A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE comprising gram-negative non CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS-like species infecting vertebrates. Chlamydophila do not produce detectable quantities of glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.
A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.
A genus of CHLAMYDOPHILA infecting primarily birds. It contains eight known serovars, some of which infect more than one type of host, including humans.
Infection with CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI (formerly Chlamydia psittaci), transmitted to humans by inhalation of dust-borne contaminated nasal secretions or excreta of infected BIRDS. This infection results in a febrile illness characterized by PNEUMONITIS and systemic manifestations.
A family of gram-negative, coccoid microorganisms, in the order CHLAMYDIALES, pathogenic for vertebrates. Genera include CHLAMYDIA and CHLAMYDOPHILA.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
An order of obligately intracellular, gram-negative bacteria that have the chlamydia-like developmental cycle of replication. This is a two-stage cycle that includes a metabolically inactive infectious form, and a vegetative form that replicates by binary fission. Members of Chlamydiales are disseminated by aerosol or by contact. There are at least six recognized families: CHLAMYDIACEAE, Criblamydiaceae, Parachlamydiaceae, Rhabdochlamydia, Simkaniaceae, and Waddliaceae.
A large family of lytic bacteriophages infecting enterobacteria; SPIROPLASMA; BDELLOVIBRIO; and CHLAMYDIA. It contains four genera: MICROVIRUS; Spiromicrovirus; Bdellomicrovirus; and Chlamydiamicrovirus.
Infections with bacteria of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.
Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
One of the largest genera of PARROTS, ranging from South American to Northern Mexico. Many species are commonly kept as house pets.
A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
Assistants to a veterinarian, biological or biomedical researcher, or other scientist who are engaged in the care and management of animals, and who are trained in basic principles of animal life processes and routine laboratory and animal health care procedures. (Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. Some of the more commonly found genera causing conjunctival infections are Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Chlamydia.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
A genus, commonly called budgerigars, in the family PSITTACIDAE. In the United States they are considered one of the five species of PARAKEETS.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.

Randomized secondary prevention trial of azithromycin in patients with coronary artery disease: primary clinical results of the ACADEMIC study. (1/356)

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), although its causal role is uncertain. A small preliminary study reported a >50% reduction in ischemic events by azithromycin, an antibiotic effective against C pneumoniae, in seropositive CAD patients. We tested this prospectively in a larger, randomized, double-blind study. METHODS AND RESULTS: CAD patients (n=302) seropositive to C pneumoniae (IgG titers >/=1:16) were randomized to placebo or azithromycin 500 mg/d for 3 days and then 500 mg/wk for 3 months. The primary clinical end point included cardiovascular death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, unstable angina, and unplanned coronary revascularization at 2 years. Treatment groups were balanced, and azithromycin was generally well tolerated. During the trial, 47 first primary events occurred (cardiovascular death, 9; resuscitated cardiac arrest, 1; MI, 11; stroke, 3; unstable angina, 4; and unplanned coronary revascularization, 19), with 22 events in the azithromycin group and 25 in the placebo group. There was no significant difference in the 1 primary end point between the 2 groups (hazard ratio for azithromycin, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.61; P:=0.74). Events included 9 versus 7 occurring within 6 months and 13 versus 18 between 6 and 24 months in the azithromycin and placebo groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that antibiotic therapy with azithromycin is not associated with marked early reductions (>/=50%) in ischemic events as suggested by an initial published report. However, a clinically worthwhile benefit (ie, 20% to 30%) is still possible, although it may be delayed. Larger (several thousand patient), longer-term (>/=3 to 5 years) antibiotic studies are therefore indicated.  (+info)

Cytomegalovirus seropositivity and C-reactive protein have independent and combined predictive value for mortality in patients with angiographically demonstrated coronary artery disease. (2/356)

BACKGROUND: The role of inflammation in coronary artery disease (CAD) is being increasingly recognized. Markers of inflammation (eg, C-reactive protein [CRP]) and infection (eg, seropositivity to Chlamydia pneumoniae, cytomegalovirus [CMV], and Helicobacter pylori) have been proposed as risk factors for CAD, but these associations require further evaluation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively tested whether CRP levels and IgG seropositivity to C pneumoniae, CMV, and H pylori are predictors of subsequent mortality in 985 consecutive patients with angiographically demonstrated CAD (stenosis >/=70%). Patients were followed for an average of 2.7 years (range 1.5 to 4.0 years). Patients averaged 65 years of age; 77% were men; and 110 (11.2%) died during follow-up. CRP levels were significantly elevated in nonsurvivors compared with survivors (mean CRP 3.1 mg/dL versus 1.5 mg/dL, P:=0.003). After controlling for all known baseline variables, the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of CRP compared with the 1st produced a Cox hazard ratio (HR) for mortality of 2.4 (P:=0.001). Of the 3 infectious markers tested, only seropositivity to CMV (HR=1.9, P:<0.05) was predictive of mortality. The majority of mortality risk associated with elevated CRP or CMV seropositivity occurred when both risk factors were present (P: for trend <0.0001). Other independent predictors of increased risk of mortality were age (HR=1.07 per year, P:<0.0001), left ventricular ejection fraction (HR=0.97 per percent, P:<0.0001), and diabetes mellitus (HR=1.7, P:=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: CMV seropositivity and elevated CRP, especially when in combination, are strong, independent predictors of mortality in patients with CAD. This suggests an interesting hypothesis that a chronic, smoldering infection (CMV) might have the capacity to accelerate the atherothrombotic process.  (+info)

Naturally occurring lesions of the uterine tube in sheep and serologic evidence of exposure to Chlamydophila abortus. (3/356)

The uterine tubes from 405 ewes, collected at an abattoir, were assessed grossly and microscopically for abnormalities that correlated with serological evidence of exposure to Chlamydophila abortus. Gross lesions were found in 41 ewes and 86 had microscopic lesions. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) of serum was used as an indication of exposure of individual ewes to C. abortus; 52 were found to be positive. Chi-squared analysis indicated no association between EIA-positive animals and lesions of the uterine tube.  (+info)

Unstable atherosclerotic plaques contain T-cells that respond to Chlamydia pneumoniae. (4/356)

OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerotic lesions are characterized by an immune mediated chronic inflammation. Seroepidemiological studies support a relationship between atherosclerotic disease and infection with C. pneumoniae; an association further endorsed by immunocytochemical and DNA directed studies. However, the question arises whether C. pneumoniae acts as a causal antigen, or is merely a bystander. For this reason we have analyzed the T lymphocyte population of carotid atherosclerotic plaques of symptomatic patients for their response against C. pneumoniae. METHODS: T cell lines were generated from carotid endarterectomy tissues obtained from eight patients with symptomatic disease. The response of these T cell lines against C. pneumoniae elementary bodies was analyzed by 3H-thymidine incorporation. T cell clones were generated by limiting dilution from the cell lines of three patients and tested for antigen specificity in the same manner. Furthermore, cytokine profiles (Th1/Th0/Th2) were established by measuring the production of IFN-gamma and IL-4. RESULTS: Of the eight T-cell lines five responded to C. pneumoniae. Eighteen of 69 CD4-positive clones, generated from three patients with a positive T cell lines response, responded to C. pneumoniae also. The majority (17/18, 96%) of these clones showed a Th1 cytokine profile. CONCLUSION: These results show that in a subpopulation of symptomatic patients C. pneumoniae can activate T cells within atherosclerotic plaques suggesting that a C. pneumoniae enhanced proinflammatory Th1 response contributes to plaque destabilization in these patients.  (+info)

Cardiovascular infection by Chlamydia pneumoniae is not related to apolipoprotein E genotype. (5/356)

Chlamydia pneumoniae is detectable in the blood vessels of patients suffering from arteriosclerosis. Risk for arteriosclerosis is modulated by the apolipoprotein E (apoE) allele. We assessed the significance of the apoE genotype as a risk factor for vascular C. pneumoniae infection by determining the genotype of 30 coronary heart disease patients with PCR-proven C. pneumoniae infection of coronary artery tissue. The apoE genotype is not distinctly associated with an increased risk for vascular C. pneumoniae infection.  (+info)

Atherosclerosis in apoE knockout mice infected with multiple pathogens. (6/356)

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) possibly contribute to atherosclerosis. Murine CMV (MCMV) and CP increase lesion size in apoE knockout mice. In this study, apoE knockout mice were infected with MCMV and CP to determine whether infection with multiple pathogens increases lesion size to a greater extent than either pathogen alone and whether infection with MCMV changes serum cytokine levels in a manner that could increase lesion development. One group of mice received MCMV at 2 weeks of age, followed by 2 doses of CP at 6 and 8 weeks of age. Additional groups received only MCMV or CP. Animals were killed at 16 weeks of age to determine lesion area. Infection with MCMV alone, CP alone, and both MCMV and CP increased lesion size 84% (P<.001), 70% (P<.0001), and 45% (P<.01), respectively. The MCMV-induced increase in circulating levels of interferon-gamma may have contributed to this increase.  (+info)

