A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in algae having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Cytochromes f are found as components of the CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX. They play important role in the transfer of electrons from PHOTOSYSTEM I to PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
A protein complex that includes CYTOCHROME B6 and CYTOCHROME F. It is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE and plays an important role in process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS by transferring electrons from PLASTOQUINONE to PLASTOCYANIN or CYTOCHROME C6. The transfer of electrons is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.
A pre-emergent herbicide.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A highly branched glucan in starch.
Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Volvocaceae. They form spherical colonies of hundreds or thousands of bi-flagellated cells in a semi-transparent gelatinous ball.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
The absence of light.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Cytochromes of the c type that are involved in the transfer of electrons from CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX and PHOTOSYSTEM I.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from ADPglucose to glucose-containing polysaccharides in 1,4-alpha-linkages. EC 2.4.1.21.
An enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to give prephytoene diphosphate. The prephytoene diphosphate molecule is a precursor for CAROTENOIDS and other tetraterpenes.
The quantity of volume or surface area of ORGANELLES.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 3.2.1.68.
A ferredoxin-containing enzyme that catalyzes the COENZYME A-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of PYRUVATE to acetyl-COENZYME A and CARBON DIOXIDE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A thioredoxin subtype that is ubiquitously found in the plant kingdom. It reduces a variety of seed storage proteins and may play a role in the germination process of seeds.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX by the conversion of two propionate groups to two vinyl groups. It is the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME, and is encoded by CPO gene. Mutations of CPO gene result in HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in GAMMA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces spectabilis. It is active against gram-negative bacteria and used for the treatment of gonorrhea.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The use of light to convert ADP to ATP without the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to water as occurs during OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION in MITOCHONDRIA.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (1/1304)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

Characterization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii zygote-specific cDNAs that encode novel proteins containing ankyrin repeats and WW domains. (2/1304)

Genes that are expressed only in the young zygote are considered to be of great importance in the development of an isogamous green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Clones representing the Zys3 gene were isolated from a cDNA library prepared using zygotes at 10 min after fertilization. Sequencing of Zys3 cDNA clones resulted in the isolation of two related molecular species. One of them encoded a protein that contained two kinds of protein-to-protein interaction motifs known as ankyrin repeats and WW domains. The other clone lacked the ankyrin repeats but was otherwise identical. These mRNA species began to accumulate simultaneously in cells beginning 10 min after fertilization, and reached maximum levels at about 4 h, after which time levels decreased markedly. Genomic DNA gel-blot analysis indicated that Zys3 was a single-copy gene. The Zys3 proteins exhibited parallel expression to the Zys3 mRNAs at first, appearing 2 h after mating, and reached maximum levels at more than 6 h, but persisted to at least 1 d. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed their localization in the endoplasmic reticulum, which suggests a role in the morphological changes of the endoplasmic reticulum or in the synthesis and transport of proteins to the Golgi apparatus or related vesicles.  (+info)

Photosystem I is indispensable for photoautotrophic growth, CO2 fixation, and H2 photoproduction in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (3/1304)

Certain Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants deficient in photosystem I due to defects in psaA mRNA maturation have been reported to be capable of CO2 fixation, H2 photoevolution, and photoautotrophic growth (Greenbaum, E., Lee, J. W., Tevault, C. V., Blankinship, S. L. , and Mets, L. J. (1995) Nature 376, 438-441 and Lee, J. W., Tevault, C. V., Owens, T. G.; Greenbaum, E. (1996) Science 273, 364-367). We have generated deletions of photosystem I core subunits in both wild type and these mutant strains and have analyzed their abilities to grow photoautotrophically, to fix CO2, and to photoevolve O2 or H2 (using mass spectrometry) as well as their photosystem I content (using immunological and spectroscopic analyses). We find no instance of a strain that can perform photosynthesis in the absence of photosystem I. The F8 strain harbored a small amount of photosystem I, and it could fix CO2 and grow slowly, but it lost these abilities after deletion of either psaA or psaC; these activities could be restored to the F8-psaADelta mutant by reintroduction of psaA. We observed limited O2 photoevolution in mutants lacking photosystem I; use of 18O2 indicated that this O2 evolution is coupled to O2 uptake (i.e. respiration) rather than CO2 fixation or H2 evolution. We conclude that the reported instances of CO2 fixation, H2 photoevolution, and photoautotrophic growth of photosystem I-deficient mutants result from the presence of unrecognized photosystem I.  (+info)

Induction of coproporphyrinogen oxidase in Chlamydomonas chloroplasts occurs via transcriptional regulation of Cpx1 mediated by copper response elements and increased translation from a copper deficiency-specific form of the transcript. (4/1304)

Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase, encoded by a single nuclear gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, produces three distinct transcripts. One of these transcripts is greatly induced in copper-deficient cells by transcriptional activation, whereas the other forms are copper-insensitive. The induced form of the transcript was expressed coordinately with the cytochrome c6-encoding (Cyc6) gene, which is known to be transcriptionally regulated in copper-deficient cells. The sequence GTAC, which forms the core of a copper response element associated with the Cyc6 gene, is also essential for induction of the Cpx1 gene, suggesting that both are targets of the same signal transduction pathway. The constitutive and induced Cpx1 transcripts have the same half-lives in vivo, and all encode the same polypeptide with a chloroplast-targeting transit sequence, but the shortest one representing the induced form is a 2-4-fold better template for translation than are either of the constitutive forms. The enzyme remains localized to a soluble compartment in the chloroplast even in induced cells, and its abundance is not affected when the tetrapyrrole pathway is manipulated either genetically or by gabaculine treatment.  (+info)

Group II intron splicing in Escherichia coli: phenotypes of cis-acting mutations resemble splicing defects observed in organelle RNA processing. (5/1304)

The mitochondrial group IIB intron rI1, from the green algae Scenedesmus obliquus ' LSUrRNA gene, has been introduced into the lacZ gene encoding beta-galacto-sidase. After DNA-mediated transformation of the recombinant lacZ gene into Escherichia coli, we observed correct splicing of the chimeric precursor RNA in vivo. In contrast to autocatalytic in vitro self-splicing, intron processing in vivo is independent of the growth temperature, suggesting that in E.coli, trans -acting factors are involved in group II intron splicing. Such a system would seem suitable as a model for analyzing intron processing in a prokaryotic host. In order to study further the effect of cis -mutations on intron splicing, different rI1 mutants were analyzed (with respect to their splicing activity) in E.coli. Although the phenotypes of these E. coli intron splicing mutants were identical to those which can be observed during organellar splicing of rI1, they are different to those observed in in vitro self-splicing experiments. Therefore, in both organelles and prokaryotes, it is likely that either similar splicing factors or trans -acting factors exhibiting similar functions are involved in splicing. We speculate that ubiquitous trans -acting factors, via recent horizontal transfer, have contributed to the spread of group II introns.  (+info)

Group II intron splicing in chloroplasts: identificationof mutations determining intron stability and fate of exon RNA. (6/1304)

In order to investigate in vivo splicing of group II introns in chloroplasts, we previously have integrated the mitochondrial intron rI1 from the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus into the Chlamydomonas chloroplast tscA gene. This construct allows a functional analysis of conserved intron sequences in vivo, since intron rI1 is correctly spliced in chloroplasts. Using site-directed mutagenesis, deletions of the conserved intron domains V and VI were performed. In another set of experiments, each possible substitution of the strictly conserved first intron nucleotide G1 was generated, as well as each possible single and double mutation of the tertiary base pairing gamma-gamma ' involved in the formation of the intron's tertiary RNA structure. In most cases, the intron mutations showed the same effect on in vivo intron splicing efficiency as they did on the in vitro self-splicing reaction, since catalytic activity is provided by the intron RNA itself. In vivo, all mutations have additional effects on the chimeric tscA -rI1 RNA, most probably due to the role played by trans -acting factors in intron processing. Substitutions of the gamma-gamma ' base pair lead to an accumulation of excised intron RNA, since intron stability is increased. In sharp contrast to autocatalytic splicing, all point mutations result in a complete loss of exon RNA, although the spliced intron accumulates to high levels. Intron degradation and exon ligation only occur in double mutants with restored base pairing between the gamma and gamma' sites. Therefore, we conclude that intron degradation, as well as the ligation of exon-exon molecules, depends on the tertiary intron structure. Furthermore, our data suggest that intron excision proceeds in vivo independent of ligation of exon-exon molecules.  (+info)

Identification of cis-acting RNA leader elements required for chloroplast psbD gene expression in Chlamydomonas. (7/1304)

The psbD mRNA of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is one of the most abundant chloroplast transcripts and encodes the photosystem II reaction center polypeptide D2. This RNA exists in two forms with 5' untranslated regions of 74 and 47 nucleotides. The shorter form, which is associated with polysomes, is likely to result from processing of the larger RNA. Using site-directed mutagenesis and biolistic transformation, we have identified two major RNA stability determinants within the first 12 nucleotides at the 5' end and near position -30 relative to the AUG initiation codon of psbD. Insertion of a polyguanosine tract at position -60 did not appreciably interfere with translation of psbD mRNA. The same poly(G) insertion in the nac2-26 mutant, which is known to be deficient in psbD mRNA accumulation, stabilized the psbD RNA. However, the shorter psbD RNA did not accumulate, and the other psbD RNAs were not translated. Two other elements were found to affect translation but not RNA stability. The first comprises a highly U-rich sequence (positions -20 to -15), and the second, called PRB1 (positions -14 to -11), is complementary to the 3' end of the 16S rRNA. Changing the PRB1 sequence from GGAG to AAAG had no detectable effect on psbD mRNA translation. However, changing this sequence to CCUC led to a fourfold diminished rate of D2 synthesis and accumulation. When the psbD initiation codon was changed to AUA or AUU, D2 synthesis was no longer detected, and psbD RNA accumulated to wild-type levels. The singular organization of the psbD 5' untranslated region could play an important role in the control of initiation of psbD mRNA translation.  (+info)

Direct measurement of inter-doublet elasticity in flagellar axonemes. (8/1304)

The outer doublet microtubules in ciliary and flagellar axonemes are presumed to be connected with each other by elastic links called the inter-doublet links or the nexin links, but it is not known whether there actually are such elastic links. In this study, to detect the elasticity of the putative inter-doublet links, shear force was applied to Chlamydomonas axonemes with a fine glass needle and the longitudinal elasticity was determined from the deflection of the needle. Wild-type axonemes underwent a high-frequency, nanometer-scale vibration in the presence of ATP. When longitudinal shear force was applied, the average position of the needle tip attached to the axoneme moved linearly with the force applied, yielding an estimate of spring constant of 2.0 (S.D.: 0.8) pN/nm for 1 microm of axoneme. This value did not change in the presence of vanadate, i.e., when dynein does not form strong cross bridges. In contrast, it was at least five times larger when ATP was absent, i.e., when dynein forms strong cross bridges. The measured elasticity did not significantly differ in various mutant axonemes lacking the central-pair microtubules, a subset of inner-arm dynein, outer-arm dynein, or the radial spokes, although it was somewhat smaller in the latter two mutants. It was also observed that the shear displacement in an axoneme in the presence of ATP often took place in a stepwise manner. This suggests that the inter-doublet links can reversibly detach from and reattach to the outer doublets in a cooperative manner. This study thus provides the first direct measure of the elasticity of inter-doublet links and also demonstrates its dynamic nature.  (+info)

