A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in algae having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Cytochromes f are found as components of the CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX. They play important role in the transfer of electrons from PHOTOSYSTEM I to PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
A protein complex that includes CYTOCHROME B6 and CYTOCHROME F. It is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE and plays an important role in process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS by transferring electrons from PLASTOQUINONE to PLASTOCYANIN or CYTOCHROME C6. The transfer of electrons is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.
A pre-emergent herbicide.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A highly branched glucan in starch.
Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Volvocaceae. They form spherical colonies of hundreds or thousands of bi-flagellated cells in a semi-transparent gelatinous ball.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
The absence of light.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Cytochromes of the c type that are involved in the transfer of electrons from CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX and PHOTOSYSTEM I.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from ADPglucose to glucose-containing polysaccharides in 1,4-alpha-linkages. EC 2.4.1.21.
An enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to give prephytoene diphosphate. The prephytoene diphosphate molecule is a precursor for CAROTENOIDS and other tetraterpenes.
The quantity of volume or surface area of ORGANELLES.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 3.2.1.68.
A ferredoxin-containing enzyme that catalyzes the COENZYME A-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of PYRUVATE to acetyl-COENZYME A and CARBON DIOXIDE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A thioredoxin subtype that is ubiquitously found in the plant kingdom. It reduces a variety of seed storage proteins and may play a role in the germination process of seeds.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX by the conversion of two propionate groups to two vinyl groups. It is the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME, and is encoded by CPO gene. Mutations of CPO gene result in HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in GAMMA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces spectabilis. It is active against gram-negative bacteria and used for the treatment of gonorrhea.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The use of light to convert ADP to ATP without the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to water as occurs during OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION in MITOCHONDRIA.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (1/1304)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

Characterization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii zygote-specific cDNAs that encode novel proteins containing ankyrin repeats and WW domains. (2/1304)

Genes that are expressed only in the young zygote are considered to be of great importance in the development of an isogamous green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Clones representing the Zys3 gene were isolated from a cDNA library prepared using zygotes at 10 min after fertilization. Sequencing of Zys3 cDNA clones resulted in the isolation of two related molecular species. One of them encoded a protein that contained two kinds of protein-to-protein interaction motifs known as ankyrin repeats and WW domains. The other clone lacked the ankyrin repeats but was otherwise identical. These mRNA species began to accumulate simultaneously in cells beginning 10 min after fertilization, and reached maximum levels at about 4 h, after which time levels decreased markedly. Genomic DNA gel-blot analysis indicated that Zys3 was a single-copy gene. The Zys3 proteins exhibited parallel expression to the Zys3 mRNAs at first, appearing 2 h after mating, and reached maximum levels at more than 6 h, but persisted to at least 1 d. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed their localization in the endoplasmic reticulum, which suggests a role in the morphological changes of the endoplasmic reticulum or in the synthesis and transport of proteins to the Golgi apparatus or related vesicles.  (+info)

Photosystem I is indispensable for photoautotrophic growth, CO2 fixation, and H2 photoproduction in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (3/1304)

Certain Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants deficient in photosystem I due to defects in psaA mRNA maturation have been reported to be capable of CO2 fixation, H2 photoevolution, and photoautotrophic growth (Greenbaum, E., Lee, J. W., Tevault, C. V., Blankinship, S. L. , and Mets, L. J. (1995) Nature 376, 438-441 and Lee, J. W., Tevault, C. V., Owens, T. G.; Greenbaum, E. (1996) Science 273, 364-367). We have generated deletions of photosystem I core subunits in both wild type and these mutant strains and have analyzed their abilities to grow photoautotrophically, to fix CO2, and to photoevolve O2 or H2 (using mass spectrometry) as well as their photosystem I content (using immunological and spectroscopic analyses). We find no instance of a strain that can perform photosynthesis in the absence of photosystem I. The F8 strain harbored a small amount of photosystem I, and it could fix CO2 and grow slowly, but it lost these abilities after deletion of either psaA or psaC; these activities could be restored to the F8-psaADelta mutant by reintroduction of psaA. We observed limited O2 photoevolution in mutants lacking photosystem I; use of 18O2 indicated that this O2 evolution is coupled to O2 uptake (i.e. respiration) rather than CO2 fixation or H2 evolution. We conclude that the reported instances of CO2 fixation, H2 photoevolution, and photoautotrophic growth of photosystem I-deficient mutants result from the presence of unrecognized photosystem I.  (+info)

Induction of coproporphyrinogen oxidase in Chlamydomonas chloroplasts occurs via transcriptional regulation of Cpx1 mediated by copper response elements and increased translation from a copper deficiency-specific form of the transcript. (4/1304)

Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase, encoded by a single nuclear gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, produces three distinct transcripts. One of these transcripts is greatly induced in copper-deficient cells by transcriptional activation, whereas the other forms are copper-insensitive. The induced form of the transcript was expressed coordinately with the cytochrome c6-encoding (Cyc6) gene, which is known to be transcriptionally regulated in copper-deficient cells. The sequence GTAC, which forms the core of a copper response element associated with the Cyc6 gene, is also essential for induction of the Cpx1 gene, suggesting that both are targets of the same signal transduction pathway. The constitutive and induced Cpx1 transcripts have the same half-lives in vivo, and all encode the same polypeptide with a chloroplast-targeting transit sequence, but the shortest one representing the induced form is a 2-4-fold better template for translation than are either of the constitutive forms. The enzyme remains localized to a soluble compartment in the chloroplast even in induced cells, and its abundance is not affected when the tetrapyrrole pathway is manipulated either genetically or by gabaculine treatment.  (+info)

Group II intron splicing in Escherichia coli: phenotypes of cis-acting mutations resemble splicing defects observed in organelle RNA processing. (5/1304)

The mitochondrial group IIB intron rI1, from the green algae Scenedesmus obliquus ' LSUrRNA gene, has been introduced into the lacZ gene encoding beta-galacto-sidase. After DNA-mediated transformation of the recombinant lacZ gene into Escherichia coli, we observed correct splicing of the chimeric precursor RNA in vivo. In contrast to autocatalytic in vitro self-splicing, intron processing in vivo is independent of the growth temperature, suggesting that in E.coli, trans -acting factors are involved in group II intron splicing. Such a system would seem suitable as a model for analyzing intron processing in a prokaryotic host. In order to study further the effect of cis -mutations on intron splicing, different rI1 mutants were analyzed (with respect to their splicing activity) in E.coli. Although the phenotypes of these E. coli intron splicing mutants were identical to those which can be observed during organellar splicing of rI1, they are different to those observed in in vitro self-splicing experiments. Therefore, in both organelles and prokaryotes, it is likely that either similar splicing factors or trans -acting factors exhibiting similar functions are involved in splicing. We speculate that ubiquitous trans -acting factors, via recent horizontal transfer, have contributed to the spread of group II introns.  (+info)

Group II intron splicing in chloroplasts: identificationof mutations determining intron stability and fate of exon RNA. (6/1304)

In order to investigate in vivo splicing of group II introns in chloroplasts, we previously have integrated the mitochondrial intron rI1 from the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus into the Chlamydomonas chloroplast tscA gene. This construct allows a functional analysis of conserved intron sequences in vivo, since intron rI1 is correctly spliced in chloroplasts. Using site-directed mutagenesis, deletions of the conserved intron domains V and VI were performed. In another set of experiments, each possible substitution of the strictly conserved first intron nucleotide G1 was generated, as well as each possible single and double mutation of the tertiary base pairing gamma-gamma ' involved in the formation of the intron's tertiary RNA structure. In most cases, the intron mutations showed the same effect on in vivo intron splicing efficiency as they did on the in vitro self-splicing reaction, since catalytic activity is provided by the intron RNA itself. In vivo, all mutations have additional effects on the chimeric tscA -rI1 RNA, most probably due to the role played by trans -acting factors in intron processing. Substitutions of the gamma-gamma ' base pair lead to an accumulation of excised intron RNA, since intron stability is increased. In sharp contrast to autocatalytic splicing, all point mutations result in a complete loss of exon RNA, although the spliced intron accumulates to high levels. Intron degradation and exon ligation only occur in double mutants with restored base pairing between the gamma and gamma' sites. Therefore, we conclude that intron degradation, as well as the ligation of exon-exon molecules, depends on the tertiary intron structure. Furthermore, our data suggest that intron excision proceeds in vivo independent of ligation of exon-exon molecules.  (+info)

Identification of cis-acting RNA leader elements required for chloroplast psbD gene expression in Chlamydomonas. (7/1304)

The psbD mRNA of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is one of the most abundant chloroplast transcripts and encodes the photosystem II reaction center polypeptide D2. This RNA exists in two forms with 5' untranslated regions of 74 and 47 nucleotides. The shorter form, which is associated with polysomes, is likely to result from processing of the larger RNA. Using site-directed mutagenesis and biolistic transformation, we have identified two major RNA stability determinants within the first 12 nucleotides at the 5' end and near position -30 relative to the AUG initiation codon of psbD. Insertion of a polyguanosine tract at position -60 did not appreciably interfere with translation of psbD mRNA. The same poly(G) insertion in the nac2-26 mutant, which is known to be deficient in psbD mRNA accumulation, stabilized the psbD RNA. However, the shorter psbD RNA did not accumulate, and the other psbD RNAs were not translated. Two other elements were found to affect translation but not RNA stability. The first comprises a highly U-rich sequence (positions -20 to -15), and the second, called PRB1 (positions -14 to -11), is complementary to the 3' end of the 16S rRNA. Changing the PRB1 sequence from GGAG to AAAG had no detectable effect on psbD mRNA translation. However, changing this sequence to CCUC led to a fourfold diminished rate of D2 synthesis and accumulation. When the psbD initiation codon was changed to AUA or AUU, D2 synthesis was no longer detected, and psbD RNA accumulated to wild-type levels. The singular organization of the psbD 5' untranslated region could play an important role in the control of initiation of psbD mRNA translation.  (+info)

Direct measurement of inter-doublet elasticity in flagellar axonemes. (8/1304)

The outer doublet microtubules in ciliary and flagellar axonemes are presumed to be connected with each other by elastic links called the inter-doublet links or the nexin links, but it is not known whether there actually are such elastic links. In this study, to detect the elasticity of the putative inter-doublet links, shear force was applied to Chlamydomonas axonemes with a fine glass needle and the longitudinal elasticity was determined from the deflection of the needle. Wild-type axonemes underwent a high-frequency, nanometer-scale vibration in the presence of ATP. When longitudinal shear force was applied, the average position of the needle tip attached to the axoneme moved linearly with the force applied, yielding an estimate of spring constant of 2.0 (S.D.: 0.8) pN/nm for 1 microm of axoneme. This value did not change in the presence of vanadate, i.e., when dynein does not form strong cross bridges. In contrast, it was at least five times larger when ATP was absent, i.e., when dynein forms strong cross bridges. The measured elasticity did not significantly differ in various mutant axonemes lacking the central-pair microtubules, a subset of inner-arm dynein, outer-arm dynein, or the radial spokes, although it was somewhat smaller in the latter two mutants. It was also observed that the shear displacement in an axoneme in the presence of ATP often took place in a stepwise manner. This suggests that the inter-doublet links can reversibly detach from and reattach to the outer doublets in a cooperative manner. This study thus provides the first direct measure of the elasticity of inter-doublet links and also demonstrates its dynamic nature.  (+info)

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a species of single-celled, freshwater green algae. It is commonly used as a model organism in scientific research due to its simple unicellular structure and the ease with which it can be genetically manipulated. C. reinhardtii has a single, large chloroplast that contains both photosynthetic pigments and a nucleomorph, a remnant of a secondary endosymbiotic event where another alga was engulfed by an ancestral eukaryote. This species is capable of both phototactic and photophobic responses, allowing it to move towards or away from light sources. Additionally, C. reinhardtii has two flagella for locomotion, making it a popular subject for ciliary and flagellar research. It undergoes closed mitosis within its single, diploid nucleus, which is surrounded by a cell wall composed of glycoproteins. The genome of C. reinhardtii has been fully sequenced, providing valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying photosynthesis, flagellar assembly, and other fundamental biological processes.

