A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.
A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE comprising gram-negative non CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS-like species infecting vertebrates. Chlamydophila do not produce detectable quantities of glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI.
Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.
A family of gram-negative, coccoid microorganisms, in the order CHLAMYDIALES, pathogenic for vertebrates. Genera include CHLAMYDIA and CHLAMYDOPHILA.
Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.
A genus of CHLAMYDOPHILA infecting primarily birds. It contains eight known serovars, some of which infect more than one type of host, including humans.
An order of obligately intracellular, gram-negative bacteria that have the chlamydia-like developmental cycle of replication. This is a two-stage cycle that includes a metabolically inactive infectious form, and a vegetative form that replicates by binary fission. Members of Chlamydiales are disseminated by aerosol or by contact. There are at least six recognized families: CHLAMYDIACEAE, Criblamydiaceae, Parachlamydiaceae, Rhabdochlamydia, Simkaniaceae, and Waddliaceae.
A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Infection with CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI (formerly Chlamydia psittaci), transmitted to humans by inhalation of dust-borne contaminated nasal secretions or excreta of infected BIRDS. This infection results in a febrile illness characterized by PNEUMONITIS and systemic manifestations.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
A large family of lytic bacteriophages infecting enterobacteria; SPIROPLASMA; BDELLOVIBRIO; and CHLAMYDIA. It contains four genera: MICROVIRUS; Spiromicrovirus; Bdellomicrovirus; and Chlamydiamicrovirus.
Infections with bacteria of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.
Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Communicable diseases, also known as infectious diseases, are medical conditions that result from the infection, transmission, or colonization of pathogenic microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, which can be spread from one host to another through various modes of transmission.
Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.

Infection of human endothelial cells with Chlamydia pneumoniae stimulates transendothelial migration of neutrophils and monocytes. (1/1035)

We have previously shown that different isolates of Chlamydia pneumoniae display heterogeneity in the in vitro stimulation of chemokines and adhesion molecules from infected human endothelial cells. In the present study, we examined the ability of different isolates of C. pneumoniae to promote transendothelial migration of neutrophils and monocytes. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were infected with low (<15)-passage C. pneumoniae isolates A-03, PS-32, and BR-393 and high (>40)-passage isolates BAL-16, TW-183, and T-2634, and levels of neutrophil and monocyte transendothelial migration were determined following 24 h of infection. Compared to mock-infected controls, significant increases in neutrophil migration were observed in response to most C. pneumoniae isolates examined (P < 0.001). Levels of monocyte migration were significantly increased in response to TW-183 and T-2634 (P < 0.001). Serial passage (>40 times) of the three low-passage isolates in HEp-2 cell cultures prior to infection of HUVEC generally resulted in the promotion of higher levels of neutrophil and monocyte transendothelial migration. These findings were compatible with differences observed in the extent of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) stimulation between low- and high-passage A-03, PS-32, and BR-393. As opposed to C. pneumoniae, infection with C. trachomatis L2 caused only a slight increase in neutrophil transendothelial migration, which correlated with the lack of measurable IL-8 levels by this species. However, significant levels of monocyte migration were induced in response to C. trachomatis L2 despite a lack of measurable MCP-1 stimulation. C. trachomatis serovars A and E also failed to induce IL-8 and MCP-1 production in HUVEC. Results from this study indicate that the passage history of C. pneumoniae may play a role in the divergence of stimulatory activities observed among isolates in human endothelial cells. In addition, the differences observed between this organism and C. trachomatis suggest that the upregulation of IL-8 and MCP-1 in endothelial cells may be unique to C. pneumoniae.  (+info)

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in human monocytes. (2/1035)

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has been associated with cardiovascular diseases in seroepidemiological studies and by demonstration of the pathogen in atherosclerotic lesions. It has the capacity to infect several cell types, including monocyte-derived macrophages, which play an essential role in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the persistence of C. pneumoniae in mononuclear cells is poorly understood. To study the morphology and biological characteristics of the infection, human peripheral blood monocytes were infected with C. pneumoniae. Freshly isolated monocytes resisted the development of infectious progeny, and confocal and transmission electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the inclusions and chlamydial particles was abnormal. Addition of tryptophan or antibodies against gamma interferon did not diminish the inhibition of C. pneumoniae, suggesting that other factors are involved in the chlamydiostatic activity of the monocytes. Chlamydial mRNA was expressed at least 3 days after infection, however, and a capability for infected monocytes to induce a positive lymphocyte proliferative response was detected for up to 7 days, indicating that C. pneumoniae remains metabolically active in the monocytes in vitro. These results are in accordance with the hypothesis that C. pneumoniae may participate in the maintenance of local immunological response and inflammation via infected monocytes and thus enhance atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. (3/1035)

OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for evidence that chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and Institute of Science and Information bibliographic databases were searched at the end of September 1998. Indexing terms used were chlamydi*, heart, coronary, and atherosclerosis. Serological and pathological studies published as papers in any language since 1988 or abstracts since 1997 were selected. DATA EXTRACTION: It was assumed that chronic C pneumoniae infection is characterised by the presence of both specific IgG and IgA, and serological studies were examined for associations that fulfilled these criteria. Pathological studies were also reviewed for evidence that the presence of C pneumoniae in diseased vessels is associated with the severity and extent of atherosclerosis. DATA SYNTHESIS: The majority of serological studies have shown an association between C pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. However, the number of cases in studies that have reported a positive association when using strict criteria for chronic infection is similar to the number of cases in studies which found no association. Nevertheless, the organism is widely found in atherosclerotic vessels, although it may not be at all diseased sites and is not confined to the most severe lesions. Rabbit models and preliminary antibiotic trials suggest that the organism might exacerbate atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION: More evidence is required before C pneumoniae can be accepted as playing a role in atherosclerosis. Although use of antibiotics in routine practice is not justified, large scale trials in progress will help to elucidate the role of C pneumoniae.  (+info)

Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies are associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. (4/1035)

OBJECTIVE: To determine, within a representative population group of men and women, whether alteration of the lipid profile might underlie the reported association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross sectional survey in an area with a high incidence of ischaemic heart disease. SUBJECTS: 400 randomly selected participants in the World Health Organisation MONICA project's third population survey in Northern Ireland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stored sera were examined by microimmunofluorescence for IgG antibodies to C pneumoniae at a dilution of 1 in 64. Mean total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were compared between seropositive and seronegative individuals with adjustment for age, measures of socioeconomic status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and the season during which blood had been taken. RESULTS: In seropositive men, adjusted mean serum total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were 0.5 mmol/l (9.2%) higher and 0.11 mmol/l (9.3%) lower, respectively, than in seronegative men. Differences in women did not achieve statistical significance, but both total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were higher (3.6% and 5.8%, respectively) in seropositive than in seronegative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: There is serological evidence that C pneumoniae infection is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in men. Altered lipid levels may underlie the association between C pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease.  (+info)

Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus: population based study of coronary heart disease. (5/1035)

OBJECTIVE: To study possible associations between coronary heart disease and serological evidence of persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. DESIGN: Population based, case-control study, nested within a randomised trial. SETTING: Five general practices in Bedfordshire, UK. INDIVIDUALS: 288 patients with incident or prevalent coronary heart disease and 704 age and sex matched controls. RESULTS: High concentrations of serum IgG antibodies to H pylori were present in 54% of cases v 46% of controls, with corresponding results for C pneumoniae seropositivity (33% v 33%), and cytomegalovirus seropositivity (40% v 31%). After adjustments for age, sex, smoking, indicators of socioeconomic status, and standard risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for coronary heart disease of seropositivity to these agents were: 1.28 (0.93 to 1.75) for H pylori, 0.95 (0.66 to 1.36) for C pneumoniae, and 1.40 (0.96 to 2. 05) for cytomegalovirus. CONCLUSIONS: There is no good evidence of strong associations between coronary heart disease and serological markers of persistent infection with H pylori, C pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. To determine the existence of moderate associations between these agents and disease, however, larger scale studies will be needed that can keep residual confounders to a minimum.  (+info)

Elevated levels of C-reactive protein at discharge in patients with unstable angina predict recurrent instability. (6/1035)

BACKGROUND: In a group of patients admitted for unstable angina, we investigated whether C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels remain elevated at discharge and whether persistent elevation is associated with recurrence of instability. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured plasma levels of CRP, serum amyloid A protein (SAA), fibrinogen, total cholesterol, and Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody titers in 53 patients admitted to our coronary care unit for Braunwald class IIIB unstable angina. Blood samples were taken on admission, at discharge, and after 3 months. Patients were followed for 1 year. At discharge, CRP was elevated (>3 mg/L) in 49% of patients; of these, 42% had elevated levels on admission and at 3 months. Only 15% of patients with discharge levels of CRP <3 mg/L but 69% of those with elevated CRP (P<0.001) were readmitted because of recurrence of instability or new myocardial infarction. New phases of instability occurred in 13% of patients in the lower tertile of CRP (/=8.7 mg/L, P<0.001). The prognostic value of SAA was similar to that of CRP; that of fibrinogen was not significant. Chlamydia pneumoniae but not Helicobacter pylori antibody titers significantly correlated with CRP plasma levels. CONCLUSIONS: In unstable angina, CRP may remain elevated for at >/=3 months after the waning of symptoms and is associated with recurrent instability. Elevation of acute-phase reactants in unstable angina could represent a hallmark of subclinical persistent instability or of susceptibility to recurrent instability and, at least in some patients, could be related to chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.  (+info)

Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae but not cytomegalovirus in occluded saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts. (7/1035)

BACKGROUND: A causal relation between atherosclerosis and chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and/or cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been suggested. Whether the unresolved problem of venous coronary artery bypass graft occlusion is related to infection with C pneumoniae and/or CMV has not been addressed. METHODS AND RESUTLS: Thirty-eight occluded coronary artery vein grafts and 20 native saphenous veins were examined. Detection of C pneumoniae DNA was performed by use of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Homogenisates from the specimen were cultured for identification of viable C pneumoniae. Both conventional PCR and quantitative PCR for detection of CMV DNA were applied. Differential pathological changes (degree of inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation [MIB-1]) were determined and correlated to the detection of both microorganisms. C pneumoniae DNA could be detected in 25% of occluded vein grafts. Viable C pneumoniae was recovered from 16% of occluded vein grafts. Except for 1 native saphenous vein, all control vessels were negative for both C pneumoniae detection and culture. All pathological and control specimens were negative for CMV DNA detection. Pathological changes did not correlate with C pneumoniae detection. CONCLUSIONS: Occluded aorto-coronary venous grafts harbor C pneumoniae but not CMV. The detection of C pneumoniae in occluded vein grafts warrants further investigation.  (+info)

Single channel analysis of recombinant major outer membrane protein porins from Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pneumoniae. (8/1035)

We recently demonstrated that the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia psittaci, the primary vaccine candidate for combating chlamydial infections, functions as a porin-like ion channel. In this study, we have cloned, expressed and functionally reconstituted recombinant major outer membrane proteins from C. psittaci and Chlamydia pneumoniae and analysed them at the single channel level. Both form porin-like ion channels that are functionally similar to those formed by native C. psittaci major outer membrane protein. Also, like the native channels, recombinant C. psittaci channels are modified by a native major outer membrane protein-specific monoclonal antibody. This is the first time that native function has been demonstrated for recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane proteins. Future bilayer reconstitution will provide a strategy for detailed structure/function studies of this new subclass of bacterial porins and the work also has important implications for successful protein refolding and the development of improved subunit vaccines.  (+info)

'Chlamydophila pneumoniae' is a type of bacteria that can cause respiratory infections in humans. It is the causative agent of a form of pneumonia known as "atypical pneumonia," which is characterized by milder symptoms and a slower onset than other types of pneumonia.

The bacteria are transmitted through respiratory droplets, such as those produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. 'Chlamydophila pneumoniae' infections can occur throughout the year, but they are more common in the fall and winter months.

Symptoms of a 'Chlamydophila pneumoniae' infection may include cough, chest pain, fever, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. The infection can also cause other respiratory symptoms, such as sore throat, headache, and muscle aches. In some cases, the infection may spread to other parts of the body, causing complications such as ear infections or inflammation of the heart or brain.

Diagnosis of 'Chlamydophila pneumoniae' infection typically involves testing a sample of respiratory secretions, such as sputum or nasal swabs, for the presence of the bacteria. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, such as azithromycin or doxycycline, which are effective against 'Chlamydophila pneumoniae'.

It's important to note that while 'Chlamydophila pneumoniae' infections can cause serious respiratory illness, they are generally not as severe as other types of bacterial pneumonia. However, if left untreated, the infection can lead to complications and worsening symptoms.

Chlamydophila infections are caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Chlamydophila, which includes several species that can infect humans and animals. The two most common species that cause infections in humans are Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydophila trachomatis.

Chlamydophila pneumoniae is responsible for respiratory infections, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinusitis. It is usually spread through respiratory droplets and can cause both mild and severe illnesses.

Chlamydophila trachomatis causes a wide range of infections, depending on the serovar (strain) involved. The most common types of Chlamydia trachomatis infections include:

1. Nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis: These are sexually transmitted infections that can cause inflammation of the urethra and cervix, respectively. Symptoms may include discharge, pain during urination, and painful intercourse.
2. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV): This is a sexually transmitted infection that primarily affects the lymphatic system. It can cause symptoms such as genital ulcers, swollen lymph nodes, and rectal pain and discharge.
3. Trachoma: This is an eye infection caused by a specific serovar of Chlamydia trachomatis. It is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide and primarily affects populations in developing countries with poor sanitation.
4. Inclusion conjunctivitis: This is an eye infection that mainly affects newborns, causing inflammation of the conjunctiva (the membrane lining the eyelids). It can be transmitted from mother to child during childbirth and may lead to vision problems if left untreated.

Diagnosis of Chlamydophila infections typically involves laboratory tests such as nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) or culture methods. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics, such as azithromycin or doxycycline, and may involve additional measures depending on the site and severity of infection. Prevention strategies include practicing safe sex, maintaining good hygiene, and receiving appropriate vaccinations for at-risk populations.

"Chlamydophila" is a genus of bacteria that includes several species that can cause human diseases. The most well-known species in this genus is "Chlamydophila trachomatis," which is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide and can also cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Other species in the genus include "Chlamydophila pneumoniae," which can cause respiratory infections, and "Chlamydophila psittaci," which can cause psittacosis, a type of pneumonia that is often associated with exposure to birds.

It's worth noting that the taxonomy of these bacteria has been subject to some debate and revision in recent years. Some experts have proposed reclassifying the genus "Chlamydophila" as a subgroup within the genus "Chlamydia," which would make the species "Chlamydophila trachomatis" become "Chlamydia trachomatis," and so on. However, this proposal has not been universally accepted, and both classifications continue to be used in the scientific literature.

"Mycoplasma pneumoniae" is a type of bacteria that lacks a cell wall and can cause respiratory infections, particularly bronchitis and atypical pneumonia. It is one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia. Infection with "M. pneumoniae" typically results in mild symptoms, such as cough, fever, and fatigue, although more severe complications can occur in some cases. The bacteria can also cause various extrapulmonary manifestations, including skin rashes, joint pain, and neurological symptoms. Diagnosis of "M. pneumoniae" infection is typically made through serological tests or PCR assays. Treatment usually involves antibiotics such as macrolides or tetracyclines.

Chlamydiaceae is a family of bacteria that includes several species known to cause diseases in humans and animals. The most well-known member of this family is Chlamydia trachomatis, which is responsible for a range of human illnesses including sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, urethritis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. It can also cause ocular infections like trachoma, which is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide.

Another important member of this family is Chlamydophila pneumoniae, which causes respiratory infections such as community-acquired pneumonia and bronchitis. Additionally, Chlamydophila psittaci can cause psittacosis, a zoonotic disease that humans can acquire from infected birds.

Chlamydiaceae bacteria are obligate intracellular pathogens, meaning they require host cells to survive and replicate. They have a unique biphasic developmental cycle, involving two distinct forms: the elementary body (EB) and the reticulate body (RB). The EB is the infectious form that attaches to and enters host cells, while the RB is the metabolically active form that multiplies within the host cell. Once the RBs have replicated sufficiently, they convert back into EBs, which are then released from the host cell to infect other cells.

Effective antibiotic treatment for Chlamydiaceae infections typically involves macrolides (such as azithromycin) or tetracyclines (such as doxycycline). Prevention strategies include safe sexual practices, proper hygiene, and avoiding contact with infected animals or their secretions.

Mycoplasma pneumonia is a type of atypical pneumonia, which is caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae. This organism is not a true bacterium, but rather the smallest free-living organisms known. They lack a cell wall and have a unique mode of reproduction.

Mycoplasma pneumonia infection typically occurs in small outbreaks or sporadically, often in crowded settings such as schools, colleges, and military barracks. It can also be acquired in the community. The illness is often mild and self-limiting, but it can also cause severe pneumonia and extra-pulmonary manifestations.

The symptoms of Mycoplasma pneumonia are typically less severe than those caused by typical bacterial pneumonia and may include a persistent cough that may be dry or produce small amounts of mucus, fatigue, fever, headache, sore throat, and chest pain. The infection can also cause extrapulmonary manifestations such as skin rashes, joint pain, and neurological symptoms.

Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumonia is often challenging because the organism is difficult to culture, and serological tests may take several weeks to become positive. PCR-based tests are now available and can provide a rapid diagnosis.

