A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.

The actions of ether, alcohol and alkane general anaesthetics on GABAA and glycine receptors and the effects of TM2 and TM3 mutations. (1/124)

The actions of 13 general anaesthetics (diethyl ether, enflurane, isoflurane, methoxyflurane, sevoflurane, chloral hydrate, trifluoroethanol, tribromoethanol, tert-butanol, chloretone, brometone, trichloroethylene, and alpha-chloralose) were studied on agonist-activated Cl(-) currents at human GABA(A) alpha(2)beta(1), glycine alpha(1), and GABA(C) rho(1) receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. All 13 anaesthetics enhanced responses to submaximal (EC(20)) concentrations of agonist at GABA(A) and glycine receptors, except alpha-chloralose, which did not enhance responses at the glycine alpha(1) receptor. None of the anaesthetics studied potentiated GABA responses at the GABA(C) rho(1) receptor. Potentiation of submaximal agonist currents by the anaesthetics was studied at GABA(A) and glycine receptors harbouring mutations in putative transmembrane domains 2 and 3 within GABA(A) alpha(2), beta(1), or glycine alpha(1) receptor subunits: GABA(A) alpha(2)(S270I)beta(1), alpha(2)(A291W)beta(1), alpha(2)beta(1)(S265I), and alpha(2)beta(1)(M286W); glycine alpha(1)(S267I) and alpha(1)(A288W). For all anaesthetics studied except alpha-chloralose, at least one of the mutations above abolished drug potentiation of agonist responses at GABA(A) and glycine receptors. alpha-Chloralose produced efficacious direct activation of the GABA(A) alpha(2)beta(1) receptor (a 'GABA-mimetic' effect). The other 12 anaesthetics produced minimal or no direct activation of GABA(A) and glycine receptors. A non-anaesthetic isomer of alpha-chloralose, beta-chloralose, was inactive at GABA(A) and glycine receptors and did not antagonize the actions of alpha-chloralose at GABA(A) receptors. The implications of these findings for the molecular mechanisms of action of general anaesthetics at GABA(A) and glycine receptors are discussed.  (+info)

Effect of distension of the gallbladder on plasma renin activity in anesthetized pigs. (2/124)

BACKGROUND: Gallbladder pathology has been associated with cardiovascular disease. Recently, we showed that gallbladder distension in anesthetized pigs reflexly increased heart rate, arterial pressure, and coronary and renal vascular resistance through efferent sympathetic mechanisms. Renin release is affected by sympathetic output, and angiotensin liberation may result in vasoconstriction. This study was undertaken to determine whether gallbladder distension primarily causes a reflex change in plasma renin activity (PRA) and to assess its influence on observed pressor and coronary responses as well as on regional vascular resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 34 alpha-chloralose-anesthetized pigs, balloons positioned within the gallbladder were distended for 30 minutes with volumes of Ringer's solution equal to those of withdrawn bile. In 19 pigs, gallbladder distension at constant heart rate, arterial pressure, and renal flow increased PRA in the absence of changes in urinary sodium excretion. This increase was abolished by cervical vagotomy, section of renal nerves, or blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors. In another 15 pigs, blockade of angiotensin II receptors significantly attenuated the pressor and coronary, mesenteric, and iliac vasoconstriction responses to gallbladder distension. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that innocuous gallbladder distension primarily caused a reflex increase in PRA. This increase, which involved afferent vagal pathways and efferent sympathetic mechanisms related to beta-adrenergic receptors, contributed significantly to the pressor and coronary, mesenteric, and iliac vasoconstriction responses to gallbladder distension.  (+info)

Nerve-evoked secretion of immunoglobulin A in relation to other proteins by parotid glands in anaesthetized rat. (3/124)

Secretion of fluid and proteins by salivary cells is under the control of parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic nerves. In a recent study we have shown that, in the rat submandibular gland, autonomic nerves can also increase the secretion of IgA, a product of plasma cells secreted into saliva as SIgA (IgA bound to Secretory Component, the cleaved poly-immunoglobulin receptor). The present study aimed to determine if parotid secretion of SIgA is increased by autonomic nerves and to compare SIgA secretion with other parotid proteins stored and secreted by acinar and ductal cells. Assay of IgA in saliva evoked by parasympathetic nerve stimulation immediately following an extended rest period under anaesthesia indicated that it had been secreted into intraductal saliva in the absence of stimulation during the rest period. The mean rate of unstimulated IgA secretion (2.77+/-0.28 microg min(-1) g(-1)) and the 2.5-fold increase in IgA secretion evoked by parasympathetic stimulation were similar to results found previously in the rat submandibular gland. Sympathetic nerve stimulation increased SIgA secretion 2.7-fold, much less than in the submandibular gland. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis with anti-IgA and anti-Secretory Component antibodies confirmed that SIgA was the predominant form of IgA in saliva. Acinar-derived amylase and ductal-derived tissue kallikrein were more profoundly increased by parasympathetic and particularly sympathetic stimulation than SIgA. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that SIgA forms a prominent component of unstimulated parotid salivary protein secretion and that its secretion is similarly increased by stimulation of either autonomic nerve supply. The secretion of other parotid salivary proteins that are synthesized and stored by acinar or ductal cells is upregulated to a much greater extent by parasympathetic and particularly sympathetic stimulation.  (+info)

Gadolinium attenuates exercise pressor reflex in cats. (4/124)