Chlamydomonas is a genus of single-celled, green algae that are widely found in freshwater and marine environments. These microorganisms are characterized by their oval or spherical shape, and each cell contains a single, large chloroplast used for photosynthesis. They also have two flagella, which are hair-like structures that enable them to move through their aquatic habitats. Chlamydomonas species are often used in scientific research due to their simple cell structure and ease of cultivation in the lab.

Algal proteins are a type of protein that are derived from algae, which are simple, plant-like organisms that live in water. These proteins can be extracted and isolated from the algae through various processing methods and can then be used as a source of nutrition for both humans and animals.

Algal proteins are considered to be a complete protein source because they contain all of the essential amino acids that the body cannot produce on its own. They are also rich in other nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Some species of algae, such as spirulina and chlorella, have particularly high protein contents, making them a popular choice for use in dietary supplements and functional foods.

In addition to their nutritional benefits, algal proteins are also being studied for their potential therapeutic uses. For example, some research suggests that they may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-boosting properties. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential health benefits and to determine the optimal dosages and methods of use.

Chloroplasts are specialized organelles found in the cells of green plants, algae, and some protists. They are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis, which is the process by which these organisms convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds, such as glucose.

Chloroplasts contain the pigment chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy from the sun. They also contain a system of membranes and enzymes that convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen through a series of chemical reactions known as the Calvin cycle. This process not only provides energy for the organism but also releases oxygen as a byproduct, which is essential for the survival of most life forms on Earth.

Chloroplasts are believed to have originated from ancient cyanobacteria that were engulfed by early eukaryotic cells and eventually became integrated into their host's cellular machinery through a process called endosymbiosis. Over time, chloroplasts evolved to become an essential component of plant and algal cells, contributing to their ability to carry out photosynthesis and thrive in a wide range of environments.

Flagella are long, thin, whip-like structures that some types of cells use to move themselves around. They are made up of a protein called tubulin and are surrounded by a membrane. In bacteria, flagella rotate like a propeller to push the cell through its environment. In eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus), such as sperm cells or certain types of algae, flagella move in a wave-like motion to achieve locomotion. The ability to produce flagella is called flagellation.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. RNA stands for "ribonucleic acid," which is a type of nucleic acid that plays a crucial role in biology, particularly in the process of gene expression. It's important to note that "algal" generally refers to something related to algae, which are simple, photosynthetic organisms.

There isn't a specific medical definition for "Algal RNA." However, if you're referring to RNA found in algae or RNA with a role in algal biology, then the definition would be as follows:

RNA is a nucleic acid present in algae that carries genetic information and is involved in various cellular processes. Algal RNA can exist in several forms, including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). These RNAs play essential roles in protein synthesis, regulation of gene expression, and other cellular functions within algae.

If you meant something different by "Algal RNA," please provide more context or clarify your question, and I'll be glad to help further!

Cytochrome f is a type of cytochrome protein that contains heme as a cofactor and plays a role in the electron transport chain during photosynthesis. It is specifically located in the cytochrome b6f complex, which is found in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts in plants and algae.

Cytochrome f functions as a ubiquinol-plastoquinone oxidoreductase, accepting electrons from ubiquinol and transferring them to plastoquinone. This electron transfer process is an essential step in the generation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane, which drives the synthesis of ATP during photosynthesis.

Deficiency or mutation in cytochrome f can lead to impaired photosynthetic efficiency and reduced growth in plants.

I'm not a medical expert, but I can provide you with some information about algal DNA.

Algal DNA refers to the genetic material found in algae, which are simple, photosynthetic organisms that live in various aquatic environments. The DNA of algae is similar to that of other living organisms, as it carries the genetic instructions necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of these single-celled or multicellular life forms.

Algal DNA can be found in different types of algae, including:

1. Chlorophyta (green algae)
2. Rhodophyta (red algae)
3. Phaeophyceae (brown algae)
4. Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae or cyanoprokaryotes, which are actually bacteria with photosynthetic capabilities)

These different groups of algae have unique characteristics and ecological roles in their environments. Studying the DNA of algae can help researchers understand their evolutionary relationships, genetic diversity, and potential applications in various fields such as biotechnology, bioenergy, and environmental science.

Photosynthesis is not strictly a medical term, but it is a fundamental biological process with significant implications for medicine, particularly in understanding energy production in cells and the role of oxygen in sustaining life. Here's a general biological definition:

Photosynthesis is a process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy, usually from the sun, into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds, such as glucose (or sugar), using water and carbon dioxide. This process primarily takes place in the chloroplasts of plant cells, specifically in structures called thylakoids. The overall reaction can be summarized as:

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2

In this equation, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) are the reactants, while glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2) are the products. Photosynthesis has two main stages: the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle). The light-dependent reactions occur in the thylakoid membrane and involve the conversion of light energy into ATP and NADPH, which are used to power the Calvin cycle. The Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts and involves the synthesis of glucose from CO2 and water using the ATP and NADPH generated during the light-dependent reactions.

Understanding photosynthesis is crucial for understanding various biological processes, including cellular respiration, plant metabolism, and the global carbon cycle. Additionally, research into artificial photosynthesis has potential applications in renewable energy production and environmental remediation.

Chlorophyta is a division of green algae, also known as green plants. This group includes a wide variety of simple, aquatic organisms that contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their characteristic green color. They are a diverse group, ranging from unicellular forms to complex multicellular seaweeds. Chlorophyta is a large and varied division with approximately 7,00

The cytochrome b6f complex is a protein complex in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplasts in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. It plays a crucial role in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis by facilitating the transfer of electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I.

The complex is composed of four subunits: cytochrome b6, subunit IV, and two Rieske iron-sulfur proteins. Cytochrome b6 is a heme protein that contains two heme groups, while subunit IV helps anchor the complex in the thylakoid membrane. The Rieske iron-sulfur proteins contain a 2Fe-2S cluster and are responsible for transferring electrons between cytochrome b6 and plastoquinone, a mobile electron carrier.

The cytochrome b6f complex functions in the Q-cycle, which is a mechanism that increases the efficiency of electron transfer and generates a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane. This proton gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, an essential energy currency for the cell. Overall, the cytochrome b6f complex is a vital component of the photosynthetic machinery, enabling the conversion of light energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH.

Photosystem II Protein Complex is a crucial component of the photosynthetic apparatus in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. It is a multi-subunit protein complex located in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplasts. Photosystem II plays a vital role in light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, where it absorbs sunlight and uses its energy to drive the oxidation of water molecules into oxygen, electrons, and protons.

The protein complex consists of several subunits, including the D1 and D2 proteins, which form the reaction center, and several antenna proteins that capture light energy and transfer it to the reaction center. Photosystem II also contains various cofactors, such as pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), redox-active metal ions (manganese and calcium), and quinones, which facilitate the charge separation and electron transfer processes during photosynthesis.

Photosystem II Protein Complex is responsible for the initial charge separation event in photosynthesis, which sets off a series of redox reactions that ultimately lead to the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH and the synthesis of ATP, providing energy for the carbon fixation reactions in the Calvin cycle. Additionally, Photosystem II Protein Complex is involved in oxygen evolution, contributing to the Earth's atmosphere's oxygen levels and making it an essential component of global carbon fixation and oxygen production.

Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic plants, algae, and some bacteria. It plays an essential role in light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis by absorbing light energy, primarily from the blue and red parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and converting it into chemical energy to fuel the synthesis of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. The structure of chlorophyll includes a porphyrin ring, which binds a central magnesium ion, and a long phytol tail. There are several types of chlorophyll, including chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, which have distinct absorption spectra and slightly different structures. Chlorophyll is crucial for the process of photosynthesis, enabling the conversion of sunlight into chemical energy and the release of oxygen as a byproduct.

In the context of medical terminology, "light" doesn't have a specific or standardized definition on its own. However, it can be used in various medical terms and phrases. For example, it could refer to:

1. Visible light: The range of electromagnetic radiation that can be detected by the human eye, typically between wavelengths of 400-700 nanometers. This is relevant in fields such as ophthalmology and optometry.
2. Therapeutic use of light: In some therapies, light is used to treat certain conditions. An example is phototherapy, which uses various wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) or visible light for conditions like newborn jaundice, skin disorders, or seasonal affective disorder.
3. Light anesthesia: A state of reduced consciousness in which the patient remains responsive to verbal commands and physical stimulation. This is different from general anesthesia where the patient is completely unconscious.
4. Pain relief using light: Certain devices like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) units have a 'light' setting, indicating lower intensity or frequency of electrical impulses used for pain management.

Without more context, it's hard to provide a precise medical definition of 'light'.

Photosystem I Protein Complex, also known as PsaA/B-Protein or Photosystem I reaction center, is a large protein complex found in the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. It plays a crucial role in light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, where it absorbs light energy and converts it into chemical energy in the form of NADPH.

The complex is composed of several subunits, including PsaA and PsaB, which are the core components that bind to chlorophyll a and bacteriochlorophyll a pigments. These pigments absorb light energy and transfer it to the reaction center, where it is used to drive the electron transport chain and generate a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient is then used to produce ATP, which provides energy for the carbon fixation reactions in photosynthesis.

Photosystem I Protein Complex is also involved in cyclic electron flow, where electrons are recycled within the complex to generate additional ATP without producing NADPH. This process helps regulate the balance between ATP and NADPH production in the chloroplast and optimizes the efficiency of photosynthesis.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Photosynthetic Reaction Center (RC) Complex Proteins are specialized protein-pigment structures that play a crucial role in the primary process of light-driven electron transport during photosynthesis. They are present in the thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants.

The Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins are composed of two major components: the light-harvesting complex (LHC) and the reaction center (RC). The LHC contains antenna pigments like chlorophylls and carotenoids that absorb sunlight and transfer the excitation energy to the RC. The RC is a multi-subunit protein complex containing cofactors such as bacteriochlorophyll, pheophytin, quinones, and iron-sulfur clusters.

When a photon of light is absorbed by the antenna pigments in the LHC, the energy is transferred to the RC, where it initiates a charge separation event. This results in the transfer of an electron from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule, creating a flow of electrical charge and generating a transmembrane electrochemical gradient. The energy stored in this gradient is then used to synthesize ATP and reduce NADP+, which are essential for carbon fixation and other metabolic processes in the cell.

In summary, Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins are specialized protein structures involved in capturing light energy and converting it into chemical energy during photosynthesis, ultimately driving the synthesis of ATP and NADPH for use in carbon fixation and other metabolic processes.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

Genes in protozoa refer to the hereditary units of these single-celled organisms that carry genetic information necessary for their growth, development, and reproduction. These genes are made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules, which contain sequences of nucleotide bases that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Protozoan genes are responsible for various functions, such as metabolism, response to environmental stimuli, and reproduction.

It is important to note that the study of protozoan genes has contributed significantly to our understanding of genetics and evolution, particularly in areas such as molecular biology, cell biology, and genomics. However, there is still much to be learned about the genetic diversity and complexity of these organisms, which continue to be an active area of research.

Plastocyanin is a small, copper-containing protein that plays a crucial role in the photosynthetic electron transport chain. It functions as an electron carrier, facilitating the movement of electrons between two key protein complexes (cytochrome b6f and photosystem I) located in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. Plastocyanin is a soluble protein found in the lumen of the thylakoids, and its copper ion serves as the site for electron transfer. The oxidized form of plastocyanin accepts an electron from cytochrome b6f and then donates it to photosystem I, helping to maintain the flow of electrons during light-dependent reactions in photosynthesis.

Thylakoids are membrane-bound structures located in the chloroplasts of plant cells and some protists. They are the site of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, where light energy is converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). Thylakoids have a characteristic stacked or disc-like structure, called grana, and are interconnected by unstacked regions called stroma lamellae. The arrangement of thylakoids in grana increases the surface area for absorption of light energy, allowing for more efficient photosynthesis.

An axoneme is the microtubular structure that forms the core of a cilium or flagellum in eukaryotic cells. It is composed of nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, known as doublets, surrounding two central single microtubules, forming a "9+2" arrangement. The axoneme is anchored to the cell membrane through a basal body and provides the structural framework for the movement of cilia and flagella. It is composed of tubulin proteins and accessory structures such as dynein arms, which are responsible for generating the force required for ciliary or flagellar movement.

Light-harvesting protein complexes are specialized structures in photosynthetic organisms, such as plants, algae, and some bacteria, that capture and transfer light energy to the reaction centers where the initial chemical reactions of photosynthesis occur. These complexes consist of proteins and pigments (primarily chlorophylls and carotenoids) arranged in a way that allows them to absorb light most efficiently. The absorbed light energy is then converted into electrical charges, which are transferred to the reaction centers for further chemical reactions leading to the production of organic compounds and oxygen. The light-harvesting protein complexes play a crucial role in initiating the process of photosynthesis and optimizing its efficiency by capturing and distributing light energy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Protozoan Proteins" is not a specific medical or scientific term. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms, and proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acid residues. Therefore, "Protozoan Proteins" generally refers to the various types of proteins found in protozoa.

However, if you're looking for information about proteins specific to certain protozoan parasites with medical relevance (such as Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria), I would be happy to help! Please provide more context or specify the particular protozoan of interest.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Arylsulfatases are a group of enzymes that play a role in the breakdown and recycling of complex molecules in the body. Specifically, they catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate ester bonds in certain types of large sugar molecules called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs).

There are several different types of arylsulfatases, each of which targets a specific type of sulfate ester bond. For example, arylsulfatase A is responsible for breaking down sulfate esters in a GAG called cerebroside sulfate, while arylsulfatase B targets a different GAG called dermatan sulfate.

Deficiencies in certain arylsulfatases can lead to genetic disorders. For example, a deficiency in arylsulfatase A can cause metachromatic leukodystrophy, a progressive neurological disorder that affects the nervous system and causes a range of symptoms including muscle weakness, developmental delays, and cognitive decline. Similarly, a deficiency in arylsulfatase B can lead to Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, a rare genetic disorder that affects the skeleton, eyes, ears, heart, and other organs.

Diuron is a pesticide and herbicide that is used to control weeds in various settings, such as agriculture, landscaping, and forestry. Its chemical name is 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. Diuron works by inhibiting photosynthesis in plants, which prevents them from growing and eventually kills them.

While diuron is effective at controlling weeds, it can also have harmful effects on non-target organisms, including aquatic life and pollinators. Additionally, there are concerns about the potential for diuron to contaminate water sources and pose risks to human health. As a result, its use is regulated in many countries, and there are restrictions on how it can be applied and disposed of.

It's worth noting that Diuron is not a medical term or a drug used for treating any medical condition in humans or animals.

Dyneins are a type of motor protein that play an essential role in the movement of cellular components and structures within eukaryotic cells. They are responsible for generating force and motion along microtubules, which are critical components of the cell's cytoskeleton. Dyneins are involved in various cellular processes, including intracellular transport, organelle positioning, and cell division.

There are several types of dyneins, but the two main categories are cytoplasmic dyneins and axonemal dyneins. Cytoplasmic dyneins are responsible for moving various cargoes, such as vesicles, organelles, and mRNA complexes, toward the minus-end of microtubules, which is usually located near the cell center. Axonemal dyneins, on the other hand, are found in cilia and flagella and are responsible for their movement by sliding adjacent microtubules past each other.

Dyneins consist of multiple subunits, including heavy chains, intermediate chains, light-intermediate chains, and light chains. The heavy chains contain the motor domain that binds to microtubules and hydrolyzes ATP to generate force. Dysfunction in dynein proteins has been linked to various human diseases, such as neurodevelopmental disorders, ciliopathies, and cancer.

Genetic transformation is the process by which an organism's genetic material is altered or modified, typically through the introduction of foreign DNA. This can be achieved through various techniques such as:

* Gene transfer using vectors like plasmids, phages, or artificial chromosomes
* Direct uptake of naked DNA using methods like electroporation or chemically-mediated transfection
* Use of genome editing tools like CRISPR-Cas9 to introduce precise changes into the organism's genome.

The introduced DNA may come from another individual of the same species (cisgenic), from a different species (transgenic), or even be synthetically designed. The goal of genetic transformation is often to introduce new traits, functions, or characteristics that do not exist naturally in the organism, or to correct genetic defects.

This technique has broad applications in various fields, including molecular biology, biotechnology, and medical research, where it can be used to study gene function, develop genetically modified organisms (GMOs), create cell lines for drug screening, and even potentially treat genetic diseases through gene therapy.

Amylopectin is a type of complex carbohydrate molecule known as a polysaccharide. It is a component of starch, which is found in plants and is a major source of energy for both humans and other animals. Amylopectin is made up of long chains of glucose molecules that are branched together in a bush-like structure.

Amylopectin is composed of two types of glucose chain branches: outer chains, which are made up of shorter, highly branched chains of glucose molecules; and inner chains, which are made up of longer, less branched chains. The branching pattern of amylopectin allows it to be digested and absorbed more slowly than other types of carbohydrates, such as simple sugars. This slower digestion and absorption can help to regulate blood sugar levels and provide sustained energy.

Amylopectin is found in a variety of plant-based foods, including grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits. It is an important source of calories and energy for humans and other animals that consume these types of plants as part of their diet.

Plastoquinone is a lipid-soluble electron carrier in the photosynthetic electron transport chain located in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. It plays a crucial role in both the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis and cyclic photophosphorylation.

In more detail, plastoquinone exists in an oxidized (PQ) and reduced form (PQH2). In its oxidized state, it accepts electrons from cytochrome b6f complex during the transfer of electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I. Once plastoquinone accepts two electrons and two protons, it converts into its reduced form, plastoquinol (PQH2). Plastoquinol then donates the electrons to the cytochrome b6f complex, which in turn passes them on to the next carrier in the electron transport chain.

Plastoquinone is a member of the quinone family and is synthesized via the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, also known as the non-mevalonate pathway.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Volvox" is not a medical term. It is actually the name of a genus of green algae that form colonies and are often found in freshwater environments. Each Volvox colony is composed of many individual cells that are surrounded by a shared protective covering. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those instead!

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) is a crucial enzyme in the Calvin cycle, which is a process that plants use to convert carbon dioxide into glucose during photosynthesis. RuBisCO catalyzes the reaction between ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate and carbon dioxide, resulting in the formation of two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate, which can then be converted into glucose.

RuBisCO is considered to be the most abundant enzyme on Earth, making up as much as 50% of the soluble protein found in leaves. It is a large and complex enzyme, consisting of eight small subunits and eight large subunits that are arranged in a barrel-shaped structure. The active site of the enzyme, where the reaction between ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate and carbon dioxide takes place, is located at the interface between two large subunits.

RuBisCO also has a secondary function as an oxygenase, which can lead to the production of glycolate, a toxic compound for plants. This reaction occurs when the enzyme binds with oxygen instead of carbon dioxide and is more prevalent in environments with low carbon dioxide concentrations and high oxygen concentrations. The glycolate produced during this process needs to be recycled through a series of reactions known as photorespiration, which can result in significant energy loss for the plant.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "darkness." In general, darkness refers to the absence of light. It is not a term that is commonly used in the medical field, and it does not have a specific clinical meaning. If you have a question about a specific medical term or concept, I would be happy to try to help you understand it.

Sulfur is not typically referred to in the context of a medical definition, as it is an element found in nature and not a specific medical condition or concept. However, sulfur does have some relevance to certain medical topics:

* Sulfur is an essential element that is a component of several amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and is necessary for the proper functioning of enzymes and other biological processes in the body.
* Sulfur-containing compounds, such as glutathione, play important roles in antioxidant defense and detoxification in the body.
* Some medications and supplements contain sulfur or sulfur-containing compounds, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which is used topically for pain relief and inflammation.
* Sulfur baths and other forms of sulfur-based therapies have been used historically in alternative medicine to treat various conditions, although their effectiveness is not well-established by scientific research.

It's important to note that while sulfur itself is not a medical term, it can be relevant to certain medical topics and should be discussed with a healthcare professional if you have any questions or concerns about its use in medications, supplements, or therapies.

