Chloralose: A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Hexamethonium Compounds: Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Nictitating Membrane: A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Carotid Body: A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.

The actions of ether, alcohol and alkane general anaesthetics on GABAA and glycine receptors and the effects of TM2 and TM3 mutations. (1/124)

The actions of 13 general anaesthetics (diethyl ether, enflurane, isoflurane, methoxyflurane, sevoflurane, chloral hydrate, trifluoroethanol, tribromoethanol, tert-butanol, chloretone, brometone, trichloroethylene, and alpha-chloralose) were studied on agonist-activated Cl(-) currents at human GABA(A) alpha(2)beta(1), glycine alpha(1), and GABA(C) rho(1) receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. All 13 anaesthetics enhanced responses to submaximal (EC(20)) concentrations of agonist at GABA(A) and glycine receptors, except alpha-chloralose, which did not enhance responses at the glycine alpha(1) receptor. None of the anaesthetics studied potentiated GABA responses at the GABA(C) rho(1) receptor. Potentiation of submaximal agonist currents by the anaesthetics was studied at GABA(A) and glycine receptors harbouring mutations in putative transmembrane domains 2 and 3 within GABA(A) alpha(2), beta(1), or glycine alpha(1) receptor subunits: GABA(A) alpha(2)(S270I)beta(1), alpha(2)(A291W)beta(1), alpha(2)beta(1)(S265I), and alpha(2)beta(1)(M286W); glycine alpha(1)(S267I) and alpha(1)(A288W). For all anaesthetics studied except alpha-chloralose, at least one of the mutations above abolished drug potentiation of agonist responses at GABA(A) and glycine receptors. alpha-Chloralose produced efficacious direct activation of the GABA(A) alpha(2)beta(1) receptor (a 'GABA-mimetic' effect). The other 12 anaesthetics produced minimal or no direct activation of GABA(A) and glycine receptors. A non-anaesthetic isomer of alpha-chloralose, beta-chloralose, was inactive at GABA(A) and glycine receptors and did not antagonize the actions of alpha-chloralose at GABA(A) receptors. The implications of these findings for the molecular mechanisms of action of general anaesthetics at GABA(A) and glycine receptors are discussed.  (+info)

Effect of distension of the gallbladder on plasma renin activity in anesthetized pigs. (2/124)

BACKGROUND: Gallbladder pathology has been associated with cardiovascular disease. Recently, we showed that gallbladder distension in anesthetized pigs reflexly increased heart rate, arterial pressure, and coronary and renal vascular resistance through efferent sympathetic mechanisms. Renin release is affected by sympathetic output, and angiotensin liberation may result in vasoconstriction. This study was undertaken to determine whether gallbladder distension primarily causes a reflex change in plasma renin activity (PRA) and to assess its influence on observed pressor and coronary responses as well as on regional vascular resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 34 alpha-chloralose-anesthetized pigs, balloons positioned within the gallbladder were distended for 30 minutes with volumes of Ringer's solution equal to those of withdrawn bile. In 19 pigs, gallbladder distension at constant heart rate, arterial pressure, and renal flow increased PRA in the absence of changes in urinary sodium excretion. This increase was abolished by cervical vagotomy, section of renal nerves, or blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors. In another 15 pigs, blockade of angiotensin II receptors significantly attenuated the pressor and coronary, mesenteric, and iliac vasoconstriction responses to gallbladder distension. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that innocuous gallbladder distension primarily caused a reflex increase in PRA. This increase, which involved afferent vagal pathways and efferent sympathetic mechanisms related to beta-adrenergic receptors, contributed significantly to the pressor and coronary, mesenteric, and iliac vasoconstriction responses to gallbladder distension.  (+info)

Nerve-evoked secretion of immunoglobulin A in relation to other proteins by parotid glands in anaesthetized rat. (3/124)