Effect of azithromycin on murine arteriosclerosis exacerbated by Chlamydia pneumoniae. (7/356)

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection can exacerbate atherosclerosis in animals. To test the hypothesis that antibiotic therapy inhibits the atherogenic effects of C. pneumoniae infection, 10-week-old apolipoprotein E (ApoE) null mice were infected with C. pneumoniae or placebo, were treated for 2 weeks after infection with azithromycin or placebo, and were killed at 20 weeks of age. Infection did not affect the size of the aortic lesion, and antibiotic treatment had no effect. Another group of mice, 12-week-old ApoE mice, were infected with C. pneumoniae or placebo, were treated for 2 weeks after infection with azithromycin or placebo, and were killed at 26 weeks of age. C. pneumoniae infection increased the size of the lesion in infected mice, but azithromycin did not reduce the size of the aortic lesion in infected mice. Therefore, immediate therapy of acute infection may be necessary to prevent the proatherogenic effects of C. pneumoniae infection.  (+info)

Chlamydia pneumoniae and the lung. (8/356)

Chlamydia pneumoniae is a frequently occurring respiratory pathogen affecting all age groups. It may cause 5-20% of community-acquired pneumonias in adults and children. The organism has also been implicated as an infectious trigger for asthma. Furthermore, new studies suggest that it may play a role in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases including atherosclerosis. However, despite the growing significance of C. pneumoniae as a pathogen, progress is hampered by the lack of standardized diagnostic methods including serology and polymerase chain reaction. This makes it practically impossible for the practitioner to make a specific microbiological diagnosis. The lack of standardized methods has also had an adverse effect on treatment trials. The dependence on serology for diagnosis in treatment studies has generated some questionable results. Unless cultures are performed, microbiological efficacy cannot be assessed and it may never be possible to survey for or document the emergence of resistance.  (+info)

Some common types of Chlamydophila infections include:

1. Pneumonia: Chlamydophila pneumoniae can cause pneumonia, which is an inflammation of the lungs that can lead to fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
2. Trachoma: Chlamydia trachomatis can cause trachoma, a highly contagious eye infection that can lead to blindness if left untreated.
3. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia psittaci can cause PID, an infection of the female reproductive organs that can lead to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy.
4. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia caviae can cause UTIs, which are infections of the urinary tract that can lead to symptoms such as burning during urination and frequent urination.
5. Rectal infections: Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia psittaci can cause rectal infections, which can lead to symptoms such as rectal pain, bleeding, and discharge.

Chlamydophila infections are typically treated with antibiotics, and early treatment can help prevent long-term complications and reduce the risk of transmission to others. It is important to practice safe sex and good hygiene to prevent the spread of these infections.

Psittacosis is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted between animals and humans. It is important to take precautions when handling birds or their droppings to avoid infection. Treatment of psittacosis typically involves antibiotics, and early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Psittacosis is a rare disease, but it is important for veterinarians, avian specialists, and other professionals who work with birds to be aware of the risk of transmission and take appropriate precautions to protect themselves and others.


Veterinary abortion refers to the intentional termination of a pregnancy in an animal, typically a farm or domesticated animal such as a dog, cat, horse, cow, or pig. The procedure is performed by a veterinarian and is usually done for reasons such as unwanted breeding, disease or genetic disorders in the fetus, or to prevent overpopulation of certain species.

Types of Veterinary Abortion:

1. Spontaneous Abortion (Miscarriage): This occurs naturally when the pregnancy is terminated by natural causes such as infection or trauma.
2. Induced Abortion: This is performed by a veterinarian using various methods such as injection of drugs or surgical procedures to terminate the pregnancy.

Methods of Veterinary Abortion:

1. Drug-induced abortion: This method involves administering medication to the animal to cause uterine contractions and expulsion of the fetus.
2. Surgical abortion: This method involves surgical intervention to remove the fetus from the uterus, usually through a small incision in the abdomen.
3. Non-surgical abortion: This method uses a device to remove the fetus from the uterus without making an incision.

Complications and Risks of Veterinary Abortion:

1. Infection: As with any surgical procedure, there is a risk of infection.
2. Hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding can occur during or after the procedure.
3. Uterine rupture: In rare cases, the uterus may rupture during the procedure.
4. Incomplete abortion: In some cases, not all of the fetus may be removed, leading to complications later on.
5. Scarring: Scars may form in the uterus or abdomen after the procedure, which can lead to reproductive problems in the future.

Prevention of Unwanted Pregnancies in Animals:

1. Spaying/neutering: This is the most effective way to prevent unwanted pregnancies in animals.
2. Breeding management: Proper breeding management, including selecting healthy and fertile breeding animals, can help reduce the risk of unwanted pregnancies.
3. Use of contraceptives: Hormonal contraceptives, such as injection or implants, can be used in some species to prevent pregnancy.
4. Behavioral management: In some cases, behavioral management techniques, such as separation or rehoming of animals, may be necessary to prevent unwanted breeding.

Ethical Considerations of Veterinary Abortion:

1. Animal welfare: The procedure should only be performed when necessary and with the intention of improving the animal's welfare.
2. Owner consent: Owners must provide informed consent before the procedure can be performed.
3. Veterinarian expertise: The procedure should only be performed by a licensed veterinarian with experience in the procedure.
4. Alternative options: All alternative options, such as spaying/neutering or rehoming, should be considered before performing an abortion.


Veterinary abortion is a complex issue that requires careful consideration of ethical and practical factors. While it may be necessary in some cases to prevent the suffering of unwanted litters, it is important to approach the procedure with caution and respect for animal welfare. Owners must provide informed consent, and the procedure should only be performed by a licensed veterinarian with experience in the procedure. Alternative options, such as spaying/neutering or rehoming, should also be considered before performing an abortion. Ultimately, the decision to perform a veterinary abortion should be made with the intention of improving the animal's welfare and quality of life.

Chlamydiaceae infections are a group of bacterial infections caused by the bacterium Chlamydia. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the respiratory tract, genitourinary tract, and eyes. Chlamydia is a common cause of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and can also be spread through contact with infected bodily fluids.

Types of Chlamydiaceae Infections:

1. Trachoma: A bacterial eye infection that can lead to blindness if left untreated.
2. Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonia: A type of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
3. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV): A rare and severe STI caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis that affects the lymphatic system.
4. Rectal infections: Chlamydia can infect the rectum and cause symptoms such as rectal pain, bleeding, and discharge.
5. Proctitis: Inflammation of the rectum and anus caused by Chlamydia.
6. Endometritis: Inflammation of the lining of the uterus caused by Chlamydia.
7. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): A condition that affects the reproductive organs in women and can be caused by Chlamydia.
8. Epididymitis: Inflammation of the epididymis, a tube that stores sperm, caused by Chlamydia.

Symptoms of Chlamydiaceae Infections:

The symptoms of Chlamydiaceae infections can vary depending on the type of infection and the individual infected. Common symptoms include:

* Discharge from the eyes or genitals
* Painful urination
* Abnormal vaginal bleeding
* Pain during sex
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Fever
* Headache
* Fatigue
* Abdominal pain
* Nausea and vomiting

Diagnosis of Chlamydiaceae Infections:

Diagnosis of Chlamydiaceae infections is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Laboratory tests may include:

1. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test: A test that detects the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in a sample of cells or tissue.
2. NAAT (nucleic acid amplification test): A test that detects the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis RNA or DNA in a sample of cells or tissue.
3. Culture: A test that grows Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria from a sample of cells or tissue.
4. Immunoassay: A test that detects the presence of antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis in the blood or other body fluids.

Treatment of Chlamydiaceae Infections:

Chlamydiaceae infections are typically treated with antibiotics. The choice of antibiotic depends on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the patient's age, health status, and any allergies they may have. Common antibiotics used to treat Chlamydiaceae infections include:

1. Azithromycin (Z-Pak)
2. Doxycycline
3. Erythromycin
4. Levofloxacin (Levaquin)
5. Ofloxacin (Floxin)
6. Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
7. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)

It is important to note that antibiotics should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional, and the patient should complete the full course of treatment as directed, even if symptoms resolve before finishing the medication. Untreated Chlamydiaceae infections can lead to serious complications, such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and pelvic inflammatory disease.

Prevention of Chlamydiaceae Infections:
To prevent Chlamydiaceae infections, it is important to practice safe sex, including:

1. Using condoms or dental dams for all sexual activities
2. Avoiding sexual contact with anyone who has a Chlamydiaceae infection
3. Getting regularly tested for Chlamydiaceae infections if you are sexually active
4. Informing any sexual partners if you have a Chlamydiaceae infection
5. Using a new condom or dental dam for each sexual activity
6. Avoiding sharing of sex toys
7. Washing your hands after sexual activity
8. Getting vaccinated against Chlamydia trachomatis if you are at high risk for infection.

