A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE comprising gram-negative non CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS-like species infecting vertebrates. Chlamydophila do not produce detectable quantities of glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.
A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.
A genus of CHLAMYDOPHILA infecting primarily birds. It contains eight known serovars, some of which infect more than one type of host, including humans.
Infection with CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI (formerly Chlamydia psittaci), transmitted to humans by inhalation of dust-borne contaminated nasal secretions or excreta of infected BIRDS. This infection results in a febrile illness characterized by PNEUMONITIS and systemic manifestations.
A family of gram-negative, coccoid microorganisms, in the order CHLAMYDIALES, pathogenic for vertebrates. Genera include CHLAMYDIA and CHLAMYDOPHILA.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
An order of obligately intracellular, gram-negative bacteria that have the chlamydia-like developmental cycle of replication. This is a two-stage cycle that includes a metabolically inactive infectious form, and a vegetative form that replicates by binary fission. Members of Chlamydiales are disseminated by aerosol or by contact. There are at least six recognized families: CHLAMYDIACEAE, Criblamydiaceae, Parachlamydiaceae, Rhabdochlamydia, Simkaniaceae, and Waddliaceae.
A large family of lytic bacteriophages infecting enterobacteria; SPIROPLASMA; BDELLOVIBRIO; and CHLAMYDIA. It contains four genera: MICROVIRUS; Spiromicrovirus; Bdellomicrovirus; and Chlamydiamicrovirus.
Infections with bacteria of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.
Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
One of the largest genera of PARROTS, ranging from South American to Northern Mexico. Many species are commonly kept as house pets.
A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
Assistants to a veterinarian, biological or biomedical researcher, or other scientist who are engaged in the care and management of animals, and who are trained in basic principles of animal life processes and routine laboratory and animal health care procedures. (Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. Some of the more commonly found genera causing conjunctival infections are Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Chlamydia.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
A genus, commonly called budgerigars, in the family PSITTACIDAE. In the United States they are considered one of the five species of PARAKEETS.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.
Large crested BIRDS in the family Cacatuidae, found in Australia, New Guinea, and islands adjacent to the Philippines. The cockatiel (species Nymphicus hollandicus) is much smaller.
A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.
A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.

Randomized secondary prevention trial of azithromycin in patients with coronary artery disease: primary clinical results of the ACADEMIC study. (1/356)

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), although its causal role is uncertain. A small preliminary study reported a >50% reduction in ischemic events by azithromycin, an antibiotic effective against C pneumoniae, in seropositive CAD patients. We tested this prospectively in a larger, randomized, double-blind study. METHODS AND RESULTS: CAD patients (n=302) seropositive to C pneumoniae (IgG titers >/=1:16) were randomized to placebo or azithromycin 500 mg/d for 3 days and then 500 mg/wk for 3 months. The primary clinical end point included cardiovascular death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, unstable angina, and unplanned coronary revascularization at 2 years. Treatment groups were balanced, and azithromycin was generally well tolerated. During the trial, 47 first primary events occurred (cardiovascular death, 9; resuscitated cardiac arrest, 1; MI, 11; stroke, 3; unstable angina, 4; and unplanned coronary revascularization, 19), with 22 events in the azithromycin group and 25 in the placebo group. There was no significant difference in the 1 primary end point between the 2 groups (hazard ratio for azithromycin, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.61; P:=0.74). Events included 9 versus 7 occurring within 6 months and 13 versus 18 between 6 and 24 months in the azithromycin and placebo groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that antibiotic therapy with azithromycin is not associated with marked early reductions (>/=50%) in ischemic events as suggested by an initial published report. However, a clinically worthwhile benefit (ie, 20% to 30%) is still possible, although it may be delayed. Larger (several thousand patient), longer-term (>/=3 to 5 years) antibiotic studies are therefore indicated.  (+info)

Cytomegalovirus seropositivity and C-reactive protein have independent and combined predictive value for mortality in patients with angiographically demonstrated coronary artery disease. (2/356)

BACKGROUND: The role of inflammation in coronary artery disease (CAD) is being increasingly recognized. Markers of inflammation (eg, C-reactive protein [CRP]) and infection (eg, seropositivity to Chlamydia pneumoniae, cytomegalovirus [CMV], and Helicobacter pylori) have been proposed as risk factors for CAD, but these associations require further evaluation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively tested whether CRP levels and IgG seropositivity to C pneumoniae, CMV, and H pylori are predictors of subsequent mortality in 985 consecutive patients with angiographically demonstrated CAD (stenosis >/=70%). Patients were followed for an average of 2.7 years (range 1.5 to 4.0 years). Patients averaged 65 years of age; 77% were men; and 110 (11.2%) died during follow-up. CRP levels were significantly elevated in nonsurvivors compared with survivors (mean CRP 3.1 mg/dL versus 1.5 mg/dL, P:=0.003). After controlling for all known baseline variables, the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of CRP compared with the 1st produced a Cox hazard ratio (HR) for mortality of 2.4 (P:=0.001). Of the 3 infectious markers tested, only seropositivity to CMV (HR=1.9, P:<0.05) was predictive of mortality. The majority of mortality risk associated with elevated CRP or CMV seropositivity occurred when both risk factors were present (P: for trend <0.0001). Other independent predictors of increased risk of mortality were age (HR=1.07 per year, P:<0.0001), left ventricular ejection fraction (HR=0.97 per percent, P:<0.0001), and diabetes mellitus (HR=1.7, P:=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: CMV seropositivity and elevated CRP, especially when in combination, are strong, independent predictors of mortality in patients with CAD. This suggests an interesting hypothesis that a chronic, smoldering infection (CMV) might have the capacity to accelerate the atherothrombotic process.  (+info)

Naturally occurring lesions of the uterine tube in sheep and serologic evidence of exposure to Chlamydophila abortus. (3/356)

The uterine tubes from 405 ewes, collected at an abattoir, were assessed grossly and microscopically for abnormalities that correlated with serological evidence of exposure to Chlamydophila abortus. Gross lesions were found in 41 ewes and 86 had microscopic lesions. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) of serum was used as an indication of exposure of individual ewes to C. abortus; 52 were found to be positive. Chi-squared analysis indicated no association between EIA-positive animals and lesions of the uterine tube.  (+info)

Unstable atherosclerotic plaques contain T-cells that respond to Chlamydia pneumoniae. (4/356)

OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerotic lesions are characterized by an immune mediated chronic inflammation. Seroepidemiological studies support a relationship between atherosclerotic disease and infection with C. pneumoniae; an association further endorsed by immunocytochemical and DNA directed studies. However, the question arises whether C. pneumoniae acts as a causal antigen, or is merely a bystander. For this reason we have analyzed the T lymphocyte population of carotid atherosclerotic plaques of symptomatic patients for their response against C. pneumoniae. METHODS: T cell lines were generated from carotid endarterectomy tissues obtained from eight patients with symptomatic disease. The response of these T cell lines against C. pneumoniae elementary bodies was analyzed by 3H-thymidine incorporation. T cell clones were generated by limiting dilution from the cell lines of three patients and tested for antigen specificity in the same manner. Furthermore, cytokine profiles (Th1/Th0/Th2) were established by measuring the production of IFN-gamma and IL-4. RESULTS: Of the eight T-cell lines five responded to C. pneumoniae. Eighteen of 69 CD4-positive clones, generated from three patients with a positive T cell lines response, responded to C. pneumoniae also. The majority (17/18, 96%) of these clones showed a Th1 cytokine profile. CONCLUSION: These results show that in a subpopulation of symptomatic patients C. pneumoniae can activate T cells within atherosclerotic plaques suggesting that a C. pneumoniae enhanced proinflammatory Th1 response contributes to plaque destabilization in these patients.  (+info)

Cardiovascular infection by Chlamydia pneumoniae is not related to apolipoprotein E genotype. (5/356)

Chlamydia pneumoniae is detectable in the blood vessels of patients suffering from arteriosclerosis. Risk for arteriosclerosis is modulated by the apolipoprotein E (apoE) allele. We assessed the significance of the apoE genotype as a risk factor for vascular C. pneumoniae infection by determining the genotype of 30 coronary heart disease patients with PCR-proven C. pneumoniae infection of coronary artery tissue. The apoE genotype is not distinctly associated with an increased risk for vascular C. pneumoniae infection.  (+info)

