Paraldehyde was first observed in 1835 by the German chemist Justus Liebig; its empirical formula was determined in 1838 by Liebigs student Hermann Fehling.[3][4] The German chemist Valentin Hermann Weidenbusch (1821-1893), another of Liebigs students, synthesized paraldehyde in 1848 by treating acetaldehyde with acid (either sulfuric or nitric acid) and cooling to 0°C. He found it quite remarkable that when paraldehyde was heated with a trace of the same acid, the reaction went the other way, recreating acetaldehyde.[5][6] ...
alpha.-Chloralose. Sequence. Extended Properties Property ID Property Name Concept Definition Property Value ...
244-251; Alonso Bde, C., Makarova, T., Hess, A., On the use of alpha-chloralose for repeated BOLD fMRI measurements in rats ( ... 244-251; Alonso Bde, C., Makarova, T., Hess, A., On the use of alpha-chloralose for repeated BOLD fMRI measurements in rats ( ... 291-305; Tsurugizawa, T., Uematsu, A., Uneyama, H., Torii, K., Effects of isoflurane and alpha-chloralose anesthesia on BOLD ... 291-305; Tsurugizawa, T., Uematsu, A., Uneyama, H., Torii, K., Effects of isoflurane and alpha-chloralose anesthesia on BOLD ...
Chloralose. A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs ... SedativesDental PorcelainMidazolamMepivacaineAlfentanilXenonNeuromuscular Nondepolarizing AgentsEthersEtherCarticaineChloralose ...
氯醛糖 Chloralose (α-Chloralose) 是一种中枢神经系统抑制剂。Chloralose (α-Chloralose) 可以变构地调节 GABAA 受体
Chloralose. 298. [BUST] Cyanide. 563. Vyre. 298. [BUST] Thaidakar. 564. 5. 297. [BUST] Lost. ...
Chloralose. Chloramphenicol. Chlormequat chloride. Chlorobenzilate. Chlorothalonil. Chloroxuron. Chlorpyrifos. Chlorthiamid. ...
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chloralose (INN); (R)-1,2-O-(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene)-α-D-glucofuranose; glucochloralose; anhydroglucochloral. 15879-93-3. ...
  • In late 2019, the EPA proposed registration of alpha-chloralose, an anesthetic compound, for use as a rodenticide product. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Although alpha-chloralose is not commercially available in the US at this time, exposure to this compound may be something to anticipate. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Chloralose (also known as α-chloralose) is an avicide, and a rodenticide used to kill mice in temperatures below 15 °C. It is also widely used in neuroscience and veterinary medicine as an anesthetic and sedative. (wikipedia.org)
  • A structural isomer of chloralose, β-chloralose (also called parachloralose in older literature), is inactive as a GABAAR modulator and also as a general anesthetic. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-Chloralose is an anesthetic characterized by its ability to maintain animals in physiological conditions though immobilized and anesthetized. (arizona.edu)
  • In vitro experiments have demonstrated α-chloralose enhances GABA A receptor function, which may underlie its anesthetic effect. (arizona.edu)
  • Methods: DBS-fMRI procedures were conducted in rat and mouse under varying anesthetic conditions (isoflurane in rat and mouse, α-chloralose in rat). (tmu.edu.tw)
  • It is listed in Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC with the classification Harmful (Xn) Chloralose exerts barbiturate-like actions on synaptic transmission in the brain, including potent effects at inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAAR). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present study, we performed electrophysiological recordings to examine the effects of α-chloralose on synaptic transmission, tetanic stimulation-induced γ oscillations (30-80 Hz) and neuronal receptor function in rat hippocampal slices and dissociated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. (arizona.edu)
  • It is concluded that α-chloralose suppresses hippocampal γ oscillations without significantly affecting basic synaptic transmission or ionotropic glutamate, choline and glycine receptor function. (arizona.edu)
  • The results demonstrated that α-chloralose (30-100 μM) diminished tetanic stimulation-induced γ oscillations without affecting single stimulation-induced field potential responses. (arizona.edu)
