A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Ribonucleic acid in algae having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Cytochromes f are found as components of the CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX. They play important role in the transfer of electrons from PHOTOSYSTEM I to PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A protein complex that includes CYTOCHROME B6 and CYTOCHROME F. It is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE and plays an important role in process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS by transferring electrons from PLASTOQUINONE to PLASTOCYANIN or CYTOCHROME C6. The transfer of electrons is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Volvocaceae. They form spherical colonies of hundreds or thousands of bi-flagellated cells in a semi-transparent gelatinous ball.
Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A pre-emergent herbicide.
The absence of light.
A highly branched glucan in starch.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
Cytochromes of the c type that are involved in the transfer of electrons from CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX and PHOTOSYSTEM I.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from ADPglucose to glucose-containing polysaccharides in 1,4-alpha-linkages. EC 2.4.1.21.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins found in the microtubules.
Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.
An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces spectabilis. It is active against gram-negative bacteria and used for the treatment of gonorrhea.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A potassium salt used to replenish ELECTROLYTES, for restoration of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE, as well as a urinary and systemic alkalizer, which can be administered orally or by intravenous infusion. Formerly, it was used in DIURETICS and EXPECTORANTS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The branch of biology dealing with the effect of light on organisms.
Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Dyneins that are responsible for ciliary and flagellar beating.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An order of CHLOROPHYTA commonly found in freshwater habitats. Characteristics include the presence of a cellulose wall and two to four equal, smooth, apical flagella.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX by the conversion of two propionate groups to two vinyl groups. It is the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME, and is encoded by CPO gene. Mutations of CPO gene result in HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.
The quantity of volume or surface area of ORGANELLES.

The internal Cys-207 of sorghum leaf NADP-malate dehydrogenase can form mixed disulphides with thioredoxin. (1/808)

The role of the internal Cys-207 of sorghum NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) in the activation of the enzyme has been investigated through the examination of the ability of this residue to form mixed disulphides with thioredoxin mutated at either of its two active-site cysteines. The h-type Chlamydomonas thioredoxin was used, because it has no additional cysteines in the primary sequence besides the active-site cysteines. Both thioredoxin mutants proved equally efficient in forming mixed disulphides with an NADP-MDH devoid of its N-terminal bridge either by truncation, or by mutation of its N-terminal cysteines. They were poorly efficient with the more compact WT oxidised NADP-MDH. Upon mutation of Cys-207, no mixed disulphide could be formed, showing that this cysteine is the only one, among the four internal cysteines, which can form mixed disulphides with thioredoxin. These experiments confirm that the opening of the N-terminal disulphide loosens the interaction between subunits, making Cys-207, located at the dimer contact area, more accessible.  (+info)

Chlamydomonas chloroplast ferrous hemoglobin. Heme pocket structure and reactions with ligands. (2/808)

We report the optical and resonance Raman spectral characterization of ferrous recombinant Chlamydomonas LI637 hemoglobin. We show that it is present in three pH-dependent equilibrium forms including a 4-coordinate species at acid pH, a 5-coordinate high spin species at neutral pH, and a 6-coordinate low spin species at alkaline pH. The proximal ligand to the heme is the imidazole group of a histidine. Kinetics of the reactions with ligands were determined by stopped-flow spectroscopy. At alkaline pH, combination with oxygen, nitric oxide, and carbon monoxide displays a kinetic behavior that is interpreted as being rate-limited by conversion of the 6-coordinate form to a reactive 5-coordinate form. At neutral pH, combination rates of the 5-coordinate form with oxygen and carbon monoxide were much faster (>10(7) microM-1 s-1). The dissociation rate constant measured for oxygen is among the slowest known, 0.014 s-1, and is independent of pH. Replacement of the tyrosine 63 (B10) by leucine or of the putative distal glutamine by glycine increases the dissociation rate constant 70- and 30-fold and increases the rate of autoxidation 20- and 90-fold, respectively. These results are consistent with at least two hydrogen bonds stabilizing the bound oxygen molecule, one from tyrosine B10 and the other from the distal glutamine. In addition, the high frequency (232 cm-1) of the iron-histidine bond suggests a structure that lacks any proximal strain thus contributing to high ligand affinity.  (+info)

Cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain 1b is required for flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas. (3/808)

A second cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain (cDhc) has recently been identified in several organisms, and its expression pattern is consistent with a possible role in axoneme assembly. We have used a genetic approach to ask whether cDhc1b is involved in flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas. Using a modified PCR protocol, we recovered two cDhc sequences distinct from the axonemal Dhc sequences identified previously. cDhc1a is closely related to the major cytoplasmic Dhc, whereas cDhc1b is closely related to the minor cDhc isoform identified in sea urchins, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Tetrahymena. The Chlamydomonas cDhc1b transcript is a low-abundance mRNA whose expression is enhanced by deflagellation. To determine its role in flagellar assembly, we screened a collection of stumpy flagellar (stf) mutants generated by insertional mutagenesis and identified two strains in which portions of the cDhc1b gene have been deleted. The two mutants assemble short flagellar stumps (<1-2 micrometer) filled with aberrant microtubules, raft-like particles, and other amorphous material. The results indicate that cDhc1b is involved in the transport of components required for flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas.  (+info)

Cell division: The renaissance of the centriole. (4/808)

Centrioles are located at the center of the cytoskeleton and duplicate exactly once per cell cycle. Recent studies suggest that centrioles are required for the organization of a functional centrosome and that centriole assembly requires both gamma- and delta-tubulin.  (+info)

Intracellular motility: A special delivery service. (5/808)

Recent studies have identified a delivery service that operates in specialised cell appendages: two motor proteins and a novel protein organelle use axonemal microtubules as tracks to shuttle essential components to the tips of flagella and the dendrites of sensory neurons.  (+info)