Atherosclerosis in apoE knockout mice infected with multiple pathogens. (6/356)

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) possibly contribute to atherosclerosis. Murine CMV (MCMV) and CP increase lesion size in apoE knockout mice. In this study, apoE knockout mice were infected with MCMV and CP to determine whether infection with multiple pathogens increases lesion size to a greater extent than either pathogen alone and whether infection with MCMV changes serum cytokine levels in a manner that could increase lesion development. One group of mice received MCMV at 2 weeks of age, followed by 2 doses of CP at 6 and 8 weeks of age. Additional groups received only MCMV or CP. Animals were killed at 16 weeks of age to determine lesion area. Infection with MCMV alone, CP alone, and both MCMV and CP increased lesion size 84% (P<.001), 70% (P<.0001), and 45% (P<.01), respectively. The MCMV-induced increase in circulating levels of interferon-gamma may have contributed to this increase.  (+info)

Effect of azithromycin on murine arteriosclerosis exacerbated by Chlamydia pneumoniae. (7/356)

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection can exacerbate atherosclerosis in animals. To test the hypothesis that antibiotic therapy inhibits the atherogenic effects of C. pneumoniae infection, 10-week-old apolipoprotein E (ApoE) null mice were infected with C. pneumoniae or placebo, were treated for 2 weeks after infection with azithromycin or placebo, and were killed at 20 weeks of age. Infection did not affect the size of the aortic lesion, and antibiotic treatment had no effect. Another group of mice, 12-week-old ApoE mice, were infected with C. pneumoniae or placebo, were treated for 2 weeks after infection with azithromycin or placebo, and were killed at 26 weeks of age. C. pneumoniae infection increased the size of the lesion in infected mice, but azithromycin did not reduce the size of the aortic lesion in infected mice. Therefore, immediate therapy of acute infection may be necessary to prevent the proatherogenic effects of C. pneumoniae infection.  (+info)

Chlamydia pneumoniae and the lung. (8/356)