Secretion of fluid and proteins by salivary cells is under the control of parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic nerves. In a recent study we have shown that, in the rat submandibular gland, autonomic nerves can also increase the secretion of IgA, a product of plasma cells secreted into saliva as SIgA (IgA bound to Secretory Component, the cleaved poly-immunoglobulin receptor). The present study aimed to determine if parotid secretion of SIgA is increased by autonomic nerves and to compare SIgA secretion with other parotid proteins stored and secreted by acinar and ductal cells. Assay of IgA in saliva evoked by parasympathetic nerve stimulation immediately following an extended rest period under anaesthesia indicated that it had been secreted into intraductal saliva in the absence of stimulation during the rest period. The mean rate of unstimulated IgA secretion (2.77+/-0.28 microg min(-1) g(-1)) and the 2.5-fold increase in IgA secretion evoked by parasympathetic stimulation were similar to results found previously in the rat submandibular gland. Sympathetic nerve stimulation increased SIgA secretion 2.7-fold, much less than in the submandibular gland. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis with anti-IgA and anti-Secretory Component antibodies confirmed that SIgA was the predominant form of IgA in saliva. Acinar-derived amylase and ductal-derived tissue kallikrein were more profoundly increased by parasympathetic and particularly sympathetic stimulation than SIgA. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that SIgA forms a prominent component of unstimulated parotid salivary protein secretion and that its secretion is similarly increased by stimulation of either autonomic nerve supply. The secretion of other parotid salivary proteins that are synthesized and stored by acinar or ductal cells is upregulated to a much greater extent by parasympathetic and particularly sympathetic stimulation.  (+info)

Gadolinium attenuates exercise pressor reflex in cats. (4/124)

The exercise pressor reflex, which arises from the contraction-induced stimulation of group III and IV muscle afferents, is widely believed to be evoked by metabolic stimuli signaling a mismatch between blood/oxygen demand and supply in the working muscles. Nevertheless, mechanical stimuli may also play a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex. To determine this role, we examined the effect of gadolinium, which blocks mechanosensitive channels, on the exercise pressor reflex in both decerebrate and alpha-chloralose-anesthetized cats. We found that gadolinium (10 mM; 1 ml) injected into the femoral artery significantly attenuated the reflex pressor responses to static contraction of the triceps surae muscles and to stretch of the calcaneal (Achilles) tendon. In contrast, gadolinium had no effect on the reflex pressor response to femoral arterial injection of capsaicin (5 microg). In addition, gadolinium significantly attenuated the responses of group III muscle afferents, many of which are mechanically sensitive, to both static contraction and to tendon stretch. Gadolinium, however, had no effect on the responses of group IV muscle afferents, many of which are metabolically sensitive, to either static contraction or to capsaicin injection. We conclude that mechanical stimuli arising in contracting skeletal muscles contribute to the elicitation of the exercise pressor reflex.  (+info)

Potencies of doxapram and hypoxia in stimulating carotid-body chemoreceptors and ventilation in anesthetized cats. (5/124)

The effects of doxapram on carotid chemoreceptor activity and on ventilation (phrenic-nerve activity) were tested before and after denervation of the peripheral chemoreceptors in cats. Doxapram was found to be a potent stimulus to the carotid chemoreceptors; the stimulation produced by 1.0 mg/kg doxapram, iv, equalled that produced by a Pao2 of 38 torr. Doxapram also increased phrenic-nerve activity in doses as low as 0.2 mg/kg, iv. After denervation of the peripheral chemoreceptors, doxapram in doses as large as 6 mg/kg failed to stimulate ventilation. It is concluded that (in anesthetized cats) doxapram in doses of less than 6 mg/kg increases ventilation by direct stimulation of the carotid, and, probably, the aortic, chemoreceptors, not by a direct effect on the medullary respiratory center.  (+info)

Hemodynamic consequences of the combination of isoflurane anesthesia (1 MAC) and beta-adrenergic blockade in the dog. (6/124)

The hemodynamic response to the combination of isoflurane (1 MAC) and propranolol (0.5 mg/kg) was studied in 12 intact ventilated dogs following basal anesthesia with chloralose-urethane. When propranolol was administered during isoflurane anesthesia, stroke volume was maintained with a higher pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (3.2 plus or minus 0.7 mm Hg to 6.3 plus or minus 1.4 mm Hg), while systemic vascular resistance remained unchanged. When isoflurane was administered to the previously beta-adrenergically blocked dog, there were declines in systemic pressure and cardiac output (P smaller than 0.01) and in pulmonary arterial pressure and stroke volume (P smaller then 0.05), without change in systemic vascular resistance. When isoflurane was subsequently discontinued, these changes were reversed, and in addition, systemic vascular resistance increased (P smaller than 0.05). These data indicate that isoflurane has pharmacologic properties compatible with a peripheral beta-adrenergic stimulating action.  (+info)

Effect of clonidine on the excitability of vasomotor loci in the cat. (7/124)