It is also important to note that Chlamydiaceae infections can be spread from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth, so it is important for pregnant women to be screened and treated for Chlamydiaceae infections if they are positive.

In conclusion, Chlamydiaceae infections are a common cause of genitourinary tract infections and can have serious complications if left untreated. It is important to practice safe sex, get regularly tested, and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. With proper treatment and prevention methods, Chlamydiaceae infections can be effectively managed and the risk of complications reduced.

Examples of Bird Diseases:

1. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu): A viral disease that affects birds and can be transmitted to humans, causing respiratory illness and other symptoms.
2. Psittacosis (Parrot Fever): A bacterial infection caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, which can infect a wide range of bird species and can be transmitted to humans.
3. Aspergillosis: A fungal infection that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
4. Beak and Feather Disease: A viral disease that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing feather loss and beak deformities.
5. West Nile Virus: A viral disease that can affect birds, as well as humans and other animals, causing a range of symptoms including fever, headache, and muscle weakness.
6. Chlamydophila psittaci: A bacterial infection that can infect birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
7. Mycobacteriosis: A bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium avium, which can affect a wide range of bird species, including parrots and other Psittacines.
8. Pacheco's Disease: A viral disease that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
9. Polyomavirus: A viral disease that can affect birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing a range of symptoms including respiratory problems and feather loss.
10. Retinoblastoma: A type of cancer that affects the eyes of birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or treated with proper care and management, including providing a clean and spacious environment, offering a balanced diet, and ensuring access to fresh water and appropriate medical care.


* Fever
* Cough
* Chest pain or tightness
* Shortness of breath
* Headache
* Muscle aches
* Fatigue


* Physical examination
* Complete blood count (CBC)
* Blood cultures
* Chest X-ray
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)


* Antibiotics (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides)
* Supportive care (fluids, oxygen therapy, pain management)


* Vaccination (not available in the US)
* Good hand hygiene
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick


* Most cases of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia are mild and resolve quickly with antibiotic treatment.
* In severe cases, the infection can spread to other parts of the body and cause serious complications such as respiratory failure, sepsis, and meningitis.


* Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) worldwide.
* It is more common in children than adults.
* The incidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection varies by age, with the highest incidence in children under 5 years old.

Sheep diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and environmental factors. Here are some common sheep diseases and their meanings:

1. Scrapie: A fatal neurological disorder that affects sheep and goats, caused by a prion.
2. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP): A contagious respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium ovipneumoniae.
3. Maedi-Visna: A slow-progressing pneumonia caused by a retrovirus, which can lead to OPP.
4. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including sheep and goats.
5. Bloat: A condition caused by gas accumulation in the rumen, which can lead to abdominal pain and death if not treated promptly.
6. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, often caused by bacteria or viruses.
7. Cryptosporidiosis: A diarrheal disease caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, which can be fatal in young lambs.
8. Babesiosis: A blood parasitic disease caused by Babesia oviparasites, which can lead to anemia and death if left untreated.
9. Fascioliasis: A liver fluke infection that can cause anemia, jaundice, and liver damage.
10. Anthrax: A serious bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, which can be fatal if left untreated.

Sheep diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of flocks, as well as the economy of sheep farming. It is important for sheep farmers to be aware of these diseases and take appropriate measures to prevent and control them.

1. Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV): This is a highly contagious virus that weakens the immune system, making cats more susceptible to other infections and cancer.
2. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV): Similar to HIV in humans, this virus attacks the immune system and can lead to a range of secondary infections and diseases.
3. Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP): A viral disease that causes fluid accumulation in the abdomen and chest, leading to difficulty breathing and abdominal pain.
4. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD): A group of conditions that affect the bladder and urethra, including urinary tract infections and kidney stones.
5. Feline Diabetes: Cats can develop diabetes, which can lead to a range of complications if left untreated, including urinary tract infections, kidney disease, and blindness.
6. Feline Hyperthyroidism: An overactive thyroid gland that can cause weight loss, anxiety, and heart problems if left untreated.
7. Feline Cancer: Cats can develop various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, and skin cancer.
8. Dental disease: Cats are prone to dental problems, such as tartar buildup, gum disease, and tooth resorption.
9. Obesity: A common problem in cats, obesity can lead to a range of health issues, including diabetes, arthritis, and heart disease.
10. Behavioral disorders: Cats can develop behavioral disorders such as anxiety, stress, and aggression, which can impact their quality of life and relationships with humans.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or managed with proper care, including regular veterinary check-ups, vaccinations, parasite control, a balanced diet, exercise, and mental stimulation. Additionally, early detection and treatment can significantly improve the outcome for cats with health issues.

Zoonoses (zoonosis) refers to infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans. These diseases are caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, and can be spread through contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.

Examples of Zoonoses

Some common examples of zoonoses include:

1. Rabies: a viral infection that can be transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected animal, typically dogs, bats, or raccoons.
2. Lyme disease: a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread to humans through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis).
3. Toxoplasmosis: a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which can be transmitted to humans through contact with contaminated cat feces or undercooked meat.
4. Leptospirosis: a bacterial infection caused by Leptospira interrogans, which is spread to humans through contact with contaminated water or soil.
5. Avian influenza (bird flu): a viral infection that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected birds or contaminated surfaces.

Transmission of Zoonoses

Zoonoses can be transmitted to humans in a variety of ways, including:

1. Direct contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.
2. Contact with contaminated soil, water, or other environmental sources.
3. Through vectors such as ticks, mosquitoes, and fleas.
4. By consuming contaminated food or water.
5. Through close contact with an infected person or animal.

Prevention of Zoonoses

Preventing the transmission of zoonoses requires a combination of personal protective measures, good hygiene practices, and careful handling of animals and animal products. Some strategies for preventing zoonoses include:

1. Washing hands frequently, especially after contact with animals or their waste.
2. Avoiding direct contact with wild animals and avoiding touching or feeding stray animals.
3. Cooking meat and eggs thoroughly to kill harmful bacteria.
4. Keeping pets up to date on vaccinations and preventative care.
5. Avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, particularly poultry and pork.
6. Using insect repellents and wearing protective clothing when outdoors in areas where vectors are prevalent.
7. Implementing proper sanitation and hygiene practices in animal housing and husbandry.
8. Implementing strict biosecurity measures on farms and in animal facilities to prevent the spread of disease.
9. Providing education and training to individuals working with animals or in areas where zoonoses are prevalent.
10. Monitoring for and reporting cases of zoonotic disease to help track and control outbreaks.


Zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans, posing a significant risk to human health and animal welfare. Understanding the causes, transmission, and prevention of zoonoses is essential for protecting both humans and animals from these diseases. By implementing appropriate measures such as avoiding contact with wild animals, cooking meat thoroughly, keeping pets up to date on vaccinations, and implementing proper sanitation and biosecurity practices, we can reduce the risk of zoonotic disease transmission and protect public health and animal welfare.

The most common bacteria that cause pneumonia are Streptococcus pneumoniae (also known as pneumococcus), Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus. These bacteria can infect the lungs through various routes, including respiratory droplets, contaminated food or water, or direct contact with an infected person.

Symptoms of pneumonia may include cough, fever, chills, shortness of breath, and chest pain. In severe cases, pneumonia can lead to serious complications such as respiratory failure, sepsis, and death.

Diagnosis of pneumonia typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood cultures. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Vaccines are also available to protect against certain types of bacterial pneumonia, particularly in children and older adults.

Preventative measures for bacterial pneumonia include:

* Getting vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly and covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Staying hydrated and getting enough rest
* Quitting smoking, if applicable
* Managing underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes or heart disease

It is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms of pneumonia develop, particularly in high-risk populations. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious complications and improve outcomes for patients with bacterial pneumonia.

1. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE): A viral disease that affects the joints and central nervous system of goats.
2. Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA): A bacterial infection that causes abscesses in the lymph nodes and other organs.
3. Contagious ecthyma (Orf): A viral disease that causes skin lesions and scarring.
4. Goat pox: A viral disease that causes fever, weakness, and skin lesions.
5. Pneumonia: A bacterial or viral infection of the lungs that can be caused by a variety of pathogens.
6. Scabies: A parasitic infestation that causes skin irritation and hair loss.
7. Tetanus: A neurological disorder caused by a bacterial toxin that affects muscle contractions.
8. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection that can cause fever, anemia, and other symptoms in goats.
9. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Bacterial infections of the urinary system that can affect both male and female goats.
10. Vitamin deficiencies: Deficiencies in vitamins such as vitamin A, D, or E can cause a range of health problems in goats, including skin conditions, poor appetite, and weakness.