Cytochrome c6 is a type of cytochrome protein that contains heme as a cofactor and functions as an electron transporter in the electron transport chain during photosynthesis. It is found primarily in certain bacteria, algae, and some lower eukaryotes. The "c6" designation refers to its molecular weight and structure, which is similar to that of cytochrome c found in mitochondria. However, cytochrome c6 has a higher redox potential than cytochrome c and plays a role in the water-splitting reaction during photosynthesis. It is involved in the transfer of electrons from the cytochrome b6f complex to the photosystem I.

Microalgae are microscopic, simple, thalloid, often unicellular organisms that belong to the kingdom Protista. They can be found in freshwater and marine environments, and they are capable of photosynthesis, which allows them to convert light energy, carbon dioxide, and water into organic compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Microalgae are a diverse group of organisms that include various taxonomic groups such as cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae), diatoms, dinoflagellates, and euglenoids. They have important ecological roles in the global carbon cycle, oxygen production, and nutrient recycling.

In addition to their ecological significance, microalgae have gained attention for their potential applications in various industries, including food and feed, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biofuels, and environmental bioremediation. Some species of microalgae contain high levels of valuable compounds such as omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, pigments, and bioactive molecules that have potential health benefits for humans and animals.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. RNA and chloroplasts are two different biological concepts. Let me clarify:

1. RNA (Ribonucleic Acid): It is a type of nucleic acid that plays several crucial roles in the process of translation, decoding the genetic information stored in DNA into proteins. There are three main types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA).

2. Chloroplasts: They are specialized organelles found in the cells of green plants, algae, and some protists. Chloroplasts are responsible for capturing sunlight's energy and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis, which is used to produce glucose and oxygen.

There is no medical definition directly related to 'RNA, chloroplast' as they are separate concepts in biology. However, RNA does play a role in the expression of genes found within the chloroplast genome during photosynthesis. If you have any further questions or need more information about either concept, please let me know!

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Chloroplasts are organelles found in the cells of plants, algae, and some protists. They are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis, which is the process by which these organisms convert light energy into chemical energy. Chloroplast proteins are the various proteins that are located within the chloroplasts and play a crucial role in the process of photosynthesis.

Chloroplasts contain several types of proteins, including:

1. Structural proteins: These proteins help to maintain the structure and integrity of the chloroplast.
2. Photosynthetic proteins: These are involved in capturing light energy and converting it into chemical energy during photosynthesis. They include proteins such as photosystem I, photosystem II, cytochrome b6f complex, and ATP synthase.
3. Regulatory proteins: These proteins help to regulate the various processes that occur within the chloroplast, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and energy metabolism.
4. Metabolic proteins: These proteins are involved in various metabolic pathways within the chloroplast, such as carbon fixation, amino acid synthesis, and lipid metabolism.
5. Protective proteins: These proteins help to protect the chloroplast from damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are produced during photosynthesis.

Overall, chloroplast proteins play a critical role in maintaining the health and function of chloroplasts, and by extension, the overall health and survival of plants and other organisms that contain them.

Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) refers to the genetic material present in the chloroplasts, which are organelles found in the cells of photosynthetic organisms such as plants, algae, and some bacteria. Chloroplasts are responsible for capturing sunlight energy and converting it into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis.

Chloroplast DNA is circular and contains a small number of genes compared to the nuclear genome. It encodes for some of the essential components required for chloroplast function, including proteins involved in photosynthesis, transcription, and translation. The majority of chloroplast proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome and are imported into the chloroplast after being synthesized in the cytoplasm.

Chloroplast DNA is inherited maternally in most plants, meaning that it is passed down from the maternal parent to their offspring through the egg cell. This mode of inheritance has been used in plant breeding and genetic engineering to introduce desirable traits into crops.

Hydrogenase is not a medical term per se, but a biochemical term. It is used to describe an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion between molecular hydrogen (H2) and protons (H+) or vice versa. These enzymes are found in certain bacteria, algae, and archaea, and they play a crucial role in their energy metabolism, particularly in processes like hydrogen production and consumption.

While not directly related to medical terminology, understanding the function of hydrogenase can be important in fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, and environmental science, which can have implications for human health in areas like infectious diseases, biofuels, and waste management.

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid, which then quickly dissociates into bicarbonate and a proton. This reaction is crucial for maintaining pH balance and regulating various physiological processes in the body, including respiration, secretion of electrolytes, and bone resorption.

There are several isoforms of carbonic anhydrases found in different tissues and organelles, each with distinct functions and properties. For example, CA I and II are primarily found in red blood cells, while CA III is present in various tissues such as the kidney, lung, and eye. CA IV is a membrane-bound enzyme that plays a role in transporting ions across cell membranes.

Carbonic anhydrases have been targeted for therapeutic interventions in several diseases, including glaucoma, epilepsy, and cancer. Inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases can reduce the production of bicarbonate and lower the pH of tumor cells, which may help to slow down their growth and proliferation. However, these inhibitors can also have side effects such as kidney stones and metabolic acidosis, so they must be used with caution.

Cytochrome b is a type of cytochrome, which is a class of proteins that contain heme as a cofactor and are involved in electron transfer. Cytochromes are classified based on the type of heme they contain and their absorption spectra.

The cytochrome b group includes several subfamilies of cytochromes, including cytochrome b5, cytochrome b2, and cytochrome bc1 (also known as complex III). These cytochromes are involved in various biological processes, such as fatty acid desaturation, steroid metabolism, and the electron transport chain.

The electron transport chain is a series of protein complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane that generates most of the ATP (adenosine triphosphate) required for cellular energy production. Cytochrome bc1 is a key component of the electron transport chain, where it functions as a dimer and catalyzes the transfer of electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c while simultaneously pumping protons across the membrane. This creates an electrochemical gradient that drives ATP synthesis.

Deficiencies or mutations in cytochrome b genes can lead to various diseases, such as mitochondrial disorders and cancer.

The Electron Transport Chain (ETC) is a series of complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane that are involved in the process of cellular respiration. It is the final pathway for electrons derived from the oxidation of nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids to be transferred to molecular oxygen. This transfer of electrons drives the generation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is then used by ATP synthase to produce ATP, the main energy currency of the cell.

The electron transport chain consists of four complexes (I-IV) and two mobile electron carriers (ubiquinone and cytochrome c). Electrons from NADH and FADH2 are transferred to Complex I and Complex II respectively, which then pass them along to ubiquinone. Ubiquinone then transfers the electrons to Complex III, which passes them on to cytochrome c. Finally, cytochrome c transfers the electrons to Complex IV, where they combine with oxygen and protons to form water.

The transfer of electrons through the ETC is accompanied by the pumping of protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space, creating a proton gradient. The flow of protons back across the inner membrane through ATP synthase drives the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

Overall, the electron transport chain is a crucial process for generating energy in the form of ATP in the cell, and it plays a key role in many metabolic pathways.

A genetic complementation test is a laboratory procedure used in molecular genetics to determine whether two mutated genes can complement each other's function, indicating that they are located at different loci and represent separate alleles. This test involves introducing a normal or wild-type copy of one gene into a cell containing a mutant version of the same gene, and then observing whether the presence of the normal gene restores the normal function of the mutated gene. If the introduction of the normal gene results in the restoration of the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at different loci and can complement each other's function. However, if the introduction of the normal gene does not restore the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at the same locus and represent different alleles of the same gene. This test is commonly used to map genes and identify genetic interactions in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and animals.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a bit of confusion here. Starch is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a nutritional and biochemical concept. Here's a brief explanation:

Starch is a complex carbohydrate that serves as the primary form of energy storage in plants. It is made up of long chains of glucose molecules and can be found in various foods such as grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. Amylase, an enzyme present in our saliva and digestive system, helps break down starch into simpler sugars during the digestion process so that our bodies can absorb them for energy.

I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any other questions or need further information on a medical topic, please don't hesitate to ask.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hydrogen" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. It is the lightest and most abundant chemical element in the universe, making up about 75% of its elemental mass.

In a medical context, hydrogen can be discussed in terms of molecular hydrogen (H2) which has been studied for potential therapeutic benefits. Some research explores its use as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, but more studies are needed to confirm these effects and understand the mechanisms behind them.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Cytochromes are a type of hemeprotein found in the mitochondria and other cellular membranes of organisms. They contain a heme group, which is a prosthetic group composed of an iron atom surrounded by a porphyrin ring. This structure allows cytochromes to participate in redox reactions, acting as electron carriers in various biological processes.

There are several types of cytochromes, classified based on the type of heme they contain and their absorption spectra. Some of the most well-known cytochromes include:

* Cytochrome c: a small, mobile protein found in the inner mitochondrial membrane that plays a crucial role in the electron transport chain during cellular respiration.
* Cytochrome P450: a large family of enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs, toxins, and other xenobiotics. They are found in various tissues, including the liver, lungs, and skin.
* Cytochrome b: a component of several electron transport chains, including those found in mitochondria, bacteria, and chloroplasts.

Cytochromes play essential roles in energy production, detoxification, and other metabolic processes, making them vital for the survival and function of living organisms.

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

Chlorella is a type of single-celled, green freshwater microalgae that is rich in nutrients, including proteins, vitamins, minerals, and chlorophyll. It is often marketed as a dietary supplement or health food because of its high nutritional content. Chlorella contains all the essential amino acids, making it a complete protein source, and is also rich in antioxidants, such as vitamin C, beta-carotene, and various phytochemicals.

Chlorella has been studied for its potential health benefits, including its ability to support immune function, detoxify heavy metals from the body, improve digestion, and reduce chronic inflammation. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and determine safe and effective dosages. It's important to note that chlorella supplements are not regulated by the FDA, so it's crucial to choose reputable brands and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any new supplements.

Starch synthase is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of starch, which is a complex carbohydrate that serves as an important energy storage molecule in plants. Specifically, starch synthase catalyzes the transfer of glucose from activated donor molecules, such as ADP-glucose, to the non-reducing end of a growing linear chain or branch of an amylopectin molecule, resulting in the formation of starch.

There are several isoforms of starch synthase that have been identified in plants, including granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), which is responsible for synthesizing the highly branched and crystalline amylose component of starch, and soluble starch synthases (SSI, SSII, SSIII, and SSIV), which contribute to the synthesis of the more branched and less crystalline amylopectin component.

Defects in starch synthase activity have been associated with various genetic disorders in humans, such as glycogen storage disease type II (Pompe disease) and transient infantile hyperammonemia, which are caused by mutations in the genes encoding for the enzymes involved in the synthesis of glycogen and starch, respectively.

Geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyltransferase is not a medical term, but rather a biochemical term. It refers to an enzyme that plays a role in the process of protein prenylation, which is the attachment of lipophilic groups (such as farnesyl or geranylgeranyl groups) to proteins.

More specifically, geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTI) is an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a geranylgeranyl group from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to a cysteine residue in a protein substrate. This process is important for the localization and function of certain proteins, particularly those involved in signal transduction pathways.

