A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.
Used as a solvent, in the manufacture of insecticides, and for treating sweet potatoes before planting. May cause nausea, vomiting, pains in head and chest, stupefaction. Irritates mucous membranes and causes kidney and liver degeneration.
A histamine H1 receptor antagonist that is effective in the treatment of chronic urticaria, dermatitis, and histamine-mediated pruritus. Unlike its major metabolite CETIRIZINE, it does cause drowsiness. It is also effective as an antiemetic, for relief of anxiety and tension, and as a sedative.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
A hypnotic and sedative. Its use has been largely superseded by other drugs.
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
A strong acid used as a protein precipitant in clinical chemistry and also as a caustic for removing warts.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.
Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.
(Note: 'North Carolina' is a place, not a medical term. However, I can provide a fun fact related to health and North Carolina.)
Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
A synthetic hormone used for androgen replacement therapy and as an hormonal antineoplastic agent (ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, HORMONAL).
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to domestic national security.
A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has been shown to be effective in patients with major depressive disorders and other subsets of depressive disorders. It is generally more useful in depressive disorders associated with insomnia and anxiety. This drug does not aggravate psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p309)
A pH sensitive dye that has been used as an indicator in many laboratory reactions.
A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.

A pilot study of the efficacy of oral midazolam for sedation in pediatric dental patients. (1/106)

Oral midazolam is being used for conscious sedation in dentistry with little documentation assessing its efficacy. In order to accumulate preliminary data, a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover, multi-site pilot study was conducted. The objective was to determine if 0.6 mg/kg of oral midazolam was an equally effective or superior means of achieving conscious sedation in the uncooperative pediatric dental patient, compared with a commonly used agent, 50 mg/kg of oral chloral hydrate. Twenty-three children in three clinics who required dentistry with local anesthetic and were determined to exhibit behavior rated as "negative" or "definitely negative" based on the Frankl scale were assessed. They were evaluated with respect to acceptance of medication; initial level of anxiety at each appointment; level of sedation prior to and acceptance of local anesthetic; movement and crying during the procedure; and overall behavior. The results showed that the group randomly assigned to receive midazolam had a significantly greater initial level of anxiety for that appointment (P < 0.02), a finding that could clearly confound further determination of the efficacy of these drugs. Patients given oral midazolam had an increased level of sedation prior to the administration of local anesthetic compared with those given chloral hydrate (P < 0.015). No statistically significant differences were noted in any of the other parameters. The age of the patient was found to have no correlation with the difference in overall behavior (r = -0.09). These preliminary data warrant further clinical trials.  (+info)

Comparison of oral chloral hydrate with intramuscular ketamine, meperidine, and promethazine for pediatric sedation--preliminary report. (2/106)

Fifteen consecutive pediatric patients ranging from 3 to 5 years old were selected to receive one of three sedative/hypnotic techniques. Group 1 received oral chloral hydrate 50 mg/kg, and groups 2 and 3 received intramuscular ketamine 2 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg, respectively. In addition to ketamine, patients in groups 2 and 3 received transmucosal intramuscular injections of meperidine and promethazine into the masseter muscle. Sedation for the satisfactory completion of restorative dentistry was obtained for over 40 min on average in the chloral hydrate group, but completion of dental surgery longer than 40 min was achieved in groups 2 and 3 only by intravenous supplements of ketamine.  (+info)

Metabolism and toxicity of trichloroethylene and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine in freshly isolated human proximal tubular cells. (3/106)

Trichloroethylene (Tri) caused modest cytotoxicity in freshly isolated human proximal tubular (hPT) cells, as assessed by significant decreases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity after 1 h of exposure to 500 microM Tri. Oxidative metabolism of Tri by cytochrome P-450 to form chloral hydrate (CH) was only detectable in kidney microsomes from one patient out of four tested and was not detected in hPT cells. In contrast, GSH conjugation of Tri was detected in cells from every patient tested. The kinetics of Tri metabolism to its GSH conjugate S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione (DCVG) followed biphasic kinetics, with apparent Km and Vmax values of 0.51 and 24.9 mM and 0.10 and 1.0 nmol/min per mg protein, respectively. S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), the cysteine conjugate metabolite of Tri that is considered the penultimate nephrotoxic species, caused both time- and concentration-dependent increases in LDH release in freshly isolated hPT cells. Preincubation of hPT cells with 0.1 mM aminooxyacetic acid did not protect hPT cells from DCVC-induced cellular injury, suggesting that another enzyme besides the cysteine conjugate beta-lyase may be important in DCVC bioactivation. This study is the first to measure the cytotoxicity and metabolism of Tri and DCVC in freshly isolated cells from the human kidney. These data indicate that the pathway involved in the cytotoxicity and metabolism of Tri in hPT cells is the GSH conjugation pathway and that the cytochrome P-450-dependent pathway has little direct role in renal Tri metabolism in humans.  (+info)

Anaesthetic agents inhibit gastrin-stimulated but not basal histamine release from rat stomach ECL cells. (4/106)

By mobilizing histamine in response to gastrin, the ECL cells in the oxyntic mucosa play a key role in the control of the parietal cells and hence of gastric acid secretion. General anaesthesia suppresses basal and gastrin- and histamine-stimulated acid secretion. The present study examines if the effect of anaesthesia on basal and gastrin-stimulated acid secretion is associated with suppressed ECL-cell histamine secretion. A microdialysis probe was implanted in the submucosa of the ventral aspect of the acid-producing part of the stomach (32 rats). Three days later, ECL-cell histamine mobilization was monitored 2 h before and 4 h after the start of intravenous infusion of gastrin (5 nmol kg(-1) h(-1)). The rats were either conscious or anaesthetized. Four commonly used anaesthetic agents were given 1 h before the start of the experiments by intraperitoneal injection: chloral hydrate (300 mg kg(-1)), pentobarbitone (40 mg kg(-1)), urethane (1.5 g kg(-1)) and a mixture of fluanisone/fentanyl/midazolam (15/0.5/7.5 mg kg(-1)). In a parallel series of experiments, basal- and gastrin-induced acid secretion was monitored in six conscious and 25 anaesthetized (see above) chronic gastric fistula rats. All anaesthetic agents lowered gastrin-stimulated acid secretion; also the basal acid output was reduced (fluanisone/fentanyl/midazolam was an exception). Anaesthesia reduced gastrin-stimulated but not basal histamine release by 55 - 80%. The reduction in gastrin-induced acid response (70 - 95%) was strongly correlated to the reduction in gastrin-induced histamine mobilization. The correlation is in line with the view that the reduced acid response to gastrin reflects impaired histamine mobilization. Rat stomach ECL cells were purified by counter-flow elutriation. Gastrin-evoked histamine mobilization from the isolated ECL cells was determined in the absence or presence of anaesthetic agents in the medium. With the exception of urethane, they inhibited gastrin-evoked histamine secretion dose-dependently, indicating a direct effect on the ECL cells. Anaesthetized rats are widely used to study acid secretion and ECL-cell histamine release. The present results illustrate the short-comings of such an approach in that a number of anaesthetic agents were found to impair not only acid secretion but also the secretion of ECL-cell histamine - some acting in a direct manner.  (+info)

Carcinogenicity of chloral hydrate administered in drinking water to the male F344/N rat and male B6C3F1 mouse. (5/106)