Goat diseases can be diagnosed through physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment depends on the specific disease and may involve antibiotics, antiviral medications, or supportive care such as fluid therapy and nutritional supplements. Prevention is key in managing goat diseases, and this includes maintaining good hygiene, providing clean water and a balanced diet, and vaccinating goats against common diseases.

Symptoms include:

* Redness and swelling of the conjunctiva
* Discharge (pus) in the eye
* Itching or burning sensation in the eye
* Crusting of the eyelids
* Blurred vision
* Sensitivity to light

Diagnosis is usually made based on symptoms and physical examination, but may require laboratory testing to rule out other causes.

Treatment typically includes antibiotic eye drops or ointments, which can help to clear up the infection within a few days. In severe cases, oral antibiotics may be prescribed. Anti-inflammatory medications may also be used to reduce swelling and discomfort. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with others, can help to prevent the spread of the infection.

Prognosis is generally good, but complications can include corneal ulcers, which can lead to vision loss if left untreated. Recurrent conjunctivitis may occur in some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems or other underlying medical conditions.

Prevention includes good hygiene practices, avoiding close contact with others, and avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or makeup. Vaccination against streptococcal infections can also help to prevent conjunctivitis caused by this type of bacteria.

The symptoms of chlamydia infections can vary depending on the location of the infection. In genital infections, symptoms may include:

* Discharge from the penis or vagina
* Painful urination
* Abnormal bleeding or spotting
* Painful sex
* Testicular pain in men
* Pelvic pain in women

In eye infections, symptoms can include:

* Redness and swelling of the eye
* Discharge from the eye
* Pain or sensitivity to light

In respiratory infections, symptoms may include:

* Cough
* Fever
* Shortness of breath or wheezing

If left untreated, chlamydia infections can lead to serious complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women and epididymitis in men. Chlamydia infections can also increase the risk of infertility and other long-term health problems.

Chlamydia infections are typically diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) or a culture test. Treatment for chlamydia infections typically involves antibiotics, which can effectively cure the infection. It is important to note that sexual partners of someone with a chlamydia infection should also be tested and treated, as they may also have the infection.

Prevention methods for chlamydia infections include safe sex practices such as using condoms and dental dams, as well as regular screening and testing for the infection. It is important to note that chlamydia infections can be asymptomatic, so regular testing is crucial for early detection and treatment.

In conclusion, chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted bacterial infection that can cause serious complications if left untreated. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing long-term health problems and the spread of the infection. Safe sex practices and regular screening are also important for preventing chlamydia infections.

Some common types of eye infections include:

1. Conjunctivitis - a highly contagious infection of the conjunctiva, which is the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inside of the eyelids. It can be caused by bacteria or virus and is commonly known as pink eye.
2. Keratitis - an inflammation of the cornea, which is the clear dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It can be caused by bacteria, virus or fungi.
3. Uveitis - an inflammation of the uvea, which is the layer of tissue between the sclera and retina. It can cause pain, sensitivity to light and blurred vision.
4. Endophthalmitis - a severe infection inside the eye that can cause damage to the lens, retina and other structures. It is usually caused by bacteria or fungi and can be a complication of cataract surgery or other eye procedures.
5. Dacryocystitis - an inflammation of the tear ducts and sac that can cause pain, redness and swelling in the eyelid. It is usually caused by bacteria.

Eye infections can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which may include a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, tonometry and imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scans. Treatment depends on the type of infection and severity of the condition, and may involve antibiotic or antiviral medication, anti-inflammatory medication or surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated eye infections can lead to complications such as vision loss, corneal scarring and even blindness.

There are several different types of conjunctivitis, including:

1. Allergic conjunctivitis: This type is caused by an allergic reaction and is more common in people who have a history of allergies.
2. Bacterial conjunctivitis: This type is caused by a bacterial infection and is often accompanied by a thick discharge and redness of the eye.
3. Viral conjunctivitis: This type is caused by a viral infection and is highly contagious.
4. Chemical conjunctivitis: This type is caused by exposure to chemicals or foreign objects, such as smoke, dust, or pollen.
5. Irritant conjunctivitis: This type is caused by exposure to irritants such as chemicals or foreign objects.

Symptoms of conjunctivitis can include redness and discharge of the eye, itching, burning, and tearing. Treatment typically involves antibiotic eye drops or ointments for bacterial conjunctivitis, anti-inflammatory medication for allergic conjunctivitis, and viral conjunctivitis is usually self-limiting and requires supportive care only.

It's important to note that conjunctivitis can be highly contagious, so it's important to practice good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently, avoiding sharing personal items like towels or makeup, and not touching the eyes. If you suspect you have conjunctivitis, it's important to see a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Some common types of eye neoplasms include:

1. Uveal melanoma: This is a malignant tumor that develops in the uvea, the middle layer of the eye. It is the most common primary intraocular cancer in adults and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
2. Retinoblastoma: This is a rare type of cancer that affects children and develops in the retina. It is usually diagnosed before the age of 5 and is highly treatable with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
3. Conjunctival melanoma: This is a malignant tumor that develops in the conjunctiva, the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye. It is more common in older adults and can be treated with surgery and/or radiation therapy.
4. Ocular sarcomas: These are rare types of cancer that develop in the eye tissues, including the retina, optic nerve, and uvea. They can be benign or malignant and may require surgical removal or radiation therapy.
5. Secondary intraocular tumors: These are tumors that metastasize (spread) to the eye from other parts of the body, such as breast cancer or lung cancer.

The symptoms of eye neoplasms can vary depending on their location and type, but may include:

* Blurred vision
* Eye pain or discomfort
* Redness or inflammation in the eye
* Sensitivity to light
* Floaters (specks or cobwebs in vision)
* Flashes of light
* Abnormal pupil size or shape

Early detection and treatment of eye neoplasms are important to preserve vision and prevent complications. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI, and biopsy (removing a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options may include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Radiation therapy to kill cancer cells
* Chemotherapy to destroy cancer cells with medication
* Observation and monitoring if the tumor is slow-growing or benign

It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any unusual symptoms in your eye, as early detection and treatment can improve outcomes.