The exercise pressor reflex, which arises from the contraction-induced stimulation of group III and IV muscle afferents, is widely believed to be evoked by metabolic stimuli signaling a mismatch between blood/oxygen demand and supply in the working muscles. Nevertheless, mechanical stimuli may also play a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex. To determine this role, we examined the effect of gadolinium, which blocks mechanosensitive channels, on the exercise pressor reflex in both decerebrate and alpha-chloralose-anesthetized cats. We found that gadolinium (10 mM; 1 ml) injected into the femoral artery significantly attenuated the reflex pressor responses to static contraction of the triceps surae muscles and to stretch of the calcaneal (Achilles) tendon. In contrast, gadolinium had no effect on the reflex pressor response to femoral arterial injection of capsaicin (5 microg). In addition, gadolinium significantly attenuated the responses of group III muscle afferents, many of which are mechanically sensitive, to both static contraction and to tendon stretch. Gadolinium, however, had no effect on the responses of group IV muscle afferents, many of which are metabolically sensitive, to either static contraction or to capsaicin injection. We conclude that mechanical stimuli arising in contracting skeletal muscles contribute to the elicitation of the exercise pressor reflex.  (+info)

Potencies of doxapram and hypoxia in stimulating carotid-body chemoreceptors and ventilation in anesthetized cats. (5/124)

The effects of doxapram on carotid chemoreceptor activity and on ventilation (phrenic-nerve activity) were tested before and after denervation of the peripheral chemoreceptors in cats. Doxapram was found to be a potent stimulus to the carotid chemoreceptors; the stimulation produced by 1.0 mg/kg doxapram, iv, equalled that produced by a Pao2 of 38 torr. Doxapram also increased phrenic-nerve activity in doses as low as 0.2 mg/kg, iv. After denervation of the peripheral chemoreceptors, doxapram in doses as large as 6 mg/kg failed to stimulate ventilation. It is concluded that (in anesthetized cats) doxapram in doses of less than 6 mg/kg increases ventilation by direct stimulation of the carotid, and, probably, the aortic, chemoreceptors, not by a direct effect on the medullary respiratory center.  (+info)

Hemodynamic consequences of the combination of isoflurane anesthesia (1 MAC) and beta-adrenergic blockade in the dog. (6/124)

The hemodynamic response to the combination of isoflurane (1 MAC) and propranolol (0.5 mg/kg) was studied in 12 intact ventilated dogs following basal anesthesia with chloralose-urethane. When propranolol was administered during isoflurane anesthesia, stroke volume was maintained with a higher pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (3.2 plus or minus 0.7 mm Hg to 6.3 plus or minus 1.4 mm Hg), while systemic vascular resistance remained unchanged. When isoflurane was administered to the previously beta-adrenergically blocked dog, there were declines in systemic pressure and cardiac output (P smaller than 0.01) and in pulmonary arterial pressure and stroke volume (P smaller then 0.05), without change in systemic vascular resistance. When isoflurane was subsequently discontinued, these changes were reversed, and in addition, systemic vascular resistance increased (P smaller than 0.05). These data indicate that isoflurane has pharmacologic properties compatible with a peripheral beta-adrenergic stimulating action.  (+info)

Effect of clonidine on the excitability of vasomotor loci in the cat. (7/124)

1. The effect of clonidine on the direct excitability of hypothalamic, medullary and spinal vasomotor loci has been investigated in cats anaesthetized with chloralose. 2. Clonidine inhibited the excitability of these loci when it was localized to the central sites by intracerebroventricular, intravertebral arterial or intrathecal injection in very low doses (1-2 mug). 3. Topical application of clonidine (0.01 percent and 1.0 percent) to the floor of the fourth ventricle inhibited pressor responses evoked either by stimulation of medullary or hypothalamic vasomotor areas. Inhibition of the pressor responses was accompanied by hypotension and bradycardia in many experiments. 4. It appears that effects of clonidine on the vasomotor loci of the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord contribute to its hypotensive action.  (+info)

Effects of anesthesia on functional activation of cerebral blood flow and metabolism. (8/124)

Functional brain mapping based on changes in local cerebral blood flow (lCBF) or glucose utilization (lCMR(glc)) induced by functional activation is generally carried out in animals under anesthesia, usually alpha-chloralose because of its lesser effects on cardiovascular, respiratory, and reflex functions. Results of studies on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the mechanism of functional activation of lCBF have differed in unanesthetized and anesthetized animals. NO synthase inhibition markedly attenuates or eliminates the lCBF responses in anesthetized animals but not in unanesthetized animals. The present study examines in conscious rats and rats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose the effects of vibrissal stimulation on lCMR(glc) and lCBF in the whisker-to-barrel cortex pathway and on the effects of NO synthase inhibition with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on the magnitude of the responses. Anesthesia markedly reduced the lCBF and lCMR(glc) responses in the ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus and barrel cortex but not in the spinal and principal trigeminal nuclei. L-NAME did not alter the lCBF responses in any of the structures of the pathway in the unanesthetized rats and also not in the trigeminal nuclei of the anesthetized rats. In the thalamus and sensory cortex of the anesthetized rats, where the lCBF responses to stimulation had already been drastically diminished by the anesthesia, L-NAME treatment resulted in loss of statistically significant activation of lCBF by vibrissal stimulation. These results indicate that NO does not mediate functional activation of lCBF under physiological conditions.  (+info)