Treatment typically involves antibiotics such as macrolides (e.g., azithromycin), tetracyclines (e.g., doxycycline), or fluoroquinolones (e.g., levofloxacin). However, because Mycoplasma pneumonia is often self-limiting, antibiotic treatment may not shorten the duration of illness but can help prevent complications and reduce transmission.

'Chlamydophila psittaci' is a gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterium that causes psittacosis, also known as parrot fever. It is commonly found in birds, particularly parrots and psittacines, but can also infect other bird species, mammals, and humans. In humans, it can cause a wide range of symptoms, including fever, headache, cough, and pneumonia. Human-to-human transmission is rare, and the disease is typically acquired through inhalation of dried secretions or feces from infected birds.

Chlamydiales is an order of obligate intracellular bacteria that includes several families, including Chlamydiaceae, which contains the genus Chlamydia. This genus includes well-known pathogens such as Chlamydia trachomatis, which can cause a range of diseases in humans, including sexually transmitted infections and eye infections. Other families within Chlamydiales include Parachlamydiaceae, Simkaniaceae, and Waddliaceae, which contain bacteria that can cause respiratory and other infections in animals and humans.

Chlamydiales bacteria are characterized by their unique biphasic developmental cycle, which involves two distinct forms: the elementary body (EB) and the reticulate body (RB). The EB is the infectious form of the bacterium, which can attach to and enter host cells. Once inside the host cell, the EB differentiates into the RB, which replicates within a membrane-bound vacuole called an inclusion. After several rounds of replication, the RBs differentiate back into EBs, which are then released from the host cell to infect other cells.

Chlamydiales infections can be treated with antibiotics such as azithromycin or doxycycline, but accurate diagnosis is important to ensure appropriate treatment and prevent complications.

Boidae is a family of snakes, also known as boas. This family includes many different species of large, non-venomous snakes found in various parts of the world, particularly in Central and South America, Africa, and Asia. Boas are known for their strong bodies and muscular tails, which they use to constrict their prey before swallowing it whole. Some well-known members of this family include the anaconda, the python, and the boa constrictor.

Bacterial pneumonia is a type of lung infection that's caused by bacteria. It can affect people of any age, but it's more common in older adults, young children, and people with certain health conditions or weakened immune systems. The symptoms of bacterial pneumonia can vary, but they often include cough, chest pain, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.

The most common type of bacteria that causes pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Other types of bacteria that can cause pneumonia include Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Bacterial pneumonia is usually treated with antibiotics, which are medications that kill bacteria. The specific type of antibiotic used will depend on the type of bacteria causing the infection. It's important to take all of the prescribed medication as directed, even if you start feeling better, to ensure that the infection is completely cleared and to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.

In severe cases of bacterial pneumonia, hospitalization may be necessary for close monitoring and treatment with intravenous antibiotics and other supportive care.

Psittacosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia psittaci, which is typically found in birds. It can be transmitted to humans through inhalation of dried secretions or feces from infected birds, and less commonly, through direct contact with infected birds or their environments. The disease is characterized by symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle aches, cough, and pneumonia. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, heart inflammation, and even death if left untreated. It's important to note that psittacosis is treatable with antibiotics, and early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for a favorable prognosis.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is a medical term that refers to a type of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It's a gram-negative, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a range of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. It's a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections.

The bacterium is known for its ability to produce a polysaccharide capsule that makes it resistant to phagocytosis by white blood cells, allowing it to evade the host's immune system. Additionally, "Klebsiella pneumoniae" has developed resistance to many antibiotics, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat and a growing public health concern.

Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as the pneumococcus, is a gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic bacterium frequently found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy individuals. It is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and can also cause other infectious diseases such as otitis media (ear infection), sinusitis, meningitis, and bacteremia (bloodstream infection). The bacteria are encapsulated, and there are over 90 serotypes based on variations in the capsular polysaccharide. Some serotypes are more virulent or invasive than others, and the polysaccharide composition is crucial for vaccine development. S. pneumoniae infection can be treated with antibiotics, but the emergence of drug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs. These infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or, less commonly, fungi.

RTIs are classified into two categories based on their location: upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). URTIs include infections of the nose, sinuses, throat, and larynx, such as the common cold, flu, laryngitis, and sinusitis. LRTIs involve the lower airways, including the bronchi and lungs, and can be more severe. Examples of LRTIs are pneumonia, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis.

Symptoms of RTIs depend on the location and cause of the infection but may include cough, congestion, runny nose, sore throat, difficulty breathing, wheezing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Treatment for RTIs varies depending on the severity and underlying cause of the infection. For viral infections, treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, while antibiotics may be prescribed for bacterial infections.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Community-acquired infections are those that are acquired outside of a healthcare setting, such as in one's own home or community. These infections are typically contracted through close contact with an infected person, contaminated food or water, or animals. Examples of community-acquired infections include the common cold, flu, strep throat, and many types of viral and bacterial gastrointestinal infections.

These infections are different from healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), which are infections that patients acquire while they are receiving treatment for another condition in a healthcare setting, such as a hospital or long-term care facility. HAIs can be caused by a variety of factors, including contact with contaminated surfaces or equipment, invasive medical procedures, and the use of certain medications.

It is important to note that community-acquired infections can also occur in healthcare settings if proper infection control measures are not in place. Healthcare providers must take steps to prevent the spread of these infections, such as washing their hands regularly, using personal protective equipment (PPE), and implementing isolation precautions for patients with known or suspected infectious diseases.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

I. Definition:

An abortion in a veterinary context refers to the intentional or unintentional termination of pregnancy in a non-human animal before the fetus is capable of surviving outside of the uterus. This can occur spontaneously (known as a miscarriage) or be induced through medical intervention (induced abortion).

II. Common Causes:

Spontaneous abortions may result from genetic defects, hormonal imbalances, infections, exposure to toxins, trauma, or other maternal health issues. Induced abortions are typically performed for population control, humane reasons (such as preventing the birth of a severely deformed or non-viable fetus), or when the pregnancy poses a risk to the mother's health.

III. Methods:

Veterinarians may use various methods to induce abortion depending on the species, stage of gestation, and reason for the procedure. These can include administering drugs that stimulate uterine contractions (such as prostaglandins), physically removing the fetus through surgery (dilation and curettage or hysterectomy), or using techniques specific to certain animal species (e.g., intrauterine infusion of hypertonic saline in equids).

IV. Ethical Considerations:

The ethics surrounding veterinary abortions are complex and multifaceted, often involving considerations related to animal welfare, conservation, population management, and human-animal relationships. Veterinarians must weigh these factors carefully when deciding whether to perform an abortion and which method to use. In some cases, legal regulations may also influence the decision-making process.

V. Conclusion:

Abortion in veterinary medicine is a medical intervention that can be used to address various clinical scenarios, ranging from unintentional pregnancy loss to deliberate termination of pregnancy for humane or population control reasons. Ethical considerations play a significant role in the decision-making process surrounding veterinary abortions, and veterinarians must carefully evaluate each situation on a case-by-case basis.

Microviridae is a family of small, icosahedral ssDNA viruses that infect various types of bacteria. The genome of these viruses is non-enveloped and consists of a single molecule of circular DNA. Microviridae includes several genera, such as Microvirus, Gokushovirinae, and Alphatetravirinae, which are characterized by different genome organizations and host ranges. These viruses typically have a simple structure, consisting of an icosahedral capsid that encapsidates the genetic material. They are important models for studying the fundamental principles of virus replication and evolution.

Chlamydiaceae infections are caused by bacteria belonging to the family Chlamydiaceae, including the species Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae. These bacteria can infect various tissues in the human body and cause a range of diseases.

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide, causing urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, epididymitis, and infertility in both men and women. It can also cause ocular and respiratory tract infections, including trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide.

Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia and bronchitis, as well as pharyngitis, sinusitis, and otitis media. It can also cause chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic pathogen that primarily infects birds but can occasionally cause severe respiratory illness in humans, known as psittacosis or ornithosis.

Diagnosis of Chlamydiaceae infections typically involves nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, which can detect the genetic material of the bacteria in clinical samples. Treatment usually involves antibiotics such as azithromycin or doxycycline, which can eliminate the infection and prevent complications. Prevention measures include safe sexual practices, proper hygiene, and avoiding contact with infected animals.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

'Bird diseases' is a broad term that refers to the various medical conditions and infections that can affect avian species. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or toxic substances and can affect pet birds, wild birds, and poultry. Some common bird diseases include:

1. Avian influenza (bird flu) - a viral infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, decreased appetite, and sudden death in birds.
2. Psittacosis (parrot fever) - a bacterial infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, fever, and lethargy in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
3. Aspergillosis - a fungal infection that can cause respiratory symptoms and weight loss in birds.
4. Candidiasis (thrush) - a fungal infection that can affect the mouth, crop, and other parts of the digestive system in birds.
5. Newcastle disease - a viral infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, neurological signs, and decreased egg production in birds.
6. Salmonellosis - a bacterial infection that can cause diarrhea, lethargy, and decreased appetite in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
7. Trichomoniasis - a parasitic infection that can affect the mouth, crop, and digestive system in birds.
8. Chlamydiosis (psittacosis) - a bacterial infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, lethargy, and decreased appetite in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
9. Coccidiosis - a parasitic infection that can affect the digestive system in birds.
10. Mycobacteriosis (avian tuberculosis) - a bacterial infection that can cause chronic weight loss, respiratory symptoms, and skin lesions in birds.