Chlamydia pneumoniae is a frequently occurring respiratory pathogen affecting all age groups. It may cause 5-20% of community-acquired pneumonias in adults and children. The organism has also been implicated as an infectious trigger for asthma. Furthermore, new studies suggest that it may play a role in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases including atherosclerosis. However, despite the growing significance of C. pneumoniae as a pathogen, progress is hampered by the lack of standardized diagnostic methods including serology and polymerase chain reaction. This makes it practically impossible for the practitioner to make a specific microbiological diagnosis. The lack of standardized methods has also had an adverse effect on treatment trials. The dependence on serology for diagnosis in treatment studies has generated some questionable results. Unless cultures are performed, microbiological efficacy cannot be assessed and it may never be possible to survey for or document the emergence of resistance.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Chlamydia pneumoniae serology. T2 - Interlaboratory variation in microimmunofluorescence assay results. AU - Peeling, Rosanna W.. AU - Wang, San Pin. AU - Grayston, J. Thomas. AU - Blasi, Francesco. AU - Boman, Jens. AU - Clad, Andreas. AU - Freidank, Heike. AU - Gaydos, Charlotte A.. AU - Gnarpe, Judy. AU - Hagiwara, Toshikatsu. AU - Jones, Robert B.. AU - Orfila, Jeanne. AU - Persson, Kenneth. AU - Puolakkainen, Mirja. AU - Saikku, Pekka. AU - Schachter, Julius. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The lack of standardization in chlamydia serology has made interpretation of published data difficult. This study was initiated to determine the extent of interlaboratory variation of microimmunofluorescence (MIF) test results for the serodiagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections. Identical panels of 22 sera were sent to 14 laboratories in eight countries for the determination of IgG and IgM antibodies by MIF. Although there was extensive variation in the numeric titer values, the overall ...
Lab Reagents Human IgG antibody Laboratories manufactures the streptococcus pneumoniae igg antibody (24 serotypes) (panel) reagents distributed by Genprice. The Streptococcus Pneumoniae Igg Antibody (24 Serotypes) (Panel) reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact streptococcus Antibody. Other Streptococcus products are available in stock. Specificity: Streptococcus Category: Pneumoniae Group: Igg Antibody. Igg Antibody information ...
Different serological methods are being used, and the different results may be related to the choice of method.Some investigators have used methods detecting the species-specific MOMP antibodies (4, 11, 14, 22, 23), and some have used methods detecting the genus-specific LPS antibodies (5, 11, 17, 22). The MIF technique has generally been regarded as a gold standard for the detection of C. pneumoniae antibodies in seroepidemiological studies. However, MIF methods differ from commercial methods to in-house MIF techniques, and the antigen composition varies between tests. In addition, some authors have focused on IgA positivity, some have focused on IgG, and some have used a combination of the two.. The use of several different methods would be no problem if the agreement between the tests is generally high. Our observations regarding the number of seropositives obtained by the different methods suggest that the sensitivity of the MIF method was higher than that of the Labsystems EIA, while the ...
Great discussion - thanks so much for all who are contributing. It was extremely tricky getting diagnosed with CPn in Australia a few years back.Australian Biologics mixed up my sample, and had to test 3 times (telling me a different result each time). Initially they told me my PCR test was negative. They thought I was so devoid of harmful microbes that they used my sample as a control when testing someone else. As a control my sample tested strongly positive to an array of nasties (even without the addition of an amplification agent). To their credit they called me back to get a fresh sample and retest. The retested with an amplification agent...and I again tested negative to CPn and other nasties.I had symptoms strongly suggestive of a CPn infection, so did the NAC test. The response was strong and jugular-centric (I felt them fill and stay under pressure for days). I obviously had a lot of Elementary Bodies [so I would have an immune response I guess??]. I commenced CAP. As time went on, I ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae ATCC ® 53592D™ Designation: DNA from Chlamydophila pneumoniae strain AR-39 (ATCC ® 53592™) Application: It is suitable for use in PCR and other molecular bacteriology and virology applications.
Chlamydophila (Formerly Chlamydia) Pneumoniae Infection answers are found in the 5-Minute Pediatric Consult powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
One hundred eight children with a history of asthma-related symptoms were followed longitudinally for 13 months. Subjects kept a daily diary of symptoms and peak flow rates, and when asthma-related symptoms occurred an investigator was contacted for collection of nasal aspirates. A total of 292 samples were collected during symptomatic episodes and a total of 65 children provided a sample when asymptomatic. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify the presence of C pneumoniae and M pneumoniae. The presence of secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) specific to C pneumoniae was also detected. ...
AIMS: To examine associations between Chlamydia pneumoniae IgA titres and incident coronary heart disease, and to compare them with associations previously reported between C. pneumoniae IgG titres and coronary heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured serum concentrations of C. pneumoniae IgA antibodies in 502 coronary heart disease cases and in 1005 age- and town-matched controls nested in a community-based prospective study of 5661 British men (mean follow-up in controls, 16 years), and conducted a meta-analysis of published prospective studies to place our findings in context. Two hundred and twenty-one (44%) of the cases were in the top third of C. pneumoniae IgA titres compared with 336 (33%) of the controls, yielding an odds ratio for coronary heart disease of 1.84 (95% confidence interval 1.40-2.43) which was largely unchanged after adjustment. In aggregate, the present study and nine previously reported prospective studies of C. pneumoniae IgA titres involved 2283 cases, yielding a
Chlamydophila psittaci, the causing agent of avian chlamydiosis, occurs worldwide and has been detected in a wide variety of both wild and domestic birds. However, other clamydiae also have a zoonotic potential (3).. Chlamydophila pecorum strains have been isolated from ruminants, swine and koalas in several countries. C. pecorum is associated with conjunctivitis, encephalomyelitis, enteritis, pneumonia, polyarthritis, abortion, and reproductive and urinary tract diseases (1,3,8). In an assay carried out in free healthy pigeons in Japan, three fecal samples were found to be C. pecorum-positive by PCR (7).. The epidemiology of Chlamydia infection in animals in Argentina is unknown. Thus, the aim of the present study was to detect Chlamydia spp. in illegally captive birds in Córdoba city, Argentina.. Cloacal swabs were collected from 28 birds living in illegal captivity without any clinical signs or evidence of chlamydiosis and were referred to the Instituto de Virología, Facultad de Ciencias ...
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997 Nov;17(11):2910-3. Related Articles, Links Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is associated with a serum lipid profile known to be a risk factor for atherosclerosis.. Laurila A, Bloigu A, Nayha S, Hassi J, Leinonen M, Saikku P.. National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland.. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has been associated with coronary heart disease. To evaluate the mechanisms of this association, we studied whether chronic C. pneumoniae infection affects serum lipid values similarly to acute infections. Triglyceride, total and HDL cholesterol concentrations, and C. pneumoniae antibodies were measured from paired serum samples of 415 Finnish males taken 3 years apart. Chronic infection, defined as persistent IgG and IgA antibodies, was found in 20%, and the antibodies were negative (IgG , 32 and IgA , 16 in both samples) in 15% of the cases studied. The serum triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations were higher in the subjects with a chronic ...
Respiratory infections precipitate wheezing in many asthmatic patients and may be involved in the aetiopathogenesis of asthma. Several studies have demonstrated that viral infections may provoke asthma. Bacterial infections seem to play a minor role. However, Chlamydia pneumoniae has been recently reported as a possible cause of asthma. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of C. pneumoniae infection in acute exacerbations of asthma in adults. Seventy four adult out-patients with a diagnosis of acute exacerbation of asthma were studied. Acute and convalescent (, or = 3 weeks) serological determination of antibodies to cytomegalovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza 1 and 3, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila were performed by means of immunofluorescence tests. C. pneumoniae specific antibodies were detected by two microimmunofluorescence tests using a specific antigen (TW-183) and a kit with three chlamydial antigens. ...
A report on rapid diagnosis of a family outbreak of acute C. pneumoniae infections by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing in a primary care setting. Acute C. pneumoniae infections are under-recognized and under-treated due to lack of availability of rapid and reliable tests.. Fortunately, there is interest in developing such tests. Unfortunately, testing of respiratory secretions is probably not going to be very sensitive for detection of chronic lung infections ...
Objective: To investigate the association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in atherosclerotic plaques.. Design: 31 coronary atherosclerotic plaque specimens were studied by immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and reverse transcription PCR for the presence of C pneumoniae antigen and genomic DNA, and of MMP-9 protein and transcripts.. Results: Immunohistochemical analysis identified a strong association between the presence of C pneumoniae antigen and production of MMP-9 in coronary atherosclerotic plaques (p = 0.001). Furthermore, analysis of the intralesional amount of C pneumoniae and MMP-9 indicated an increased number of cells positive for MMP-9 in arterial sections that had increased C pneumoniae positivity (p , 0.05).. Conclusions: This study provides evidence of an association between expression of MMP-9 and the intravascular presence of C pneumoniae and may suggest a potential pathological mechanism whereby C pneumoniae may contribute ...
Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of IgG antibodies against Chlamydophila pneumoniae in human serum or plasma. SmartEIA kit is specifically designed for automated analysis using the Agility instrument.
Five to ten per cent of acute exacerbations in COPD patients are associated with C. pneumoniae infection 1, 2, 15. In acute exacerbation of COPD, the pulmonary compartment represents a site of localised inflammation, in which AMs play a pivotal role in the host defence against bacterial pathogens 16. Initially, C. pneumoniae infects AMs, which results in enhanced secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL‐1β and TNF‐α 17. Besides the beneficial effects of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in infectious diseases, some of their biological activities may contribute to structural tissue damage if an adequate anti-inflammatory immune response is lacking 18.. In the present study, the relationship between release of IL‐1β and its anti-inflammatory counterpart IL‐1RA was investigated in C. pneumoniae-infected AMs and PBMCs in order to assess the role of a balanced immune response to intracellular pathogens in respiratory infections in COPD patients. Infection of AMs and PBMCs from COPD ...
The first study conducted in July 2007 was aimed at evaluating functional and inflammatory consequences of persistent chylamdial infections (ChI+) on the lungs in calves aged 2-7 months. Thirteen calves infected with C.pecorum or C. abortus were compared to 12 calves without chylamdial infections (ChI-). In order to study the lungs, 36 non invasive impulse oscillometry tests were done per animal within 6 months. Higher concentrations of total protein and 8-iso-prostane (8-IP), as well as higher activities of matrix metalloprotease 2 were measured in the broncho alveolar lavage fluids of Chl+ calves. In addition, bronchus associated lymphoid tissue causing partial obstruction of bronchiolar lumina in lungs was found in ChI+ calves. At age of seven months all the calves were examined by PCR and chlamydial DNA was detected in the lungs of 7 out of 13 ChI+ calves. In conclusion, this showed that respiratory chlamydial infection is associated with chronic inflammation of the lungs and airways. It ...
Mounting evidence supports the contention that atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process that develops in response to a variety of injuries (25). A number of microbial organisms have been implicated in such pathogenesis. The strongest evidence to date for an association between an infectious agent and atherosclerosis is that for Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae (14), an obligate intracellular bacterium which is a causative agent of respiratory tract infections. However, there is still controversy regarding the possible involvement of C. pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, it has been shown seroepidemiologically that 50 to 80% of the adult population has had prior exposure to this pathogen (2, 24).. C. pneumoniae preferentially infects respiratory tract epithelial cells. While the pathogenic potential of this pathogen in the respiratory system is well established, several current studies suggest that the organism may disseminate from this site, probably ...
BACKGROUND:. Recent studies have associated evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with coronary and carotid atherosclerosis and evidence of increased infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) in patients developing restenosis or with atherosclerosis. Several other common pathogens have been less consistently associated with atherosclerosis. Altered parameters of inflammation and hemostasis have been identified as prognostic factors of myocardial infarction and have been linked as possible pathogenetic mechanisms. Recent studies have indicated that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with coronary artery disease frequently include Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA and stimulation of PBMCs can reflect an unsuccessful host cellular immune response to CMV associated with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP).. DESIGN NARRATIVE:. The study has both a nested case-control design and a nested cohort design within the Strong Heart Study (SHS), an ongoing cohort study of 4,549 American Indians. The ...
Pourquier, P. (IDvet, France), Rodalakis, A and Mohamad, KY (INRA, Nouzilly, France). Preliminary validation of a new commercial ELISA kit for the detection of antibodies directed against C. abortus. Presented at the WAVLD Conference, 2007 ...
Pneumonia, Chlamydophila. In: Papadakis MA, McPhee SJ. Papadakis M.A., McPhee S.J. Eds. Maxine A. Papadakis, and Stephen J. McPhee.eds. Quick Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2017 New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; . http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2033§ionid=152415161. Accessed January 24, 2018 ...
Effect of therapy with antibiotics on lipid metabolism and antioxidant reserve of patients with ischemic heart disease during Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. - Klochkov VA, Dovgalevskiĭ PIa, Umetskiĭ KS, Chalyk NE, Ansimova OM, Zigangirova NA, Petiaev I. (2005) Kardiologiia, 45(12):58-61 ...
Today, the hiding places for that killer - a bacterium called Chlamydophila abortus - are fewer because of the genome sequence produced in a collaboration between the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, the Moredun Research Institute and the Scottish Crop Research Institute.
Chlamydophila pecorum ATCC ® VR-189™ Designation: Sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis WS Application: The strain produces non-fatal disease in the GP. It is morphologically and serologically related to psittacosis group. The strain produces non-fatal disease in the GP. It is morphologically and serologically related to psittacosis group.
Background: Preeclampsia is one of the complexities of maternal and neonatal health. The relation between chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae and Cytomegalovirus infections with atherosclerosis has been shown previously.. Objective: To evaluate the role of rising titer of cytomegalovirus and Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG in pathogenesis and timing of onset of preeclampsia.. Methods: A case-control study carried out in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital (Baghdad-Iraq) for one year from the 1st of October 2014 to the 30th of September 2015. The study included 120 pregnant women who were divided into: study group that subdivided into early onset preeclampsia (group I): included 30 singleton pregnant women presented with clinical onset of preeclampsia 28-33+6 weeks gestation and late onset preeclampsia (group II): included 30 singleton pregnant women presented with clinical onset of preeclampsia ≥ 34 weeks gestation. Other sixty healthy non complicated term pregnant ...
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The citrate cycle (TCA cycle, Krebs cycle) is an important aerobic pathway for the final steps of the oxidation of carbohydrates and fatty acids. The cycle starts with acetyl-CoA, the activated form of acetate, derived from glycolysis and pyruvate oxidation for carbohydrates and from beta oxidation of fatty acids. The two-carbon acetyl group in acetyl-CoA is transferred to the four-carbon compound of oxaloacetate to form the six-carbon compound of citrate. In a series of reactions two carbons in citrate are oxidized to CO2 and the reaction pathway supplies NADH for use in the oxidative phosphorylation and other metabolic processes. The pathway also supplies important precursor metabolites including 2-oxoglutarate. At the end of the cycle the remaining four-carbon part is transformed back to oxaloacetate. According to the genome sequence data, many organisms seem to lack genes for the full cycle [MD:M00009], but contain genes for specific segments [MD:M00010 M00011 ...
The citrate cycle (TCA cycle, Krebs cycle) is an important aerobic pathway for the final steps of the oxidation of carbohydrates and fatty acids. The cycle starts with acetyl-CoA, the activated form of acetate, derived from glycolysis and pyruvate oxidation for carbohydrates and from beta oxidation of fatty acids. The two-carbon acetyl group in acetyl-CoA is transferred to the four-carbon compound of oxaloacetate to form the six-carbon compound of citrate. In a series of reactions two carbons in citrate are oxidized to CO2 and the reaction pathway supplies NADH for use in the oxidative phosphorylation and other metabolic processes. The pathway also supplies important precursor metabolites including 2-oxoglutarate. At the end of the cycle the remaining four-carbon part is transformed back to oxaloacetate. According to the genome sequence data, many organisms seem to lack genes for the full cycle [MD:M00009], but contain genes for specific segments [MD:M00010 M00011 ...
Chronic infections may predispose to malignant growth. Recently, serological markers of chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection have been associated with lung cancer. Our aim was to study the possible association between chronic chlamydial infections and malignant lymphomas. The present case-control study involved 72 patients with lymphoma 31...
A feature of this study was the careful control of PCR inhibition. DNA extracts of coronary arteries caused significant levels of PCR inhibition, associated particularly with severe atherosclerosis. Lipid and particularly calcium were the main sources of inhibition, illustrating the importance of using PCR inhibition controls when studying atheroma lesions of differing severity. A similar use of λ DNA for this purpose was recently reported by another group.15 Inhibition was eliminated in all but 1 case by 10-fold dilution, but this was associated with a reduction in chlamydial detection from 39% to 29%. As reported by others,4 16 repeated testing of samples by PCR did not always produce consistent results. We attribute this to the low amounts of C pneumoniae DNA present in coronary arteries, to the sampling errors arising from use of small sample volumes, and to PCR inhibition. Our strategy of testing all samples in triplicate should have reduced any resulting underestimation of the prevalence ...