Mutations or dysregulation of GGTIs have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders. However, it's worth noting that this enzyme is not typically a focus of medical diagnosis or treatment, but rather an area of research interest for understanding the underlying mechanisms of certain diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Organelle Size" is not a recognized medical term or concept with a specific definition. Organelles are specialized structures within cells that have specific functions, such as mitochondria, ribosomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. The size of these organelles can vary depending on the type of cell, its function, and various other factors. However, there is no standardized medical definition for the term "Organelle Size." If you have more specific questions about the size or function of certain organelles, I'd be happy to help further!

Ferredoxins are iron-sulfur proteins that play a crucial role in electron transfer reactions in various biological systems, particularly in photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. They contain one or more clusters of iron and sulfur atoms (known as the iron-sulfur cluster) that facilitate the movement of electrons between different molecules during metabolic processes.

Ferredoxins have a relatively simple structure, consisting of a polypeptide chain that binds to the iron-sulfur cluster. This simple structure allows ferredoxins to participate in a wide range of redox reactions and makes them versatile electron carriers in biological systems. They can accept electrons from various donors and transfer them to different acceptors, depending on the needs of the cell.

In photosynthesis, ferredoxins play a critical role in the light-dependent reactions by accepting electrons from photosystem I and transferring them to NADP+, forming NADPH. This reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is then used in the Calvin cycle for carbon fixation and the production of glucose.

In nitrogen fixation, ferredoxins help transfer electrons to the nitrogenase enzyme complex, which reduces atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2) into ammonia (NH3), making it available for assimilation by plants and other organisms.

Overall, ferredoxins are essential components of many metabolic pathways, facilitating electron transfer and energy conversion in various biological systems.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

I'd be happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid, which is a type of nucleic acid involved in various biological roles in the coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. On the other hand, protozoan refers to a unicellular organism from the kingdom Protista, which includes a wide variety of simple eukaryotic organisms such as amoebas, paramecia, and plasmodium (the malaria-causing parasite).

There isn't a specific medical definition for "RNA, protozoan" since RNA is a molecule present in all living cells, including human cells, and protozoans are a group of organisms. However, I can tell you that RNA plays crucial roles in protozoan biology, such as acting as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes during protein synthesis or regulating gene expression.

If you have any further questions or need more specific information about RNA in protozoans, please let me know!

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Insertional mutagenesis is a process of introducing new genetic material into an organism's genome at a specific location, which can result in a change or disruption of the function of the gene at that site. This technique is often used in molecular biology research to study gene function and regulation. The introduction of the foreign DNA is typically accomplished through the use of mobile genetic elements, such as transposons or viruses, which are capable of inserting themselves into the genome.

The insertion of the new genetic material can lead to a loss or gain of function in the affected gene, resulting in a mutation. This type of mutagenesis is called "insertional" because the mutation is caused by the insertion of foreign DNA into the genome. The effects of insertional mutagenesis can range from subtle changes in gene expression to the complete inactivation of a gene.

This technique has been widely used in genetic research, including the study of developmental biology, cancer, and genetic diseases. It is also used in the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural and industrial applications.

Microtubules are hollow, cylindrical structures composed of tubulin proteins in the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as maintaining cell shape, intracellular transport, and cell division (mitosis and meiosis). Microtubules are dynamic, undergoing continuous assembly and disassembly, which allows them to rapidly reorganize in response to cellular needs. They also form part of important cellular structures like centrioles, basal bodies, and cilia/flagella.

Phototrophic processes refer to the metabolic pathways used by certain organisms, such as plants, algae, and some bacteria, to convert light energy into chemical energy. This is primarily achieved through a process called photosynthesis, where these organisms use light, usually from the sun, to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. The glucose serves as an energy source for the organism, while the oxygen is released as a byproduct. This process is fundamental to life on Earth as it provides the majority of the oxygen in our atmosphere and forms the base of many food chains.

Isoamylase is not a medical term per se, but rather a biochemical term used to describe an enzyme. Medically, it may be relevant in the context of certain medical conditions or treatments that involve carbohydrate metabolism. Here's a general definition:

Isoamylase (EC 3.2.1.68) is a type of amylase, a group of enzymes that break down complex carbohydrates, specifically starch and glycogen, into simpler sugars. Isoamylase is more precisely defined as an enzyme that hydrolyzes (breaks down) alpha-1,6 glucosidic bonds in isomaltose, panose, and dextrins, yielding mainly isomaltose and limit dextrin. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants. In humans, isoamylase is involved in the digestion of starch in the small intestine, where it helps convert complex carbohydrates into glucose for energy absorption.

I believe you may have meant to ask for the definition of "pyruvate dehydrogenase complex" rather than "pyruvate synthase," as I couldn't find any relevant medical information regarding a specific enzyme named "pyruvate synthase."

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a crucial enzyme complex in the human body, playing an essential role in cellular energy production. PDC is located within the mitochondrial matrix and catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, the end product of glycolysis, into acetyl-CoA. This process connects the glycolytic pathway to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) and enables the continuation of aerobic respiration for efficient energy production in the form of ATP.

The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex consists of three main enzymes: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoyl transacetylase (E2), and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3). Additionally, two accessory proteins, E3-binding protein (E3BP) and protein X, are part of the complex. These enzymes work together to facilitate the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, CO2, and NADH. Dysfunction in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex can lead to various metabolic disorders and neurological symptoms.

Gene expression regulation in plants refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and RNA from the genes present in the plant's DNA. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli in plants. It can occur at various levels, including transcription (the first step in gene expression, where the DNA sequence is copied into RNA), RNA processing (such as alternative splicing, which generates different mRNA molecules from a single gene), translation (where the information in the mRNA is used to produce a protein), and post-translational modification (where proteins are chemically modified after they have been synthesized).

In plants, gene expression regulation can be influenced by various factors such as hormones, light, temperature, and stress. Plants use complex networks of transcription factors, chromatin remodeling complexes, and small RNAs to regulate gene expression in response to these signals. Understanding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in plants is important for basic research, as well as for developing crops with improved traits such as increased yield, stress tolerance, and disease resistance.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Fluorescence is not a medical term per se, but it is widely used in the medical field, particularly in diagnostic tests, medical devices, and research. Fluorescence is a physical phenomenon where a substance absorbs light at a specific wavelength and then emits light at a longer wavelength. This process, often referred to as fluorescing, results in the emission of visible light that can be detected and measured.

In medical terms, fluorescence is used in various applications such as:

1. In-vivo imaging: Fluorescent dyes or probes are introduced into the body to highlight specific structures, cells, or molecules during imaging procedures. This technique can help doctors detect and diagnose diseases such as cancer, inflammation, or infection.
2. Microscopy: Fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for visualizing biological samples at the cellular and molecular level. By labeling specific proteins, nucleic acids, or other molecules with fluorescent dyes, researchers can observe their distribution, interactions, and dynamics within cells and tissues.
3. Surgical guidance: Fluorescence-guided surgery is a technique where surgeons use fluorescent markers to identify critical structures such as blood vessels, nerves, or tumors during surgical procedures. This helps ensure precise and safe surgical interventions.
4. Diagnostic tests: Fluorescence-based assays are used in various diagnostic tests to detect and quantify specific biomarkers or analytes. These assays can be performed using techniques such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or flow cytometry.

In summary, fluorescence is a physical process where a substance absorbs and emits light at different wavelengths. In the medical field, this phenomenon is harnessed for various applications such as in-vivo imaging, microscopy, surgical guidance, and diagnostic tests.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Thioredoxin h is also known as Thioredoxin-related protein 14 or TXNDC14. It is a member of the thioredoxin superfamily, which are small proteins containing a redox-active disulfide bond. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as redox regulation, protein folding, and antioxidant defense.

Thioredoxin h is localized to the mitochondria and has been shown to have oxidoreductase activity. It contains a conserved active site sequence (WCGPC) that is involved in its redox function. Thioredoxin h may play a role in regulating the redox state of proteins within the mitochondria, which can impact various cellular functions such as energy metabolism and apoptosis.

However, it's important to note that research on Thioredoxin h is still ongoing, and its specific functions and mechanisms are not yet fully understood.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Coproporphyrinogen Oxidase is a mitochondrial enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of heme, which is an essential component of hemoglobin and other hemoproteins. This enzyme catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX, a key step in the heme biosynthetic pathway.

Deficiency or dysfunction of Coproporphyrinogen Oxidase can lead to a rare genetic disorder known as Hereditary Coproporphyria (HCP), which is characterized by the accumulation of coproporphyrinogen III and its derivative, coproporphyrin, in various tissues and body fluids. This accumulation can result in a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, neurological disturbances, and skin manifestations.

Cilia are tiny, hair-like structures that protrude from the surface of many types of cells in the body. They are composed of a core bundle of microtubules surrounded by a protein matrix and are covered with a membrane. Cilia are involved in various cellular functions, including movement of fluid or mucus across the cell surface, detection of external stimuli, and regulation of signaling pathways.

There are two types of cilia: motile and non-motile. Motile cilia are able to move in a coordinated manner to propel fluids or particles across a surface, such as those found in the respiratory tract and reproductive organs. Non-motile cilia, also known as primary cilia, are present on most cells in the body and serve as sensory organelles that detect chemical and mechanical signals from the environment.

Defects in cilia structure or function can lead to a variety of diseases, collectively known as ciliopathies. These conditions can affect multiple organs and systems in the body, including the brain, kidneys, liver, and eyes. Examples of ciliopathies include polycystic kidney disease, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and Meckel-Gruber syndrome.

There doesn't seem to be a specific medical definition for "DNA, protozoan" as it is simply a reference to the DNA found in protozoa. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and the digestive tracts of animals.

Protozoan DNA refers to the genetic material present in these organisms. It is composed of nucleic acids, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which contain the instructions for the development, growth, and reproduction of the protozoan.

The DNA in protozoa, like in other organisms, is made up of two strands of nucleotides that coil together to form a double helix. The four nucleotide bases that make up protozoan DNA are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). These bases pair with each other to form the rungs of the DNA ladder, with A always pairing with T and G always pairing with C.

The genetic information stored in protozoan DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nucleotide bases. This information is used to synthesize proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of the organism's cells. Protozoan DNA also contains other types of genetic material, such as regulatory sequences that control gene expression and repetitive elements with no known function.

Understanding the DNA of protozoa is important for studying their biology, evolution, and pathogenicity. It can help researchers develop new treatments for protozoan diseases and gain insights into the fundamental principles of genetics and cellular function.

Eukaryota is a domain that consists of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists. The term "eukaryote" comes from the Greek words "eu," meaning true or good, and "karyon," meaning nut or kernel. In eukaryotic cells, the genetic material is housed within a membrane-bound nucleus, and the DNA is organized into chromosomes. This is in contrast to prokaryotic cells, which do not have a true nucleus and have their genetic material dispersed throughout the cytoplasm.

Eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. They have many different organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus, that perform specific functions to support the cell's metabolism and survival. Eukaryotic cells also have a cytoskeleton made up of microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments, which provide structure and shape to the cell and allow for movement of organelles and other cellular components.

