A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.
Used as a solvent, in the manufacture of insecticides, and for treating sweet potatoes before planting. May cause nausea, vomiting, pains in head and chest, stupefaction. Irritates mucous membranes and causes kidney and liver degeneration.
A histamine H1 receptor antagonist that is effective in the treatment of chronic urticaria, dermatitis, and histamine-mediated pruritus. Unlike its major metabolite CETIRIZINE, it does cause drowsiness. It is also effective as an antiemetic, for relief of anxiety and tension, and as a sedative.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
A hypnotic and sedative. Its use has been largely superseded by other drugs.
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
A strong acid used as a protein precipitant in clinical chemistry and also as a caustic for removing warts.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.
An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propionaldehyde. EC 4.2.1.28.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.
Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.

A pilot study of the efficacy of oral midazolam for sedation in pediatric dental patients. (1/106)

Oral midazolam is being used for conscious sedation in dentistry with little documentation assessing its efficacy. In order to accumulate preliminary data, a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover, multi-site pilot study was conducted. The objective was to determine if 0.6 mg/kg of oral midazolam was an equally effective or superior means of achieving conscious sedation in the uncooperative pediatric dental patient, compared with a commonly used agent, 50 mg/kg of oral chloral hydrate. Twenty-three children in three clinics who required dentistry with local anesthetic and were determined to exhibit behavior rated as "negative" or "definitely negative" based on the Frankl scale were assessed. They were evaluated with respect to acceptance of medication; initial level of anxiety at each appointment; level of sedation prior to and acceptance of local anesthetic; movement and crying during the procedure; and overall behavior. The results showed that the group randomly assigned to receive midazolam had a significantly greater initial level of anxiety for that appointment (P < 0.02), a finding that could clearly confound further determination of the efficacy of these drugs. Patients given oral midazolam had an increased level of sedation prior to the administration of local anesthetic compared with those given chloral hydrate (P < 0.015). No statistically significant differences were noted in any of the other parameters. The age of the patient was found to have no correlation with the difference in overall behavior (r = -0.09). These preliminary data warrant further clinical trials.  (+info)

Comparison of oral chloral hydrate with intramuscular ketamine, meperidine, and promethazine for pediatric sedation--preliminary report. (2/106)

Fifteen consecutive pediatric patients ranging from 3 to 5 years old were selected to receive one of three sedative/hypnotic techniques. Group 1 received oral chloral hydrate 50 mg/kg, and groups 2 and 3 received intramuscular ketamine 2 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg, respectively. In addition to ketamine, patients in groups 2 and 3 received transmucosal intramuscular injections of meperidine and promethazine into the masseter muscle. Sedation for the satisfactory completion of restorative dentistry was obtained for over 40 min on average in the chloral hydrate group, but completion of dental surgery longer than 40 min was achieved in groups 2 and 3 only by intravenous supplements of ketamine.  (+info)

Metabolism and toxicity of trichloroethylene and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine in freshly isolated human proximal tubular cells. (3/106)

Trichloroethylene (Tri) caused modest cytotoxicity in freshly isolated human proximal tubular (hPT) cells, as assessed by significant decreases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity after 1 h of exposure to 500 microM Tri. Oxidative metabolism of Tri by cytochrome P-450 to form chloral hydrate (CH) was only detectable in kidney microsomes from one patient out of four tested and was not detected in hPT cells. In contrast, GSH conjugation of Tri was detected in cells from every patient tested. The kinetics of Tri metabolism to its GSH conjugate S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione (DCVG) followed biphasic kinetics, with apparent Km and Vmax values of 0.51 and 24.9 mM and 0.10 and 1.0 nmol/min per mg protein, respectively. S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), the cysteine conjugate metabolite of Tri that is considered the penultimate nephrotoxic species, caused both time- and concentration-dependent increases in LDH release in freshly isolated hPT cells. Preincubation of hPT cells with 0.1 mM aminooxyacetic acid did not protect hPT cells from DCVC-induced cellular injury, suggesting that another enzyme besides the cysteine conjugate beta-lyase may be important in DCVC bioactivation. This study is the first to measure the cytotoxicity and metabolism of Tri and DCVC in freshly isolated cells from the human kidney. These data indicate that the pathway involved in the cytotoxicity and metabolism of Tri in hPT cells is the GSH conjugation pathway and that the cytochrome P-450-dependent pathway has little direct role in renal Tri metabolism in humans.  (+info)

Anaesthetic agents inhibit gastrin-stimulated but not basal histamine release from rat stomach ECL cells. (4/106)

By mobilizing histamine in response to gastrin, the ECL cells in the oxyntic mucosa play a key role in the control of the parietal cells and hence of gastric acid secretion. General anaesthesia suppresses basal and gastrin- and histamine-stimulated acid secretion. The present study examines if the effect of anaesthesia on basal and gastrin-stimulated acid secretion is associated with suppressed ECL-cell histamine secretion. A microdialysis probe was implanted in the submucosa of the ventral aspect of the acid-producing part of the stomach (32 rats). Three days later, ECL-cell histamine mobilization was monitored 2 h before and 4 h after the start of intravenous infusion of gastrin (5 nmol kg(-1) h(-1)). The rats were either conscious or anaesthetized. Four commonly used anaesthetic agents were given 1 h before the start of the experiments by intraperitoneal injection: chloral hydrate (300 mg kg(-1)), pentobarbitone (40 mg kg(-1)), urethane (1.5 g kg(-1)) and a mixture of fluanisone/fentanyl/midazolam (15/0.5/7.5 mg kg(-1)). In a parallel series of experiments, basal- and gastrin-induced acid secretion was monitored in six conscious and 25 anaesthetized (see above) chronic gastric fistula rats. All anaesthetic agents lowered gastrin-stimulated acid secretion; also the basal acid output was reduced (fluanisone/fentanyl/midazolam was an exception). Anaesthesia reduced gastrin-stimulated but not basal histamine release by 55 - 80%. The reduction in gastrin-induced acid response (70 - 95%) was strongly correlated to the reduction in gastrin-induced histamine mobilization. The correlation is in line with the view that the reduced acid response to gastrin reflects impaired histamine mobilization. Rat stomach ECL cells were purified by counter-flow elutriation. Gastrin-evoked histamine mobilization from the isolated ECL cells was determined in the absence or presence of anaesthetic agents in the medium. With the exception of urethane, they inhibited gastrin-evoked histamine secretion dose-dependently, indicating a direct effect on the ECL cells. Anaesthetized rats are widely used to study acid secretion and ECL-cell histamine release. The present results illustrate the short-comings of such an approach in that a number of anaesthetic agents were found to impair not only acid secretion but also the secretion of ECL-cell histamine - some acting in a direct manner.  (+info)

Carcinogenicity of chloral hydrate administered in drinking water to the male F344/N rat and male B6C3F1 mouse. (5/106)

Male B6C3F1 mice and male F344/N rats were exposed to chloral hydrate (chloral) in the drinking water for 2 years. Rats: Measured chloral hydrate drinking water concentrations for the study were 0.12 g/L, 0.58 g/L, and 2.51 g/L chloral hydrate that yielded time-weighted mean daily doses (MDDs) of 7.4, 37.4, and 162.6 mg/kg per day. Water consumptions, survival, body weights, and organ weights were not altered in any of the chloral hydrate treatments. Life-time exposures to chloral hydrate failed to increase the prevalence (percentage of animals with a tumor) or the multiplicity (tumors/animal) of hepatocellular neoplasia. Chloral hydrate did not increase the prevalence of neoplasia at any other organ site. Mice: Measured chloral hydrate drinking water concentrations for the study were 0.12 g/L, 0.58 g/L, and 1.28 g/L that gave MDDs of 13.5, 65.0, and 146.6 mg/kg per day. Water consumptions, survival, body and organ weights, were not altered from the control values by any of the chloral hydrate treatments. Enhanced neoplasia was observed only in the liver. Prevalence and multiplicity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HC) were increased only for the high-dose group (84.4%; 0.72 HC/animal; p < or = 0.05). Values of 54.3%; 0.72 HC/animal and 59%; 1.03 HC/animal were observed for the 13.5- and 65.0-mg/kg per day treatment groups. Prevalence and multiplicity for the control group were 54.8%; 0.74 HC/animal. Hepatoadenoma (HA) prevalence and multiplicity were significantly increased (p < or = 0.05) at all chloral hydrate concentrations: 43.5%; 0.65 HA/animal, 51.3%; 0.95 HA/animal and 50%; 0.72 HA/animal at 13.5, 65.0, and 146.6 mg/kg per day chloral hydrate compared to 21.4%; 0.21 HA/animal in the untreated group. Altered foci of cells were evident in all doses tested in the mouse, but no significant differences were observed over the control values. Hepatocellular necrosis was minimal and did not exceed that seen in untreated rats and mice. Chloral hydrate exposure did not alter serum chemistry and hepatocyte proliferation in rats and mice or increase hepatic palmitoyl CoA oxidase in mice at any of the time periods monitored. It was concluded that chloral hydrate was carcinogenic (hepatocellular neoplasia) in the male mouse, but not in the rat, following a lifetime exposure in the drinking water. Based upon the increased HA and combined tumors at all chloral hydrate doses tested, a no observed adverse effect level was not determined.  (+info)

Hyperintense signal abnormality in subarachnoid spaces and basal cisterns on MR images of children anesthetized with propofol: new fluid-attenuated inversion recovery finding. (6/106)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging is the method of choice for pediatric neuroimaging. Sedation is often needed to suppress patient motion and ensure diagnostic image quality, and propofol is rapidly becoming the preferred anesthetic. The purpose of this study was to document a new finding on fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (fast-FLAIR) MR images of children anesthetized with propofol that can be mistaken for subarachnoid space pathologic abnormality. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 55 MR images of the brain for children who ranged in age from 1 week to 12 years. Forty-two patients received chloral hydrate, and 13 received propofol anesthetic. Multiplanar MR images were studied to detect the presence or absence of hyperintense signal (artifact) in the subarachnoid spaces and basal cisterns. The T1 values and null times of chloral hydrate, propofol, and CSF were determined in vitro at room temperature by using an inversion recovery pulse sequence at 1.5 T. RESULTS: The fast-FLAIR images of all 13 patients who received propofol had hyperintense signal abnormality. For 10 (77%) of 13 patients, this artifact was in the basal cisterns and subarachnoid spaces overlying the brain convexity. For three (23%) of 13 patients, this artifact was in the convexity region only. Two patients underwent follow-up MR imaging with a nonpropofol anesthetic agent, and the artifact resolved. None of the images of the children who received chloral hydrate had this artifact. The T1 value of chloral hydrate was 0.2 s, of propofol was 1.86 s, and of CSF was 2.32 s at room temperature. CONCLUSION: The fast-FLAIR images of children anesthetized with propofol have artifactual hyperintense signal in the basal cisterns and subarachnoid spaces, and this artifact mimics disease of the subarachnoid space. The T1 value of propofol approaches that of CSF. Depending on the chosen null time, there may be incomplete nulling of signal coming from propofol. To account for this observation, other possible causes include increased CSF pulsation in children creating motion artifact, changes in arterial oxygen concentration intrinsic to propofol or related to the supplemental oxygen normally administered, or changes in CSF protein levels related to propofol binding to proteins for uptake into CSF.  (+info)

Chronic cold stress reduces the spontaneous activity of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons. (7/106)

The dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area and medial substantia nigra (VTA/mSN) projecting to the limbic forebrain and prefrontal cortex have long been postulated to play a major role in cognitive and behavioral effects of stress. In this study, the effects of a chronic stressor (prolonged exposure to cold) on the spontaneous activity of DA neurons in the VTA/mSN were examined. Extracellular single-unit recordings of DA neurons were performed in rats following a 17-day continuous exposure to a cold (4 degrees C) environment. Compared to controls, cold-exposed rats displayed 64% fewer spontaneously active DA neurons. The average spike activity (average firing rate, average spikes fired in bursts) of the DA cells that remained active in the cold-exposed rats did not differ significantly from controls. However, a significantly larger proportion of those cells showed excessive burst activity, compared to the DA cell population in controls. These results show that chronic stress can lead to the cessation of spontaneous activity in a subpopulation of VTA/mSN DA cells. These changes may indicate that unlike acute stress, which can potently activate the mesolimbic/mesocortical DA systems, chronic stress leads to an adaptive reduction in the number of active DA cells, perhaps altering the response of these systems to subsequent stressors.  (+info)

Cytochrome p450-dependent metabolism of trichloroethylene in rat kidney. (8/106)