Male B6C3F1 mice and male F344/N rats were exposed to chloral hydrate (chloral) in the drinking water for 2 years. Rats: Measured chloral hydrate drinking water concentrations for the study were 0.12 g/L, 0.58 g/L, and 2.51 g/L chloral hydrate that yielded time-weighted mean daily doses (MDDs) of 7.4, 37.4, and 162.6 mg/kg per day. Water consumptions, survival, body weights, and organ weights were not altered in any of the chloral hydrate treatments. Life-time exposures to chloral hydrate failed to increase the prevalence (percentage of animals with a tumor) or the multiplicity (tumors/animal) of hepatocellular neoplasia. Chloral hydrate did not increase the prevalence of neoplasia at any other organ site. Mice: Measured chloral hydrate drinking water concentrations for the study were 0.12 g/L, 0.58 g/L, and 1.28 g/L that gave MDDs of 13.5, 65.0, and 146.6 mg/kg per day. Water consumptions, survival, body and organ weights, were not altered from the control values by any of the chloral hydrate treatments. Enhanced neoplasia was observed only in the liver. Prevalence and multiplicity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HC) were increased only for the high-dose group (84.4%; 0.72 HC/animal; p < or = 0.05). Values of 54.3%; 0.72 HC/animal and 59%; 1.03 HC/animal were observed for the 13.5- and 65.0-mg/kg per day treatment groups. Prevalence and multiplicity for the control group were 54.8%; 0.74 HC/animal. Hepatoadenoma (HA) prevalence and multiplicity were significantly increased (p < or = 0.05) at all chloral hydrate concentrations: 43.5%; 0.65 HA/animal, 51.3%; 0.95 HA/animal and 50%; 0.72 HA/animal at 13.5, 65.0, and 146.6 mg/kg per day chloral hydrate compared to 21.4%; 0.21 HA/animal in the untreated group. Altered foci of cells were evident in all doses tested in the mouse, but no significant differences were observed over the control values. Hepatocellular necrosis was minimal and did not exceed that seen in untreated rats and mice. Chloral hydrate exposure did not alter serum chemistry and hepatocyte proliferation in rats and mice or increase hepatic palmitoyl CoA oxidase in mice at any of the time periods monitored. It was concluded that chloral hydrate was carcinogenic (hepatocellular neoplasia) in the male mouse, but not in the rat, following a lifetime exposure in the drinking water. Based upon the increased HA and combined tumors at all chloral hydrate doses tested, a no observed adverse effect level was not determined.  (+info)

Hyperintense signal abnormality in subarachnoid spaces and basal cisterns on MR images of children anesthetized with propofol: new fluid-attenuated inversion recovery finding. (6/106)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging is the method of choice for pediatric neuroimaging. Sedation is often needed to suppress patient motion and ensure diagnostic image quality, and propofol is rapidly becoming the preferred anesthetic. The purpose of this study was to document a new finding on fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (fast-FLAIR) MR images of children anesthetized with propofol that can be mistaken for subarachnoid space pathologic abnormality. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 55 MR images of the brain for children who ranged in age from 1 week to 12 years. Forty-two patients received chloral hydrate, and 13 received propofol anesthetic. Multiplanar MR images were studied to detect the presence or absence of hyperintense signal (artifact) in the subarachnoid spaces and basal cisterns. The T1 values and null times of chloral hydrate, propofol, and CSF were determined in vitro at room temperature by using an inversion recovery pulse sequence at 1.5 T. RESULTS: The fast-FLAIR images of all 13 patients who received propofol had hyperintense signal abnormality. For 10 (77%) of 13 patients, this artifact was in the basal cisterns and subarachnoid spaces overlying the brain convexity. For three (23%) of 13 patients, this artifact was in the convexity region only. Two patients underwent follow-up MR imaging with a nonpropofol anesthetic agent, and the artifact resolved. None of the images of the children who received chloral hydrate had this artifact. The T1 value of chloral hydrate was 0.2 s, of propofol was 1.86 s, and of CSF was 2.32 s at room temperature. CONCLUSION: The fast-FLAIR images of children anesthetized with propofol have artifactual hyperintense signal in the basal cisterns and subarachnoid spaces, and this artifact mimics disease of the subarachnoid space. The T1 value of propofol approaches that of CSF. Depending on the chosen null time, there may be incomplete nulling of signal coming from propofol. To account for this observation, other possible causes include increased CSF pulsation in children creating motion artifact, changes in arterial oxygen concentration intrinsic to propofol or related to the supplemental oxygen normally administered, or changes in CSF protein levels related to propofol binding to proteins for uptake into CSF.  (+info)

Chronic cold stress reduces the spontaneous activity of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons. (7/106)

The dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area and medial substantia nigra (VTA/mSN) projecting to the limbic forebrain and prefrontal cortex have long been postulated to play a major role in cognitive and behavioral effects of stress. In this study, the effects of a chronic stressor (prolonged exposure to cold) on the spontaneous activity of DA neurons in the VTA/mSN were examined. Extracellular single-unit recordings of DA neurons were performed in rats following a 17-day continuous exposure to a cold (4 degrees C) environment. Compared to controls, cold-exposed rats displayed 64% fewer spontaneously active DA neurons. The average spike activity (average firing rate, average spikes fired in bursts) of the DA cells that remained active in the cold-exposed rats did not differ significantly from controls. However, a significantly larger proportion of those cells showed excessive burst activity, compared to the DA cell population in controls. These results show that chronic stress can lead to the cessation of spontaneous activity in a subpopulation of VTA/mSN DA cells. These changes may indicate that unlike acute stress, which can potently activate the mesolimbic/mesocortical DA systems, chronic stress leads to an adaptive reduction in the number of active DA cells, perhaps altering the response of these systems to subsequent stressors.  (+info)

Cytochrome p450-dependent metabolism of trichloroethylene in rat kidney. (8/106)

The metabolism of trichloroethylene (Tri) by cytochrome P450 (P450) was studied in microsomes from liver and kidney homogenates and from isolated renal proximal tubular (PT) and distal tubular (DT) cells from male Fischer 344 rats. Chloral hydrate (CH) was the only metabolite consistently detected and was used as a measurement of P450-dependent metabolism of Tri. Pretreatment of rats with pyridine increased CH formation in both liver and kidney microsomes, whereas pretreatment of rats with clofibrate increased CH formation only in kidney microsomes. Pyridine increased CYP2E1 expression in both liver and kidney microsomes, whereas clofibrate had no effect on hepatic but increased renal CYP2E1 and CYP2C11 protein levels. These results suggest a role for CYP2E1 in both the hepatic and renal metabolism of Tri and a role for CYP2C11 in the renal metabolism of Tri. Studies with the general P450 inhibitor SKF-525A and the CYP2E1 competitive substrate chlorzoxazone provided additional support for the role of CYP2E1 in both tissues. CH formation was higher in PT cells than in DT cells and was time and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) dependent. However, pretreatment of rats with either pyridine or clofibrate had no effect on CYP2E1 or CYP2C11 protein levels or on CH formation in isolated cells. These data show for the first time that Tri can be metabolized to at least one of its P450 metabolites in the kidneys and quantitate the effect of P450 induction on Tri metabolism in the rat kidney.  (+info)

Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic medication, which means it can help to promote sleep and reduce anxiety. It is a type of compound called a chloral derivative and works by increasing the activity of a neurotransmitter in the brain called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which has a calming effect on the nervous system.

Chloral hydrate is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. It is typically used for short-term treatment of insomnia or anxiety, but it may also be used for other purposes as determined by a healthcare provider.

Like all medications, chloral hydrate can have side effects, which can include dizziness, headache, stomach upset, and changes in behavior or mood. It is important to use this medication only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or concerns promptly.

Ethylene chlorohydrin is a chemical compound with the formula C2H4Cl2O. It is a colorless liquid with an ether-like odor and is used as a solvent and a chemical intermediate in the production of other chemicals. Ethylene chlorohydrin is produced by the reaction of ethylene oxide with hydrochloric acid.

In medical terms, ethylene chlorohydrin is not commonly used or encountered. However, it is classified as a hazardous substance and can be harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or comes into contact with the skin. It can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure may lead to more serious health effects such as damage to the nervous system and internal organs.