November 2011). "Chlamydophila felis in cats--are the stray cats dangerous source of infection?". Zoonoses and Public Health. ... July 2009). "Chlamydophila felis infection. ABCD guidelines on prevention and management". Journal of Feline Medicine and ... "Chlamydophila felis infection (feline chlamydophilosis) , International Cat Care". icatcare.org. Retrieved 2020-05-07. Marti I ... The infection is not deadly, but if left untreated may cause blindness and pain for the cat. Infection is commonly spread among ...
Harkinezhad, Taher; Geens, Tom; Vanrompay, Daisy (1 March 2009). "Chlamydophila psittaci infections in birds: A review with ... Antonin Morange (1895). De la psittacose ou infection spéciale déterminée par les perruches. Médecine de Paris. Weekly ... ISBN 978-0-262-01603-2. Alexander, E. Russell; Harrison, H. Robert (1982). "9.4 Chlamydial Infections; Psittacosis". In Feldman ... Alfred S.; Feldman, Harry A. (eds.). Bacterial Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control. Springer Science + Business ...
A more controversial link is that between Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection and atherosclerosis. While this intracellular ... Grayston JT, Belland RJ, Byrne GI, Kuo CC, Schachter J, Stamm WE, Zhong G (February 2015). "Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae ... February 1992). "Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in the Helsinki Heart Study ...
Infections proposed include mononucleosis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, human herpesvirus 6, and Lyme disease. Inflammation may be ... Viral infection is a significant risk factor for CFS, with one study finding 22% of people with EBV experience fatigue six ... When it begins suddenly, it often follows a period of infectious-like symptoms or a known infection, and between 20 and 80% of ... "Chronic viral infections in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)". J Transl Med. 16 (1): 268. doi: ...
Kocazeybek B (August 2003). "Chronic Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection in lung cancer, a risk factor: a case-control study". ... Watanabe T, Tada M, Nagai H, Sasaki S, Nakao M (September 1998). "Helicobacter pylori infection induces gastric cancer in ... Ning JY, Shou CC (May 2004). "[Mycoplasma infection and cancer]". AI Zheng = Aizheng = Chinese Journal of Cancer. 23 (5): 602- ... May 2007). "Role of Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic inflammation in gastric cancer in the cardia". Japanese Journal ...
"Seroprevalence of Chlamydophila abortus infection in yaks (Bos grunniens) in Qinghai, China". Tropical Animal Health and ... C. abortus infection generally remains unapparent until an animal aborts late in gestation or gives birth to a weak or dead ... "Chlamydophila abortus". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-03-25. Thomson, NR.; Yeats, C.; Bell, K.; Holden, MT.; Bentley, SD.; ... May 2005). "The Chlamydophila abortus genome sequence reveals an array of variable proteins that contribute to interspecies ...
"Epizootic abortion related to infections by Chlamydophila abortus and Chlamydophila pecorum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis ... Mohamad, Khalil; Rodolakis, Annie (8 December 2009). "Recent advances in the understanding of Chlamydophila pecorum infections ... "Mixed infections with porcine Chlamydia trachomatis/pecorum and infections with ruminant Chlamydia psittaci serovar 1 ... "Simultaneous differential detection of Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum and Coxiella burnetii from aborted ...
"Simultaneous use of direct and indirect diagnostic techniques in atypical respiratory infections from Chlamydophila pneumoniae ... pneumoniae infection in patients with and without lung cancer found results suggesting prior infection was associated with an ... C. pneumoniae infection increases adherence of macrophages to endothelial cells in vitro and aortas ex vivo. However, most ... C. pneumoniae infection triggers acute wheezing, if it becomes chronic then it is diagnosed as asthma. These observations ...
... are useful in the treatment of Chlamydophila pneumoniae (Cpn) infection. Rifabutin is being tested in clinical trials for ... Rifabutin is also used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex disease, a bacterial infection most commonly encountered ... Rifabutin is also being investigated for the treatment of infections caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Acinetobacter ... study administering sub-therapeutic doses of rifabutin in combination therapy to patients not identified with MAP infections, ...
A number of acute and chronic infections including Chlamydophila pneumoniae, influenza, Helicobacter pylori, and Porphyromonas ... Chatzidimitriou D, Kirmizis D, Gavriilaki E, Chatzidimitriou M, Malisiovas N (October 2012). "Atherosclerosis and infection: is ... Charakida M, Tousoulis D (2013). "Infections and atheromatous plaque: current therapeutic implications". Current Pharmaceutical ... or middle-income countries and second only to lower respiratory infections in lower-income countries. Worldwide, more than 3 ...
... or Chlamydophila abortus infection. The relationship(s) of these infections to the development and/or progression of primary ... Gastric Helicobactor pylori infection or Hepatitis C virus infection have been reported to be associated with primary ocular ... One or more of these vaccines may be a promising candidates to control Helicobacter pylori infection in humans as well as farm ... Another key factor in the initiation of many EMZL cases is chronic inflammation caused by a chronic infection or autoimmune ...
... chlamydophila infections MeSH C01.252.400.210.250.600 - psittacosis MeSH C01.252.400.260 - desulfovibrionaceae infections MeSH ... bacteroides infections MeSH C01.252.400.126 - bartonellaceae infections MeSH C01.252.400.126.100 - bartonella infections MeSH ... moraxellaceae infections MeSH C01.252.400.560.022 - acinetobacter infections MeSH C01.252.400.610 - mycoplasmatales infections ... salmonella infections, animal MeSH C01.252.400.310.821.873 - typhoid fever MeSH C01.252.400.310.850 - serratia infections MeSH ...
... an airborne chlamydial species responsible for human respiratory infection and numerous animal infections Chlamydophila ... a chlamydial species found in Guinea pigs Chlamydophila felis, a chlamydial species found in cats Chlamydophila pecorum, a ... another genus of pathogenic bacteria Chlamydophila abortus, a chlamydial species that causes abortion in mammals Chlamydophila ... Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydia may also refer to: ...
Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control Compendium of Measures To Control Chlamydophila psittaci Infection Among ... In the 1980s, NASPHV began to publish Zoonotic Infection Practice Papers, which led to the Compendium of Measures to Prevent ... 2010). Compendium of Measures to Control Chlamydophilia psittaci Infection Among Humans and Pet Birds. "Archived copy" (PDF). ... The purpose of this compendium is to provide information about Chlamydophila psittaci to all those concerned with the control ...
... which causes the eye-disease trachoma and the sexually transmitted infection chlamydia Chlamydophila pneumoniae, which causes a ... The genera have since 2015 been reunited where species belonging to the genus Chlamydophila have been reclassified as Chlamydia ... Corsaro D, Greub G (April 2006). "Pathogenic potential of novel Chlamydiae and diagnostic approaches to infections due to these ... The Chlamydiaceae originally consisted of one genus, Chlamydia, but in 1999 was split into two genera, Chlamydophila and ...
Legionella pneumophila Mycoplasma pneumoniae Chlamydophila pneumoniae Chlamydia psittaci Parasitic infections: Respiratory ... Typical bacterial Infections: Haemophilus influenzae Staphylococcus aureus Klebsiella pneumoniae Atypical bacterial Infections ... "Guidelines for the management of adult lower respiratory tract infections--full version". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. ... Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a term often used as a synonym for pneumonia but can also be applied to other types ...
September 2017). "Compendium of Measures to Control Chlamydia psittaci Infection Among Humans (Psittacosis) and Pet Birds ( ... Chlamydophila was recognized by a number of scientists in 1999, with six species in Chlamydophila and three in the original ... "Chlamydophila". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. Retrieved 2011-06-11. Chlamydophila at the US National ... Chlamydophila was still mentioned in some databases, but controversial. The merger of the genus Chlamydophila back into the ...
... an upper respiratory tract infection, caused by: Bordetella bronchiseptica Chlamydophila felis Feline calicivirus Feline viral ... Feline disease are those infections or diseases that infect cats. Some of these cause symptoms, sickness or the death of the ... fever caused by Rickettsia felis Florida keratopathy Haemophilus felis Head pressing Heart valve dysplasia Hookworm infection ...
The symptoms of CAP are the result of lung infection by microorganisms and the response of the immune system to the infection. ... In contrast, older children and teenagers are more likely to acquire Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae than ... Viral infections weaken the immune system, making the body more susceptible to bacterial infection, including bacterial ... A life-threatening reaction to infection. A common cause of sepsis is bacterial pneumonia, frequently the result of infection ...
Bacterial skin infections include: Impetigo is a highly contagious bacterial skin infection commonly seen in children. It is ... Obligate intracellular parasites (e.g. Chlamydophila, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia) have the ability to only grow and replicate inside ... Streptoccal infections include sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis. These infections can become serious creating a systemic ... Phage therapy, using bacteriophages can also be used to treat certain bacterial infections. Infections can be prevented by ...
... reports have associated infection with Parvovirus B19, mycoplasma, cytomegalovirus, coxsackie B4 virus, Chlamydophila ... Viral infections have also been observed to be associated with the development of SJS, SJS/TEN, and TEN in the absence of a ...
No cause was found for the infection. In 2010 restoration work was undertaken including repairs to the tops of the walls; these ... a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydophila psittaci, at the adjoining King's School. ...
Infections with Parvovirus B19, mycoplasma, cytomegalovirus, coxsackie B4 virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Chlamydophila ... Viral infections have also been observed to be associated with the development of SJS, SJS/TEN, and TEN in the absence of a ... Skin infections, which may lead to sepsis, are potentially lethal complications of AGEP; preventative methods and rapid ... more severe cases are associated with a more persistent disorder that may be complicated by secondary skin infections and/or ...
"Pink eye in sheep and goat" is another infectious keratoconjunctivitis of veterinary concern, mostly caused by Chlamydophila ... "Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis" is caused by an adenovirus infection. "Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis" (IBK) is a ...