α-Chloralose; CAS Number: 15879-93-3; EC Number: 240-016-7; Synonym: 1,2-O-(2,2,2-Trichloroethylidene)-α-D-glucofuranose, Anhydro-D-glucochloral, Chloralose; Linear Formula: C8H11Cl3O6; find Sigma-Aldrich-C0128 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
Using this protocol, the release of Enk and X-Enk (total Enk-Enk) greater and less than 2 kDa from spinal cord and the mesencephalic aqueductal grey was assessed under resting conditions and during stimulation of the sciatic nerve in the chloralose-urethane anesthetized cat ...
Intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES) has been used in treatment of patients with urinary bladder dysfunctions for more than four decades. While some investigators have reported excellent results others have observed less convincing effects or outright failures. The discrepancies may reflect differences in patient selection or stimulation procedure. A better theoretical understanding of the IVES working mechanism might help to improve the success rate of the treatment. The aims of the present study were to provide such information.. Experiments were performed on adult female cats and rats under /alpha/-chloralose anesthesia. IVES was delivered by a catheter electrode in the bladder. At proper intensity and frequency, IVES evoked reflex detrusor contractions that were abolished by bilateral rhizotomy of sacral dorsal roots. Stimulation parameters and response characteristics revealed that bladder mechanoreceptor A/delta/ afferents were activated by the IVES, the same afferents that drive the ...
The ability of the nonglucocorticoid 21-aminosteroid U74006F, a potent inhibitor of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, to antagonize progressive brain hypoperfusion after a 5-minute episode of global brain ischemia was examined in alpha-chloralose-anesthetized cats. Immediately after a 5-minute episode of near-total tourniquet-induced brain ischemia, cortical blood flow returned to normal or above normal. Thereafter, cortical blood flow fell progressively to a level 71.7% below normal by 3 hours after ischemia. In contrast, in cats that received 1 mg/kg i.v. U74006F 15 minutes after the ischemic episode, cortical blood flow remained significantly greater than that seen in vehicle-treated cats. At 3 hours, cortical blood flow had declined by only 45.7% (p less than 0.04 compared with vehicle). In addition, U74006F treatment significantly improved postischemic maintenance of blood pressure and recovery of somatosensory evoked potentials and reduced postischemic arterial blood acidosis. U74006F had ...
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Preparation. The electrophysiological experiments were performed on seven deeply anesthetized cats, weighing 2.1-2.4 kg. The anesthesia was induced with sodium pentobarbital (40-44 mg/kg, i.p.) and maintained with intermittent doses of α-chloralose (doses of 5 mg/kg administered every 1-2 h, up to 50 mg/kg, i.v.; Rhône-Poulenc Santé, Antony, France). During recording, neuromuscular transmission was blocked by pancuronium bromide (∼0.2 mg/kg/h i.v.; Pavulon, Organon, Askim, Sweden), and the animals were artificially ventilated. An additional dose of α-chloralose was given at the first sign of any increase in the continuously monitored blood pressure or heart rate or if the pupils dilated. The mean blood pressure was kept at 100-130 mmHg and the end-tidal concentration of CO2 at ∼4% by adjusting parameters of artificial ventilation and the rate of a continuous infusion of a bicarbonate buffer solution with 5% glucose (1-2 ml/h/kg). The core body temperature was kept at ∼38° by ...
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Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has contributions from venous oxygenation and venous cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes. To examine the relative contribution of venous CBV change (ΔCBV(v)) to BOLD fMRI, BOLD and arterial CBV changes (ΔCBV(a)) to a 40-s forepaw stimulation in six α-chloralose anesthetized rats were measured using a magnetization transfer-varied ...
Moment-to-moment adjustment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to neuronal activity via the homeostatic mechanism known as neurovascular coupling (NVC) has an essential role in maintenance of normal brain...
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A really time efficient and worthwhile type of exercise to add to your arsenal is static contraction training. Along with visualized resistance, which we have spoken of before, or with either weight training or, in my opinion the better option of bodyweight exercise, static contractions can increase your strength fast, conveniently, and effectively. ...
Functional brain imaging techniques such as fMRI or PET measure regional changes in cerebral blood flow and oxygenation related to neuronal activity rather than neuronal activity itself. These changes are believed to spread over a larger area than the neuronal activity thus limiting spatial resolution of imaging techniques. It has been suggested that oxygen consumption increases before blood flow in the region of increased activity. An increased oxygen consumption would lead to an initial deoxygenation limited exactly to the aera of neuronal activity thus providing a signal detectable with techniques measuring blood oxygenation (e.g. BOLD-fMRI). To test the hypothesis of an initial deoxygenation we performed measurements of intravascular oxygen concentration in the somatosensory cortex of rats in response to a physiological stimulus (whisker deflection) using oxygen dependent phosphorescence quenching. Animals were anesthetized with chloralose/urethane and a closed cranial window was implanted ...
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The work of Walker, et al. (Brit. J. Pharmacol. 36: 19SP-199P, 1969: 38: 106-116, 1970) who showed that i.v. injections of para-methoxyphenylethylamine (PMPEA) into spinal cats anestlmetized with α-chloralose and Paralyzed with gallamine triethiodide cause increases in monosynaptic reflexes of both flexor and extensor motoneurons, has been confirmed in the present investigation. The action of PMPEA on the flexion reflex has been studied with the same preparation. The drug may cause an increase, a simple decrease or a decrease after a transient increase in the size of the flexion reflex. The actions of PMPEA on monosynaptic and flexion reflexes in unanesthetized preparations were similar to those in chloralose-anesthetized animals. PMPEA consistently depolarized the membrane potentials of motoneurons in the lumbar enlargement. The mean depolarization was 8.1 mV, and the time course of the depolarization was similar to the time courses of the reflex changes caused by PMPEA. Polysynaptic ...