1. The effect of clonidine on the direct excitability of hypothalamic, medullary and spinal vasomotor loci has been investigated in cats anaesthetized with chloralose. 2. Clonidine inhibited the excitability of these loci when it was localized to the central sites by intracerebroventricular, intravertebral arterial or intrathecal injection in very low doses (1-2 mug). 3. Topical application of clonidine (0.01 percent and 1.0 percent) to the floor of the fourth ventricle inhibited pressor responses evoked either by stimulation of medullary or hypothalamic vasomotor areas. Inhibition of the pressor responses was accompanied by hypotension and bradycardia in many experiments. 4. It appears that effects of clonidine on the vasomotor loci of the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord contribute to its hypotensive action.  (+info)

Effects of anesthesia on functional activation of cerebral blood flow and metabolism. (8/124)

Functional brain mapping based on changes in local cerebral blood flow (lCBF) or glucose utilization (lCMR(glc)) induced by functional activation is generally carried out in animals under anesthesia, usually alpha-chloralose because of its lesser effects on cardiovascular, respiratory, and reflex functions. Results of studies on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the mechanism of functional activation of lCBF have differed in unanesthetized and anesthetized animals. NO synthase inhibition markedly attenuates or eliminates the lCBF responses in anesthetized animals but not in unanesthetized animals. The present study examines in conscious rats and rats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose the effects of vibrissal stimulation on lCMR(glc) and lCBF in the whisker-to-barrel cortex pathway and on the effects of NO synthase inhibition with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on the magnitude of the responses. Anesthesia markedly reduced the lCBF and lCMR(glc) responses in the ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus and barrel cortex but not in the spinal and principal trigeminal nuclei. L-NAME did not alter the lCBF responses in any of the structures of the pathway in the unanesthetized rats and also not in the trigeminal nuclei of the anesthetized rats. In the thalamus and sensory cortex of the anesthetized rats, where the lCBF responses to stimulation had already been drastically diminished by the anesthesia, L-NAME treatment resulted in loss of statistically significant activation of lCBF by vibrissal stimulation. These results indicate that NO does not mediate functional activation of lCBF under physiological conditions.  (+info)

*Chloralose

... is an avicide, and a rodenticide used to kill mice in temperatures below 15 °C. It is also widely used in ... "A review of laboratory animal anesthesia with chloral hydrate and chloralose". Lab Anim Sci. 43 (3): 210-6. PMID 8355479. ...

*Charles Richet

Richet discovered the analgesic drug chloralose with . Richet had many interests, and he wrote books about history, sociology, ...

*Avicide

Chloralose is also used as an avicide. In the past, highly concentrated formulations of parathion in diesel oil were also used ...

*Dimethylheptylpyran

"Slowing of cortical somatosensory evoked activity by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and dimethylheptylpyran in α-chloralose- ...

*Said Awad

"The influence of filling rates and sympathectomy on bladder compliance in the chloralose-anaesthetised cat" Neurourology and ...

*Thiobutabarbital

... thiobutabarbital versus alpha-chloralose anesthesia. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Archives of Pharmacology. 2004 Oct;370(4):320-3. ...

*GABA receptor agonist

Chloralose Chlormezanone Clomethiazole Dihydroergolines (e.g., ergoloid (dihydroergotoxine)) Etazepine Etifoxine Imidazoles (e. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D09)

... chloralose MeSH D09.408.348.250 --- esculin MeSH D09.408.348.275 --- etoposide MeSH D09.408.348.500 --- methylglucosides MeSH ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... chloralose MeSH D02.033.455.250.268 --- ethylene glycol MeSH D02.033.455.250.610 --- methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol MeSH D02.033. ...

*Lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide

... on the blood pressure of cats anaethetized with chloralose. Higher intravenous doses (0.1-0.3mg/kg) caused a sustained ...

*List of biomolecules

C19H42BrN Chelerythrine Chromomycin A3 Chaparonin Chitin α-Chloralose Chlorophyll Cholecystokinin (CCK) Cholesterol Choline ...

*List of drugs: Cf-Ch

... chloralose (INN) chlorambucil (INN) chloramphenicol (INN) Chloraprep One-Step Frepp Chlorate Oral chlorazanil (INN) chlorazodin ...

*Rodenticide

Arsenic trioxide Barium carbonate Chloralose (a narcotic prodrug) Crimidine (inhibits metabolism of vitamin B6) 1,3-Difluoro-2- ...