Drosophila roadblock and Chlamydomonas LC7: a conserved family of dynein-associated proteins involved in axonal transport, flagellar motility, and mitosis. (6/808)

Eukaryotic organisms utilize microtubule-dependent motors of the kinesin and dynein superfamilies to generate intracellular movement. To identify new genes involved in the regulation of axonal transport in Drosophila melanogaster, we undertook a screen based upon the sluggish larval phenotype of known motor mutants. One of the mutants identified in this screen, roadblock (robl), exhibits diverse defects in intracellular transport including axonal transport and mitosis. These defects include intra-axonal accumulations of cargoes, severe axonal degeneration, and aberrant chromosome segregation. The gene identified by robl encodes a 97-amino acid polypeptide that is 57% identical (70% similar) to the 105-amino acid Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein-associated protein LC7, also reported here. Both robl and LC7 have homology to several other genes from fruit fly, nematode, and mammals, but not Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, we demonstrate that members of this family of proteins are associated with both flagellar outer arm dynein and Drosophila and rat brain cytoplasmic dynein. We propose that roadblock/LC7 family members may modulate specific dynein functions.  (+info)

Domains in the 1alpha dynein heavy chain required for inner arm assembly and flagellar motility in Chlamydomonas. (7/808)

Flagellar motility is generated by the activity of multiple dynein motors, but the specific role of each dynein heavy chain (Dhc) is largely unknown, and the mechanism by which the different Dhcs are targeted to their unique locations is also poorly understood. We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the Chlamydomonas Dhc1 gene and the corresponding deduced amino acid sequence of the 1alpha Dhc of the I1 inner dynein arm. The 1alpha Dhc is similar to other axonemal Dhcs, but two additional phosphate binding motifs (P-loops) have been identified in the NH(2)- and COOH-terminal regions. Because mutations in Dhc1 result in motility defects and loss of the I1 inner arm, a series of Dhc1 transgenes were used to rescue the mutant phenotypes. Motile cotransformants that express either full-length or truncated 1alpha Dhcs were recovered. The truncated 1alpha Dhc fragments lacked the dynein motor domain, but still assembled with the 1beta Dhc and other I1 subunits into partially functional complexes at the correct axoneme location. Analysis of the transformants has identified the site of the 1alpha motor domain in the I1 structure and further revealed the role of the 1alpha Dhc in flagellar motility and phototactic behavior.  (+info)

The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. Two radically different evolutionary patterns within green algae. (8/808)

Green plants appear to comprise two sister lineages, Chlorophyta (classes Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, and Prasinophyceae) and Streptophyta (Charophyceae and Embryophyta, or land plants). To gain insight into the nature of the ancestral green plant mitochondrial genome, we have sequenced the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. These two green algae are presumptive members of the Prasinophyceae. This class is thought to include descendants of the earliest diverging green algae. We find that Nephroselmis and Pedinomonas mtDNAs differ markedly in size, gene content, and gene organization. Of the green algal mtDNAs sequenced so far, that of Nephroselmis (45,223 bp) is the most ancestral (minimally diverged) and occupies the phylogenetically most basal position within the Chlorophyta. Its repertoire of 69 genes closely resembles that in the mtDNA of Prototheca wickerhamii, a later diverging trebouxiophycean green alga. Three of the Nephroselmis genes (nad10, rpl14, and rnpB) have not been identified in previously sequenced mtDNAs of green algae and land plants. In contrast, the 25,137-bp Pedinomonas mtDNA contains only 22 genes and retains few recognizably ancestral features. In several respects, including gene content and rate of sequence divergence, Pedinomonas mtDNA resembles the reduced mtDNAs of chlamydomonad algae, with which it is robustly affiliated in phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirm the existence of two radically different patterns of mitochondrial genome evolution within the green algae.  (+info)

Chlamydomonas is a genus of single-celled, green algae that are widely found in freshwater and marine environments. These microorganisms are characterized by their oval or spherical shape, and each cell contains a single, large chloroplast used for photosynthesis. They also have two flagella, which are hair-like structures that enable them to move through their aquatic habitats. Chlamydomonas species are often used in scientific research due to their simple cell structure and ease of cultivation in the lab.

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a species of single-celled, freshwater green algae. It is commonly used as a model organism in scientific research due to its simple unicellular structure and the ease with which it can be genetically manipulated. C. reinhardtii has a single, large chloroplast that contains both photosynthetic pigments and a nucleomorph, a remnant of a secondary endosymbiotic event where another alga was engulfed by an ancestral eukaryote. This species is capable of both phototactic and photophobic responses, allowing it to move towards or away from light sources. Additionally, C. reinhardtii has two flagella for locomotion, making it a popular subject for ciliary and flagellar research. It undergoes closed mitosis within its single, diploid nucleus, which is surrounded by a cell wall composed of glycoproteins. The genome of C. reinhardtii has been fully sequenced, providing valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying photosynthesis, flagellar assembly, and other fundamental biological processes.

Algal proteins are a type of protein that are derived from algae, which are simple, plant-like organisms that live in water. These proteins can be extracted and isolated from the algae through various processing methods and can then be used as a source of nutrition for both humans and animals.

Algal proteins are considered to be a complete protein source because they contain all of the essential amino acids that the body cannot produce on its own. They are also rich in other nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Some species of algae, such as spirulina and chlorella, have particularly high protein contents, making them a popular choice for use in dietary supplements and functional foods.

In addition to their nutritional benefits, algal proteins are also being studied for their potential therapeutic uses. For example, some research suggests that they may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-boosting properties. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential health benefits and to determine the optimal dosages and methods of use.

Flagella are long, thin, whip-like structures that some types of cells use to move themselves around. They are made up of a protein called tubulin and are surrounded by a membrane. In bacteria, flagella rotate like a propeller to push the cell through its environment. In eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus), such as sperm cells or certain types of algae, flagella move in a wave-like motion to achieve locomotion. The ability to produce flagella is called flagellation.

