Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Ethylene Chlorohydrin: Used as a solvent, in the manufacture of insecticides, and for treating sweet potatoes before planting. May cause nausea, vomiting, pains in head and chest, stupefaction. Irritates mucous membranes and causes kidney and liver degeneration.Hydroxyzine: A histamine H1 receptor antagonist that is effective in the treatment of chronic urticaria, dermatitis, and histamine-mediated pruritus. Unlike its major metabolite CETIRIZINE, it does cause drowsiness. It is also effective as an antiemetic, for relief of anxiety and tension, and as a sedative.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Glutethimide: A hypnotic and sedative. Its use has been largely superseded by other drugs.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Crying: To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Trichloroacetic Acid: A strong acid used as a protein precipitant in clinical chemistry and also as a caustic for removing warts.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.New YorkBipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Foxes: Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.Lithium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Web Browser: Software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Macau: Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China since December 20, 1999 with its own constitution. The island of Macau and adjacent islands are located off the southeast coast of China.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Tigers: The species Panthera tigris, a large feline inhabiting Asia. Several subspecies exist including the Siberian tiger and Sumatran tiger.Police: Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.Teratology: A branch of embryology for the study of congenital malformations and developmental abnormalities.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Prescription Drug Misuse: Improper use of drugs or medications outside the intended purpose, scope, or guidelines for use. This is in contrast to MEDICATION ADHERENCE, and distinguished from DRUG ABUSE, which is a deliberate or willful action.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Self Medication: The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)BooksUnited States Federal Trade Commission: An independent administrative agency concerned with maintaining competitive free enterprise by prohibiting unfair methods of competition and unfair deceptive acts or practices.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Humanism: An ethical system which emphasizes human values and the personal worth of each individual, as well as concern for the dignity and freedom of humankind.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.

A pilot study of the efficacy of oral midazolam for sedation in pediatric dental patients. (1/106)

Oral midazolam is being used for conscious sedation in dentistry with little documentation assessing its efficacy. In order to accumulate preliminary data, a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover, multi-site pilot study was conducted. The objective was to determine if 0.6 mg/kg of oral midazolam was an equally effective or superior means of achieving conscious sedation in the uncooperative pediatric dental patient, compared with a commonly used agent, 50 mg/kg of oral chloral hydrate. Twenty-three children in three clinics who required dentistry with local anesthetic and were determined to exhibit behavior rated as "negative" or "definitely negative" based on the Frankl scale were assessed. They were evaluated with respect to acceptance of medication; initial level of anxiety at each appointment; level of sedation prior to and acceptance of local anesthetic; movement and crying during the procedure; and overall behavior. The results showed that the group randomly assigned to receive midazolam had a significantly greater initial level of anxiety for that appointment (P < 0.02), a finding that could clearly confound further determination of the efficacy of these drugs. Patients given oral midazolam had an increased level of sedation prior to the administration of local anesthetic compared with those given chloral hydrate (P < 0.015). No statistically significant differences were noted in any of the other parameters. The age of the patient was found to have no correlation with the difference in overall behavior (r = -0.09). These preliminary data warrant further clinical trials.  (+info)

Comparison of oral chloral hydrate with intramuscular ketamine, meperidine, and promethazine for pediatric sedation--preliminary report. (2/106)

Fifteen consecutive pediatric patients ranging from 3 to 5 years old were selected to receive one of three sedative/hypnotic techniques. Group 1 received oral chloral hydrate 50 mg/kg, and groups 2 and 3 received intramuscular ketamine 2 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg, respectively. In addition to ketamine, patients in groups 2 and 3 received transmucosal intramuscular injections of meperidine and promethazine into the masseter muscle. Sedation for the satisfactory completion of restorative dentistry was obtained for over 40 min on average in the chloral hydrate group, but completion of dental surgery longer than 40 min was achieved in groups 2 and 3 only by intravenous supplements of ketamine.  (+info)

Metabolism and toxicity of trichloroethylene and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine in freshly isolated human proximal tubular cells. (3/106)

Trichloroethylene (Tri) caused modest cytotoxicity in freshly isolated human proximal tubular (hPT) cells, as assessed by significant decreases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity after 1 h of exposure to 500 microM Tri. Oxidative metabolism of Tri by cytochrome P-450 to form chloral hydrate (CH) was only detectable in kidney microsomes from one patient out of four tested and was not detected in hPT cells. In contrast, GSH conjugation of Tri was detected in cells from every patient tested. The kinetics of Tri metabolism to its GSH conjugate S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione (DCVG) followed biphasic kinetics, with apparent Km and Vmax values of 0.51 and 24.9 mM and 0.10 and 1.0 nmol/min per mg protein, respectively. S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), the cysteine conjugate metabolite of Tri that is considered the penultimate nephrotoxic species, caused both time- and concentration-dependent increases in LDH release in freshly isolated hPT cells. Preincubation of hPT cells with 0.1 mM aminooxyacetic acid did not protect hPT cells from DCVC-induced cellular injury, suggesting that another enzyme besides the cysteine conjugate beta-lyase may be important in DCVC bioactivation. This study is the first to measure the cytotoxicity and metabolism of Tri and DCVC in freshly isolated cells from the human kidney. These data indicate that the pathway involved in the cytotoxicity and metabolism of Tri in hPT cells is the GSH conjugation pathway and that the cytochrome P-450-dependent pathway has little direct role in renal Tri metabolism in humans.  (+info)

Anaesthetic agents inhibit gastrin-stimulated but not basal histamine release from rat stomach ECL cells. (4/106)

By mobilizing histamine in response to gastrin, the ECL cells in the oxyntic mucosa play a key role in the control of the parietal cells and hence of gastric acid secretion. General anaesthesia suppresses basal and gastrin- and histamine-stimulated acid secretion. The present study examines if the effect of anaesthesia on basal and gastrin-stimulated acid secretion is associated with suppressed ECL-cell histamine secretion. A microdialysis probe was implanted in the submucosa of the ventral aspect of the acid-producing part of the stomach (32 rats). Three days later, ECL-cell histamine mobilization was monitored 2 h before and 4 h after the start of intravenous infusion of gastrin (5 nmol kg(-1) h(-1)). The rats were either conscious or anaesthetized. Four commonly used anaesthetic agents were given 1 h before the start of the experiments by intraperitoneal injection: chloral hydrate (300 mg kg(-1)), pentobarbitone (40 mg kg(-1)), urethane (1.5 g kg(-1)) and a mixture of fluanisone/fentanyl/midazolam (15/0.5/7.5 mg kg(-1)). In a parallel series of experiments, basal- and gastrin-induced acid secretion was monitored in six conscious and 25 anaesthetized (see above) chronic gastric fistula rats. All anaesthetic agents lowered gastrin-stimulated acid secretion; also the basal acid output was reduced (fluanisone/fentanyl/midazolam was an exception). Anaesthesia reduced gastrin-stimulated but not basal histamine release by 55 - 80%. The reduction in gastrin-induced acid response (70 - 95%) was strongly correlated to the reduction in gastrin-induced histamine mobilization. The correlation is in line with the view that the reduced acid response to gastrin reflects impaired histamine mobilization. Rat stomach ECL cells were purified by counter-flow elutriation. Gastrin-evoked histamine mobilization from the isolated ECL cells was determined in the absence or presence of anaesthetic agents in the medium. With the exception of urethane, they inhibited gastrin-evoked histamine secretion dose-dependently, indicating a direct effect on the ECL cells. Anaesthetized rats are widely used to study acid secretion and ECL-cell histamine release. The present results illustrate the short-comings of such an approach in that a number of anaesthetic agents were found to impair not only acid secretion but also the secretion of ECL-cell histamine - some acting in a direct manner.  (+info)

Carcinogenicity of chloral hydrate administered in drinking water to the male F344/N rat and male B6C3F1 mouse. (5/106)