*Chloral hydrate

... a sedative drug Chloralose Cloxestradiol, a synthetic estrogen Cloxotestosterone, a synthetic steroid Dichlorvos Dicloralurea, ...

*Index of pesticide articles

Cacodylic acid Calcium phosphide Carbendazim Captan Carbaryl Carbofuran Chitosan Chloralose Chloramine-T Chlorbenside ...
Using this protocol, the release of Enk and X-Enk (total Enk-Enk) greater and less than 2 kDa from spinal cord and the mesencephalic aqueductal grey was assessed under resting conditions and during stimulation of the sciatic nerve in the chloralose-urethane anesthetized cat ...
Intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES) has been used in treatment of patients with urinary bladder dysfunctions for more than four decades. While some investigators have reported excellent results others have observed less convincing effects or outright failures. The discrepancies may reflect differences in patient selection or stimulation procedure. A better theoretical understanding of the IVES working mechanism might help to improve the success rate of the treatment. The aims of the present study were to provide such information.. Experiments were performed on adult female cats and rats under /alpha/-chloralose anesthesia. IVES was delivered by a catheter electrode in the bladder. At proper intensity and frequency, IVES evoked reflex detrusor contractions that were abolished by bilateral rhizotomy of sacral dorsal roots. Stimulation parameters and response characteristics revealed that bladder mechanoreceptor A/delta/ afferents were activated by the IVES, the same afferents that drive the ...
The ability of the nonglucocorticoid 21-aminosteroid U74006F, a potent inhibitor of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, to antagonize progressive brain hypoperfusion after a 5-minute episode of global brain ischemia was examined in alpha-chloralose-anesthetized cats. Immediately after a 5-minute episode of near-total tourniquet-induced brain ischemia, cortical blood flow returned to normal or above normal. Thereafter, cortical blood flow fell progressively to a level 71.7% below normal by 3 hours after ischemia. In contrast, in cats that received 1 mg/kg i.v. U74006F 15 minutes after the ischemic episode, cortical blood flow remained significantly greater than that seen in vehicle-treated cats. At 3 hours, cortical blood flow had declined by only 45.7% (p less than 0.04 compared with vehicle). In addition, U74006F treatment significantly improved postischemic maintenance of blood pressure and recovery of somatosensory evoked potentials and reduced postischemic arterial blood acidosis. U74006F had ...
Preparation. The electrophysiological experiments were performed on seven deeply anesthetized cats, weighing 2.1-2.4 kg. The anesthesia was induced with sodium pentobarbital (40-44 mg/kg, i.p.) and maintained with intermittent doses of α-chloralose (doses of 5 mg/kg administered every 1-2 h, up to 50 mg/kg, i.v.; Rhône-Poulenc Santé, Antony, France). During recording, neuromuscular transmission was blocked by pancuronium bromide (∼0.2 mg/kg/h i.v.; Pavulon, Organon, Askim, Sweden), and the animals were artificially ventilated. An additional dose of α-chloralose was given at the first sign of any increase in the continuously monitored blood pressure or heart rate or if the pupils dilated. The mean blood pressure was kept at 100-130 mmHg and the end-tidal concentration of CO2 at ∼4% by adjusting parameters of artificial ventilation and the rate of a continuous infusion of a bicarbonate buffer solution with 5% glucose (1-2 ml/h/kg). The core body temperature was kept at ∼38° by ...
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We have recently added an Overstock Urethane Page. It can be found here Overstock Urethane We are very excited to be offering some of these long term residents to you at a deep deep discount. Please feel free to check it out / browse it over and come back often. We will be updating the page as often as we can. These Items are not factory seconds ...
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has contributions from venous oxygenation and venous cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes. To examine the relative contribution of venous CBV change (ΔCBV(v)) to BOLD fMRI, BOLD and arterial CBV changes (ΔCBV(a)) to a 40-s forepaw stimulation in six α-chloralose anesthetized rats were measured using a magnetization transfer-varied ...
Moment-to-moment adjustment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to neuronal activity via the homeostatic mechanism known as neurovascular coupling (NVC) has an essential role in maintenance of normal brain...
A really time efficient and worthwhile type of exercise to add to your arsenal is static contraction training. Along with visualized resistance, which we have spoken of before, or with either weight training or, in my opinion the better option of bodyweight exercise, static contractions can increase your strength fast, conveniently, and effectively. ...