Cell growth is tightly coupled to nutrient availability. The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase transmits nutritional and environmental cues to the cellular growth machinery. TOR functions in two distinct multiprotein complexes, termed TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2). While the structure and functions of TORC1 are highly conserved in all eukaryotes, including algae and plants, TORC2 core proteins seem to be missing in photosynthetic organisms. TORC1 controls cell growth by promoting anabolic processes, including protein synthesis and ribosome biogenesis, and inhibiting catabolic processes such as autophagy. Recent studies identified rapamycin-sensitive TORC1 signaling regulating cell growth, autophagy, lipid metabolism, and central metabolic pathways in the model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The central role that microalgae play in global biomass production, together with the high biotechnological potential of these organisms in biofuel production, has drawn attention
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RNA pyrophosphohydrolase (RppH) catalyzes the removal of pyrophosphate from 5 triphosphorylated RNAs thereby initiating RNA degradation. The enzyme has originally been identified in bacteria but homologs are present in eukaryotes where they are thought to be located in plastids or mitochondria. A homolog of the bacterial RNA pyrophosphohydrolase is present in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii suggesting that Chlamydomonas RppH has a role in mRNA degradation in the chloroplast of the alga. The purpose of this project was to determine the localization of the RppH homologue in C. reinhardtii. Localization was investigated using two different constructs, a histidine-tagged version of the Chlamydomonas rppH and a histidine-tagged 5rppH-GFP construct.. A plasmid vector containing Chlamydomonas rppH-6xHN was introduced into C. reinhardtii by nuclear transformation. PCR, RT-PCR, sequencing, and DNA and RNA blotting techniques were used to indentify positive transformants at the DNA ...
The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a key model organism for studying photosynthesis and oxidative stress in unicellular eukaryotes. Using a forward genetics approach, we have identified and characterized a mutant x32, which lacks a predicted protein named CGLD1 (Conserved in Green Lineage and Diatom 1) in GreenCut2, under normal and stress conditions. We show that loss of CGLD1 resulted in minimal photoautotrophic growth and PSII activity in the organism. We observed reduced amount of PSII complex and core subunits in the x32 mutant based on blue-native (BN)/PAGE and immunoblot analysis. Moreover, x32 exhibited increased sensitivity to high-light stress and altered tolerance to different reactive oxygenic species (ROS) stress treatments, i.e. decreased resistance to H2O2/or tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) and increased tolerance to neutral red (NR) and rose bengal (RB) that induce the formation of singlet oxygen, respectively. Further analysis via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)
The molecular mechanism(s) responsible for posttranscriptional gene silencing and RNA interference remain poorly understood. We have cloned a gene (Mut6) from the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that is required for the silencing of a transgene and two transposon families.Mut6 encodes a protein that is highly homologous to RNA helicases of the DEAH-box family. This protein is necessary for the degradation of certain aberrant RNAs, such as improperly processed transcripts, which are often produced by transposons and some transgenes. ...
The data presented here suggest that 3′ end processing may be required for translation of atpB and rbcLmRNAs in Chlamydomonas chloroplasts. Unprocessed atpB transcripts, defined as those that do not accumulate as an abundant size class of approximately 2 kb, were only present in nonpolysomal fractions. Processed mRNAs were present in both polysomal and nonpolysomal fractions. Since the 3′ ends of most chloroplast transcripts are generated from longer pre-mRNAs by exo- and/or endonucleolytic mechanisms (17, 36, 37, 44, 47), this 3′ processing apparatus may interact with or signal the translational machinery.. Our ability to detect a heterogeneous collection of putative processing intermediates or incorrectly processed transcripts for atpBand rbcL suggests that these molecules are relatively stable in the chloroplast. When they were analyzed by RNase protection, it was possible to detect partially processed transcripts in theChlamydomonas chloroplast petD-trnR region (29), and in certain ...
Phototaxis is one of the most fundamental stimulus-response behaviors in biology wherein motile microorganisms sense light gradients to swim toward the light source. Apart from single-cell survival and growth, it plays a major role at the global scale of aquatic ecosystems and bioreactors. We study phototaxis of single-celled algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a function of cell number density and light stimulus using high spatiotemporal video microscopy. Surprisingly, the phototactic efficiency has a minimum at a well-defined number density, for a given light gradient, above which the phototaxis behavior of a collection of cells can even exceed the performance obtainable from single isolated cells. We show that the origin of enhancement of performance above the critical concentration lies in the slowing down of the cells, which enables them to sense light more effectively. We also show that this steady-state phenomenology is well captured by modeling the phototactic response as a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The OPR Protein MTHI1 Controls the Expression of Two Different Subunits of ATP Synthase CFo in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. AU - Ozawa, Shin Ichiro. AU - Cavaiuolo, Marina. AU - Jarrige, Domitille. AU - Kuras, Richard. AU - Rutgers, Mark. AU - Eberhard, Stephan. AU - Drapier, Dominique. AU - Wollman, Francis André. AU - Choquet, Yves. PY - 2020/4/1. Y1 - 2020/4/1. N2 - In the green alga Chlamydomonas (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), chloroplast gene expression is tightly regulated posttranscriptionally by gene-specific trans-acting protein factors. Here, we report the identification of the octotricopeptide repeat protein MTHI1, which is critical for the biogenesis of chloroplast ATP synthase oligomycin-sensitive chloroplast coupling factor. Unlike most trans-acting factors characterized so far in Chlamydomonas, which control the expression of a single gene, MTHI1 targets two distinct transcripts: it is required for the accumulation and translation of atpH mRNA, encoding a subunit of ...
Ergosterol is the major sterol found in the membranes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. While past studies have identified some ergosterol mutants in C. reinhardtii, very little is known about sterol biosynthesis pathways in this species. With the elucidation of the Chlamydomonas genome, bioinformatics analysis has allowed us to determine potential genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. With this knowledge, a working model of the pathway was designed for future analysis. Several of the ergosterol biosynthetic genes were analyzed in respect to their role and involvement in flagellar regeneration. These genes were upregulated during the regrowth of the flagella. Also Chlamydomonas strains lacking flagella were analyzed by Q-RT PCR to determine what role ergosterol biosynthetic genes played in the absence of their flagella. Finally, one of the genes with homology to the yeast sterol C-5 desaturase, ERG3, was chosen for further analysis. To test whether ERG3 of C. reinhardtii had a similar function, yeast
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an ideal model organism for studies of ciliary function and assembly. In assays for biological and biochemical effects of various factors on flagellar structure and function, synchronous culture is advantageous for minimizing variability. Here, we have characterized a method in which 100% synchronization is achieved with respect to flagellar length but not with respect to the cell cycle. The method requires inducing flagellar regeneration by amputation of the entire cell population and limiting regeneration time. This results in a maximally homogeneous distribution of flagellar lengths at 3 h postamputation. We found that time-limiting new protein synthesis during flagellar synchronization limits variability in the unassembled pool of limiting flagellar protein and variability in flagellar length without affecting the range of cell volumes. We also found that long- and short-flagella mutants that regenerate normally require longer and ...
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii excels at acclimating to a changing environment. We analyzed expression patterns of its three genomes in cells grown under light-dark cycles. Nearly 85% of transcribed genes show differential expression, with different sets of transcripts being up-regulated over the course of the day to coordinate cellular growth before undergoing cell division. Parallel measurements of select metabolites and pigments, physiological parameters and a subset of proteins allow us to infer metabolic events and to evaluate the impact of the transcriptome on the proteome. Among new findings is the observation that Chlamydomonas exhibits low respiratory activity at night and relies instead on fermentative metabolism; we propose that the ferredoxin FDX9 acts as the electron donor to fermentative hydrogenases. The light stress responsive genes PSBS, LHCSR1 and LHCSR3 all show an acute response to light at dawn under abrupt dark-to light transitions. LHCSR3 genes also ...
The expression vector containing phbB and ble genes was constructed and transformed into cell-wall-deficient strain Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC-849 by the glass-head method. The transgenic alga was selected and maintained in the TAP agar plates containing 10 mug/mL Zeomycin. Transgenic alga, which could express phbB at the transcriptional level, was obtained and further confirmed with PCR, Southern blot and RT-PCR-DNA hybridization analysis.; The expression vector containing phbB and ble genes was constructed and transformed into cell-wall-deficient strain Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC-849 by the glass-head method. The transgenic alga was selected and maintained in the TAP agar plates containing 10 mug/mL Zeomycin. Transgenic alga, which could express phbB at the transcriptional level, was obtained and further confirmed with PCR, Southern blot and RT-PCR-DNA hybridization analysis ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains a factor that can replace adenosine 3:5-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in the stimulation of rabbit-muscle protein kinase. The factor cochromatographs and coelectrophoreses with authentic cAMP, and is inactivated by beef heart cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. When C. reinhardtii is exposed to aminophylline (theophylline(2) ethylenediamine), the concentration of the factor in the cells increases within 1 hr, from about 25 pmol of cAMP equivalents per g dry weight to more than 250 pmol. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity is present in crude extract of C. reinhardtii and is inhibited by theophylline. We conclude that cAMP occurs in C. reinhardtii and that the endogenous concentration is governed at least in part by a theophylline-sensitive cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. These findings provide a sound basis for attributing the effects of methylxanthines on flagellar function and regeneration in C. reinhardtii to the resultant elevation of endogenous cAMP
Studies of the biogenesis of the photosynthetic protein complexes in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have pointed to the importance of the concerted expression of nuclear and chloroplast genomes. The accumulation of chloroplast- and nuclear-encoded subunits is concerted, most of …
The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possesses a CO2 concentratingmechanism (CCM) which helps in successful acclimationto low CO2 conditions. Current models of the CCM postulate that aseries of ion transporters bring HCO3- from outside the cell to thethylakoid lumen, where the carbonic anhydrase CAH3 dehydratesaccumulated HCO3- to CO2, raising the CO2 concentration forRubisco. Previously, HCO3- transporters have been identified atboth the plasma membrane and the chloroplast envelope, butthe transporter thought to be on the thylakoid membrane hasnot been identified. Three paralogous genes (BST1, BST2, BST3)belonging to the bestrophin family have been found to be upregulatedin low CO2 conditions, and their expression is controlledby CIA5, a transcription factor that controls many CCM genes.YFP fusions demonstrate that all three proteins are located onthe thylakoid membrane, and interactome studies indicate thatthey might associate with chloroplast CCM components. A singlemutant defective in ...
The nuclear genome of the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains genes for a dozen hemoglobins of the truncated lineage. Of those, THB1 is known to be expressed, but the product and its function have not yet been characterized. We present mutagenesis, optical, and nuclear magnetic resonance data for the recombinant protein and show that at pH near neutral in the absence of added ligand, THB1 coordinates the heme iron with the canonical proximal histidine and a distal lysine. In the cyanomet state, THB1 is structurally similar to other known truncated hemoglobins, particularly the heme domain of Chlamydomonas eugametos LI637, a light-induced chloroplastic hemoglobin. Recombinant THB1 is capable of binding nitric oxide (NO(*)) in either the ferric or ferrous state and has efficient NO(*) dioxygenase activity. By using different C. reinhardtii strains and growth conditions, we demonstrate that the expression of THB1 is under the control of the NIT2 regulatory gene and that the hemoglobin is
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In this report, we present novel evidence linking FLP to high-affinity Fe transport and propose that FLP is a ferroxidase, functioning in the reoxidation of Fe2+ before its uptake into the cell. Initial evidence in support of this hypothesis comes from the deduced FLP amino acid sequence. FLP contains two multicopper oxidase I and one multicopper oxidase signature II motifs. In addition, the amino acid sequence of FLP shows the highest homology to multicopper oxidases in mammals (HEPH and ceruloplasmin) and yeast (FET3). These proteins are ferroxidases that are themselves involved in high-affinity Fe assimilation (Stearman et al., 1996;Askwith and Kaplan, 1998; Mukhopadhyay et al., 1998; Attieh et al., 1999; Vulpe et al., 1999). The involvement of FLP in Fe homeostasis is evident from the regulation of its synthesis. Both the transcription of the FLP gene and synthesis of FLP are greatly increased in Fe-deficient cells and reversed after resupply of Fe. Although we have not demonstrated the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Translational regulation of light-harvesting complex expression during photoacclimation to high-light in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. AU - McKim, S M. AU - Durnford, D G. PY - 2006/11/14. Y1 - 2006/11/14. N2 - When challenged with excess light, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii responds, in part, by down-regulating light harvesting capacity at Photosystem II while concomitantly reorganising cellular metabolism to increase sink capacity. We examined the role of translational control during different stages of photoacclimation by analysing polysome profiles of two different light-harvesting complex (LHC) genes encoding a major LHCII component (Lhcbm) and CP29 (Lhcb4) plus iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD), and through measurement of protein synthesis by in vivo labelling. Within two hours following transfer of low-light (LL) acclimated cultures into high-light (HL), Lhcbm transcripts are off-loaded from polysomes indicating a decline in translational initiation. Lhcbm ...
We present a new Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagellar mutant in which central pair projections are missing and the central pair microtubules are twisted along the length of the flagellum. We have named this mutant tcp1 for twisted central pair. Immunoblots using an antibody that recognizes the heavy chain of sea urchin kinesin reveal that a 70 kDa protein present in wild-type and pf18 (central pairless) axonemes is absent in tcp1, suggesting the presence of an uncharacterized kinesin associated with the central pair apparatus. We demonstrate that the kinesin-like protein Klp1 is not attached to central pair microtubules in tcp1, but rather is located in, or is part of, a region we have termed the internal axonemal matrix. It is proposed that this matrix acts as a scaffold for axonemal proteins that may also be associated with the central pair apparatus.. ...
Fusion of green fluorescent protein (GFP) to proteins is a powerful method to investigate dynamic processes in vivo. The green flagellate Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model organism for studying the eukaryotic flagella. In this work the GFP-tagging of proteins was employed in order to analyse proteins of the flagellar basal apparatus. Striated fiber assembling (SFA), centrin and deflagellation induced protein of 13 kDa (DIP13) were tagged with GFP at the C-terminal domain. In addition SFA was tagged at the N-terminal domain. The chimeric genes were stably transformed in C. reinhardtii. SFA is the mayor component of the striated microtubule associated fibers (SMAFS). GFP tagged SFA was incorporated into this fibers. N-terminal tagged SFA had similar properties like the wild-type protein. The length of the fibers increased with the strength of expression. The head domain of SFA is essential for fiber formation and photobleaching experiments did not show a pronounced dynamic of the fibers. The ...
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a zinc containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of CO2 and HCO3-. There are three evolutionarily unrelated CA families designated alpha, beta and gamma CA. Vertebrates have members of the alpha CA family, while higher plants, algae and cyanobacteria have members belonging to all three CA families. In the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, five CAs have previously been identified including three alpha CAs and two beta CAs. This dissertation describes the identification and characterization of new CA genes from C. reinhardtii. Four new CA or CA like genes have been discovered including two beta CAs and two gamma CAs. Three CAs were investigated further including the alpha CA Cah3, one of the new beta CAs, Cah6; and a new gamma CA designated Gclp1 for gamma CA like protein. Cah3 is an alpha CA located in the thylakoid. Past studies with two Cah3 mutants, ca-1 and cia3 have shown that Cah3 plays an important role in the CO2 concentrating ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assembly and motility of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Lessons from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. AU - Silflow, Carolyn D.. AU - Lefebvre, Paul A.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85047681474&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85047681474&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1104/pp.010807. DO - 10.1104/pp.010807. M3 - Review article. C2 - 11743094. AN - SCOPUS:85047681474. VL - 127. SP - 1500. EP - 1507. JO - Plant Physiology. JF - Plant Physiology. SN - 0032-0889. IS - 4. ER - ...