Chloroplasts are specialized organelles found in the cells of green plants, algae, and some protists. They are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis, which is the process by which these organisms convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds, such as glucose.

Chloroplasts contain the pigment chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy from the sun. They also contain a system of membranes and enzymes that convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen through a series of chemical reactions known as the Calvin cycle. This process not only provides energy for the organism but also releases oxygen as a byproduct, which is essential for the survival of most life forms on Earth.

Chloroplasts are believed to have originated from ancient cyanobacteria that were engulfed by early eukaryotic cells and eventually became integrated into their host's cellular machinery through a process called endosymbiosis. Over time, chloroplasts evolved to become an essential component of plant and algal cells, contributing to their ability to carry out photosynthesis and thrive in a wide range of environments.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. RNA stands for "ribonucleic acid," which is a type of nucleic acid that plays a crucial role in biology, particularly in the process of gene expression. It's important to note that "algal" generally refers to something related to algae, which are simple, photosynthetic organisms.

There isn't a specific medical definition for "Algal RNA." However, if you're referring to RNA found in algae or RNA with a role in algal biology, then the definition would be as follows:

RNA is a nucleic acid present in algae that carries genetic information and is involved in various cellular processes. Algal RNA can exist in several forms, including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). These RNAs play essential roles in protein synthesis, regulation of gene expression, and other cellular functions within algae.

If you meant something different by "Algal RNA," please provide more context or clarify your question, and I'll be glad to help further!

Chlorophyta is a division of green algae, also known as green plants. This group includes a wide variety of simple, aquatic organisms that contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their characteristic green color. They are a diverse group, ranging from unicellular forms to complex multicellular seaweeds. Chlorophyta is a large and varied division with approximately 7,00

Dyneins are a type of motor protein that play an essential role in the movement of cellular components and structures within eukaryotic cells. They are responsible for generating force and motion along microtubules, which are critical components of the cell's cytoskeleton. Dyneins are involved in various cellular processes, including intracellular transport, organelle positioning, and cell division.

There are several types of dyneins, but the two main categories are cytoplasmic dyneins and axonemal dyneins. Cytoplasmic dyneins are responsible for moving various cargoes, such as vesicles, organelles, and mRNA complexes, toward the minus-end of microtubules, which is usually located near the cell center. Axonemal dyneins, on the other hand, are found in cilia and flagella and are responsible for their movement by sliding adjacent microtubules past each other.

Dyneins consist of multiple subunits, including heavy chains, intermediate chains, light-intermediate chains, and light chains. The heavy chains contain the motor domain that binds to microtubules and hydrolyzes ATP to generate force. Dysfunction in dynein proteins has been linked to various human diseases, such as neurodevelopmental disorders, ciliopathies, and cancer.

An axoneme is the microtubular structure that forms the core of a cilium or flagellum in eukaryotic cells. It is composed of nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, known as doublets, surrounding two central single microtubules, forming a "9+2" arrangement. The axoneme is anchored to the cell membrane through a basal body and provides the structural framework for the movement of cilia and flagella. It is composed of tubulin proteins and accessory structures such as dynein arms, which are responsible for generating the force required for ciliary or flagellar movement.

Photosynthesis is not strictly a medical term, but it is a fundamental biological process with significant implications for medicine, particularly in understanding energy production in cells and the role of oxygen in sustaining life. Here's a general biological definition:

Photosynthesis is a process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy, usually from the sun, into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds, such as glucose (or sugar), using water and carbon dioxide. This process primarily takes place in the chloroplasts of plant cells, specifically in structures called thylakoids. The overall reaction can be summarized as:

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2

In this equation, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) are the reactants, while glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2) are the products. Photosynthesis has two main stages: the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle). The light-dependent reactions occur in the thylakoid membrane and involve the conversion of light energy into ATP and NADPH, which are used to power the Calvin cycle. The Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts and involves the synthesis of glucose from CO2 and water using the ATP and NADPH generated during the light-dependent reactions.

Understanding photosynthesis is crucial for understanding various biological processes, including cellular respiration, plant metabolism, and the global carbon cycle. Additionally, research into artificial photosynthesis has potential applications in renewable energy production and environmental remediation.

Cytochrome f is a type of cytochrome protein that contains heme as a cofactor and plays a role in the electron transport chain during photosynthesis. It is specifically located in the cytochrome b6f complex, which is found in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts in plants and algae.

Cytochrome f functions as a ubiquinol-plastoquinone oxidoreductase, accepting electrons from ubiquinol and transferring them to plastoquinone. This electron transfer process is an essential step in the generation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane, which drives the synthesis of ATP during photosynthesis.

Deficiency or mutation in cytochrome f can lead to impaired photosynthetic efficiency and reduced growth in plants.

I'm not a medical expert, but I can provide you with some information about algal DNA.

Algal DNA refers to the genetic material found in algae, which are simple, photosynthetic organisms that live in various aquatic environments. The DNA of algae is similar to that of other living organisms, as it carries the genetic instructions necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of these single-celled or multicellular life forms.

Algal DNA can be found in different types of algae, including:

1. Chlorophyta (green algae)
2. Rhodophyta (red algae)
3. Phaeophyceae (brown algae)
4. Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae or cyanoprokaryotes, which are actually bacteria with photosynthetic capabilities)

These different groups of algae have unique characteristics and ecological roles in their environments. Studying the DNA of algae can help researchers understand their evolutionary relationships, genetic diversity, and potential applications in various fields such as biotechnology, bioenergy, and environmental science.