The metabolism of trichloroethylene (Tri) by cytochrome P450 (P450) was studied in microsomes from liver and kidney homogenates and from isolated renal proximal tubular (PT) and distal tubular (DT) cells from male Fischer 344 rats. Chloral hydrate (CH) was the only metabolite consistently detected and was used as a measurement of P450-dependent metabolism of Tri. Pretreatment of rats with pyridine increased CH formation in both liver and kidney microsomes, whereas pretreatment of rats with clofibrate increased CH formation only in kidney microsomes. Pyridine increased CYP2E1 expression in both liver and kidney microsomes, whereas clofibrate had no effect on hepatic but increased renal CYP2E1 and CYP2C11 protein levels. These results suggest a role for CYP2E1 in both the hepatic and renal metabolism of Tri and a role for CYP2C11 in the renal metabolism of Tri. Studies with the general P450 inhibitor SKF-525A and the CYP2E1 competitive substrate chlorzoxazone provided additional support for the role of CYP2E1 in both tissues. CH formation was higher in PT cells than in DT cells and was time and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) dependent. However, pretreatment of rats with either pyridine or clofibrate had no effect on CYP2E1 or CYP2C11 protein levels or on CH formation in isolated cells. These data show for the first time that Tri can be metabolized to at least one of its P450 metabolites in the kidneys and quantitate the effect of P450 induction on Tri metabolism in the rat kidney.  (+info)