Eukaryotes are diverse and can be found in many different environments, ranging from single-celled organisms that live in water or soil to multicellular organisms that live on land or in aquatic habitats. Some eukaryotes are unicellular, meaning they consist of a single cell, while others are multicellular, meaning they consist of many cells that work together to form tissues and organs.

In summary, Eukaryota is a domain of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists, and the eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells.

A chloroplast genome is the entire genetic material that is present in the chloroplasts, which are organelles found in plant cells and some protists. The chloroplast genome is circular in shape and contains about 120-160 kilobases (kb) of DNA. It encodes for a small number of proteins, ribosomal RNAs, and transfer RNAs that are required for the function of the chloroplasts, particularly in photosynthesis. The chloroplast genome is usually inherited maternally, meaning it is passed down from the mother to her offspring.

The chloroplast genome is relatively simple compared to the nuclear genome, which contains many more genes and regulatory elements. However, most of the proteins required for chloroplast function are actually encoded in the nucleus and imported into the chloroplasts. The study of chloroplast genomes can provide insights into the evolutionary history of plants and their photosynthetic ancestors.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Iron-sulfur proteins are a group of metalloproteins that contain iron and sulfur atoms in their active centers. These clusters of iron and sulfur atoms, also known as iron-sulfur clusters, can exist in various forms, including Fe-S, 2Fe-2S, 3Fe-4S, and 4Fe-4S structures. The iron atoms are coordinated to the protein through cysteine residues, while the sulfur atoms can be in the form of sulfide (S2-) or sulfane (-S-).

These proteins play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as electron transfer, redox reactions, and enzyme catalysis. They are found in various organisms, from bacteria to humans, and are involved in a wide range of cellular functions, including energy metabolism, photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and DNA repair.

Iron-sulfur proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as ferredoxins, Rieske proteins, high-potential iron-sulfur proteins (HiPIPs), and radical SAM enzymes. Dysregulation or mutations in iron-sulfur protein genes have been linked to various human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and mitochondrial disorders.

Anaerobiosis is a state in which an organism or a portion of an organism is able to live and grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). In biological contexts, "anaerobe" refers to any organism that does not require oxygen for growth, and "aerobe" refers to an organism that does require oxygen for growth.

There are two types of anaerobes: obligate anaerobes, which cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen and will die if exposed to it; and facultative anaerobes, which can grow with or without oxygen but prefer to grow in its absence. Some organisms are able to switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen, a process known as "facultative anaerobiosis."

Anaerobic respiration is a type of metabolic process that occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen. In this process, organisms use alternative electron acceptors other than oxygen to generate energy through the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration. Examples of alternative electron acceptors include nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic metabolism is less efficient than aerobic metabolism in terms of energy production, but it allows organisms to survive in environments where oxygen is not available or is toxic. Anaerobic bacteria are important decomposers in many ecosystems, breaking down organic matter and releasing nutrients back into the environment. In the human body, anaerobic bacteria can cause infections and other health problems if they proliferate in areas with low oxygen levels, such as the mouth, intestines, or deep tissue wounds.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

A protozoan genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in a protozoan organism. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic microorganisms that lack cell walls and have diverse morphology and nutrition modes. The genome of a protozoan includes all the genes that code for proteins, as well as non-coding DNA sequences that regulate gene expression and other cellular processes.

The size and complexity of protozoan genomes can vary widely depending on the species. Some protozoa have small genomes with only a few thousand genes, while others have larger genomes with tens of thousands of genes or more. The genome sequencing of various protozoan species has provided valuable insights into their evolutionary history, biology, and potential as model organisms for studying eukaryotic cellular processes.

It is worth noting that the study of protozoan genomics is still an active area of research, and new discoveries are continually being made about the genetic diversity and complexity of these fascinating microorganisms.

Centrioles are small, cylindrical structures found in the centrosome of animal cells. They play a crucial role in organizing the microtubules that make up the cell's cytoskeleton and are also involved in the formation of the spindle apparatus during cell division. A typical centriole is made up of nine sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring-like fashion around a central hub or core.

Centrioles have two main functions:

1. Microtubule Organization: Centrioles serve as the primary site for microtubule nucleation and organization within the cell. They help to form the mitotic spindle during cell division, which is responsible for separating replicated chromosomes into two identical sets that are distributed equally between the two daughter cells.

2. Formation of Cilia and Flagella: In specialized cells, centrioles can also function as basal bodies for the formation of cilia and flagella. These hair-like structures protrude from the cell surface and play a role in cell movement and the movement of extracellular fluids over the cell surface.

It is important to note that plants and fungi do not have centrioles, and their cells use alternative mechanisms for microtubule organization and cell division.

Tubulin is a type of protein that forms microtubules, which are hollow cylindrical structures involved in the cell's cytoskeleton. These structures play important roles in various cellular processes, including maintaining cell shape, cell division, and intracellular transport. There are two main types of tubulin proteins: alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin. They polymerize to form heterodimers, which then assemble into microtubules. The assembly and disassembly of microtubules are dynamic processes that are regulated by various factors, including GTP hydrolysis, motor proteins, and microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Tubulin is an essential component of the eukaryotic cell and has been a target for anti-cancer drugs such as taxanes and vinca alkaloids.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Beta-tocopherol is a form of vitamin E, which is a fat-soluble antioxidant. Vitamin E exists in eight different forms, including delta-, gamma-, and beta-tocopherols, and alpha-tocopherol is the most active form in humans.

Beta-tocopherol has weaker vitamin E activity than alpha-tocopherol, but it still has antioxidant properties that can help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Free radicals are unstable molecules that can cause cell damage and contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease.

While beta-tocopherol is found in some foods, including vegetable oils and nuts, it is not as prevalent as other forms of vitamin E. Therefore, it is not considered as essential for human health as alpha-tocopherol. However, some research suggests that beta-tocopherol may have unique health benefits, such as reducing inflammation and improving immune function, although more studies are needed to confirm these effects.

Spectinomycin is an antibiotic that belongs to the aminoglycoside family. It works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and leading to bacterial cell death. Spectinomycin is primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including gonorrhea, penicillin-resistant streptococci, and some anaerobes. It is administered parenterally (usually intramuscularly) and has a relatively narrow spectrum of activity compared to other aminoglycosides. Spectinomycin is not commonly used in many countries due to the availability of alternative antibiotics with broader spectra and fewer side effects.

"Genetic crosses" refer to the breeding of individuals with different genetic characteristics to produce offspring with specific combinations of traits. This process is commonly used in genetics research to study the inheritance patterns and function of specific genes.

There are several types of genetic crosses, including:

1. Monohybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of a single gene or trait.
2. Dihybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of two genes or traits.
3. Backcross: A cross between an individual from a hybrid population and one of its parental lines.
4. Testcross: A cross between an individual with unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive individual.
5. Reciprocal cross: A cross in which the male and female parents are reversed to determine if there is any effect of sex on the expression of the trait.

These genetic crosses help researchers to understand the mode of inheritance, linkage, recombination, and other genetic phenomena.

Plastids are membrane-bound organelles found in the cells of plants and algae. They are responsible for various cellular functions, including photosynthesis, storage of starch, lipids, and proteins, and the production of pigments that give plants their color. The most common types of plastids are chloroplasts (which contain chlorophyll and are involved in photosynthesis), chromoplasts (which contain pigments such as carotenoids and are responsible for the yellow, orange, and red colors of fruits and flowers), and leucoplasts (which do not contain pigments and serve mainly as storage organelles). Plastids have their own DNA and can replicate themselves within the cell.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) in plants refers to the long, single-stranded molecules that are essential for the translation of genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into proteins. RNA is a nucleic acid, like DNA, and it is composed of a ribose sugar backbone with attached nitrogenous bases (adenine, uracil, guanine, and cytosine).

In plants, there are several types of RNA that play specific roles in the gene expression process:

1. Messenger RNA (mRNA): This type of RNA carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a sequence of three-base code units called codons. These codons specify the order of amino acids in a protein.
2. Transfer RNA (tRNA): tRNAs are small RNA molecules that serve as adaptors between the mRNA and the amino acids during protein synthesis. Each tRNA has a specific anticodon sequence that base-pairs with a complementary codon on the mRNA, and it carries a specific amino acid that corresponds to that codon.
3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): rRNAs are structural components of ribosomes, which are large macromolecular complexes where protein synthesis occurs. In plants, there are several types of rRNAs, including the 18S, 5.8S, and 25S/28S rRNAs, that form the core of the ribosome and help catalyze peptide bond formation during protein synthesis.
4. Small nuclear RNA (snRNA): These are small RNA molecules that play a role in RNA processing, such as splicing, where introns (non-coding sequences) are removed from pre-mRNA and exons (coding sequences) are joined together to form mature mRNAs.
5. MicroRNA (miRNA): These are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to complementary sequences in target mRNAs, leading to their degradation or translation inhibition.

Overall, these different types of RNAs play crucial roles in various aspects of RNA metabolism, gene regulation, and protein synthesis in plants.

Photophosphorylation is the process by which ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is produced during photosynthesis, utilizing light energy to add a phosphate group to ADP (adenosine diphosphate). This process occurs in the chloroplasts of plant cells and cyanobacteria, in a series of steps that are catalyzed by several complexes of proteins. There are two types of photophosphorylation: cyclic and non-cyclic. Cyclic photophosphorylation involves the use of only one photosystem and results in the production of ATP, while non-cyclic photophosphorylation involves the use of two photosystems and leads to the production of both ATP and NADPH, as well as the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. Overall, photophosphorylation plays a crucial role in providing energy for various metabolic processes in plant cells and is essential for life on Earth.

In the context of medical definitions, 'carbon' is not typically used as a standalone term. Carbon is an element with the symbol C and atomic number 6, which is naturally abundant in the human body and the environment. It is a crucial component of all living organisms, forming the basis of organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Carbon forms strong covalent bonds with various elements, allowing for the creation of complex molecules that are essential to life. In this sense, carbon is a fundamental building block of life on Earth. However, it does not have a specific medical definition as an isolated term.