In the context of medical terminology, "light" doesn't have a specific or standardized definition on its own. However, it can be used in various medical terms and phrases. For example, it could refer to:

1. Visible light: The range of electromagnetic radiation that can be detected by the human eye, typically between wavelengths of 400-700 nanometers. This is relevant in fields such as ophthalmology and optometry.
2. Therapeutic use of light: In some therapies, light is used to treat certain conditions. An example is phototherapy, which uses various wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) or visible light for conditions like newborn jaundice, skin disorders, or seasonal affective disorder.
3. Light anesthesia: A state of reduced consciousness in which the patient remains responsive to verbal commands and physical stimulation. This is different from general anesthesia where the patient is completely unconscious.
4. Pain relief using light: Certain devices like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) units have a 'light' setting, indicating lower intensity or frequency of electrical impulses used for pain management.

Without more context, it's hard to provide a precise medical definition of 'light'.

The cytochrome b6f complex is a protein complex in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplasts in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. It plays a crucial role in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis by facilitating the transfer of electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I.

The complex is composed of four subunits: cytochrome b6, subunit IV, and two Rieske iron-sulfur proteins. Cytochrome b6 is a heme protein that contains two heme groups, while subunit IV helps anchor the complex in the thylakoid membrane. The Rieske iron-sulfur proteins contain a 2Fe-2S cluster and are responsible for transferring electrons between cytochrome b6 and plastoquinone, a mobile electron carrier.

The cytochrome b6f complex functions in the Q-cycle, which is a mechanism that increases the efficiency of electron transfer and generates a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane. This proton gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, an essential energy currency for the cell. Overall, the cytochrome b6f complex is a vital component of the photosynthetic machinery, enabling the conversion of light energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH.

Photosystem II Protein Complex is a crucial component of the photosynthetic apparatus in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. It is a multi-subunit protein complex located in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplasts. Photosystem II plays a vital role in light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, where it absorbs sunlight and uses its energy to drive the oxidation of water molecules into oxygen, electrons, and protons.

The protein complex consists of several subunits, including the D1 and D2 proteins, which form the reaction center, and several antenna proteins that capture light energy and transfer it to the reaction center. Photosystem II also contains various cofactors, such as pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), redox-active metal ions (manganese and calcium), and quinones, which facilitate the charge separation and electron transfer processes during photosynthesis.

Photosystem II Protein Complex is responsible for the initial charge separation event in photosynthesis, which sets off a series of redox reactions that ultimately lead to the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH and the synthesis of ATP, providing energy for the carbon fixation reactions in the Calvin cycle. Additionally, Photosystem II Protein Complex is involved in oxygen evolution, contributing to the Earth's atmosphere's oxygen levels and making it an essential component of global carbon fixation and oxygen production.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic plants, algae, and some bacteria. It plays an essential role in light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis by absorbing light energy, primarily from the blue and red parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and converting it into chemical energy to fuel the synthesis of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. The structure of chlorophyll includes a porphyrin ring, which binds a central magnesium ion, and a long phytol tail. There are several types of chlorophyll, including chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, which have distinct absorption spectra and slightly different structures. Chlorophyll is crucial for the process of photosynthesis, enabling the conversion of sunlight into chemical energy and the release of oxygen as a byproduct.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Protozoan Proteins" is not a specific medical or scientific term. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms, and proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acid residues. Therefore, "Protozoan Proteins" generally refers to the various types of proteins found in protozoa.

However, if you're looking for information about proteins specific to certain protozoan parasites with medical relevance (such as Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria), I would be happy to help! Please provide more context or specify the particular protozoan of interest.

Genes in protozoa refer to the hereditary units of these single-celled organisms that carry genetic information necessary for their growth, development, and reproduction. These genes are made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules, which contain sequences of nucleotide bases that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Protozoan genes are responsible for various functions, such as metabolism, response to environmental stimuli, and reproduction.

It is important to note that the study of protozoan genes has contributed significantly to our understanding of genetics and evolution, particularly in areas such as molecular biology, cell biology, and genomics. However, there is still much to be learned about the genetic diversity and complexity of these organisms, which continue to be an active area of research.

Photosystem I Protein Complex, also known as PsaA/B-Protein or Photosystem I reaction center, is a large protein complex found in the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. It plays a crucial role in light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, where it absorbs light energy and converts it into chemical energy in the form of NADPH.

The complex is composed of several subunits, including PsaA and PsaB, which are the core components that bind to chlorophyll a and bacteriochlorophyll a pigments. These pigments absorb light energy and transfer it to the reaction center, where it is used to drive the electron transport chain and generate a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient is then used to produce ATP, which provides energy for the carbon fixation reactions in photosynthesis.

Photosystem I Protein Complex is also involved in cyclic electron flow, where electrons are recycled within the complex to generate additional ATP without producing NADPH. This process helps regulate the balance between ATP and NADPH production in the chloroplast and optimizes the efficiency of photosynthesis.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Photosynthetic Reaction Center (RC) Complex Proteins are specialized protein-pigment structures that play a crucial role in the primary process of light-driven electron transport during photosynthesis. They are present in the thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants.

The Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins are composed of two major components: the light-harvesting complex (LHC) and the reaction center (RC). The LHC contains antenna pigments like chlorophylls and carotenoids that absorb sunlight and transfer the excitation energy to the RC. The RC is a multi-subunit protein complex containing cofactors such as bacteriochlorophyll, pheophytin, quinones, and iron-sulfur clusters.

When a photon of light is absorbed by the antenna pigments in the LHC, the energy is transferred to the RC, where it initiates a charge separation event. This results in the transfer of an electron from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule, creating a flow of electrical charge and generating a transmembrane electrochemical gradient. The energy stored in this gradient is then used to synthesize ATP and reduce NADP+, which are essential for carbon fixation and other metabolic processes in the cell.