Define chloral hydrate. chloral hydrate synonyms, chloral hydrate pronunciation, chloral hydrate translation, English dictionary definition of chloral hydrate. n. A colorless crystalline compound, C2H3Cl3O2, used as a sedative and hypnotic drug and in the manufacture of DDT. n a colourless crystalline soluble solid...
5.1 Exposure data. Chloral is a chlorinated aldehyde that found extensive use, beginning in the 1940s, as a precursor in the production of the insecticide DDT and, to a lesser extent, of other insecticides and pharmaceuticals. This use of chloral has declined steadily since the 1960s, especially in those countries where the use of DDT has been restricted. Chloral is readily converted to chloral hydrate in the presence of water. Chloral hydrate is used as a sedative before medical procedures and to reduce anxiety related to withdrawal from drugs. Wider exposure to chloral hydrate occurs at microgram-per-litre levels in drinking-water and swimming pools as a result of chlorination.. 5.2 Human carcinogenicity data. Several studies were identified that analysed risk with respect to one or more measures of exposure to complex mixtures of disinfection by-products that are found in most chlorinated and chloraminated drinking-water. No data specifically on chloral or chloral hydrate were available to ...
This study has shown that sedation with IN DEX at a dose of 4 μg/kg was effective for ABR examinations. However, the ability to begin the examination sooner and complete the examination with a single dose suggests IN DEX may be a superior alternative to oral chloral hydrate. An additional benefit is the lower incidence of procedural hypoxemia requiring supplemental oxygen in the IN DEX group. Although the outcomes of this study may be related to the medication itself, there are several other potential explanations.. The first is the route of administration. Oral chloral hydrate is generally administered with an oral syringe and requires a semi-cooperative child. Despite the best attempts, some children may not receive the entire dose because they spit it out or some of the medication is lost during attempts to get the child to swallow the medication. Conversely, intranasal administration with a mucosal atomizing device is a much more reliable way to administer medications. Thus, more reliable ...
의식하 진정을 위해 사용되는 진정제는 투여 방법이 자극적이지 않고 약효의 발현이 빠르며 효과를 예측할 수 있고 조절이 가능해야 한다. 또한 부작용이 적고 회복이 빨라야 한다[1]. 하지만 이 모든 조건을 부합시키는 이상적인 진정제는 현재 존재하지 않는다. 치과영역에서 가장 오래된 진정제 중 하나인 chloral hydrate는 1832년 Leibig가 발견하여, 1869년 Liebrich에 의해 처음으로 소개되었다[5]. 비교적 빨리 작용하며 부작용이 적고 안정성 범위가 넓다는 장점을 가지고 있지만, 위장장애, 오심, 구토 등을 유발할 수 있으며 최근에는 chloral hydrate의 대사물질인 trichloroethylene의 안정성에 대한 의문도 제기되고 있다[6-9]. 이에 chloral hydrate를 대신할 대체재로 promethazine, midazolam, meperidine, dexmedetomidine 등의 진정제들이 소개 되고 있지만 이 약제들 역시 이상적인 진정제의 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipid peroxidation and cell death mechanisms in rats and human cells induced by chloral hydrate. AU - Ho, Y. S.. AU - Ma, H. Y.. AU - Chang, H. Y.. AU - Wei, B. L.. AU - Lee, C. C.. AU - Ho, S. Y.. AU - Guo, H. R.. AU - Wu, T. P.. AU - Chang, W. H.. AU - Wang, Y. J.. PY - 2003/5/1. Y1 - 2003/5/1. N2 - Chloral hydrate (CH) is widely used as a sedative and hypnotic in pediatric medicine. It is also a by-product of water chlorination and a metabolite of trichloroethylene. We examined the toxicological effects and cell death mechanisms of CH in rats and human Chang liver cells and lymphocytes. Monitoring of urinary 8-epi-PGF2α and serum levels of TNF-α served as index of lipid peroxidation and cytokine stimulation. The results indicated that a single intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg CH in rats led to a nearly five-fold increase in urinary 8-epi-PGF2α on day 1, and a mild decrease on day 2 and day 3. The same treatment also induced significantly higher amounts of serum TNF-α ...
Using chloral hydrate carries a risk of adverse events and compounding errors, and much of the available literature recommends using alternative sedatives for pediatric patients. But evidence regarding the efficacy of chloral hydrate and of alternative agents is conflicting.
Physician reviewed chloral hydrate rectal patient information - includes chloral hydrate rectal description, dosage and directions.
Other names: 1,1-Ethanediol, 2,2,2-trichloro-; Bi 3411; Chloral monohydrate; Chloraldurat; Dormal; Hydral; Lorinal; Noctec; Nycoton; Nycton; Phaldrone; Rectules; Somnos; Tosyl; Trawotox; Trichloroacetaldehyde hydrate; Trichloroacetaldehyde monohydrate; 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-dihydroxyethane; 2,2,2-Trichloro-1,1-ethanediol; Chloradorm; Cohidrate; Escre; Felsules; Hynos; Kessodrate; Lycoral; Oradrate; Somni Sed; Sontec; SK-Chloral hydrate; Trichloracetaldehyd-hydrat; Aquachloral; Hydrate de chloral; Nortec; 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-ethanediol; NSC 3210; 2,2,2-trichloroethane-1,1-diol ...
Chloral Hydrate is a depressant, specifically used for inducing sleep. Its chemical formula, near as I can tell, is C2H3Cl3O2. It is noteworthy for bei...
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California intends to list four chlorinated compounds as carcinogens under the states Proposition 65. This move would trigger requirements for labeling products that contain these chemicals, the state said in a July 26 notice. The substances are chloral (also known as trichloroacetaldehyde), chloral hydrate, 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane, and trichloroacetic acid. Californias Environmental Protection Agency proposed listing the compounds on the basis of determinations by the World Health Organizations International Agency for Research on Cancer. According to IARC, chloral and chloral hydrate are probably carcinogenic to humans, whereas 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroacetic acid are possibly carcinogenic to humans. Proposition 65 mandates that the state list chemicals that IARC deems to be human or animal carcinogens. That 1986 state law requires warning labels on products that contain listed substances and prohibits their discharge into drinking water sources. The public has until ...
In article ,bucc0003.765611484 at gold,, bucc0003 at gold.tc.umn.edu (Paul A Bucciaglia) writes: ,, Ive been staining tobacco microspores (about 3-5 days post tetrad) with ,, acetocarmine to follow microspore mitosis. Using the std. 1% carmine ,, in 45% acetic acid on both fixed (ethanol/acetic acid) and unfixed antehrs ,, gives me bright red cytoplasms that obscure any sign of a nucleus. i dug ,, up a reference from 1937 (Maheshwari, Stain Tech. 12#2) which suggested ,, a few drops of chloral hydrate to clear the cytoplasm. ahh, an archaic ,, name for HCl i thought so i added a drop of 1N HCl. This did help some ,, as the nucleus was just barely visible and the cytoplasm cleared somewhat. ,, So i checked the Sigma catolog and was surprised to find that chloral ,, hydrate is a nasty chlorinated hydrocarbon that is (was?) used to make DDT. Chloral hydrate was also the active ingredient in the Mickey Finn (knockout drops added to alcohol in all the old film noir mysteries). ,, So my question: ...
Experiments were performed in 20 adult male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 300-330 gm (IFFA CREDO, Les Oncins, France). Animals were anesthetized with chloral hydrate (400 mg/kg, i.p.; supplemented by continuous intraperitoneal injection of chloral hydrate delivered at a rate of 60 mg · kg -1 · hr -1 using a peristaltic pump) and fixed in a conventional stereotaxic head frame (Horsley Clarke Apparatus, Unimécanique, Epinay-sur-Seine, France). Body temperature was monitored by a rectal thermometer and maintained at 36.5°C with a homeothermic blanket (Harvard Apparatus, Kent, UK). All experiments were conducted in accordance with the Policies on the Use of Animals in Neuroscience as approved by the Society for Neuroscience.. Electrophysiological analysis. Single-unit activity of SNR cells was recorded extracellularly using glass micropipettes (6-8 MΩ) filled with a 0.6 m sodium chloride solution containing 4% Pontamine Sky Blue. Single neuron action potentials were amplified with a differential ...
On the day of her death, Marilyn Monroe was in the company of many people, none of who reported any immediately implied threat or perceived action from Monroe that suggested an imminent danger of suicide, nor any behavior that was outside of her already troubled mental state of manic highs and depressive lows. Shed a history of emotional instability that, today, would likely be classified as Bipolar II Disorder and she was under the continual care of a general physician and a psychiatrist. Monroe was no stranger to prescription pharmaceuticals, specifically anti-depressants and sleeping pills, but she was a relatively light alcohol drinker.. Marilyn Monroe had a difficult year in 1961. She worked very little due to health issues. Besides her emotional imbalance and substance dependency, she underwent surgery for endometriosis (uterus ailment) and a cholecystectomy (gall bladder removal), then suffered a painful attack of sinusitis. Her stress level soared from a lawsuit with 20th Century Fox ...
During the last half-century, science-driven research technology has accounted for more than 50 percent of the growth of the worlds economy. We must continue to financially and emotionally support basic and cutting edge science research - it is the foundation upon which tomorrows technological advancements will rest. Novachem assists your organisation in delivering on the tomorrows research possibilities, today. ...
Provides information on usage, precautions, side effects and brand names when available. Data provided by various government agencies and health-related organizations. ...
AIM: Despite the importance of neonatal skin stimulation, little is known about activation of the newborn human infant brain by sensory stimulation of the skin. We carried out functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the feasibility of measuring brain activation to a range of mechanical stimuli applied to the skin of neonatal infants. METHODS: We studied 19 term infants with a mean age of 13 days. Brain activation was measured in response to brushing, von Frey hair (vFh) punctate stimulation and, in one case, nontissue damaging pinprick stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot. Initial whole brain analysis was followed by region of interest analysis of specific brain areas. RESULTS: Distinct patterns of functional brain activation were evoked by brush and vFh punctate stimulation, which were reduced, but still present, under chloral hydrate sedation. Brain activation increased with increasing stimulus intensity. The feasibility of using pinprick stimulation in fMRI studies was
The global inventory of carbon in gas hydrate at present day is comparable to that in oil & coal reserve, therefore, gas hydrate could have played an important role in earth carbon cycle, e.g., during the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) event. However, ocean floor temperatures were ~6°C higher than today, so the hydrate abundance under warmer conditions was a question to be clarified. By using numeric simulations, this work showed that gas hydrate abundance is not only affected by ocean floor temperature, but, more essentially, greatly dominated by the organic carbon buried into sediment. During PETM, higher organic carbon contents due to less dissolved oxygen at seafloor and increased methanogenesis rates, both resulted from higher ocean temperatures, enhanced hydrate accumulation. Therefore, though hydrate stability zone would be thinner and shallower than present-day, depending on water depth and sedimentation rate, gas hydrate abundance could be still higher in some marine sediment ...
A high pressure heat flux calorimeter in isobaric, temperature-ramping mode has been used to measure the solubility of pure methane, pure carbon dioxide and methane-carbon dioxide mixtures. The solubility measurements emphasize a crystallization-like process taking place during hydrate formation and show a striking divergence from Henrys Law, the frequently used calculation procedure, prior to and during hydrate formation. These measurements were further used to determine the enthalpies of solution/dissociation, and entropies change. Moreover, the hydration numbers of these compounds provide some explanations and criteria of stability of the cages of gas hydrates in the host lattice. Finally, a kinetic study confirms the crystallization process of hydrate formation and exhibits a high level of supersaturation prior to hydrate formation and also a high consumption rate during hydrate formation ...
Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring, ice-like substance that forms when water and gas combine under high pressure and at moderate temperatures. Methane is the most common gas present in gas hydrate, although other gases may also be included in hydrate structures, particularly in areas close to conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Gas hydrate is widespread in ocean-bottom sediments at water depths greater than 300-500 meters (m; 984-1,640 feet [ft]) and is also present in areas with permanently frozen ground (permafrost). Several countries are evaluating gas hydrate as a possible energy resource in deepwater or permafrost settings. Gas hydrate is also under investigation to determine how environmental change may affect these deposits....
In collaboration with Clariant Oil Services, Clariant Produkte (Deutschland) and the Centre for Research & Technology Hellas (CERTH), researchers from Nextmol have published the paper Size dependence of the dissociation process of spherical hydrate particles via microsecond molecular dynamics simulations in the journal Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (PCCP) of the Royal Society of Chemistry.. The paper, published as a Communication, investigates the dissociation process of spherical sII mixed methane-propane hydrate particles in liquid hydrocarbon via microsecond-long molecular dynamics simulations. A strong dependence of the melting temperature on the particle size has been found. Furthermore, analysis in the context of the Gibbs-Thomson effect has provided new insights into the fundamental properties of gas hydrates, such as the estimation of the melting temperature of a flat hydrate surface (bulk hydrate), the calculation of the surface tension between hydrate and hydrocarbon, and the ...
Thin (A) and thickly veined (B) sediment-displacing gas hydrates (white) in fine-grained sediment (grey); (C) pore-filling gas hydrates in sand; (D) gas hydrate mounds on the sea floor (hydrate has an orange coating from oil and is draped with grey sediment); (E) disseminated gas hydrates (white specks) in fine-grained sediment (grey); (F) gas hydrates (white) in coarse sands (grey). For any form of publication, please include the link to this page: www.grida.no/resources/6615
0041]Dispersible gas stream 22 and pressurized pump exit stream 12 are injected into HSD inlet stream 13 for processing by high shear device 40. HSD inlet stream 13 is in fluid communication with HSD 40. As discussed in detail above, high shear device 40 is a mechanical device that utilizes, for example, a stator rotor mixing head with a fixed gap between the stator and rotor. Dispersible gas stream 22 comprising chlorine is dispersed in pump exit stream 12 comprising aldehydes for the production of chloral. In high shear device 40, chlorine gas and liquid stream 12 are mixed to form an emulsion comprising microbubbles and nanobubbles of chlorine gas. In embodiments, the resultant dispersion comprises bubbles in the submicron size. In embodiments, the resultant dispersion has an average bubble size less than about 1.5 μm. In embodiments, the mean bubble size is less than from about 0.1 μm to about 1.5 μm. Not to be limited by a specific method, it is known in emulsion chemistry that submicron ...
71073-93-3 - 2-Propenoic acid, telomer with trichloroacetaldehyde - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct visualization of CH4/CO2 hydrate phase transitions in sandstone pores. AU - Pandey, Jyoti Shanker. AU - Strand, Ørjan. AU - von Solms, Nicolas. AU - Ersland, Geir. AU - Almenningen, Steir. PY - 2021. Y1 - 2021. N2 - This paper reports the formation and dissociation pattern of hydrate crystals with varying compositions of CH4 and CO2 in porous media. Direct visualization was carried out using a high-pressure, water-wet, silicon wafer-based micromodel with a pore network resembling sandstone rock. Hydrate crystals were formed under reservoir conditions (P = 45-65 bar and T = 1.7-3.5 °C) from either a two-phase system consisting of liquid water and a CH4-CO2 gas mixture or a three-phase system consisting of liquid water, CH4-rich gas, and CO2-rich liquid. A stepwise pressure reduction method was later applied to visualize multiple dissociation events occurring between the equilibrium pressures of pure CH4 hydrates and pure CO2 hydrates. The results showed that liberated gas ...