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Oculomotor nerve stimulation causes vasoconstriction in the anterior uvea, which is due partly to a muscarinic mechanism and partly to a non-sympathetic aminergic mechanism. The labelled microsphere method was used to analyze the effect of pentobarbital anesthesia on the resting cholinergic vasomotor tone in the anterior uvea and to determine the relationship between stimulation frequency and vasomotor response. An attempt was made also to ascertain whether the aminergic part of the vasoconstriction is caused by release of 5-hydroxytryptamine or norepinephrine. Induction of pentobarbital anesthesia caused a marked vasodilation in the iris and the ciliary processes and a subsequent muscarinic blockade had no effect on the blood flow. A similar result was obtained in the optic nerve. In the choroid plexus, heart muscle, pineal body and coecum, pentobarbital anesthesia caused vasodilation and a subsequent muscarinic blockade caused vasoconstriction. In the brain pentobarbital anesthesia caused a marked
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The antiarrhythmic, electrophysiologic and hemodynamic effects of a new antiarrhythmic agent, ACC-9358, were evaluated. In anesthetized dogs, ACC-9358 converted ouabain-induced ventricular tachycardia to normal sinus rhythm at a cumulative dose equal to encainide or flecainide and less than disopyramide. In 24-hr coronary artery ligated dogs, ACC-9358 suppressed spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias for up to 6 hr after oral or i.v. administration. The antiarrhythmic effect and plasma concentrations of ACC-9358 correlated well for both oral (r = 0.88) and i.v. (r = 0.87) administration. ACC-9358, flecainide and disopyramide were equieffective in converting crush-stimulation-induced atrial flutter in anesthetized dogs to normal sinus rhythm. In alpha-chloralose-anesthetized, closed-chest dogs, ACC-9358 slowed impulse conduction through the atria, atrioventricular node, His-Purkinje system and ventricles and prolonged atrial functional refractory period. In conscious dogs, ACC-9358 increased heart ...
Goldade, D.A., R.S. Stahl, and J.J. Johnston. 2014. Determination of residue levels of alpha-chloralose in duck tissues. Human-Wildlife Interactions 8(1):123-129.. Ellis, C.K., R.S. Stahl, P. Nol, W.R. Waters, M.V. Palmer, J.C. Rhyan, K.C. VerCauteren, M.McCollum, M.D. Salman. 2014. A pilot study exploring the use of breath analysis to differentiate healthy cattle from cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis. PloS One 9(2): e89280. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089280.. 2013. Homan H.J., Stahl R.S., Linz G.M. 2013. Comparison of two models for estimating mortality from baitings with Compound DRC-1339 Concentrate avicide. Crop Protection 45:71-75. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2012.11.011.. Other selected publications. Homan H.J., Stahl R.S., Linz G.M. 2011. Comparing a bioenergetics model with feeding rates of caged European starlings. Journal of Wildlife Management 75:126-131.. Peled N., Ionescu R., Nol P., Barash O., McCollum M., Vercauteren K., Koslow M., Stahl R., Rhyan J., Haick H. ...
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Richet discovered the analgesic drug chloralose with . Richet had many interests, and he wrote books about history, sociology, ...
Chloralose is also used as an avicide. In the past, highly concentrated formulations of parathion in diesel oil were also used ...
"Slowing of cortical somatosensory evoked activity by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and dimethylheptylpyran in α-chloralose- ...
"The influence of filling rates and sympathectomy on bladder compliance in the chloralose-anaesthetised cat" Neurourology and ...
... thiobutabarbital versus alpha-chloralose anesthesia. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Archives of Pharmacology. 2004 Oct;370(4):320-3. ...
Chloralose Chlormezanone Clomethiazole Dihydroergolines (e.g., ergoloid (dihydroergotoxine)) Etazepine Etifoxine Imidazoles (e. ...
... chloralose MeSH D09.408.348.250 --- esculin MeSH D09.408.348.275 --- etoposide MeSH D09.408.348.500 --- methylglucosides MeSH ...
... chloralose MeSH D02.033.455.250.268 --- ethylene glycol MeSH D02.033.455.250.610 --- methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol MeSH D02.033. ...
... on the blood pressure of cats anaethetized with chloralose. Higher intravenous doses (0.1-0.3mg/kg) caused a sustained ...
C19H42BrN Chelerythrine Chromomycin A3 Chaparonin Chitin α-Chloralose Chlorophyll Cholecystokinin (CCK) Cholesterol Choline ...
... chloralose (INN) chlorambucil (INN) chloramphenicol (INN) Chloraprep One-Step Frepp Chlorate Oral chlorazanil (INN) chlorazodin ...
Arsenic trioxide Barium carbonate Chloralose (a narcotic prodrug) Crimidine (inhibits metabolism of vitamin B6) 1,3-Difluoro-2- ...
... a sedative drug Chloralose Cloxestradiol, a synthetic estrogen Cloxotestosterone, a synthetic steroid Dichlorvos Dicloralurea, ...
Cacodylic acid Calcium phosphide Carbendazim Captan Carbaryl Carbofuran Chitosan Chloralose Chloramine-T Chlorbenside ...
... is an avicide, and a rodenticide used to kill mice in temperatures below 15 °C. It is also widely used in ... "A review of laboratory animal anesthesia with chloral hydrate and chloralose". Lab Anim Sci. 43 (3): 210-6. PMID 8355479. ...
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA4 gene.[5][6] GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified.[6] ...
Chloralose. *Chlormezanone. *Clomethiazole. *DEABL. *Dihydroergolines (e.g., dihydroergocryptine, dihydroergosine, ...
Chloralose. *Chlormezanone. *Clomethiazole. *DEABL. *Dihydroergolines (e.g., dihydroergocryptine, dihydroergosine, ...