en] Photosynthetic activities were analyzed in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mitochondrial mutants affected in different complexes (I, III, IV, I + III, and I + IV) of the respiratory chain. Oxygen evolution curves showed a positive relationship between the apparent yield of photosynthetic linear electron transport and the number of active proton-pumping sites in mitochondria. Although no significant alterations of the quantitative relationships between major photosynthetic complexes were found in the mutants, 77 K fluorescence spectra showed a preferential excitation of photosystem I (PSI) compared with wild type, which was indicative of a shift toward state 2. This effect was correlated with high levels of phosphorylation of light-harvesting complex II polypeptides, indicating the preferential association of light-harvesting complex II with PSI. The transition to state 1 occurred in untreated wild-type cells exposed to PSI light or in 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea-treated cells exposed ...
Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against algal centrin, a protein of algal striated flagellar roots, were used to characterize the occurrence and distribution of this protein in interphase and mitotic Chlamydomonas cells. Chlamydomonas centrin, as identified by Western immunoblot procedures, is a low molecular (20,000-Mr) acidic protein. Immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling demonstrates that centrin is a component of the distal fiber. In addition, centrin-based flagellar roots link the flagellar apparatus to the nucleus. Two major descending fibers extend from the basal bodies toward the nucleus; each descending fiber branches several times giving rise to 8-16 fimbria which surround and embrace the nucleus. Immunogold labeling indicates that these fimbria are juxtaposed to the outer nuclear envelope. Earlier studies have demonstrated that the centrin-based linkage between the flagellar apparatus and the nucleus is contractile, both in vitro and in living Chlamydomonas cells ...
Catalytic domain of the Protein Serine/Threonine Kinase, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii FA2 and similar domains. Serine/Threonine Kinases (STKs), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii FA2-like subfamily, catalytic (c) domain. STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii FA2-like subfamily belongs to the (NIMA)-related kinase (Nek) family. The Nek family includes seven different Chlamydomonas Neks (CNKs 1-6 and Fa2). This subfamily includes FA2 and CNK4. The Nek family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii FA2 was discovered in a genetic screen for deflagellation-defective mutants. It is essential for basal-body/centriole-associated microtubule severing, and plays a role in cell cycle progression. No cellular ...
To make the CrPKD2-GFP fusion, the C. reinhardtii bacterial artificial chromosome clone 18K16 (https://www.genome.clemson.edu/cgi-bin/orders) was cut with EcoRV and SpeI, generating an ∼18-kb fragment, which included the entire CrPKD2 gene and its promoter. This fragment was subcloned into the EcoRV and SpeI sites of pBluescript II KS+ (Stratagene), generating a plasmid named pHK25. This plasmid was cut with HindIII, generating three fragments. One of these fragments, an 8-kb fragment containing the promoter and most of the genomic DNA encoding CrPKD2, was cloned into the HindIII site of the pBluescript KS+, generating pHK28. A second fragment, a 5.8-kb fragment containing the last two introns, exons, the 3′ UTR of CrPKD2, and the KS+ vector, was religated to produce pHK26.. To tag the CrPKD2 gene, we cloned the GFP gene into a unique EcoRI site in intron 11, flanked by the first intron of RBCS2 (Goldschmidt-Clermont and Rahire, 1986). For this, the two ends of the intron were subcloned as ...
Forty single gene mutations in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were isolated based on resistance to the compound 5-methyl anthranilic acid (5-MAA). In other organisms, 5-MAA is converted to 5-methyltryptophan (5-MT) and 5-MT is a potent inhibitor of anthranilate synthase, which catalyzes the first committed step in tryptophan biosynthesis. The mutant strains fall into two phenotypic classes based on the rate of cell division in the absence of 5-MAA. Strains with class I mutations divide more slowly than wild-type cells. These 17 mutations map to seven loci, which are designated MAA1 to MAA7. Strains with class II mutations have generation times indistinguishable from wild-type cells, and 7 of these 23 mutations map to loci defined by class I mutations. The remainder of the class II mutations map to 9 other loci, which are designated MAA8-MAA16. The maa5-1 mutant strain excretes high levels of anthranilate and phenylalanine into the medium. In this strain, four enzymatic activities in the tryptophan ...
MicroRNAs play an important role in abiotic stress responses in higher plants and animals, but their role in stress adaptation in algae remains unknown. In this study, the expression of identified and putative miRNAs in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction; some of the miRNAs (Cre-miR906-3p) were up-regulated, whereas others (Cre-miR910) were downregulated when the species was subjected to multiple abiotic stresses. With degradome sequencing data, we also identified ATP4 (the d-subunit of ATP synthase) and NCR2 (NADPH: cytochrome P450 reductase) as one of the several targets of Cre-miR906-3p and Cre-miR910, respectively. Q-PCR data indicated that ATP4, which was expressed inversely in relation to Cre-miR906-3p under stress conditions. Overexpressing of Cre-miR906-3p enhanced resistance to multiple stresses; conversely, overexpressing of ATP4 produced the opposite effect. These data of Q-PCR, degradome sequencing and adaptation of overexpressing ...
The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii nar-2, nar-3, and nar-4 genes, which are within a nitrate-regulated gene cluster containing the nitrate reductase structural gene nit-1, have been related to nitrate transport. Mutant strains defective in nitrate transport and having an active nitrate reductase have bee …
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S.P. Mayfield, P. Lee, P. Pettersson, J. Marìn-Navarro, A. Manuell, M. Muto, M. Tran We have developed a system for expressing recombinant proteins, including human therapeutic proteins, in the chloroplast of the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Expression of therapeutic proteins in eukaryotic algae offers several advantages over more traditional protein expression systems. Algae are efficient at producing complex mammalian proteins, stable transgenic lines can be generated in a few weeks, and algal systems can be scaled to high levels for a fraction of the cost of traditional fermentation systems.. We have expressed several recombinant proteins in algae, including human monoclonal antibodies. Antibodies are complex multiprotein molecules that are difficult to express in simple expression systems and expensive to produce in mammalian cell culture. We have had good success in producing these complex proteins in algal chloroplasts. We have also expressed eukaryotic protein toxins, ...
Our initial mapping data placed Mcd4 into two possible locations. In both cases, it was desirable to generate bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs for eventual complementation, as well as additional markers. As a case study, we describe how BAC contigs can be extended using Chlamydomonas resources and our experience in generating site-specific markers.. Several BAC libraries have been constructed for Chlamydomonas, two of which are available through the Clemson Genomics Institute (http://www.genome.clemson.edu/groups/bac/). In addition, BAC contigs (http://www.biology.duke.edu/chlamy_genome/BAC/index.html) have been assembled for most of the STS and RFLP markers. In the case of mcd4, Gsp1 resides on scaffold 2 and CNA45 on scaffold 66. A 41-BAC contig exists for scaffold 2 covering approximately 1,000 kb (R. Nguyen, personal communication), and a smaller contig is linked to scaffold 66 and CNA45 (Fig. 6). An unknown amount of DNA separates scaffolds 2 and 66; such discontinuities in the ...
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The project covers the whole process chain from optimized biomass production to product development and exploitation. In a first step, two industrial bioproduction platforms will be explored: the green alga Botryococcus braunii and the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to which the unique hydrocarbon and polysaccharides producing genes from Botryococcus will be transferred. Biomass cultivation is targeted to reach a pilot scale.
Centrin, a 20-kD phosphoprotein with four calcium-binding EF-hands, is present in the centrosome/basal body apparatus of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in three distinct locations: the nucleus-basal body connectors, the distal striated fibers, and the flagellar transition regions. In each location, centrin is found in fibrous structures that display calcium-mediated contraction. The mutant vfl2 has structural defects at all of these locations and is defective for basal body localization and/or segregation. We show that the vfl2 mutation is a G-to-A transition in the centrin structural gene which converts a glutamic acid to a lysine at position 101, the first amino acid of the E-helix of the proteins third EF-hand. This proves that centrin is required to construct the nucleus-basal body connectors, the distal striated fibers, and the flagellar transition regions, and it demonstrates the importance of amino acid 101 to normal centrin function. Based on immunofluorescence analysis using ...
While conducting a screen for genes affecting pyrenoid function in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, graduate student and the studys first author Alan Itakura and postdoctoral researcher Leif Pallesen, both in the Jonikas group, uncovered a gene called SAGA1 (Starch Granules Abnormal-1), the loss of which causes cells to grow poorly. When the researchers, including the studys co-first author, Kher Xing (Cindy) Chan in Howard Griffiths group at the University of Cambridge, examined the mutant cells, they noticed that SAGA1 mutants possess multiple pyrenoids-up to 10 per cell. This was surprising since normal cells almost always contain just one pyrenoid. Intrigued, the team decided to investigate further.. Because the SAGA1 protein is predicted to contain a starch-binding domain, the researchers first explored whether loss of the SAGA1 gene affects the architecture of the starch plates that make up the pyrenoid sheath. Indeed, the pyrenoids in SAGA1-deficient cells have fewer and ...
High light (HL) stress adversely affects growth, productivity and viability of photosynthetic organisms. The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model system to study photosynthesis and light stress. Comparative proteomics of wild-type and two very high light (VHL)-resistant mutants, VHLR-S4 and VHLR-S9, revealed complex alterations in response to excess light. A twodimensional reference map of the soluble subproteome was constructed representing about 1500 proteins. A total of 83 proteins from various metabolic pathways were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Quantitative comparisons of 444 proteins showed 105 significantly changed proteins between wild type and mutants under different light conditions. Commonly, more proteins were decreased than increased, but different proteins were affected in each genotype. Proteins uniquely altered in either VHLR mutant may be involved in VHL resistance. Such candidate proteins similarly altered without light stress, thus possibly ...
The goal of our scientific work is the molecular analysis of the biogenesis of photosynthetic thylakoid membranes which represent one of the most complex energy-transducing membranes currently known. We especially ask the questions how the biogenesis process is organized in space, what the molecular working mode of assisting factors is and how these factors developed by evolutionary means.. A second aspect of our work concerns the transformation of a cyanobacterium into an organelle of the plant cell, namely the chloroplast. This domestification of a former free-living procaryote throughout evolution was enabled by the advention of an intracellular communication system harmonizing gene expression in the former cyanobacterium and its host. This system is based on regulatory RNA/protein compexes which we study by applying genetic and biochemical techniques in the unicellular model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.. ...
Editors note: I first read about this in The Celestine Prophecy (awesome book, btw) back in 1997. A biological research team at Bielefeld University has made a groundbreaking discovery showing that plants can draw an alternative source of energy from other plants. This finding could also have a major impact on the future of bioenergy eventually providing the evidence to show that people draw energy from others in much the same way.. Members of Professor Dr. Olaf Kruses biological research team have confirmed for the first time that a plant, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, not only engages in photosynthesis, but also has an alternative source of energy: it can draw it from other plants. The research findings were released this week in the online journal Nature Communications published by the renowned journal Nature.. Flowers need water and light to grow and people are no different. Our physical bodies are like sponges, soaking up the environment. This is exactly why there are certain ...
Nitrite plays an important role in the nitrogen metabolism of most cells, including Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We have shown that vegetative cells of C. reinhardtii are attracted by nitrite. The Nia1nit2 mutant with defects in genes encoding the nitrate reductase and regulatory protein NIT2 respectively was found to exhibit normal chemotaxis to nitrite. The data suggest that chemotaxis events appear to be specific and independent of those involved in nitrate assimilation. Unlike vegetative cells and noncompetent pregametes, mature gametes did not show chemotaxis to nitrite. Just like gamete formation, the change in chemotaxis mode is controlled by the sequential action of two environmental cues, removal of nitrogen from the medium and light. Comparative analysis of wild-type and RNAi strains with reduced level of phototropin has indicated that switch-off of chemotaxis towards nitrite is dependent on phototropin. The studies revealed individual elements of the phototropin-dependent signal transduction
The 10th International Conference on the Cell and Molecular Biology of Chlamydomonas will be held in Vancouver, Canada, June 11-16, 2002. Please visit http://www.quarmby.ca/chlamy2002 to register for the meeting and reserve your accommodation. Its going to be a great meeting and we look forward to seeing you all there. A preliminary program outline is now on the program page to facilitate your travel plans. -- Elizabeth Harris chlamy at duke.edu Chlamydomonas Genetics Center home page: http://www.biology.duke.edu/chlamy/ Resource Center for Chlamy genome project: http://www.biology.duke.edu/chlamy_genome/crc.html ------- End of forwarded message ...
Small rab-related GTPase; Small GTPase-like component of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) complex B. Forms a subcomplex within the IFT complex B with IFT25. Has very low GTPase activity either because it lacks the conserved catalytic Gln in position 79 or because it requires some GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for GTP turnover (204 aa ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
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1FCT: NMR structures of ferredoxin chloroplastic transit peptide from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii promoted by trifluoroethanol in aqueous solution.
in Molecular and General Genetics (1998), 259(3), 294-8. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mutants defective in the cytochrome pathway of respiration lack the capacity to grow under heterotrophic conditions (in darkness on acetate). In the dark- strain duM18, a + 1 ... [more ▼]. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mutants defective in the cytochrome pathway of respiration lack the capacity to grow under heterotrophic conditions (in darkness on acetate). In the dark- strain duM18, a + 1 T addition in a run of four Ts, located at codon 145 of the mitochondrial cox1 gene encoding subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase, is responsible for the mutant phenotype. A leaky revertant (su11) that grows heterotrophically at a lower rate than wild-type cells was isolated from dum18. Its respiration sensitivity to cyanide was low and its cytochrome c oxidase activity was only 4% of that of the wild-type enzyme. Meiotic progeny obtained from crosses between revertant and wild-type cells inherited the phenotype of the mt- ...
This model does not account for two published observations: An mt+ strain carrying the MID gene transposed to an autosome differentiates as minus, as do mt+ cells transformed with the MID gene, even though neither possesses a copy of the MTD1 gene (Ferris and Goodenough 1997). To reconcile these observations with the results reported here, we are led to propose that plus gametes express a system, the MTD1-equivalent system, that is functionally equivalent to the MTD1 system but achieves this outcome without requiring the Mtd1 protein itself. When MID is introduced into a plus background, the MTD1-equivalent system enables sufficiently high MID expression to allow transformants to undergo minus differentiation, albeit success is usually incomplete (see results and Ferris and Goodenough 1997), meaning that the MTD1-equivalent system is not repressible by Mid. Importantly, at least one essential gene in the posited plus MTD-equivalent system must be resident in the MT+ locus. If the system were ...
NADPH-dependent flavin reductase; Component of the cytosolic iron-sulfur (Fe-S) protein assembly (CIA) machinery. Required for the maturation of extramitochondrial Fe-S proteins. Part of an electron transfer chain functioning in an early step of cytosolic Fe-S biogenesis. Transfers electrons from NADPH to the Fe-S cluster of the anamorsin/DRE2 homolog (620 aa ...
The time course of and the influence of light intensity and light quality on the induction of a mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was characterized using western and northern blots. This CA was expressed only under low-CO2 conditions (ambient air). In asynchronously grown cells, the mRNA was detected 15 min after transfer from air containing 5% CO2 to ambient air, and the 21-kD polypeptide was detected on western blots after 1 h. When transferred back to air containing 5% CO2, the mRNA disappeared within 1 h and the polypeptide was degraded within 3 d. Photosynthesis was required for the induction in asynchronous cultures. The induction increased with light up to 500 mu mol m(-2) s(-1), where saturation occurred. In cells grown synchronously, however, expression of the mitochondrial CA was also detected in darkness. Under such conditions the expression followed a circadian rhythm, with mRNA appearing in the dark 30 min before the light ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enzymatic properties of the ferredoxin-dependent nitrite reductase from chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Evidence for hydroxylamine as a late intermediate in ammonia production. AU - Hirasawa, Masakazu. AU - Tripathy, Jatindra N.. AU - Sommer, Frederik. AU - Somasundaram, Ramasamy. AU - Chung, Jung Sung. AU - Nestander, Matthew. AU - Kruthiventi, Mahima. AU - Zabet-Moghaddam, Masoud. AU - Johnson, Michael K.. AU - Merchant, Sabeeha S.. AU - Allen, James Paul. AU - Knaff, David B.. PY - 2010/1. Y1 - 2010/1. N2 - The ferredoxin-dependent nitrite reductase from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged recombinant protein, and purified to homogeneity. The spectra, kinetic properties and substrate-binding parameters of the C. reinhardtii enzyme are quite similar to those of the ferredoxin-dependent spinach chloroplast nitrite reductase. Computer modeling, based on the published structure of spinach nitrite reductase, predicts ...