With the objective of estimating the solubility of a pure hydrocarbon hydrate former in pure water in equilibrium with gas hydrates, a simple thermodynamic model has been developed, based on the equality of water fugacity in the liquid water and hydrate phases. The solid solution theory of van der Waals-Platteeuw has been applied to calculate the fugacity of water in the hydrate phase. The Henrys law approach and the activity coefficient method have been used to calculate the fugacities of the hydrocarbon hydrate former and water in the liquid water phase, respectively. The results of this model are compared with some selected experimental data from the literature. Acceptable agreements between the model predictions and experimental data demonstrate the reliability of the model developed in this work. Finally, the possible errors sources in model predictions are discussed.
Abstract Hydrate decomposition is an endothermic reaction. The exploitation effect is closely related to the heat transfer properties in hydrate deposits. Based on the results of experiment and simulation with depressurization (PD), depressurization combined with wellbore heating (DH) and huff and puff method (HP), this paper mainly studies the heat transfer from the boundaries (QB), the heat consumption by hydrate decomposition (QH), the heat absorption by the porous sand (QS), and the heat loss (QL) to optimize the production methods. The results show that a limited amount of QL is caused by the heat transferred to the water bath in HP. In addition, the heat transferred from the water bath can offset the QS, which is the main component of QL in HP. Thus, the best heat utilization is seen in this method. PD shows its obvious weakness in hydrate recovery duration, although it only uses the QB for hydrate decomposition. For DH, the amount of the lost heat is the largest among the three methods, ...
Hydrate formation and its attendant problems are well known in the oil and gas industry. The desire to reduce the costs and environmental impact of traditional hydrate inhibitors has led to a focus on the design, development and evaluation of novel and environmentally friendly low dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHIs). In this study, two LDHIs, namely Luvicap® EG and Gaffix® VC-713, were tested using tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a hydrate promoter and a ball-stop rig. The ball stop-time was used to determine the inhibition efficiency. The concentration effect of inhibitors, salts and solvents on the ball-stop time was investigated. Results indicated that the inhibition efficiency of an inhibitor is sensitive to the micro-environment of the THF-hydrates activities which includes the concentration and types of these additives. The reproducibility and consistency of the test results were also largely dependent on the concentration of inhibitors. Reliable information was provided only if the concentration ...
September 28, 2001 A final settlement was reached Thursday in the wrongful death lawsuit a couple filed against a dentist after their 3-year-old son died after being given anesthesia at a Houston dental clinic. Kenny Huynh and Tracy Phan of Houston, parents of Daniel Huynh, contend their son was given a dangerous sedative cocktail that proved fatal, given his size. An autopsy showed Daniel died from the drugs toxic effect. The toddler was given a drink containing Demerol, Phenergan and chloral hydrate when he went in for a root canal and fillings. They gave (Daniel) three drugs that an cause problems with breathing, two of which they gave him in excessive amounts said lawyer Steve P. McCarthy today. McCarthy, who represented Daniels parents, said court records also show that the clinic staff failed to monitor the toddlers condition after he was sedated. When the staff finally noticed the child was in distress, they did not have the equipment on hand to attempt to revive him as required by ...
Implantation of Microdialysis Guide Cannulae and Probe Insertions in the Hippocampus. Seven days before being used in microdialysis experiments, rats were anesthetized with a mixture of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital (170 and 36 mg/kg, respectively, in 30% propylene glycol and 14% ethanol), placed in a stereotaxic apparatus, and implanted unilaterally with guide cannulae (Bioanalytical Systems, Inc., West Lafayette, IN) in the hippocampus (coordinates: anteroposterior, -5.2; mediolateral, 5.2; dorsoventral, -3.8) according to the stereotaxic atlas of Paxinos and Watson (1998). Twenty-four hours before testing, a 4-mm concentric microdialysis probe (BAS Bioanalytical Systems, West Lafayette, IN) was inserted through the guide cannula.. Likewise, for mice, 2-mm microdialysis probes (CMA/Microdialysis, Solna, Sweden) were implanted unilaterally in the hippocampus (mediolateral, +3.1; anteroposterior, -3.3; dorsoventral, -4.2, based on the stereotaxic atlas of Franklin and Paxinos, 1997) under ...
Today, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is recognized as the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS comprising 40% of inhibitory synaptic processing. As its receptor GABAA is largely responsible for effects of alcohol, it can be argued that it is one of the oldest drug targets known.. In the 1870s, chloral hydrate, whose metabolite modulates the GABA receptor complex, was widely used as a sedative and as a treatment for insomnia. Although effective, abuse and dependence were major issues and by the 1920s its use had been almost entirely supplanted by the barbiturates which work on the GABAA receptor.. Unfortunately, it soon became apparent that barbiturates also carry the risk of abuse, dependence, severe withdrawal symptoms, and lethal overdose. Although still used in some situations, the barbiturates were replaced by benzodiazepines with the advent of Librium in 1960. By the late 1970s, benzodiazepines were the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world.. ...
Sprague Dawley rats (21-29 d old) of either sex were anesthetized with chloral hydrate and decapitated in accordance with Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and National Institutes of Health guidelines. The olfactory bulbs were removed and immersed in sucrose-artificial CSF (sucrose-aCSF) equilibrated with 95% O2/5% CO2, pH 7.38. The sucrose-aCSF had the following composition (in mm): 26 NaHCO3, 1 NaH2PO4, 2 KCl, 5 MgSO4, 0.5 CaCl2, 10 glucose, and 248 sucrose. Horizontal slices (400 μm thick) were cut with a microslicer (Ted Pella, Redding, CA). After a period of recovery at 30°C for 15 min, slices were then incubated at room temperature (22°C) in aCSF equilibrated with 95% O2/5% CO2 (composition in mm: 124 NaCl, 26 NaHCO3, 3 KCl, 1.25 NaH2PO4, 2 MgSO4, 2 CaCl2, and 10 glucose) until used. For recording, a single slice was placed in a recording chamber and perfused continuously at the rate of 1.5 ml/min with normal aCSF equilibrated with 95% O2/5% CO2. All recordings were performed ...
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the contractile activity that occurs in the bladder during the filling phase of the micturition cycle (non-micturition contractions, NMCs), which generate transient rises in intravesical pressure not associated with urine flow.. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experiments were conducted using anaesthetized (chloral hydrate) and un-anaesthetized rats. In un-anaesthetized rats bladder contractile activity was measured using an intravesical cannula implanted under full surgical anaesthesia 3 days previously. In the anaesthetized rats the bladder was exteriorized and a cannula inserted through the dome. In these experiments electrical activity within the detrusor was also measured with a suction electrode on the bladder surface. For each rat, the experimental protocol involved filling the bladder at a constant rate (10 mL/h) to evoke micturition cycles, or infusion of a fixed volume and recording made under effective isovolumetric conditions.. RESULTS: In both anaesthetized and ...
Ein, and the total reperfusion time was 150 min; (4) IR treated with RvD1 (IR-RV) group: after blocking the hilum of left lung for 45 min, reperfusion for 10 min then injection 100 g/kg RvD1 by formal vein and the total reperfusion time was 150 min.Blood and tissue harvestThe animal procedures were approved by Wenzhou Medical University Animal Care and Use Committee, which were certified by the Chinese Association of Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care and were consistent with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals [updated (2011) version of the NIH guidelines]. Male Sprague awley (SD) rats (8 weeks old) were fed a standard diet and maintained in the controlled environment of the animal center at 25 ? 1 under a 12 h light ark cycle. The LIRI rat model was induced by the following procedures. Briefly, rats were anesthetized by an intraperitoneal injection of 10 chloral hydrate (300 mg/kg body weight) and placed in a supine position. The animals were then intubated for artificial ...
Background== *Normal protein excretion 150mg/24 hours or 10mg/100mL *>3.5g/24h considered nephrotic range *Dipstick: more sensitive to albumin, less sensitive to Bence-Jones protein and globulins **Trace protein ≈ 10mg/100mL (i.e. upper limit of normal) ==Causes/Differential Diagnosis== ===Functional=== *Benign: [[fever]]/acute illness, cold exposure, orthostatic proteinuria, strenuous exercise, [[hypertension]] *[[CHF]], [[shock]] *[[Preeclampsia]]/[[eclampsia]]/[[HELLP]], [[acute fatty liver of pregnancy ===Renal=== *Tubular dysfunction *Glomerular disease (e.g. [[glomerulonephritis]], [[diabetes]], [[HIV]], [[SLE]], [[amyloidosis]], [[IgA nephropathy]] or membranous nephropathy) *[[Nephrotic syndrome]] *[[Pyelonephritis]] *[[Malignant hypertension]] *[[Alport syndrome]] ===Drugs=== *[[Aminoglycosides]], [[penicillin]s, [[amphotericin]], [[penicillamine]], [[deferasirox]] *[[NSAIDs]], gold *[[Chloral hydrate toxicity]] *[[Lead toxicity]] ===Protein overload=== Note: bence-jones globulins ...
Symbol: 3. Chloral hydrate n. A mental condition of having curd or buttermilk with meal are commendable. While 41% of the muscles when the whole assessment. In the rabbit and the tubal lumen with lactated ringer s), however. D & c procedure. They also provide small peptides and amino acids. It may be more useful for their young, show reproductive division of the execution of movements of lips and tongue, palatal itch, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and transient hepatic and pulmonary embolus the patient nds migraine, triggered by factors which have been proven in mice, however probiotics may also reduce the occurrence or persistence of new, the gp decides that this meeting the criteria for diagnosis record the difference threshold for coughing. Metabolic role: It is liable to cause irregular bleeding; and hyperglycemia. Leading to rapid resolution (range 5 to 5 weeks, this edition also offers a wide range of 60 mg im produces within 28 days of starting these pills. Also called the brainstem or ...
Male Swiss mice were used in the experiments. All procedures were approved by the University Animal Ethics Comittee (CEUA/Unisul - protocol n# 11.022.4.08.IV). For induction of IR an elastic ring (1.2mm diameter) was positioned in the right ankle of anesthetized mice (chloral hydrate - 7%, 0.6ml/kg, ip). After three hours the ring was cut allowing reperfusion. Experimental groups were: Sham (anesthetized but not subjected to IR), IR, Sham + EC, and IR + EC. For treatment, EC Dream Pillow or Sham Pillow was placed in the bottom of the animals boxes on the 3rd - removed on the 10th and replaced on the 11th postoperative (PO) day. Mechanical hypersensitivity was determined as response frequency to 10 presentations of a 0.4g von Frey filament. Paw volume was assessed with a plethysmometer. Interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-1ra levels (paw skin and intraplantar muscles) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on the fourth day PO after 24h exposure to EC. ...
Make sure your doctor knows if you are also using aspirin, bepridil (Vascor®), chloral hydrate (Noctec®), cisplatin (Platinol®), cyclosporine (Gengraf®, Neoral®, Sandimmune®), digoxin (Lanoxin®), indomethacin (Indocin®), lithium (Eskalith®, Lithobid®), methotrexate (Folex®, Rheumatrex®), norepinephrine, phenytoin (Dilantin®), succinylcholine (Anectine®, Quelicin®), tubocurarine, a blood thinner (such as warfarin, Coumadin®), medicine for infection (such as amikacin, cephalexin, gentamicin, streptomycin, Amikin®, Garamycin®, or Keflex®), other medicine for high blood pressure (such as candesartan, enalapril, irbesartan, lisinopril, losartan, olmesartan, valsartan, Accupril®, Atacand®, Avapro®, Benicar®, Cozaar®, Diovan®, Hyzaar®, Lotrel®, or Zestril®), or other diuretic or water pill (such as bumetanide, ethacrynic acid, hydrochlorothiazide, Edecrin®, or Zestoretic®). Tell your doctor if you are also using medicines for appetite control, asthma, colds, cough, hay ...
Ennion of the taking valium and viagra antibiotic. 5(6)1. P. 221. In pharma- area. Duration of therapy for gerd includes while each is different, all share commonalities cardiac disease, which is characterized by more than one day to day responsibility to remitting what makes it impossible to prevent their existence as free placement of the pq depends transparent cover that can be generated by cells and the excipients may result from neurotrans- reserpine may break down of products in the ear, on the bioavailabil- inuence the drop is better to avoid chloral hydrate enema 50 mg/ml is given in table 3-5. Pound that departs radically from the fields of application; validation by the pharmacist needs to be criti- rubicin. Equation 28-6, note that adherence can be monitored more closely. 2007; cum- correlated with its low it is used than if the last visit. Used at ph 4.4 and stored for 24 hours at 22c bining it with the hopes of improving the taste. They are tablets can be stored in the treatment ...
Examine under a microscope using chloral hydrate solution R. Prepare the reference we ight using iron standard solution (20 ppm Fe) R, diluted as necessary with a 1 per cent VV solution of nitric acid R.
Such exposes helped to promote the first federal Food and Drug Act, signed into law by President Theodore Roosevelt on June 30, 1906. The act was amended in 1912, and an even stronger Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act passed in 1938. These laws required drug labeling to include a list of ingredients and prohibited manufacturers from making false and misleading claims.. From 1906 to 1918 manufacturers could label their products with a guaranty that their medicine complied with the new food and drug law. The 1906 law required manufacturers to label their products if any of the following ingredients were present: alcohol, morphine, opium, cocaine, heroin, eucaine, chloroform, cannabis indica, chloral hydrate, or acetanilide. A complete listing of all ingredients was not required until 1938.. Federal food and drug regulation continues to evolve. Amendments to the laws in 1951 established clear distinctions between prescription and over-the-counter drugs. More recently, new regulations have introduced ...
About the Book While having a seemingly harmless glass of tea at a bazaar in Istanbul, Meredith Fitzgerald, a beautiful soon to be married American doctor finds her privileged world turned upside down. As shes waiting for the police to arrive to collect an abandoned gypsy girl left in her keeping, Merediths vision starts to blur and the bazaar music turns into a high-pitched whine. She recognizes too late that the tea was spiked with chloral hydrate, rendering her helpless. In this gripping novel, a confusing scenario grows yet more frightening as Meredith realize that she has been abducted and swept into the dark world of the human sex trade. The once confident, self- reliant doctor finds herself trafficked to Mumbai and trapped in a brothel compound where shes expected to work as the doctor. But maybe, just may be, she is not as helpless as she appears. About the Author Nancy Deville is a renowned author based in Boston, Massachusetts.
At the beginning of February I asked for recommendations when processing insects with a chitin skeleton. Result and many thanks, it worked a treat, chloral hydrate and phenol. The chitin just slipped over the knife producing lovely ribbons. When asked how it was done, ah, this is for the cognoscenti, a skill that takes years to develop. Again, many thanks. The original e-mails are on my laptop, youll get full recognition in my techniques book and formulary. Ian. Dr. Ian Montgomery, Histotechnology, IBLS Support Unit, Graham Kerr Building, Tel: 4652, 6644. [email protected] _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet ...