... (INN), also known as captodiamine, is an antihistamine sold under the trade names Covatine, Covatix, and Suvren which is used as a sedative and anxiolytic. The structure is related to diphenhydramine.[1] A 2004 study suggested captodiame may be helpful in preventing benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome in people discontinuing benzodiazepine treatment.[1] In addition to its actions as an antihistamine, captodiamine has been found to act as a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and σ1 receptor and D3 receptor agonist.[2] It produces antidepressant-like effects in rats.[2] However, captodiamine is unique among antidepressant-like drugs in that it increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hypothalamus but not in the frontal cortex or hippocampus.[2] This unique action may be related to its ability to attenuate stress-induced anhedonia and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the hypothalamus.[2] ...
Chloralose. *Chlormezanone. *Clomethiazole. *DEABL. *Dihydroergolines (e.g., dihydroergocryptine, dihydroergosine, ...
Chloralose. *Chlormezanone. *Clomethiazole. *DEABL. *Dihydroergolines (e.g., dihydroergocryptine, dihydroergosine, ...
... is a nootropic drug invented in 2009 by a team working for Hoffmann-La Roche, which acts as a subtype-selective inverse agonist at the α5 subtype of the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABAA receptor. It has good selectivity for the α5 subtype and did not produce convulsant or anxiogenic effects in animal studies, making it a promising potential nootropic.[1][2][3] Ro4938581 and a related derivative basmisanil (RG-1662, RO5186582) have subsequently been investigated for the alleviation of cognitive dysfunction in Down syndrome.[4][5] ...
... also binds to and blocks α2δ subunit-containing VDCCs, similarly to gabapentin and pregabalin, and hence is a gabapentinoid.[9][16] Both (R)-phenibut and (S)-phenibut display this action with similar affinity (Ki = 23 and 39 μM, respectively).[9] Moreover, (R)-phenibut possesses 4-fold greater affinity for this site than for the GABAB receptor (Ki = 92 μM), while (S)-phenibut does not bind significantly to the GABAB receptor (Ki , 1 mM).[9] As such, based on the results of this study, phenibut would appear to have much greater potency in its interactions with α2δ subunit-containing VDCCs than with the GABAB receptor (between 5- to 10-fold).[9] For this reason, the actions of phenibut as a α2δ subunit-containing voltage-gated calcium channel blocker or gabapentinoid may be its true primary mechanism of action, and this may explain the differences between phenibut and its close relative baclofen (which, in contrast, has essentially insignificant activity as a gabapentinoid; Ki = 6 ...
Chloralose. *Chlormezanone. *Clomethiazole. *DEABL. *Dihydroergolines (e.g., dihydroergocryptine, dihydroergosine, ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization ...
... is a potent anticoagulant rodenticide. It is a second-generation 4-hydroxycoumarin derivative and vitamin K antagonist, often called a "super-warfarin" for its added potency and tendency to accumulate in the liver of the poisoned organism. When first introduced to the UK market in 1980, it was effective against the populations that had become resistant to the first generation anticoagulants. The product may be used both indoors and outdoors for rats and mice. It is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section 302 of the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (42 U.S.C. 11002), and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities.[1] ...
Metal phosphides are used as a rodenticide. A mixture of food and calcium phosphide is left where the rodents can eat it. The acid in the digestive system of the rodent reacts with the phosphide to generate the toxic gas phosphine. This method of vermin control has possible use in places where rodents immune to many of the common warfarin-type (anticoagulant) poisons have appeared. Other pesticides similar to calcium phosphide are zinc phosphide and aluminium phosphide. Calcium phosphide is also used in fireworks, torpedoes, self-igniting naval pyrotechnic flares, and various water-activated ammunition. During the 1920s and 1930s, Charles Kingsford Smith used separate buoyant canisters of calcium carbide and calcium phosphide as naval flares lasting up to ten minutes. It is speculated that calcium phosphide-made by boiling bones in urine, within a closed vessel-was an ingredient of some ancient Greek fire formulas.[4] Calcium phosphide is a common impurity in calcium carbide, which may cause the ...
Chloralose. *Chlormezanone. *Clomethiazole. *DEABL. *Dihydroergolines (e.g., dihydroergocryptine, dihydroergosine, ...
... is used to treat a wide variety of infections, including infections of bones and joints, endocarditis, gastroenteritis, malignant otitis externa, respiratory tract infections, cellulitis, urinary tract infections, prostatitis, anthrax, and chancroid.[2]. Ciprofloxacin only treats bacterial infections; it does not treat viral infections such as the common cold. For certain uses including acute sinusitis, lower respiratory tract infections and uncomplicated gonorrhea, ciprofloxacin is not considered a first-line agent.. Ciprofloxacin occupies an important role in treatment guidelines issued by major medical societies for the treatment of serious infections, especially those likely to be caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For example, ciprofloxacin in combination with metronidazole is one of several first-line antibiotic regimens recommended by the Infectious Diseases Society of America for the treatment of community-acquired abdominal infections in ...
Chloralose. *Chlormezanone. *Clomethiazole. *DEABL. *Dihydroergolines (e.g., dihydroergocryptine, dihydroergosine, ...
... aqueductal grey was assessed under resting conditions and during stimulation of the sciatic nerve in the chloralose-urethane ... aqueductal grey was assessed under resting conditions and during stimulation of the sciatic nerve in the chloralose-urethane ... aqueductal grey was assessed under resting conditions and during stimulation of the sciatic nerve in the chloralose-urethane ...
Chloralose is an avicide, and a rodenticide used to kill mice in temperatures below 15 °C. It is also widely used in ... "A review of laboratory animal anesthesia with chloral hydrate and chloralose". Lab Anim Sci. 43 (3): 210-6. PMID 8355479. ...