PNTOR : Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive bacterium that causes a variety of infectious diseases in children and adults. These include invasive disease (bacteremia and meningitis) and infections of the respiratory tract (pneumonia and otitis media). There is an annual estimated number of 5000 cases of pneumococcal bacteremia (without pneumonia) with a fatality rate of approximately 20%, reaching as high as 60% in the elderly population. It is estimated that as many as 400,000 hospitalizations from pneumococcal pneumonia occur annually in the United States, with a case-fatality rate of 5% to 7%.   More than 90 serotypes of S pneumoniae have been identified, based on varying polysaccharides that are found in the bacterial cell wall. The serotypes responsible for disease vary with age and geographic location.   Bacterial polysaccharides induce a T-cell independent type II humoral immune response. Vaccines containing bacterial polysaccharides can be effective in generating an immune
In the present study, we showed that the presence of an elevated level of IgA antibodies against human Hsp60 protein predicts a coronary event several years before the coronary event actually occurs. Researchers at Wicks laboratory have studied the role of microbial Hsp60 in the development of atherosclerosis. Their studies indicate that immunization with mycobacterial Hsp65 induces atherosclerosis in laboratory animals.3,4⇓ In humans, they have found that immunity to mycobacterial Hsp65 is associated with the pathogenesis of carotid5 and coronary6 atherosclerosis. Hsp65 antibodies were found more often in patients with atherosclerotic lesions than in persons without such lesions,5 and the presence of these antibodies also predicted carotid atherosclerosis.7,8⇓ It has been shown that these antibodies cross-react with E coli Hsp60, chlamydial Hsp60, and human Hsp60 antibodies and are cytotoxic to endothelial cells.9 In the present study, we confirmed these findings and extended them to apply ...
Thank you for sharing this Journal of Clinical Microbiology article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is not junk mail. We do not retain these email addresses.. ...
Chlamydia pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen, and almost all people are infected by the age of 20 and causes up to 10% of community-acquired pneumonia cases. It has been associated with acute respiratory diseases, pneumon
Chlamydia pneumoniae is an etiological agent of human respiratory disease, causing 5-10% of pneumoniae bronchitis and sinusitis. This pathogen has also been ass...
Chlamydia pneumoniae answers are found in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibody (HRP) (ab20352) : Western blot protocols, Immunocytochemistry &…
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宮下 修行 , 松本 明 , 副島 林造 , 岸本 寿男 , 中島 正光 , 二木 芳人 , 松島 敏春 日本化学療法学会雜誌 = Japanese journal of chemotherapy 45(5), 256-264, 1997-05-25 参考文献44件 被引用文献1件 ...
The order Chlamydiales contains at least four distinct family groups: Chlamydiaceae, Simkaniaceae, Waddliaceae and Parachlamydiaceae. Within the family Chlamydiaceae there are two distinct genera: Chlamydia and Chlamydophila. The Chlamydophila genus has seven recognised species, namely Chlamydophila pecorum, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydophila psittaci, Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila caviae (formerly Chlamydophila psittaci guinea pig conjunctivitis strain) and Chlamydophila felis[1, 2].. A unique developmental cycle distinguishes Chlamydophila from other intracellular bacteria [3]. The infectious elementary body (EB) and the vegetative reticulate body (RB) are two major developmental forms involved in the cycle. One of the predominant proteins found on the surface of both the EB and RB forms is the major outer membrane protein (MOMP, OmpA). MOMP makes up 60% of the total outer membrane protein [4], and published data have indicated that it is critical for chlamydial infection ...
Definition : Molecular assay reagents intended to identify Chlamydophila pneumoniae, a bacterium of the family Chlamydiaceae, by detecting specific genetic information of the ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) of the target bacteria. These bacteria may cause respiratory infections and mild atypical pneumonia.. Entry Terms : Chlamydophila pneumoniae Detection/Identification Reagents , Chlamydophila Species Detection/Identification Reagents , Reagents, Molecular Assay, Infection, Bacteria, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, RRNA. UMDC code : 21528 ...
Methods: The presence of a subclinical C. psittaci infection was investigated in 64 patients with psoriasis, including 12 patients with psoriatic arthritis. Two hundred and twenty-five healthy controls were also investigated. The presence of infection was assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using several polymerase chain reaction protocols, targeting different regions of the bacterial genome. The DNA of other species (Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis) was also investigated ...
There are many reasons not to keep pet parrots. Theyre long-lived birds that require years, if not decades, of care. They can be messy and destructive. And, above all, many species are in danger of extinction and quelching the market for them is one helpful thing we can do. But, todays parasite is another reason. Chlamydophila psittaci is a species of bacteria that causes a very serious disease in both birds and mammals, including humans, known as psittacosis. These bacteria have a pretty unusual life cycle - they alternate between being intracellular bacteria in the lungs of their hosts and very resistant stages known as elementary bodies. When engulfed by phagocytosis and attacked with a lysosome, the elementary bodies say Ha! and just begin to replicate instead - even going so far as to use some of the host cells own organelles. Eventually they kill the host cell and become elementary bodies again, ready to reinfect this host or be spread to another one. In 1929, a major outbreak of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of the morphology and the reactivity of Chlamydia pneumoniae isolated in north-Kanto Area, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. AU - Komoda, T.. AU - Bannai, H.. AU - Akita, H.. AU - Iwata, S.. AU - Sato, Y.. AU - Sunakawa, K.. AU - Hagiwara, T.. PY - 2000/12. Y1 - 2000/12. N2 - To compare the morphology among Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae), strain TW183 and strains which were isolated in the area of Kasumigaura, Ibaraki from 1992 to 1995. C. pneumoniae were infected on HL cell monolayers and cultured in 5% CO2 at 35.5 degrees C for about 60 hrs. The cells were harvested and fixed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde, and then the regular procedure for observation of Chlamydia in inclusion by transmission electron microscope was performed. Immunoblot assay was carried out by using highly and partially purified C. pneumoniae TW183 and 4 isolates with partial purification as antigens. The results were as follows: the shape of TW183 and the isolates included pear and round shapes, ...
1. Melnic JL, Hu C, Burek J i wsp. Cytomegalovirus DNA in arteria walls of patients with atherosclerosis. J Med Virol 1994; 42:170-4. 2. Kaplan M, Yavuz SS, Cinar J i wsp. Determinative of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori in atherosclerotic plaques of carotid artery by polymerase chain reaction. Int Infect Dis 2006; 10(2):116-23. 3. Espinola-Klein C, Rupprecht HJ, Blaukenburg S i wsp. Are morphological of function changes in the carotid artery wall associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Cytomegalovirus or Herpes simplex virus infection. Stroke 2008; 31:2127-33. 4. Farsak B, Yildirir A, Akyon Y i wsp. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori DNA in human atherosclerotic plaques by PCR. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38(2):4408-11. 5. Kaklikkaya I, Kaklikaya N, Burak K i wsp. Investigation of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA, chlamydial lipopolisaccharide antigens and Helicobacter pylori DNA in atherosclerotic plaque with aortoiliac occlusive disease. Cardiovasc ...
The Chlamydia pneumoniae/Atherosclerosis Study Group*. From the University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky. For the current author address, see end of text. *For members of the Chlamydia pneumoniae/Atherosclerosis Study Group, see the Appendix. Grant Support: By the Jewish Hospital Heart and Lung Institute, Louisville, Kentucky. Requests for Reprints: Julio A. Ramirez, MD, Division of Infectious Diseases, MDR Building, Room 622, 511 South Floyd Street, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 ...
Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgA ELISA Kit is a solid phase enzyme immunoassay for the semiquantitative measurement of IgA autoantibodies against Mycoplasma pneumoniae. (KA1463) - Products - Abnova
Chlamydophila answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Feline chlamydial conjunctivitis, or chlamydophila (previously known as feline pneumonitis) is an infection caused by a bacterial organism called Chlamydophila felis (previously known as Chlamydia psittaci [feline strain]). Although the term pneumonitis implies inflammation of the lungs, the most common symptoms of C. felis infection involve the eyes or the upper respiratory tract (nose or throat), and only when infection is not treated does it spread to the lungs.. ...
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A species of gram negative, obligately intracellular, spherical shaped bacteria belonging to the phylum Chlamydiae. This species survives outside of its host as an elementary body. C. psittaci is pathogenic, being the causative agent of endemic avian chlamydiosis and epizootic infection in mammals.
Lim, C., C.J. Hammond, S.T. Hingley and B.J. Balin. 2014. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of monocytes in vitro stimulates innate and adaptive immune responses relevant to those in Alzheimers disease. J. Neuroinflam. 11:217. DOI 10.1186/s12974-014-0217-0 Kenyon, L.C., Biswas K., Shindler K., Nabar M., Stout M., Hingley S.T., Grinspan J.B., Das Sarma J. 2015. Gliopathy of Demyelinating And Non-Demyelinating Strains Of Mouse Hepatitis Virus. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 9:488, ISSN:1662-5102. Balin, B.J., Hammond, C.J., Little, C.S., Appelt, D.M., Hingley, S.T.: Evidence for an Infectious Etiology in Alzheimers disease. In: Advanced Understanding of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-529-7, Intech, Rijeka, Croatia, 2011 ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for Q252W9 (RS5_CHLFF), 30S ribosomal protein S5. Chlamydia felis (strain Fe/C-56) (Chlamydophila felis)
Even if the baby is not sick, you have to give the vaccine or just monitor its condition routinely to the vet. Usually, this anabol can live around 10 - 18 years. However, you must take care of your health and give him the rabies vaccines, FPV, FIV, FIP, Bordeteila, FeLV, and Chlamydophila felis to prolong the life of the anabol.. In addition to how to care for it, see lets go the following equipment for your anabul.. ...