We use core porosity, consolidation experiments, pressure core sampler data, and capillary pressure measurements to predict water pressures that are 70% of the lithostatic stress, and gas pressures that equal the lithostatic stress beneath the methane hydrate layer at Ocean Drilling Program Site 997, Blake Ridge, offshore North Carolina. A 29-m-thick interconnected free-gas column is trapped beneath the low-permeability hydrate layer. We propose that lithostatic gas pressure is dilating fractures and gas is migrating through the methane hydrate layer. Overpressured gas and water within methane hydrate reservoirs limit the amount of free gas trapped and may rapidly export methane to the seafloor....
Author(s): Wells, JD; Majid, AAA; Creek, JL; Sloan, ED; Borglin, SE; Kneafsey, TJ; Koh, CA | Abstract: There is an interest to ensure sub-saturated water content in lines containing carbon dioxide in applications such as enhanced oil recovery and carbon sequestration, to reduce risks of hydrate blockage and corrosion. The water content of carbon dioxide at various temperatures and pressures has been measured in the past, but there is no consistent set of measurements that could be used for carbon dioxide storage and transportation design work. The solubility of water in a carbon dioxide rich gas phase at hydrate forming conditions was measured in this work. Pressures ranged from 12.06 to 29.30 bar along two isotherms, 1 °C and −7 °C, all within the gaseous carbon dioxide and hydrate stability zone. For the first time in these types of measurements, the solid phase was also characterized and confirmed to be carbon dioxide hydrate via X-ray computed tomography, simultaneous with water content
With the increase in the interest of producing natural gas from methane hydrates as well as potential risks of massive hydrate dissociation in the context of global warming, studies have recently shifted from pure hydrate crystals to hydrates in sediments. Such a research focus shift requires a series of innovative laboratory devices that are capable of investigating various properties of hydrate-bearing sediments (HBS). This study introduces a newly developed high pressure testing chamber, i.e., multi-property characterization chamber (MPCC), that allows simultaneous investigation of a series of fundamental properties of HBS, including small-strain stiffness (i.e., P- and S-waves), shear strength, large-strain deformation, stress-volume responses, and permeability. The peripheral coolant circulation system of the MPCC permits stable and accurate temperature control, while the core holder body, made of aluminum, enables X-ray computer tomography scanning to be easily employed for structural and ...
Gas hydrates is a growing field of study due to its importance in oil/gas production, gas exploration from permafrost and oceanic environments, energy storage and transportation, and carbon sequestration. This session aims to gather researchers in the area of gas hydrates to discuss the latest findings and ideas evolving in the hydrate community on the fundamentals and applications of gas hydrates.. ...
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This report includes a systematic review of the objectives and accomplishments of past ODP-IODP, industry, and nationally sponsored historical methane hydrate research drilling expeditions, and an analysis of both technical concerns that are related to the universal occurrence of methane hydrates and specific regional concerns that are unique to a given region or hydrate accumulation. It also reviews our present understanding of the geologic controls on the occurrence of methane hydrate in nature and how these factors may impact the energy, hazard, and climate change aspects of methane hydrate research, and summarizes some of the more important drilling related operational understandings and technology developments, such as pressure coring, downhole logging, and borehole instrumentation, which have contributed to our growing understanding of methane hydrates. This report concludes with a systematic review of planning documents for major methane hydrate research projects, national/international ...
the statistical thermodynamics model with some modifications describing host lattice relaxation, guest-guest interactions and the quantum nature of guest behavior in clathrate hydrates was applied to calculate the relative thermal expansion, i.e. ratio of volume at temperature T and pressure P0 to volume at T0, P0, of hydrogen clathrate hydrate as well as for ices. As reference points the temperature and pressure were selected as T0 = 140 K and P0 = 0.1 MPa, respectively. It was shown that hydrate phases immersed in the ice phases are stable below the three-phase ice-hydrate-gas equilibrium pressure. The hydrate phase remains thermodynamically stable under heating. The calculations show that the pressure in the hydrogen clathrate hydrate sphere immersed into the ice matrix is notably higher than the pressure inside the ice phase, but it does not lead to system distortion because of the formation of a network of hydrogen bonds between hydrate and ice phases. This is because the thermal expansion ...
The Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate Market Report offers an inclusive and decision-making overview, including definitions, classifications and its applications. The Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate market is anticipated to reflect a positive growth trend in forthcoming years. The essential driving forces behind the growth and popularity of Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate market is analysed detailed in this report.. The Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate Market Report further describes detailed information about tactics and strategies used by leading key companies in the Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate industry. It also gives an extensive study about different market segments and regions.. Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate Market Report Provides Comprehensive Analysis as Following: • Market segments and sub- ...
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Hydrate Formation Temp In Dry Natural Gas - posted in Industrial Professionals: Hello. Just want to confirm if HYSYS properly estimates the hydrate formation of dry natural gas. In my simulation, the hydrate formation temp of the dry feed gas is at 22.81degC. I tried saturating the gas with water, however the hydrate formation temp still remained at 22.81degC. To fully assess this, I tried to add water bit by bit (until saturation) and observed the trend of the hydrate temp. I noticed that...
Dichloralphenazone is a sedative composed of chloral hydrate and phenazone. It is typically found in combination products Nodolor and Midrin containing isometheptene and acetaminophen used for the relief of tension and vascular headaches. It is a US Schedule IV drug and its clinical use is limited.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - A molecular dynamics study of guest-host hydrogen bonding in alcohol clathrate hydrates. AU - Hiratsuka, Masaki. AU - Ohmura, Ryo. AU - Sum, Amadeu K.. AU - Alavi, Saman. AU - Yasuoka, Kenji. PY - 2015/5/21. Y1 - 2015/5/21. N2 - Clathrate hydrates are typically stabilized by suitably sized hydrophobic guest molecules. However, it has been experimentally reported that isomers of amyl-alcohol C5H11OH can be enclosed into the 51264 cages in structure II (sII) clathrate hydrates, even though the effective radii of the molecules are larger than the van der Waals radii of the cages. To reveal the mechanism of the anomalous enclathration of hydrophilic molecules, we performed ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations (MD) and analyzed the structure and dynamics of a guest-host hydrogen bond for sII 3-methyl-1-butanol and structure H (sH) 2-methyl-2-butanol clathrate hydrates. The simulations clearly showed the formation of guest-host hydrogen bonds and the incorporation of ...
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Fire and Ice: The Chemistry of Methane Hydrate - The chemistry of methane hydrate is discussed in this section. Learn about the chemistry of methane hydrate.
Weve found an example where methane produced at a mid-ocean ridge is locked up in stable, deep water gas hydrate, preventing it from possibly getting out of the seafloor, says lead author Joel Johnson, associate professor of geology at UNH and guest researcher at the Center for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate (CAGE) at UiT The Arctic University of Norway in Tromsø. Johnson notes that the findings, which pinpointed a source of abiotic methane ¬produced in seafloor crust, indicate gas hydrates throughout the Arctic may be supplied by a significant portion of abiotic gas ...
CAS NO:123333-66-4; Chemical name:Potassium tellurite (IV) hydrate ; physical and chemical property of 123333-66-4, Potassium tellurite (IV) hydrate is provided by ChemNet.com
Deep-water pockmarks are frequently accompanied by the occurrence of massive gas hydrates in shallow sediments. A decline in pore-water Cl− concentration and rise in δ18O value provide compelling evidence for the gas hydrate dissociation. Mega-pockmarks are widely scattered in the southwestern Xisha Uplift, northern South China Sea (SCS). Pore water collected from a gravity-core inside of a mega-pockmark exhibits a downward Cl− concentration decrease concomitant with an increase in δ18O value at the interval of 5.7-6.7 mbsf. Concentrations of Cl−, Na+, and K+ mainly cluster along the seawater freshening line without distinct Na+ enrichment and K+ depletion. Thus, we infer that the pore water anomalies of Cl− concentrations and δ18O values are attributed to gas hydrate dissociation instead of clay mineral dehydration. Moreover, the lower δ18O values of sulfate in the target core (C14) than those in the reference core (C9) may be associated with the equilibrium oxygen fractionation during
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Thermodynamic stability of hydrates for ethane, ethylene, and carbon dioxide. AU - Kvamme, Bjørn. AU - Tanaka, Hideki. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - An extension of the theory of van der Waals and Platteeuw was recently proposed by Tanaka and co-workers. In this work, we extend these studies to apolar spherical models of ethylene, ethane, and carbon dioxide at different temperatures in the region of experimental equilibrium between ice and hydrate. For the larger components (CO2 and C2H6), dissociation pressures from the harmonic oscillator approximation is generally larger than corresponding results from the single-particle integration of the original theory of van der Waals and Platteeuw. Differences increase with increasing the ratio of guest size to the free cavity space. For the specific sets of model parameters applied here, the agreement between experiment and calculations is qualitative in the region of ice in equilibrium with hydrate. In the liquid water region ...
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2-(2-Methoxyphenoxy)Ethylamine Hydrochloride Hydrate 64464-07-9 NMR spectrum, 2-(2-Methoxyphenoxy)Ethylamine Hydrochloride Hydrate H-NMR spectral analysis, 2-(2-Methoxyphenoxy)Ethylamine Hydrochloride Hydrate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
(3-aminophenyl)boronic acid hydrate 206658-89-1 NMR spectrum, (3-aminophenyl)boronic acid hydrate H-NMR spectral analysis, (3-aminophenyl)boronic acid hydrate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
함은 폐재의 리싸이클링을 위한 연구의 일환으로써 Hydrazine Hydrate을 환원제로 사용하여 질산은 수용액으로부터 Ag 나노분말을 제조하기 위한 실험을 수행하였다. 이를 위해 질산은을 소정 농도로 증류수에 용해시킨 수용액에 Ag 미립자의 응집방지를 위한 분산제로써 Tamol NN8906 혹은 Tween 20을 미리 혼합한 다음 환원제인 Hydrazine Hydrate 용액을 첨가하는 방법으로 환원반응을 실시하였다. 환원반응을 통하여 제조한 Ag 미립자는 입도분석기 및 TEM 측정을 통하여 형상과 평균입도를 측정하였다. Hydrazine Hydrate에 의한 은의 환원을 위해서는 이론치의 약 2배를 첨가해 주어야 하는 것으로 나타났으며, Tamol NN8906을 분산제로 사용하여 제조한 Ag 나노분발은 매우 좁은 입도범위의 분포특성을 보여 주었다. Tween 20을 분산제로 사용한 경우의 입도 분포는 bimodal 혹은 multimodal
Medical Doctor is just so poorly balanced though, I hope I proved that somewhat. Repeatedly knocking people out, using their own cuffs on them, looting them, then locking them away in a private chamber only he has access to unless someone can hack the door is fucking dumb. There are some saving graces like how scarce the meds he needs to make killer drugs are, but its pretty irrelevant. You can so easily just chloral someone and drag them into an airlock then cycle it while running out the door. Chloral them and then imprison them in your for-some-fucking-reason-even-the-captain-cant-get-in-here room. On most subs the medical lab doesnt get oxygen, which sounds bad but its actually great because you can just leave people locked inside it like an execution chamber. This job is fucking broken ...
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The CH4-CO2 replacement method has attracted global attention as a new promising method for methane hydrate exploitation. In the replacement process, the mechanical stabilities of CH4 and CO2 hydrate-bearing sediments have become problems requiring attention. In this paper, considering the hydrate characteristics and burial conditions of hydrate-bearing cores, sediments matrices were formed by a mixture of kaolin clay and quartz sand, and an experimental study was focused on the failure strength of CH4 and CO2 hydrate-bearing sediments under different conditions to verify the mechanical reliability of CH4-CO2 replacement in permafrost-associated natural gas deposits. A series of triaxial shear tests were conducted on the CH4 and CO2 hydrate-bearing sediments under temperatures of −20, −10, and −5 °C, confining pressures of 2.5, 3.75, 5, 7.5, and 10 MPa, and a strain rate of 1.0 mm/min. The results indicated that the failure strength of the CO2 hydrate-bearing sediments was higher than that of the
Description: Solid gas hydrates are a potentially huge resource of natural gas for the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated that there are about 85 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of technically recoverable gas hydrates in northern Alaska. Gas hydrates are both a potential resource and a risk, representing a significant hazard to conventional oil and gas drilling and production operations. This report addresses the issue of cost and method of recovering potential gas hydrates, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of using gas hydrates as a potential energy source. Included is information on the Methane Hydrate Research and Development Act of 2000 and the Energy Policy Act of 2005. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantum chemical MP2 results on some hydrates of cytosine. T2 - Binding sites, energies and the first hydration shell. AU - Fogarasi, Géza. AU - Szalay, Péter G.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - A detailed quantum chemical investigation was undertaken to obtain the structure and energetics of cytosine hydrates Cyt·nH2O, with n = 1 to 7. The MP2(fc)/aug-cc-pVDZ level was used as the standard, with some DFT (B3LYP) and coupled cluster calculations, as well as calculations with the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set added for comparison. In a systematic search for microhydrated forms of cytosine, we have found that several structures have not yet been reported in the literature. The energies of different isomers, as well as binding energies are compared. When predicting the stability of a complex, we suggest using a scheme where the water molecules are extracted from a finite model of bulk water. Finally, based on energetic data, we suggest a rational definition of the first hydration ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phase equilibrium condition measurements in carbon dioxide hydrate forming system coexisting with seawater. AU - Nakane, Rihito. AU - Shimosato, Yusuke. AU - Gima, Eito. AU - Ohmura, Ryo. AU - Senaha, Izuru. AU - Yasuda, Keita. PY - 2021/1. Y1 - 2021/1. N2 - Three phase equilibrium conditions of synthetic standard (seawater + carbon dioxide hydrate + carbon dioxide gas) were experimentally determined based on the batch, isochoric procedure. The total mass fraction of the electrolytes in the synthetic standard seawater, wss, was 0.0351, 0.0700, or 0.1036 that was composed of pure water and seven salts. The equilibrium pressure-temperature conditions were as follows: 271.95 K , T , 279.05 K and 1.298 MPa , p , 3.144 MPa in the system having wss = 0.0351, 272.25 K , T , 278.15 K and 1.530 MPa , p , 3.361 MPa in the wss = 0.0700 system and 271.15 K , T , 275.65 K and 1.643 MPa , p , 2.909 MPa in the wss = 0.1036 system. The quantitative evaluation of the changes in the equilibrium ...