In summary, Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins are specialized protein structures involved in capturing light energy and converting it into chemical energy during photosynthesis, ultimately driving the synthesis of ATP and NADPH for use in carbon fixation and other metabolic processes.

Plastocyanin is a small, copper-containing protein that plays a crucial role in the photosynthetic electron transport chain. It functions as an electron carrier, facilitating the movement of electrons between two key protein complexes (cytochrome b6f and photosystem I) located in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. Plastocyanin is a soluble protein found in the lumen of the thylakoids, and its copper ion serves as the site for electron transfer. The oxidized form of plastocyanin accepts an electron from cytochrome b6f and then donates it to photosystem I, helping to maintain the flow of electrons during light-dependent reactions in photosynthesis.

Thylakoids are membrane-bound structures located in the chloroplasts of plant cells and some protists. They are the site of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, where light energy is converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). Thylakoids have a characteristic stacked or disc-like structure, called grana, and are interconnected by unstacked regions called stroma lamellae. The arrangement of thylakoids in grana increases the surface area for absorption of light energy, allowing for more efficient photosynthesis.

Light-harvesting protein complexes are specialized structures in photosynthetic organisms, such as plants, algae, and some bacteria, that capture and transfer light energy to the reaction centers where the initial chemical reactions of photosynthesis occur. These complexes consist of proteins and pigments (primarily chlorophylls and carotenoids) arranged in a way that allows them to absorb light most efficiently. The absorbed light energy is then converted into electrical charges, which are transferred to the reaction centers for further chemical reactions leading to the production of organic compounds and oxygen. The light-harvesting protein complexes play a crucial role in initiating the process of photosynthesis and optimizing its efficiency by capturing and distributing light energy.

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) is a crucial enzyme in the Calvin cycle, which is a process that plants use to convert carbon dioxide into glucose during photosynthesis. RuBisCO catalyzes the reaction between ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate and carbon dioxide, resulting in the formation of two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate, which can then be converted into glucose.

RuBisCO is considered to be the most abundant enzyme on Earth, making up as much as 50% of the soluble protein found in leaves. It is a large and complex enzyme, consisting of eight small subunits and eight large subunits that are arranged in a barrel-shaped structure. The active site of the enzyme, where the reaction between ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate and carbon dioxide takes place, is located at the interface between two large subunits.

RuBisCO also has a secondary function as an oxygenase, which can lead to the production of glycolate, a toxic compound for plants. This reaction occurs when the enzyme binds with oxygen instead of carbon dioxide and is more prevalent in environments with low carbon dioxide concentrations and high oxygen concentrations. The glycolate produced during this process needs to be recycled through a series of reactions known as photorespiration, which can result in significant energy loss for the plant.

Genetic transformation is the process by which an organism's genetic material is altered or modified, typically through the introduction of foreign DNA. This can be achieved through various techniques such as:

* Gene transfer using vectors like plasmids, phages, or artificial chromosomes
* Direct uptake of naked DNA using methods like electroporation or chemically-mediated transfection
* Use of genome editing tools like CRISPR-Cas9 to introduce precise changes into the organism's genome.

The introduced DNA may come from another individual of the same species (cisgenic), from a different species (transgenic), or even be synthetically designed. The goal of genetic transformation is often to introduce new traits, functions, or characteristics that do not exist naturally in the organism, or to correct genetic defects.

This technique has broad applications in various fields, including molecular biology, biotechnology, and medical research, where it can be used to study gene function, develop genetically modified organisms (GMOs), create cell lines for drug screening, and even potentially treat genetic diseases through gene therapy.

Arylsulfatases are a group of enzymes that play a role in the breakdown and recycling of complex molecules in the body. Specifically, they catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate ester bonds in certain types of large sugar molecules called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs).

There are several different types of arylsulfatases, each of which targets a specific type of sulfate ester bond. For example, arylsulfatase A is responsible for breaking down sulfate esters in a GAG called cerebroside sulfate, while arylsulfatase B targets a different GAG called dermatan sulfate.

Deficiencies in certain arylsulfatases can lead to genetic disorders. For example, a deficiency in arylsulfatase A can cause metachromatic leukodystrophy, a progressive neurological disorder that affects the nervous system and causes a range of symptoms including muscle weakness, developmental delays, and cognitive decline. Similarly, a deficiency in arylsulfatase B can lead to Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, a rare genetic disorder that affects the skeleton, eyes, ears, heart, and other organs.

Microtubules are hollow, cylindrical structures composed of tubulin proteins in the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as maintaining cell shape, intracellular transport, and cell division (mitosis and meiosis). Microtubules are dynamic, undergoing continuous assembly and disassembly, which allows them to rapidly reorganize in response to cellular needs. They also form part of important cellular structures like centrioles, basal bodies, and cilia/flagella.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Volvox" is not a medical term. It is actually the name of a genus of green algae that form colonies and are often found in freshwater environments. Each Volvox colony is composed of many individual cells that are surrounded by a shared protective covering. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those instead!

Plastoquinone is a lipid-soluble electron carrier in the photosynthetic electron transport chain located in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. It plays a crucial role in both the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis and cyclic photophosphorylation.

In more detail, plastoquinone exists in an oxidized (PQ) and reduced form (PQH2). In its oxidized state, it accepts electrons from cytochrome b6f complex during the transfer of electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I. Once plastoquinone accepts two electrons and two protons, it converts into its reduced form, plastoquinol (PQH2). Plastoquinol then donates the electrons to the cytochrome b6f complex, which in turn passes them on to the next carrier in the electron transport chain.

Plastoquinone is a member of the quinone family and is synthesized via the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, also known as the non-mevalonate pathway.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Diuron is a pesticide and herbicide that is used to control weeds in various settings, such as agriculture, landscaping, and forestry. Its chemical name is 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. Diuron works by inhibiting photosynthesis in plants, which prevents them from growing and eventually kills them.