Chloralose; Linear Formula: C8H11Cl3O6; find Sigma-Aldrich-C0128 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, ... "α-Chloralose; CAS Number: 15879-93-3; EC Number: 240-016-7; Synonym: 1,2-O-(2,2,2-Trichloroethylidene)-α-D-glucofuranose, ... α-Chloralose Synonym: 1,2-O-. (2,2,2-. Trichloroethylidene). -α-. D. -glucofuranose, Anhydro-. D. -glucochloral, Chloralose ... α-Chloralose is used as an immobilizing agent. It is mostly used in studies, which involves autonomic reflexes. α-Chloralose is ...
Observations on chloralose-induced myoclonus in guinea-pigs. Chadwick, D., Hallett, M., Jenner, P., Marsden, C.D. Br. J. ... METHODS: Chloralose-anesthetized rats were prepared for duodenal luminal perfusion and in situ pH-stat titration of mucosal ... 6 Chloralose-induced myoclonus is not similar to 5-HT-sensitive reticular reflex myoclonus in man [19]. ... In six chloralose-anesthetized cats, regional ischemia was induced for 10 min by occlusion of the left anterior descending ...
Chloralose. By Hanriot and C. Richet. Flies in Cholera. By J. Sawtschenko ...
1993). We have rons that occurs in a-chloralose-anesthetized cats following the recently reported that muscular activity is ... to determine whether the inhibitory mechanisms are the anesthetized with a-chloralose (López-Rodrı́guez et al. same as those ... in cats anesthetized with a-chloralose and microinjection of carbachol into the NPO in a-chloralosecompared with those present ... were also observed in high-gain recordings cats anesthetized with a-chloralose were examined with the from lumbar motoneurons ...
Chloralose - Surfactant - SAAPedia - SAAPedia(Surfactant.TOP),Surfactant,Anionic surfactants, Cationic surfactants, Non-ionic ...
alpha chloralose. Alibaba hot search products ranking based on search data. Updated daily. ...
Chloralose appears to be a satisfactory anesthetic for dogs when stage III thiobarbiturate anesthesia is first induced. It is ... Chloral hydrate (CH) and alpha-chloralose (CS) are often used to anesthetize laboratory animals although, to our knowledge, ... A review of laboratory animal anesthesia with chloral hydrate and chloralose. J Silverman, W W Muir ...
Chloralose Br Med J 1950; 2 :951 (Published 21 October 1950) *PDF ...
Alpha-chloralose. Alpha-chloralose is a narcotic that, when used in concentrations of less than 2.5%, can anesthetize birds for ... In early days of use, alpha-chloralose was mixed with butter and squirted into bread for delivery. A more easily produced and ... Formulation chemists then produced an alpha-chloralose tablet with the active ingredient held together by a binding agent ( ... The tablet also had to have properties that allowed it to dissolve in water so the alpha-chloralose was available for ingestion ...
New animal drug active ingredients authorized for investigational purposes by FDA: PPZH and alpha-chloralose. With the ...
Consultation to revise current harmonised classification and labelling for chloralose. ECHA has started a 45-day public ... commenting period on the proposal for harmonised classification and labelling (CLH) for chloralose (INN); (R)-1,2-O-(2,2,2- ...
However, several hours after transfer to alpha-chloralose, a significant increase in both the spatial extent and peak height of ... These findings suggest that, although alpha-chloralose anesthesia is associated with a greater BOLD response for a fixed ... how does the BOLD response change after transferring from halothane to the commonly used anesthetic alpha-chloralose? In the ... reduction in the spatial extent of the BOLD response was apparent immediately after transfer from halothane to alpha-chloralose ...
Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Blood Pressure / Chloralose / Solitary Nucleus / Glutamic Acid / ... Male , Animals , Rats , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Chloralose/pharmacology , ... Cardiovascular responses to microinjection of trans -(+)-ACPD into the NTS were similar in conscious and chloralose- ... ACPD are not affected by chloralose anesthesia while the cardiovascular responses to the activation of excitatory amino acid ( ...
... chloralose was less than that by pentobarbital. These authors study also showed that [Greek small letter alpha]-chloralose ... Alpha-chloralose, which we used in our study, is believed to preserve myocardial function [17] and to have little suppressive ... 28] found that [Greek small letter alpha]-chloralose (bolus dose of 40 - 50 mg/kg) decreased CSNA and increased RSNA in awake ... The Effects of Epidural Morphine on Cardiac and Renal Sympathetic Nerve Activity in α-Chloralose-anesthetized Cats ...
Richet discovered the analgesic drug chloralose with . Richet had many interests, and he wrote books about history, sociology, ...
Chloralose. A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs ...
For REACH substances, inclusion in the list means that an informal hazard assessment for endocrine-disrupting properties either is under development or has been completed since the start of the implementation of the SVHC Roadmap in February 2013. For each substance, the table shows the assessing or evaluating Member State (submitter), the outcome and the suggested follow-up for the assessment, and the date of the latest update to the list entry. Other process details and hazard assessment outcome documents are also available and can be accessed through the Details icon. One possible outcome of such an assessment is that a substance is considered not to have ED properties. If the outcome is that the substance is considered to have ED properties, confirmation through the formal risk management and decision-making processes under REACH/BPR is needed before any regulatory action can be taken due to these properties. The intentions of authorities to submit a dossier to the formal REACH and CLP ...
Chloralose. Shanghai Meryer Chemical Technology Co., Ltd.. M07752. Mixed solution for Anesthesia. ...
chloralose. Reflex discharges were recorded from a thin pelvic nerve filament to the bladder and evoked by stimulation of the ... Experiments were performed on adult female cats and rats under /alpha/-chloralose anesthesia. IVES was delivered by a catheter ...
Chloralose. Valerian Dolsom Suppositories - Merck Promethazine Hydrochloride. Chymotrypsin. Trypsin. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) ...
Chloralose rodenticide. *Chloramben herbicide. *Chlordane insecticide. *Chlordene insecticide. *Chlordimeform hydrochloride ...