When Venus was used as a GOI with this system, a positive correlation was found between paromomycin resistance and Venus fluorescence, indicating that expression from the two ORFs is coupled. It initially seemed possible that a mechanism such as stop-codon read through (Jackson et al. 2012) might result in expression of the GOI and APHVIII products as a single fusion protein that provides paromomycin resistance. However, this appears not to be the case, because the method works equally well when two or three different stop codons are inserted between the ORFs, and/or the ORFs are placed out-of-frame, and Western blotting detected no such fusion products. Thus, it seems most likely that APHVIII is translated by post-termination reinitiation (Kozak 2007; Skabkin et al. 2013), in which the ribosome remains associated with the mRNA after termination, continues scanning, and reinitiates translation at a downstream (or, occasionally, upstream: Skabkin et al. 2013) AUG. Such events have been well ...
A Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast expression vector, pACTBVP1, containing the fusion of the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 gene and the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) gene was constructe
Like a strict parent, the mother centriole keeps order in the cell by telling other organelles where to sit, according to new work by Jessica Feldman, Wallace Marshall (University of California, San Francisco, CA), and Stefan Geimer (Universität Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany).. Marshalls team is interested in what controls the intracellular geometry of organelle positioning. To address this topic, they focus on one organelle that is well-known for its specific positioning: the centriole.. The tethered pair of mother and daughter centrioles is the major component of the centrosome complex and also promotes the assembly of cilia. Thus cilia can act as a cell surface indicator of centriole positioning. The team used the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which normally has two cilia at its apex, to scan for mutants in which cilia were misplaced.. In certain misplaced cilia mutants, the fibers that normally tether mother and daughter centrioles were absent. The team found that whereas the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase is a multifunctional enzyme involved in membrane lipid turnover and degradation while synthesizing triacylglycerol in the unicellular green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. AU - Yoon, K. AU - Han, D. AU - Li, Y. AU - Sommerfeld, M.. AU - Hu, Q.. AU - Sommerfeld, Milton R. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. M3 - Article. SP - 3708. EP - 3724. JO - The Plant Cell. JF - The Plant Cell. ER - ...
Cilia and flagella are cell surface organelles with microtubule-based axonemal cores. Although these organelles have been known to biologists for centuries, only in the last five years has it been recognized that cilia are crucial for mammalian embryonic development as well as for the function of multiple adult organs (Pan et al., 2005). Many potential ciliary proteins have been identified in various species in recent years using biochemical, comparative genomic and proteomic methods. Nevertheless, the spectrum of factors required for the formation and/or function of cilia, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of cilia biogenesis, have yet to be fully revealed.. Two multiprotein complexes, the intraflagellar transport (IFT, complex A and B) complexes, are present in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Rosenbaum and Witman, 2002). The IFT complexes move within the flagella, suggesting that they are likely to be involved in the transportation of molecules inside the ...
Photosynthetic microalgae hold promise as green cell factories for sustainable light-driven bio-production processes. These organisms can be cultivated with freely available sunlight energy and CO2 as a sole carbon source, making them ideal chassis for sustainable production processes. Microalgae are already natural sources of many interesting bio-products including carotenoids, lipids, and polysaccharides. However, expanding the range as well as value of the compounds produced by microalgae through genetic engineering can increase the economic competitiveness of light-driven algal production platforms. In comparison to bacteria or yeasts, genetic engineering of eukaryotic microalgae has lagged significantly behind due to characteristically low transgene expression levels. Work in our research group has focused on engineering increased and reliable levels of nuclear transgene expression in the fast growing, Chlorophyceaen microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, with the aim of generating ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Role of timer and sizer in regulation of Chlamydomonas cell cycle. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Amoroso, G., D. Sueltemeyer, C. Thyssen and H.P. Fock (1998). Uptake of HCO3- and CO2 in cells and chloroplasts from the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Dunaliella tertiolecta. Plant Physiol. 116, 193-201. Asleson, C.M. and P.A. Lefebvre (1998). Genetic analysis of flagellar length control in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A new long-flagella locus and extragenic suppressor mutations. Genetics 148, 693-702. Bhattacharya, D. and L. Medlin (1998). Algal phylogeny and the origin of land plants. Plant Physiol. 116, 9-15. Boschetti, A. and K. Schmid (1998). Energy supply for ATP-synthase deficient chloroplasts of Chlamydomonas reinhardii. Plant Cell Physiol. 39, 160-168. Brosch-Salomon, S., M. Hoeftberger, A. Holzinger and U. Luetz-Meindl (1998). Ultrastructural localization of polysaccharides and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine in the secretory pathway of green algae (Desmidiaceae). J. Exp. Bot. 49, 145-153. Calenberg, M., U. Brohsonn, M. Zedlacher and G. Kreimer (1998). Light- and Ca2+-modulated ...
Read UV-mediated Chlamydomonas mutants with enhanced nuclear transgene expression by disruption of DNA methylation-dependent and independent silencing systems, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
RuBisCO catalyzes two reactions: the carboxylation of D-ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, the primary event in carbon dioxide fixation, as well as the oxidative fragmentation of the pentose substrate. Both reactions occur simultaneously and in competition at the same active site.
In 1933, Marjory Stephenson and her student Stickland reported that cell suspensions catalysed the reduction of methylene blue with H2. Six years later, Hans Gaffron observed that the green photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, would sometimes produce hydrogen.[17] In the late 1990s Anastasios Melis discovered that deprivation of sulfur induces the alga to switch from the production of oxygen (normal photosynthesis) to the production of hydrogen. He found that the enzyme responsible for this reaction is hydrogenase, but that the hydrogenase lost this function in the presence of oxygen. Melis also discovered that depleting the amount of sulfur available to the algae interrupted their internal oxygen flow, allowing the hydrogenase an environment in which it can react, causing the algae to produce hydrogen.[18] Chlamydomonas moewusii is also a promising strain for the production of hydrogen.[19][20] ...
A main question for the study of collective motion in living organisms is the origin of orientational polar order, i.e., how organisms align and what are the benefits of such collective behaviour. In the case of micro-organisms swimming at a low Reynolds number, steric repulsion and long-range hydrodynamic interactions are not sufficient to explain a homogeneous polar order state in which the direction of motion is aligned. An external symmetry-breaking guiding field such as a mechanism of taxis appears necessary to understand this phonemonon. We have investigated the onset of polar order in the velocity field induced by phototaxis in a suspension of a motile micro-organism, the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, for density values above the limit provided by the hydrodynamic approximation of a force dipole model. We show that polar order originates from a combination of both the external guiding field intensity and the population density. In particular, we show evidence for a linear dependence of a
The focus of our groups activities is the analysis and manipulation of metabolic pathways. With an increased understanding of the regulation of metabolism, scientists and engineers can rationally manipulate pathways to produce novel compounds or increase the production of specialty compounds. Quantifying metabolic flux is a critical technology that forms the basis for rational metabolic engineering. Our group has been developing the mathematical modeling and experimental tools for the particularly difficult problem of quantifying fluxes in photoautotrophic organisms. The current focus is on quantifying intracellular metabolite fluxes in cyanobacteria, algae and plants by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-MS (GC/MS). We have also constructed a genome scale metabolic model of the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and performed flux balance analysis on the network, which we are comparing against experimentally determined metabolic fluxes derived from transient ...
Nuclear transformation occurs when the atoms of one element change to become atoms of another element. This is most commonly seen with...
A select set of microalgae are reported to be able to catalyse photobiological H(2) production from water. Based on the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a method was developed for the screening of naturally occurring H(2)-producing microalgae. By purging algal cultures with N(2) in the dark and subsequent illumination, it is possible to rapidly induce photobiological H(2) evolution. Using NMR spectroscopy for metabolic profiling in C. reinhardtii, acetate, formate, and ethanol were found to be key compounds contributing to metabolic variance during the assay. This procedure can be used to test algal species existing as axenic or mixed cultures for their ability to produce H(2). Using this system, five algal isolates capable of H(2) production were identified in various aquatic systems. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using ribosomal sequence data of green unicellular algae to determine if there were taxonomic patterns of H(2) production. H(2)-producing algal species were seen to be ...
Anti-Lhcb4 (CP29) Chlamydomonas reinhardti, Lhcb4, CP29, Lhcbm4 antibody , Lhcb4 | CP29 (Lhcb4) homolog, Chlamydomonas, Q93WD2, AS06 117
Definition of chlamydomonas - a common single-celled green alga which typically has two flagella for swimming, living in water and moist soil.
TY - CHAP. T1 - Appropriate observables for investigating narrow resonances in Kaon photoproduction off a proton. AU - Mart, Terry. PY - 2011/11/1. Y1 - 2011/11/1. N2 - The existence of non-strange partner of pentaquark, the Jp = 1/2+ narrow resonance, has been investigated by utilizing kaon photoproduction off a proton. It is found that the corresponding mass is 1650 MeV and the appropriate observables for investigating the existence of this resonance are the recoiled hyperon polarization, the beam-recoil double polarization Cx, and differential cross section at backward angles. Future kaon photoproduction experiments should focus on these observables.. AB - The existence of non-strange partner of pentaquark, the Jp = 1/2+ narrow resonance, has been investigated by utilizing kaon photoproduction off a proton. It is found that the corresponding mass is 1650 MeV and the appropriate observables for investigating the existence of this resonance are the recoiled hyperon polarization, the beam-recoil ...
Engineered tissues are highly limited by poor vascularization in vivo, leading to hypoxia. In order to overcome this challenge, we propose the use of photosynthetic biomaterials to provide oxygen. Since photosynthesis is the original source of oxygen for living organisms, we suggest that this could be a novel approach to provide a constant source of oxygen supply independently of blood perfusion. In this study we demonstrate that bioartificial scaffolds can be loaded with a solution containing the photosynthetic microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, showing high biocompatibility and photosynthetic activity in vitro. Furthermore, when photosynthetic biomaterials were engrafted in a mouse full skin defect, we observed that the presence of the microalgae did not trigger a native immune response in the host. Moreover, the analyses showed that the algae survived for at least 5days in vivo, generating chimeric tissues comprised of algae and murine cells. The results of this study represent a crucial ...
ABOUT CRAG:. CRAG is an independent research institution engaged in leading-edge basic and applied plant and farm animal sciences. CRAG is established as a Consortium of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Institute of Agrifood Research and Technology (IRTA), Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), and University of Barcelona (UB). The Center is located at the UAB Campus, and currently hosts 200 members from across the world.. Research Programs at CRAG (from basic science to applied research using plant experimental model systems, crops and farm animals) make extensive use of genomic technologies and large sets of genetic and genomic data (https://biennialreport2016-2017.cragenomica.es/).. RESPONSIBILITIES:. The hired technician will assist in undergoing research aimed at characterizing the components of light, high light and retrograde signaling in the model organisms Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.. The tasks are included within the framework of the project ...
In the GAPDH-CP12-PRK complex, T. elongatus PRK is dimeric, as in solution (SI Appendix, Fig. S5E), and like other plant-type PRKs (6, 7). PRK has an alpha-beta-alpha sandwich fold where the central 9-strand beta-sheet is continuous across the dimer interface (Fig. 3C). The active site cleft lies between 3 loops (residues 137-164, 43-63, and 87-98). The N-terminal helical bundle of CP12 plugs this cleft and sterically blocks the active site (Fig. 3D). The charged patch created by the CP12 motif binds to complementary positively charged regions in the PRK active site (Fig. 3E), which have also been proposed to be important for negatively charged sugar phosphate substrate binding (6). Variants in the CP12 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, equivalent to Trp33, Glu37, and Glu38 in the conserved CP12 motif resulted in loss of complex formation (24). The conserved CP12-Trp33 is on the surface and packs against PRK, contradicting a prediction that it is buried (29). CP12-Glu33 makes a salt bridge with ...
May, P., Wienkoop, S., Kempa, S., Usadel, B., Christian, N., Rupprecht, J., Weiss, J., Recuenco-Munoz, L., Ebenhöh, O., Weckwerth, W., Walther, D (2008) Metabolomics- and proteomics-assisted genome annotation and analysis of the draft metabolic network of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Genetics. 179:157-66.. Howell, K.A., Narsai, R., Carroll, A., Ivanova, A., Lohse, M., Usadel, B., Millar, A.H., Whelan, J. (200X) Mapping metabolic and transcript temporal switches during germination in Oryza sativa highlights specific transcription factors and the role of RNA instability in the germination process. Plant Physiol. accepted. Crowhurst, R.N., et al. (2008) Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Actinidia: applications of a cross species EST database for gene discovery in the areas of flavor, health, color and ripening. BMC Genomics. 9:351.. ...
Biology, Botany, Biochemistry, Cell biology, Arabidopsis, ATP-binding cassette transporter, Arabidopsis thaliana, Mutant, Genetics, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii,
Algae Detail UTEX Number: 969Class: ChlorophyceaeStrain: Chlamydomonas applanataMedia: Modified Bold 3N MediumOrigin: Williamson Co., Texas, USADescription of L
Algae Detail UTEX Number: 943Class: ChlorophyceaeStrain: Chlamydomonas giganteaMedia: Modified Bold 3N MediumOrigin: Description of Location: Type Culture: NoCo
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Nucleus-basal body connector in chlamydomonas: Evidence for a role in basal body segregation and against essential roles in mitosis or in determining cell polarity. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Introduction Bio 2010 01/31/2014 The objectives of this lab were to understand natural selection and understand the biotic and abiotic characteristics of a niche. In order to understand natural selection in this lab we observed characteristics of three different algae families; Volvox, Chlamydomonas, and Gonium. By observing these algae will give us a better understanding of how a simple cellular organism evolved due to natural selection and are able to survive today. These organisms will give us context into natural selection occurring on bigger organisms as we move on in lab. Similarly, in order to understand biotic and abiotic characteristics of a niche, we observed a transect. By observing a transect will provide insight into how the biosphere works by focussing on biotic and biotic components of a home to many organisms. Procedure 1: The Volvicine Line In this experiment we observed an isogamous, single celled, motile alga called chlamydomonas. We prepared a slide of a living Chlamydomonas ...
Figure 5A. Wildtype and roc15 mutant Chlamydomonas was entrained to a 12:12 light:dark cycle. The cultures were transferred to constant darkness and their tufA expression was measured with luminescence. They were then expressed to 5 minute long pulses of light. The wild type Chlamydomonas responded to the light pulses, evident by a phase shift in tufA expression. The roc15 mutant Chlamydomonas did not exhibit this phase shift. This indicate that roc15 is essential for circadian regulated phase shifts and entrainment. ...
Immunofluorescence micrograph of a Chlamydomonas cell stained with acetylated tubulin antibody to label flagella (green) and with an antibody against the protein EB1 that labels the flagella tip and base (red/yellow). Image from Lotte Pedersen, University of Copenhagen. To previous page ...
The Cytoskeleton Collection includes 250 mAbs recognizing the supportive structural filaments and associated proteins that facilitate cell shape and motility
The Cytoskeleton Collection includes 250 mAbs recognizing the supportive structural filaments and associated proteins that facilitate cell shape and motility
Alphabetic Listing of Presenting Authors - R. If you have any questions or comments then please send an email to [email protected] ...
pep:novel chromosome:VEGA66:10:33905485:33915883:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000029742 transcript:OTTMUST00000073807 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Rsph4a description:radial spoke head 4 homolog A (Chlamydomonas ...
All algae need access to light and live in oxygenated water. There are more than 7,000 species of green algae, which live in a variety of...
Mohon maaf, kami belum menyediakan peta untuk retret 21-22 Juli ini. Peta yang Bapak lihat adalah peta tempat retret yang sebelumnya ...