Male B6C3F1 mice and male F344/N rats were exposed to chloral hydrate (chloral) in the drinking water for 2 years. Rats: Measured chloral hydrate drinking water concentrations for the study were 0.12 g/L, 0.58 g/L, and 2.51 g/L chloral hydrate that yielded time-weighted mean daily doses (MDDs) of 7.4, 37.4, and 162.6 mg/kg per day. Water consumptions, survival, body weights, and organ weights were not altered in any of the chloral hydrate treatments. Life-time exposures to chloral hydrate failed to increase the prevalence (percentage of animals with a tumor) or the multiplicity (tumors/animal) of hepatocellular neoplasia. Chloral hydrate did not increase the prevalence of neoplasia at any other organ site. Mice: Measured chloral hydrate drinking water concentrations for the study were 0.12 g/L, 0.58 g/L, and 1.28 g/L that gave MDDs of 13.5, 65.0, and 146.6 mg/kg per day. Water consumptions, survival, body and organ weights, were not altered from the control values by any of the chloral hydrate treatments. Enhanced neoplasia was observed only in the liver. Prevalence and multiplicity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HC) were increased only for the high-dose group (84.4%; 0.72 HC/animal; p < or = 0.05). Values of 54.3%; 0.72 HC/animal and 59%; 1.03 HC/animal were observed for the 13.5- and 65.0-mg/kg per day treatment groups. Prevalence and multiplicity for the control group were 54.8%; 0.74 HC/animal. Hepatoadenoma (HA) prevalence and multiplicity were significantly increased (p < or = 0.05) at all chloral hydrate concentrations: 43.5%; 0.65 HA/animal, 51.3%; 0.95 HA/animal and 50%; 0.72 HA/animal at 13.5, 65.0, and 146.6 mg/kg per day chloral hydrate compared to 21.4%; 0.21 HA/animal in the untreated group. Altered foci of cells were evident in all doses tested in the mouse, but no significant differences were observed over the control values. Hepatocellular necrosis was minimal and did not exceed that seen in untreated rats and mice. Chloral hydrate exposure did not alter serum chemistry and hepatocyte proliferation in rats and mice or increase hepatic palmitoyl CoA oxidase in mice at any of the time periods monitored. It was concluded that chloral hydrate was carcinogenic (hepatocellular neoplasia) in the male mouse, but not in the rat, following a lifetime exposure in the drinking water. Based upon the increased HA and combined tumors at all chloral hydrate doses tested, a no observed adverse effect level was not determined.  (+info)

Hyperintense signal abnormality in subarachnoid spaces and basal cisterns on MR images of children anesthetized with propofol: new fluid-attenuated inversion recovery finding. (6/106)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging is the method of choice for pediatric neuroimaging. Sedation is often needed to suppress patient motion and ensure diagnostic image quality, and propofol is rapidly becoming the preferred anesthetic. The purpose of this study was to document a new finding on fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (fast-FLAIR) MR images of children anesthetized with propofol that can be mistaken for subarachnoid space pathologic abnormality. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 55 MR images of the brain for children who ranged in age from 1 week to 12 years. Forty-two patients received chloral hydrate, and 13 received propofol anesthetic. Multiplanar MR images were studied to detect the presence or absence of hyperintense signal (artifact) in the subarachnoid spaces and basal cisterns. The T1 values and null times of chloral hydrate, propofol, and CSF were determined in vitro at room temperature by using an inversion recovery pulse sequence at 1.5 T. RESULTS: The fast-FLAIR images of all 13 patients who received propofol had hyperintense signal abnormality. For 10 (77%) of 13 patients, this artifact was in the basal cisterns and subarachnoid spaces overlying the brain convexity. For three (23%) of 13 patients, this artifact was in the convexity region only. Two patients underwent follow-up MR imaging with a nonpropofol anesthetic agent, and the artifact resolved. None of the images of the children who received chloral hydrate had this artifact. The T1 value of chloral hydrate was 0.2 s, of propofol was 1.86 s, and of CSF was 2.32 s at room temperature. CONCLUSION: The fast-FLAIR images of children anesthetized with propofol have artifactual hyperintense signal in the basal cisterns and subarachnoid spaces, and this artifact mimics disease of the subarachnoid space. The T1 value of propofol approaches that of CSF. Depending on the chosen null time, there may be incomplete nulling of signal coming from propofol. To account for this observation, other possible causes include increased CSF pulsation in children creating motion artifact, changes in arterial oxygen concentration intrinsic to propofol or related to the supplemental oxygen normally administered, or changes in CSF protein levels related to propofol binding to proteins for uptake into CSF.  (+info)

Chronic cold stress reduces the spontaneous activity of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons. (7/106)

The dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area and medial substantia nigra (VTA/mSN) projecting to the limbic forebrain and prefrontal cortex have long been postulated to play a major role in cognitive and behavioral effects of stress. In this study, the effects of a chronic stressor (prolonged exposure to cold) on the spontaneous activity of DA neurons in the VTA/mSN were examined. Extracellular single-unit recordings of DA neurons were performed in rats following a 17-day continuous exposure to a cold (4 degrees C) environment. Compared to controls, cold-exposed rats displayed 64% fewer spontaneously active DA neurons. The average spike activity (average firing rate, average spikes fired in bursts) of the DA cells that remained active in the cold-exposed rats did not differ significantly from controls. However, a significantly larger proportion of those cells showed excessive burst activity, compared to the DA cell population in controls. These results show that chronic stress can lead to the cessation of spontaneous activity in a subpopulation of VTA/mSN DA cells. These changes may indicate that unlike acute stress, which can potently activate the mesolimbic/mesocortical DA systems, chronic stress leads to an adaptive reduction in the number of active DA cells, perhaps altering the response of these systems to subsequent stressors.  (+info)

Cytochrome p450-dependent metabolism of trichloroethylene in rat kidney. (8/106)

The metabolism of trichloroethylene (Tri) by cytochrome P450 (P450) was studied in microsomes from liver and kidney homogenates and from isolated renal proximal tubular (PT) and distal tubular (DT) cells from male Fischer 344 rats. Chloral hydrate (CH) was the only metabolite consistently detected and was used as a measurement of P450-dependent metabolism of Tri. Pretreatment of rats with pyridine increased CH formation in both liver and kidney microsomes, whereas pretreatment of rats with clofibrate increased CH formation only in kidney microsomes. Pyridine increased CYP2E1 expression in both liver and kidney microsomes, whereas clofibrate had no effect on hepatic but increased renal CYP2E1 and CYP2C11 protein levels. These results suggest a role for CYP2E1 in both the hepatic and renal metabolism of Tri and a role for CYP2C11 in the renal metabolism of Tri. Studies with the general P450 inhibitor SKF-525A and the CYP2E1 competitive substrate chlorzoxazone provided additional support for the role of CYP2E1 in both tissues. CH formation was higher in PT cells than in DT cells and was time and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) dependent. However, pretreatment of rats with either pyridine or clofibrate had no effect on CYP2E1 or CYP2C11 protein levels or on CH formation in isolated cells. These data show for the first time that Tri can be metabolized to at least one of its P450 metabolites in the kidneys and quantitate the effect of P450 induction on Tri metabolism in the rat kidney.  (+info)