On 17 March, the physicians began with chloralose, an anesthetic and sedative. The following day she was given a mixture of ...
Sodium pentobarbitone or chloralose anaesthesia were used.2. Cats pad sweat contains lactate, glucose is almost absent, and ...
This is due to the stimulus frequency tuning responses under α-chloralose anesthesia (Sanganahalli et al., 2008). The mean time ... including α-chloralose (Matsuura and Kanno, 2001; Sheth et al., 2004). In summary, at a stimulus frequency of 6.0 Hz increasing ... The forepaw stimulation model in the α-chloralose anesthetized rat is extensively used because the time-dependent stimulus ...
Chloralose. Minimal CV depression. Less depression of neuronal function. Long duration, acute procedures ...
Analysis of tissues of ducks poisoned by alpha-chloralose. Article Title:. Veterinary and human toxicology.. Author:. Allender ...
Dolores Reyes-Duarte; Nieves López-Cortés; Manuel Ferrer; Francisco J. Plou & Antonio Ballesteros. Parameters affecting productivity in the lipase-catalysed synthesis of sucrose palmitate. Biocatalysis and Biotransformation.2005, 23, 19-27.. Shigehiko Takegami; Keisuke Kitamura; Hiroto Kawada; Yu Matsumoto; Tatsuya Kitade; Hiroharu Ishida; Chieyo Nagata. Preparation and Characterization of a New Lipid Nano-Emulsion Containing Two Cosurfactants, Sodium Palmitate for Droplet Size Reduction and Sucrose Palmitate for Stability Enhancement. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin.2008, 56, (8), 1097-1102.. ...
ChloraloseIBA 01/01/1998 - "vertebrobasilar insufficiency; VBI), an electrophysiological study was performed to examine the ... in alpha-chloralose-anesthetized cats. ". 08/01/2004 - "To elucidate the effectiveness of the drug in the treatment of ...
  • Chloralose appears to be a satisfactory anesthetic for dogs when stage III thiobarbiturate anesthesia is first induced. (qxmd.com)
  • Confounding effects of anesthesia on functional activation in rodent brain: a study of halothane and alpha-chloralose anesthesia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In the second set of experiments, a reduction in the spatial extent of the BOLD response was apparent immediately after transfer from halothane to alpha-chloralose anesthesia, although no change in the peak signal change was evident. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These findings suggest that, although alpha-chloralose anesthesia is associated with a greater BOLD response for a fixed stimulus relative to halothane, there is substantial variation in the extent and magnitude of the response over time that could introduce considerable variability in studies using this anesthetic. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The responses obtained with trans-(+)-ACPD were compared with the responses to L-glutamate (1 nmol/100 nl), since in a previous study we showed that anesthesia converted a pressor response to L-glutamate microinjected into the NTS of conscious rats to a depressor response in the same rats under urethane or chloralose anesthesia . (bvsalud.org)
  • Microinjection of 3 doses of trans-(+)-ACPD (100, 500 and 1000 pmol/100 nl) produced a dose -dependent fall in MAP (range, -20 to -50 mmHg) and HR (range, -30 to -170 bpm) under both conscious and chloralose anesthesia conditions. (bvsalud.org)
  • These data indicate that the cardiovascular responses to the activation of metabotropic receptors by trans-(+)-ACPD are not affected by chloralose anesthesia while the cardiovascular responses to the activation of excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors by L-glutamate are significantly altered. (bvsalud.org)
  • Experiments were performed on adult female cats and rats under /alpha/-chloralose anesthesia. (diva-portal.org)
  • Brain glucose concentrations were elevated, consistent with a twofold reduced cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) compared with light alpha-chloralose anesthesia. (epfl.ch)
  • The experimental animals were dogs anesthetized with alpha-chloralose. (ahajournals.org)
  • Changes in cerebral cortical perfusion (CBFLDF), local cerebral blood flow (lCBF) and local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) elicited by unilateral cortical spreading depression (SD) were monitored and measured in separate groups of rats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose. (nih.gov)
  • METHODS: Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and alpha-chloralose. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Hyperemic components were investigated at 11.7 T in α-chloralose-anesthetized rats and combined with electrophysiological recordings of local field potential (LFP) and multiunit activity (MUA) from the cortex during forepaw stimulation, in which stimulus number and frequency were varied. (jneurosci.org)
  • This hypothesis was tested in chloralose-anesthetized rats in vivo. (chalmers.se)
  • Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed in α-chloralose anesthetized, male Sprague-Dawley rats by infusion of insulin (3.75 mU/kg per minute, IV) and 50% dextrose solution for 120 minutes. (ahajournals.org)
  • METHODS: Rats were anesthetized with 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) intraperitoneal pentobarbital and supplementation with intravenous α-chloralose. (ahajournals.org)
  • Duodenal mucosal alkaline secretion was measured in methohexital- and alpha-chloralose-anaesthetised rats by means of in situ pH-stat titration. (gu.se)
  • We used a juxtacellular labeling technique to individually fill spontaneously active, barosensitive, bulbospinal RVLM neurons with biotinamide following electrophysiological characterization in chloralose-anesthetized rats. (nih.gov)
  • Ten chloralose-anesthetized-immobilized cats with Kaolin-induced hydrocephalus and six normal rats were used of the experiments. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Normal rats were anesthetized with chloralose/urethane, the femoral artery and vein were cannulated to monitor MAP or heart rate (HR), or for infusions. (ovid.com)
  • Animals were anesthetized with chloralose/urethane and a closed cranial window was implanted over the somatosensory cortex. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Single-unit extracellular recordings were obtained in chloralose-anesthetized cats. (nih.gov)