Below, please find a statement from PETA Senior Vice President Daphna Nachminovitch in response to todays sentencing of Jurassic Pets Manager Brian
Project Noah is a tool that nature lovers can use to explore and document local wildlife and a common technology platform that research groups can use to harness the power of citizen scientists everywhere.
ThisNext/Creative CommonsThis little piece of good news comes to you courtesy of my friend (and occasional PETA Files blogger) Joel Bartlett, who spends
Lessons from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiology. 127 (4): 1500-7. doi:10.1104/pp.010807. PMC 1540183. PMID 11743094. ...
Lessons from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiology. 127 (4): 1500-1507. doi:10.1104/pp.010807. PMC 1540183. PMID ...
Crutchfield A, Diller K, Brand J (1999-02-01). "Cryopreservation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyta)". European Journal ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri). The latter implies that UVR8 potentially appeared before the evolutionary split ...
Crutchfield A, Diller K, Brand J (1999). "Cryopreservation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyta)". European Journal of ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) and archaea (e.g., Methanococcus jannaschii). The proteins are of about 450 amino acyl residues in ...
based on the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome. It has 866 unique ORFs, 1862 metabolites, 2499 gene-enzyme-reaction-association ... a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of algae based on the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome". BMC Genomics. 12 Suppl 4: S5. ...
Ensuing studies 20 years after the identification of the same mutant strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii found that the ... When a photorespiratory mutant of the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was studied, the mutant strain was ... Suzuki K, Marek LF, Spalding MH (May 1990). "A Photorespiratory Mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiology. 93 (1 ... "Characteristics and sequence of phosphoglycolate phosphatase from a eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". The ...
Schimmer, O; Kühne, I (1991). "Furoquinoline alkaloids as photosensitizers in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Mutation Research. ...
December 2008). "Toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Environmental Science & Technology. 42 (23): ... Chlamydomanas reinhardtii, but after 2 hours of incubation it was revealed that the algae containing silver nanoparticles were ...
Sequencing of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome was reported in October 2007. A Chlamydomonas genetic stock center exists at ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has well-studied genetics, with many known and mapped mutants and expressed sequence tags, and there ... See also Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, above under Protists. Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge from the phylum Porifera used ... "Chlamydomonas reinhardtii resources at the Joint Genome Institute". Archived from the original on 2008-07-23. Retrieved 2015-02 ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii] - Protein - NCBI". "Radial spoke head component 1 L homeolog [Xenopus laevis] - Protein - NCBI". " ...
The discovery of pyrenoid deficient mutants with normal starch grains in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, as well as ... Moroney, J. V., & Ynalvez, R. A. (2007). Proposed carbon dioxide concentrating mechanism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. ... reinhardtii pyrenoids in vivo, further supporting a "linker" role for EPYC1. The proteome of the Chlamydomonas pyrenoid has ... in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, multiple thylakoids merge at the periphery of the pyrenoid to form larger tubules ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga with well-studied genetics, is used to study photosynthesis and motility. C ... "Chlamydomonas reinhardtii resources at the Joint Genome Institute". Archived from the original on 2008-07-23. Retrieved 2007-10 ... reinhardtii has many known and mapped mutants and expressed sequence tags, and there are advanced methods for genetic ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii putative sulphur deprivation response regulator SAC1. This family also includes a number of bacterial ... a putative regulator that is critical for survival of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during sulfur deprivation". EMBO J. 15 (9): ...
She worked alongside Bruce Selman on the single-cell algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model ... Merchant was the first to demonstrate that the RNA for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii plastocyanin is produced when copper is ... "Studies on chloroplast development in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii IV. Control of rapid chlorophyll formation in greening y-1 ... crystal structure of plastocyanin from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Biochemistry. 32 (40): 10560-10567. doi: ...
Avasthi uses Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, to investigate the assembly of cilia. She was particularly ... She works on upwardly motile Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and is on the Board of Directors of eLife. Avasthi studied integrative ... Here she began work on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a model organism for studying cilia. Cilia function requires normal cilia ... September 2014). "Actin is required for IFT regulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Current Biology. 24 (17): 2025-32. doi: ...
However, experimentation on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, discovered Plastoquinone (PQ) to be a redox carrier. The role of this ... Peltier, G.; Schmidt, G. W. (1991). "Chlororespiration: an adaptation to nitrogen deficiency in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". ... The mutant Chlamydomonas plant species, lacks photosystems one and two (PS I and PS II), so when the plant underwent flash- ... Evidence using mass spectrometry on algae and photosynthetic mutants of Chlamydomonas, discovered that oxygen molecules were ...
... is a homing endonuclease whose gene was first discovered in the chloroplast genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a ... Seligman, LM; Stephens, KM; Savage, JH; Monnat, RJ (1997). "Genetic Analysis of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii I-CreI Mobile ... Rochaix, JD; Malnoe, P (1978). "Anatomy of the chloroplast ribosomal DNA of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Cell. 15 (2): 661-670. ... Dürrenberger F, Rochaix JD (November 1991). "Chloroplast ribosomal intron of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: in vitro self-splicing ...
Polypeptide phosphorylation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii », ( 1984) 98, j. cell. biol., p. 1-7 Wollman F-A., « State ... Lateral distribution of the main protein complexes of the photosynthetic apparatus in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and in spinach ... an approach using genetic transformation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii », EMBO J., (1994), 13(5), p. 1019-27 ... Using the power of the genetic approach in a microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhartdii, he combined biophysical, biochemical and ...
"An energy balance from absorbed photons to new biomass for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlamydomonas acidophila under neutral ... In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Photosystem II produces in direct conversion of sunlight 80% of the electrons that end up in the ... Six years later, Hans Gaffron observed that the green photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, would sometimes produce ... "Truncated Photosystem Chlorophyll Antenna Size in the Green Microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii upon Deletion of the TLA3- ...
"Purification and Molecular Properties of Urate Oxidase from Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ...
Some of these organisms produce hydrogen upon switching culture conditions; for example, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii produces ... "Sustained hydrogen photoproduction by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Effects of culture parameters". Biotechnology and ...
Meyer, Moritz (2010). Physiological and molecular determinants of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii pyrenoid (PhD thesis). ... focusing on the molecular determinants of the chloroplast pyrenoid in Chlamydomonas. He has a major collaboration funded by ...
Mitra M, Melis A (February 2010). "Genetic and biochemical analysis of the TLA1 gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Planta. 231 ... "Modulation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by TLA1 gene over-expression and RNA ...
"An energy balance from absorbed photons to new biomass for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlamydomonas acidophila under neutral ... In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Photosystem II produces in direct conversion of sunlight 80% of the electrons that end up in the ... Six years later, Hans Gaffron observed that the green photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, would sometimes produce ... "Identification of Global Ferredoxin Interaction Networks in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 288 ( ...
SQDGs degrade during sulfur starvation in some species such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This response is for the ...
Jan 2000). "Isolation and characterization of arsenate-sensitive and resistant mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant ...
... of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are (hydroxy)proline-specific proteases". European Journal of Biochemistry. 170 (1-2): 485-91. doi ... gelatin and Leu-Trp-Met-Arg-Phe-Ala This glycoprotein is present in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii gametes. Gram-positive bacteria ... during sexual signalling in Chlamydomonas: the enzyme is stored as an inactive, higher relative molecular mass precursor in the ... and hydroxyproline-rich proteins of the Chlamydomonas cell wall; also cleaves azocasein, ...
I think the sulfur starve method of hydrogen production was discovered with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a green algae rather ...
Beberapa organisme meliputi ganggang Chlamydomonas reinhardtii dan cyanobacteria memiliki tahap kedua, yaitu reaksi gelap, yang ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the landscape of pigments. - Annu. Rev. Genet., 2004, kd 38, nr 1, lk 119-173. Resümee. Resümee. ...
Grossman AR, Lohr M, Im CS (2004). "Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the landscape of pigments". Annu. Rev. Genet. 38 (1): 119-73. ...
Recently, cellulases have also been found in green microalgae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Gonium pectorale and Volvox carteri) ...
Lessons from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiol. 127 (4): 1500-1507. doi:10.1104/pp. 010807. PMC 1540183. PubMed. ...
Species in the Dunaliella genus are morphogically similar to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with the main exception being that ...
Grossman AR, Lohr M, Im CS (2004). "Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the landscape of pigments". Annu. Rev. Genet. 38: 119-73. doi: ...
Some such organisms, including the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and cyanobacteria, have evolved a second step in the dark ...
Lessons from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiol. 127 (4): 1500-1507. PMC 1540183. PMID 11743094. doi:10.1104/pp.010807. ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)作为模式生物,给细胞生物学提供了重要的
"Integration of chloroplast nucleic acid metabolism into the phosphate deprivation response in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". The ...
Herron et al [50] performed laboratory evolution experiments on the single-celled green alga, C. reinhardtii, using paramecium ... S. M. Miller (2010). "Volvox, Chlamydomonas, and the evolution of multicellularity". Nature Education. 3 (9): 65.. ... They found that in the presence of this predator, C. reinhardtii does indeed evolve simple multicellular features. ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii on üherakuline rohevetikas, mille põhjal uuritakse fotosünteesi, vibureid ja liikuvust, ainevahetuse ...
... and Biochemical Characterization in Wild-Type and Starchless Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Eukaryotic Cell. 8 (12): 1856-1868. ... "RNA Interference Silencing of a Major Lipid Droplet Protein Affects Lipid Droplet Size in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". ...
... using the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism.[7] She performed breeding experiments with the algae, mating ... it also showed that there are multiple independent genetic systems in Chlamydomonas.[2] She found further evidence when she ...
萊茵衣藻(英語:Chlamydomonas reinhardtii). *四膜蟲. *釀酒酵母 ...
"Higher plant-like subunit composition of mitochondrial complex I from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: 31 conserved components among ...
Grossman AR, Lohr M, Im CS (2004). „Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the landscape of pigments". Annu. Rev. Genet. 38 (1): 119-73. ...
Lessons from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiology. 127 (4): 1500-1507. doi:10.1104/pp.010807. PMC 1540183. PMID ...
Chloroplast-encoded chlB is required for light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase activity in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ... Later, by the sequence similarity, a similar protein was found in Chlamydomonas algae,[9] showing that this regulatory ... In a different manner, the Chlamydomonas regulatory protein is more complex: It is larger, crosses the thylakoid membrane twice ... The FLP proteins act as regulators of chlorophyll synthesis in response to light and plastid signals in Chlamydomonas. Genes & ...
The single celled green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, while not an embryophyte itself, contains a green-pigmented chloroplast ... The Molecular Biology of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria in Chlamydomonas. Dordrecht, Germany: Kluwer Academic. ISBN 978-0-7923- ...
Transmission electron micrograph of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a green alga that contains a pyrenoid surrounded by starch. ... Required for Normal Pyrenoid Formation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiology. 156 (2): 884-96. doi:10.1104/pp. ... "Chlamydomonas Ehrenberg, 1833: 288". algaeBASE. Retrieved 19 May 2013.. *^ "Spirogyra Link, 1820: 5". algaeBASE. Retrieved 19 ... J D, Rochaix (1998). The molecular biology of chloroplasts and mitochondria in Chlamydomonas. Dordrecht [u.a.]: Kluwer Acad. ...
... reinhardtii Transcription Factor Database. *"Chlamydomonas", a song by Andy Offutt Irwin about the life cycle of ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[9]. Ecology[edit]. Widely distributed in freshwater or damp soil.[1]It is generally found in habitat ... The dynamic behaviour of mitochrandia in living zygotes during maturation and meiosis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. European ... Chlamydomonas is a genus of green algae consisting of about 325 species[1] all unicellular flagellates, found in stagnant water ...
Work has been done with duckweed Lemna minor,[61] the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[62] and the moss Physcomitrella patens.[ ...
In many unicellular organisms (e.g., the ciliate Tetrahymena and the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), and in rare cases ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Vitis viniferaas well as in vertebrates including Danio rerio and Taeniopygia guttata. GRCh38: ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (green algae) Chlorocebus sabaeus (green monkey) Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster) Danio rerio ( ...
"Home - Chlamydomonas reinhardtii v3.0". "Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mitochondrion, complete genome". February 2010. Cite journal ... Chlamydomonas species are widely distributed worldwide in soil and fresh water. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an especially well ... and reinhardtii all refer to the same species, C. reinhardtii Dangeard. Chlamydomonas is used as a model organism for research ... "Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast, complete genome". 2004-01-23. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) "Chlamydomonas ...
High-frequency nuclear transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.. K L Kindle. PNAS February 1, 1990 87 (3) 1228-1232; https ... High-frequency nuclear transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Gametogenesis in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii minus Mating Type Is Controlled by Two Genes, MID and MTD1 ... By using a method in which cell-wall-deficient Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells were agitated in the presence of DNA, glass ...
Eyespot-Assembly Mutants in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mary Rose Lamb, Susan K. Dutcher, Cathy K. Worley and Carol L. Dieckmann ... Eyespot-Assembly Mutants in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mary Rose Lamb, Susan K. Dutcher, Cathy K. Worley and Carol L. Dieckmann ... Eyespot-Assembly Mutants in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mary Rose Lamb, Susan K. Dutcher, Cathy K. Worley and Carol L. Dieckmann ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a single-celled green alga that phototaxes toward light by means of a light-sensitive organelle, ...
The D66 strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a single-celled green alga, is a cell-wall-deficient strain of algae that exhibits ... The D66 strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been genetically engineered with no cell wall in order to increase the strains ... Adams, James (May 2004). "MOLECULAR, GENETIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII INSERTIONAL ... "Rubisco Activase is Required for Optimal Photosynthesis in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in a Low-CO2 Atmosphere". ...
Maul, JE, Lilly, JW, Cui, L, DePamphilis, CW, Miller, W, Harris, EH, Stern, DB 2002The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid ... Klein, U, De Camp, JD, Bogorad, L 1992Two types of chloroplast gene promoters in Chlamydomonas reinhardtiiProc Natl Acad Sci ... Van, K, Wang, Y, Nakamura, Y, Spalding, MH 2001Insertional mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that require elevated CO2 for ... Liu, XQ, Gillham, NW, Boynton, JE 1988Chloroplast ribosomal protein L-18 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is processed during ...
Tryptophan analog resistance mutations in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.. S K Dutcher, R E Galloway, W R Barclay and G Poortinga ... Tryptophan analog resistance mutations in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.. S K Dutcher, R E Galloway, W R Barclay and G Poortinga ... Tryptophan analog resistance mutations in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.. S K Dutcher, R E Galloway, W R Barclay and G Poortinga ... Tryptophan analog resistance mutations in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii nar-2, nar-3, and nar-4 genes, which are within a nitrate-regulated gene cluster containing the ... Identification of nitrate transporter genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plant J. 1994 Mar;5(3):407-19. doi: 10.1111/j.1365- ... The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii nar-2, nar-3, and nar-4 genes, which are within a nitrate-regulated gene cluster containing the ... These data strongly support the hypothesis that the nitrate transport system in C. reinhardtii contains at least two protein ...