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Sodium Prasterone Sulfate Hydrate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Sodium Prasterone Sulfate Hydrate is available on the Drugs.com website.
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Cocrystal monohydrate of nitrofurantoin (NF) with melamine (MELA) has been studied as NF is an antibacterial drug used for the treatment of urinary tract infections. The structure of nitrofurantoin-melamine-monohydrate (NF-MELA-H2O) is characterized by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. The energies and vibrational frequencies of the optimized structures calculated using quantum chemical calculations. Supported by normal coordinate analyses and potential energy distributions (PEDs), the complete vibrational assignments recommended for the observed fundamentals of cocrystal hydrate. With the aim of inclusion of all the H-bond interactions, dimer of NF-MELA-H2O has been studied as only two molecules of cocrystal hydrate are present in the unit cell. By the study of dimeric model consistent assignment of the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum obtained. H-bonds are of essential importance in an extensive range of molecular sciences. The vibrational analyses depict existence of H-bonding (O-H⋯N) between ...
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Hydrate helps to replenish yourself and contains vitamin C, B12 and pantothenic acid which all contribute to reduce tiredness and fatigue.In addition, it also contains biotin, niacin and zincwhich all contribute to the maintenance of normal skin. Keep yourself and your body hydrated with ZERO Hydrate.. We recommend a varied and balanced diet together with a healthy lifestyle.. ...
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... chloral hydrate, eszopiclone, etc.) Muscle relaxants (Baclofen, phenibut, carisoprodol, cyclobenzaprine, etc.) Sedatives (Gamma ...
Lehmann G, Knoefel PK (August 1938). "Trichlorethanol, tribromethanol, chloral hydrate and bromal hydrate". Journal of ... Bromal hydrate (2,2,2-tribromoethanol-1,1-diol), a compound also recognized to produce general anesthesia in animals, is ...
Vivien was also addicted to the sedative chloral hydrate. In 1908 she attempted suicide by overdosing on laudanum and died the ...
In 1832 produced chloral hydrate, the first synthetic sleeping drug. In 1833 French chemist Anselme Payen was the first to ...
Chloral hydrate was believed to be the major contributing factor. An infection in her left buttock was also a contributory ... that Smith's death was due to an accidental lethal combination of therapeutic levels of 3 benzodiazepines and chloral hydrate. ...
Valproic acid, chloral hydrate, risperidone, or phenobarbital can also be used. Chorea Zegart, K. N.; Schwarz, R. H. (1968). " ...
Toxicology reports revealed that Eagels still had alcohol in her organs when she died in addition to heroin and chloral hydrate ... Her death was attributed to an overdose of the chloral hydrate. After services in New York at the Frank E. Campbell Funeral ...
... and chloral hydrate may precipitate this effect.[citation needed] REM sleep is also considered a poikilothermic state in humans ...
... is a 1:2 mixture of antipyrine with chloral hydrate. In combination with paracetamol and isometheptene, it ... Chloral betaine Hindmarch I, Parrott AC (1980). "The effects of combined sedative and anxiolytic preparations on subjective ...
Silverman J, Muir WW (Jun 1993). "A review of laboratory animal anesthesia with chloral hydrate and chloralose". Lab Anim Sci. ...
... (Pentaerythritol chloral) is a sedative and hypnotic chloral hydrate prodrug. It is a Schedule IV drug in the USA ... US 2784237, Bruce WF, "Chloral derivatives and methods for their preparation", issued 5 March 1957, assigned to American Home ...
Chloral Hydrate is a commonly prescribed sedative, and most common for inducing sleep in young children and infants for AEP ... Chloral Hydrate is readily available in three forms - syrup, capsule and suppository. Syrup is most successful for those 4 ... Side effects of chloral hydrate include vomiting, nausea, gastric irritation, delirium, disorientation, allergic reactions and ... common with chloral hydrate). All vital signs All orders for conscious sedation for patients must be written. Prescriptions or ...
Field, K.J.; White, W.J.; Lang, C.M. (1993). "Anaesthetic effects of chloral hydrate, pentobarbitone and urethane in adult male ...
... chloral hydrate diethyl ether ethchlorvynol (Placidyl; "jelly-bellies") gamma-butyrolactone (GBL, a prodrug to GHB) gamma- ...
Chloral hydrate was introduced as a sleeping aid and sedative in 1869. Chloroform was first used as an anesthetic in 1847. ...
Also chloral hydrate and guanethidine have been observed to increase BUN values. The 1886 Jaffé reaction, in which creatinine ...
Formerly the formula consisted of chloral hydrate, menthol, veratrol, resorcinol and salicylic acid. Sold mainly as a mouthwash ... minus chloral hydrate, now banned, and with the indication "mouthwash" («bain de bouche») removed. Among the new uses of the ...
To ensure Cyril's victory, he spikes his opponents' water bottles with chloral hydrate. Cyril beats James Robson in the first ...
The raw ingredients used in manufacturing it were d-amphetamine and chloral hydrate. Amfetaminil Amphetamine Clobenzorex ...
... of a chloral hydrate overdose. While not the last person to see him alive, Murphy was one of the last people to see him before ...
Deuterochloroform can be prepared by the reaction of sodium deuteroxide with chloral hydrate. The haloform reaction can also ... Justus von Liebig carried out the alkaline cleavage of chloral. Eugène Soubeiran obtained the compound by the action of ...
... chloral hydrate. Melzer's is toxic to humans if ingested due to the presence of iodine and chloral hydrate. Due to the legal ... The chloral hydrate is a clearing agent, bleaching and improving the transparency of various dark-colored microscopic materials ... Melzer's reagent is an aqueous solution of chloral hydrate, potassium iodide, and iodine. Depending on the formulation, it ... To cope with the problems procuring chloral hydrate, Rutgers scientists have developed a working substitute for use in ...
In his last years Tyndall often took chloral hydrate to treat his insomnia. When bedridden and ailing, he died from an ... In late years he was taking magnesia for dyspepsia and chloral hydrate for insomnia. His wife, who administered the drugs, ...
He died of an overdose of chloral hydrate at his home in Gympie. Bligh Street in Gympie is likely to have been named after him ...
In 1979, Smith committed suicide by swallowing chloral hydrate and paracetamol with salicylic acid. Smith, Christine Idris ( ...
1832: First synthesis of chloral hydrate, the first hypnotic drug, by Justus von Liebig at the University of Giessen; Oscar ... White, W. (2014). The early use of chloral hydrate, paraldehyde, chloroform, nitrous oxide and ether for intoxication. von ...
It was considered to have superior sedative effects to both paraldehyde and chloral hydrate. In humans, acetophenone is ...
Inciardi, James A. (Winter 1977). "THE CHANGING LIFE OF MICKEY FINN: Some Notes On Chloral Hydrate Down Through the Ages". ... First, Finn or one of his employees (including "house girls") would slip chloral hydrate into the unsuspecting patron's drink. ... "Chloral hydrate? I'll tell you I don't know much about drugs but that's the stuff they put in a Mickey Finn. That's an American ... especially chloral hydrate) given to someone without their knowledge, with intent to incapacitate them. Serving someone a " ...
... is due to the high chloral hydrate concentration in MLZ. The alternative to hemiamyloid is called euamyloid. Euamyloid and KOH- ...
Later on that night he took some of his wife's sleeping medicine, which contained chloral hydrate. On the morning of 10 August ...
Volatiles/gases (e.g., chloral hydrate, chloroform, diethyl ether, paraldehyde, sevoflurane). *Antagonists: Bicuculline ...
Chloral betaine. *Chloral hydrate. *Chloroform. *Cryofluorane. *Desflurane. *Dichloralphenazone. *Dichloromethane. *Diethyl ...
Chloral betaine. *Chloral hydrate. *Chloroform. *Cryofluorane. *Desflurane. *Dichloralphenazone. *Dichloromethane. *Diethyl ...
Chloral hydrate, a sedative-hypnotic. *Long-acting barbiturates such as phenobarbital. *Some partial agonist opioid analgesics ...
Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate. *Bromide compounds *Lithium bromide. *Potassium bromide. *Sodium bromide. *Centalun ...
"On the physiological action of paraldehyde and contribution to the study of chloral hydrate), Archivio per le Scienze Mediche, ...
Volatiles/gases (e.g., chloral hydrate, chloroform, desflurane, diethyl ether (ether), enflurane, halothane, isoflurane, ...
Ethylene's hydrate is ethanol. ... Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate. *Aliflurane. *Benzene. * ...
Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate. *Bromide compounds *Lithium bromide. *Potassium bromide. *Sodium bromide. *Centalun ...
Volatiles/gases (e.g., chloral hydrate, chloroform, diethyl ether, paraldehyde, sevoflurane). Antagonists ...
Deuterochloroform can be prepared by the reaction of sodium deuteroxide with chloral hydrate.[25][26] ... Justus von Liebig carried out the alkaline cleavage of chloral.[19][20] ...
Caffeine Cantharidin Captan Carbaryl Carbazole 3-Carbethoxypsoralen Carmoisine Carrageenan Chloral Chloral hydrate Chloramine ...
It is during this occupation she is introduced to the use of chloral hydrate, sold in drugstores, as a remedy for malaise. She ... Distraught by her misfortunes, Lily has by this time begun regularly using a sleeping draught of chloral hydrate to escape the ...
Volatiles/gases (e.g., chloral hydrate, chloroform, diethyl ether, paraldehyde, sevoflurane). *Antagonists: Bicuculline ... Zopiclone; Others: Alcohols (e.g., ethchlorvynol, amylene hydrate, ethanol). *Barbiturates (e.g., amobarbital, pentobarbital, ...
Chloral betaine. *Chloral hydrate. *Chloroform. *Cryofluorane. *Desflurane. *Dichloralphenazone. *Dichloromethane. *Diethyl ...
Volatiles/gases (e.g., chloral hydrate, chloroform, diethyl ether, paraldehyde, sevoflurane). *Antagonists: Bicuculline ...
GABAergic pro-drugs include chloral hydrate, which is metabolised to trichloroethanol,[72] which then acts via the GABAA ...
Talk:Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate. *Talk:Acipimox. *Talk:Acitretin. *Talk:Acivicin. *Talk:Aclidinium bromide ...
ನಿಕೋಟಿನ್‌ನ ಎಲ್‌ಡಿ50 ಪ್ರಮಾಣ ಇಲಿಗಳಿಗೆ 50 ಮಿಗ್ರಾ/ಕಿಗ್ರಾ ಮತ್ತು ಮೂಗಿಲಿಗಳಿಗೆ 3 ಮಿಗ್ರಾ/ಕಿಗ್ರಾ. 40-60 ಮಿಗ್ರಾಂ. (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) ಇದು ವಯಸ್ಕ ಮನುಷ್ಯರಿಗೆ ಘಾತಕ ಪ್ರಮಾಣವಾಗಿರುತ್ತದೆ.[೪೩][೪೪] ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ, ಕೊಕೈನ್‌ನಂತಹ ಇತರ ಕ್ಷಾರಗಳಿಗೆ ತುಲನೆ ಮಾಡಿ ನೋಡಿದಾದ ನಿಕೋಟಿನ್ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ವಿಷತ್ವವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದೆ, ಅದು ಮೈಸ್‌ಗೆ ನಿರ್ವಹಣೆ ಮಾಡಿ ನೋಡಿದಾಗ 95.1 ಮಿಗ್ರಾಂ/ಕಿಗ್ರಾಂ ನ LD50 ಪ್ರಮಾಣವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದೆ. ಆದಾಗ್ಯೂ, ಕೇವಲ ಧೂಮಪಾನದ ಮೂಲಕ ನಿಕೋಟಿನ್ ಅನ್ನು ಅತಿ ...
Chloral hydrate. *Clomethiazole. *Kava. *Paraldehyde. *Piperidinediones (e.g., glutethimide). *Quinazolinones (e.g., ... Zopiclone; Others: Alcohols (e.g., ethchlorvynol, amylene hydrate, ethanol). *Barbiturates (e.g., amobarbital, pentobarbital, ...
With dilute acids, terpin hydrate 5 becomes the major product. With one molar equivalent of anhydrous HCl, the simple addition ...
... and chloral hydrate may precipitate this effect.[citation needed] REM sleep is also considered a poikilothermic state in humans ...
... treatment was initially limited to sedation using chloral hydrate and, from 1871, Turkish baths. It seems from the comments of ...
The method involves the condensation between chloral hydrate and a primary arylamine (e.g. aniline), in the presence of ...
As Humphris tried to administer a solution of bromine and chloral hydrate, Mrs. Stanford, now in anguish, exclaimed, 'My jaws ...
When Edward Welby Pugin died suddenly on 5 June 1875 as a result of overwork and 'injudicious use of chloral hydrate', the main ...
She had trouble sleeping and was being given natural supplements and the drug chloral hydrate to help her sleep. A Church ... a Scientologist medical doctor who twice prescribed McPherson Valium and chloral hydrate without examining her. They requested ...
Chlorafed Liquid chloral hydrate (INN) chloralodol (INN) chloralose (INN) chlorambucil (INN) chloramphenicol (INN) Chloraprep ...
Halothane Xenon Enflurane Chloroform Isoflurane Methoxyflurane Desflurane Ethyl chloride Cyclopropane Chloral hydrate Ketamine ...
Chloral hydrate is soluble in both water and ethanol, readily forming concentrated solutions. A solution of chloral hydrate in ... Because of its status as a regulated substance, chloral hydrate can be difficult to obtain. This has led to chloral hydrate ... Chloral Hydrate: A new hypnotic and anaesthetic and its use in medicine; A drug study]. Berlin: Müller. "Chloral Hydrate". Drug ... with chloral hydrate as the "major component." Oliver Sacks (1933-2015) abused chloral hydrate in 1965 as a depressed insomniac ...
Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate is a hypnotic/sedative. It is a combination of acetylglycinamide and chloral hydrate. ... Degerholm E, Harison A, Leideman T, Sterner N (1963). "Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate, a new compound". Farmacevtisk Revy. ...
Chloral hydrate acts as a depressant on the central nervous system, with sedative effects ... Chloral hydrate, the first synthetically produced sedative-hypnotic drug, commonly used in the late 19th century to treat ... Another exception is chloral hydrate, Cl3CH(OH)2, formed from chloral, Cl3CHO, and water. Chloral hydrate has been used ... Alternative Titles: chloral, trichloroacetaldehyde monohydrate. Chloral hydrate, also called chloral, the first synthetically ...
Chloral Hydrate: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Continue to take chloral hydrate even if you feel well. Do not stop taking chloral hydrate without talking to your doctor, ... Before taking chloral hydrate,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to chloral hydrate, aspirin, tartrazine (a ... Chloral hydrate may cause an upset stomach. Take chloral hydrate with food or milk. ...
Chloral Hydrate is a depressant, specifically used for inducing sleep. Its chemical formula, near as I can tell, is C2H3Cl3O2. ... Chloral Hydrate is a depressant, specifically used for inducing sleep. Its chemical formula, near as I can tell, is C2H3Cl3O2. ... An unnamed noder says: "When I worked at the old folks home, chloral hydrate was a favorite to use on combative grannies. At ... chloral hydrate produces a swift deep sleep - and as such, was popular with anyone wishing to (mostly) harmlessly knock out an ...
SK-Chloral hydrate; Trichloracetaldehyd-hydrat; Aquachloral; Hydrate de chloral; Nortec; 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-ethanediol; NSC ... Other names: 1,1-Ethanediol, 2,2,2-trichloro-; Bi 3411; Chloral monohydrate; Chloraldurat; Dormal; Hydral; Lorinal; Noctec; ... Nycoton; Nycton; Phaldrone; Rectules; Somnos; Tosyl; Trawotox; Trichloroacetaldehyde hydrate; Trichloroacetaldehyde monohydrate ...
Chloral is readily converted to chloral hydrate in the presence of water. Chloral hydrate is used as a sedative before medical ... of chloral and chloral hydrate.. There is limited evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of chloral hydrate. ... Chloral hydrate was not active in male or female rats in two studies. Chloral hydrate increased the incidence of adenomas in ... regard to the induction of DNA damage in chloral hydrate-treated mammals. In human cells in vitro, chloral hydrate induced ...
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Chloral hydrate (CICADS 25, 2000) ...
The name chloral hydrate suggests that it is the hydrate of chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde)-in other words, it could be formed ... Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrateChloral hydrate • Chloralodol • Dichloralphenazone • Paraldehyde • Petrichloral. Alkynes. ... Given these adverse effects, chloral hydrate is illegal in the United States without a prescription. Chloral hydrate is a ... and procurement problems because chloral hydrate is a controlled substance. Specific instances of chloral hydrate abuse. * ...
chloral hydrate synonyms, chloral hydrate pronunciation, chloral hydrate translation, English dictionary definition of chloral ... hydrate. n. A colorless crystalline compound, C2H3Cl3O2, used as a sedative and hypnotic drug and in the manufacture of DDT. n ... Chloral hydrate - definition of chloral hydrate by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/chloral+hydrate ... chloral hydrate. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. chloral hydrate. n.. A colorless crystalline ...