Functional brain imaging techniques such as fMRI or PET measure regional changes in cerebral blood flow and oxygenation related to neuronal activity rather than neuronal activity itself. These changes are believed to spread over a larger area than the neuronal activity thus limiting spatial resolution of imaging techniques. It has been suggested that oxygen consumption increases before blood flow in the region of increased activity. An increased oxygen consumption would lead to an initial deoxygenation limited exactly to the aera of neuronal activity thus providing a signal detectable with techniques measuring blood oxygenation (e.g. BOLD-fMRI). To test the hypothesis of an initial deoxygenation we performed measurements of intravascular oxygen concentration in the somatosensory cortex of rats in response to a physiological stimulus (whisker deflection) using oxygen dependent phosphorescence quenching. Animals were anesthetized with chloralose/urethane and a closed cranial window was implanted ...
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The work of Walker, et al. (Brit. J. Pharmacol. 36: 19SP-199P, 1969: 38: 106-116, 1970) who showed that i.v. injections of para-methoxyphenylethylamine (PMPEA) into spinal cats anestlmetized with α-chloralose and Paralyzed with gallamine triethiodide cause increases in monosynaptic reflexes of both flexor and extensor motoneurons, has been confirmed in the present investigation. The action of PMPEA on the flexion reflex has been studied with the same preparation. The drug may cause an increase, a simple decrease or a decrease after a transient increase in the size of the flexion reflex. The actions of PMPEA on monosynaptic and flexion reflexes in unanesthetized preparations were similar to those in chloralose-anesthetized animals. PMPEA consistently depolarized the membrane potentials of motoneurons in the lumbar enlargement. The mean depolarization was 8.1 mV, and the time course of the depolarization was similar to the time courses of the reflex changes caused by PMPEA. Polysynaptic ...
We have emailed you at with instructions on how to set up a new password. If you do not receive an email in the next 24 hours, or if you misplace your new password, please contact:. ASA members: ...
Oculomotor nerve stimulation causes vasoconstriction in the anterior uvea, which is due partly to a muscarinic mechanism and partly to a non-sympathetic aminergic mechanism. The labelled microsphere method was used to analyze the effect of pentobarbital anesthesia on the resting cholinergic vasomotor tone in the anterior uvea and to determine the relationship between stimulation frequency and vasomotor response. An attempt was made also to ascertain whether the aminergic part of the vasoconstriction is caused by release of 5-hydroxytryptamine or norepinephrine. Induction of pentobarbital anesthesia caused a marked vasodilation in the iris and the ciliary processes and a subsequent muscarinic blockade had no effect on the blood flow. A similar result was obtained in the optic nerve. In the choroid plexus, heart muscle, pineal body and coecum, pentobarbital anesthesia caused vasodilation and a subsequent muscarinic blockade caused vasoconstriction. In the brain pentobarbital anesthesia caused a marked
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The antiarrhythmic, electrophysiologic and hemodynamic effects of a new antiarrhythmic agent, ACC-9358, were evaluated. In anesthetized dogs, ACC-9358 converted ouabain-induced ventricular tachycardia to normal sinus rhythm at a cumulative dose equal to encainide or flecainide and less than disopyramide. In 24-hr coronary artery ligated dogs, ACC-9358 suppressed spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias for up to 6 hr after oral or i.v. administration. The antiarrhythmic effect and plasma concentrations of ACC-9358 correlated well for both oral (r = 0.88) and i.v. (r = 0.87) administration. ACC-9358, flecainide and disopyramide were equieffective in converting crush-stimulation-induced atrial flutter in anesthetized dogs to normal sinus rhythm. In alpha-chloralose-anesthetized, closed-chest dogs, ACC-9358 slowed impulse conduction through the atria, atrioventricular node, His-Purkinje system and ventricles and prolonged atrial functional refractory period. In conscious dogs, ACC-9358 increased heart ...
Goldade, D.A., R.S. Stahl, and J.J. Johnston. 2014. Determination of residue levels of alpha-chloralose in duck tissues. Human-Wildlife Interactions 8(1):123-129.. Ellis, C.K., R.S. Stahl, P. Nol, W.R. Waters, M.V. Palmer, J.C. Rhyan, K.C. VerCauteren, M.McCollum, M.D. Salman. 2014. A pilot study exploring the use of breath analysis to differentiate healthy cattle from cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis. PloS One 9(2): e89280. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089280.. 2013. Homan H.J., Stahl R.S., Linz G.M. 2013. Comparison of two models for estimating mortality from baitings with Compound DRC-1339 Concentrate avicide. Crop Protection 45:71-75. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2012.11.011.. Other selected publications. Homan H.J., Stahl R.S., Linz G.M. 2011. Comparing a bioenergetics model with feeding rates of caged European starlings. Journal of Wildlife Management 75:126-131.. Peled N., Ionescu R., Nol P., Barash O., McCollum M., Vercauteren K., Koslow M., Stahl R., Rhyan J., Haick H. ...