Thus, M. pneumonia infection is chronic and persistent. Besides, Nisar et al. (2007) also adds that M. pneumonia infection ... Chlamydophila pneumoniae, formerly known as Chlamydia pneumoniae, is a bacterium that belongs to the phylum Chlamydiae, order ... In children and adults with established asthma, viral upper respiratory tract infections (URIs), especially HRVs infections, ... pneumonia infection. In fact, CD8+ T cells are so important that if it is absent in the host, the C. pneumonia infection would ...
Wheldon, David B.; Stratton, Charles W. (2007-10-01). "Antimicrobial treatment of multiple sclerosis". Infection. 35 (5): 383- ... Wheldon, David B.; Stratton, Charles W. (2006-11-01). "Multiple sclerosis: an infectious syndrome involving Chlamydophila ...
... nocardia infection, some fungal pneumonias, and septic emboli. Schistosomiasis, a parasitic infection, also commonly presents ... Diffuse Mycoplasma pneumoniae Chlamydophila pneumoniae Legionella pneumophilia Focal or nodular Mycobacterium Nocardia Septic ... Most bacterial infections lead to lobar consolidation, while atypical pneumonias may cause GGOs. It is important to note that ... Pneumocystis pneumonia, an infection typically seen in immunocompromised (e.g. patients with AIDS) or immunosuppressed ...
... as the infection in humans can cause significant health problems, and cats who are not otherwise transmitting the infection can ... Chlamydophila felis, and Mycoplasma haemofelis). Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus belong to the ... Researchers studying 553 feral cats in North Florida in the United States tested them for a number of infections that could be ... Lee, I. T.; Levy, J. K.; Gorman, S. P.; Crawford, P. C.; Slater, M. R. (2002). "Prevalence of feline leukemia virus infection ...
... is used to treat infections including: respiratory tract infections, cellulitis, urinary tract infections, ... Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae). Compared to earlier antibiotics of the fluoroquinoline class such as ... urinary tract infections, and abdominal infections. As of 2007 the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) and the ... uncomplicated skin infections, complicated urinary tract infections, and acute pyelonephritis. Levofloxacin is marketed by ...
The infection may last from a few to ten days. The cough may persist for several weeks afterward with the total duration of ... Bacteria are uncommon pathogens but may include Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Bordetella pertussis, ... Although infection is not the reason or cause of chronic bronchitis, it is seen to aid in sustaining the bronchitis. A physical ... In more than 90% of cases, the cause is a viral infection. These viruses may be spread through the air when people cough or by ...
No signs and symptoms of lobar consolidation, meaning that the infection is restricted to small areas, rather than involving a ... At the time that atypical pneumonia was first described, organisms like Mycoplasma, Chlamydophila, and Legionella were not yet ... Chest radiographs (X-ray photographs) often show a pulmonary infection before physical signs of atypical pneumonia are ... "Diagnosis of atypical pathogens in patients hospitalized with community-acquired respiratory infection". Scand. J. Infect. Dis ...
... although in 2006 some scientists still supported the distinctness of Chlamydophila. In 2009 the validity of Chlamydophila was ... Chlamydia infections are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in humans and are the leading cause of ... Most commonly, chlamydial infections do not cause symptoms. However, for men, a burning sensation when urinating is often ... The yield of chlamydial elementary bodies is maximal 36 to 50 hours after infection. A histone like protein HctA and HctB play ...
Bacillus Bartonella Borrelia Brucella Burkholderia Campylobacter Chlamydophila Clostridium Coxiella Ehrlichia Escherichia ... Infection and Immunity. 79 (11): 4286-98. doi:10.1128/IAI.00207-11. PMC 3257917. PMID 21896772. Sobral B, Chunhong Mao, Maulik ...
2021 Chlamydophila Everett, Bush & Andersen 1999 "Ca. Medusoplasma" Viver et al. 2017 List of bacterial orders List of bacteria ... Chlamydia trachomatis is the cause of an infection commonly transmitted sexually (often referred as just "Chlamydia") and also ...
Even so, all age groups are considered susceptible, and anecdotal reports of the infection in neonates have been made. A retro- ... These are symptoms similar to those seen in specimens infected by Chlamydia-specifically Chlamydophila psittaci, the so-called ... like virus infection was suspected as the causative agent of IBD, but identification of highly divergent arenavirus sequences ... with IBD should generally be euthanized to prevent suffering in the snake and to reduce the risk of further infections. All ...
... and thus rarely if ever causes secondary infections. A pulmonary anthrax infection starts with ordinary influenza-like symptoms ... Chlamydophila psittaci, Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, some of the Rickettsiaceae (especially Rickettsia prowazekii ... Barras V, Greub G (June 2014). "History of biological warfare and bioterrorism". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 20 (6): ... Barras V, Greub G (June 2014). "History of biological warfare and bioterrorism". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 20 (6): ...
Most cases are caused by a viral infection. Strep throat, a bacterial infection, is the cause in about 25% of children and 10% ... Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Streptococcal pharyngitis or strep throat is ... Antibiotics are useful if a bacterial infection is the cause of the sore throat. For viral infections, antibiotics have no ... submandibular space infection (Ludwig's angina), and epiglottitis. Some cases of pharyngitis are caused by fungal infection, ...
Parasitic infections include tapeworm cysts, Trichinella spiralis nelsoni in the meat of Nile crocodiles in Zimbabwe, and ... Chlamydia, (specifically Chlamydophila psittaci) can persist for years if not treated, for example with tetracycline. ...
Apr 2003). "Genome sequence of Chlamydophila caviae (Chlamydia psittaci GPIC): examining the role of niche-specific genes in ... caviae and elicit a disease that is very similar to human Chlamydia trachomatis infection. C. caviae infects primarily the ... Chlamydiae.com Type strain of Chlamydophila caviae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Gaede, Wolfgang; Reckling ... "Detection of all Chlamydophila and Chlamydia spp. of veterinary interest using species-specific real-time PCR assays". ...
2005). "The Chlamydophila abortus genome sequence reveals an array of variable proteins that contribute to interspecies ... 2005). "Whole-genome analyses of speciation events in pathogenic Brucellae". Infection and Immunity. 73 (12): 8353-61. doi: ... Feb 2006). "Genome sequence of the cat pathogen, Chlamydophila felis". DNA Res. 13 (1): 15-23. doi:10.1093/dnares/dsi027. PMID ... 2003). "Genome sequence of Chlamydophila caviae (Chlamydia psittaci GPIC): examining the role of niche-specific genes in the ...
"Host selection and parasite infection in Aedes taeniorhynchus, endemic disease vector in the Galápagos Islands". Infection, ... and Chlamydophila status of the waved albatross (Phoebastria irrorata) on the Galapagos Islands". Journal of Zoo and Wildlife ... "Host selection and parasite infection in Aedes taeniorhynchus, endemic disease vector in the Galápagos Islands". Infection, ... Chlamydophila psittaci, and Salmonella spp. in Galapagos Islands columbiformes". Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 35 (1): ...
Chlamydophila psittaci, a parasitic agent that can be passed between avian species, was specifically studied in the saffron ... Otherwise, there were no infections of enteroparasites found in the species. It is important to note that birds that are in ... "Survey on Chlamydophila Psittaci in Captive Ramphastids in São Paulo State, Brazil." Ciência Rural 42.7 (2012): 1249-252. Web ...
This includes middle ear infections, strep throat, pneumonia, traveler's diarrhea, and certain other intestinal infections. ... Legionella pneumophila Anaerobic microorganisms Peptostreptococcus species Prevotella bivia Other microorganisms Chlamydophila ... "Gonococcal Infections - 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines". Archived from the original on 1 March 2016. Burton M, Habtamu E, Ho D, ... Clostridium difficile infection has been reported with use of azithromycin. Azithromycin does not affect the efficacy of birth ...
Molecular evidence of Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection in reptiles in Argentina.. Frutos, María C; Monetti, Marina S; Ré, ... Infecções por Chlamydophila/epidemiologia Infecções por Chlamydophila/microbiologia Chlamydophila pneumoniae/genética ... In the central area of Argentina, the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of Chlamydophila pneumoniae infections in ... Infecções por Chlamydophila/veterinária Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação Reservatórios de Doenças/ ...
CDC Diseases and Conditions: Chlamydophila psittaci Infection [Psittacosis]. *CDC Diseases and Conditions: Escherichia coli ... CDC Diseases and Conditions: Avian Influenza Infection [Bird Flu]. *CDC Diseases and Conditions: Campylobacter jejuni Infection ... Infections and resultant health effects may occur due to exposures to biological agents including viruses (e.g., avian ... West Nile Virus Infection among Turkey Breeder Farm Workers - Wisconsin, 2002. JAMA 2003; 290(21):2793-2796. ...
... common bacterial infections of liver, lungs and kidneys; chlamydophila infection; or intestinal parasites. ... Trott KA, Stacy BA, Lifland BD, Diggs HE, Harland RM, Khokha MK, Characterization of a Mycobacterium ulcerans-like infection in ... liflandii infection. To avoid further spread of this disease, every new outbreak of M. liflandii infection in pipid frogs or ... To prevent the infection of existing stocks with wild-caught frogs of unknown origin, we further recommend the importation of ...
Psittacosis is an infection caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, a type of bacteria found in the droppings of birds. Birds spread ... Psittacosis is an infection caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, a type of bacteria found in the droppings of birds. Birds spread ... The infection is treated with antibiotics. Doxycycline is used first. Other antibiotics that may be given include:. *Macrolides ... Psittacosis infection develops when you breathe in (inhale) the bacteria. People between 30 to 60 years are commonly affected. ...
"Chlamydophila pneumoniae Infection and Its Role in Neurological Disorders.". Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2010;2010:273573 ... Chlamydia pneumoniae infection results in generalized bone loss * Chlamydophila pneumoniae inhibits differentiation of ... Microbes and Infection…. Microbes and Infection. Volume 20, Issues 7-8, August-September 2018, Pages 416-423 ... Chronic Bacterial and Viral Infections in Neurodegenerative and Neurobehavioral Diseases, Garth L. Nicolson, PhD ...
Chlamydia Infections (‎1)‎ Chlamydophila pneumoniae (‎1)‎. Cytomegalovirus Infections (‎1)‎... View MoreDate Issued2008 (‎1)‎ ... Prognostic value of infection and inflammation markers for late cardiac events in an Iranian sample  Sarrafzadegan, N.; ...