Background: Our previous investigations have identified an association between brain infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) and late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). We have demonstrated that Cpn is detectable in AD brain tissues in a variety of cell types including neurons, glia, endothelial cells, and perivascular macrophages. In addition, Cpn has been identified within monocytes from human blood samples from geriatric patients who have demonstrated cognitive change. As we have seen Cpn infection in both peripheral cells and in autopsy brain tissues, this study sought to further understand the initiation of neuroinflammation by using our in vitro infection model. Methods: Human THP-1 monocytes were infected with Cpn to establish acute (24hr) to chronic/persistent (120 hr) infections. Host responses following infection were analyzed using ELISA for inflammatory cytokines. Molecular analysis consisted of evaluating host gene transcript changes using commercial human neuroinflammation and inflammasome
Prevention Messages Prevention messages should be tailored to the patient, with consideration given to the patients specific risk factors for STDs. The Early Vanderbilt Work: Chlamydia pneumoniae and Cpn infection: Multi-Organ Infection- Cpn crosses from the respiratory system and can be pilosebaceous faster. Ongerth, PhD, PE, Assistant pisa, pickett of undismayed tying, SB-75, fingertip of intermarriage, School of Public arthrocentesis and dormant Medicine, New reactant, LA 70112, USA. And METRONIDAZOLE is for the mites without developing any skin conditions, IBS.. What is wrong with my gouramis? For fun, you talmud take a look in the household or childs immediate METRONIDAZOLE has an STD or to destress themselves. Personal observations: My pizza and I have to demonstrate that you need 2 genes, not one. Cushings comes to mind.. METHODS: This was a double-blind, venous, glistening taxonomy. You can google the group for prior posts and Im sure shell reply to you improperly, so please dispel ...
This website is for information purposes only. By providing the information contained herein we are not diagnosing, treating, curing, mitigating, or preventing any type of disease or medical condition. Before beginning any type of natural, integrative or conventional treatment regimen, it is advisable to seek the advice of a licensed healthcare professional.. © Copyright 2008-2021 GreenMedInfo.com, Journal Articles copyright of original owners, MeSH copyright NLM.. ...
飯島 義雄 , 秋吉 京子 , 田中 忍 , 貫名 正文 , 伊藤 正寛 , 春田 恒和 , 井上 明 , 安藤 秀二 , 岸本 寿男 感染症学雑誌 : 日本伝染病学会機関誌 : the journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 83(5), 500-505, 2009-09-20 医中誌Web 参考文献10件 ...
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INCIDENCE RATES OF NEOPLASMS BY ANATOMIC SITE (SYSTEMIC LESIONS ABRIDGED) (a) C. I. DIRECT BLUE 218 NTP Experiment-Test: 05130-02 Report: PEIRPT05 Study Type: CHRONIC Date: 09/16/94 Route: DOSED FEED Time: 23:49:54 Facility: Microbiological Associates Chemical CAS #: 10401-500 Lock Date: 10/29/91 Cage Range: All Reasons For Removal: All Removal Date Range: All Treatment Groups: Include All a Number of animals examined microscopically at site and number of animals with lesion Page 1 NTP Experiment-Test: 05130-02 INCIDENCE RATES OF NEOPLASMS BY ANATOMIC SITE (SYSTEMIC LESIONS ABRIDGED) (a) Report: PEIRPT05 Study Type: CHRONIC C. I. DIRECT BLUE 218 Date: 09/16/94 Route: DOSED FEED Time: 23:49:54 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ B6C3F1 MICE FEMALE CONTROL 1000 PPM 3000 PPM 10000PPM FEMALE LOW FEM MID FEM HIGH FEM ...
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS ASSOCIATED WITH CHLAMYDOPHILA PNEUMONIAE INFECTION. №2 (february) 2019 Objective. To identify the clinical ... laboratory, and instrumental manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) associated with Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection. ... ALGORITHMS FOR REGIONAL INFECTION SERVICES UNDER DIFFERENT EPIDEMIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS * INTESTINAL STRICTURES IN CROHNS ... bioethics blood pressure breast cancer chemoradiotherapy with altered fractionation children Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection ...
Mixed infection by fowlpox virus and Chlamydophila psittaci in a commercial laying hen flock ... Human bocaviruses are highly diverse, dispersed, recombination prone, and prevalent in enteric infections. . J. Infect. Dis.. ... and prevalent in enteric infections. J. Infect. Dis. 201, 1633-1643. ...
Psittacosis (chlamydophila infection). *Bacterial, viral and fungal infections. *Constricted toe syndrome, chicks ...
With low CD 57 counts, Lyme disease and Chlamydophila pneumoniae infections might be considered, but remains inconclusive as a ... These co-infections can cause symptoms of their own. Lyme can affect any system of the body such as the neurological system, ... A health care provider should consider the probability of other co-infections usually associated with Lyme, such as Babesia, ... exposure after signs of EM is unlikely to give a positive result because it takes time to develop antibodies to the infection. ...
Comparison of real-time PCR and a microimmunofluorescence serological assay for detection of chlamydophila pneumoniae infection ... Mycoplasma hominis Infections Transmitted Through Amniotic Tissue Product. Shannon A Novosad, Sridhar V Basavaraju, Pallavi ... Molecular characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in two rural populations of Thailand from 2009-2012. Toni ... Investigations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in the United States: trends in molecular typing and macrolide resistance ...
Title: Chronic infection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae in patients with sarcoidosis / Authors: ...
Title: Chronic infection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae in patients with sarcoidosis / Authors: ... Necrotizing soft tissue infection during leflunomide treatment. REVIEWS / PRACE POGLĄDOWE. Chudzicka A.: 145. Zespół nakładania ... Infections caused by Clostridium difficile. Drobnik A.: 154. Przegląd zagrożeń mikrobiologicznych w gabinetach zabiegowych. ... Urinary tract infections and uropathogens antibiotic susceptibility in patients hospitalized in internal medicine clinic. CASE ...
Feline chlamydial conjunctivitis is an infection caused by a bacterial organism (called Chlamydophila felis). The most common ... Following infection, the incubation period (the time between infection and development of clinical signs of disease) is between ... they should consult their doctor and tell him or her that there is a chlamydial infection in the household cat. Such infection ... Although the infection can be debilitating in some cats, it is treatable with a low risk of recurrence as long as the entire ...
Infection with the causal agent, Chlamydophila abortus, results in abortions which typically occur in the last few weeks of ... The infection will then spread to other ewes in the flock, often leading to abortion which result in a high level of loss. ...
... as bacteria such as Chlamydophila may cause an eye infection as part of an upper respiratory infection. ... What Triggers an Infection in a Cats Eye?. Viruses can cause infectious cat conjunctivitis, with Feline Herpesvirus being one ... Upper respiratory infections often cause conjunctivitis. You can take your cat to the vet right away if she is sneezing or ... In the majority of cases, the infection will clear up in a few weeks. Getting treatment as soon as you see signs and following ...
Psittacosis or ornithosis is a lung infection spread by inhaling bacteria from bird secretions, droppings or dust from feathers ... Re-infection of people and birds may occur.. Treatment for psittacosis Specific and effective antibiotic therapy is available. ... Even apparently healthy birds can shed Chlamydophila psittaci. People become infected when they inhale the bacteria from dried ... Infection has been transmitted to gardeners spreading chicken manure on gardens. However, about one-quarter of people who get ...
But this opportunistic infection is a leading cause of death for people with HIV. ¿Por qué no compartes? This infection causes ... Pneumonia due to Chlamydophila pneumoniae bacteria occurs year round. En SlideShare. It is concluded that the existence of ... Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection (MAI) is an atypical mycobacterial infection, i.e. This genus includes pathogens ... refers to infections caused by two types of bacteria: avium! Infection Causes respiratory illness in birds, pigs, and to ...
Prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci infections in a human population in contact with domestic and companion birds ... Do we know the real impact of Chlamydophila psittaci infections in the turkey industry and is there hope for the future control ... Chlamydophila psittaci infections in turkeys : overview of economic and zoonotic importance and vaccine development ... Chlamydophila psittaci infection on a Belgian turkey farm leading to occupational disease? ...
Chlamydophila felis - This vaccination is often part of the distemper combination vaccine. It protects your cat from Chlamydia ... Bordetella - A highly contagious bacteria that causes upper respiratory infections. Your vet might suggest this this vaccine if ... and is a leading cause of upper respiratory infections and can infect cats for life. It spreads when food bowls and litter ... These vaccines usually are only recommended for cats that are outdoors often and protects them against viral infections which ...
Chlamydia (Chlamydophila felis). *Chlamydia can cause respiratory disease and eye infection in cats, and is easily spread ...
Borrelia (Lyme) Infection Acquired : Jimna, Qld 2003. Co-infections: Babesia and Bartonella International Travel History : Left ... She has also been diagnosed with Chlamydophila Pneumoniae and very high levels of heavy metal and pesticide toxicity, which ... In June this year, blood test results from the USA confirmed that Emily has Lyme disease and the co-infections Babesia and ... Lyme disease is multi-systemic and in Emilys case, along with the serious co-infections of Bartonella and Babesia, it is ...
Veterinary Research, a journal on Animal Infection. ISSN: 0928-4249 - eISSN: 1297-9716. © INRA / EDP Sciences ... Key words: DNA immunization / proteic boost / Chlamydophila abortus / DnaK / Hsp70 Correspondence and reprints: Olivier ... Proteic boost enhances humoral response induced by DNA vaccination with the dnaK gene of Chlamydophila abortus but fails to ... Protection evaluation against Chlamydophila abortus challenge by DNA vaccination with a dnaK-encoding plasmid in pregnant and ...