While diuron is effective at controlling weeds, it can also have harmful effects on non-target organisms, including aquatic life and pollinators. Additionally, there are concerns about the potential for diuron to contaminate water sources and pose risks to human health. As a result, its use is regulated in many countries, and there are restrictions on how it can be applied and disposed of.

It's worth noting that Diuron is not a medical term or a drug used for treating any medical condition in humans or animals.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "darkness." In general, darkness refers to the absence of light. It is not a term that is commonly used in the medical field, and it does not have a specific clinical meaning. If you have a question about a specific medical term or concept, I would be happy to try to help you understand it.

Amylopectin is a type of complex carbohydrate molecule known as a polysaccharide. It is a component of starch, which is found in plants and is a major source of energy for both humans and other animals. Amylopectin is made up of long chains of glucose molecules that are branched together in a bush-like structure.

Amylopectin is composed of two types of glucose chain branches: outer chains, which are made up of shorter, highly branched chains of glucose molecules; and inner chains, which are made up of longer, less branched chains. The branching pattern of amylopectin allows it to be digested and absorbed more slowly than other types of carbohydrates, such as simple sugars. This slower digestion and absorption can help to regulate blood sugar levels and provide sustained energy.

Amylopectin is found in a variety of plant-based foods, including grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits. It is an important source of calories and energy for humans and other animals that consume these types of plants as part of their diet.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. RNA and chloroplasts are two different biological concepts. Let me clarify:

1. RNA (Ribonucleic Acid): It is a type of nucleic acid that plays several crucial roles in the process of translation, decoding the genetic information stored in DNA into proteins. There are three main types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA).

2. Chloroplasts: They are specialized organelles found in the cells of green plants, algae, and some protists. Chloroplasts are responsible for capturing sunlight's energy and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis, which is used to produce glucose and oxygen.

There is no medical definition directly related to 'RNA, chloroplast' as they are separate concepts in biology. However, RNA does play a role in the expression of genes found within the chloroplast genome during photosynthesis. If you have any further questions or need more information about either concept, please let me know!

Cilia are tiny, hair-like structures that protrude from the surface of many types of cells in the body. They are composed of a core bundle of microtubules surrounded by a protein matrix and are covered with a membrane. Cilia are involved in various cellular functions, including movement of fluid or mucus across the cell surface, detection of external stimuli, and regulation of signaling pathways.

There are two types of cilia: motile and non-motile. Motile cilia are able to move in a coordinated manner to propel fluids or particles across a surface, such as those found in the respiratory tract and reproductive organs. Non-motile cilia, also known as primary cilia, are present on most cells in the body and serve as sensory organelles that detect chemical and mechanical signals from the environment.

Defects in cilia structure or function can lead to a variety of diseases, collectively known as ciliopathies. These conditions can affect multiple organs and systems in the body, including the brain, kidneys, liver, and eyes. Examples of ciliopathies include polycystic kidney disease, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and Meckel-Gruber syndrome.

Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) refers to the genetic material present in the chloroplasts, which are organelles found in the cells of photosynthetic organisms such as plants, algae, and some bacteria. Chloroplasts are responsible for capturing sunlight energy and converting it into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis.

Chloroplast DNA is circular and contains a small number of genes compared to the nuclear genome. It encodes for some of the essential components required for chloroplast function, including proteins involved in photosynthesis, transcription, and translation. The majority of chloroplast proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome and are imported into the chloroplast after being synthesized in the cytoplasm.

Chloroplast DNA is inherited maternally in most plants, meaning that it is passed down from the maternal parent to their offspring through the egg cell. This mode of inheritance has been used in plant breeding and genetic engineering to introduce desirable traits into crops.

Cytochrome c6 is a type of cytochrome protein that contains heme as a cofactor and functions as an electron transporter in the electron transport chain during photosynthesis. It is found primarily in certain bacteria, algae, and some lower eukaryotes. The "c6" designation refers to its molecular weight and structure, which is similar to that of cytochrome c found in mitochondria. However, cytochrome c6 has a higher redox potential than cytochrome c and plays a role in the water-splitting reaction during photosynthesis. It is involved in the transfer of electrons from the cytochrome b6f complex to the photosystem I.

Eukaryota is a domain that consists of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists. The term "eukaryote" comes from the Greek words "eu," meaning true or good, and "karyon," meaning nut or kernel. In eukaryotic cells, the genetic material is housed within a membrane-bound nucleus, and the DNA is organized into chromosomes. This is in contrast to prokaryotic cells, which do not have a true nucleus and have their genetic material dispersed throughout the cytoplasm.

Eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. They have many different organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus, that perform specific functions to support the cell's metabolism and survival. Eukaryotic cells also have a cytoskeleton made up of microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments, which provide structure and shape to the cell and allow for movement of organelles and other cellular components.

Eukaryotes are diverse and can be found in many different environments, ranging from single-celled organisms that live in water or soil to multicellular organisms that live on land or in aquatic habitats. Some eukaryotes are unicellular, meaning they consist of a single cell, while others are multicellular, meaning they consist of many cells that work together to form tissues and organs.

In summary, Eukaryota is a domain of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists, and the eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells.

Sulfur is not typically referred to in the context of a medical definition, as it is an element found in nature and not a specific medical condition or concept. However, sulfur does have some relevance to certain medical topics:

* Sulfur is an essential element that is a component of several amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and is necessary for the proper functioning of enzymes and other biological processes in the body.
* Sulfur-containing compounds, such as glutathione, play important roles in antioxidant defense and detoxification in the body.
* Some medications and supplements contain sulfur or sulfur-containing compounds, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which is used topically for pain relief and inflammation.
* Sulfur baths and other forms of sulfur-based therapies have been used historically in alternative medicine to treat various conditions, although their effectiveness is not well-established by scientific research.