It is important to note that some bird diseases can be transmitted to humans and other animals, so it is essential to practice good hygiene when handling birds or their droppings. If you suspect your bird may be sick, it is best to consult with a veterinarian who specializes in avian medicine.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Klebsiella infections are caused by bacteria called Klebsiella spp., with the most common species being Klebsiella pneumoniae. These gram-negative, encapsulated bacilli are normal inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory tract but can cause various types of infections when they spread to other body sites.

Commonly, Klebsiella infections include:

1. Pneumonia: This is a lung infection that can lead to symptoms like cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and fever. It often affects people with weakened immune systems, chronic lung diseases, or those who are hospitalized.

2. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Klebsiella can cause UTIs, particularly in individuals with compromised urinary tracts, such as catheterized patients or those with structural abnormalities. Symptoms may include pain, burning during urination, frequent urges to urinate, and lower abdominal or back pain.

3. Bloodstream infections (bacteremia/septicemia): When Klebsiella enters the bloodstream, it can cause bacteremia or septicemia, which can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition characterized by an overwhelming immune response to infection. Symptoms may include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and rapid breathing.

4. Wound infections: Klebsiella can infect wounds, particularly in patients with open surgical wounds or traumatic injuries. Infected wounds may display redness, swelling, pain, pus discharge, and warmth.

5. Soft tissue infections: These include infections of the skin and underlying soft tissues, such as cellulitis and abscesses. Symptoms can range from localized redness, swelling, and pain to systemic symptoms like fever and malaise.

Klebsiella infections are increasingly becoming difficult to treat due to their resistance to multiple antibiotics, including carbapenems, which has led to the term "carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae" (CRE) or "carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae" (CRKP). These infections often require the use of last-resort antibiotics like colistin and tigecycline. Infection prevention measures, such as contact precautions, hand hygiene, and environmental cleaning, are crucial to controlling the spread of Klebsiella in healthcare settings.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Pneumococcal infections are illnesses caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus. This bacterium can infect different parts of the body, including the lungs (pneumonia), blood (bacteremia or sepsis), and the covering of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis). Pneumococcal infections can also cause ear infections and sinus infections. The bacteria spread through close contact with an infected person, who may spread the bacteria by coughing or sneezing. People with weakened immune systems, children under 2 years of age, adults over 65, and those with certain medical conditions are at increased risk for developing pneumococcal infections.

Chlamydia infections are caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis and can affect multiple body sites, including the genitals, eyes, and respiratory system. The most common type of chlamydia infection is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that affects the genitals.

In women, chlamydia infections can cause symptoms such as abnormal vaginal discharge, burning during urination, and pain in the lower abdomen. In men, symptoms may include discharge from the penis, painful urination, and testicular pain or swelling. However, many people with chlamydia infections do not experience any symptoms at all.

If left untreated, chlamydia infections can lead to serious complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women, which can cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy. In men, chlamydia infections can cause epididymitis, an inflammation of the tube that carries sperm from the testicles, which can also lead to infertility.

Chlamydia infections are diagnosed through a variety of tests, including urine tests and swabs taken from the affected area. Once diagnosed, chlamydia infections can be treated with antibiotics such as azithromycin or doxycycline. It is important to note that treatment only clears the infection and does not repair any damage caused by the infection.

Prevention measures include practicing safe sex, getting regular STI screenings, and avoiding sharing towels or other personal items that may come into contact with infected bodily fluids.

I'm happy to help, but I want to clarify that the term "sheep diseases" refers to a wide range of health issues that can affect sheep populations. It's not a single medical condition with a specific definition. Here are some examples of common diseases that can affect sheep:

1. Ovine Johne's Disease (OJD): A chronic, infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It affects the intestines and can cause weight loss, diarrhea, and death.
2. Footrot: A highly contagious bacterial infection that affects the feet of sheep, causing lameness, swelling, and pain. It's caused by the bacteria Dichelobacter nodosus.
3. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. It affects the lymph nodes and can cause abscesses, weight loss, and death.
4. Contagious Ecthyma (Orf): A highly contagious viral infection that affects the skin and mucous membranes of sheep, causing sores and lesions.
5. Mastitis: An inflammation of the mammary gland in sheep, usually caused by a bacterial infection. It can cause decreased milk production, fever, and loss of appetite.
6. Pneumonia: A respiratory infection that can affect sheep, causing coughing, difficulty breathing, and fever. It can be caused by various bacteria or viruses.
7. Enterotoxemia: A potentially fatal disease caused by the overproduction of toxins in the intestines of sheep, usually due to a bacterial infection with Clostridium perfringens.
8. Polioencephalomalacia (PEM): A neurological disorder that affects the brain of sheep, causing symptoms such as blindness, circling, and seizures. It's often caused by a thiamine deficiency or excessive sulfur intake.
9. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection that can affect sheep, causing abortion, stillbirth, and neurological symptoms.
10. Blue tongue: A viral disease that affects sheep, causing fever, respiratory distress, and mouth ulcers. It's transmitted by insect vectors and is often associated with climate change.

Chlamydia is a bacterial infection caused by the species Chlamydia trachomatis. It is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) worldwide. The bacteria can infect the genital tract, urinary tract, eyes, and rectum. In women, it can also infect the reproductive organs and cause serious complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy.

Chlamydia is often asymptomatic, especially in women, which makes it easy to spread unknowingly. When symptoms do occur, they may include abnormal vaginal or penile discharge, burning sensation during urination, pain during sexual intercourse, and painful testicular swelling in men. Chlamydia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including urine tests and swab samples from the infected site.

The infection is easily treated with antibiotics, but if left untreated, it can lead to serious health complications. It's important to get tested regularly for STIs, especially if you are sexually active with multiple partners or have unprotected sex. Prevention methods include using condoms during sexual activity and practicing good personal hygiene.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

An aborted fetus refers to a developing human organism that is expelled or removed from the uterus before it is viable, typically as a result of an induced abortion. An abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally ends a pregnancy and can be performed through various methods, depending on the stage of the pregnancy.

It's important to note that the term "abortion" is often used in different contexts and may carry different connotations depending on one's perspective. In medical terminology, an abortion refers specifically to the intentional ending of a pregnancy before viability. However, in other contexts, the term may be used more broadly to refer to any spontaneous or induced loss of a pregnancy, including miscarriages and stillbirths.

The definition of "viable" can vary, but it generally refers to the point at which a fetus can survive outside the uterus with medical assistance, typically around 24 weeks of gestation. Fetal viability is a complex issue that depends on many factors, including the availability and accessibility of medical technology and resources.

In summary, an aborted fetus is a developing human organism that is intentionally expelled or removed from the uterus before it is viable, typically as a result of a medical procedure called an abortion.

There are many diseases that can affect cats, and the specific medical definitions for these conditions can be quite detailed and complex. However, here are some common categories of feline diseases and examples of each:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include:
* Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), also known as feline parvovirus, which can cause severe gastrointestinal symptoms and death in kittens.
* Feline calicivirus (FCV), which can cause upper respiratory symptoms such as sneezing and nasal discharge.
* Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), which can suppress the immune system and lead to a variety of secondary infections and diseases.
* Bacterial infections, such as those caused by Pasteurella multocida or Bartonella henselae, which can cause abscesses or other symptoms.
2. Neoplastic diseases: These are cancerous conditions that can affect various organs and tissues in cats. Examples include:
* Lymphoma, which is a common type of cancer in cats that can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and other organs.
* Fibrosarcoma, which is a type of soft tissue cancer that can arise from fibrous connective tissue.
* Squamous cell carcinoma, which is a type of skin cancer that can be caused by exposure to sunlight or tobacco smoke.
3. Degenerative diseases: These are conditions that result from the normal wear and tear of aging or other factors. Examples include:
* Osteoarthritis, which is a degenerative joint disease that can cause pain and stiffness in older cats.
* Dental disease, which is a common condition in cats that can lead to tooth loss, gum inflammation, and other problems.
* Heart disease, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is a thickening of the heart muscle that can lead to congestive heart failure.
4. Hereditary diseases: These are conditions that are inherited from a cat's parents and are present at birth or develop early in life. Examples include:
* Polycystic kidney disease (PKD), which is a genetic disorder that causes cysts to form in the kidneys and can lead to kidney failure.
* Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which can be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in some cats.
* Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), which is a group of genetic disorders that cause degeneration of the retina and can lead to blindness.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Parrots" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to a group of birds that are known for their ability to mimic human speech. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

A nursing home, also known as a skilled nursing facility, is a type of residential healthcare facility that provides round-the-clock care and assistance to individuals who require a high level of medical care and support with activities of daily living. Nursing homes are designed for people who cannot be cared for at home or in an assisted living facility due to their complex medical needs, mobility limitations, or cognitive impairments.