We used PCR-EIA to improve detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and to differentiate C. pn … ... Chlamydophila pneumoniae / genetics * Chlamydophila pneumoniae / isolation & purification* * Community-Acquired Infections / ... pneumoniae infection from other chlamydial infections. Cultures of throat swab specimens from four patients yielded Chlamydia ... As PCR-EIA was more sensitive than was culture for detecting C. pneumoniae infection in this study, this method may be a ...
Chlamydial infection can cause disease in many organ systems, including the genitourinary tract. Chlamydiae are small gram- ... They include the genera Chlamydia (of which the type species is Chlamydia trachomatis) and Chlamydophila (eg, Chlamydophila ... C psittaci infection is spread by bird droppings and aerosols and causes psittacosis. These infections are not discussed in ... CDC estimates that that there were four million chlamydial infections in 2018. [13] Chlamydial infection is the most frequently ...
Chlamydia pneumoniae Infections. Chlamydophila Infection. Infection, Chlamydia pneumoniae. Infection, Chlamydophila. Tree ... Infections à Chlamydophila Entry term(s):. Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection. ... Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.. Allowable Qualifiers:. BL blood. CF cerebrospinal fluid. CI chemically ... Chlamydophila Infections Entry term(s). Chlamydophila Infection Infection, Chlamydophila Chlamydia pneumoniae Infections - ...
The presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) psittaci insmall mammals ( Insectivora, Rodentia ) in the region ... The presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) psittaci insmall mammals (Insectivora, Rodentia) in the region of ... Chlamydial infections were found in 251 individuals (prevalence 12.9 %) of 8 mammal species. The antichlamydial antibodies were ... Each serum was examined by micromethod of complement binding reactions using antigen Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) psittaci. ...
Epithelial cells infected with Chlamydophila pneumoniae (Chlamydia pneumoniae) are resistant to apoptosis. Infection and ... Kepp, O.; Rajalingam, K.; Kimmig, S.; Rudel, T.: Bak and Bax are non-redundant during infection- and DNA damage-induced ... infection induced apoptosis. Annual Meeting of the Deutsche-Gesellschaft-fur-Zellbiologie, Heidelberg, GERMANY, March 16, 2005 ... Bim and Bmf Synergize To Induce Apoptosis in Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Infection. PLoS Pathogens 5 (3), e1000348 (2009) ...
Feline chlamydiosis caused by Chlamydophila felis infection.. *Feline leukemia disease complex caused by feline leukemia virus ... Bordetella - A bacterial infection that can cause or contribute to a kennel cough. ... It causes upper respiratory tract infections as well as fever, liver failure, kidney failure and ocular disease. ...
Role of Chlamydophila Pneumoniae Infection.................................................................685 Chapter 23 The ... Download Infections and Sepsis Development in PDF, Epub, and Kindle. Infection is a common clinical condition that may cause ... SARS is a newly identified human infection caused by a corona virus unlike any other known human or animal virus in its family ... It then goes on to cover a wide spectrum of salient features involved in viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal infections and ...
AmpliSens® Mycoplasma pneumoniae/Chlamydophila pneumoniae-FRT Cat. Number: R-B42-4x(RG)-CE ... Intestinal infections Neuro-Infections Oncological disease Respiratory infections Purulent septic infections TORCH-infections ... Hepatitis viruses infections Herpes-Virus Infections HIV and HIV-associated infections Human Papilloma virus Infections ... Especially dangerous infections *Bacillus anthracis. *Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii ...
A prolonged antibiotic protocol to treat persistent Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection improves the extracranial venous ... A prolonged antibiotic protocol to treat persistent Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection improves the extracranial venous ...
Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and mixed infection was diagnosed in 198 (10.6%), 102 (5.5%), and 32 (1.7%) ... complication rate was 7.1 % (5/70) with a post-ERCP pancreatitis rate of 4.3 % (3/70). Complications included infection ( ... The clinical picture of pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae is hardly specific, with basic ... Interstitial inflammatory changes were most frequently observed.\n\nConclusions: Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila ...
Infection-specific dosing for Vibramycin, Doryx (doxycycline), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, ... Psittacosis (ornithosis) caused by Chlamydophila psittaci. *Indicated for respiratory tract infections caused by the following ... Respiratory Tract Infections. Indications. *Respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. * ... Do not use this product to treat any infection, including viral infections (such as the common cold, flu). Use this medication ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Description of the Pathogen. Influenza A:. *Influenza A is a type of virus that causes influenza (the ... Clinical symptoms of HMPV infection are similar to those of other viruses that cause upper and lower respiratory infections and ... When you wake up with severe headache, fever and sore throat, chest infection? Concerned it might be the flu, a cold, or Covid- ... RSV infection causes cold-like symptoms such as rhinitis (runny nose, sneezing, or nasal congestion), cough, and, in some cases ...
Uncomplicated gonococcal infections in adults (except anorectal infections in men): 100 mg, by mouth, twice a day for 7 days. ... Chlamydophila psittaci Chlamydia trachomatis Mycoplasma pneumoniae Rickettsiae Treponema pallidum Treponema pallidum subspecies ... Respiratory tract infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae. *Respiratory tract and urinary tract infections caused by ... They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When doxycycline is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, ...
Sometimes upper respiratory infections accompany conjunctivitis. If your cat is sneezing or wheezing and also has red and ... The most common bacterial antagonist is feline chlamydophila, which can be accompanied by upper respiratory symptoms, says the ... In most cases, the infection will be gone in a few weeks. Seeking treatment as soon as you notice symptoms and following all ... Bacteria like Streptococci and Staphylococci can also move in and cause an infection while eyes are weakened by a virus, notes ...
Increased inflammation and impaired resistance to Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection in Dusp1−/− mice: critical role of IL-6. J ... bacteria infection, or polymicrobial peritonitis induction. In DUSP1−/− mice, Gram+[72], Gram-[73, 74], and commensal gut ... DUSP4-deficiency in these mice resulted in susceptibility to Leishmania mexicana infection [58]. Last but not least, results ... MAP kinase phosphatase-2 plays a critical role in response to infection by Leishmania mexicana. PLoS Pathog. 2010, 6: e1001192 ...
... of all lower respiratory tract infections. Tsolia et al identified a viral infection among 65% of hospitalized children with ... Chlamydophila pneumoniae also causes pneumonia. The related organism, C psittaci, is an unusual cause of pneumonia that occurs ... or those with frequent ear infections are at increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease and infection with resistant ... Bacterial infections in this age group are seen on a regular basis. S pneumoniae is by far the most common bacterial cause of ...
Chlamydophila psittaci) case definition; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. ... The serologic findings noted above may also occur as a result of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis or Chlamydia pneumoniae. ... Psittacosis / Ornithosis (Chlamydophila psittaci). 1990 Case Definition. Psittacosis / Ornithosis (Chlamydophila psittaci). ... Psittacosis / Ornithosis (Chlamydophila psittaci) , 2010 Case Definition. * Psittacosis / Ornithosis (Chlamydophila psittaci ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis and Pneumocystis jiroveci. ... will miss some illnesses caused by influenza infection and include some illnesses caused by non-influenza infections.2,17 The ... Infection control and hospital epidemiology: the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 2012, ... Influenza infection can also cause exacerbations of underlying diseases such as chronic lung disease or cardiovascular disease ...
Keywords: Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Human herpesvirus 8, Infection-related ... Infection with Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV). This virus is also called human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8). It is most often found ... KS is caused by infection with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8). Most people infected with HHV-8 dont get KS. [medlineplus.gov] ... KS is the result of infection with a herpesvirus known as Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), or human herpesvirus 8 ...
Invasive Infections. *S. pneumoniae appears to be an important organism in invasive infections in Ghana, being the most ... and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. (Web site). ... Infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and possible carrier ... INVASIVE INFECTIONS. BACTEREMIA. GRAM-POSITIVE COCCUS. AEROGENES. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT STRAINS. KLEBSIELLA OXYTOCA. ALPHA- ... RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS. COMMON BACTERIAL. MENINGITIDIS. PNEUMOCOCCAL PNEUMONIA. INFLUENZAE. COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA. ...
Candidal infections are stable calcium, luo shuhua, call my data. If you agree to see on dangerous risks of drug in pregnant. ... Since chlamydophila felis: lovely place of either agent to recommend some of the information. Mosquitoes and kills off label in ... Molar mass, addis ababa, new vaginal yeast infection can be discontinued. Birth control also evaluated for the pellets when ... Excuse me marque de hardrige vous permettra d, she adopted in human and urinary tract infections. Longbottom and coagulase- ...
  • Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection has been implicated as a potential risk factor for atherosclerosis, however the mechanism leading to persistent infection and its role in the disease process remains to be elucidated. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular evidence of Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection in reptiles in Argentina. (bvsalud.org)
  • We used PCR-EIA to improve detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and to differentiate C. pneumoniae infection from other chlamydial infections. (nih.gov)
  • As PCR-EIA was more sensitive than was culture for detecting C. pneumoniae infection in this study, this method may be a valuable tool for the prompt diagnosis of this infection. (nih.gov)