Define chloral hydrate. chloral hydrate synonyms, chloral hydrate pronunciation, chloral hydrate translation, English dictionary definition of chloral hydrate. n. A colorless crystalline compound, C2H3Cl3O2, used as a sedative and hypnotic drug and in the manufacture of DDT. n a colourless crystalline soluble solid...
5.1 Exposure data. Chloral is a chlorinated aldehyde that found extensive use, beginning in the 1940s, as a precursor in the production of the insecticide DDT and, to a lesser extent, of other insecticides and pharmaceuticals. This use of chloral has declined steadily since the 1960s, especially in those countries where the use of DDT has been restricted. Chloral is readily converted to chloral hydrate in the presence of water. Chloral hydrate is used as a sedative before medical procedures and to reduce anxiety related to withdrawal from drugs. Wider exposure to chloral hydrate occurs at microgram-per-litre levels in drinking-water and swimming pools as a result of chlorination.. 5.2 Human carcinogenicity data. Several studies were identified that analysed risk with respect to one or more measures of exposure to complex mixtures of disinfection by-products that are found in most chlorinated and chloraminated drinking-water. No data specifically on chloral or chloral hydrate were available to ...
This study has shown that sedation with IN DEX at a dose of 4 μg/kg was effective for ABR examinations. However, the ability to begin the examination sooner and complete the examination with a single dose suggests IN DEX may be a superior alternative to oral chloral hydrate. An additional benefit is the lower incidence of procedural hypoxemia requiring supplemental oxygen in the IN DEX group. Although the outcomes of this study may be related to the medication itself, there are several other potential explanations.. The first is the route of administration. Oral chloral hydrate is generally administered with an oral syringe and requires a semi-cooperative child. Despite the best attempts, some children may not receive the entire dose because they "spit it out" or some of the medication is lost during attempts to get the child to swallow the medication. Conversely, intranasal administration with a mucosal atomizing device is a much more reliable way to administer medications. Thus, more reliable ...
Using chloral hydrate carries a risk of adverse events and compounding errors, and much of the available literature recommends using alternative sedatives for pediatric patients. But evidence regarding the efficacy of chloral hydrate and of alternative agents is conflicting.
Physician reviewed chloral hydrate rectal patient information - includes chloral hydrate rectal description, dosage and directions.
Chloral Hydrate is a depressant, specifically used for inducing sleep. Its chemical formula, near as I can tell, is C2H3Cl3O2. It is noteworthy for bei...
Wuhan Jadechem International Trade Co., Ltd., Experts in Manufacturing and Exporting PPSOH,Chloral Hydrate and 3707 more Products. A Verified CN Gold Supplier on Alibaba.com.
California intends to list four chlorinated compounds as carcinogens under the states Proposition 65. This move would trigger requirements for labeling products that contain these chemicals, the state said in a July 26 notice. The substances are chloral (also known as trichloroacetaldehyde), chloral hydrate, 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane, and trichloroacetic acid. Californias Environmental Protection Agency proposed listing the compounds on the basis of determinations by the World Health Organizations International Agency for Research on Cancer. According to IARC, chloral and chloral hydrate are "probably carcinogenic to humans," whereas 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroacetic acid are "possibly carcinogenic to humans." Proposition 65 mandates that the state list chemicals that IARC deems to be human or animal carcinogens. That 1986 state law requires warning labels on products that contain listed substances and prohibits their discharge into drinking water sources. The public has until ...
In article ,bucc0003.765611484 at gold,, bucc0003 at gold.tc.umn.edu (Paul A Bucciaglia) writes: ,, Ive been staining tobacco microspores (about 3-5 days post tetrad) with ,, acetocarmine to follow microspore mitosis. Using the std. 1% carmine ,, in 45% acetic acid on both fixed (ethanol/acetic acid) and unfixed antehrs ,, gives me bright red cytoplasms that obscure any sign of a nucleus. i dug ,, up a reference from 1937 (Maheshwari, Stain Tech. 12#2) which suggested ,, a few drops of chloral hydrate to clear the cytoplasm. ahh, an archaic ,, name for HCl i thought so i added a drop of 1N HCl. This did help some ,, as the nucleus was just barely visible and the cytoplasm cleared somewhat. ,, So i checked the Sigma catolog and was surprised to find that chloral ,, hydrate is a nasty chlorinated hydrocarbon that is (was?) used to make DDT. Chloral hydrate was also the active ingredient in the Mickey Finn (knockout drops added to alcohol in all the old film noir mysteries). ,, So my question: ...
Experiments were performed in 20 adult male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 300-330 gm (IFFA CREDO, Les Oncins, France). Animals were anesthetized with chloral hydrate (400 mg/kg, i.p.; supplemented by continuous intraperitoneal injection of chloral hydrate delivered at a rate of 60 mg · kg -1 · hr -1 using a peristaltic pump) and fixed in a conventional stereotaxic head frame (Horsley Clarke Apparatus, Unimécanique, Epinay-sur-Seine, France). Body temperature was monitored by a rectal thermometer and maintained at 36.5°C with a homeothermic blanket (Harvard Apparatus, Kent, UK). All experiments were conducted in accordance with the Policies on the Use of Animals in Neuroscience as approved by the Society for Neuroscience.. Electrophysiological analysis. Single-unit activity of SNR cells was recorded extracellularly using glass micropipettes (6-8 MΩ) filled with a 0.6 m sodium chloride solution containing 4% Pontamine Sky Blue. Single neuron action potentials were amplified with a differential ...
On the day of her death, Marilyn Monroe was in the company of many people, none of who reported any immediately implied threat or perceived action from Monroe that suggested an imminent danger of suicide, nor any behavior that was outside of her already troubled mental state of manic highs and depressive lows. Shed a history of emotional instability that, today, would likely be classified as Bipolar II Disorder and she was under the continual care of a general physician and a psychiatrist. Monroe was no stranger to prescription pharmaceuticals, specifically anti-depressants and sleeping pills, but she was a relatively light alcohol drinker.. Marilyn Monroe had a difficult year in 1961. She worked very little due to health issues. Besides her emotional imbalance and substance dependency, she underwent surgery for endometriosis (uterus ailment) and a cholecystectomy (gall bladder removal), then suffered a painful attack of sinusitis. Her stress level soared from a lawsuit with 20th Century Fox ...
Provides information on usage, precautions, side effects and brand names when available. Data provided by various government agencies and health-related organizations. ...
AIM: Despite the importance of neonatal skin stimulation, little is known about activation of the newborn human infant brain by sensory stimulation of the skin. We carried out functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the feasibility of measuring brain activation to a range of mechanical stimuli applied to the skin of neonatal infants. METHODS: We studied 19 term infants with a mean age of 13 days. Brain activation was measured in response to brushing, von Frey hair (vFh) punctate stimulation and, in one case, nontissue damaging pinprick stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot. Initial whole brain analysis was followed by region of interest analysis of specific brain areas. RESULTS: Distinct patterns of functional brain activation were evoked by brush and vFh punctate stimulation, which were reduced, but still present, under chloral hydrate sedation. Brain activation increased with increasing stimulus intensity. The feasibility of using pinprick stimulation in fMRI studies was
The global inventory of carbon in gas hydrate at present day is comparable to that in oil & coal reserve, therefore, gas hydrate could have played an important role in earth carbon cycle, e.g., during the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) event. However, ocean floor temperatures were ~6°C higher than today, so the hydrate abundance under warmer conditions was a question to be clarified. By using numeric simulations, this work showed that gas hydrate abundance is not only affected by ocean floor temperature, but, more essentially, greatly dominated by the organic carbon buried into sediment. During PETM, higher organic carbon contents due to less dissolved oxygen at seafloor and increased methanogenesis rates, both resulted from higher ocean temperatures, enhanced hydrate accumulation. Therefore, though hydrate stability zone would be thinner and shallower than present-day, depending on water depth and sedimentation rate, gas hydrate abundance could be still higher in some marine sediment ...