  • A study of alpha-chloralose, methoxymol, metomidate, pentobarbital sodium, secobarbital sodium, thiopental sodium and tribromoethanol concluded that tribromoethanol was superior to other agents ( J4 .161.w1). (twycrosszoo.org)
  • And (ii) how does the BOLD response change after transferring from halothane to the commonly used anesthetic alpha-chloralose? (ox.ac.uk)
  • Functional MRI of the cervical spinal cord during noxious and innocuous thermal stimulation in the alpha-chloralose and halothane anesthetized rat. (nosm.ca)
  • 0.05 N) of the tooth (PDN) were intracellularly recorded from the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) in the cat anesthetized with α-chloralose and halothane. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Chloralose is an avicide, and a rodenticide used to kill mice in temperatures below 15 °C. It is also widely used in neuroscience and veterinary medicine as an anesthetic and sedative. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-Chloralose has been used as anesthetic in surgical preparations. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Chloral hydrate (CH) and alpha-chloralose (CS) are often used to anesthetize laboratory animals although, to our knowledge, there have been no controlled studies of their anesthetic or analgesic effects. (qxmd.com)
  • 1. Reflexes evoked in bladder parasympathetic neurones by electrical stimulation of bladder C afferent fibres were studied in cats anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose. (diva-portal.org)
  • The effect of claustrum (CL) stimulation on the spontaneous unitary activity of ipsi and contralateral frontal oculomotor neurons, was studied in chloralose-anaesthetized cats. (nih.gov)
  • Abstract We compared the cardiac electrophysiological actions of two types of H 1 -receptor antagonists-the piperidines, astemizole and terfenadine, and the nonpiperidines, chlorpheniramine and pyrilamine-in vitro in guinea pig ventricular myocytes and in vivo in chloralose-anesthetized dogs. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition, the macroscopic cardiac electrophysiological effects of these agents were assessed on in vivo correlates of myocardial APD, namely, electrocardiographic QT interval and ventricular refractory period, in chloralose-anesthetized dogs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Formulation chemists then produced an alpha-chloralose tablet with the active ingredient held together by a binding agent (common binding agents are lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, etc. (usda.gov)
  • It was noted that the alpha-chloralose-in-corn-oil formulation is also effective for capture of waterfowl (and coots and pigeons) as a surface coating on corn ( J1 .33.w8). (twycrosszoo.org)
  • New furanoside-based NHC precursor salts ( 2 ) were synthesized using amino alcohols from the chloralose derivatives of glucose ( a ), galactose ( b ), and mannose ( c ). (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Feldberg and Wei [6] examined the central cardiovascular effects of morphine in [Greek small letter alpha]-chloralose anesthetized cats and suggested that a location near the obex at the dorsal surface of the medulla is the central site of action of morphine. (asahq.org)
  • SUMMARY The effects of graded hemorrhagic hypotension on electrocortical function was investigated in 12 cats anesthetized with a-chloralose. (ovid.com)
  • The presence of an alpha-adrenoceptor--mediated coronary vasoconstrictor reflex during acute systemic hypoxia was examined in thirteen chloralose-anesthetized dogs. (unt.edu)
  • In early days of use, alpha-chloralose was mixed with butter and squirted into bread for delivery. (usda.gov)
  • Alpha-chloralose suspended in corn oil and injected by syringe into bread baits may be thrown to individual target individuals. (twycrosszoo.org)
  • Bread baits may also be dosed with alpha-chloralose mixed with margarine (prepared by handmixing 4 teaspoons of 70% vegetable oil margarine with 1.68g alpha-chloralose) or tablets made from alpha-chloralose. (twycrosszoo.org)
  • He carried out researches on ''chloralose' and ''opium alkaloids', which he carried out at Dr. Mayor's experimental therapy laboratory, and were published in French. (muslimheritage.com)
  • However, several hours after transfer to alpha-chloralose, a significant increase in both the spatial extent and peak height of the BOLD response was observed, as well as an increased sensitivity to secondary cortical and subcortical activation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Capture of sandhill cranes using alpha-chloralose.248. (savingcranes.org)
  • Alpha-chloralose has been used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal Damage Control programme for the capture of nuisance waterfowl at a dose rate of approximately 30mg/kg body weight. (twycrosszoo.org)
  • Tous les résultats de la recherche seront tirés du « National Drug Schedules » du site Web en anglais. (napra.ca)
  • On January 9, 1990, 32 turkeys were captured in the Black Hills of South Dakota using the drug alpha-chloralose. (usda.gov)
  • The tablet also had to have properties that allowed it to dissolve in water so the alpha-chloralose was available for ingestion. (usda.gov)
  • [18] (alpha-chloralose) found S1 as well as bilateral Caudate Putamen networks (CPu) connectivity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • If we don t help this is what will happen: The U.S. Department of Agriculture s Animal and Plan Health Inspection Service Wildlife Services (APHIS WS) will kill the ducks by feeding them Alpha-Chloralose, which depresses the birds central nervous system. (ipetitions.com)
  • Alpha-Chloralose is considered one of the most effective ways to keep mice and other vertebrate pests under control. (ncrrsepa.org)
  • alpha-Chloralose is a true anaesthetic or an immobilising agent with sedative-hypnotic properties. (discofinechem.com)
  • In alpha-chloralose- and urethane-anesthetized rats, microinjection of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), a NO antagonist, into the PVN produced a dose-dependent increase in RSND, blood pressure, and heart rate. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Mice take the bait and instead of feeling unwell (like typical anticoagulants) they are able to eat more product, as the alpha chloralose is hidden by the capsulation with no taste or initial side effects. (daltonengineering.co.uk)