If you suspect that you have been exposed to ethylene chlorohydrin, it is important to seek medical attention immediately and to follow any recommended treatment or safety precautions.

Hydroxyzine is an antihistamine medication that is primarily used to treat symptoms of allergies such as itching, hives, and swelling. It works by blocking the effects of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic reactions. In addition to its antihistaminic properties, hydroxyzine also has sedative and anxiety-reducing effects, which make it useful in treating anxiety disorders, symptoms of alcohol withdrawal, and as a sleep aid. It is available in both oral and injectable forms and is usually taken orally in the form of tablets, capsules, or syrup. As with any medication, hydroxyzine should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and its use may be subject to certain precautions and contraindications depending on the individual's medical history and current health status.

Hypnotics and sedatives are classes of medications that have depressant effects on the central nervous system, leading to sedation (calming or inducing sleep), reduction in anxiety, and in some cases, decreased awareness or memory. These agents work by affecting the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) in the brain, which results in inhibitory effects on neuronal activity.

Hypnotics are primarily used for the treatment of insomnia and other sleep disorders, while sedatives are often prescribed to manage anxiety or to produce a calming effect before medical procedures. Some medications can function as both hypnotics and sedatives, depending on the dosage and specific formulation. Common examples of these medications include benzodiazepines (such as diazepam and lorazepam), non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (such as zolpidem and eszopiclone), barbiturates, and certain antihistamines.

It is essential to use these medications under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have potential side effects, such as drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, and impaired coordination. Additionally, long-term use or high doses may lead to tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation.

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a volatile, colorless liquid with a chloroform-like odor. In the medical field, it is primarily used as a surgical anesthetic and an analgesic. However, its use in medicine has significantly decreased due to the availability of safer alternatives.

In a broader context, TCE is widely used in various industries as a solvent for cleaning metal parts, degreasing fabrics and other materials, and as a refrigerant. It's also present in some consumer products like paint removers, adhesives, and typewriter correction fluids.

Prolonged or repeated exposure to TCE can lead to various health issues, including neurological problems, liver and kidney damage, and an increased risk of certain cancers. Therefore, its use is regulated by environmental and occupational safety agencies worldwide.

Glutethimide is a sedative-hypnotic drug that was previously used for the treatment of insomnia and anxiety disorders. It belongs to the class of drugs known as non-barbiturate hypnotics. Glutethimide works by depressing the central nervous system (CNS), producing a calming effect on the brain.

Due to its potential for abuse, addiction, and its narrow therapeutic index, glutethimide is no longer commonly used in clinical practice. It has been replaced by safer and more effective sleep aids with fewer side effects and lower potential for misuse.

It's important to note that the use of glutethimide should be under the strict supervision of a healthcare professional, and it should only be taken as prescribed. Misuse or overuse of this medication can lead to serious health consequences, including respiratory depression, coma, and even death.

Conscious sedation, also known as procedural sedation and analgesia, is a minimally depressed level of consciousness that retains the patient's ability to maintain airway spontaneously and respond appropriately to physical stimulation and verbal commands. It is typically achieved through the administration of sedative and/or analgesic medications and is commonly used in medical procedures that do not require general anesthesia. The goal of conscious sedation is to provide a comfortable and anxiety-free experience for the patient while ensuring their safety throughout the procedure.

Crying is not a medical term itself, but it can be a symptom or a response to various medical and emotional conditions. In a broader sense, crying refers to the production of tears and the audible sounds that accompany this action due to strong emotions such as sadness, happiness, frustration, or pain.

From a physiological standpoint, crying involves the activation of the autonomic nervous system, which leads to the production of tears by the lacrimal glands and the contraction of various facial muscles responsible for the expression of emotion. The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is primarily responsible for the initiation of crying, leading to increased tear production and a decrease in heart rate.

There are several types of crying:

1. Emotional crying: This type of crying is a response to strong emotional states such as sadness, joy, frustration, or anger. It can be accompanied by sobbing, which involves deep, convulsive breaths and audible sounds.
2. Reflex crying: This occurs when the eyes are irritated due to foreign particles, bright lights, or other environmental factors. The reflex is designed to protect the eyes by producing tears to wash away the irritant.
3. Basal tearing: This type of tear production is continuous and helps keep the eyes lubricated and protected from drying out. It occurs at a low rate throughout the day and is not typically associated with crying as an emotional response.

In summary, while crying is not a medical term per se, it can be indicative of various emotional or physical states that may warrant medical attention. For instance, excessive or inappropriate crying might be a sign of underlying neurological or psychological conditions and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional if it becomes a concern.

Dental anesthesia is a type of local or regional anesthesia that is specifically used in dental procedures to block the transmission of pain impulses from the teeth and surrounding tissues to the brain. The most common types of dental anesthesia include:

1. Local anesthesia: This involves the injection of a local anesthetic drug, such as lidocaine or prilocaine, into the gum tissue near the tooth that is being treated. This numbs the area and prevents the patient from feeling pain during the procedure.
2. Conscious sedation: This is a type of minimal sedation that is used to help patients relax during dental procedures. The patient remains conscious and can communicate with the dentist, but may not remember the details of the procedure. Common methods of conscious sedation include nitrous oxide (laughing gas) or oral sedatives.
3. Deep sedation or general anesthesia: This is rarely used in dental procedures, but may be necessary for patients who are extremely anxious or have special needs. It involves the administration of drugs that cause a state of unconsciousness and prevent the patient from feeling pain during the procedure.

Dental anesthesia is generally safe when administered by a qualified dentist or oral surgeon. However, as with any medical procedure, there are risks involved, including allergic reactions to the anesthetic drugs, nerve damage, and infection. Patients should discuss any concerns they have with their dentist before undergoing dental anesthesia.

Dental care for children, also known as pediatric dentistry, is a branch of dentistry that focuses on the oral health of children from infancy through adolescence. The medical definition of dental care for children includes:

1. Preventive Dentistry: This involves regular dental check-ups, professional cleaning, fluoride treatments, and sealants to prevent tooth decay and other dental diseases. Parents are also educated on proper oral hygiene practices for their children, including brushing, flossing, and dietary habits.
2. Restorative Dentistry: If a child develops cavities or other dental problems, restorative treatments such as fillings, crowns, or pulpotomies (baby root canals) may be necessary to restore the health and function of their teeth.
3. Orthodontic Treatment: Many children require orthodontic treatment to correct misaligned teeth or jaws. Early intervention can help guide proper jaw development and prevent more severe issues from developing later on.
4. Habit Counseling: Dental care for children may also involve habit counseling, such as helping a child stop thumb sucking or pacifier use, which can negatively impact their oral health.
5. Sedation and Anesthesia: For children who are anxious about dental procedures or have special needs, sedation or anesthesia may be used to ensure their comfort and safety during treatment.
6. Emergency Care: Dental care for children also includes emergency care for injuries such as knocked-out teeth, broken teeth, or severe toothaches. Prompt attention is necessary to prevent further damage and alleviate pain.
7. Education and Prevention: Finally, dental care for children involves educating parents and children about the importance of good oral hygiene practices and regular dental check-ups to maintain optimal oral health throughout their lives.

Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA) is not typically defined in the context of medical terminology, but rather it is a chemical compound used in various medical and cosmetic applications.

Medically, TCA is often used as a chemical agent for peels to treat various skin conditions such as acne, sun damage, age spots, fine lines, and wrinkles. It works by causing the top layers of the skin to dry up and peel off, revealing smoother, more even-toned skin underneath.

The medical definition of Trichloroacetic Acid is:
A colorless crystalline compound, used as a chemical peel in dermatology for various skin conditions, that works by causing the top layers of the skin to dry up and peel off. It is also used as a fixative in histological preparations and as an antiseptic and disinfectant. The chemical formula for TCA is C2HCl3O2.

Pentobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is primarily used for its sedative and hypnotic effects in the treatment of insomnia, seizure disorders, and occasionally to treat severe agitation or delirium. It works by decreasing the activity of nerves in the brain, which produces a calming effect.

In addition to its medical uses, pentobarbital has been used for non-therapeutic purposes such as euthanasia and capital punishment due to its ability to cause respiratory depression and death when given in high doses. It is important to note that the use of pentobarbital for these purposes is highly regulated and restricted to licensed medical professionals in specific circumstances.

Like all barbiturates, pentobarbital has a high potential for abuse and addiction, and its use should be closely monitored by a healthcare provider. It can also cause serious side effects such as respiratory depression, decreased heart rate, and low blood pressure, especially when used in large doses or combined with other central nervous system depressants.

Urethane is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, in the field of chemistry and pharmacology, urethane is an ethyl carbamate ester which has been used as a general anesthetic. It is rarely used today due to its potential carcinogenic properties and the availability of safer alternatives.

In the context of materials science, polyurethanes are a class of polymers that contain urethane linkages (-NH-CO-O-) in their main chain. They are widely used in various applications such as foam insulation, coatings, adhesives, and medical devices due to their versatile properties like flexibility, durability, and resistance to abrasion.

Drug Information Services (DIS) are specialized resources within healthcare systems, typically staffed by clinical pharmacists and pharmacy residents, that provide evidence-based information and analysis about medications to healthcare professionals and patients. The primary goal of DIS is to optimize medication use and improve patient outcomes through the provision of accurate, unbiased, and timely information on drug therapy.

DIS commonly provide a range of services, including:

1. Answering medication-related questions from healthcare providers, such as physicians, nurses, and other pharmacists, regarding drug interactions, dosing, adverse effects, and therapeutic alternatives.
2. Developing and maintaining formulary management systems to ensure the safe and cost-effective use of medications within a healthcare institution or system.
3. Providing patient education materials and resources on medication therapy, including proper administration techniques, potential side effects, and storage requirements.
4. Conducting ongoing literature evaluations and synthesizing evidence-based recommendations for medication use in various clinical scenarios.
5. Collaborating with healthcare teams to develop and implement guidelines, policies, and procedures related to medication management and safety.
6. Offering educational programs and resources for healthcare professionals and students to enhance their knowledge of pharmacotherapy and medication safety practices.
7. Participating in multidisciplinary committees focused on improving medication use processes, reducing medication errors, and promoting patient safety.

DIS are essential components of modern healthcare systems, as they help ensure the safe, effective, and efficient use of medications for improved patient outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pamphlets" is not a medical term. It refers to a small paper booklet or leaflet that can be used to provide information on various topics, including non-medical subjects. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

Drug labeling refers to the information that is provided on the packaging or container of a medication, as well as any accompanying promotional materials. This information is intended to provide healthcare professionals and patients with accurate and up-to-date data about the drug's composition, intended use, dosage, side effects, contraindications, and other important details that are necessary for safe and effective use.

The labeling of prescription drugs in the United States is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which requires manufacturers to submit proposed labeling as part of their new drug application. The FDA reviews the labeling to ensure that it is truthful, balanced, and not misleading, and provides accurate information about the drug's risks and benefits.

The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs is also regulated by the FDA, but in this case, the agency has established a set of monographs that specify the conditions under which certain active ingredients can be used and the labeling requirements for each ingredient. Manufacturers of OTC drugs must ensure that their labeling complies with these monographs.

In addition to the information required by regulatory agencies, drug labeling may also include additional information provided by the manufacturer, such as detailed instructions for use, storage requirements, and any warnings or precautions that are necessary to ensure safe and effective use of the medication. It is important for healthcare professionals and patients to carefully review and understand all of the information provided on a drug's labeling before using the medication.

Patient education, as defined by the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), is "the teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs. It includes the patient's understanding of his or her condition and the necessary procedures for self, assisted, or professional care." This encompasses a wide range of activities and interventions aimed at helping patients and their families understand their medical conditions, treatment options, self-care skills, and overall health management. Effective patient education can lead to improved health outcomes, increased patient satisfaction, and better use of healthcare resources.

A formulary is a list of prescription drugs, both generic and brand-name, that are approved for use in a specific health plan or healthcare system. The formulary includes information on the preferred drugs within each therapeutic class, along with any restrictions or limitations on their use. Formularies are developed and maintained by a committee of healthcare professionals, including pharmacists and physicians, who evaluate the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of different medications.

The purpose of a formulary is to promote the appropriate use of medications, improve patient outcomes, and manage healthcare costs. By establishing a preferred list of drugs, health plans and healthcare systems can negotiate better prices with pharmaceutical manufacturers and ensure that patients receive high-quality, evidence-based care.

Formularies may include various types of medications, such as oral solid dosage forms, injectables, inhalants, topicals, and others. They are typically organized by therapeutic class, and each drug is assigned a tier based on its cost and clinical value. Tier 1 drugs are usually preferred generics or lower-cost brand-name medications, while Tier 2 drugs may be higher-cost brand-name medications that have no generic equivalent. Tier 3 drugs are typically specialty medications that are used to treat complex or rare conditions and are often associated with high costs.

Healthcare providers are encouraged to prescribe drugs that are listed on the formulary, as these medications have been thoroughly reviewed and deemed safe and effective for use in their patient population. However, there may be situations where a non-formulary medication is necessary to treat a particular patient's condition. In such cases, healthcare providers can request an exception or prior authorization to prescribe the non-formulary drug.

Formularies are regularly updated to reflect new drugs that come on the market, changes in clinical guidelines, and shifts in the therapeutic landscape. Health plans and healthcare systems may also modify their formularies in response to feedback from patients and providers or to address concerns about safety, efficacy, or cost.

In summary, a formulary is a comprehensive list of prescription drugs that are approved for use in a specific health plan or healthcare system. Formularies promote the appropriate use of medications, improve patient outcomes, and manage costs by encouraging the prescribing of safe and effective drugs that have been thoroughly reviewed and deemed appropriate for their patient population.

The "drug industry" is also commonly referred to as the "pharmaceutical industry." It is a segment of the healthcare sector that involves the research, development, production, and marketing of medications or drugs. This includes both prescription and over-the-counter medicines used to treat, cure, or prevent diseases and medical conditions in humans and animals.

The drug industry comprises various types of organizations, such as:

1. Research-based pharmaceutical companies: These are large corporations that focus on the research and development (R&D) of new drugs, clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals, manufacturing, and marketing their products globally. Examples include Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, Roche, and Merck.

2. Generic drug manufacturers: After the patent for a brand-name drug expires, generic drug manufacturers can produce and sell a similar version of the drug at a lower cost. These companies must demonstrate that their product is bioequivalent to the brand-name drug in terms of safety, quality, and efficacy.

3. Biotechnology companies: These firms specialize in developing drugs using biotechnological methods, such as recombinant DNA technology, gene therapy, or monoclonal antibodies. Many biotech companies focus on specific therapeutic areas, like oncology, immunology, or neurology.

4. Contract research organizations (CROs): CROs provide various services to the drug industry, including clinical trial management, data analysis, regulatory affairs support, and pharmacovigilance. They work with both large pharmaceutical companies and smaller biotech firms to help streamline the drug development process.

5. Drug delivery system companies: These organizations focus on developing innovative technologies for delivering drugs more effectively and safely to patients. Examples include transdermal patches, inhalers, or long-acting injectables.

6. Wholesalers and distributors: Companies that purchase drugs from manufacturers and distribute them to pharmacies, hospitals, and other healthcare providers.