  • The objective of this study is to determine whether serological evidence of C pneumoniae infection is associated with risk of ischemic stroke. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Conclusions - Serologic evidence of C pneumoniae infection is associated with ischemic stroke risk. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Currently, C. pneumoniae infection of humans has been linked to a wide variety of acute and chronic diseases, such as asthma, endocarditis, atherosclerotic vascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sarcoidosis, reactive arthritis and multiple sclerosis. (nih.gov)
  • The results demonstrate the value of the currently used diagnostic platform in demonstrating C. psittaci infections in both birds and humans but raise questions regarding use of the MIF test for diagnosing human psittacosis. (nih.gov)
  • Psittacosis is an infection caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, a type of bacteria found in the droppings of birds. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Psittacosis infection develops when you breathe in (inhale) the bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 2. Chlamydia psittaci Infection in nongastrointestinal extranodal MALT lymphomas and their precursor lesions. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Multigene methylation analysis of ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma and their relationship to Chlamydophila psittaci infection and clinical characteristics in South Korea. (nih.gov)
  • The prevalence and burden of disease caused by the atypical bacteria ( Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila) are not well defined in South Africa. (who.int)
  • 1. High prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci subclinical infection in Italian patients with Sjögren's syndrome and parotid gland marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT-type. (nih.gov)
  • Chlamydial infections were found in 251 individuals (prevalence 12.9 %) of 8 mammal species. (aaem.pl)
  • The presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) psittaci insmall mammals ( Insectivora, Rodentia ) in the region of East Slovakia are presented. (aaem.pl)
  • 10. Chlamydophila psittaci subclinical infection in chronic polyarthritis. (nih.gov)
  • Avian chlamydiosis can be an inapparent subclinical infection or acute, subacute, or chronic disease of wild and domestic birds characterized by respiratory, digestive, or systemic infection. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The mouse model developed by the authors presents a discovery tool to understand the link between inflammation related to acute infection such as pneumonia and increased risk of cardiovascular disease observed in humans. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Symptoms usually follow an acute viral infection or immunization and include fever, confusion, somnolence and involuntary movements. (nih.gov)
  • C96411 Pediatric Viral Infection C128453 Pediatric Infectious Disease Terminology C128411 Acute Sinusitis Acute Sinusitis Sinusitis lasting less than or equal to thirty days. (nih.gov)
  • Hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases was established in New Zealand on 30 April 2012. (who.int)
  • Today, we'll talk specifically about what your veterinarian is going to test for and how we'll treat upper respiratory infections in cats. (litter-robot.com)
  • Unfortunately, upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) are super common in cats - especially those that were recently adopted or purchased. (litter-robot.com)
  • It causes upper respiratory tract infections as well as fever, liver failure, kidney failure and ocular disease. (joglantanaac.com)
  • All inpatients with suspected respiratory infections who were admitted overnight to the study hospitals were screened daily. (who.int)
  • Indigenous Maori and Pacific peoples (collectively about 20% of the population) are particularly vulnerable to influenza and other respiratory infection-related hospitalizations. (who.int)
  • 11. Chlamydophila psittaci is viable and infectious in the conjunctiva and peripheral blood of patients with ocular adnexal lymphoma: results of a single-center prospective case-control study. (nih.gov)
  • This program integrated services that had been provided via a number of smaller stand-alone contracts: In Vitro and Animal Models for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Tuberculosis (TB) Vaccine Testing and Research Materials, Animal Models for Prevention and Treatment of Hepatitis B & C, Animal Models of Human Viral Infection for Evaluation of Experimental Therapeutics, Schistosomiasis Research Reagent Resource Center, and Filariasis Research Resource Center. (nih.gov)
  • This Alert presents background and frequently asked questions (FAQs) about avian influenza (also known as bird flu) and its risk of infection to humans, particularly to poultry growers and their workers. (cdc.gov)
  • This report summarizes the results of this investigation, which indicate possible non-mosquito transmission among birds and subsequent infection of humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Birds spread the infection to humans. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 17: 106-112. (vmri.hu)
  • Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 18: 315-324. (vmri.hu)
  • Infections and resultant health effects may occur due to exposures to biological agents including viruses (e.g., avian influenza virus and West Nile virus), bacteria (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • Avian chlamydiosis is a systemic, bacterial infection caused by Chlamydia psittaci . (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Reports on zoonotic transmission of Chlamydophila psittaci originating from poultry are incidentally published. (nih.gov)
  • This report describes two distinct and unrelated Salmonella serotype Montevideo outbreaks in the US, which demonstrate the ongoing risk for Salmonella infection from live poultry, particularly those purchased from agricultural feed stores or hatcheries. (cdc.gov)
  • During 2006, state health departments notified CDC of three outbreaks of Salmonella species infections in persons who had been in contact with chicks and other baby poultry (ducklings, goslings, and baby turkeys). (cdc.gov)
  • Collaborative investigative efforts of state, local, and federal public health and agriculture officials linked two outbreaks of Salmonella infections to chicks and ducklings. (cdc.gov)
  • Likewise, 5xFAD mice, which overexpress Aβ, survived infection with Salmonella for up to 96 hours, compared to 60-72 hours for wild-type and 54 hours for APP knockouts. (alzforum.org)
  • Tetracycline has become expensive and difficult to obtain but is still in use as it has a unique ability to penetrate cells and attack infections there. (marvistavet.com)
  • While tetracycline is not able to achieve adequate concentrations for penetration of the central nervous system and thus cannot treat infections in that location, it is able to permeate blood cells to address intracellular parasites as well as the prostate gland to treat infections there. (marvistavet.com)
  • In a nutshell, overexpressing Aβ doubled survival of human brain neuroglioma (H4) cells and C. elegans in the face of a Candida infection. (alzforum.org)
  • Patients with AIDS are especially susceptible to opportunistic infections (usually pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, tuberculosis, candida infections, and cryptococcosis), and the development of malignant neoplasms (usually non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma). (nih.gov)
  • This encouraged us to analyze the zoonotic risk on a Belgian turkey farm, from production onset until slaughter, using a Chlamydophila psittaci diagnostic platform. (nih.gov)
  • CDC researchers have isolated select Chlamydophila pneumoniae peptide epitopes for development of vaccines and diagnostic assays. (nih.gov)
  • In the central area of Argentina , the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of Chlamydophila pneumoniae infections in reptiles are still unknown. (bvsalud.org)
  • A history of urinary tract infections (caused by E coli or Lactobacillus delbrueckii ) and smoking, and possibly use of hormone replacement therapy and hair dye, are risk factors, and clustering of cases in time and space argues for a causative role of environmental agents. (mhmedical.com)
  • The serologic findings noted above may also occur as a result of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis or Chlamydia pneumoniae . (cdc.gov)
  • 3. Is there an association between ocular adnexal lymphoma and infection with Chlamydia psittaci? (nih.gov)
  • 16. [Relationship between primary ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and eye infection]. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusions: These findings suggest the need for further epidemiological and clinical research to elucidate the significance of human ocular Chlamydia suis infections. (ugent.be)
  • If that's the case, then I do recommend doing a complete blood count and chemistry panel to rule out underlying dehydration, anemia, infection (e.g., an increased white blood cell count), viral infections ( FeLV, FIV testing, etc.), or metabolic problems. (litter-robot.com)
  • A chronic, potentially life threatening condition that is caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and is characterized by increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, certain cancers and neurologic disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Which Antibacterial Agent Performs Best for the Treatment and Clearance of Chlamydophila Felis Infection in Cats? (veterinaryevidence.org)
  • use ANTIMICROBIAL CATIONIC PEPTIDES (NM) to search MICROBICIDAL CATIONIC PROTEINS 1981-2000 BX - Microbicidal Cationic Proteins FX - Blood Bactericidal Activity MH - Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active UI - D023241 MN - E2.319.310.75 MS - Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively supress HIV replication. (nih.gov)
  • NF-kappa B and inhibitor of apoptosis proteins are required for apoptosis resistance of epithelial cells persistently infected with Chlamydophila pneumoniae. (mpg.de)
  • Background and Purpose - Serologic evidence of infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae has been associated with cardiovascular disease, but its relationship with stroke risk remains uncertain. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Infections behind these barriers can be difficult to treat. (marvistavet.com)
  • To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of doxycycline capsules and other antibacterial drugs, doxycycline capsules should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • M. liflandii infection in frogs manifests as cutaneous lesions, coelomitis, and bloating, with a high death rate ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A CBC would show an elevated white blood cell count indicating a possible infection. (cram.com)
  • It is present in the GI tract (small intestine) of 1.2-1.5 billion individuals in tropical and subtropical areas, making it the most common nematode infection in the world. (medscape.com)
  • Our findings suggest the emerging potential of this infection through international trade. (cdc.gov)
  • We find a larger potential for recombination in Chlamydophila pneumoniae genomes as compared with Chlamydia trachomatis or Chlamydia muridarum. (pasteur.fr)