Boyle NR, Morgan JA (2009) Flux balance analysis of primary metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. BMC Syst Biol 3:4CrossRef ... Buleon A et al (1997) Starches from A to C. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model microbial system to investigate the ... In this work we examined the possibility of studying, by solid-state NMR, the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii fully ... Bonente G, Pippa S, Castellano S, Bassi R, Ballottari M (2012) Acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to different growth ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas smithii). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand% ... sp,B5BUZ8,KTU_CHLRE Protein kintoun OS=Chlamydomonas reinhardtii OX=3055 GN=pf13 PE=2 SV=1 ... "Three distinct inner dynein arms in Chlamydomonas flagella: molecular composition and location in the axoneme.". Piperno G., ... "Three distinct inner dynein arms in Chlamydomonas flagella: molecular composition and location in the axoneme.". Piperno G., ...
Hoshaw, R.W. & Ettl, H. (1966). Chlamydomonas smithii sp. nov. - a chlamydomonad interfertile with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P.A.Dangeard. Classification: Empire Eukaryota. Kingdom Plantae. Subkingdom Viridiplantae. ... Isolation and preliminary characterization of three Chlamydomonas strains interfertile with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ( ... as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P.A.Dangeard). Europe: Balearic Islands (Cambra Sánchez, Álvarez Cobelas & Aboal Sanjurjo 1998), ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: Cre07.g324550, CHLRE_07g324550v5. Find proteins for B0LUZ5 (Chlamydomonas ... Identification of the Elusive Pyruvate Reductase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplasts.. Burgess, S.J., Taha, H., Yeoman, J ... Identification of the pyruvate reductase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb4ZGS/pdb ... Under anoxic conditions the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii activates various fermentation pathways leading to the ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: RSP23, CHLRE_16g654300v5, CHLREDRAFT_139197. EC: 2.7.4.6. ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: RSP5, CHLREDRAFT_190792. EC: 1. ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: RSP10, CHLRE_01g005450v5, CHLREDRAFT_185792. ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: RSP9, CHLRE_07g330200v5, CHLREDRAFT_182960. ...
Genomics and functional genomics in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Title: Genomics and functional genomics in Chlamydomonas ... Here, in this paper, we employ the reference unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to identify the effect of H 2O 2 ... Growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in acetate-free medium when co-cultured with alginate-encapsulated, acetate-producing ... Upon fertilization Chlamydomonas reinhardtii zygotes undergo a program of differentiation into a diploid zygospore that is ...
Hoshaw, R.W. & Ettl, H. (1966). Chlamydomonas smithii sp. nov. - a chlamydomonad interfertile with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P.A.Dangeard 1888. Classification: Empire Eukaryota. Kingdom Plantae. Subkingdom Viridiplantae. ... Isolation and preliminary characterization of three Chlamydomonas strains interfertile with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ( ... Ford, C. & Wang, W.-Y. (1980). Three new yellow loci in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Molecular and General Genetics 179: 259-264. ...
... Larisa ... "Identification of the Elusive Pyruvate Reductase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplasts," Plant And Cell Physiology, vol. 57 ... "High-Resolution Profiling of a Synchronized Diurnal Transcriptome from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Reveals Continuous Cell and ...
Complementation of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant using a genomic cosmid library.. Purton S1, Rochaix JD. ... We report the rescue of an arginine-requiring mutant (arg7-8) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by complementation using total DNA ... We conclude that these represent true transformants and that any stable nuclear mutant of Chlamydomonas could be rescued using ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas smithii). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_ ... sp,Q9XHH2,DNAL1_CHLRE Dynein light chain 1, axonemal OS=Chlamydomonas reinhardtii OX=3055 GN=LC1 PE=1 SV=1 ... "The Chlamydomonas genome reveals the evolution of key animal and plant functions.". Merchant S.S., Prochnik S.E., Vallon O., ... "Light chain 1 from the Chlamydomonas outer dynein arm is a leucine-rich repeat protein associated with the motor domain of the ...
Towards functional proteomics of membrane protein complexes: analysis of thylakoid membranes from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.. ... approach to analyse photosynthetic thylakoid membranes isolated from wild-type and mutant strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ...
Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis - Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry ...
The biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibits both positive and negative phototaxis to inhabit areas with ... Eyespot-dependent determination of the phototactic sign in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 May 10;113( ... The biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibits both positive and negative phototaxis to inhabit areas with ...
cDNA clones for the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase (CA; carbonate hydro-lyase, EC 4.2.1.1) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells ... cDNA cloning, sequence, and expression of carbonic anhydrase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: regulation by environmental CO2 ... cDNA cloning, sequence, and expression of carbonic anhydrase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: regulation by environmental CO2 ... cDNA cloning, sequence, and expression of carbonic anhydrase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: regulation by environmental CO2 ...
Overexpressing Ferredoxins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Increase Starch and Oil Yields and Enhance Electric Power Production in ... Linalool- and α-terpineol-induced programmed cell death in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Yueting Chen, Yuanyuan Weng, Min Zhou, ... Acetic acid-induced programmed cell death and release of volatile organic compounds in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Physiol ... Photosynthetic electron flow affects H2O2 signaling by inactivation of catalase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Planta 228: 1055- ...
Characterizing the Anaerobic Response of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Quantitative Proteomics. Mia Terashima, Michael Specht, ... Characterizing the Anaerobic Response of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Quantitative Proteomics. Mia Terashima, Michael Specht, ... 1989) Analysis of the genes of the OEE1 and OEE3 proteins of the photosystem II complex from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant ... 1992) Characterization of chlorophyll a/b proteins of photosystem I from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 25714- ...
Cells of the unicellular photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were fixed, sectioned, and examined by transmission ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Cell Line. ac-5 ac-31 Cellular Component. chloroplast plastid plastid thylakoid membrane ... Cells of the unicellular photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were fixed, sectioned, and examined by transmission ... Ursula W. Goodenough, L. Andrew Staehelin (2011) CIL:38707, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. CIL. Dataset. https://doi.org/doi: ...
We have cloned a gene (Mut6) from the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that is required for the silencing of a ... Transgene and Transposon Silencing in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by a DEAH-Box RNA Helicase ... Transgene and Transposon Silencing in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by a DEAH-Box RNA Helicase ... Transgene and Transposon Silencing in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by a DEAH-Box RNA Helicase ...
The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome. Jude E. Maul, Jason W. Lilly, Liying Cui, Claude W. dePamphilis, Webb Miller ... The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome. Jude E. Maul, Jason W. Lilly, Liying Cui, Claude W. dePamphilis, Webb Miller ... The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome. Islands of Genes in a Sea of Repeats. Jude E. Maul, Jason W. Lilly, Liying ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular eukaryotic alga possessing a single chloroplast that is widely used as a model ...
The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome. Jude E. Maul, Jason W. Lilly, Liying Cui, Claude W. dePamphilis, Webb Miller ... The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome. Jude E. Maul, Jason W. Lilly, Liying Cui, Claude W. dePamphilis, Webb Miller ... The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome. Islands of Genes in a Sea of Repeats. Jude E. Maul, Jason W. Lilly, Liying ... Conserved gene clusters in the highly rearranged chloroplast genomes of Chlamydomonas moewusii and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. ...
... and central metabolic pathways in the model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The central role that microalgae ...
  • Channelrhodopsin-1 and Channelrhodopsin-2, proteins that function as light-gated cation channels, were originally isolated from C. reinhardtii. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of C. Reinhardtii is significant for mitochondrial study as it is one species where the genes for 6 of the 13 proteins encoded for the mitochondria are found in the nucleus of the cell, leaving 7 in the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic and biochemical studies have revealed that chloroplast gene expression in Chlamydomonas is controlled primarily post-transcriptionally, including events that effect mRNA processing and stability, and during the translation of plastid mRNAs into proteins. (springer.com)
  • Emergence of the draft sequence of the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome has enabled us to carry out a prediction and comparative analysis of the proteins required for chloroplast mRNA translation. (springer.com)
  • Chlamydomonas chloroplasts contain all of the general translation factors found in bacteria, and a majority of the ribosomal proteins are conserved between plastids and bacteria. (springer.com)
  • However, Chlamydomonas contains a number of additional proteins and protein domains associated with the plastid ribosome, while some ribosomal proteins are either quite divergent or lacking. (springer.com)
  • Here, we reconstituted the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii RS head that abuts the CP and determined its structure using single-particle cryo-EM to 3.1-Å resolution, revealing a flat, negatively charged surface supported by a rigid core of tightly intertwined proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • As we continue to characterize and understand biological processes in C. reinhardtii and translate that knowledge to other systems, we are faced with the realization that many genes encode proteins without a defined function. (osti.gov)
  • To identify proteins involved during anaerobic acclimation as well as to localize proteins and pathways to the powerhouses of the cell, chloroplasts and mitochondria from C. reinhardtii in aerobic and anaerobic (induced by 8 h of argon bubbling) conditions were isolated and analyzed using comparative proteomics. (mcponline.org)
  • Qualitative and semiquantitative analyses of isolated chloroplasts and mitochondria from aerobic and anaerobic C. reinhardtii cultures allowed for the identification and localization of proteins, including a handful of fermentative proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • Another important feature of C. reinhardtii is that it has the capacity to grow with light as a sole energy source (photoautotrophic growth) or on acetate in the dark (heterotrophically), facilitating detailed examination of genes and proteins critical for photosynthetic or respiratory function. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we established detailed two-dimensional protein maps of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii light-harvesting proteins (Lhca and Lhcb) by extensive tandem mass spectrometric analysis. (asm.org)
  • This proteomic study demonstrates the complexity of the light-harvesting proteins at the protein level in C. reinhardtii and will be an important basis of future functional studies addressing this diversity. (asm.org)
  • Separation of isolated PSI complexes from C. reinhardtii by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has revealed the presence of about 18 LHCI protein (LHC protein of PSI) spots, thereby suggesting an even more extensive variability of Lhca proteins ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • To characterize the compositions of the lhca and lhcb gene products at the protein level and to monitor the posttranslational modifications of LHC proteins of C. reinhardtii , we performed a detailed proteomic study. (asm.org)
  • In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii microtubules and associated proteins are added simultaneously. (elifesciences.org)
  • Sarah Zhang writes in Wired Magazine that the single-cell green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have an eyespot that makes use of light-sensitive proteins. (algaeindustrymagazine.com)
  • The GAPDH, CP12 and PRK recombinant proteins are able to reconstitute spontaneously the ternary complex that has been described in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • however, the Chlamydomonas genome encodes presumed plant orthologs of a chloroplast lipid transporter consisting of TGD (TRIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL) proteins that are required for ER-tochloroplast lipid trafficking in plants. (unl.edu)
  • Our experiments thus provide extensive evidence that FtsH plays a major role in the quality control of thylakoid membrane proteins and in the response of C. reinhardtii to light and macronutrient stress. (diva-portal.org)
  • This improved efficiency should greatly facilitate a variety of genetic and cell-biological studies in Chlamydomonas and also enable new applications such as expression-based screens and large-scale production of foreign proteins. (g3journal.org)
  • These problems have handicapped cell biological studies and impeded development of expression-based screens, medium- to high-throughput imaging analyses, and the use of Chlamydomonas as a host for expression of foreign proteins. (g3journal.org)
  • We have cloned and sequenced the CRY1 gene, encoding ribosomal protein S14 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and found that it is highly similar to S14/rp59 proteins from other organisms, including mammals, Drosophila melanogaster, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (asm.org)
  • Background: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a novel recombinant eukaryotic expression system with many advantages including fast growth rate, rapid scalability, absence of human pathogens and the ability to fold and assemble complex proteins accurately, however, obstacle relatively low expression level necessitates optimizing foreign gene expression in this system. (bmmj.org)
  • Conclusions: It is suggested that the expression system optimized by this study can potentially be used for the production of important therapeutic proteins and other heterologous proteins in C. reinhardtii. (bmmj.org)
  • Chloroplast subfractions were tested with a UV cross-linking assay for proteins that bind to the 5′ untranslated region of the chloroplast psbC mRNA of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (concordia.ca)
  • Clemetson, JM, A Boschetti, KJ Clemetson(1992) Chloroplast envelope proteins are encoded by the chloroplast genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (concordia.ca)
  • Lee, H, Bingham, SE & Webber, AN 1998, ' Specific mutagenesis of reaction center proteins by chloroplast transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ', Methods in Enzymology , vol. 297, pp. 310-320. (elsevier.com)
  • In C. reinhardtii , several processes are under circadian control and many clock-controlled genes and/or proteins have been found in the past decades as well as components of the endogenous oscillator. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Under anoxic conditions the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii activates various fermentation pathways leading to the creation of formate, acetate, ethanol and small amounts of other metabolites including d-lactate and hydrogen. (rcsb.org)
  • The biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibits both positive and negative phototaxis to inhabit areas with proper light conditions. (nih.gov)
  • The versatile metabolism of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is reflected in its complex response to anaerobic conditions. (mcponline.org)
  • Cells of the unicellular photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were fixed, sectioned, and examined by transmission electron microscopy. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • We have cloned a gene ( Mut6 ) from the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that is required for the silencing of a transgene and two transposon families. (sciencemag.org)
  • Sometimes called green yeast ( Goodenough, 1992 ), the unicellular, eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (hereafter called Chlamydomonas) is a venerable model system for plant biology as well as for cell motility. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The single chloroplast of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains an orange carotenoid pigment spot that functions in phototaxis. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Here we report a detailed characterization of the remodeling of photosynthesis upon sulfur starvation under heterotrophy and photo-autotrophy in the green alga ( Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Isolated chloroplasts of the unicellular photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were cryofixed, freeze-fractured, and surface replicas observed by transmission electron microscopy. (ucsd.edu)
  • The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of producing H 2 by splitting water with energy from sunlight. (rsc.org)
  • A homolog of the bacterial RNA pyrophosphohydrolase is present in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii suggesting that Chlamydomonas RppH has a role in mRNA degradation in the chloroplast of the alga. (uio.no)
  • The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a key model organism for studying photosynthesis and oxidative stress in unicellular eukaryotes. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2D measurement of ion currents associated to the signal transduction of the phototactic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For example, 5′ ends are often formed by endonucleolytic processing of primary transcripts, and this may be the exclusive mode of 5′ end formation in chloroplasts in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (reviewed in reference 12 ). (asm.org)