The drug industry plays a crucial role in improving public health by discovering, developing, and delivering new treatments for various diseases and medical conditions. However, it is also subject to criticism and regulation due to concerns about high drug prices, marketing practices, and the potential for conflicts of interest between industry and healthcare professionals.

A Computerized Medical Record System (CMRS) is a digital version of a patient's paper chart. It contains all of the patient's medical history from multiple providers and can be shared securely between healthcare professionals. A CMRS includes a range of data such as demographics, progress notes, problems, medications, vital signs, past medical history, immunizations, laboratory data, and radiology reports. The system facilitates the storage, retrieval, and exchange of this information in an efficient manner, and can also provide decision support, alerts, reminders, and tools for performing data analysis and creating reports. It is designed to improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of healthcare delivery by providing accurate, up-to-date, and comprehensive information about patients at the point of care.

"Drug and narcotic control" refers to the regulation and oversight of drugs and narcotics, including their production, distribution, and use. This is typically carried out by governmental agencies in order to ensure public safety, prevent abuse and diversion, and protect the health of individuals. The goal of drug and narcotic control is to strike a balance between making sure that medications are available for legitimate medical purposes while also preventing their misuse and illegal sale.

Drug control policies may include measures such as licensing and registration of manufacturers, distributors, and pharmacies; tracking and monitoring of controlled substances; setting standards for prescription practices; and enforcement of laws and regulations related to drug use and trafficking. Narcotic control specifically refers to the regulation of drugs that have a high potential for abuse and are subject to international treaties, such as opioids.

It's important to note that while these regulations aim to protect public health and safety, they can also be controversial and have unintended consequences, such as contributing to drug shortages or creating barriers to access for people who need controlled substances for legitimate medical reasons.

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is not a medical organization or entity, so it does not provide medical definitions. However, I can give you some information about what the USDA is and what it does.

The USDA is a federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food. It was established in 1862 by President Abraham Lincoln and is headed by the Secretary of Agriculture, who is a member of the President's cabinet.

The USDA has several key missions, including:

* Promoting agricultural trade and production
* Ensuring the safety of the food supply
* Providing nutrition assistance to vulnerable populations
* Protecting natural resources and the environment
* Promoting rural development and economic stability

In terms of food and nutrition, the USDA plays an important role in setting dietary guidelines for Americans, establishing standards for school meals and other federal food programs, and regulating the safety of meat, poultry, and egg products. The agency also conducts research on agricultural and food-related topics and provides education and outreach to farmers, ranchers, and consumers.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "North Carolina" is a geographical location and not a medical term or condition. It is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I'd be happy to help with those!

A research subject, also commonly referred to as a "human subject" or "participant," is an individual who takes part in a research study or clinical trial. Research subjects are essential for the advancement of medical and scientific knowledge, as they provide data that can help researchers understand various phenomena, develop new treatments, and improve existing ones.

The term "research subject" emphasizes the ethical considerations involved in conducting research with human participants. It highlights the importance of protecting their rights, dignity, and well-being throughout the study. Researchers must obtain informed consent from subjects before enrolling them in a study, ensuring that they understand the purpose, procedures, potential risks, and benefits associated with the research.

Additionally, researchers are required to follow strict guidelines and regulations to minimize any harm or discomfort to the research subjects during the study. These guidelines may include requirements for data confidentiality, privacy protection, and monitoring of adverse events. Overall, treating research subjects with respect and care is crucial in maintaining the integrity of medical research and ensuring its societal benefits.

'Drug legislation' refers to the laws and regulations that govern the production, distribution, sale, possession, and use of medications and pharmaceutical products within a given jurisdiction. These laws are designed to protect public health and safety by establishing standards for drug quality, ensuring appropriate prescribing and dispensing practices, preventing drug abuse and diversion, and promoting access to necessary medications. Drug legislation may also include provisions related to clinical trials, advertising, packaging, labeling, and reimbursement. Compliance with these regulations is typically enforced through a combination of government agencies, professional organizations, and legal penalties for non-compliance.

Methyltestosterone is a synthetic form of the hormone testosterone, which is primarily used in the treatment of low testosterone levels (hypogonadism) in men. It has a methyl group attached to it, which allows it to be taken orally and still have significant effects on the body.

Testosterone is an androgen hormone that plays important roles in the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics, such as deepening of the voice, growth of facial and body hair, and increased muscle mass. It also helps maintain bone density, red blood cell production, and sex drive.

Methyltestosterone is available in various forms, including tablets and capsules, and its use should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and risks associated with its use, such as liver toxicity, increased risk of cardiovascular events, and changes in cholesterol levels.

It's important to note that methyltestosterone is not approved for use in women, as it can cause virilization (development of male sex characteristics) and other side effects.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the 'United States Department of Homeland Security' (DHS) is not a medical term or concept. It's a cabinet department of the U.S. federal government, created in response to the September 11 attacks, with the primary responsibilities of protecting the United States from terrorism and managing border control. The DHS includes several components, including the U.S. Coast Guard, Transportation Security Administration (TSA), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Customs and Border Protection (CBP), and Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), among others.

If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Trazodone is an antidepressant medication that belongs to the class of drugs called serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors (SARIs). It works by increasing the levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain, which helps to improve mood and reduce symptoms of depression.

Trazodone is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder, but it may also be prescribed for anxiety, insomnia, and other conditions. The medication comes in various forms, including tablets and an extended-release formulation, and is typically taken orally one to three times a day. Common side effects of trazodone include dizziness, dry mouth, and sedation.

It's important to note that trazodone can interact with other medications and substances, so it's essential to inform your healthcare provider about all the drugs you are taking before starting treatment. Additionally, trazodone may increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in some people, particularly during the initial stages of treatment, so close monitoring is necessary.

Bromthymol Blue is a pH indicator dye that is commonly used in laboratory settings to determine the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. It is a blue, water-soluble compound that turns yellow in acidic solutions with a pH below 6.0 and can turn green, blue, or purple in solutions with a pH between 6.0 and 7.6, depending on the concentration of hydrogen ions present. At a pH above 7.6, Bromthymol Blue turns bright blue-green.

The chemical formula for Bromthymol Blue is C27H35BrClO5S. It has a molecular weight of 609.64 g/mol and a structural formula that includes a thymol blue core with bromine and chlorine atoms attached to it, along with a sulfonate group that makes the compound water-soluble.

Bromthymol Blue is often used in medical and biological research to measure pH changes in bodily fluids such as urine or blood. It can also be used in environmental testing to monitor water quality and detect acid rain, for example. In addition, Bromthymol Blue has been used in educational settings to teach students about pH and chemical indicators.

Second-generation antidepressants (SGAs) are a class of medications used primarily for the treatment of depression, although they are also used for other psychiatric and medical conditions. They are called "second-generation" because they were developed after the first generation of antidepressants, which include tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).

SGAs are also known as atypical antidepressants or novel antidepressants. They work by affecting the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. However, they have a different chemical structure and mechanism of action than first-generation antidepressants.

Some examples of second-generation antidepressants include:

* Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), and citalopram (Celexa)
* Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as venlafaxine (Effexor) and duloxetine (Cymbalta)
* Norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs) such as bupropion (Wellbutrin)
* Atypical antidepressants such as mirtazapine (Remeron), trazodone, and vortioxetine (Brintellix)

SGAs are generally considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antidepressants. They are less likely to cause anticholinergic effects such as dry mouth, constipation, and blurred vision, and they are less likely to cause cardiac conduction abnormalities or orthostatic hypotension. However, SGAs may still cause side effects such as nausea, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and weight gain.

It's important to note that the choice of antidepressant medication should be individualized based on the patient's specific symptoms, medical history, and other factors. It may take some trial and error to find the most effective and well-tolerated medication for a given patient.