Chloralose - WikipediaChloralose - Wikipedia

Chloralose is an avicide, and a rodenticide used to kill mice in temperatures below 15 °C. It is also widely used in ... "A review of laboratory animal anesthesia with chloral hydrate and chloralose". Lab Anim Sci. 43 (3): 210-6. PMID 8355479. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chloralose

Chloralose - Surfactant - SAAPedia - Page1Chloralose - Surfactant - SAAPedia - Page1

Chloralose - Surfactant - SAAPedia - SAAPedia(Surfactant.TOP),Surfactant,Anionic surfactants, Cationic surfactants, Non-ionic ...
more infohttp://www.saapedia.org/en/saa/?type=detail&id=10018

Electrophysiological Properties of Lumbar Motoneurons in the a-Chloralose-Anesthetized Cat During Carbachol-Induced Motor...Electrophysiological Properties of Lumbar Motoneurons in the a-Chloralose-Anesthetized Cat During Carbachol-Induced Motor...

1993). We have rons that occurs in a-chloralose-anesthetized cats following the recently reported that muscular activity is ... to determine whether the inhibitory mechanisms are the anesthetized with a-chloralose (López-Rodrı́guez et al. same as those ... in cats anesthetized with a-chloralose and microinjection of carbachol into the NPO in a-chloralosecompared with those present ... were also observed in high-gain recordings cats anesthetized with a-chloralose were examined with the from lumbar motoneurons ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Electrophysiological-Properties-of-Lumbar-Motoneur-Xi-Liu/608bd3a732536a19c1252ebce93d46e228f195f4

The Effects of Epidural Morphine on Cardiac and Renal Sympathetic Nerve Activity in α-Chloralose-anesthetized Cats   |...The Effects of Epidural Morphine on Cardiac and Renal Sympathetic Nerve Activity in α-Chloralose-anesthetized Cats |...

... chloralose was less than that by pentobarbital. These authors study also showed that [Greek small letter alpha]-chloralose ... Alpha-chloralose, which we used in our study, is believed to preserve myocardial function [17] and to have little suppressive ... 28] found that [Greek small letter alpha]-chloralose (bolus dose of 40 - 50 mg/kg) decreased CSNA and increased RSNA in awake ... The Effects of Epidural Morphine on Cardiac and Renal Sympathetic Nerve Activity in α-Chloralose-anesthetized Cats ...
more infohttp://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1947435

June 03, 1893 - Scientific AmericanJune 03, 1893 - Scientific American

Chloralose. By Hanriot and C. Richet. Flies in Cholera. By J. Sawtschenko ...
more infohttps://www.scientificamerican.com/magazine/supplements/1893/06-03/

Table of Contents - October 21, 1950, 2 (4685) | The BMJTable of Contents - October 21, 1950, 2 (4685) | The BMJ

Chloralose Br Med J 1950; 2 :951 (Published 21 October 1950) *PDF ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/2/4685

News - ECHANews - ECHA

Consultation to revise current harmonised classification and labelling for chloralose. ECHA has started a 45-day public ... commenting period on the proposal for harmonised classification and labelling (CLH) for chloralose (INN); (R)-1,2-O-(2,2,2- ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/fi/view-article/-/journal_content/title/e-news-12-february-2014

USDA APHIS | Formulation ChemistryUSDA APHIS | Formulation Chemistry

Alpha-chloralose. Alpha-chloralose is a narcotic that, when used in concentrations of less than 2.5%, can anesthetize birds for ... In early days of use, alpha-chloralose was mixed with butter and squirted into bread for delivery. A more easily produced and ... Formulation chemists then produced an alpha-chloralose tablet with the active ingredient held together by a binding agent ( ... The tablet also had to have properties that allowed it to dissolve in water so the alpha-chloralose was available for ingestion ...
more infohttps://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/wildlifedamage/programs/nwrc/research-areas/SA_Chemistry/CT_Formulation_Chemistry