It's important to note that while sulfur itself is not a medical term, it can be relevant to certain medical topics and should be discussed with a healthcare professional if you have any questions or concerns about its use in medications, supplements, or therapies.

A genetic complementation test is a laboratory procedure used in molecular genetics to determine whether two mutated genes can complement each other's function, indicating that they are located at different loci and represent separate alleles. This test involves introducing a normal or wild-type copy of one gene into a cell containing a mutant version of the same gene, and then observing whether the presence of the normal gene restores the normal function of the mutated gene. If the introduction of the normal gene results in the restoration of the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at different loci and can complement each other's function. However, if the introduction of the normal gene does not restore the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at the same locus and represent different alleles of the same gene. This test is commonly used to map genes and identify genetic interactions in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and animals.

Microalgae are microscopic, simple, thalloid, often unicellular organisms that belong to the kingdom Protista. They can be found in freshwater and marine environments, and they are capable of photosynthesis, which allows them to convert light energy, carbon dioxide, and water into organic compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Microalgae are a diverse group of organisms that include various taxonomic groups such as cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae), diatoms, dinoflagellates, and euglenoids. They have important ecological roles in the global carbon cycle, oxygen production, and nutrient recycling.

In addition to their ecological significance, microalgae have gained attention for their potential applications in various industries, including food and feed, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biofuels, and environmental bioremediation. Some species of microalgae contain high levels of valuable compounds such as omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, pigments, and bioactive molecules that have potential health benefits for humans and animals.

Tubulin is a type of protein that forms microtubules, which are hollow cylindrical structures involved in the cell's cytoskeleton. These structures play important roles in various cellular processes, including maintaining cell shape, cell division, and intracellular transport. There are two main types of tubulin proteins: alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin. They polymerize to form heterodimers, which then assemble into microtubules. The assembly and disassembly of microtubules are dynamic processes that are regulated by various factors, including GTP hydrolysis, motor proteins, and microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Tubulin is an essential component of the eukaryotic cell and has been a target for anti-cancer drugs such as taxanes and vinca alkaloids.

The Electron Transport Chain (ETC) is a series of complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane that are involved in the process of cellular respiration. It is the final pathway for electrons derived from the oxidation of nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids to be transferred to molecular oxygen. This transfer of electrons drives the generation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is then used by ATP synthase to produce ATP, the main energy currency of the cell.

The electron transport chain consists of four complexes (I-IV) and two mobile electron carriers (ubiquinone and cytochrome c). Electrons from NADH and FADH2 are transferred to Complex I and Complex II respectively, which then pass them along to ubiquinone. Ubiquinone then transfers the electrons to Complex III, which passes them on to cytochrome c. Finally, cytochrome c transfers the electrons to Complex IV, where they combine with oxygen and protons to form water.

The transfer of electrons through the ETC is accompanied by the pumping of protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space, creating a proton gradient. The flow of protons back across the inner membrane through ATP synthase drives the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

Overall, the electron transport chain is a crucial process for generating energy in the form of ATP in the cell, and it plays a key role in many metabolic pathways.

Agglutinins are antibodies that cause the particles (such as red blood cells, bacteria, or viruses) to clump together. They recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of these particles, forming a bridge between them and causing them to agglutinate or clump. Agglutinins are an important part of the immune system's response to infection and help to eliminate pathogens from the body.

There are two main types of agglutinins:

1. Naturally occurring agglutinins: These are present in the blood serum of most individuals, even before exposure to an antigen. They can agglutinate some bacteria and red blood cells without prior sensitization. For example, anti-A and anti-B agglutinins are naturally occurring antibodies found in people with different blood groups (A, B, AB, or O).
2. Immune agglutinins: These are produced by the immune system after exposure to an antigen. They develop as part of the adaptive immune response and target specific antigens that the body has encountered before. Immunization with vaccines often leads to the production of immune agglutinins, which can provide protection against future infections.

Agglutination reactions are widely used in laboratory tests for various diagnostic purposes, such as blood typing, detecting bacterial or viral infections, and monitoring immune responses.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Chloroplasts are organelles found in the cells of plants, algae, and some protists. They are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis, which is the process by which these organisms convert light energy into chemical energy. Chloroplast proteins are the various proteins that are located within the chloroplasts and play a crucial role in the process of photosynthesis.

Chloroplasts contain several types of proteins, including:

1. Structural proteins: These proteins help to maintain the structure and integrity of the chloroplast.
2. Photosynthetic proteins: These are involved in capturing light energy and converting it into chemical energy during photosynthesis. They include proteins such as photosystem I, photosystem II, cytochrome b6f complex, and ATP synthase.
3. Regulatory proteins: These proteins help to regulate the various processes that occur within the chloroplast, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and energy metabolism.
4. Metabolic proteins: These proteins are involved in various metabolic pathways within the chloroplast, such as carbon fixation, amino acid synthesis, and lipid metabolism.
5. Protective proteins: These proteins help to protect the chloroplast from damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are produced during photosynthesis.

Overall, chloroplast proteins play a critical role in maintaining the health and function of chloroplasts, and by extension, the overall health and survival of plants and other organisms that contain them.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Cytochrome b is a type of cytochrome, which is a class of proteins that contain heme as a cofactor and are involved in electron transfer. Cytochromes are classified based on the type of heme they contain and their absorption spectra.

The cytochrome b group includes several subfamilies of cytochromes, including cytochrome b5, cytochrome b2, and cytochrome bc1 (also known as complex III). These cytochromes are involved in various biological processes, such as fatty acid desaturation, steroid metabolism, and the electron transport chain.

The electron transport chain is a series of protein complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane that generates most of the ATP (adenosine triphosphate) required for cellular energy production. Cytochrome bc1 is a key component of the electron transport chain, where it functions as a dimer and catalyzes the transfer of electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c while simultaneously pumping protons across the membrane. This creates an electrochemical gradient that drives ATP synthesis.