A high pressure heat flux calorimeter in isobaric, temperature-ramping mode has been used to measure the solubility of pure methane, pure carbon dioxide and methane-carbon dioxide mixtures. The solubility measurements emphasize a crystallization-like process taking place during hydrate formation and show a striking divergence from Henrys Law, the frequently used calculation procedure, prior to and during hydrate formation. These measurements were further used to determine the enthalpies of solution/dissociation, and entropies change. Moreover, the hydration numbers of these compounds provide some explanations and criteria of stability of the cages of gas hydrates in the host lattice. Finally, a kinetic study confirms the crystallization process of hydrate formation and exhibits a high level of supersaturation prior to hydrate formation and also a high consumption rate during hydrate formation ...
Thin (A) and thickly veined (B) sediment-displacing gas hydrates (white) in fine-grained sediment (grey); (C) pore-filling gas hydrates in sand; (D) gas hydrate mounds on the sea floor (hydrate has an orange coating from oil and is draped with grey sediment); (E) disseminated gas hydrates (white specks) in fine-grained sediment (grey); (F) gas hydrates (white) in coarse sands (grey). For any form of publication, please include the link to this page: www.grida.no/resources/6615
0041]Dispersible gas stream 22 and pressurized pump exit stream 12 are injected into HSD inlet stream 13 for processing by high shear device 40. HSD inlet stream 13 is in fluid communication with HSD 40. As discussed in detail above, high shear device 40 is a mechanical device that utilizes, for example, a stator rotor mixing head with a fixed gap between the stator and rotor. Dispersible gas stream 22 comprising chlorine is dispersed in pump exit stream 12 comprising aldehydes for the production of chloral. In high shear device 40, chlorine gas and liquid stream 12 are mixed to form an emulsion comprising microbubbles and nanobubbles of chlorine gas. In embodiments, the resultant dispersion comprises bubbles in the submicron size. In embodiments, the resultant dispersion has an average bubble size less than about 1.5 μm. In embodiments, the mean bubble size is less than from about 0.1 μm to about 1.5 μm. Not to be limited by a specific method, it is known in emulsion chemistry that submicron ...
71073-93-3 - 2-Propenoic acid, telomer with trichloroacetaldehyde - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Hydrate formation and its attendant problems are well known in the oil and gas industry. The desire to reduce the costs and environmental impact of traditional hydrate inhibitors has led to a focus on the design, development and evaluation of novel and environmentally friendly low dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHIs). In this study, two LDHIs, namely Luvicap® EG and Gaffix® VC-713, were tested using tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a hydrate promoter and a ball-stop rig. The ball stop-time was used to determine the inhibition efficiency. The concentration effect of inhibitors, salts and solvents on the ball-stop time was investigated. Results indicated that the inhibition efficiency of an inhibitor is sensitive to the micro-environment of the THF-hydrates activities which includes the concentration and types of these additives. The reproducibility and consistency of the test results were also largely dependent on the concentration of inhibitors. Reliable information was provided only if the concentration ...
September 28, 2001 A final settlement was reached Thursday in the wrongful death lawsuit a couple filed against a dentist after their 3-year-old son died after being given anesthesia at a Houston dental clinic. Kenny Huynh and Tracy Phan of Houston, parents of Daniel Huynh, contend their son was given a dangerous sedative cocktail that proved fatal, given his size. An autopsy showed Daniel died from the drugs toxic effect. The toddler was given a drink containing Demerol, Phenergan and chloral hydrate when he went in for a root canal and fillings. "They gave (Daniel) three drugs that an cause problems with breathing, two of which they gave him in excessive amounts" said lawyer Steve P. McCarthy today. McCarthy, who represented Daniels parents, said court records also show that the clinic staff failed to monitor the toddlers condition after he was sedated. When the staff finally noticed the child was in distress, they did not have the equipment on hand to attempt to revive him as required by ...
Implantation of Microdialysis Guide Cannulae and Probe Insertions in the Hippocampus. Seven days before being used in microdialysis experiments, rats were anesthetized with a mixture of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital (170 and 36 mg/kg, respectively, in 30% propylene glycol and 14% ethanol), placed in a stereotaxic apparatus, and implanted unilaterally with guide cannulae (Bioanalytical Systems, Inc., West Lafayette, IN) in the hippocampus (coordinates: anteroposterior, -5.2; mediolateral, 5.2; dorsoventral, -3.8) according to the stereotaxic atlas of Paxinos and Watson (1998). Twenty-four hours before testing, a 4-mm concentric microdialysis probe (BAS Bioanalytical Systems, West Lafayette, IN) was inserted through the guide cannula.. Likewise, for mice, 2-mm microdialysis probes (CMA/Microdialysis, Solna, Sweden) were implanted unilaterally in the hippocampus (mediolateral, +3.1; anteroposterior, -3.3; dorsoventral, -4.2, based on the stereotaxic atlas of Franklin and Paxinos, 1997) under ...
Today, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is recognized as the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS comprising 40% of inhibitory synaptic processing. As its receptor GABAA is largely responsible for effects of alcohol, it can be argued that it is one of the oldest drug targets known.. In the 1870s, chloral hydrate, whose metabolite modulates the GABA receptor complex, was widely used as a sedative and as a treatment for insomnia. Although effective, abuse and dependence were major issues and by the 1920s its use had been almost entirely supplanted by the barbiturates which work on the GABAA receptor.. Unfortunately, it soon became apparent that barbiturates also carry the risk of abuse, dependence, severe withdrawal symptoms, and lethal overdose. Although still used in some situations, the barbiturates were replaced by benzodiazepines with the advent of Librium in 1960. By the late 1970s, benzodiazepines were the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world.. ...
Sprague Dawley rats (21-29 d old) of either sex were anesthetized with chloral hydrate and decapitated in accordance with Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and National Institutes of Health guidelines. The olfactory bulbs were removed and immersed in sucrose-artificial CSF (sucrose-aCSF) equilibrated with 95% O2/5% CO2, pH 7.38. The sucrose-aCSF had the following composition (in mm): 26 NaHCO3, 1 NaH2PO4, 2 KCl, 5 MgSO4, 0.5 CaCl2, 10 glucose, and 248 sucrose. Horizontal slices (400 μm thick) were cut with a microslicer (Ted Pella, Redding, CA). After a period of recovery at 30°C for 15 min, slices were then incubated at room temperature (22°C) in aCSF equilibrated with 95% O2/5% CO2 (composition in mm: 124 NaCl, 26 NaHCO3, 3 KCl, 1.25 NaH2PO4, 2 MgSO4, 2 CaCl2, and 10 glucose) until used. For recording, a single slice was placed in a recording chamber and perfused continuously at the rate of 1.5 ml/min with normal aCSF equilibrated with 95% O2/5% CO2. All recordings were performed ...
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the contractile activity that occurs in the bladder during the filling phase of the micturition cycle (non-micturition contractions, NMCs), which generate transient rises in intravesical pressure not associated with urine flow.. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experiments were conducted using anaesthetized (chloral hydrate) and un-anaesthetized rats. In un-anaesthetized rats bladder contractile activity was measured using an intravesical cannula implanted under full surgical anaesthesia 3 days previously. In the anaesthetized rats the bladder was exteriorized and a cannula inserted through the dome. In these experiments electrical activity within the detrusor was also measured with a suction electrode on the bladder surface. For each rat, the experimental protocol involved filling the bladder at a constant rate (10 mL/h) to evoke micturition cycles, or infusion of a fixed volume and recording made under effective isovolumetric conditions.. RESULTS: In both anaesthetized and ...