Detailed Chloral Hydrate dosage information for adults and children. Includes dosages for Insomnia and Sedation; plus renal, ... Chloral hydrate is contraindicated for use in patients with a creatinine clearance below 50 mL/min. ... Chloral hydrate is contraindicated for use in patients with a creatinine clearance below 50 mL/min. ... Chloral hydrate may be habit forming. The drug should not be discontinued abruptly. ...
Testing Status of Chloral hydrate 10609-C. CASRN: 302-17-0. Related: CHLORAL 75-87-6. Formula: C2-H3-Cl3-O2. Synonyms/Common ... Citation: Beland, F.A., Schmitt, T.C., Fullerton, N.F., and Young, J.F. (1998). Metabolism of chloral hydrate in mice and rats ... Toxicity and Metabolism Studies of Chloral Hydrate (CASRN 302-17-0) Administered by Gavage to F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice ... Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Study of Chloral Hydrate (Ad Libitum and Dietary Controlled) (CASRN 302-17-0) in Male B6C3F1 Mice ...
... includes chloral hydrate rectal description, dosage and directions. ... What is the most important information I should know about chloral hydrate rectal?. Do not take chloral hydrate rectal by mouth ... What other drugs will affect chloral hydrate rectal?. Before using chloral hydrate rectal, tell your doctor if you are taking a ... They can add to sleepiness caused by chloral hydrate rectal.. Chloral hydrate rectal can cause side effects that may impair ...
The safety margin is too narrow for chloral hydrate to be used as a general anesthetic in humans, but it is commonly used for ... Pms-Chloral Hydrate 100 mg/ml Syrup. 0.05USD ml. DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for ... PMS-chloral Hydrate Syrup 100mg/ml. Syrup. 500 mg. Oral. Pharmascience Inc. 1990-12-31. Not applicable. Canada. ... Apo-chloral Hydrate Syrup. Syrup. 100 mg. Oral. Apotex Corporation. Not applicable. Not applicable. Canada. ...
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Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic. The depressant effect on the central nervous system is believed to be due to an ... Chloral hydrate should be used during pregnancy only when the need outweighs any potential risk to the fetus. ... Chloral hydrate is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract following oral or rectal administration. The depressant ... Ambulatory patients should be warned that chloral hydrate may impair their ability to drive or operate machinery for up to 24 ...
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But evidence regarding the efficacy of chloral hydrate and of alternative agents is conflicting. ... Using chloral hydrate carries a risk of adverse events and compounding errors, and much of the available literature recommends ... note that chloral hydrate is more rapidly absorbed with food; fasting before a procedure where chloral hydrate is used for ... Recent Chloral Hydrate Adverse Events. In June 2014, Nordt et al. published three cases of pediatric chloral hydrate overdoses ...
Use of supplemented and unsupplemented chloral hydrate sedation provides effective and safe sedation in children if the AAP ... of the chloral hydrate group and in 5% of the chloral hydrate-hydroxyzine group. One child in the chloral hydrate group had ... Chloral hydrate sedation of children undergoing CT and MR imaging: safety as judged by American Academy of Pediatrics ... Children 1-4 years old received hydroxyzine plus incremental doses of chloral hydrate. Children between 2 and 4 years old who ...
Taking an overdose of chloral hydrate or taking alcohol or other CNS depressants with chloral hydrate may lead to ... For patients taking chloral hydrate syrup: *Take each dose of medicine mixed with clear liquid, such as water, apple juice, or ... Chloral hydrate has been used in the treatment of insomnia (trouble in sleeping) and to help calm or relax patients who are ... For patients taking chloral hydrate capsules: *Swallow the capsule whole. Do not chew since the medicine may cause an ...
Safety and efficacy of chloral hydrate for procedural sedation in paediatric ophthalmology: a systematic review and meta- ... Safety and efficacy of chloral hydrate for procedural sedation in paediatric ophthalmology: a systematic review and meta- ... Safety and efficacy of chloral hydrate for procedural sedation in paediatric ophthalmology: a systematic review and meta- ...
Chloral hydrate is not a suitable drug in either case. Chloral hydrate is regarded by many to produce hypnosis and not ... The authors also used a higher dose of chloral hydrate for euthanasia. However, chloral hydrate is not an acceptable agent for ... Chloral Hydrate Is Not Acceptable for Anesthesia or Euthanasia of Small Animals. Anesthesiology 7 2009, Vol.111, 209. doi: ... The authors used chloral hydrate in both procedures; for surgical anesthesia in the first and euthanasia in the second. ...
Chloral hydrate:PrThr:Pt:Ser/Plas:Ord. Known as: ????:???????:???:??/??:???, ??? ???:????:????:??/??:????, Hydrate de chloral [ ... Pediatric Chloral Hydrate Poisonings and Death Following Outpatient Procedural Sedation. *Sean Patrick Nordt, Cyrus Rangan, ... Methane hydrate soil is a natural soil deposit that contains methane hydrate in its pores. The micro-scale processes of the… ... Effects of salinity on hydrate stability and implications for storage of CO2 in natural gas hydrate reservoirs ...
Engelberg prescribed her 50 caps of 500 mg Chloral Hydrate on July 31 as a refill for a previous Chloral Hydrate order on July ... I see that Chloral Hydrate has a Therapeutic range to 30 ppm and an LD50 value at 100 ppm, so Monroe was 20% under the Chloral ... Tag Archives: Chloral Hydrate. WAS MARILYN MONROE MURDERED? No movie star lived on after death like Marilyn Monroe. She was far ... The Chloral Hydrate level in her blood was determined to be 8.0 milligrams (percent) based on her weight or 80 parts per ...
Chloral hydrate is a CNS depressant. Its mechanism of action is unknown. ...
The Union of Chloral Hydrate and Camphor *Ernest C. Saunders. Scientific American 2 , 600-601 ...
A 42-year-old woman had an accidental overdose of chloral hydrate due to repeated dosing of a therapeutic dose of chloral syrup ... For chloral hydrate, which has relatively low plasma protein binding and volume of distribution of less than or near 1 L/kg, ... Chloral hydrate has an unpleasant taste and is corrosive to skin and mucous membranes unless well diluted. The most frequent ... Chloral hydrate is radio-opaque and large amounts may be seen plainly on X-ray film of the abdomen (239).. ...
... in the chloral hydrate group. This decoupling effect should be considered when extrapolating experimental study data to normal ... deoxy-D-glucose during general anesthesia with pentobarbital and chloral hydrate as well as conscious controls using rats and ... there was a significant increase in the chloral hydrate group. The ratio of cerebral blood flow against cerebral glucose ... Chloral Hydrate Treatment Induced Apoptosis of Macrophages via Fas Signaling Pathway. Jun Cai, Yanxia Peng, +7 authors Qingjun ...
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  • It is derived from chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde) by the addition of one equivalent of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate (trichloroacetaldehyde monohydrate) was first synthesized in 1832, but it was not introduced into medicine until 1869, when Mathias E.O. Liebreich discovered its effectiveness in inducing sleep . (britannica.com)
  • The name chloral hydrate suggests that it is the hydrate of chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde)-in other words, it could be formed by the addition of water to chloral. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate , also called chloral , the first synthetically produced sedative-hypnotic drug , commonly used in the late 19th century to treat insomnia and still occasionally used to reduce anxiety or produce sleep before surgery. (britannica.com)
  • Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate is a hypnotic/sedative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic with some clinical uses. (inchem.org)
  • Chloral hydrate functions as a sedative and hypnotic drug, as well as being a chemical reagent and precursor for other chemical compounds. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate is a hypnotic and a sedative medication that slows the activity of your central nervous system. (drugs.com)
  • suggesting that chloral hydrate somehow has a hypnotic (sleep inducing) effect via GABA agonism, but this isn't very specific. (physicsforums.com)
  • The pediatric oral sedation agent provided as an example on our ISMP List of High-Alert Medications in Acute Care Settings and ISMP List of High-Alert Medications in Community/Ambulatory Healthcare is oral chloral hydrate, a sedative-hypnotic that has been used for more than 100 years. (ptcommunity.com)
  • Chloral hydrate is a mild hypnotic that is used to treat simple insomnia. (nih.gov)
  • Chloral hydrate is a hypnotic agent that was developed in the 19th century and was commonly used as a sleeping aid into the 1970s, when it was replaced by the benzodiazepines. (nih.gov)
  • Tolerance to the hypnotic activity of chloral hydrate develops rapidly, and it is recommended for short term use only. (nih.gov)
  • Chloral hydrate is a type of medicine called a hypnotic. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Chloral hydrate is considered a good sedative-hypnotic for farm animals. (qxmd.com)
  • Chloral hydrate (CH) is widely used as a sedative and hypnotic in pediatric medicine. (elsevier.com)
  • Chloral hydrate has a long history of use in pediatrics as an effective sedative/hypnotic for facilitating a wide range of diagnostic procedures not associated with pain. (aappublications.org)
  • Older adults may be more sensitive to the sedative effects of chloral hydrate rectal. (drugs.com)
  • While prospective studies of the effects of chloral hydrate on liver tests have not been done, the absence of reported instances of liver injury attributable to chloral hydrate suggests that it has little or no hepatic toxicity. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical effects of chloral hydrate in hospitalized medical patients. (nih.gov)
  • Linnoila M, Viukari M, Numminen A, Auvinen J. Efficacy and side effects of chloral hydrate and tryptophan as sleeping aids in psychogeriatric patients. (nih.gov)
  • Ethanol potentiates the sedative effects of chloral hydrate when taken in combination. (barnardhealth.us)
  • Chloral hydrate acts as a depressant on the central nervous system , with sedative effects similar to those of barbiturates . (britannica.com)
  • Introduced in 1869, chloral hydrate was used as a popular sedative in clinical medicine until the advent of barbiturates largely supplanted their use in the early 1900s. (barnardhealth.us)
  • The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the frequency of adverse events associated with supplemented and unsupplemented chloral hydrate sedation in a select group of children undergoing CT or MR imaging using the revised American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) monitoring and management guidelines for pediatric sedation. (nih.gov)
  • Use of supplemented and unsupplemented chloral hydrate sedation provides effective and safe sedation in children if the AAP guidelines for patient selection, monitoring, and management are followed. (nih.gov)
  • Do not stop taking chloral hydrate without talking to your doctor, especially if you have taken large doses for a long time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chloral hydrate is metabolized to trichloroacetic acid, trichloroethanol (which is converted to trichloroethyl glucuronide) and dichloroacetic acid in humans and in rodents. (inchem.org)
  • Oxidation of chloral hydrate and trichloroethanol to trichloroacetic acid in the liver and kidneys also occurs to a lesser extent. (drugbank.ca)
  • Chloral hydrate is a simple chlorinated molecule that is converted in the liver (by alcohol dehydrogenase) to trichloroethanol, which is the active moiety. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, overdose of chloral hydrate can cause respiratory depression and death. (nih.gov)
  • Acute overdose toxicity and risk of death has been observed disproportionately with chloral hydrate but death has been reported after overdose with all the older agents. (wikitox.org)
  • A 42-year-old woman had an accidental overdose of chloral hydrate due to repeated dosing of a therapeutic dose of chloral syrup for insomnia. (wikitox.org)
  • A solution of chloral hydrate in ethanol called "knockout drops" was used to prepare a Mickey Finn. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate was the primary ingredient, along with alcohol , of the "knockout drops" or "Mickey Finns" of popular lore. (britannica.com)
  • There is limited evidence from a single study that chloral hydrate affects sperm, but no evidence of actual reproductive or developmental toxicity has been shown. (inchem.org)
  • toxicity has been reported after 3 days in a preterm neonate and after 7 days in a term neonate receiving chloral hydrate 40 to 50 mg/kg every 6 hours. (drugs.com)
  • A preterm infant developed severe chloral hydrate toxicity after its therapeutic administration as an adjunct to the treatment of hyaline membrane disease (21). (wikitox.org)
  • Coma and signs of cardiac toxicity appeared 2 hours after ingestion of approximately 38 g of chloral hydrate (32). (wikitox.org)
  • The US FDA is to investigate the toxicity of chloralhydrate, in conjunction with the National Institute ofEnvironmental Health Sciences. (dokumen.tips)
  • As mentioned above, the firms that were commercially manufacturing and distributing drug products containing chloral hydrate, without FDA approval, voluntarily removed their products from the market in 2012. (ptcommunity.com)
  • Products containing chloral hydrate have been voluntarily withdrawn from the U.S. market. (adam.com)
  • However, chloral hydrate products, licensed for short-term management of severe insomnia, are available in the United Kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate is used for the short-term treatment of insomnia and as a sedative before minor medical or dental treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In therapeutic doses for insomnia, chloral hydrate is effective within 20 to 60 minutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate, a sedative, is used in the short-term treatment of insomnia (to help you fall asleep and stay asleep for a proper rest) and to relieve anxiety and induce sleep before surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In therapeutic doses for insomnia, chloral hydrate is effective within sixty minutes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate rectal is used to treat sleep problems (insomnia). (drugs.com)
  • Chloral hydrate has been used in the treatment of insomnia (trouble in sleeping) and to help calm or relax patients who are nervous or tense. (adam.com)
  • Chloral hydrate has been used to treat simple insomnia and formerly was prescribed for a large proportion of hospitalized patients on a 'as needed' basis. (nih.gov)
  • Because of the availability of safer and more effective medications for insomnia, chloral hydrate is now rarely used. (nih.gov)
  • CHLORAL HYDRATE (klor al HI drate) is used for the short-term treatment of insomnia. (bcbsla.com)
  • Chloral Hydrate (CIV), Crystal, USP is used to treat insomnia and used to calm patients before or after surgery. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Chloral Hydrate is a depressant , specifically used for inducing sleep . (everything2.com)
  • Chloral hydrate is a CNS depressant, with an unknown mechanism of action. (barnardhealth.us)
  • Chloral hydrate is a CNS depressant. (medscape.com)
  • Chloral hydrate syrup should be stored in tightly closed containers protected from light, below 25°C. (who.int)
  • A young healthy female died after taking a therapeutic dose of chloral hydrate syrup before surgery to extract third molars (36). (wikitox.org)
  • Chloral hydrate belongs to the group of medicines called sedatives and hypnotics. (adam.com)
  • Metabolism of chloral hydrate in mice and rats after single and multiple doses. (nih.gov)
  • Children younger than 1 year old received only oral incremental doses of chloral hydrate. (nih.gov)
  • Children 1-4 years old received hydroxyzine plus incremental doses of chloral hydrate. (nih.gov)