... is soluble in both water and ethanol, readily forming concentrated solutions. A solution of chloral hydrate in ... This has led to chloral hydrate being replaced by alternative reagents in microscopy procedures. Chloral hydrate is an ... It is derived from chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde) by the addition of one equivalent of water. Chloral hydrate has not been ... abused chloral hydrate in 1965 as a depressed insomniac. He found himself taking fifteen times the usual dose of chloral ...
... is a hypnotic/sedative. It is a combination of acetylglycinamide and chloral hydrate. ... Degerholm E, Harison A, Leideman T, Sterner N (1963). "Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate, a new compound". Farmacevtisk Revy. ...
was anaesthetized with chloral hydrate. One isolates a section of the duodenum-jejunum; one introduces into it a solution of ... Dubois)" [On the action of acids and chloral on bile secretion (according to the experiments of Mr. Charles Dubois)]. Compte ... Wertheimer, E. (1903). "De l'action des acides et du chloral sur la sécrétion biliaire (d'après les expériences de M. Ch. ...
... chloral hydrate, eszopiclone, etc.) Muscle relaxants (baclofen, phenibut, carisoprodol, cyclobenzaprine, etc.) Sedatives (gamma ...
Lehmann G, Knoefel PK (August 1938). "Trichlorethanol, tribromethanol, chloral hydrate and bromal hydrate". Journal of ... Bromal hydrate (2,2,2-tribromoethanol-1,1-diol), a compound also recognized to produce general anesthesia in animals, is ...
... chloral hydrate. Its direct effect on the heart muscles is stronger than that of chloral hydrate. Its analgesic effects were ... Bromal hydrate is an organobromine compound with the chemical formula C2H3Br3O2. It is the bromine analogue of chloral hydrate ... Bromal hydrate forms when bromal is reacted with water. It decomposes to bromal and water upon distillation. It has hypnotic ... Bromal Hydrate (page 53), Cerna, D. (1894). Notes on the newer remedies. USA: W.B. Saunders. BENNETT, J. H. (1875). Researches ...
Vivien was also addicted to the sedative chloral hydrate. In 1908 she attempted suicide by overdosing on laudanum and died the ...
Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate N-Acetylglycine "N-acetylglycinamide - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National ...
In 1832 produced chloral hydrate, the first synthetic sleeping drug. In 1833 French chemist Anselme Payen was the first to ...
... chloral hydrate, acid fuchsin, orange G, and glacial acetic acid. (A less-toxic variation omits the phenol and chloral hydrate ...
Chloral hydrate was believed to be the major contributing factor. An infection in her left buttock was also a contributory ... that Smith's death was due to an accidental lethal combination of therapeutic levels of 3 benzodiazepines and chloral hydrate. ...
Valproic acid, chloral hydrate, risperidone, or phenobarbital can also be used. Chorea Zegart, K. N.; Schwarz, R. H. (1968). " ...
Toxicology reports revealed that Eagels still had alcohol in her organs when she died in addition to heroin and chloral hydrate ... Her death was attributed to an overdose of the chloral hydrate. After services in New York at the Frank E. Campbell Funeral ...
... is a 1:2 mixture of antipyrine with chloral hydrate. In combination with paracetamol and isometheptene, it ... Chloral betaine Hindmarch I, Parrott AC (1980). "The effects of combined sedative and anxiolytic preparations on subjective ...
Silverman J, Muir WW (Jun 1993). "A review of laboratory animal anesthesia with chloral hydrate and chloralose". Lab Anim Sci. ...
Chloralose is a substance obtained by combining chloral hydrate and glucose. His work on chloralose passed into world ...
... (Pentaerythritol chloral) is a sedative and hypnotic chloral hydrate prodrug. It is a Schedule IV drug in the USA ... US 2784237, Bruce WF, "Chloral derivatives and methods for their preparation", issued 5 March 1957, assigned to American Home ...
It reacts with water to form bromal hydrate. Chloral Chloral hydrate "Initial Submission: Acute Toxicity Studies of ... Novak, A.; Whalley, E. (January 1960). "Infrared spectra of fluoral, chloral and bromal hydrates". Spectrochimica Acta. 16 (5 ...
... and chloral hydrate have the same properties biologically since the former hydrates rapidly. Chloral hydrate was ... Chloral tends to form adducts with water (to give chloral hydrate) and alcohols. Aside from its tendency to hydrate, chloral is ... It reacts with water to form chloral hydrate, a once widely used sedative and hypnotic substance. Chloral was first prepared, ... 191-194 "Darstellung des Chloral[s]" [Preparation of chloral] ; pp. 195-198 "Eigenschaften des Chlorals" [Properties of chloral ...
Lily Bart (The House of Mirth), overdoses on chloral hydrate (possible suicide). John Barton (Looking for Alibrandi), overdoses ...
In 1832, a chemist from Giessen, Justus von Liebig synthesised chloral hydrate. It was accessed as a hypnotic in 1869 by ... Elstun reported that 5 patients from Indiana Hospital for the Insane improved after receiving chloral hydrate. It soon replaced ...
Chloral hydrate is a commonly prescribed sedative, and most common for inducing sleep in young children and infants for AEP ... Chloral hydrate is readily available in three forms - syrup, capsule and suppository. Syrup is most successful for those 4 ... Side effects of chloral hydrate include vomiting, nausea, gastric irritation, delirium, disorientation, allergic reactions and ... common with chloral hydrate). All vital signs All orders for conscious sedation for patients must be written. Prescriptions or ...
Field, K.J.; White, W.J.; Lang, C.M. (1993). "Anaesthetic effects of chloral hydrate, pentobarbitone and urethane in adult male ...
Also chloral hydrate and guanethidine have been observed to increase BUN values. The 1886 Jaffé reaction, in which creatinine ...
... chloral hydrate diethyl ether ethchlorvynol (Placidyl; "jelly-bellies") gamma-butyrolactone (GBL, a prodrug to GHB) gamma- ...
Among many contributions to the medical journals may be mentioned, "Chloral Hydrate; Experiments Disproving the Evolution of ...
Chloral hydrate was introduced as a sleeping aid and sedative in 1869. Chloroform was first used as an anesthetic in 1847. ...
Formerly the formula consisted of chloral hydrate, menthol, veratrol, resorcinol and salicylic acid. Sold mainly as a mouthwash ... minus chloral hydrate, now banned, and with the indication "mouthwash" («bain de bouche») removed. Among the new uses of the ...
To ensure Cyril's victory, he spikes his opponents' water bottles with chloral hydrate. Cyril beats James Robson in the first ...
The raw ingredients used in manufacturing it were d-amphetamine and chloral hydrate. Amfetaminil Amphetamine Clobenzorex ...
Chloral hydrate is soluble in both water and ethanol, readily forming concentrated solutions. A solution of chloral hydrate in ... This has led to chloral hydrate being replaced by alternative reagents in microscopy procedures. Chloral hydrate is an ... It is derived from chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde) by the addition of one equivalent of water. Chloral hydrate has not been ... abused chloral hydrate in 1965 as a depressed insomniac. He found himself taking fifteen times the usual dose of chloral ...
Chloral Hydrate: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Continue to take chloral hydrate even if you feel well. Do not stop taking chloral hydrate without talking to your doctor, ... Before taking chloral hydrate,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to chloral hydrate, aspirin, tartrazine (a ... Chloral hydrate may cause an upset stomach. Take chloral hydrate with food or milk. ...
Download the citation for this article by clicking on one of the following citation managers:. ...
Chloral Hydrate Metabolite Gas Chromatography (GC). mcg/mL. 0.5. Environmental/Occupation Toxin. ...
European Paediatric Formulary: Chloral Hydrate Oral Solution monograph open for public consultation in Pharmeuropa PaedForm ... The formulation described in the Chloral hydrate 100 mg/mL Oral Solution monograph was selected on the basis of the inclusion ... The monograph also points out, in the Additional Information section, that the use of chloral hydrate is restricted in some ... Back European Paediatric Formulary: Chloral Hydrate Oral Solution monograph open for public consultation in Pharmeuropa ...
Chloral Hydrate. i am curious what dose of chl{*filter*}hydrate should effectively render somebody unconcious. i am male, 20 ... Chloral Hydrate. ,i am curious what dose of chl{*filter*}hydrate should effectively render ,somebody unconcious. i am male, 20 ... 4. questions on chloral hydrate, yohimbine hydrochloride. 5. Reference for adverse effects on calcium absorbtion from Chloral ... The recommended hypnotic dose of chl{*filter*}hydrate is 1 gram. However, there have been studies which have indicated that ...