USDA APHIS | Product Registration UnitUSDA APHIS | Product Registration Unit

New animal drug active ingredients authorized for investigational purposes by FDA: PPZH and alpha-chloralose. With the ...
more infohttp://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/wildlifedamage/programs/nwrc/product-registration-unit/ct_nwrc_registration

Endocrine disruptor assessment list - ECHAEndocrine disruptor assessment list - ECHA

For REACH substances, inclusion in the list means that an informal hazard assessment for endocrine-disrupting properties either is under development or has been completed since the start of the implementation of the SVHC Roadmap in February 2013. For each substance, the table shows the assessing or evaluating Member State (submitter), the outcome and the suggested follow-up for the assessment, and the date of the latest update to the list entry. Other process details and hazard assessment outcome documents are also available and can be accessed through the Details icon. One possible outcome of such an assessment is that a substance is considered not to have ED properties. If the outcome is that the substance is considered to have ED properties, confirmation through the formal risk management and decision-making processes under REACH/BPR is needed before any regulatory action can be taken due to these properties. The intentions of authorities to submit a dossier to the formal REACH and CLP ...
more infohttps://www.echa.europa.eu/et/web/guest/ed-assessment

Prolonged enhancement of the micturition reflex in the cat by repetitive stimulation of bladder afferentsProlonged enhancement of the micturition reflex in the cat by repetitive stimulation of bladder afferents

chloralose. Reflex discharges were recorded from a thin pelvic nerve filament to the bladder and evoked by stimulation of the ... Experiments were performed on adult female cats and rats under /alpha/-chloralose anesthesia. IVES was delivered by a catheter ...
more infohttp://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:20880

PPT - Test Review:  Anesthesia PowerPoint Presentation - ID:205378PPT - Test Review: Anesthesia PowerPoint Presentation - ID:205378

Chloralose. Minimal CV depression. Less depression of neuronal function. Long duration, acute procedures ...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/oshin/test-review-anesthesia

Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency
     Summary Report | CureHunterVertebrobasilar Insufficiency Summary Report | CureHunter

ChloraloseIBA 01/01/1998 - "vertebrobasilar insufficiency; VBI), an electrophysiological study was performed to examine the ... in alpha-chloralose-anesthetized cats. ". 08/01/2004 - "To elucidate the effectiveness of the drug in the treatment of ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD014715.do

Liver symptoms - RightDiagnosis.comLiver symptoms - RightDiagnosis.com

Chemical poisoning -- Chloralose ... liver dysfunction*Chemical poisoning -- Chlorate salts ... jaundice, enlarged liver* ...
more infohttps://www.rightdiagnosis.com/sym/liver_symptoms.htm

Headache - RightDiagnosis.comHeadache - RightDiagnosis.com

Chemical poisoning -- Chloralose ... headache*Chemical poisoning -- Chlordecone ... headache*Chemical poisoning -- Chloresene ...
more infohttps://www.rightdiagnosis.com/sym/headache.htm

Increased glymphatic influx is correlated with high EEG delta power and low heart rate in mice under anesthesia | Science...Increased glymphatic influx is correlated with high EEG delta power and low heart rate in mice under anesthesia | Science...

Enhancement of γ-aminobutyric acidA receptor activity by α-chloralose. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 285, 680-686 (1998).. ... K/X, n = 36 animals; ISO supplemented with dex, n = 14 animals; pentobarbital, n = 27 animals; α-chloralose, n = 20 animals; ... Pentobarbital, α-chloralose, ISO, and Avertin mouse groups all showed intermediate systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and ... Mice anesthetized with α-chloralose, Avertin, or ISO exhibited low CSF tracer influx. This is the first study to show that ...
more infohttps://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/2/eaav5447

Frontiers | Neurovascular and Neurometabolic Couplings in Dynamic Calibrated fMRI: Transient Oxidative Neuroenergetics for...Frontiers | Neurovascular and Neurometabolic Couplings in Dynamic Calibrated fMRI: Transient Oxidative Neuroenergetics for...