Nursing homes provide a range of services, including:

1. Skilled nursing care: Registered nurses and licensed practical nurses provide 24-hour medical care and monitoring for residents with chronic illnesses, disabilities, or those recovering from surgery or illness.
2. Rehabilitation services: Physical, occupational, and speech therapists help residents regain strength, mobility, and communication skills after an injury, illness, or surgery.
3. Personal care: Certified nursing assistants (CNAs) help residents with activities of daily living, such as bathing, dressing, grooming, and using the bathroom.
4. Meals and nutrition: Nursing homes provide three meals a day, plus snacks, and accommodate special dietary needs.
5. Social activities: Recreational programs and social events are organized to help residents stay active and engaged with their peers.
6. Hospice care: Some nursing homes offer end-of-life care for residents who require palliative or comfort measures.
7. Secure environments: For residents with memory impairments, specialized units called memory care or Alzheimer's units provide a secure and structured environment to help maintain their safety and well-being.

When selecting a nursing home, it is essential to consider factors such as the quality of care, staff-to-resident ratio, cleanliness, and overall atmosphere to ensure the best possible experience for the resident.

Pneumonia is an infection or inflammation of the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in one or both lungs. It's often caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Accumulated pus and fluid in these air sacs make it difficult to breathe, which can lead to coughing, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. The severity of symptoms can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the underlying cause, the patient's overall health, and age. Pneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics for bacterial pneumonia, antivirals for viral pneumonia, and supportive care like oxygen therapy, hydration, and rest.

Communicable diseases, also known as infectious diseases, are illnesses that can be transmitted from one person to another through various modes of transmission. These modes include:

1. Direct contact: This occurs when an individual comes into physical contact with an infected person, such as touching or shaking hands, or having sexual contact.
2. Indirect contact: This happens when an individual comes into contact with contaminated objects or surfaces, like doorknobs, towels, or utensils.
3. Airborne transmission: Infectious agents can be spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or sings, releasing droplets containing the pathogen into the environment. These droplets can then be inhaled by nearby individuals.
4. Droplet transmission: Similar to airborne transmission, but involving larger respiratory droplets that don't remain suspended in the air for long periods and typically travel shorter distances (usually less than 6 feet).
5. Vector-borne transmission: This occurs when an infected animal or insect, such as a mosquito or tick, transmits the disease to a human through a bite or other means.

Examples of communicable diseases include COVID-19, influenza, tuberculosis, measles, hepatitis B, and malaria. Preventive measures for communicable diseases often involve public health initiatives like vaccination programs, hygiene promotion, and vector control strategies.

I couldn't find a specific medical definition for "Homes for the Aged," as it is more commonly referred to in social work or public health contexts. However, I can provide you with some related information:

"Homes for the Aged" are typically residential facilities designed to provide housing, support services, and care for older adults, often with lower levels of medical needs compared to nursing homes. These facilities might offer assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) such as bathing, dressing, grooming, and managing medications. They can be an alternative to aging in place or moving in with family members.

In a broader public health context, "Homes for the Aged" may fall under the category of congregate housing or assisted living facilities. These settings aim to promote social interaction, autonomy, and independence while offering help with daily tasks and ensuring the safety of their residents.

It is essential to research and visit various facilities to ensure they meet individual needs, preferences, and healthcare requirements when considering Homes for the Aged for yourself or a loved one.

Cross infection, also known as cross-contamination, is the transmission of infectious agents or diseases between patients in a healthcare setting. This can occur through various means such as contaminated equipment, surfaces, hands of healthcare workers, or the air. It is an important concern in medical settings and measures are taken to prevent its occurrence, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Viral pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by viral infection. It primarily affects the upper and lower respiratory tract, leading to inflammation of the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs. This results in symptoms such as cough, difficulty breathing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Common viruses that can cause pneumonia include influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and adenovirus. Viral pneumonia is often milder than bacterial pneumonia but can still be serious, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and fever reduction, while the body fights off the virus. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