Chloral hydrate. Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic drug as well as a chemical reagent and precursor. The name chloral ... Chloral hydrate is soluble in both water and alcohol, readily forming concentrated solutions. A solution of chloral hydrate in ... More reputable uses of chloral hydrate include its use as a clearing agent for chitin and fibers and as a key ingredient in ... Complete a survey on Chloral hydrate to help the CureCrowd community. If you have tried to treat this ailment, please complete ...
Renew your Pms Chloral Hydrate prescription or schedule a consultation to receive a new prescription today! ... Buy Pms Chloral Hydrate online from Pocketpills with FREE prescription delivery and low dispensing fees in Canada. ... Chloral-hydrate) without consulting your doctor.. Do not give Pms Chloral Hydrate (Chloral-hydrate) to anyone else, even if ... Chloral-hydrate), contact your doctor immediately.. Breast-feeding: Pms Chloral Hydrate (Chloral-hydrate) passes into breast ...
Chloral hydrate. Chloral hydrate is a sedative medication that makes children drowsy, and it is useful where a child needs to ...
chloral hydrate. *trichloroacetic acid (TCA). *dichloroacetic acid. The GSH-conjugation-derived metabolites of TCE that have ...
Chloral Hydrate. *Chlordiazepoxide. *Chlorpheniramine. *Chlorpromazine. *Chlorzoxazone. *Ciprofloxacin. *Citalopram. * ...
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Red Pills : Ethchlorvynol? Secobarbital? Chloral Hydrate?. Would Be Nice for a Short Term Relief. Easygo. Pharms - ...
e. Chloral betaine.. f. Chloral hydrate.. g. Chlordiazepoxide.. h. Clobazam.. i. Clonazepam. ...
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Chloral Hydrate (a).. Chloroform (a). Positives (containing a picture and ready for exhibition) Negatives (containing a ...
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Chloral hydrate * Paraldehyde * Oxygen Hospitalized patients will require some amount of intravenous fluid therapy with ...
By ALFRED L. LOOMIS, M.D.--Hydrophobia Cured by Oxygen.--The efficacy of Lymph, by M. HILLER.--Success of Chloral Hydrate for ... which reservoir receives the hydrated gases, and which water seal prevents the heavy gas in the case from passing out through ...
... alcohol and chloral hydrate and diazepam; amobarbital; chlordiazepoxide; or meprobamate).. The most severe reactions reported ...
You should make sure you are properly hydrating during exposure to warm temperatures, as well as before and during exercise. ...
chloral hydrate. *cimetidine. *clonidine. *deferasirox. *diphenoxylate. *efavirenz. *entacapone. *esketamine *flibanserin. * ...
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Exceptions include chloral hydrate, which does not affect IOP; ketamine, which may increase IOP; and midazolam, which has a ...
Chloral derivative: Chloral hydrate. Chloral hydrate has sleep-promoting effects resulting from its effects on GABA systems. It ... Chloral derivative. chloral hydrate. 500-1,000 mg. Used mainly for sleep maintenance. Risk of gastric irritation, dependence, ... Additionally, chloral hydrate carries the risk of gastric irritation and multiple drug interactions, and it is lethal in ... Like antipsychotics, chloral hydrate is usually considered only in cases of treatment-refractory insomnia because of its ...
  • Chloral hydrate is used for the short-term treatment of insomnia and as a sedative before minor medical or dental treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate, a sedative, is used in the short-term treatment of insomnia (to help you fall asleep and stay asleep for a proper rest) and to relieve anxiety and induce sleep before surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic drug as well as a chemical reagent and precursor. (curecrowd.com)
  • When used as a sedative, the recommended adult dose of chloral hydrate is 250 mg taken 3 times daily after meals to a maximum of 2,000 mg per day. (pocketpills.com)
  • As a sedative, the dose of chloral hydrate is 25 mg per kilogram of body weight per day in 3 to 4 divided doses taken after meals (to a maximum of 500 mg per dose). (pocketpills.com)
  • Chloral hydrate is a sedative medication that makes children drowsy, and it is useful where a child needs to be very still for 20-60 minutes. (rch.org.au)
  • Hepatocarcinogenicity of Chloral Hydrate, 2-Chloroacetaldehyde, and Dichloroacetic Acid in the Male B6C3F1 Mouse. (epa.gov)
  • The plasma, serum or blood concentrations of chloral hydrate and/or trichloroethanol, its major active metabolite, may be measured to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients or to aid in the forensic investigation of fatalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has led to chloral hydrate being replaced by alternative reagents in microscopy procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recommended hypnotic dose of chl{*filter*}hydrate is 1 gram. (science-bbs.com)
  • Chloral hydrate is a geminal diol with the formula C2H3Cl3O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate was routinely administered in gram quantities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate comes as a capsule and liquid to take by mouth and as a suppository to insert rectally. (medlineplus.gov)
  • i am curious what dose of chl{*filter*}hydrate should effectively render somebody unconcious. (science-bbs.com)
  • When used as a sleeping aid, the recommended adult dose of chloral hydrate is 500 mg to 1,000 mg taken 15 to 30 minutes before bedtime. (pocketpills.com)
  • When used before surgery or medical procedures, the recommended adult dose of chloral hydrate is 500 mg to 1,000 mg taken 30 minutes before the procedure. (pocketpills.com)
  • As a sleeping aid, the recommended dose of chloral hydrate is 50 mg per kilogram of body weight (to a maximum of 1,000 mg per dose) at bedtime. (pocketpills.com)
  • When used before surgery or medical procedures, the recommended dose of chloral hydrate is 25 mg per kilogram of body weight to 50 mg per kilogram of body weight 30 minutes before the procedure (to a maximum of 1,000 mg per dose). (pocketpills.com)
  • Chloral hydrate is soluble in both water and alcohol , readily forming concentrated solutions. (curecrowd.com)
  • A solution of chloral hydrate in alcohol called "knockout drops" was used to prepare a Mickey Finn . (curecrowd.com)
  • Chloral hydrate belongs to the group of medications known as sedatives and hypnotics. (pocketpills.com)
  • More reputable uses of chloral hydrate include its use as a clearing agent for chitin and fibers and as a key ingredient in Hoyer's mounting medium, which is used to prepare permanent or semipermanent microscope slides of small organisms, histological sections, and chromosome squashes. (curecrowd.com)
  • It is derived from chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde) by the addition of one equivalent of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name chloral hydrate indicates that it is formed from chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde) by the addition of one molecule of water. (curecrowd.com)
  • Chloral hydrate (CH) and 2-chloroacetaldehyde (CAA) have been identified as chlorination by-products in drinking water. (epa.gov)
  • In therapeutic doses for insomnia, chloral hydrate is effective within 20 to 60 minutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drowsiness usually occurs within 10 to 15 minutes, and sleep within 30 to 60 minutes after taking chloral hydrate. (pocketpills.com)
  • Do not stop taking chloral hydrate without talking to your doctor, especially if you have taken large doses for a long time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not stop taking Pms Chloral Hydrate (Chloral-hydrate) without consulting your doctor. (pocketpills.com)
  • It is the starting material for the production of chloral, which is produced by the distillation of a mixture of chloral hydrate and sulfuric acid, which serves as the desiccant. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this synthesis, chloral hydrate reacts with aniline and hydroxylamine to give a condensation product which cyclicizes in sulfuric acid to give the target compound: Moreover, chloral hydrate is used as a reagent for the deprotection of acetals, dithioacetals and tetrahydropyranyl ethers in organic solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Do not give Pms Chloral Hydrate (Chloral-hydrate) to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms as you do. (pocketpills.com)
  • If you become pregnant while taking chloral hydrate, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor may have suggested Pms Chloral Hydrate ( Chloral-hydrate ) for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. (pocketpills.com)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to chloral hydrate, aspirin, tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and drugs), or any other drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are taking chloral hydrate. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are taking Pms Chloral Hydrate (Chloral-hydrate), speak to your doctor. (pocketpills.com)