Ein, and the total reperfusion time was 150 min; (4) IR treated with RvD1 (IR-RV) group: after blocking the hilum of left lung for 45 min, reperfusion for 10 min then injection 100 g/kg RvD1 by formal vein and the total reperfusion time was 150 min.Blood and tissue harvestThe animal procedures were approved by Wenzhou Medical University Animal Care and Use Committee, which were certified by the Chinese Association of Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care and were consistent with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals [updated (2011) version of the NIH guidelines]. Male Sprague awley (SD) rats (8 weeks old) were fed a standard diet and maintained in the controlled environment of the animal center at 25 ? 1 under a 12 h light ark cycle. The LIRI rat model was induced by the following procedures. Briefly, rats were anesthetized by an intraperitoneal injection of 10 chloral hydrate (300 mg/kg body weight) and placed in a supine position. The animals were then intubated for artificial ...
Background== *Normal protein excretion 150mg/24 hours or 10mg/100mL *>3.5g/24h considered nephrotic range *Dipstick: more sensitive to albumin, less sensitive to Bence-Jones protein and globulins **"Trace" protein ≈ 10mg/100mL (i.e. upper limit of normal) ==Causes/Differential Diagnosis== ===Functional=== *Benign: [[fever]]/acute illness, cold exposure, orthostatic proteinuria, strenuous exercise, [[hypertension]] *[[CHF]], [[shock]] *[[Preeclampsia]]/[[eclampsia]]/[[HELLP]], [[acute fatty liver of pregnancy ===Renal=== *Tubular dysfunction *Glomerular disease (e.g. [[glomerulonephritis]], [[diabetes]], [[HIV]], [[SLE]], [[amyloidosis]], [[IgA nephropathy]] or membranous nephropathy) *[[Nephrotic syndrome]] *[[Pyelonephritis]] *[[Malignant hypertension]] *[[Alport syndrome]] ===Drugs=== *[[Aminoglycosides]], [[penicillin]s, [[amphotericin]], [[penicillamine]], [[deferasirox]] *[[NSAIDs]], gold *[[Chloral hydrate toxicity]] *[[Lead toxicity]] ===Protein overload=== Note: bence-jones globulins ...
Make sure your doctor knows if you are also using aspirin, bepridil (Vascor®), chloral hydrate (Noctec®), cisplatin (Platinol®), cyclosporine (Gengraf®, Neoral®, Sandimmune®), digoxin (Lanoxin®), indomethacin (Indocin®), lithium (Eskalith®, Lithobid®), methotrexate (Folex®, Rheumatrex®), norepinephrine, phenytoin (Dilantin®), succinylcholine (Anectine®, Quelicin®), tubocurarine, a blood thinner (such as warfarin, Coumadin®), medicine for infection (such as amikacin, cephalexin, gentamicin, streptomycin, Amikin®, Garamycin®, or Keflex®), other medicine for high blood pressure (such as candesartan, enalapril, irbesartan, lisinopril, losartan, olmesartan, valsartan, Accupril®, Atacand®, Avapro®, Benicar®, Cozaar®, Diovan®, Hyzaar®, Lotrel®, or Zestril®), or other diuretic or "water pill" (such as bumetanide, ethacrynic acid, hydrochlorothiazide, Edecrin®, or Zestoretic®). Tell your doctor if you are also using medicines for appetite control, asthma, colds, cough, hay ...
Examine under a microscope using chloral hydrate solution R. Prepare the reference we ight using iron standard solution (20 ppm Fe) R, diluted as necessary with a 1 per cent VV solution of nitric acid R.
Such exposes helped to promote the first federal Food and Drug Act, signed into law by President Theodore Roosevelt on June 30, 1906. The act was amended in 1912, and an even stronger Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act passed in 1938. These laws required drug labeling to include a list of ingredients and prohibited manufacturers from making false and misleading claims.. From 1906 to 1918 manufacturers could label their products with a "guaranty" that their medicine complied with the new food and drug law. The 1906 law required manufacturers to label their products if any of the following ingredients were present: alcohol, morphine, opium, cocaine, heroin, eucaine, chloroform, cannabis indica, chloral hydrate, or acetanilide. A complete listing of all ingredients was not required until 1938.. Federal food and drug regulation continues to evolve. Amendments to the laws in 1951 established clear distinctions between prescription and over-the-counter drugs. More recently, new regulations have introduced ...
At the beginning of February I asked for recommendations when processing insects with a chitin skeleton. Result and many thanks, it worked a treat, chloral hydrate and phenol. The chitin just slipped over the knife producing lovely ribbons. When asked how it was done, ah, this is for the cognoscenti, a skill that takes years to develop. Again, many thanks. The original e-mails are on my laptop, youll get full recognition in my techniques book and formulary. Ian. Dr. Ian Montgomery, Histotechnology, IBLS Support Unit, Graham Kerr Building, Tel: 4652, 6644. [email protected] _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet ...
We use core porosity, consolidation experiments, pressure core sampler data, and capillary pressure measurements to predict water pressures that are 70% of the lithostatic stress, and gas pressures that equal the lithostatic stress beneath the methane hydrate layer at Ocean Drilling Program Site 997, Blake Ridge, offshore North Carolina. A 29-m-thick interconnected free-gas column is trapped beneath the low-permeability hydrate layer. We propose that lithostatic gas pressure is dilating fractures and gas is migrating through the methane hydrate layer. Overpressured gas and water within methane hydrate reservoirs limit the amount of free gas trapped and may rapidly export methane to the seafloor....
With the increase in the interest of producing natural gas from methane hydrates as well as potential risks of massive hydrate dissociation in the context of global warming, studies have recently shifted from pure hydrate crystals to hydrates in sediments. Such a research focus shift requires a series of innovative laboratory devices that are capable of investigating various properties of hydrate-bearing sediments (HBS). This study introduces a newly developed high pressure testing chamber, i.e., multi-property characterization chamber (MPCC), that allows simultaneous investigation of a series of fundamental properties of HBS, including small-strain stiffness (i.e., P- and S-waves), shear strength, large-strain deformation, stress-volume responses, and permeability. The peripheral coolant circulation system of the MPCC permits stable and accurate temperature control, while the core holder body, made of aluminum, enables X-ray computer tomography scanning to be easily employed for structural and ...
Gas hydrates is a growing field of study due to its importance in oil/gas production, gas exploration from permafrost and oceanic environments, energy storage and transportation, and carbon sequestration. This session aims to gather researchers in the area of gas hydrates to discuss the latest findings and ideas evolving in the hydrate community on the fundamentals and applications of gas hydrates.. ...
Alfa Aesar™ Potassium tetracyanonickelate(II) hydrate 50g Alfa Aesar™ Potassium tetracyanonickelate(II) hydrate Inorganic Potassium Compounds
For each of the three proposed gas hydrate production methods (left frame), conditions within initially stable hydrate-bearing sediment are shifted such that hydrate at that location is no longer stable, and will begin dissociating. Right frame: Depressurization: achieved by reducing the formation pressure below equilibrium limits. Thermal stimulation: achieved by increasing the formation pressure beyond equilibrium conditions. Chemical stimulation: changes in gas hydrate equilibrium conditions are induced by inhibitor injection. For any form of publication, please include the link to this page: www.grida.no/resources/6596
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L(-)-Glutathione, oxidized, hydrate, 95%, ACROS Organics™ 1g; Glass bottle L(-)-Glutathione, oxidized, hydrate, 95%, ACROS Organics™ Amino Acids
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Metaldehyde is an insecticide used to control slugs. When we unsuccessfully tried to get some recently, I discovered it is now deprecated in the UK. So my
The pressure-temperature (P-T) melting curve of lidocaine was determined (dP/dT¼3.56MPaK 1), and the lidocaine-water system was investigated as a function of temperature and pressure. The lidocaine-water system exhibits a monotectic equilibrium at 321K (ordinary pressure) whose temperature increases as the pressure increases until the two liquids become miscible. A hydrate, unstable at ordinary pressure, was shown to form, on increasing the pressure, from about 70MPa at low temperatures (200-300 K). The thermodynamic conditions of its stability were inferred from the location of the three-phase equilibria involving the hydrate in the lidocaine-water pressure-temperature-mole fraction (P-T-x) diagram ...