... an infectious syndrome involving Chlamydophila pneumoniae". Trends in Microbiology. 14 (11): 474-479. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2006.09 ...
Briefly, it was known as Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and that name is used as an alternate in some sources. In some cases, to ... Medicine portal Chlamydia Pneumoniae cpnhelp.org Type strain of Chlamydopila pneumoniae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... and indirect diagnostic techniques in atypical respiratory infections from Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae ... "Inhibition of apoptosis in neuronal cells infected with Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae". BMC Neuroscience. 9: 13. doi: ...
A more controversial link is that between Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection and atherosclerosis. While this intracellular ... February 1992). "Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in the Helsinki Heart Study ... "Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae as a cause of coronary heart disease: the hypothesis is still untested". Pathogens and ...
Rifamycins, including rifabutin, are useful in the treatment of Chlamydophila pneumoniae (Cpn) infection.[citation needed] ...
The Blue Mountains tree frog is a host of Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mesocoelium. It is also preyed upon by the Australian ...
Liu J, Liu JH (2006). "Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) biosynthesis in Chlamydophila pneumoniae AR39: identification of the ubiD gene ...
Kocazeybek B (August 2003). "Chronic Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection in lung cancer, a risk factor: a case-control study". ...
Atypical bacteria causing pneumonia are Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila pneumoniae (J16.0), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (J15.7), and ... ciprofloxacin Moraxella catarrhalis Chlamydophila pneumoniae - doxycycline Chlamydophila psittaci - erythromycin Mycoplasma ... Streptococcus pneumoniae is a Gram-positive bacterium that often lives in the throat of people who do not have pneumonia. Other ... Streptococcus pneumoniae (J13) is the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia in all age groups except newborn infants. ...
Bacteria are uncommon pathogens but may include Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Bordetella pertussis, ... A small number of cases are due to high levels of air pollution or bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Bordetella ... Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. Damage caused by irritation of the airways leads to inflammation and ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae". European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. BrowZine ... Pneumoniae and M. Pneumoniae with the influenza virus. This was labeled and discussed as a coinfection in correlation to the ...
Although chlamydophila pneumoniae is widespread in most koala populations, the disease is not present on Kangaroo Island due to ...
A number of acute and chronic infections including Chlamydophila pneumoniae, influenza, Helicobacter pylori, and Porphyromonas ...
... such as Chlamydia trachomatis or Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Amann, Rudolf; Springer, Nina; Schönhuber, Wilhelm; Ludwig, Wolfgang ...
... which causes the eye-disease trachoma and the sexually transmitted infection chlamydia Chlamydophila pneumoniae, which causes a ... Of various Chlamydiota that cause human disease, the two most important species are Chlamydia pneumoniae, which causes a type ... The genera have since 2015 been reunited where species belonging to the genus Chlamydophila have been reclassified as Chlamydia ... The Chlamydiaceae originally consisted of one genus, Chlamydia, but in 1999 was split into two genera, Chlamydophila and ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Streptococcal pharyngitis or strep throat is ... The most common is group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes), but others include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus ...
... a chlamydial species common in livestock Chlamydia pneumoniae, also known as Chlamydophila pneumoniae, an airborne chlamydial ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae, E. coli, and Echinococcus with the drug-independent development of this disorder. The pathophysiology ...
... bivia Other microorganisms Chlamydia trachomatis Chlamydophila pneumoniae Mycoplasma genitalium Mycoplasma pneumoniae ... Community-acquired pneumonia due to C. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. pneumoniae, or S. pneumoniae Genital ulcer disease ( ... Acute otitis media caused by H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis or S. pneumoniae. Azithromycin is not, however, a first-line agent ... Extensive use of azithromycin has resulted in growing Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance. Aerobic and facultative Gram- ...
Anecdotal reports of the use of antimicrobial agents against Chlamydophila pneumoniae are favorable, but only one double-blind ... MS patients are more likely to have detectable levels of Chlamydophila pneumoniae DNA in their cerebrospinal fluid, compared to ... though there is only preliminary evidence waiting to be confirmed Antimicrobial agents against Chlamydophila pneumoniae: ... Bagos PG, Nikolopoulos G, Ioannidis A (August 2006). "Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and the risk of multiple sclerosis: a meta ...
Diffuse Mycoplasma pneumoniae Chlamydophila pneumoniae Legionella pneumophilia Focal or nodular Mycobacterium Nocardia Septic ...
... fetus Campylobacter jejuni Campylobacter pylori Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis Chlamydophila Chlamydophila pneumoniae ( ... previously called Chlamydia pneumoniae) Chlamydophila psittaci (previously called Chlamydia psittaci) Clostridium Clostridium ... Mycoplasma Mycoplasma fermentans Mycoplasma genitalium Mycoplasma hominis Mycoplasma penetrans Mycoplasma pneumoniae Mycoplasma ... influenzae Haemophilus parainfluenzae Haemophilus pertussis Haemophilus vaginalis Helicobacter pylori Klebsiella pneumoniae ...
Legionella pneumophila Mycoplasma pneumoniae Chlamydophila pneumoniae Chlamydia psittaci Parasitic infections: Respiratory ... This total only accounts for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae infections and does not account for atypical ... The most common cause of pneumonia is pneumococcal bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae accounts for 2/3 of bacteremic pneumonias ... 50% of patients are colonised with Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Moraxella catarrhalis. Antibiotics have ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae). Compared to earlier antibiotics of the fluoroquinoline class such as ... A double mutant form of S. pneumoniae Gyr A + Par C bearing Ser-81-->Phe and Ser-79-->Phe mutations were eight to sixteen times ... Due to its widespread use, common pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae have developed resistance. In ... Lafredo SC, Foleno BD, Fu KP (1993). "Induction of resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to quinolones in vitro". Chemotherapy ...
Chlamydophila MeSH B03.440.190.190.230.249 - Chlamydophila pneumoniae MeSH B03.440.190.190.230.500 - Chlamydophila psittaci ... Klebsiella pneumoniae MeSH B03.440.450.425.435 - Kluyvera MeSH B03.440.450.425.500 - Morganella MeSH B03.440.450.425.500.500 - ... Klebsiella pneumoniae MeSH B03.660.250.150.410 - Kluyvera MeSH B03.660.250.150.500 - Morganella MeSH B03.660.250.150.500.500 - ... Mycoplasma pneumoniae MeSH B03.440.560.580.553.553.670 - Mycoplasma pulmonis MeSH B03.440.560.580.553.553.720 - Mycoplasma ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae, E. coli, and Echinococcus have been reported to be associated with the development of AGEP in the ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae in 13%, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in 3% of cases; Staphylococcus aureus; Moraxella catarrhalis; and ... Initial work identifying the two common bacterial causes, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae, was performed by ... The organisms most commonly involved are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Other ... Streptococcus pneumoniae is more common in the winter, and it should be suspected in persons aspirating a large number of ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae, formerly known as Chlamydia pneumoniae, is a bacterium that belongs to the phylum Chlamydiae, order ... Larsen, R., Pogliano, K. "Chlamydophila pneumoniae". Microbe Wiki. Retrieved 24 October 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple ... Similarly, M. pneumoniae infection promotes a T helper type 2 response, which is why M pneumoniae-positive patients with asthma ... Thus, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and human rhinoviruses are microbes that play a major role in non-atopic ...
... pneumoniae was classified by its appearance under electron microscopy (EM) and its ability to infect humans, although the EM ... Chlamydophila was recognized by a number of scientists in 1999, with six species in Chlamydophila and three in the original ... "Chlamydophila". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. Retrieved 2011-06-11. Chlamydophila at the U.S. ... Chlamydophila was still mentioned in some databases, but controversial. The merger of the genus Chlamydophila back into the ...
In contrast, older children and teenagers are more likely to acquire Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae than ... infections by atypical bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila can also ... children under five years of age are much less likely to have pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila ... with common bacterial causes including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis ...
Chlamydophila, but this has not been widely accepted. C. felis is closely related to C. pneumoniae (causes pneumonia in humans ... Chlamydophila felis was then reclassified to Chlamydia felis due to dispute on the taxonomic usage of Chlamydophila, which is ... November 2011). "Chlamydophila felis in cats--are the stray cats dangerous source of infection?". Zoonoses and Public Health. ... Chlamydia felis (formerly Chlamydophila felis and before that Chlamydia psittaci var. felis) is a Gram-negative, obligate ...
Pneumonia Outbreak Caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae among US Air Force Academy Cadets, Colorado, USA Kevin A. Fajardo. , ... Pneumonia Outbreak Caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae among US Air Force Academy Cadets, Colorado, USA. ...
Access to Chlamydophila pneumoniae DNA, Real-Time PCR, Qualitative is restricted. Sign up now. ... Access to Chlamydophila pneumoniae DNA, Real-Time PCR, Qualitative is restricted. Sign up now. ... Access to Chlamydophila pneumoniae DNA, Real-Time PCR, Qualitative is restricted. Sign up now. ... Access to Chlamydophila pneumoniae DNA, Real-Time PCR, Qualitative is restricted. Sign up now. ...
The Chlamydophila Pneumoniae Ab (IgG,Iga,IgM) Quest lab test contains 1 test with 4 biomarkers. ... Chlamydophila Pneumoniae Ab (IgG,Iga,IgM) The Chlamydophila Pneumoniae Ab (IgG,Iga,IgM) test contains 1 test with 4 biomarkers ... Chlamydophila pneumoniae Antibodies (IgG, IgA, IgM) - Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a common cause of infantile and community- ... Chlamydophila Pneumoniae Ab (IgG,Iga,IgM) #37111 4 Biomarkers - Specimen Type: Serum - Process Time*: Average 5 to 6 days ...
What does Chlamydophila Pneumoniae have to do with rosacea? What does Chlamydophila Pneumoniae have to do with rosacea? ...
Typical bacterial pathogens that cause the condition include Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-sensitive and -resistant ... Burillo A, Bouza E. Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2010 Mar. 24(1):61-71. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Importantly, K pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are not typical causes of CAP in otherwise healthy hosts. K pneumoniae CAP ... S pneumoniae remains the most common bacterial agent responsible for CAP. The incidence of S pneumoniae pneumonia varies ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae [5] Focal sequential/lobar ± consolidation ± pleural effusion. No cavitation. 7-10 ... C pneumoniae infection usually occurs as part of an outbreak; it should be readily recognizable in the nursing home setting, ... Chlamydia pneumoniae as a new source of infectious outbreaks in nursing homes. JAMA. 1997 Apr 16. 277(15):1214-8. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Chlamydia pneumoniae as a new source of infectious outbreaks in nursing homes. JAMA. 1997 Apr 16. 277(15):1214-8. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