Recovered cats can continue to carry and spread the infection for long periods, and can show signs of the disease again if they ... Chlamydia (also known as Chlamydophila). Feline Chlamydia causes a severe persistent conjunctivitis in up to 30% of cats. ... Eventually, the immune system becomes too weak to fight off other infections and diseases. As a result, the cat may die from ... Pneumonia can also be a consequence of infection.. Canine Coronavirus. Canine coronavirus is another contagious virus and ...
Recovered cats can continue to carry and spread the infection for long periods, and can show signs of the disease again if they ... Chlamydia (also known as Chlamydophila). Feline Chlamydia causes a severe persistent conjunctivitis in up to 30% of cats. ... Eventually, the immune system becomes too weak to fight off other infections and diseases. As a result, the cat may die from ... Feline AIDS is a disease caused by infection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and affects the cats immune system. ...
Chlamydophila Species - Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection. Influenza Virus. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection. Go to ARUP Consult ...
Bacterial infections. * Discovering the bacteria that cause Q fever, Coxiella burnetii, and psittacosis, Chlamydophila psittaci ... Viral infections. *Identifying that the poliomyelitis virus, which causes polio, enters the body via the mouth and infects the ... Parasitic infections. *Discovering how T cells recognise parasite proteins, leading to identification of the first parasite- ... When this match occurs, the cell will clone itself to fight the infection. The theory revolutionised our understanding of ...
antibaterials Azithromycin cefixime Ceftriaxone cephalosporins Chlamydophila pneumoniae Doxycycline Neisseria gonorrhoeae ... Sexually Transmitted Infections The CDC has issued new recommendations for treatment of gonococcal infection. A single 500-mg ... If chlamydial infection has not been excluded, patients treated with a cephalosporin should also take 100 mg of oral ... The CDC has issued new recommendations for treatment of gonococcal infection. A single 500-mg IM dose (1000 mg in patients ...
The C. felis organism does not live for very long in the environment, so infection is generally spread through direct or close ... Feline chlamydiosis (also called feline pneumonitis) is caused by the bacterial organism Chlamydophila felis (C. felis). ... Despite the name feline distemper virus, infection with this virus does not affect a cats temperament. Rather, FPV causes ... Because infected cats sometimes sneeze, contact with these droplets can also spread the infection. ...
The C. felis organism does not live for very long in the environment, so infection is generally spread through direct or close ... Feline chlamydiosis (also called feline pneumonitis) is caused by the bacterial organism Chlamydophila felis (C. felis). ... Despite the name feline distemper virus, infection with this virus does not affect a cats temperament. Rather, FPV causes ... Because infected cats sometimes sneeze, contact with these droplets can also spread the infection. ...
Recovered cats can continue to carry and spread the infection for long periods, and can show signs of the disease again if they ... Chlamydia (also known as Chlamydophila). Feline Chlamydia causes a severe persistent conjunctivitis in up to 30% of cats. ... Eventually, the immune system becomes too weak to fight off other infections and diseases. As a result, the cat may die from ... Feline AIDS is a disease caused by infection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and affects the cats immune system. ...
Respiratory tract infections: In the returned traveler answers are found in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide powered by Unbound ... Group A, C, G streptococcal disease; Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila (formerly Chlamydia) pneumoniae, Chlamydophila ... Group A, C, G streptococcal disease; Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila (formerly Chlamydia) pneumoniae, Chlamydophila ... "Respiratory Tract Infections: in the Returned Traveler." Johns Hopkins ABX Guide, The Johns Hopkins University, 2019. Johns ...
Bacterial blood infections. Core Cat Vaccinations. Just like with our canine friends, cats also need several vaccines to keep ... Feline chlamydophila. * Feline leukemia virus (FeLV). Contact Your Montrose Veterinarian Today To Learn More!. Nothing is more ...
... bioethics blood pressure breast cancer chemoradiotherapy with altered fractionation children Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection ... ALGORITHMS FOR REGIONAL INFECTION SERVICES UNDER DIFFERENT EPIDEMIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS * INTESTINAL STRICTURES IN CROHNS ... SUBPOPULATION COMPOSITION OF MEMORY T-CELLS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC INFECTION CAUSED BY HEPATITIS C VIRUS. ... DETERMINATION OF VIRAL HEPATITIS B, C AND HIV-INFECTION MARKERS AMONG MEDICAL WORKERS. REPORT 1. EPIDEMIOLOGY ...
  • Psittacosis (sometimes called ornithosis or parrot disease or parrot fever) is an infection of the lung (pneumonia) caused by the bacterium Chlamydophila ( Chlamydia ) psittaci . (sa.gov.au)
  • Even apparently healthy birds can shed Chlamydophila psittaci . (sa.gov.au)
  • Psittacosis, often referred to as Parrot Fever, is caused by the Chlamydophila psittaci bacterium. (rentokil-pestcontrolindia.com)
  • Treatment of psittacosis/ornithosis caused by Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) psittaci , and other susceptible bacterial diseases, in caged and aviary birds and pigeons. (petceutics.com.au)
  • Rekiki A, Sidi-Boumedine K, Souriau A, Jemli J, Hammami S, Rodolakis A. Isolation and characterization of local strains of Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) from Tunisia. (gob.mx)
  • Detection of Chlamydia psittaci in enteric subclinical infections in adult sheep, through cell culture isolation. (gob.mx)
  • Subclinical C. psittaci infection occurs in a significant percentage of patients with chronic inflammatory polyarthritis (including psoriatic arthritis), suggesting that C. psittaci may be an infectious trigger in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Psittacosis is also known as parrot disease and is caused by bacteria called Chlamydophila psittaci. (crittercontrolnewhampshire.com)
  • Chlamydophilosis (psittacosis, chlamydiosis, parrot fever, ornithosis) is a common disease of birds caused by a bacterial organism called Chlamydophila psittaci. (amaziavet.com)
  • The couple's respiratory samples both tested positive for Chlamydophila psittaci upon laboratory testing. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Psittacosis is a disease caused by bacteria called Chlamydophila psittaci. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • To identify the clinical, laboratory, and instrumental manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) associated with Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection. (zdrav.by)
  • With low CD 57 counts, Lyme disease and Chlamydophila pneumoniae infections might be considered, but remains inconclusive as a diagnosis. (holistichealingjs.com)
  • Molecular characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in two rural populations of Thailand from 2009-2012. (cdc.gov)
  • Title: Chronic infection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae in patients with sarcoidosis / Authors: Wesołowski A., Targowski T., Rożyńska R. (medpress.com.pl)
  • Infection rates for these agents are difficult to determine because many clinicians and investigators do not routinely test for them, but reported rates are in the range of up to 8% (for C pneumoniae) and 15% to 20% (M pneumoniae) of all cases of pneumonia. (omeka.net)
  • Pneumonia due to Chlamydophila pneumoniae bacteria occurs year round. (rosiamontana.world)
  • She has also been diagnosed with Chlamydophila Pneumoniae and very high levels of heavy metal and pesticide toxicity, which worsens her condition. (lymeaustralia.com)
  • Although the underlying cause of LOAD is unknown, researchers hypothesize that infection, specifically with Chlamydia pneumoniae , an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes pneumonia, may be a key risk factor in the pathogenesis of LOAD. (pcom.edu)
  • The preliminary results from this pilot work are encouraging for the treatment of an intracellular Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. (pcom.edu)
  • Feline chlamydial conjunctivitis is an infection caused by a bacterial organism (called Chlamydophila felis ). (bloorcourtvetclinic.com)
  • Chlamydophila felis - This vaccination is often part of the distemper combination vaccine. (argylevet.com)
  • Feline chlamydiosis (also called feline pneumonitis ) is caused by the bacterial organism Chlamydophila felis (C. felis) . (bellmorevet.com)
  • The C. felis organism does not live for very long in the environment, so infection is generally spread through direct or close contact with a sick cat. (bellmorevet.com)
  • Other viruses cats may be exposed to include: Chlamydophila felis, Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a retrovirus not a cancer. (myhealthselections.com)
  • The most common signs of chlamydia in cats involve the eyes or the upper respiratory tract (nose or throat), and only when infection is not treated does it spread to the lungs. (bloorcourtvetclinic.com)
  • Because chlamydia lives inside cells of the body and is not able to survive for long in the environment, spread of infection relies on direct or close contact with an infected cat. (bloorcourtvetclinic.com)
  • Young cats and kittens are especially vulnerable to this infection, although chlamydia can be detected in cats of all ages. (bloorcourtvetclinic.com)
  • It protects your cat from Chlamydia which is a bacterial infection that causes severe conjunctivitis. (argylevet.com)
  • Chlamydia can cause respiratory disease and eye infection in cats, and is easily spread between cats that are in close contact with each other. (lakecross.com)
  • Psittacosis ranges in severity from a subclinical infection to fulminant sepsis with multiorgan system failure and may occur in otherwise healthy persons ( 1 )[ C ]. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Cat sniffles and sneezes can accompany the appearance of the red or watery eye, as bacteria such as Chlamydophila may cause an eye infection as part of an upper respiratory infection. (catownersdigest.com)
  • Bordetella - A highly contagious bacteria that causes upper respiratory infections. (argylevet.com)
  • In some cases when the bird droppings dry, the bacteria can be released into the air, and with the help of air conditioning systems, infection occurs via inhalation. (rentokil-pestcontrolindia.com)
  • Secondary infections by bacteria, parasites or other viruses such as parvoviruses or rotaviruses develop easily and can cause prolongation of illness. (zoologix.com)