Searching novel gas hydrates is an enduring topic of scientific investigations, owing to its outstanding implications on planetology, the origin of life and the exploitation of energy resources. Taking the methane-water system as a representative, we disclose two new dense methane hydrate phases (MH-IV and M
Gas hydrates are crystalline inclusion compounds, where molecular cages of water trap lighter species under specific thermodynamic conditions. Hydrates play an essential role in global energy systems, as both a hinderance when formed in traditional fuel production and a substantial resource when formed by na
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A slurry containing aluminum ammonium sulfate disodium dodecahydrate (ammonium alum hydrate) at the concentration of 35 wt% is recently proposed as a promising material for latent heat transportation systems at higher temperature than 50oC. However, there exist two big problems to the ammonium alum hydrate slurry, that is, the sedimentation of the hydrate particles and low fluidity due to increase of the viscosity. In order to solve these problems, effects of drag-reducing surfactants and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on the hydrate slurry were analysed. Viscosities of the hydrate solution and slurry with and without the surfactant and PVA were measured to know the formation of rod-like micelles of the surfactants. Sedimentation and particle growth of the hydrate particles in solution with and without the surfactant and PVA were also observed. From the results, it was found that PVA does not disturb the formation of rod-like micelles. On the contrary, PVA enhances the effect of surfactants on the ...
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Iron(II) sulfate hydrate 99.999% trace metals basis; CAS Number: 13463-43-9; EC Number: 231-753-5; Synonym: Green vitriol, Iron vitriol, Sulfuric acid, iron(II) salt (1:1), hydrate; Linear Formula: FeO4S · xH2O; find Sigma-Aldrich-450278 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
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Cyclophosphamide Hydrate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Cyclophosphamide Hydrate is available on the Drugs.com website.
YM-358 potassium hydrate is a angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist potentially for the treatment of hypertension and chronic heart. YM358 is both orally active and long-lasting. YM358 has higher efficacy than enalapril for the treatment of hypertension.
We are currently working at Southern Hydrate Ridge getting ready to install the first underwater cabled mass spectrometer at this active methane seep. The past few days have been a whirlwind of activity, diving at both the EA Oregon Offshore site and Southern Hydrate Ridge. At the Oregon Offshore site, the ship- and shore-based personnel have been working hard to trouble shoot a couple of pieces of infrastructure there, and are continuing to narrow down the issue. At Southern Hydrate Ridge, we are very far along in the completion of both cabled and uncabled instruments at this site.. Over the past few days at Southern Hydrate Ridge, we have installed the digital-still camera, upward-looking ADCP that will measure currents, and three short-period seismometers on extension cables that range from ~400 m to 600 m in length. The seismometer locations form a triangular pattern on the seafloor so that we can obtain good locations for seismic events beneath the seep site. A broadband seismometer was ...
The award-winning mathematical model created by Rice alumnus Sayantan Chatterjee, who earned his doctorate in chemical engineer George Hirasakis group, is intended to help pinpoint abundant pockets of hydrate by extrapolating data from several sources: one-dimensional core samples, seismic surveys that image the fractures as well as stratified layers of sand and clay that build up over millennia, and the geochemistry of sediment and water near the ocean floor, which offers chemical clues to what lies beneath.. ...
How do you combat the harmful effects of the blistering sun? Use protective gear all the time. This includes the must haves sunblock, sunglasses to protect your eyes and appropriate head gear. Above all, hydration is key to allow your body to recover from heat. You wouldnt want to pass out on the beach out of dehydration, wouldnt you? So its best to hydrate because it not only flushes out dangerous body toxins but also keeps the skin moisturized, smooth and silky even in the searing heat of summer ...
Methotrexate hydrate | C20H24N8O6 | CID 165528 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
3-{1-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-3-isobutylpyrrolidin-3-yl}phenol hydrochloride hydrate | C22H32ClNO3 | CID 115769 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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Hydrate (?), n. [Gr. y`dwr water: cf. F. hydrate.] Chemistry|Chem. (a) A compound formed by the union of water with some oth...
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Aminoguanidine lanthanide thiodipropionate hydrates of composition [Ln(Agun)<sub>2</sub>(tdp)<sub>3</sub>&#183nH<sub>2</sub>O], Agun = Aminoguanidine, tdp = thiodipropionic acid, where Ln = La, Pr, Nd and Sm if n = 2, have been prepared and characterized by physic-chemical techniques.
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Data were analysed to determine the gas hydrate formation potential and indicators Echofacies were analysed to correlate the sedimentary deposits with...
Interactive 3D animations of the mechanism of hydrate formation from formaldehyde(methanal) and water for University Chemistry students
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Glentham Life Sciences is a supplier of GM2022 - 3-Cyclohexyl-D-alanine hydrate (58717-02-5). View catalogue prices, chemical data, technical specifications and MSDS documents.
91417-78-6 - QHOOBIFBRLBIGF-KLSJZZFUSA-N - L-Phenylalanine, N-(1-(cyanomethyl)-2-pyrrolidinylidene)-, hydrate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
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You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
Chloral hydrate, CCl 3C(OH) 2. Again, this is stabilized by the electron-withdrawing halide atoms. Geminal diols are a subclass ... the hydrated form of hexafluoroacetone; in this case the hydration is made favorable by the electron-withdrawing ...
N05CC01 Chloral hydrate. N05CC02 Chloralodol. N05CC03 Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate. N05CC04 Dichloralphenazone. N05CC05 ...
... chloral hydrate, chloroform, etc.) Muscle relaxants (Baclofen, phenibut, carisoprodol, cyclobenzaprine, etc.) Sedatives (Gamma- ...
Chloral hydrate, a sedative-hypnotic. *Long-acting barbiturates such as phenobarbital. *Some partial agonist opioid analgesics ...
In his last years Tyndall often took chloral hydrate to treat his insomnia. When bedridden and ailing, he died from an ... In late years he was taking magnesia for dyspepsia and chloral hydrate for insomnia. His wife, who administered the drugs, ...
Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate N-Acetylglycine "N-acetylglycinamide - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National ...
Chloral hydrate was believed to be the major contributing factor. An infection in her left buttock was also a contributory ... that her death was due to an accidental lethal combination of therapeutic levels of 3 benzodiazepines and chloral hydrate. ...
Valproic acid, chloral hydrate, risperidone, or phenobarbital can also be used. Chorea Zegart, K. N.; Schwarz, R. H. (1968). " ...
... and chloral hydrate may precipitate this effect.[citation needed] REM sleep is also considered a poikilothermic state in humans ...
... is a 1:2 mixture of antipyrine with chloral hydrate. In combination with paracetamol and isometheptene, it ... Chloral betaine Hindmarch I; Parrott AC. (1980). "The effects of combined sedative and anxiolytic preparations on subjective ...
"A review of laboratory animal anesthesia with chloral hydrate and chloralose". Lab Anim Sci. 43 (3): 210-6. PMID 8355479. ...
Chloral Hydrate is a commonly prescribed sedative, and most common for inducing sleep in young children and infants for AEP ... Chloral Hydrate is readily available in three forms - syrup, capsule and suppository. Syrup is most successful for those 4 ... Side effects of chloral hydrate include vomiting, nausea, gastric irritation, delirium, disorientation, allergic reactions and ... common with chloral hydrate). All vital signs All orders for conscious sedation for patients must be written. Prescriptions or ...
Field, K.J.; White, W.J.; Lang, C.M. (1993). "Anaesthetic effects of chloral hydrate, pentobarbitone and urethane in adult male ...