  • The work describes a novel approach for sustained photobiological production of H2 gas via the reversible hydrogenase pathway in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (oilgae.com)
  • To produce energy for cell growth, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possesses the metabolic flexibility to use light and/or carbon sources such as acetate. (mcponline.org)
  • The time course of and the influence of light intensity and light quality on the induction of a mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was characterized using western and northern blots. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, five CAs have previously been identified including three alpha CAs and two beta CAs. (openthesis.org)
  • We used a mass spectrometry-based approach to achieve a comprehensive mapping of the in vivo protein phosphorylation sites within photosynthetic membranes from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii subjected to distinct environmental conditions known to affect the photosynthetic machinery. (diva-portal.org)
  • The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model organism that provides an opportunity to understand the evolution and functional biology of the lineage that includes the land plants, as well as aspects of the fundamental core biology conserved throughout the eukaryotic phylogeny. (g3journal.org)
  • By using principles of synthetic biology, we have constructed a platform to characterize regulatory properties of miRNAs in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Lefebvre, Paul 2004-10-06 00:00:00 A new transposable element, Tcr3, was identified in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (deepdyve.com)
  • New factors regulating magnesium chelatase in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chekunova, E. (deepdyve.com)
  • The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possesses a CO2 concentratingmechanism (CCM) which helps in successful acclimationto low CO2 conditions. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has emerged to be an important model organism for the study of oxygenic eukaryotic photosynthesis as well as other processes occurring in the chloroplast. (semanticscholar.org)
  • With an eye to circumventing these problems in the future and engineering the robust alcohol-producing microalgal hosts, we investigated the metabolic responses of the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to ethanol and butanol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been established as a model organism for fundamental biological research during the last decades. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Results Here, the genomes of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the moss Physcomitrella patens, the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii and the seed plant Arabidopsis thaliana were screened for ORFs encoding chloroplast peroxidases. (fu-berlin.de)
  • The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii responds to sulfate deprivation by producing an arylsulfatase (Lien, T., and O. Schreiner. (rupress.org)
  • The biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an ideal genetic model for the integration of the effects on Li + on signal transduction, gene expression, and aspects of flagellar biogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires acetate as a co-substrate for optimal production of lipids, and the addition of acetate to culture media has practical and economic implications for algal biofuel production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PRJNA271609 This project compares the sequence of 40 inter-related laboratory strains of the model alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • The green biflagellate unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii serves as a model to study fundamental biological processes such as the structure and function of flagella or light-driven processes including photosynthesis, its behavioral responses, life cycle and circadian clock. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The supply of inorganic carbon (Ci) at the site of fixation by Rubisco is a key parameter for efficient CO2 fixation in aquatic organisms including the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (illinois.edu)
  • The nitrate reductase gene from wild-type Chlamydomonas was used to complement a mutation in the corresponding gene of a strain containing nit1-305. (pnas.org)
  • This high frequency of cotransformation will allow any cloned gene to be introduced into Chlamydomonas. (pnas.org)
  • Forty single gene mutations in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were isolated based on resistance to the compound 5'-methyl anthranilic acid (5-MAA). (genetics.org)
  • The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii nar-2, nar-3, and nar-4 genes, which are within a nitrate-regulated gene cluster containing the nitrate reductase structural gene nit-1, have been related to nitrate transport. (nih.gov)
  • Establishment of publicly available cDNA material and information resource of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyta) to facilitate gene function analysis. (algaebase.org)
  • Phylogenetic reconstruction of changes in plastid genome content revealed that an accelerated rate of gene loss also characterized the Chlamydomonas/Chlorella lineage, a phenomenon that might be independent of the proliferation of SDRs. (plantcell.org)
  • Tools that have not been previously applied to Chlamydomonas, such as bulked segregant analysis and marker duplexing, are being implemented to increase the speed at which one can go from mutant phenotype to gene. (plantphysiol.org)
  • To analyze the function of ciliary polycystic kidney disease 2 (PKD2) and its relationship to intraflagellar transport (IFT), we cloned the gene encoding Chlamydomonas reinhardtii PKD2 (CrPKD2), a protein with the characteristics of PKD2 family members. (rupress.org)
  • At least nine different lhca -related gene products were predicted by comparison of the mass spectrometric data against Chlamydomonas expressed sequence tag and genomic databases, demonstrating the extensive variability of the C. reinhardtii Lhca antenna system. (asm.org)
  • To resolve this conundrum, we identified a mutant of Chlamydomonas deleted in the TGD2 gene and characterized the respective protein, CrTGD2. (unl.edu)
  • A novel beta CA (Cah6) and a putative gamma CA (Gclp1) gene were identified in C. reinhardtii. (openthesis.org)
  • A heat inducible expression vector containing amiRNA targeting OEE2 gene was constructed and transformed into Chlamydomonas reinhardtii . (oilgae.com)
  • The CRY1 gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: structure and use as a dominant selectable marker for nuclear transformation. (asm.org)
  • With this transformation protocol, the RBCS2/CRY1-1 dominant selectable marker gene is a powerful tool for many molecular genetic applications in C. reinhardtii. (asm.org)
  • To investigate how gene families and gene expression have evolved, particularly in the context of stress response that have been shown to correlate with gene family expansion in multiple eukaryotes, we characterized the expansion patterns of gene families in nine green algal species, and examined evolution of stress response among gene duplicates in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The nuclear gene encoding the PsaN subunit from C. reinhardtii was cloned and characterised. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Ghanbari Motlagh, M., Amini-Bayat, Z., Ofoghi, H. Investigation of an Optimized Context for the Expression of GFP as a Reporter Gene in Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii. (bmmj.org)
  • The genome sequence and gene models of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were downloaded from Phytozome , the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) plant genomics portal. (doe.gov)
  • By using different C. reinhardtii strains and growth conditions, we demonstrate that the expression of THB1 is under the control of the NIT2 regulatory gene and that the hemoglobin is linked to the nitrogen assimilation pathway. (umassmed.edu)
  • N. F. Wilson and P. A. Lefebvre, abstract presented at the 10th International Chlamydomonas Conference, 2002). (asm.org)
  • These data strongly support the hypothesis that the nitrate transport system in C. reinhardtii contains at least two protein components encoded by the nar-2 and nar-3 genes. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, endogenous transposable elements ( 31 , 102 , 127 ), marker rescue of Escherichia coli mutants ( 89 , 136 ), direct rescue of C. reinhardtii mutants ( 38 , 94 , 132 ), and map-based techniques are being used to clone specific genes. (asm.org)
  • Through searching of Chlamydomonas databases, 10 genes that potentially encode Lhcb polypeptides that are associated with the major trimeric PSII antenna (Lhcbm) have been described ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • The ability to introduce altered genes into the chloroplast of the green alga C. reinhardtii presented the opportunity to test the in vitro results in an in vivo context. (asm.org)
  • The chimeric genes were stably transformed in C. reinhardtii. (uni-koeln.de)
  • This dissertation describes the identification and characterization of new CA genes from C. reinhardtii. (openthesis.org)
  • Genetic transformation into the Chlamydomonas nucleus has been used in many studies, and methods and reagents including promoters, terminators, enhancers, reporter genes, and auxotrophic and drug-resistance markers are available (for review, see Jinkerson and Jonikas 2015 ). (g3journal.org)
  • RNA-seq characterized the transcriptomic response by Chlamydomonas during aggregation, and we identified 131 genes are significantly differentially expressed between predated and unpredated cultures of Chlamydomonas. (k-state.edu)
  • Evolutionary relationships between candidate aggregation genes in Chlamydomonas and their orthologs in multicellular Volvocales suggest a possible role of aggregation genes in multicellular development. (k-state.edu)
  • Our results demonstrate that Chlamydomonas dynamically alters its morphology based on its environment and identify several candidate genes for aggregation and multicellular development. (k-state.edu)
  • In the study of lts3 mutation suppression, two new nuclear genes of C. reinhardtii, SUP-3 and SUP-1, encoding factors regulating MgCh activity were found. (deepdyve.com)
  • Cloning and expression analysis of two different LhcSR genes involved in stress adaptation in an Antarctic microalga, Chlamydomonas sp. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the analyzed streptophytes, the genes are unspliced, but accumulated four introns in Chlamydomonas. (fu-berlin.de)
  • 2017) Targeting of Photoreceptor Genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii via Zinc-Finger Nucleases and CRISPR/Cas9. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • The nuclear genome of the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains genes for a dozen hemoglobins of the truncated lineage. (umassmed.edu)
  • British Library EThOS: Glycoproteins of the cell wall of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (bl.uk)
  • Glycoproteins of the cell wall of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (bl.uk)
  • The D66 strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a single-celled green alga, is a cell-wall-deficient strain of algae that exhibits normal photosynthetic characteristics, but requires ammonia as a source of nitrogen for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study we undertook such an approach to analyse photosynthetic thylakoid membranes isolated from wild-type and mutant strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (nih.gov)
  • C. reinhardtii is a promising organism for renewable energy because it is able to produce hydrogen as a photosynthetic product ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular eukaryotic alga possessing a single chloroplast that is widely used as a model system for the study of photosynthetic processes. (plantcell.org)
  • Although C. reinhardtii has been used as a model system for elucidating the assembly and regulatory processes of the photosynthetic machinery, no thorough analysis of LHC protein composition has been performed for this alga. (asm.org)
  • Deletion of the Chlamydomonas chloroplast atpB 3′ IR in strain Δ26 results in reduced accumulation of atpB transcripts and the chloroplast ATPase β-subunit, leading to weakly photosynthetic growth. (asm.org)
  • en] Photosynthetic activities were analyzed in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mitochondrial mutants affected in different complexes (I, III, IV, I + III, and I + IV) of the respiratory chain. (ac.be)
  • This thesis describes a series of molecular-genetic studies using the model photosynthetic eukaryote Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, aimed at understanding various aspects of the eukaryotic PSI. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • There are many known mutants of C. reinhardtii. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this report, we focus on mutants affecting photosynthesis, in keeping with the thrust of this journal, and the emphasis of the newly renewed and National Science Foundation-supported Chlamydomonas genome project ( http://www.chlamy.org/ ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • The findings based on the studies of the mutants have improved our understanding of cell response in Chlamydomonas to oxidative stress substantially. (frontiersin.org)
  • The correct number and arrangement of the fibers depended on the number of basal bodies and the amount of centrin as revealed by analysis of C. reinhardtii mutants. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Reference : Photosynthesis and state transitions in mitochondrial mutants of Chlamydomonas reinha. (ac.be)
  • The present results demonstrate that in C. reinhardtii mutants, permanent defects in the mitochondrial electron transport chain stabilize state 2, which favors cyclic over linear electron transport in the chloroplast. (ac.be)
  • A series of conditional mutants of the algal, biflagellate Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with temperature-sensitive defects in flagellar assembly and function were isolated. (rupress.org)
  • Vila M, Díaz-Santos E, de la Vega M, Couso I and León R. Isolation and characterization of pigment deficient insertional mutants in the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii . (hoajonline.com)
  • Herein we present a brief history of functional genomics, the present status of the C. reinhardtii genome, how genome-wide experiments can aid in supplying protein function inferences, and provide an outlook for functional genomics in C. reinhardtii. (osti.gov)
  • Towards functional proteomics of membrane protein complexes: analysis of thylakoid membranes from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (nih.gov)
  • 2014) to modulate the expression of algae mRNA and protein, we tested if we can alter specific enzyme levels in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (scirp.org)
  • Other important topics being studied using C. reinhardtii , many of which have direct application to elucidation of protein function in animal cells ( 26 ), include flagellum structure and assembly, cell wall biogenesis, gametogenesis, mating, phototaxis, and adaptive responses to light and nutrient environments ( 32 , 44 ). (asm.org)
  • What is known about the LHC protein composition of C. reinhardtii ? (asm.org)
  • The studies revealed individual elements of the phototropin-dependent signal transduction pathway involved in the blue-light-controlled change in chemotaxis mode of C. reinhardtii during gamete formation: three protein kinases, one operating against signal flux and two that promote signal transduction. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition a protein activity assay was developed in order to confirm that the Chlamydomonas RppH homolog has RNA pyrophosphohydrolase activity. (uio.no)
  • Striated fiber assemblin" (SFA), Centrin und "deflagellation induced protein of 13 kDa" (DIP13), wurden N- (nur SFA) und C-terminal mit GFP fusioniert und stabil in C. reinhardtii transformiert. (uni-koeln.de)
  • We present evidence suggesting that in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii this coupling may be aided by a hyper-phosphorylated form of the LHCII-like CP29 protein (Lhcbm4). (diva-portal.org)
  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains a factor that can replace adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in the stimulation of rabbit-muscle protein kinase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The flagellar motility of Chlamydomonas pf25 mutant lacking an AKAP-binding protein is overtly sensitive to medium conditions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • GreenCut protein CPLD49 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii associates with thylakoid membranes and is required for cytochrome b6 f complex accumulation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The arylsulfatase activity, detectable 3 h after the transfer of the cells to low sulfate medium (less than or equal to 10 microM sulfate), is a periplasmic protein released into the culture medium by cw15, a cell wall-less mutant of C. reinhardtii. (rupress.org)
  • 3)Hegemann P, Berthold P (2009) Sensory photoreceptors and light control of flagellar activity.The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook, ed Witman G-B (Academic, Oxford), 2nd Ed, Vol 3, pp 395-430. (wikipedia.org)
  • We present a new Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagellar mutant in which central pair projections are missing and the central pair microtubules are twisted along the length of the flagellum. (edu.au)
  • Temperature-sensitive mutations affecting flagellar assembly and function in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (rupress.org)
  • Li + causes C. reinhardtii flagella to elongate to ∼1.4 times their normal length and blocks flagellar motility (S. Nakamura, H. Tabino, and M. K. Kojima, Cell Struct. (elsevier.com)
  • These results indicate that pungent compounds such as capsaicin and gingerol induce loss of flagellar motility and flagellar detachment in C . reinhardtii cells. (biologists.org)
  • Most wild-type Chlamydomonas strains can grow on fixed carbon sources (e.g., acetate) in the dark. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like many microorganisms, screening of Chlamydomonas strains for rare mutations is straightforward, since large numbers of cells can be plated on an appropriate selective medium, or nonswimmers, for example, can be selected from large numbers of swimming cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Taken together, the assortment of techniques useable for Chlamydomonas indulges both the amateur and experienced geneticist, yielding sometimes overwhelming collections of mutant strains. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in acetate-free medium when co-cultured with alginate-encapsulated, acetate-producing strains of Synechococcus sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we demonstrate the growth of C. reinhardtii on acetate provided by mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Optimal growth conditions for co-cultivation of C. reinhardtii with wild-type and mutant strains of Synechococcus sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To determine conditions under which both organisms could grow well together, the wild-type and mutant strains of C. reinhardtii and Synechococcus sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2015) Chlamydomonas Genome Resource for Laboratory Strains Reveals a Mosaic of Sequence Variation, Identifies True Strain Histories, and Enables Strain-Specific Studies. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • The availability of efficient nuclear and chloroplast transformation in Chlamydomonas provides specific advantages for the study of chloroplast biogenesis, photosynthesis, and nuclear-chloroplast genome interactions. (pnas.org)