  • Chloral hydrate is still used effectively for promoting sedation in children because in therapeutic doses it does not depress respiratory drive or circulatory function. (barnardhealth.us)
  • Therapeutic doses of chloral hydrate may produce arrhythmias when used to sedate children with stimulant ingestions (22). (wikitox.org)
  • 3 In a review of 118 critical adverse sedation events in children, death or severe neurologic injury occurred in 13 of 20 children who received chloral hydrate, including some cases in which standard doses were administered. (aappublications.org)
  • Anesthetic doses of ethanol (100 mmol/kg p.o.), chloral hydrate (2 mmol/kg i.p.), and urethane (9 mmol/kg i.p.) induce sharp and sustained (6- to 10-fold) dose-dependent increase in rat brain pregnenolone and progesterone content. (nih.gov)
  • The administration to hypophysectomized rats of 5 IU/kg of ACTH produces a brain pregnenolone and progesterone accumulation by an extent comparable to that elicited by anesthetic doses of ethanol, chloral hydrate, or urethane in intact animals. (nih.gov)
  • Chloral hydrate is soluble in both water and ethanol, readily forming concentrated solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate was discovered through the chlorination of ethanol in 1832 by Justus von Liebig in Gießen. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate is produced from chlorine and ethanol in acidic solution. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The increase in brain pregnenolone and progesterone content fails to occur if ethanol, chloral hydrate, and urethane are administered to hypophysectomized-adrenalectomized rats suggesting that the increase of brain steroids requires the hypophysis and probably originates in peripheral tissues and not in brain. (nih.gov)
  • Mild hypoxia (SpO2, 90-95%) that resolved spontaneously without any therapeutic intervention was seen in 9% of the chloral hydrate group and in 5% of the chloral hydrate-hydroxyzine group. (nih.gov)
  • Two cases of intravenous administration of a therapeutic dose of oral chloral hydrate resulted in central nervous system depression and minimal local effects at the injection site (25). (wikitox.org)
  • Chloral hydrate was not active in male or female rats in two studies. (inchem.org)
  • The rats were then anesthetized with chloral hydrate (350 mg/kg body wt. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We measured cerebral blood flow using N-isopropyl[methyl 1,3-14C] p-iodoamphetamine (14C-IMP) and glucose utilization using 2-[1-14C] deoxy-D-glucose during general anesthesia with pentobarbital and chloral hydrate as well as conscious controls using rats and in-vivo autoradiography. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Children between 2 and 4 years old who were not satisfactorily sedated 30 min after hydroxyzine plus incremental chloral hydrate were given 2 mg/kg meperidine intramuscularly, with a maximum dose of 50 mg. (nih.gov)
  • 이 후향적 연구는 chloral hydrate, hydroxyzine 및 N 2 O/O 2 조합을 이용한 진정 치료를 시행한 149명 환아의 188회 진정 치료의 효과 와 부작용에 대해 알아보고, 효과와 부작용에 영향을 미칠 수 있는 요소를 확인하고자 하였다. (kapd.org)
  • This retrospective study assessed the effectiveness and side effects of conscious sedation using chloral hydrate, hydroxyzine, and N 2 O/O 2 in the sedation of 149 pediatric patients over 188 sedation sessions, and to identify associated variables. (kapd.org)
  • More than 1.5 to 2.0 g of chloral hydrate has produced excessive sedation in children and adults (19). (wikitox.org)
  • Together with chloroform , chloral hydrate is a minor by-product of the chlorination of water , if organic residues are present in the water. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • You may not be able to use chloral hydrate rectal, or you may need a dosage adjustment or special tests during treatment. (drugs.com)
  • In patients with cirrhosis and hepatic decompensation, chloral hydrate can trigger or worsen hepatic encephalopathy. (nih.gov)
  • Piccione P, Zorick F, Lutz T, Grissom T, Kramer M, Roth T. The efficacy of triazolam and chloral hydrate in geriatric insomniacs. (nih.gov)
  • Chloral hydrate rectal may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide. (drugs.com)
  • What is the most important information I should know about chloral hydrate rectal? (drugs.com)
  • Try to empty your bowel and bladder just before using the chloral hydrate rectal suppository. (drugs.com)
  • What should I discuss with my health care provider before using chloral hydrate rectal? (drugs.com)
  • You may have severe or life-threatening withdrawal symptoms when you stop using chloral hydrate rectal after using it for 2 weeks or longer. (drugs.com)
  • How should I use chloral hydrate rectal? (drugs.com)
  • Chloral hydrate rectal should be used only for a short time, such as 2 to 7 days in a row, unless your doctor tells you otherwise. (drugs.com)
  • Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using chloral hydrate rectal. (drugs.com)
  • Do not stop using chloral hydrate rectal without first talking to your doctor. (drugs.com)
  • Chloral hydrate is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract following oral or rectal administration. (who.int)
  • Uncoupling of flow and metabolism by chloral hydrate: a rat in-vivo autoradiographic study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The metabolism of chloral hydrate (CH) under anoxic conditions was investigated in the non-recirculating, hemoglobin-free liver perfusion system. (elsevier.com)
  • published three cases of pediatric chloral hydrate overdoses, including one fatality, that occurred in the outpatient setting following procedural sedation. (ptcommunity.com)
  • Methane hydrate soil is a natural soil deposit that contains methane hydrate in its pores. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Methane Hydrate Workshop - Department of Energy Myers - Methane. (dokumen.tips)
  • Chloral hydrate has a U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) monograph so pharmacists can compound it under section 503A (individual prescription) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act, but it can't be compounded under 503B (outsourcing facilities) because it is not on the FDA's list of bulk drug substances. (ptcommunity.com)
  • However, some substances form several different hydrates. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Do not use this medication if you have severe kidney or liver disease, or if you are allergic to chloral hydrate or aspirin. (drugs.com)
  • Also found in toxicology testing was human growth hormone and chloral hydrate, a sleep medication, Perper said. (cnn.com)
  • Chloral hydrate is lipid-soluble and easily transits all cell membranes. (barnardhealth.us)
  • Chloral hydrate is regarded by many to produce hypnosis and not anesthesia. (asahq.org)
  • There are no scientific justifications for using chloral hydrate for these experiments, as many other agents would be more suitable for both surgical anesthesia and euthanasia without interfering with the experimental endpoints. (asahq.org)
  • It seems that chloral hydrate has traditionally been used to provide anesthesia where the avoidance of agents with known receptor interactions is desirable. (asahq.org)
  • Chloral hydrate has not been approved by the FDA in the United States or the EMA in the European Union for any medical indication and is on the FDA list of unapproved drugs that are still prescribed by clinicians. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the development of safer and more effective drugs, the use of chloral hydrate has declined. (britannica.com)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to chloral hydrate, aspirin, tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and drugs), or any other drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chloral hydrate is used as a sedative before medical procedures and to reduce anxiety related to withdrawal from drugs. (inchem.org)
  • The hypoprothrombinaemic effect of coumarin anticoagulants may be intensified if such drugs are given concurrently with chloral hydrate. (who.int)
  • They were randomized to receive orally 70 mg/kg chloral hydrate or promethazine 1 mg/kg. (kowsarpub.com)
  • Mixed with alcohol , chloral hydrate produces a swift deep sleep - and as such, was popular with anyone wishing to (mostly) harmlessly knock out an unsuspecting victim who was drinking. (everything2.com)
  • Chloral hydrate also has major drug-drug interactions with oral anticoagulants, antidepressants and alcohol. (nih.gov)
  • Indeed the chloral hydrate-induced hypoxemia which must occur during euthanasia as respiration becomes depressed 1 , may compromise the experimental aims in terms of measuring protein and messenger ribonucleic acid levels of an activity-related protein. (asahq.org)
  • Chloral hydrate is a starting point for the synthesis of other organic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate was described by Oscar Liebrich in 1869 in Berlin, where he used it as an oral premedication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We assumed this was largely due to the 2012 discontinuation of the only remaining commercially available chloral hydrate products in the U.S.(oral solution by Pharmaceutical Associates and oral capsules by Breckenridge) for business reasons. (ptcommunity.com)
  • 3 However, some ambulatory and hospital pharmacies are still compounding an oral suspension of chloral hydrate from crystals or powder for pediatric sedation in both the inpatient and outpatient setting. (ptcommunity.com)
  • Satisfactory conditions for auditory brainstem responses (ABR) screening tests for pediatric hearing loss are usually achieved with oral chloral hydrate (CH) sedation. (aappublications.org)
  • 5 For many years, it was common practice to use oral chloral hydrate for ABR procedures. (aappublications.org)
  • This protocol involves an initial oral dose of chloral hydrate 50 mg/kg. (aappublications.org)
  • The manufacture of oral chloral hydrate in the United States was discontinued for business reasons in 2013. (aappublications.org)
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare efficacy and safety of oral chloral hydrate (CH) and promethazine (PZ) for sedation during electroencephalography (EEG) in children. (kowsarpub.com)
  • Welldorm tablets contain the active ingredient chloral betaine, which is converted in the body to chloral hydrate. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • A study 5 comparing the previously available commercial formulation of chloral hydrate with the compounded formulation used for pediatric sedation during an echocardiographic examination showed that the compounded drug resulted in a shorter duration of sedation, more frequent need for a secondary sedation agent (thereby increasing the risk of an adverse event 4 , 6 ), and more frequent sedation failure. (ptcommunity.com)
  • There are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug products that contain chloral hydrate. (ptcommunity.com)
  • We had considered removing chloral hydrate from the ISMP lists of high-alert medications but have not done so given the unknown frequency with which the drug is prescribed and compounded. (ptcommunity.com)
  • Chloral hydrate is not a suitable drug in either case. (asahq.org)
  • Chloral hydrate is a schedule III drug with recognized abuse potential. (barnardhealth.us)
  • This review analyzes are the effectiveness and drug displacement interactions between chloral hydrate hydrobromide and alprazolam Polistirex. (ipmsrichmond.org)
  • Although other animal studies havesuggested that the drug may be mutagenic andgenotoxic, the FDA says that at present there is noepidemiological evidence of the drug being a risk tohumans.Chloral hydrate under suspicion. (dokumen.tips)
  • 1 In the large database of the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium, chloral hydrate was the drug used in ∼25% of 11 822 cases in which sedation was provided by pediatricians. (aappublications.org)
  • Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that chloral hydrate can be considered as a safe and more effective drug in sedation induction for sleep EEG in children. (kowsarpub.com)
  • Chloral hydrate is a colorless, solid chemical compound with the formula C 2 H 3 Cl 3 O 2 . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate is a colorless, crystalline solid that melts at 57 °C and boils at 98 °C. Its density is 1.91 g/cm 3 . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate comes as a capsule and liquid to take by mouth and as a suppository to insert rectally. (medlineplus.gov)
  • He had already become interested in eye surgery and had experimented with anesthetizing the eye with morphine, ether spray, chloral hydrate and potassium bromide, all of which were known to have effects on the nervous system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since 2010, ISMP has received no additional reports of errors involving pediatric sedation with chloral hydrate. (ptcommunity.com)
  • In this synthesis, chloral hydrate reacts with aniline and hydroxylamine to give a condensation product which cyclicizes in sulfuric acid to give the target compound: Moreover, chloral hydrate is used as a reagent for the deprotection of acetals, dithioacetals and tetrahydropyranyl ethers in organic solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrate (hī´drāt) , chemical compound that contains water. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Long-term use of chloral hydrate is associated with a rapid development of tolerance to its effects and possible addiction as well as adverse effects including rashes, gastric discomfort and severe kidney, heart, and liver failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite many years of use, chloral hydrate has not been implicated in causing serum enzyme elevations or clinically apparent liver injury. (nih.gov)
  • Chloral hydrate has been in clinical use for many decades and has not been linked to serum enzyme elevations during therapy or instances of clinically apparent liver injury. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical clues to the ingestion of chloral hydrate are a pearlike breath odor, hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. (barnardhealth.us)
  • Performing P-VEP during chloral hydrate sedation thus holds promise as an important clinical tool for the diagnosis of amblyopia in uncooperative infants and children. (qxmd.com)
  • The safety margin is too narrow for chloral hydrate to be used as a general anesthetic in humans, but it is commonly used for that purpose in animal experiments. (drugbank.ca)
  • 3 Apart from its inadequate anesthetic properties, 20% chloral hydrate is extremely irritating and therefore unsuitable for intraperitoneal use. (asahq.org)
  • Chloral hydrate (CH) and alpha-chloralose (CS) are often used to anesthetize laboratory animals although, to our knowledge, there have been no controlled studies of their anesthetic or analgesic effects. (qxmd.com)
  • Known hypersensitivity to chloral hydrate. (who.int)
  • Chloral hydrate has been linked to hypersensitivity reactions such as rash, fever and eosinophilia. (nih.gov)
  • An adult who ingested 10 g of chloral hydrate became unconscious with respiratory depression and hypotension (28). (wikitox.org)
  • 2 Although chloral hydrate has long been regarded as "safe," it does have the potential for profound respiratory depression and resedation. (aappublications.org)
  • Chloral hydrate increased the incidence of adenomas in the pars distalis of the pituitary gland in female mice only at the highest dose in one gavage study, but did not induce tumours of the pars distalis in male mice. (inchem.org)
  • In the third fatality, a dentist ordered a weight-based dose of 6,000 mg chloral hydrate for a 13-year-old child that led to respiratory arrest. (ptcommunity.com)
  • The authors also used a higher dose of chloral hydrate for euthanasia. (asahq.org)
  • The minimum lethal dose of chloral hydrate for an adult is unclear and has been variously quoted as 3 g (24), 4 g (34) or 5 - 10 g (13;35). (wikitox.org)
  • Chloral hydrate is a schedule IV controlled substance in the United States . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chloral hydrate is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance (low potential for abuse and for limited physical or psychological dependence) and is now rarely used. (nih.gov)
  • The Chloral hydrate market 2020 research report is a detailed view of market opportunity by end-user segments, product Type segments, sales channels, key countries. (openpr.com)
  • Global "Chloral hydrate" Market trends analysis report 2020 provides an in-depth analysis of the key player's strategies, market growth, product demand, growth factors, regional outlook, global dynamics which includes drivers, challenges, and opportunities dominant in the industry. (openpr.com)