"Home - Chlamydomonas reinhardtii v3.0". "Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mitochondrion, complete genome". February 2010. {{cite ... Chlamydomonas species are widely distributed worldwide in soil and fresh water. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an especially well ... Protist locomotion#Biohybrid microswimmers D66 strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii "CC-125 wild type mt+ 137c". Chlamydomonas ... and reinhardtii all refer to the same species, C. reinhardtii Dangeard. Chlamydomonas is used as a model organism for research ...
The D66 strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a single-celled green alga, is a cell-wall-deficient strain of algae that exhibits ... The D66 strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been genetically engineered with no cell wall in order to increase the strain's ... Adams, James (May 2004). "MOLECULAR, GENETIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII INSERTIONAL ... "Rubisco Activase is Required for Optimal Photosynthesis in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in a Low-CO2 Atmosphere". ...
Lessons from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiology. 127 (4): 1500-7. doi:10.1104/pp.010807. PMC 1540183. PMID 11743094. ...
Lessons from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiology. 127 (4): 1500-1507. doi:10.1104/pp.010807. PMC 1540183. PMID ...
Lessons from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiology. 127 (4): 1500-1507. doi:10.1104/pp.010807. PMC 1540183. PMID ...
Lessons from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiology. 127 (4): 1500-7. doi:10.1104/pp.010807. PMC 1540183. PMID 11743094. ...
Crutchfield A, Diller K, Brand J (1999). "Cryopreservation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyta)". European Journal of ...
Crutchfield A, Diller K, Brand J (1999-02-01). "Cryopreservation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyta)". European Journal ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri). The latter implies that UVR8 potentially appeared before the evolutionary split ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) and archaea (e.g., Methanococcus jannaschii). The proteins are of about 450 amino acyl residues in ...
based on the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome. It has 866 unique ORFs, 1862 metabolites, 2499 gene-enzyme-reaction-association ... a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of algae based on the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome". BMC Genomics. 12 Suppl 4: S5. ...
Ensuing studies 20 years after the identification of the same mutant strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii found that the ... When a photorespiratory mutant of the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was studied, the mutant strain was ... Suzuki K, Marek LF, Spalding MH (May 1990). "A photorespiratory mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiology. 93 (1 ... "Characteristics and sequence of phosphoglycolate phosphatase from a eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". The ...
Schimmer, O; Kühne, I (1991). "Furoquinoline alkaloids as photosensitizers in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Mutation Research. ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green microalga. The wild-type C. reinhardtii has a spherical shape that averages ... C. reinhardtii has been actively explored as the live component of biohybrid microrobots for the active delivery of ... Alternative attachment strategies for C. reinhardtii have been proposed for the assembly through modifying the interacting ...
December 2008). "Toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Environmental Science & Technology. 42 (23): ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii] - Protein - NCBI". "Radial spoke head component 1 L homeolog [Xenopus laevis] - Protein - NCBI". " ...
The discovery of pyrenoid deficient mutants with normal starch grains in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, as well as ... Moroney, J. V., & Ynalvez, R. A. (2007). Proposed carbon dioxide concentrating mechanism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. ... reinhardtii pyrenoids in vivo, further supporting a "linker" role for EPYC1. The proteome of the Chlamydomonas pyrenoid has ... in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, multiple thylakoids merge at the periphery of the pyrenoid to form larger tubules ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga with well-studied genetics, is used to study photosynthesis and motility. C ... "Chlamydomonas reinhardtii resources at the Joint Genome Institute". Archived from the original on 2008-07-23. Retrieved 2007-10 ... Batyrova, Khorcheska; Hallenbeck, Patrick C. (2017-03-16). "Hydrogen Production by a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Strain with ... reinhardtii has many known and mapped mutants and expressed sequence tags, and there are advanced methods for genetic ...
In the best-studied green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, phototaxis is mediated by a rhodopsin pigment, as first demonstrated ... and high-intensity light in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 99 (13): 8689-8694. ... "Ciliary behavior of a negatively phototactic Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton. 61 (2): 97-111. ... "Linear systems analysis of the ciliary steering behavior associated with negative-phototaxis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii putative sulphur deprivation response regulator SAC1. This family also includes a number of bacterial ... a putative regulator that is critical for survival of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during sulfur deprivation". EMBO J. 15 (9): ...
She worked alongside Bruce Selman on the single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model ... Merchant was the first to demonstrate that the RNA for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii plastocyanin is produced when copper is ... "Studies on chloroplast development in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii IV. Control of rapid chlorophyll formation in greening y-1 ... crystal structure of plastocyanin from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Biochemistry. 32 (40): 10560-10567. doi: ...
Sequencing of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome was reported in October 2007. A Chlamydomonas genetic stock center exists at ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has well-studied genetics, with many known and mapped mutants and expressed sequence tags, and there ... "Chlamydomonas reinhardtii resources at the Joint Genome Institute". Archived from the original on 23 July 2008. Retrieved 1 ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, unicellular green alga used to study photosynthesis, flagella and motility, regulation of metabolism ...
Avasthi uses Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, to investigate the assembly of cilia. She was particularly ... She works on upwardly motile Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and is on the Board of Directors of eLife. Avasthi studied integrative ... Here she began work on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a model organism for studying cilia. Cilia function requires normal cilia ... September 2014). "Actin is required for IFT regulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Current Biology. 24 (17): 2025-32. doi: ...
However, experimentation on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, discovered Plastoquinone (PQ) to be a redox carrier. The role of this ... Peltier, G.; Schmidt, G. W. (1991). "Chlororespiration: an adaptation to nitrogen deficiency in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". ... The mutant Chlamydomonas alga species, lacks photosystems one and two (PS I and PS II), so when the alga underwent flash- ... Evidence using mass spectrometry on algae and photosynthetic mutants of Chlamydomonas, discovered that oxygen molecules were ...
... is a homing endonuclease whose gene was first discovered in the chloroplast genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a ... Seligman, LM; Stephens, KM; Savage, JH; Monnat, RJ (1997). "Genetic Analysis of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii I-CreI Mobile ... Rochaix, JD; Malnoe, P (1978). "Anatomy of the chloroplast ribosomal DNA of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Cell. 15 (2): 661-670. ... Dürrenberger F, Rochaix JD (November 1991). "Chloroplast ribosomal intron of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: in vitro self-splicing ...
Polypeptide phosphorylation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii », ( 1984) 98, j. cell. biol., p. 1-7 Wollman F-A., « State ... Lateral distribution of the main protein complexes of the photosynthetic apparatus in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and in spinach ... an approach using genetic transformation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii », EMBO J., (1994), 13(5), p. 1019-27 ... Using the power of the genetic approach in a microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhartdii, he combined biophysical, biochemical and ...
In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Photosystem II produces in direct conversion of sunlight 80% of the electrons that end up in the ... Six years later, Hans Gaffron observed that the green photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, would sometimes produce ... "Truncated Photosystem Chlorophyll Antenna Size in the Green Microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii upon Deletion of the TLA3- ... "Increased photosystem II stability promotes H2 production in sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Proceedings of the ...
"Purification and Molecular Properties of Urate Oxidase from Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ...
"Improving the genetic tractability of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , WorldCat.org". www.worldcat.org. Retrieved ... where she studied the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. She was a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Colorado ...
Some of these organisms produce hydrogen upon switching culture conditions; for example, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii produces ... "Sustained hydrogen photoproduction by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Effects of culture parameters". Biotechnology and ...
"Home - Chlamydomonas reinhardtii v3.0". "Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mitochondrion, complete genome". February 2010. {{cite ... Chlamydomonas species are widely distributed worldwide in soil and fresh water. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an especially well ... Protist locomotion#Biohybrid microswimmers D66 strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii "CC-125 wild type mt+ 137c". Chlamydomonas ... and reinhardtii all refer to the same species, C. reinhardtii Dangeard. Chlamydomonas is used as a model organism for research ...
Phosphopantetheinylation in the green microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Eva Sonnenschein, Yuan Pu, Joris Beld, Michael D. ... Phosphopantetheinylation in the green microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In: Journal of Applied Phycology. 2016 ; Vol. 28, ... Phosphopantetheinylation in the green microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. / Sonnenschein, Eva; Pu, Yuan; Beld, Joris et al. ... Sonnenschein, E, Pu, Y, Beld, J & Burkart, MD 2016, Phosphopantetheinylation in the green microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ...
Study : Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC1690_21gr transcriptome - CC1690_40C_C_9 Origin site. Collecting site. Evaluation site. ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC1690_21gr transcriptome. Grown in TAP media under conditions of 50uEblue amp; 50uEred, at a ...
... are directly light-gated ion channels acting as sensory photoreceptors in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These ... are directly light-gated ion channels acting as sensory photoreceptors in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These ...
... the effects of different nutritional conditions on the growth and contents of lipids in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were compared ... We showed that similar to other microalgae, nitrogen or phosphorus deficiency inhibited the growth of Chlamydomonas and ... metabolites could shed light onto the relationship between cell growth inhibition and fatty acid accumulation in Chlamydomonas. ... The green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC124 was obtained from the Chlamydomonas Genetic Center of Duke University ( ...
We pooled progeny generated from mating two environmental isolates of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and cultured the ... We pooled progeny generated from mating two environmental isolates of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and cultured the ... We pooled progeny generated from mating two environmental isolates of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and cultured the ... We pooled progeny generated from mating two environmental isolates of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and cultured the ...
Systemic cold stress adaptation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mol. Cell. Proteomics 12, 2032-2047. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M112.026765 ...
Professor Maria Mittag with cultures of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.. Image: Jens Meyer ...
Species: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [TaxId:3055]. Database cross-references and differences (RAF-indexed): *Uniprot P23577 (0- ... Species: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [TaxId:3055]. Database cross-references and differences (RAF-indexed): *Uniprot P23577 (0- ... Species: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [TaxId:3055]. Database cross-references and differences (RAF-indexed): *Uniprot P23577 (0- ... Description: structure of cytochrome f from chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Class: electron transport. Keywords: beta sandwich, heme ...
Paralytic shellfish toxins inhibit copper uptake in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013, 32, 1388-1395. [ ...
Subunit interactions and organization of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii intraflagellar transport complex A proteins. J Biol Chem ...
2017) Gene regulatory networks for the haploid-to-diploid transition of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plant Physiology 175:314-332. ... In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, KNOX and BELL proteins are inherited by gametes of the opposite mating types and ... 2015) Dynamic changes in the transcriptome and methylome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii throughout its life cycle Plant ... In the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the KNOX protein GAMETE SPECIFIC MINUS1 (GSM1) and the BELL protein ...
... dynamics and structural implication of the stress-related complex LHCSR3 from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. ...
Green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Table - link hours^-1. 116798. Britta Förster, Peter.... ...
NMR structures of thioredoxin m from the green alga chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Proteins (2000) 41(3): 334-49 ...
Wild-type strains of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in liquid culture. Credit: Jens Meyer, University of Jena ... able to show that the bacterium Mycetocola lacteus lives in a partnership with the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, ...
Light stress and photoprotection in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The Plant Journal 82: 449-465 ...