Previous cytomegalovirus or Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and risk of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary ... Chlamydophila pneumoniae* * Coronary Artery Disease / epidemiology * Coronary Artery Disease / microbiology * Coronary Artery ... Previous cytomegalovirus or Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and risk of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary ...
... an infectious syndrome involving Chlamydophila pneumoniae". Trends in Microbiology. 14 (11): 474-479. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2006.09 ...
Serum samples obtained every week starting from the day of admission showed clear-cut seroconversion for C. pneumoniae ... We describe the first published case of acute respiratory distress syndrome due to C. pneumoniae infection successfully treated ... A quick and specific method for the definite diagnosis of Chlamydophila infection should be developed. ... Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen known to infect the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Infection severity ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Mycoplasma pneumoniae. I totally dismissed it being the flu since it didnt hit me like a freight ...
Pneumonia due to Chlamydophila pneumoniae bacteria occurs year round.. *Pneumonia due to Legionella pneumophila bacteria is ... Mycoplasma pneumoniae and atypical pneumonia. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennetts ... Pneumonia due to mycoplasma and chlamydophila bacteria is usually mild. Pneumonia due to legionella gets worse during the first ... Most people with pneumonia due to mycoplasma or chlamydophila get better with the right antibiotics. Legionella pneumonia can ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae is common in school-aged children and young adults.. *Legionella pneumophila is more severe, generally ... Mycoplasma pneumoniae usually infects people under 40 with mild pneumonia symptoms. It commonly causes earaches, headaches, and ... Rare cases of atypical pneumonia are caused by the bacteria Chlamydophila psittaci, which is contracted from infected birds, ... Kishaba, T. (2016, June 13). Community-acquired pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae: How physical and radiological ...
There is a bacteria often associated with sarcoidosis-Chlamydophila pneumoniae. When you get enough vitamin D3 (from the sun or ... These kill Chlamydophila pneumoniae......So it might be that too low vitamin D is causing sarcoidosis. See pg 210 in Vitamin ...
There is a bacteria often associated with sarcoidosis-Chlamydophila pneumoniae. When you get enough vitamin D3 (from the sun or ... These kill Chlamydophila pneumoniae......So it might be that too low vitamin D is causing sarcoidosis. See pg 210 in Vitamin ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae Z500; IOL207, titered (1 EA) #0804392 Log in for Price ...
... pneumoniae was detected using the Quantification of Chlamydophila pneumoniae Major Outer Membrane Protein Gene Advanced kit ( ... Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a potential cause of NEA, since it causes both an acute infection and a chronic persistent ... Additionally, Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection as a cause of noneosinophilic asthma is controversial. This study examined the ... Assessment of the suitability of sample processing and purification strategies for isolation of Chlamydophila pneumoniae DNA. a ...
Gene expression profiles of Chlamydophila pneumoniae during the developmental cycle and iron depletion-mediated persistence. ... responses between the interferon-gamma-induction and iron-limitation models of persistence for Chlamydia pneumoniae. J ...
B. Opitz, S. Förster, A. C. Hocke et al., "Nod1-mediated endothelial cell activation by Chlamydophila pneumoniae," Circulation ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae. 227. Chlamydophila psittaci. 228. Clonorchis sinensis. 409. Clostridium difficile. 229. ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae. 227. Chlamydophila psittaci. 228. Clostridium difficile. 229. Coxiella burnetii (Causes Q fever) ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. A laboratory-designed triplex RT-PCR assay for influenza A, A/H1pdm09 and B ... Multiplexed PCR-testing for nasal bacteria identified H. influenzae in seven subjects and S. pneumoniae in two subjects. Co- ... The AllPlex Respiratory Panel also detected the following bacteria: Streptococcus pneumoniae, non-typeable Haemophilus ...
Don hajan jongngi mait best, indicated for treatment of communityacquired pneumonia due to Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Erectile ... Or Streptococcus pneumoniae in patients, tell your doctor if you are allergic to cephalosporins such as Omnicef. A study ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Contraindications to Lefamulin Use of lefamulin with CYP3A4 substrates that prolong the QT interval, ...
Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection causes coronary endothelial dysfunction in pigs.. Petru Liuba, Erkki Pesonen, Ilari ... Dive into the research topics of Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection causes coronary endothelial dysfunction in pigs.. ...
... other important bacterial causes include Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumonia. In the majority of cases, bacterial ... In children 5 years or older, in addition to S. pneumoniae, other important bacterial causes include Mycoplasma pneumoniae and ... Keywords: Amoxicillin, chest infection, cough, fever, respiratory syncytial virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, tachypnea. ... Keywords: Amoxicillin, chest infection, cough, fever, respiratory syncytial virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, tachypnea. ...
Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Corynebacterium diphtheriae * Clinical presentaion of URI Viral: *Mild to ... Streptococcus pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. pneumoniae *Macrolides, doxycycline, fluoroquinolones *Need to treat for atypical ... rug resistant S. pneumoniae suspected? High dose amoxicillin: 1000mg PO TID *This is being used more and more when pneumo is ... Streptococcus pneumoniae 20%-35% *Haemophilus influenzae 20%-30% *Moraxella catarrhalis ,20%. *No bacterial pathogen found in ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae și Mycoplasma pneumoniae determină o treime din cazurile de PAC la copii, de multe ori fiind ... Pneumoniile atipice sunt cauzate cel mai frecvent de Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae și Legionella pneumophila ... întâlnite fiind Streptococcus pneumoniae și Haemophilus influenzae31. Streptococcus pneumoniae este responsabil pentru două ...
de Ory, F. et al. (2006) Detection of Chlamydophila pneumoniae IgG in paired serum samples: comparison of serological ... Gutiérrez, J. et al. (2002) ELISA test to detect Chlamydophila pneumoniae IgG. J Basic Microbiol. 42,13-8. ... Ngeh, J. and Goodbourn, C. (2005) Chlamydia pneumoniae, Micoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila in Elderly Patients ... Relación entre la enfermedad arterial periférica oclusiva y la infección por Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Med Clin (Bar). 123 (15 ...
... pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, or Mycoplasma pneumoniae [see Indications ... Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, or Mycoplasma pneumoniae [see ... Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Mycoplasma pneumoniae The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is ... influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydophila pneumoniae [see Indications and Usage (1.3)]. ...
  • Typical bacterial pathogens that cause CAP include Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , and Moraxella catarrhalis . (medscape.com)
  • Pneumoniile tipice sunt în general determinate de bacterii extracelulare, cel mai frecvent întâlnite fiind Streptococcus pneumoniae și Haemophilus influenzae 31 . (synevo.ro)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae este responsabil pentru două treimi din toate pneumoniile bacteriene diagnosticate, în timp ce Haemophilus influenzae care poate doar să colonizeze nazofaringele la om 32 , provoacă o varietate de boli infecțioase, cum ar fi otita medie acută, sinuzita , pneumonie, sepsis sau meningită 33 . (synevo.ro)
  • M. catarrhalis is now accepted as the third commonest pathogen of the respiratory tract after Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza . (allaboutheaven.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common organisms isolated from middle ear fluid. (allaboutheaven.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the dominant bacterial microorganisms involved in acute sinusitis, whereas in chronic sinusitis, Staphylococcus aureus and some anaerobic bacteria are the prevailing pathogens. (allaboutheaven.org)
  • The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics of patients with bacteremia due to Moraxella catarrhalis against those with bacteremia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae………………There were eight cases of M. catarrhalis, 110 cases of S. pneumoniae (105 patients) and 22 cases of H. influenzae. (allaboutheaven.org)
  • Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection causes coronary endothelial dysfunction in pigs. (lu.se)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection causes coronary endothelial dysfunction in pigs. (lu.se)
  • Rare cases of atypical pneumonia are caused by the bacteria Chlamydophila psittaci , which is contracted from infected birds, such as parrots, parakeets, and poultry. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pneumoniile atipice sunt cauzate cel mai frecvent de Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Mycoplasma pneumoniae și Legionella pneumophila și reprezintă 15-50% din toate cazurile de PAC34. (synevo.ro)
  • In children 5 years or older, in addition to S. pneumoniae, other important bacterial causes include Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumonia. (benthamscience.com)
  • Brazel D, Kulp B, Bautista G, Bonwit A. Rash and Mucositis Associated With Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae: A Recurrence of MIRM? (ucdavis.edu)
  • Pneumonia caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae often affects people younger than age 40. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pneumonia due to Chlamydophila pneumoniae bacteria occurs year round. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pneumonia due to mycoplasma and chlamydophila bacteria is usually mild. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Acute cholestatic hepatitis revealing Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection without lung involvement in an adult patient. (medscape.com)
  • Chlamydophila pneumoniae Antibodies (IgG, IgA, IgM) - Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a common cause of infantile and community-acquired pneumonia. (ultalabtests.com)
  • M pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia in otherwise healthy patients younger than 40 years. (medscape.com)
  • Isozumi R, Yoshimine H, Morozumi M, Ubukata K, Ariyoshi K. Adult community-acquired pneumonia caused by macrolide resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae. (medscape.com)
  • Wang K, Gill P, Perera R, Thomson A, Mant D, Harnden A. Clinical symptoms and signs for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • Additionally, Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection as a cause of noneosinophilic asthma is controversial. (ersjournals.com)
  • This study examined the prevalence of inflammatory phenotypes and the presence of current C. pneumoniae infection in adults and children with stable and acute asthma. (ersjournals.com)
  • The aetiology of neutrophilic asthma is unknown and is not explained by the presence of current active C. pneumoniae infection. (ersjournals.com)
  • Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a potential cause of NEA, since it causes both an acute infection and a chronic persistent infectious state with reactivation [ 4 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • NA occurs typically in older adults and there is evidence that C. pneumoniae infection might precede the onset of adult asthma, as well as persisting in stable chronic asthmatics [ 8 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • The potential mechanisms include chronic persistence of C. pneumoniae in NEA, or acute infection with clearance of the organism but persistent immune reprogramming that leads to the immunopathology of NEA [ 4 , 10 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Kamizono S, Ohya H, Higuchi S, Okazaki N, Narita M. Three familial cases of drug-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. (medscape.com)
  • Okoli K, Gupta A, Irani F, Kasmani R. Immune thrombocytopenia associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection: a case report and review of literature. (medscape.com)
  • Azumagawa K, Kambara Y, Murata T, Tamai H. Four cases of arthritis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. (medscape.com)