  • To assess the possibility of neural occlusion we recorded, in chloralose-anesthetized cats, the pressor responses to statically contracting the hindlimb muscles and to electrically stimulating histologically confirmed sites in the posterior hypothalamus and subthalamus. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the non‐peptide NK‐2 receptor antagonist, SR 48968 on the responses of dorsal horn neurons to iontophoretic application of the endogenous NK‐2 receptor ligand, neurokinin A, and on synaptically elicited responses in chloralose‐anaesthetized cats. (mcmaster.ca)
  • INTRODUCTION: The aim of the work was to establish the impact of urethane-chloralose anaesthesia on pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) properties of carvedilol in control rats and L-NAME hypertensive animals. (bvsalud.org)
  • Effects of carvedilol (1 mg kg(-1), i.v.) on blood pressure and heart rate were recorded during 3 h in conscious and urethane (500 mg kg(-1), i.p.) - chloralose (50 mg kg(-1), i.p.) anaesthetized rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, a high-impedance tungsten electrode was stereotaxically placed into NTS in 10 chloralose-anesthetized rats, and 40-70 neurons were interrogated using electrophysiological methods. (etsu.edu)
  • In single, dissociated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, α-chloralose activated GABA A receptors at a high concentration while it potentiated GABA A receptor-mediated currents at low concentrations. (arizona.edu)
  • North Yorkshire Police submitted the buzzard for a post mortem examination which revealed an extremely high concentration of toxic chemical, Chloralose in the bird's system. (nwcu.police.uk)
  • Alpha compared to beta adrenergic contributions to dysrhythmias induced by left anterior descending coronary occlusion and by reperfusion were assessed in chloralose-anesthetized cats (n = 96). (jci.org)
  • In light of the visual manifestation of LSD intoxication and the experimental evidence of LSD actions on visual afferent information we have investigated the effects of LSD on primary and convergence areas for visual and somatic sensory activity in a-chloralose-anesthetized cats. (erowid.org)
  • Multi-channel, silicon-substrate probes were used to record single- and multi-unit activity from the right hemispheres of α-chloralose-anesthetized cats. (nebraska.edu)
  • However, due to severe side effects of α-chloralose, this protocol is limited to acute experiments. (bruker-webdev.de)
  • Chloralose is often abused for its avicide properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such functional activation studies need to be performed on anesthetized animals, α-chloralose was chosen for its ability to hold the animal still whilst allowing stimulus to be processed at the same time. (bruker-webdev.de)
  • In addition, α-chloralose induces a loss of consciousness with little influence on either pain response or cardiovascular reflexes. (arizona.edu)
  • Changes of the nerve activity of the sympathetic renal and vertebral nerves were elicited by microinjection of sodium glutamate (50 nmol/100 nl) into the pressor areas of the dorsal (DM) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in cats under urethane-chloralose anesthesia. (ntnu.edu.tw)
  • Oxygen metabolism and catecholamine secretion during chloralose anesthesia in lambs. (uchicago.edu)
  • For example, interpretation of data derived from acute experiments using barbiturate or a-chloralose type anesthesia is difficult because of the animal s constantly changing homeostatic background. (nih.gov)
  • 2. The animals were anaesthetized with α-chloralose and urethane. (portlandpress.com)
  • Dogs, anaesthetized with chloralose and urethane, were administered intravenously with sodium nitrite (0.2 µmol kg(-1) min(-1)) in two protocols. (nih.gov)
  • The popularity of a-chloralose for cardiovascular and neurophysiological studies is based on the drug s apparent lack of reflex and cardiovascular depression, an advantage over barbiturates. (nih.gov)
  • This response was blocked by the administration of prazosin, an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist, or a subanesthetic dose of chloralose. (medscape.com)
  • A painless narcotic (alpha-chloralose) is added to the food source and, once consumed, causes the birds to overdose and go to sleep. (wildlifecommandcenter.com)
  • It is listed in Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC with the classification Harmful (Xn) Chloralose exerts barbiturate-like actions on synaptic transmission in the brain, including potent effects at inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAAR). (wikipedia.org)