  • Chloral hydrate is a starting point for the synthesis of other organic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate is an ingredient used to make Melzer's reagent, an aqueous solution that is used to identify certain species of fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Minimal morning sedation occurred in a 5-month-old breastfed infant whose mother was taking 1.3 grams of dichloralphenazone (equivalent to about 1 gram of chloral hydrate) every evening plus chlorpromazine 100 mg 3 times daily. (nih.gov)
  • Chloral hydrate is used as a central nervous system depressant and sedative in veterinary medicine and as a general anesthetic in cattle and horses. (nih.gov)
  • The degree to which the step whereby TRI is metabolized through chloral-hydrate (302170) to compounds such as trichloroacetic-acid (76039) and dichloroacetic-acid (79436) varies between individuals was evaluated in a sample set of 23 human hepatic microsomal fractions. (cdc.gov)
  • The plasma, serum or blood concentrations of chloral hydrate and/or trichloroethanol, its major active metabolite, may be measured to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients or to aid in the forensic investigation of fatalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the active metabolite of chloral hydrate has a long half-life, other sedative-hypnotics are preferred for long-term use during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a neonate or preterm infant. (nih.gov)
  • However, chloral hydrate products, licensed for short-term management of severe insomnia, are available in the United Kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate is used for the short-term treatment of insomnia and as a sedative before minor medical or dental treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In therapeutic doses for insomnia, chloral hydrate is effective within 20 to 60 minutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate, a sedative, is used in the short-term treatment of insomnia (to help you fall asleep and stay asleep for a proper rest) and to relieve anxiety and induce sleep before surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chloral hydrate is a mild hypnotic that is used to treat simple insomnia. (nih.gov)
  • Toxicology of chloral hydrate in the mouse. (nih.gov)
  • An overview of Genetic Toxicology Micronucleus Mice study conclusions related to Chloral hydrate (302-17-0). (nih.gov)
  • As far as he is aware, all self-administrated cases have involved oral phenobarbital, generally with chloral hydrate and morphine added. (medscape.com)
  • Metabolism of chloral hydrate in mice and rats after single and multiple doses. (nih.gov)
  • Protective effect of chloral hydrate against lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-induced acute lethal liver injury and zymosan-induced peritonitis in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Beginning on post-natal day 28, female B6C3F1 mice received chloral hydrate (99.5% pure) in water by gavage for 3, 6, or 12 months, 2 years, or as a single dose;on postnatal day 15, male and female B6C3F1 mice received a single dose by gavage. (nih.gov)
  • In regimen A, groups of 48 female mice received 0, 25, 50, or 100 mg chloral hydrate/ kg body weight 5 days per week for 105 weeks beginning when they were 28 days old. (nih.gov)
  • 18. NTP technical report on the toxicity and metabolism studies of chloral hydrate (CAS No. 302-17-0). (nih.gov)
  • Chloral hydrate has not been approved by the FDA in the United States nor the EMA in the European Union for any medical indication and is on the FDA list of unapproved drugs that are still prescribed by clinicians. (wikipedia.org)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to chloral hydrate, aspirin, tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and drugs), or any other drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Police found no apparent signs of foul play, and the medical examiner also ruled Smith's death probably was not a suicide because people who take their own lives typically use much more lethal drugs than chloral hydrate. (today.com)
  • 4383. Misbranding of triple sulfa tablets, pentobarbital sodium capsules, amphetamine sulfate tablets, and a quantity of chloral hydrate. (nih.gov)
  • Chloral hydrate is also an ingredient used for Hoyer's solution, a mounting medium for microscopic observation of diverse plant types such as bryophytes, ferns, seeds, and small arthropods (especially mites). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate is an ingredient used to make Melzer's reagent, an aqueous solution that is used to identify certain species of fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Take chloral hydrate with food or milk. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Maternal blood and breast milk estimation following the administration of chloral hydrate during the puerperium. (nih.gov)
  • Despite many years of use, chloral hydrate has not been implicated in causing serum enzyme elevations or clinically apparent liver injury. (nih.gov)
  • In this synthesis, chloral hydrate reacts with aniline and hydroxylamine to give a condensation product which cyclicizes in sulfuric acid to give the target compound: Moreover, chloral hydrate is used as a reagent for the deprotection of acetals, dithioacetals and tetrahydropyranyl ethers in organic solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adulteration and misbranding of chloral hydrate compound, aquarium (eye lotion), Haglogen, solution of sodium cacodylate, and bichloride tablets. (nih.gov)
  • It is derived from chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde) by the addition of one equivalent of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • I have not prescribed chloral hydrate for at least two decades because, as an anesthesiologist, I have multiple alternative medications. (medscape.com)
  • Do not stop taking chloral hydrate without talking to your doctor, especially if you have taken large doses for a long time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Contribution à l'étude de l'anesthésie générale du cheval par l'hydrate de chloral en injection intraveineuse. (nih.gov)
  • Long-term use of chloral hydrate is associated with a rapid development of tolerance to its effects and possible addiction as well as adverse effects including rashes, gastric discomfort and severe kidney, heart, and liver failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate is a geminal diol with the formula C2H3Cl3O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) Oct 17 - Chloral hydrate (CH) may be a good alternative to general anesthesia in children who can't cooperate with detailed eye exams, according to a new study. (medscape.com)
  • Chloral hydrate was nominated for study by the Food and Drug Administration based upon widespread human exposure and its potential hepatotoxicity and the toxicity of related chemicals. (nih.gov)
  • One goal of the study was to assess the effect of the animal's age and the duration of dosing on the tumorigenicity of chloral hydrate. (nih.gov)
  • This has led to chloral hydrate being replaced by alternative reagents in microscopy procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate is used medically as a sedative or hypnotic and as a rubefacient in topical preparations, and it is often given to children as a sedative during dental and other medical procedures. (nih.gov)
  • Chloral hydrate: the good and the bad. (nih.gov)
  • citation needed] Because of its status as a regulated substance, chloral hydrate can be difficult to obtain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Broward County Medical Examiner Dr. Joshua Perper found that in the days leading up to her death, Smith, 39, had been taking large amounts of the seldom prescribed sedative chloral hydrate, which also contributed to the 1962 overdose death of Smith's idol, Marilyn Monroe. (today.com)
  • Potential carcinogenicity of chloral hydrate--a review. (nih.gov)
  • Chloral hydrate is a very old drug with a long track record of relative safety in pediatric patients. (medscape.com)
  • It is the starting material for the production of chloral, which is produced by the distillation of a mixture of chloral hydrate and sulfuric acid, which serves as the desiccant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloral, the anhydrous form of chloral hydrate, is used as a synthetic intermediate in the production of insecticides and herbicides. (nih.gov)
  • if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are taking chloral hydrate. (medlineplus.gov)