Also chloral hydrate and guanethidine have been observed to increase BUN values. The 1886 Jaffé reaction, in which creatinine ...
Dichloralphenazone is a mild sedative owing primarily to its hydrolysis product, chloral hydrate. Chloral hydrate, a schedule C ...
The raw ingredients used in manufacturing it were d-amphetamine and chloral hydrate. Amphetaminil Amphetamine Clobenzorex ...
Deuterochloroform can be prepared by the reaction of sodium deuteroxide with chloral hydrate. The haloform reaction can also ... Justus von Liebig carried out the alkaline cleavage of chloral. Eugène Soubeiran obtained the compound by the action of ...
... chloral hydrate. Melzer's is toxic to humans if ingested due to the presence of iodine and chloral hydrate. Due to the legal ... status of chloral hydrate, Melzer's reagent is difficult to obtain. To cope with the problems procuring chloral hydrate, ... The chloral hydrate is a clearing agent, bleaching and improving the transparency of various dark-colored microscopic materials ... Melzer's reagent is an aqueous solution of chloral hydrate, potassium iodide, and iodine. Depending on the formulation, it ...
... (Pentaerythritol chloral) is a sedative and hypnotic drug related to chloral hydrate. It is a Schedule IV drug in ...
Carr requested a doctor for Williams, who was feeling the combination of the chloral hydrate and alcohol he consumed on the way ... He also requested a doctor for Williams, as Williams was feeling the combination of the chloral hydrate and alcohol he had ... C. W. Lemon he prescribed Williams with amphetamines, Seconal, chloral hydrate, and morphine.[5] ... Marshall admitted that he had also prescribed chloral hydrate to his recently deceased wife, Faye, as a headache medicine. He ...
... of a chloral hydrate overdose. While Murphy was not the last person to see him alive, Murphy was one of the last people to see ...
Its hypnotic potency is between chloral hydrate and paraldehyde and between benzodiazepines and ethanol. In rats, TAA is ... 1888). "Amylene hydrate, a new hypnotic". The American Practitioner and News. Louisville KY: John P. Morton & Co. 5: 88-89. F.A ... Between about 1880 and 1950, it was used as an anesthetic, with the contemporary name of amylene hydrate. It was mainly used as ... Castle & C. Rice (March 1888). "Amylene and amylene hydrate". The American Druggist. 17 (3): 58-59. Collins, A.S.; Sumner, S.C ...
It was considered to have superior sedative effects to both paraldehyde and chloral hydrate. In humans, acetophenone is ...
... pediatric chloral hydrate elixirs. Expectorant: used to facilitate productive cough (cough with sputum): terpin hydrate elixirs ...
She was given two or three doses of chloral hydrate in her sparkling wine by McAlister. They took her in a carriage to a ... At the trial the defense attorneys tried to blame her death on the absinthe and not the overdose of chloral hydrate. The jury ... She was an early victim of the date rape drug chloral hydrate which caused her death. Jennie was the daughter of Dina ... Walter C. McAlister, put the chloral hydrate in her drink Andrew J. Campbell (born 1875). He served 15 years of his 30-year ...
Volatiles/gases (e.g., chloral hydrate, chloroform, diethyl ether, paraldehyde, sevoflurane). *Antagonists: Bicuculline ...
Chloral is readily converted to chloral hydrate in the presence of water. Chloral hydrate is used as a sedative before medical ... of chloral and chloral hydrate.. There is limited evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of chloral hydrate. ... Chloral hydrate was not active in male or female rats in two studies. Chloral hydrate increased the incidence of adenomas in ... regard to the induction of DNA damage in chloral hydrate-treated mammals. In human cells in vitro, chloral hydrate induced ...
chloral hydrate synonyms, chloral hydrate pronunciation, chloral hydrate translation, English dictionary definition of chloral ... hydrate. n. A colorless crystalline compound, C2H3Cl3O2, used as a sedative and hypnotic drug and in the manufacture of DDT. n ... Chloral hydrate - definition of chloral hydrate by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/chloral+hydrate ... chloral hydrate. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. chloral hydrate. n.. A colorless crystalline ...
Chloral hydrate acts as a depressant on the central nervous system, with sedative effects ... Chloral hydrate, the first synthetically produced sedative-hypnotic drug, commonly used in the late 19th century to treat ... Another exception is chloral hydrate, Cl3CH(OH)2, formed from chloral, Cl3CHO, and water. Chloral hydrate has been used ... Alternative Titles: chloral, trichloroacetaldehyde monohydrate. Chloral hydrate, also called chloral, the first synthetically ...
Chloral Hydrate: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Continue to take chloral hydrate even if you feel well. Do not stop taking chloral hydrate without talking to your doctor, ... Before taking chloral hydrate,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to chloral hydrate, aspirin, tartrazine (a ... Chloral hydrate may cause an upset stomach. Take chloral hydrate with food or milk. ...
Chloral Hydrate is a depressant, specifically used for inducing sleep. Its chemical formula, near as I can tell, is C2H3Cl3O2. ... Chloral Hydrate is a depressant, specifically used for inducing sleep. Its chemical formula, near as I can tell, is C2H3Cl3O2. ... An unnamed noder says: "When I worked at the old folks home, chloral hydrate was a favorite to use on combative grannies. At ... chloral hydrate produces a swift deep sleep - and as such, was popular with anyone wishing to (mostly) harmlessly knock out an ...
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Chloral hydrate (CICADS 25, 2000) ...
Detailed Chloral Hydrate dosage information for adults and children. Includes dosages for Insomnia and Sedation; plus renal, ... Chloral hydrate is contraindicated for use in patients with a creatinine clearance below 50 mL/min. ... Chloral hydrate is contraindicated for use in patients with a creatinine clearance below 50 mL/min. ... Chloral hydrate may be habit forming. The drug should not be discontinued abruptly. ...
Chloral hydrate is soluble in both water and ethanol, readily forming concentrated solutions. A solution of chloral hydrate in ... Because of its status as a regulated substance, chloral hydrate can be difficult to obtain. This has led to chloral hydrate ... The United Kingdom does not consider chloral hydrate to be a controlled substance. Chloral hydrate is a prescription-only- ... chloral hydrate, cyanide, and Phenergan Derivatives of chloral hydrate include: Amfecloral, an appetite suppressant drug ...
... includes chloral hydrate rectal description, dosage and directions. ... What is the most important information I should know about chloral hydrate rectal?. Do not take chloral hydrate rectal by mouth ... What other drugs will affect chloral hydrate rectal?. Before using chloral hydrate rectal, tell your doctor if you are taking a ... They can add to sleepiness caused by chloral hydrate rectal.. Chloral hydrate rectal can cause side effects that may impair ...
Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate is a hypnotic/sedative. It is a combination of acetylglycinamide and chloral hydrate. ... Degerholm, E.; Harison, A.; Leideman, T.; Sterner, N. (1963). "Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate, a new compound". Farmacevtisk ...
The safety margin is too narrow for chloral hydrate to be used as a general anesthetic in humans, but it is commonly used for ... Pms-Chloral Hydrate 100 mg/ml Syrup. 0.05USD ml. DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for ... PMS-chloral Hydrate Syrup 100mg/ml. Syrup. 500 mg. Oral. Pharmascience Inc. 1990-12-31. Not applicable. Canada. ... Apo-chloral Hydrate Syrup. Syrup. 100 mg. Oral. Apotex Corporation. Not applicable. Not applicable. Canada. ...
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Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic. The depressant effect on the central nervous system is believed to be due to an ... Chloral hydrate should be used during pregnancy only when the need outweighs any potential risk to the fetus. ... Chloral hydrate is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract following oral or rectal administration. The depressant ... Ambulatory patients should be warned that chloral hydrate may impair their ability to drive or operate machinery for up to 24 ...
where to buy 302-17-0(Chloral hydrate).Also offer free database of 302-17-0(Chloral hydrate) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, ... Chloral hydrate Basic information Product Name: Chloral hydrate Synonyms: CHLORAL HYDRATE;GROUND JOINT SEPARATION AID;1,1,1- ... Chloral hydrate Synonyms: 2,2,2-Trichloro-1,1-ethanediol;2,2,2-TRICHLOROETHANE-1,1-DIOL;2,2,2-TRICHLOROETHANE-1,1-DIOL HYDRATE; ... Factory hot sale Chloral hydrate CAS 302-17-0 in stock with best price and fast delivery!!! 1. Professional manufacturer 2. ...