  • The D66 strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been genetically engineered with no cell wall in order to increase the strain's growth and photosynthesis rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, in order to investigate and compare the toxic effects of the two salts on algal photosynthesis, we used NaCl and Na2CO3 to stress Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (degruyter.com)
  • Numerous forward genetics studies have been performed in Chlamydomonas, in many cases to elucidate the regulation of photosynthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The single celled organism has one chloroplast and moves via an anterior â ¦ Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a single-celled eukaryote green alga that has been extensively studied as a model organism for photosynthesis, genetics, and physiology, and has been proposed as a host for molecular farming (Fields et al. (justbcause.com)
  • Normally deriving energy from photosynthesis, with an alternative carbon source , C. reinhardtii can also thrive in total darkness. (doe.gov)
  • Over the years, studies of Chlamydomonas have provided major research contributions in the areas of photosynthesis and molecular biology. (doe.gov)
  • The species' name has been spelled several different ways because of different transliterations of the name from Russian: reinhardi, reinhardii, and reinhardtii all refer to the same species, C. reinhardtii Dangeard. (wikipedia.org)
  • The D66 (mating type +) strain has been used by a number of labs for the creation of Chlamydomonas mutant libraries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complementation of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant using a genomic cosmid library. (nih.gov)
  • We report the rescue of an arginine-requiring mutant (arg7-8) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by complementation using total DNA from a genomic cosmid library. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that these represent true transformants and that any stable nuclear mutant of Chlamydomonas could be rescued using this approach. (nih.gov)
  • At the same time, the ease of nuclear transformation in Chlamydomonas, coupled with the plant-like nonhomologous integration of transforming DNA, facilitates the creation of insertional mutant collections. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The importance of phosphorylation for state transitions is shown by the phenotype of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Stt7 mutant. (asm.org)
  • Labeling kinetics indicate that Chlamydomonas can import lipid precursors from the ER, a process that is impaired in the tgd2 mutant. (unl.edu)
  • After nitrogen starvation, it was shown that 83 + 3% of the wall-deficient cells of the cw 15 mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flocculated from 12 mL samples within 15 min after the addition of 15 mM calcium chloride at pH 8.4. (unl.edu)
  • An Indexed, Mapped Mutant Library Enables Reverse Genetics Studies of Biological Processes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (semanticscholar.org)
  • PCC 7002 was able to support the growth of a lipid-accumulating mutant strain of C. reinhardtii defective in starch production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 95 (S ager and Z alokar 1958).The fn68 mutant was used to show that a rhodopsin photoreceptor controls the phototactic response in Chlamydomonas and that retinal, a derivative of carotenoids, â ¦ Reactions of total volume of 110 μl were carried out in 1à MN buffer using 60 μl of sample and different amounts of MNase units (Fermentas). (justbcause.com)
  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an especially well studied biological model organism, partly due to its ease of culturing and the ability to manipulate its genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlamydomonas is used as a model organism for research on fundamental questions in cell and molecular biology such as: How do cells move? (wikipedia.org)
  • In this work we examined the possibility of studying, by solid-state NMR, the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii fully and non-specifically 13 C labelled. (springer.com)
  • 1 Many species of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic green algae, including the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , are capable of catalyzing this reaction. (rsc.org)
  • The green flagellate Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model organism for studying the eukaryotic flagella. (uni-koeln.de)
  • This study evaluated the potential of using 1.1 MHz ultrasound pulses in a new flow through type chamber on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism for cell breakage. (iastate.edu)
  • The novel technique was based on the light gradient method (LGM), and the model object was Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a phototactic unicellular alga, ideal for such experiments. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have found that the model unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii forms aggregates in response to the presence of the filter feeding zooplanktonic predator, Daphnia magna. (k-state.edu)
  • In addition, Chlamydomonas chloroplasts contain a number of mRNA specific translation factors that are not found in bacteria. (springer.com)
  • When mating type plus and minus gametes of Chlamydomonas are mixed, they agglutinate with each other via their flagella, fuse, then initiate the zygote formation program which includes synthesis of the zygote cell wall, fusion of nuclei and chloroplasts, and the digestion of chloroplast DNA from the minus parent. (oup.com)
  • Gallagher, Daniel, "Ubiquitin in the chloroplasts of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii" (1996). (richmond.edu)
  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an excellent model system for plant biologists because of its ease of manipulation, facile genetics, and the ability to transform the nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Adenosine 3':5'-Cyclic Monophosphate in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Isolation and Characterization. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The significance of my work is that it lays the groundwork for further characterization of HDM's in Chlamydomonas and higher plant species. (concordia.ca)
  • Characterization of THB1, a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii truncated hemogl" by Eric A. Johnson, Selena L. Rice et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • cDNA cloning, sequence, and expression of carbonic anhydrase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: regulation by environmental CO2 concentration. (pnas.org)
  • Chronological transition of mitochondrial morphology in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyceae) poststationary phase growth. (algaebase.org)
  • Morphological changes in mitochondrial and chloroplast nucleoids and mitochondria during the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyceae) cell cycle. (algaebase.org)
  • The Antarctic psychrophile, Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl (UWO241) (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) exhibits a limited capacity to photoacclimate to red light. (algaebase.org)
  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a single-celled green alga that phototaxes toward light by means of a light-sensitive organelle, the eyespot. (genetics.org)
  • CHLAMYDOMONAS reinhardtii is a phototactic, single-celled green alga. (genetics.org)
  • Some species of eukaryote-such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , a single-celled green alga, and Trypanosoma brucei , the protist parasite that causes African sleeping sickness-must grow new flagella when their cells divide, so that each new cell can swim. (elifesciences.org)
  • There has been an array of studies that have investigated C. reinhardtii under anaerobic conditions and provided valuable insights into the metabolic changes undertaken by the cell to acclimate to an anaerobic condition. (mcponline.org)
  • It is now well established that under anaerobic conditions C. reinhardtii induces a wide range of fermentative pyruvate-dependent metabolic pathways ( 11 ⇓ - 13 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Central carbon metabolism and electron transport in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: metabolic constraints for carbon partitioning between oil and starch. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The study is the first comprehensive view of the metabolic mechanisms employed by C. reinhardtii to defend against ethanol or butanol toxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Chiamydomonas reinhardtii, K⁺ influx appears to be mediated by two discrete transport systems, a high affinity transport system (HATS) at low external [K⁺] and a low affinity transport system (LATS) at high external [K⁺]. These two transport systems were further characterized by employing various metabolic inhibitors, a K⁺ channel blocker and a sulfhydryl reagent. (ubc.ca)
  • Our working hypothesis is that the siRNA signal transmitted to Chlamydomonas has the same effect on the mRNA as the physical siRNA. (scirp.org)
  • Here we present the optimization of the siRNA signal transduction to Chlamydomonas while we measure the growth rate and then fine tune the conditions measuring the amount of mRNA produced under the influence of the signal specific for the mRNA. (scirp.org)
  • In 2007, the complete nuclear genome sequence of C. reinhardtii was published. (wikipedia.org)
  • The availability of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii nuclear genome sequence continues to enable researchers to address biological questions relevant to algae, land plants and animals in unprecedented ways. (osti.gov)
  • article{osti_1351725, title = {Genomics and functional genomics in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii}, author = {Blaby, Ian K. and Blaby-Haas, Crysten E.}, abstractNote = {The availability of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii nuclear genome sequence continues to enable researchers to address biological questions relevant to algae, land plants and animals in unprecedented ways. (osti.gov)
  • Vegetative cells of the reinhardtii species are haploid with 17 small chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • By using a method in which cell-wall-deficient Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells were agitated in the presence of DNA, glass beads, and polyethylene glycol, nuclear transformation rates of approximately 10(3) transformants per micrograms of plasmid DNA were achieved. (pnas.org)
  • In wild-type Chlamydomonas cells, two to four layers of carotenoid lipid granules are observed, each layer subtended by a thylakoid membrane. (genetics.org)
  • Chlamydomonas cells rotate twice per second as they breaststroke forward, scanning the environment perpendicular to the swimming path much as a radar antenna scans the sky. (genetics.org)
  • carbonate hydro-lyase, EC 4.2.1.1) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells were isolated and characterized. (pnas.org)
  • Nitrite plays an important role in the nitrogen metabolism of most cells, including Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (mdpi.com)
  • We have shown that vegetative cells of C. reinhardtii are attracted by nitrite. (mdpi.com)
  • One of these phenomena, the differentiation of vegetative cells into sexually mature cells has been widely studied in Chlamydomonas and may proceed in two steps [ 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The analysis of the detected traces revealed two main vectorial components of the signal by the help of singular value decomposition (SVD), in concert with previous experimental findings and theoretical considerations suggesting different origins of the "fast" and "slow" components of the photoelectric response of Chlamydomonas and Haematococcus cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • IFN-œ2a expression cassette was transferred to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells via Agrobacterium -mediated transformation method. (springer.com)
  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algae cells successfully grew and divided under exposure to both the blue laser, red laser and that of white light LED when each was applied individually or combined in a sequence. (brunel.ac.uk)
  • 2020) Lichen-like association of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Aspergillus nidulans protects algal cells from bacteria. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • Addition of acetate to a suspension of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells in darkness induced transient and biphasic non-photochemical quenching of Chl fluorescence (qN) due to ApH-dependent down-regulation of PSII and the transition from state 1 to state 2. (oup.com)
  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells, when grown on limiting CO2, have a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) that functions to concentrate CO2 at the site of Rubisco. (illinois.edu)
  • Chlamydomonas species are widely distributed worldwide in soil and fresh water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Chlamydomonas species are normally haploid, the effects of mutations are seen immediately without further crosses. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Chlamydomonas . (algaebase.org)
  • If green algae of the species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii meet Pseudomonas protegens bacteria, their fate is sealed. (algaeindustrymagazine.com)
  • 2015).While several studies have investigated the use of C. reinhardtii as a food source for Daphnia species â ¦ Average telomere length was assessed using ImageJ 1.49v (NIH) by measuring the peak of the telomere length distribution signal. (justbcause.com)
  • 2005) Portrait of a species: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has an eyespot similar to that of dinoflagellates(1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phot in C . reinhardtii also functions in transcriptional regulation [ 13 ] and in the control of phototaxis that desensitizes the eyespot when blue light intensities increase [ 14 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • However, the chloroplast proteome in C. reinhardtii has only recently been comprehensively characterized, made possible by proteomics emerging as an accessible and powerful tool over the last decade. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Among phototrophs, the unicellular green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is widely known as one of the best established model organisms. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The relative adaptability and quick generation time have made Chlamydomonas an important model for biological research. (doe.gov)
  • The results are consistent with the model that CIA8 is involved in Ci uptake in C. reinhardtii. (illinois.edu)
  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii serves as a very useful model system for the study of eukaryotic organisms. (richmond.edu)
  • The unicellular green alga C. reinhardtii is amenable to a diversity of genetic and molecular manipulations. (asm.org)
  • Recent years have seen the development of a molecular toolkit for C. reinhardtii ( 42 , 44 , 66 , 98 , 99 ). (asm.org)
  • Although many tools are available to facilitate genetic, molecular biological, biochemical, and cell biological studies in Chlamydomonas , expression of unselected transgenes of interest (GOIs) has been challenging. (g3journal.org)
  • Mutational analysis of the phototransduction pathway of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (rupress.org)
  • A multidomain enzyme, with glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities, is involved in a chloroplastic pathway for glycerol synthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Regulation of nitrate reductase in Chlamydomonasm reinhardtii by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool. (algaebase.org)
  • Cytotoxicity and cell apoptosis assays involving the usage of the recombinant C. reinhardtii IFN-œ2a (Cr. (springer.com)
  • Then the recombinant vector was transformed into the nucleus of C. reinhardtii for expression. (bmmj.org)
  • Here, we show that FtsH from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii forms heterooligomers comprising two subunits, FtsH1 and FtsH2. (diva-portal.org)
  • PsbP (OEE2) accumulation is independent of the presence of PSII core subunits in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii De Vitry et al. (agrisera.com)
  • Here, we describe a protocol for the growth of C. reinhardtii for the synchronization and analysis of its circadian clock. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Therefore, dim light (LL) is often used for C. reinhardtii , but if effects of specific light pulses are necessary as for the rhythm of photoaccumulation or for phase shifting the circadian clock, constant darkness (DD) is also used. (bio-protocol.org)
  • To expand the current knowledge on the subject, we investigated the chloroplast and mitochondrial proteomes of C. reinhardtii under anaerobiosis. (mcponline.org)
  • Purification and biosynthesis of a derepressible periplasmic arylsulfatase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (rupress.org)
  • Phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase is a multifunctional enzyme involved in membrane lipid turnover and degradation while synthesizing triacylglycerol in the unicellular green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An alternative is to co-culture lipid-producing C. reinhardtii with an acetate-producing cyanobacterium, such as certain Synechococcus sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we present results of co-culturing wild-type and a lipid-accumulating ( sta6 ) strain of C. reinhardtii , and an acetate-accumulating strain ( glgA1 ) of Synechococcus sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Simple, experimentally tractable systems such Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , and Arabidopsis thaliana are powerful models for dissecting basic biological processes. (asm.org)
  • Boyle NR, Morgan JA (2009) Flux balance analysis of primary metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii . (springer.com)
  • To cope with changes in its aquatic environment and the nutrient deficiencies that may result, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a mobile single-cell alga, must adapt its metabolism for subsistence, notably in terms of sugar. (algaeindustrymagazine.com)
  • The program MultiPipMaker was used to compare the genic complement of Chlamydomonas with those of other chloroplast genomes and to scan the genomes for sequence similarities and repetitive DNAs. (plantcell.org)
  • High-frequency nuclear transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (pnas.org)
  • A plasmid vector containing Chlamydomonas rppH-6xHN was introduced into C. reinhardtii by nuclear transformation. (uio.no)
  • Besides a less related cysteine-type GPx, Chlamydomonas encodes two selenocysteine-type GPx. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Averina, N. 2014-03-07 00:00:00 The unicellular green alga Chamydomonas reinhardtii, as distinct from higher plants synthesizing chlorophyll (Chl) only in the light, produces it also in darkness. (deepdyve.com)