Loss-of-function mutations in a human gene related to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii dynein IC78 result in primary ciliary ...
Nannochloropsis, Chloroplast engineering, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Microalgae, Terpenoid, Chloroplast transformation. UCL ... In parallel, the effects of such manipulation was studied using the laboratory species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, for which ... C. reinhardtii is the most developed algal model with well-established tools for genetic manipulation, and can be used to study ...
... comparison of iTRAQ and label-free LC-based quantitative proteomics approaches using two Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strains of ...
... isolated from a contaminated Tris-acetate-phosphate agar plate used to grow Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, showed 99.55% DNA ...
In the current study, a fresh water microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been used to synthesize colloidal AgNPs through ... The present set up uses live culture of C. reinhardtii therefore reducing the energy, cost and doing away with toxic chemicals ...
Here we leverage the phototactic ability of the model microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to precisely control the timing and ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 47% * Apoproteins 41% * Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy 39% * Hydrogen 35% ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii achieves carbon fixation due to the action of the enzyme Rubisco, which catalyzes the conversion of ... The algae, known as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, contain an organelle called the pyrenoid that speeds up the conversion of carbon ... Prior work has shown that the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii pyrenoid consists of a spherical Rubisco matrix traversed by a ... "One of the key findings of this paper, which differentiates the Chlamydomonas carbon-concentrating mechanism from those found ...
... proteins contribute to oil production in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Front. Mol. Biosci. 9:939834. http:// ...
Here, we probed the intrinsic dynamics of biotechnologically useful mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by ... Here, we probed the intrinsic dynamics of biotechnologically useful mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by ...
Wild-type strains of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in liquid culture. Image: Jens Meyer (University of Jena). ... able to show that the bacterium Mycetocola lacteus lives in a partnership with the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, ...
They largely study Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, an important green algae, for state of the art imaging, molecular analyses, and ...
  • The model green microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , is widely selected for biofuel experiments, because of its advantages, such as fast growth, short generation time, strong adaptability and easy cultivation [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Maria Mittag, corresponding author of the study and Professor of General Botany at Friedrich Schiller University Jena in Germany explains, "We were able to show that the bacterium Mycetocola lacteus lives in a partnership with the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, from which both sides benefit. (phys.org)
  • In the current study, a fresh water microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been used to synthesize colloidal AgNPs through bio-reduction, and a mathematical model is developed to study the reaction kinetics and yield. (aiche.org)
  • Here we leverage the phototactic ability of the model microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to precisely control the timing and position of localised cell photo-accumulation, leading to the controlled development of isolated bioconvective plumes. (aps.org)
  • We were able to show that the bacterium Mycetocola lacteus lives in a partnership with the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, from which both sides benefit. (myscience.de)
  • Screening of the currently available microalgal genome data revealed that most green microalgae appear to carry two PPTases forming clusters with each C. reinhardtii PPTase, while microalgae of other divisions carry one or two PPTases and do not cluster in the pattern of the green algal data. (dtu.dk)
  • We showed that similar to other microalgae, nitrogen or phosphorus deficiency inhibited the growth of Chlamydomonas and combined nutrition deficiency reduced biomass by up to 31.7%, though lipid contents in cells (g/g dry weight [DW]) were significantly increased. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Channelrhodopsin-1 and Channelrhodopsin-2, proteins that function as light-gated cation channels, were originally isolated from C. reinhardtii. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of C. reinhardtii is significant for mitochondrial study as it is one species where the genes for 6 of the 13 proteins encoded for the mitochondria are found in the nucleus of the cell, leaving 7 in the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subunit interactions and organization of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii intraflagellar transport complex A proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, KNOX and BELL proteins are inherited by gametes of the opposite mating types and heterodimerize in zygotes to activate diploid development. (elifesciences.org)
  • Chlamydomonas species are widely distributed worldwide in soil and fresh water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The species' name has been spelled several different ways because of different transliterations of the name from Russian: reinhardi, reinhardii, and reinhardtii all refer to the same species, C. reinhardtii Dangeard. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Chlamydomonas species are normally haploid, the effects of mutations are seen immediately without further crosses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vegetative cells of reinhardtii species are haploid with 17 small chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that in the basal land plant species Marchantia polymorpha , gamete-expressed KNOX and BELL are required to initiate zygotic development by promoting nuclear fusion in a manner strikingly similar to that in C. reinhardtii . (elifesciences.org)
  • In parallel, the effects of such manipulation was studied using the laboratory species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, for which chloroplast genetic engineering is already established. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • C. reinhardtii is the most developed algal model with well-established tools for genetic manipulation, and can be used to study the effect of chloroplast metabolic engineering in other species such as Nannochloropsis. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a single-cell green alga about 10 micrometres in diameter that swims with two flagella. (wikipedia.org)
  • Channelrhodopsins (ChR1 and ChR2) are directly light-gated ion channels acting as sensory photoreceptors in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (nih.gov)
  • We pooled progeny generated from mating two environmental isolates of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and cultured the pools under multiple environmental conditions. (wustl.edu)
  • Professor Maria Mittag with cultures of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (idw-online.de)
  • In the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , the KNOX protein GAMETE SPECIFIC MINUS1 (GSM1) and the BELL protein GAMETE SPECIFIC PLUS1 (GSP1) accumulate in the cytosol of minus and plus gametes, respectively. (elifesciences.org)
  • Wild-type strains of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in liquid culture. (phys.org)
  • They largely study Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , an important green algae, for state of the art imaging, molecular analyses, and spectroscopic tools to quantify, track, and visualize elements in time and space. (berkeley.edu)
  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an especially well studied biological model organism, partly due to its ease of culturing and the ability to manipulate its genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The algae, known as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, contain an organelle called the pyrenoid that speeds up the conversion of carbon, which the algae absorb from the air, into a form that the organisms can use for growth. (innovationtoronto.com)
  • Prior work has shown that the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii pyrenoid consists of a spherical Rubisco matrix traversed by a vasculature of membrane-enclosed projections called pyrenoid tubules, and surrounded by a sheath made of starch. (innovationtoronto.com)
  • In 2007, the complete nuclear genome sequence of C. reinhardtii was published. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Chlre3 draft of the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome sequence prepared by Joint Genome Institute of the U.S. Dept of Energy comprises 1557 scaffolds totaling 120 Mb. (wikipedia.org)
  • We identified two PPTases, PptC1 and PptC2, in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by genome analysis and phylogenetic and structural comparison. (dtu.dk)
  • Besides FAS as PPTase target, the C. reinhardtii genome encodes a single type I PKS, and we hypothesize that PptC2 is responsible for its activation. (dtu.dk)
  • Commercially, C. reinhardtii is of interest for producing biopharmaceuticals and biofuel, as well being a valuable research tool in making hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results indicate that C. reinhardtii has remarkable, untapped, directed evolution capacity that may be harnessed using breeding and competition approaches. (wustl.edu)
  • The C. reinhardtii wild-type laboratory strain c137 (mt+) originates from an isolate collected near Amherst, Massachusetts, in 1945 by Gilbert M. Smith. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, the effects of different nutritional conditions on the growth and contents of lipids in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were compared, and the metabolic profiles under different nutritional conditions were also investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chlamydomonas is used as a model organism for research on fundamental questions in cell and molecular biology such as: How do cells move? (wikipedia.org)
  • Much effort has therefore gone into studying the carbon-concentrating mechanisms, particularly those found in cyanobacteria and in Chlamydomonas, with the hope of eventually providing this function for terrestrial crop plants. (innovationtoronto.com)
  • Further research into these metabolites could shed light onto the relationship between cell growth inhibition and fatty acid accumulation in Chlamydomonas . (biomedcentral.com)
  • C. reinhardtii has an eyespot similar to that of dinoflagellates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii achieves carbon fixation due to the action of the enzyme Rubisco, which catalyzes the conversion of CO2 into organic carbon. (innovationtoronto.com)
  • We show that plasma membrane NADPH oxidase activity is a significant component of light-dependent generation of electricity by the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (nih.gov)
  • Ru Zhang, assistant professor, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, will present "Dynamic Responses to Moderate and Acute Heat Stress in the Unicellular Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii" as part of the Division of Biology Seminar Series at 3:30 p.m. Monday, April 19, via Zoom . (k-state.edu)
  • The eukaryotic, unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an excellent model organism to study many important cellular processes. (k-state.edu)
  • In contrast, the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a facultative heterotroph that allows for extensive modification of chloroplast function, including non-photosynthetic designs. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Cell biological regulation reveals interesting localization changes of UVI31+ protein in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast compartment (Shukla et al. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, chloroplast engineering in C. reinhardtii is facile, with the ability to generate novel lines in a matter of weeks, and a well-defined molecular toolbox allows for rapid iterations of the "Design-Build-Test-Learn" (DBTL) cycle of modern synthetic biology approaches. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The recent development of combinatorial DNA assembly pipelines for designing and building transgene clusters, simple methods for marker-free delivery of these clusters into the chloroplast genome, and the pre-existing wealth of knowledge regarding chloroplast gene expression and regulation in C. reinhardtii further adds to the versatility of transplastomics using this organism. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The cDNA of S114A mutant of UVI31+ was cloned from a eukaryotic green algae ( C. reinhardtii ) and overexpressed in E.coli from where the protein was purified to homogeneity. (springer.com)
  • The C. reinhardtii mutant lacking the NADPH oxidase encoded by RBO1 is impaired in both extracellular superoxide anion production and current generation in a BPV device. (nih.gov)
  • A genome-saturating, mapped, indexed mutant library of Chlamydomonas is available, enabling both reverse and forward genetic screens. (k-state.edu)
  • In combination of quantitative pooled screens using the Chlamydomonas mutant library, we aim to identify key genes and pathways that limit heat tolerance in photosynthetic cells. (k-state.edu)
  • 2006 ). In order to understand the process of UV mediated apoptosis in C. reinhardtii , we undertook in silico global genome analysis and found a protein, which was identified as UVI31+, one amongst several UV inducible transcripts/proteins and a novel β-lactamase (Moharikar et al. (springer.com)
  • This gene encodes a protein that appears to be a component the radial spoke head, as determined by homology to similar proteins in the biflagellate alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and other ciliates. (nih.gov)
  • We use Chlamydomonas to study how photosynthetic cells dynamically respond to moderate and acute heat stress at multiple levels: cell physiology, photosynthesis, transcriptional and translational regulation. (k-state.edu)
  • This study will help us understand cellular mechanisms and functional genomics that govern heat sensing and regulation in Chlamydomonas. (k-state.edu)
  • From Feasting to Fasting: The Arginine Pathway as a Metabolic Switch in Nitrogen-Deprived Chlamydomonas reinhardtii . (bvsalud.org)
  • Chlamydomonas has several prominent advantages to study heat stress in photosynthetic cells, e.g., haploid genome, fast growth, simpler gene families, and homogenous heat treatment. (k-state.edu)
  • In addition, the information gained in Chlamydomonas can be transformed into land plants to improve crop thermotolerance. (k-state.edu)
  • We applied for, and received, an NIH diversity supplement to his R01 to use the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to study how nuclear architecture changes during upregulation of transcription -establishing a new experimental system in the lab. (nih.gov)
  • Loss-of-function mutations in a human gene related to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii dynein IC78 result in primary ciliary dyskinesia. (medscape.com)