Similar Discussions: How does chloral hydrate affect GABAnergism? * How does microgravity affect us? (Replies: 4) ... Will it eventually result in a tolerance to chloral hydrate and GABA via the compensatory response whereby an abnormally high ... After some poking around I found this article,sup,1,/sup, suggesting that chloral hydrate somehow has a hypnotic (sleep ...
But evidence regarding the efficacy of chloral hydrate and of alternative agents is conflicting. ... Using chloral hydrate carries a risk of adverse events and compounding errors, and much of the available literature recommends ... note that chloral hydrate is more rapidly absorbed with food; fasting before a procedure where chloral hydrate is used for ... Recent Chloral Hydrate Adverse Events. In June 2014, Nordt et al. published three cases of pediatric chloral hydrate overdoses ...
Taking an overdose of chloral hydrate or taking alcohol or other CNS depressants with chloral hydrate may lead to ... For patients taking chloral hydrate syrup: *Take each dose of medicine mixed with clear liquid, such as water, apple juice, or ... Chloral hydrate has been used in the treatment of insomnia (trouble in sleeping) and to help calm or relax patients who are ... For patients taking chloral hydrate capsules: *Swallow the capsule whole. Do not chew since the medicine may cause an ...
Safety and efficacy of chloral hydrate for procedural sedation in paediatric ophthalmology: a systematic review and meta- ... Safety and efficacy of chloral hydrate for procedural sedation in paediatric ophthalmology: a systematic review and meta- ... Safety and efficacy of chloral hydrate for procedural sedation in paediatric ophthalmology: a systematic review and meta- ...
Chloral hydrate is not a suitable drug in either case. Chloral hydrate is regarded by many to produce hypnosis and not ... The authors also used a higher dose of chloral hydrate for euthanasia. However, chloral hydrate is not an acceptable agent for ... Chloral Hydrate Is Not Acceptable for Anesthesia or Euthanasia of Small Animals. Anesthesiology 7 2009, Vol.111, 209. doi: ... The authors used chloral hydrate in both procedures; for surgical anesthesia in the first and euthanasia in the second. ...
Chloral hydrate:PrThr:Pt:Ser/Plas:Ord. Known as: ????:???????:???:??/??:???, ??? ???:????:????:??/??:????, Hydrate de chloral [ ... Pediatric Chloral Hydrate Poisonings and Death Following Outpatient Procedural Sedation. *Sean Patrick Nordt, Cyrus Rangan, ... Methane hydrate soil is a natural soil deposit that contains methane hydrate in its pores. The micro-scale processes of the… ... Effects of salinity on hydrate stability and implications for storage of CO2 in natural gas hydrate reservoirs ...
Chloral hydrate is a mild hypnotic that is used to treat simple insomnia. Despite many years of use, chloral hydrate has not ... Chloral hydrate has been linked to hypersensitivity reactions such as rash, fever and eosinophilia. Chloral hydrate also has ... Controlled trial of chloral hydrate vs tryptophan vs placebo in 19 women in a psychogeriatric hospital found chloral hydrate ... Controlled trial of chloral hydrate vs hydoxyzine for sedation in children undergoing EEG recording found chloral hydrate more ...
Hepatocarcinogenicity of chloral hydrate, 2-chloroacetaldehyde, and dichloroacetic acid in the male B6C3F1 mouse.: The ... Hepatocarcinogenicity of chloral hydrate, 2-chloroacetaldehyde, and dichloroacetic acid in the male B6C3F1 mouse.. Authors * ... The chlorinated acetaldehydes, chloral hydrate (CH) and 2-chloroacetaldehyde (CAA), have been identified as chlorination by- ...
... chloral hydrate was used as a popular sedative in clinical medicine until the advent of barbiturates largely supplanted their ... Chloral Hydrate. Thu, 17 May 2012 , Emergency Medicine Introduced in 1869, chloral hydrate was used as a popular sedative in ... Chloral hydrate is a schedule III drug with recognized abuse potential.. Chloral hydrate absorption occurs rapidly and ... Chloral hydrate is still used effectively for promoting sedation in children because in therapeutic doses it does not depress ...
Engelberg prescribed her 50 caps of 500 mg Chloral Hydrate on July 31 as a refill for a previous Chloral Hydrate order on July ... I see that Chloral Hydrate has a Therapeutic range to 30 ppm and an LD50 value at 100 ppm, so Monroe was 20% under the Chloral ... Tag Archives: Chloral Hydrate. WAS MARILYN MONROE MURDERED? No movie star lived on after death like Marilyn Monroe. She was far ... The Chloral Hydrate level in her blood was determined to be 8.0 milligrams (percent) based on her weight or 80 parts per ...
  • Chloral hydrate was described by Oscar Liebrich in 1869 in Berlin, where he used it as an oral premedication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chloral hydrate belongs to the group of medicines called sedatives and hypnotics. (adam.com)
  • Chloral hydrate is still used effectively for promoting sedation in children because in therapeutic doses it does not depress respiratory drive or circulatory function. (barnardhealth.us)
  • A preterm infant developed severe chloral hydrate toxicity after its therapeutic administration as an adjunct to the treatment of hyaline membrane disease (21). (wikitox.org)
  • Therapeutic doses of chloral hydrate may produce arrhythmias when used to sedate children with stimulant ingestions (22). (wikitox.org)
  • Two cases of intravenous administration of a therapeutic dose of oral chloral hydrate resulted in central nervous system depression and minimal local effects at the injection site (25). (wikitox.org)
  • A young healthy female died after taking a therapeutic dose of chloral hydrate syrup before surgery to extract third molars (36). (wikitox.org)
  • In patients with cirrhosis and hepatic decompensation, chloral hydrate can trigger or worsen hepatic encephalopathy. (nih.gov)
  • With the development of safer and more effective drugs, the use of chloral hydrate has declined. (britannica.com)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to chloral hydrate, aspirin, tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and drugs), or any other drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chloral hydrate is used as a sedative before medical procedures and to reduce anxiety related to withdrawal from drugs. (inchem.org)
  • Chloral hydrate has not been approved by the FDA in the United States or the EMA in the European Union for any medical indication and is on the list of unapproved drugs that are still prescribed by clinicians. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypoprothrombinaemic effect of coumarin anticoagulants may be intensified if such drugs are given concurrently with chloral hydrate. (who.int)
  • He found out that by moving from "no drug" condition to Benzedrine, Caffeine, Chloral hydrate respectively, spider's brain activity yields bigger decrements in the complexity of the spider's web that mirrors the trend in reduction of complexity of spider's brain signal in case of these drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This begins with isolated attacks of agonising nerve pain, and eventually becomes a daily litany of pain and use of drugs like Opium and Chloral hydrate to fight it. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is limited evidence from a single study that chloral hydrate affects sperm, but no evidence of actual reproductive or developmental toxicity has been shown. (inchem.org)
  • toxicity has been reported after 3 days in a preterm neonate and after 7 days in a term neonate receiving chloral hydrate 40 to 50 mg/kg every 6 hours. (drugs.com)
  • Acute overdose toxicity and risk of death has been observed disproportionately with chloral hydrate but death has been reported after overdose with all the older agents. (wikitox.org)
  • Coma and signs of cardiac toxicity appeared 2 hours after ingestion of approximately 38 g of chloral hydrate (32). (wikitox.org)
  • Also found in toxicology testing was human growth hormone and chloral hydrate, a sleep medication, Perper said. (cnn.com)
  • The safety margin is too narrow for chloral hydrate to be used as a general anesthetic in humans, but it is commonly used for that purpose in animal experiments. (drugbank.ca)
  • Indeed the chloral hydrate-induced hypoxemia which must occur during euthanasia as respiration becomes depressed 1 , may compromise the experimental aims in terms of measuring protein and messenger ribonucleic acid levels of an activity-related protein. (asahq.org)
  • More than 1.5 to 2.0 g of chloral hydrate has produced excessive sedation in children and adults (19). (wikitox.org)
  • Chloral hydrate comes as a capsule and liquid to take by mouth and as a suppository to insert rectally. (medlineplus.gov)