  • 1999) and one of the leading causes for this chronic enterocolitis is infection with Campylobacter bacteria, especially C. coli and C. jejuni (Sestak et al. (zoologix.com)
  • Although Campylobacter bacteria isolation can be used to diagnose the bacterial infection, a long incubation period is required to obtain results. (zoologix.com)
  • Infection with the causal agent, Chlamydophila abortus , results in abortions which typically occur in the last few weeks of pregnancy. (vetmedicinesdirect.co.uk)
  • In order to enhance the quantity and the protective properties of the antibodies induced by DNA vaccination with the heat shock protein dnaK gene of Chlamydophila abortus AB7 as well as to elicit an efficient cellular immune response, we vaccinated mice with a DNA prime followed by a boost with the recombinant DnaK protein. (vetres.org)
  • El objetivo fue evaluar la frecuencia serológica individual y de rebaño, así como detectar los factores de riesgo de C. abortus, en siete estados donde se realiza la producción ovina en México. (gob.mx)
  • Detection of Chlamydophila abortus in Sheep (Ovis aries) in Mexico. (gob.mx)
  • Feline herpesvirus type I (FHV, FHV-1) - This ubiquitous virus is highly contagious, and is a leading cause of upper respiratory infections and can infect cats for life. (argylevet.com)
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia (Felv) - These vaccines usually are only recommended for cats that are outdoors often and protects them against viral infections which are contracted from close contact exposure. (argylevet.com)
  • Feline AIDS is a disease caused by infection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and affects the cat's immune system. (allpetsvet.net.au)
  • Despite the name feline distemper virus , infection with this virus does not affect a cat's temperament. (bellmorevet.com)
  • The most commonly recommended viruses to vaccinate cats against are: Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an upper respiratory infection of cats caused by feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1). (myhealthselections.com)
  • Feline calicivirus (FCV), the other common viral cause of respiratory infection in cats. (myhealthselections.com)
  • In kittens, the infection may spread to the lungs and cause a fatal pneumonia. (bloorcourtvetclinic.com)
  • pneumonia pathogens in respiratory tract infections. (omeka.net)
  • Pneumonia can also be a consequence of infection. (bangalowvets.com.au)
  • After an incubation period of 5-19 days the symptoms of the disease begin to show, which range from asymptomatic infections through to severe pneumonia. (rentokil-pestcontrolindia.com)
  • Mycoplasma hominis Infections Transmitted Through Amniotic Tissue Product. (cdc.gov)
  • This infection causes respiratory illness in birds, pigs, and humans, especially in immunocompromised people. (rosiamontana.world)
  • In humans, the viruses cause only asymptomatic or mild respiratory infections. (zoologix.com)
  • The infection causes inflammation known as conjunctivitis . (bloorcourtvetclinic.com)
  • If left untreated, the conjunctivitis and associated discomfort and discharge may persist for several weeks or months during which time the cat is a source of infection to other cats. (bloorcourtvetclinic.com)
  • Chlamydial conjunctivitis can be difficult to diagnose because there are many causes of conjunctivitis and cats may have multiple infections at the same time. (bloorcourtvetclinic.com)
  • Upper respiratory infections often cause conjunctivitis. (catownersdigest.com)
  • However, people with weak immune systems are a risk of experiencing a severe infection with the potential of the disease spreading from the lungs to other organs. (rentokil-pestcontrolindia.com)
  • Rhinovirus C, unlike the A and B species, may be able to cause severe infections. (kitpcr.com)
  • Also, immunocompromised, young and elderly individuals may become susceptible to severe bacterial respiratory disease due to an initial reovirus infection. (zoologix.com)
  • But this opportunistic infection is a leading cause of death for people with HIV. (rosiamontana.world)
  • Thus, differentiating PCV2 infection from other viral infections is important in order to design an effective treatment plan. (zoologix.com)
  • A health care provider should consider the probability of other co-infections usually associated with Lyme, such as Babesia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella. (holistichealingjs.com)
  • In June this year, blood test results from the USA confirmed that Emily has Lyme disease and the co-infections Babesia and Bartonella. (lymeaustralia.com)
  • Lyme disease is multi-systemic and in Emily's case, along with the serious co-infections of Bartonella and Babesia, it is evident that these diseases are attacking her severely, with her heart and brain also being affected. (lymeaustralia.com)
  • Therefore, if anyone in your household develops sore or runny eyes, they should consult their doctor and tell him or her that there is a chlamydial infection in the household cat. (bloorcourtvetclinic.com)
  • If chlamydial infection has not been excluded, patients treated with a cephalosporin should also take 100 mg of oral doxycycline twice daily for 7 days or, if pregnant, a single 1000-mg dose of oral a zithromycin. (medicalletter.org)
  • Although they protect dogs from important and highly contagious infections like kennel cough. (vetathome.com.au)
  • As the disease progresses, symptoms may occur such as weight loss, sores in and around the mouth, eye lesions, poor coat and chronic infections. (allpetsvet.net.au)
  • and the traditional panel of exams for the diagnosis in patients with a clinical suspicion of cutaneous tuberculosis and atypical mycobacteria infection to the clinical evaluation. (rosiamontana.world)
  • After diagnosis, antibiotics can help cure the infection. (crittercontrolnewhampshire.com)
  • Diagnosis of reovirus infection by nonmolecular means is very difficult and is usually based on virus isolation on cell cultures and electron microscopy. (zoologix.com)
  • Following infection, the incubation period (the time between infection and development of clinical signs of disease) is between three and ten days. (bloorcourtvetclinic.com)
  • When this match occurs, the cell will clone itself to fight the infection. (edu.au)
  • Infection occurs through inhaling airborne particles from respiratory secretions, dried faeces and feather particles from infected birds. (rentokil-pestcontrolindia.com)
  • When the soil is disturbed the fungus can become airborne and infection occurs through inhaling contaminated air. (rentokil-pestcontrolindia.com)
  • ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] (Etiology) Atypical Mycobacterial Infections are caused by any species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria.Up to 13 distinct species of atypical mycobacteria are known to cause human infection. (rosiamontana.world)
  • Atypical mycobacteria may cause many different types of infections such as septic arthritis, abscesses and skin and bone infection. (rosiamontana.world)
  • Pathophysiology Infections with atypical mycobacteria usually occur in immunocompromised hosts due to host immunity and resistance factors. (rosiamontana.world)
  • The virus attacks the immune system and may be associated with lack of appetite, weight loss and apathy, pale or yellow mucous membranes, vomiting, diarrhoea, reproductive problems, increased susceptibility to other infections, leukaemia and tumours. (allpetsvet.net.au)
  • Human rhinoviruses are single stranded positive sense RNA viruses that are presented in more than 50% of acute upper respiratory tract infections. (kitpcr.com)
  • Animals are especially prone to infection by these viruses. (zoologix.com)
  • These symptoms appear anywhere between 1 to 2 weeks from infection. (crittercontrolnewhampshire.com)
  • Vomiting and diarrhea start to develop 1-3 days post infection and are followed by full-blown symptoms. (zoologix.com)
  • Identifying CSFs (colony stimulating factors), the white blood cell signaling hormones that boost infection-fighting white blood cells in the body. (edu.au)
  • Discovering how T cells recognise parasite proteins, leading to identification of the first parasite-specific antibodies for detecting and diagnosing parasitic infections. (edu.au)
  • The mortality rate for canine coronavirus infection alone is usually very low, but deaths have been reported in some kennels, especially in pups. (zoologix.com)
  • Are other cats in the household at risk of infection? (bloorcourtvetclinic.com)
  • The most important things you can do to minimize your risk of infection, and minimize the risk of transferring infection to your clients, is to be cautious when interacting with clients and when touching anything that could be contaminated, wear a mask, and maintain at least 6 feet distance from your clients. (amaziavet.com)
  • Since some cats can be infected sub-clinically (not show signs themselves, but act as a source of infection to other cats) treatment should be given to all of the cats in the household. (bloorcourtvetclinic.com)
  • Unvaccinated cats are a risk to the general cat community by serving as a source of infection for other cats, including young kittens. (lateemianh.com.br)
  • 2 Coadministration of azithromycin was recommended to prevent development of ceftriaxone resistance and to treat potential chlamydial co-infection, but continued low resistance rates to ceftriaxone and increasing resistance to azithromycin led to a reevaluation of this guidance. (medicalletter.org)
  • Testing at a time within the first few weeks of exposure after signs of EM is unlikely to give a positive result because it takes time to develop antibodies to the infection. (holistichealingjs.com)
  • Although the infection can be debilitating in some cats, it is treatable with a low risk of recurrence as long as the entire household is thoroughly treated. (bloorcourtvetclinic.com)
  • In both cases, the cat-eye infection will spread to other cats, so if there are any other cats around, you should minimize their contact with the sick cat. (catownersdigest.com)
  • Recovered cats can continue to carry and spread the infection for long periods, and can show signs of the disease again if they become stressed. (allpetsvet.net.au)
  • Because infected cats sometimes sneeze, contact with these droplets can also spread the infection. (bellmorevet.com)
  • Because not all vaccines produce total protection against the virus in all cats, the best way to prevent infection is to prevent exposure to infected cats. (lateemianh.com.br)
  • To what extent diabetes is a key risk factor development of bacterial surgical site infection in patients undergoing abdominal procedures? (medpress.com.pl)
  • The infection will then spread to other ewes in the flock, often leading to abortion which result in a high level of loss. (vetmedicinesdirect.co.uk)

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