This is due to the stimulus frequency tuning responses under α-chloralose anesthesia (Sanganahalli et al., 2008). The mean time ... including α-chloralose (Matsuura and Kanno, 2001; Sheth et al., 2004). In summary, at a stimulus frequency of 6.0 Hz increasing ... The forepaw stimulation model in the α-chloralose anesthetized rat is extensively used because the time-dependent stimulus ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnene.2010.00018/full

26446-38-8 - Sucrose palmitate, 90% - beta-D-Fructofuranosyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside monohexadecanoate - J66627 - Alfa Aesar26446-38-8 - Sucrose palmitate, 90% - beta-D-Fructofuranosyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside monohexadecanoate - J66627 - Alfa Aesar

Dolores Reyes-Duarte; Nieves López-Cortés; Manuel Ferrer; Francisco J. Plou & Antonio Ballesteros. Parameters affecting productivity in the lipase-catalysed synthesis of sucrose palmitate. Biocatalysis and Biotransformation.2005, 23, 19-27.. Shigehiko Takegami; Keisuke Kitamura; Hiroto Kawada; Yu Matsumoto; Tatsuya Kitade; Hiroharu Ishida; Chieyo Nagata. Preparation and Characterization of a New Lipid Nano-Emulsion Containing Two Cosurfactants, Sodium Palmitate for Droplet Size Reduction and Sucrose Palmitate for Stability Enhancement. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin.2008, 56, (8), 1097-1102.. ...
more infohttps://www.alfa.com/en/catalog/J66627/

National Drug Schedules | NAPRANational Drug Schedules | NAPRA

Alpha-chloralosePDL. I. DEC / 13. Alpha-hydroxy acidsPDL. including but not limited to citric acid, glycolic acid, lactic acid ...
more infohttp://napra.ca/national-drug-schedules?letter=a&page=1

Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle Mechanical Behaviour and Neural Circuits | Springer for Research & DevelopmentGastrointestinal Smooth Muscle Mechanical Behaviour and Neural Circuits | Springer for Research & Development

Acid-base status and cardiovascular function in pigs anaesthetized with a-chloralose. Scand J Lab Anim Sci, 17: 89-95.Google ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4471-3742-9_5

Kreislauf und Atmung bei Blausäurevergiftung und Therapie mit Ferrihämoglobinbildnern und Kobaltverbindungen / Circulation and...Kreislauf und Atmung bei Blausäurevergiftung und Therapie mit Ferrihämoglobinbildnern und Kobaltverbindungen / Circulation and...

Wurden Katzen in flacher Chloralose-Narkose 4 bzw. 8 mg KCN/kg in 2 min i.v. infundiert, so fielen Atemfrequenz, Blutdruck, ... Wurden Katzen in flacher Chloralose-Narkose 4 bzw. 8 mg KCN/kg in 2 min i.v. infundiert, so fielen Atemfrequenz, Blutdruck, ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-39718-3_257

Alfa AesarAlfa Aesar

I agree Our site saves small pieces of text information (cookies) on your device in order to deliver better content and for statistical purposes. You can disable the usage of cookies by changing the settings of your browser. By browsing our website without changing the browser settings you grant us permission to store that information on your device. ...
more infohttps://www.alfa.com/de/cas/15879-93-3/

Managing Wildlife Damage: Canada Goose (Branta canadensis)  | VCE Publications | Virginia TechManaging Wildlife Damage: Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) | VCE Publications | Virginia Tech

Because of the means by which alpha-chloralose works, any birds that have been treated with alpha-chloralose are not suitable ... Alpha-chloralose is a Restricted Use Pesticide; only those individuals who have received special training through the US ... When properly formulated and administered, alpha-chloralose is a slow acting, non-lethal chemical that is applied to bait and ... Another way to capture smaller groups of Canada geese is through use of the immobilizing chemical Alpha-chloralose. ...
more infohttps://pubs.ext.vt.edu/420/420-203/420-203.html
  • 3. Thor K, Katofiasc M. Effects of duloxetine, a combined serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, on central neural control of lower urinary tract function in the chloralose-anesthetized female cat. (ptcommunity.com)
  • However, due to severe side effects of α-chloralose, this protocol is limited to acute experiments. (preclinicalimaging.com)
  • In chloralose-anaesthetized, ventilated, vagotomized rats, acute hypoxia (10% O2, 60 s) evoked an increase in SNA (103 +/- 12%) that was characterized by a decrease in activity during early inspiration followed by a prominent rise during expiration. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Toxicology tests it was probably poisoned by chloralose - more commonly used to kill mice. (gazettelive.co.uk)