  • Csábi G, Komáromy H, Hollódy K. Transverse myelitis as a rare, serious complication of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. (medscape.com)
  • Narita M. Pathogenesis of neurologic manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. (medscape.com)
  • Initial infection with M. pneumoniae typically causes pharyngitis (sore throat), cough, fever, headache, malaise, runny nose - all the common symptoms of a basic upper respiratory infection. (rawlsmd.com)
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae with atypical stevens-johnson syndrome: a diagnostic challenge. (medscape.com)
  • C. pneumoniae detection may be higher in children or in acute exacerbations of asthma, where there is also heterogeneity of the inflammatory response. (ersjournals.com)
  • The term "typical" CAP refers to a bacterial pneumonia caused by pathogens such as S pneumoniae , H influenzae , and M catarrhalis . (medscape.com)
  • Most people with pneumonia due to mycoplasma or chlamydophila get better with the right antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Don hajan jongngi mait best, indicated for treatment of communityacquired pneumonia due to Chlamydophila pneumoniae. (letspolka.com)
  • A comparative clinical study of macrolide-sensitive and macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in pediatric patients. (medscape.com)
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae usually infects people under 40 with mild pneumonia symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • C. pneumoniae infects lung tissue and elicits an innate immune response that is mediated via TLR2 [ 5 ] and results in neutrophilic inflammation [ 4 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Sputum was assessed for inflammatory cells, and DNA was extracted from sputum cell suspensions and supernatants for C. pneumoniae detection using real-time PCR. (ersjournals.com)
  • Furthermore, the noneosinophilic phenotype of severe asthma is improved by macrolide antibiotics, a class of drugs that are active against C. pneumoniae [ 9 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Khan FY, A yassin M. Mycoplasma pneumoniae associated with severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia: case report and literature review. (medscape.com)
  • The most common bacterial pathogen overall is S pneumoniae , although, in some settings, including in the United States, its incidence is decreasing, possibly owing to vaccination. (medscape.com)
  • Chlamydophila pneumoniae is common in school-aged children and young adults. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial cause across all age groups. (benthamscience.com)
  • The most common mycoplasma, Mycoplasma pneumoniae , has a preference for lung tissue . (rawlsmd.com)
  • Or Streptococcus pneumoniae in patients, tell your doctor if you are allergic to cephalosporins such as Omnicef. (letspolka.com)
  • The absence of a cough, particularly one that is persistent and slowly worsening, makes the diagnosis of M pneumoniae unlikely. (medscape.com)
  • Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are associated with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma (AEBA). (medscape.com)
  • Serology for Chlamydophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae was performed on admission and after 4-8 weeks. (medscape.com)
  • the micro-organisms most commonly involved are viruses and atypical bacteria, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae . (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate a possible correlation between acute Mycoplasma and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and the severity of manifestation of acute asthma exacerbation. (medscape.com)
  • Pneumonia caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae often affects people younger than age 40. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pneumonia due to mycoplasma and chlamydophila bacteria is usually mild. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most people with pneumonia due to mycoplasma or chlamydophila get better with the right antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mycoplasma pneumonia is caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M pn. (limamemorial.org)
  • moderate concordance was found for Mycoplasma pneumoniae ( ĸ =0.64), followed by Haemophilus influenzae ( ĸ =0.42). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Epidemiology and Molecular Identification and Characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, South Africa, 2012-2015. (cdc.gov)
  • Molecular characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in two rural populations of Thailand from 2009-2012. (cdc.gov)
  • Comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae genomes to investigate underlying population structure and type-specific determinants. (cdc.gov)
  • Multi-center evaluation of one commercial and 12 in-house real-time PCR assays for detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. (cdc.gov)
  • Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Type 2 Reference Strain FH Using Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing Technology. (cdc.gov)
  • Epidemiology and Molecular Characteristics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae During an Outbreak of M. pneumoniae-Associated Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • Development of a multiplex taqMan real-time PCR assay for typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae based on type-specific indels identified through whole genome sequencing. (cdc.gov)
  • To determine the impact of initial antimicrobial choice on 30-day mortality rate in patients with community-acquired pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (CAP-SP), a prospective, observational study was conducted in 35 Spanish hospitals. (ersjournals.com)
  • The effect of antimicrobial resistance and subsequent discordant antimicrobial therapy (DAT) on prognosis of community-acquired pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (CAP-SP) has been evaluated in several studies, with conflicting results. (ersjournals.com)
  • [2] [3] Many aerobic bacterial species have been implicated in contributing to infectious adenoid hypertrophy including alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hemolytic Streptococcus species, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae , and Mycoplasma pneumoniae . (statpearls.com)
  • The goal of PERCH is to identify the expected etiologies of pneumonia in 2015, a time when the burden of the major causes of bacterial pneumonia in the developing world, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), will likely be significantly reduced by widespread introduction and use of conjugate vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection has been implicated as a potential risk factor for atherosclerosis, however the mechanism leading to persistent infection and its role in the disease process remains to be elucidated. (nih.gov)
  • Most respiratory infections caused by C. pneumoniae are asymptomatic or mild, although severe complications can occur. (cdc.gov)
  • Illnesses caused by C pneumoniae can cause a prolonged cough, bronchitis, and pneumonia as well as a sore throat, laryngitis, ear infections, and sinusitis. (healthychildren.org)
  • A connection between Chlamydophila infections and coronary heart disease and ateriosclerosis is under research. (univie.ac.at)
  • Pneumonia due to Chlamydophila pneumoniae bacteria occurs year round. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An infection with gram-negative bacterium Chlamydophila pneumoniae can lead to severe diseases like atypical pneumonia, bronchitis, asthma and lung cancer. (univie.ac.at)
  • We previously reported a high degree of variation in the sensitivities of serodiagnostic kits for the detection of Chlamydophila pneumoniae in sera from healthy donors. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Novel and impactful insights are the concordance between NP and BAL detection for M. pneumoniae and H. influenzae and the strong correlation between high adenoviral loads in NP swabs and detection in BAL fluid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several retrospective studies have suggested that the use of a macrolides/β-lactams combination, as part of the initial antimicrobial treatment, for patients with CAP, requiring hospital admission, may shorten the hospital stay 6 , 7 and reduce the mortality rate in comparison with those treated with monotherapy 8 - 10 , even when S. pneumoniae is finally identified as the causative organism 11 - 13 . (ersjournals.com)
  • The respiratory pathogen C. pneumoniae has been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). (nih.gov)
  • Atherosclerotic lesions from 53 coronary endarterectomy and 17 restenotic bypass samples were cultured and subjected to nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for C. pneumoniae. (nih.gov)
  • A significant proportion of atherosclerotic coronary arteries harbor viable C. pneumoniae. (nih.gov)
  • CDC researchers have isolated select Chlamydophila pneumoniae peptide epitopes for development of vaccines and diagnostic assays. (nih.gov)
  • This technology encompasses polypeptide sequences that are specifically recognized by anti- C. pneumoniae antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • The patient, a 68-year-old woman, during the 4 years following the surgical excision of the first PCALCL on her upper right eyelid (July 2011), which microbiolgical and molecular examination previously detected C. pneumoniae and HHV-8, presented at our Dermatology outpatient Unit for the sequential development of five further skin lesions (Table 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This work supports further the use of MOMP in C. pneumoniae as a possible vaccine target and the role of MOMP-derived peptides as vaccine candidates for immune-therapy in chronic inflammation that can result in cardiovascular events. (reading.ac.uk)
  • These findings further support the hypothesis of a potential role of C. pneumoniae and HHV8 infection in the development and course of the described cutaneous lymphoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After gradual illness onset, symptoms due to C. pneumoniae respiratory infection may continue over extended periods. (cdc.gov)
  • Many cases of C pneumoniae are diagnosed by a pediatrician after doing a physical examination of the child and looking at his symptoms. (healthychildren.org)
  • We have previously reported the case of an immunocompetent female patient with a primary cutaneous CD30+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (PCALCL) located on her upper right eyelid characterized by the presence of a concurrent active infection by C. pneumoniae and Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a previous report [ 6 ], we reported the case of an immunocompetent female patient with a primary cutaneous CD30+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (PCALCL) of her upper right eyelid, characterized by the presence of a concurrent active infection by C. pneumoniae and Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deficiency of XIAP Leads to Sensitization for Chlamydophila pneumoniae Pulmonary Infection and Dysregulation of Innate Immune Response in Mice. (mpg.de)
  • Eine Infektion mit dem gramnegativen Bakterium Chlamydophila pneumoniae kann zur Entstehung einiger schwerer Krankheiten, wie atypische Pneumonie, Bronchitis, Asthma, Lungenkrebs führen, selten kommt es auch zu Arthritis. (univie.ac.at)
  • we found single acute C. pneumoniae in 19 cases, single acute M. pneumoniae in 2 cases, and double acute infection in one case. (medscape.com)
  • [ 3 , 10 , 11 ] A recent review indicates that the high proportion of these studies that have reported a link between AEBA and C. pneumoniae and/or M. pneumoniae infection suggests that these pathogens may play a significant role in such exacerbations. (medscape.com)
  • There is evidence to suggest a role for purified MOMP from Chlamydophila pneumoniae and corresponding MOMP-derived peptides in immune-modulation, leading to a reduced atherosclerotic phenotype in apoE−/− mice via a characteristic dampening of MHC class II activity. (reading.ac.uk)
  • S. Karl synthesised imidazole-derivates with a phenoxy-group, which showed growth inhibition against Chlamydophila pneumoniae (diploma thesis S. Karl, University of Vienna, 2013). (univie.ac.at)
  • Is the Subject Area "Chlamydophila pneumoniae" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • To lower the chances of your child getting a C pneumoniae infection, he should practice good hygiene, including frequent hand washing. (healthychildren.org)
  • C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae represent an important cause of human respiratory tract diseases. (medscape.com)
  • Here we report the subsequent course of the same patient's medical history, with particular regard to PCALCL recurrences and concomitant search for C. pneumoniae and HHV8. (biomedcentral.com)