Deficiencies or mutations in cytochrome b genes can lead to various diseases, such as mitochondrial disorders and cancer.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Centrioles are small, cylindrical structures found in the centrosome of animal cells. They play a crucial role in organizing the microtubules that make up the cell's cytoskeleton and are also involved in the formation of the spindle apparatus during cell division. A typical centriole is made up of nine sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring-like fashion around a central hub or core.

Centrioles have two main functions:

1. Microtubule Organization: Centrioles serve as the primary site for microtubule nucleation and organization within the cell. They help to form the mitotic spindle during cell division, which is responsible for separating replicated chromosomes into two identical sets that are distributed equally between the two daughter cells.

2. Formation of Cilia and Flagella: In specialized cells, centrioles can also function as basal bodies for the formation of cilia and flagella. These hair-like structures protrude from the cell surface and play a role in cell movement and the movement of extracellular fluids over the cell surface.

It is important to note that plants and fungi do not have centrioles, and their cells use alternative mechanisms for microtubule organization and cell division.

I'd be happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid, which is a type of nucleic acid involved in various biological roles in the coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. On the other hand, protozoan refers to a unicellular organism from the kingdom Protista, which includes a wide variety of simple eukaryotic organisms such as amoebas, paramecia, and plasmodium (the malaria-causing parasite).

There isn't a specific medical definition for "RNA, protozoan" since RNA is a molecule present in all living cells, including human cells, and protozoans are a group of organisms. However, I can tell you that RNA plays crucial roles in protozoan biology, such as acting as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes during protein synthesis or regulating gene expression.

If you have any further questions or need more specific information about RNA in protozoans, please let me know!

Cytochromes are a type of hemeprotein found in the mitochondria and other cellular membranes of organisms. They contain a heme group, which is a prosthetic group composed of an iron atom surrounded by a porphyrin ring. This structure allows cytochromes to participate in redox reactions, acting as electron carriers in various biological processes.

There are several types of cytochromes, classified based on the type of heme they contain and their absorption spectra. Some of the most well-known cytochromes include:

* Cytochrome c: a small, mobile protein found in the inner mitochondrial membrane that plays a crucial role in the electron transport chain during cellular respiration.
* Cytochrome P450: a large family of enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs, toxins, and other xenobiotics. They are found in various tissues, including the liver, lungs, and skin.
* Cytochrome b: a component of several electron transport chains, including those found in mitochondria, bacteria, and chloroplasts.

Cytochromes play essential roles in energy production, detoxification, and other metabolic processes, making them vital for the survival and function of living organisms.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a bit of confusion here. Starch is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a nutritional and biochemical concept. Here's a brief explanation:

Starch is a complex carbohydrate that serves as the primary form of energy storage in plants. It is made up of long chains of glucose molecules and can be found in various foods such as grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. Amylase, an enzyme present in our saliva and digestive system, helps break down starch into simpler sugars during the digestion process so that our bodies can absorb them for energy.

I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any other questions or need further information on a medical topic, please don't hesitate to ask.

Hydrogenase is not a medical term per se, but a biochemical term. It is used to describe an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion between molecular hydrogen (H2) and protons (H+) or vice versa. These enzymes are found in certain bacteria, algae, and archaea, and they play a crucial role in their energy metabolism, particularly in processes like hydrogen production and consumption.

While not directly related to medical terminology, understanding the function of hydrogenase can be important in fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, and environmental science, which can have implications for human health in areas like infectious diseases, biofuels, and waste management.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Insertional mutagenesis is a process of introducing new genetic material into an organism's genome at a specific location, which can result in a change or disruption of the function of the gene at that site. This technique is often used in molecular biology research to study gene function and regulation. The introduction of the foreign DNA is typically accomplished through the use of mobile genetic elements, such as transposons or viruses, which are capable of inserting themselves into the genome.

The insertion of the new genetic material can lead to a loss or gain of function in the affected gene, resulting in a mutation. This type of mutagenesis is called "insertional" because the mutation is caused by the insertion of foreign DNA into the genome. The effects of insertional mutagenesis can range from subtle changes in gene expression to the complete inactivation of a gene.

This technique has been widely used in genetic research, including the study of developmental biology, cancer, and genetic diseases. It is also used in the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural and industrial applications.

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid, which then quickly dissociates into bicarbonate and a proton. This reaction is crucial for maintaining pH balance and regulating various physiological processes in the body, including respiration, secretion of electrolytes, and bone resorption.

There are several isoforms of carbonic anhydrases found in different tissues and organelles, each with distinct functions and properties. For example, CA I and II are primarily found in red blood cells, while CA III is present in various tissues such as the kidney, lung, and eye. CA IV is a membrane-bound enzyme that plays a role in transporting ions across cell membranes.

Carbonic anhydrases have been targeted for therapeutic interventions in several diseases, including glaucoma, epilepsy, and cancer. Inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases can reduce the production of bicarbonate and lower the pH of tumor cells, which may help to slow down their growth and proliferation. However, these inhibitors can also have side effects such as kidney stones and metabolic acidosis, so they must be used with caution.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hydrogen" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. It is the lightest and most abundant chemical element in the universe, making up about 75% of its elemental mass.

In a medical context, hydrogen can be discussed in terms of molecular hydrogen (H2) which has been studied for potential therapeutic benefits. Some research explores its use as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, but more studies are needed to confirm these effects and understand the mechanisms behind them.

Starch synthase is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of starch, which is a complex carbohydrate that serves as an important energy storage molecule in plants. Specifically, starch synthase catalyzes the transfer of glucose from activated donor molecules, such as ADP-glucose, to the non-reducing end of a growing linear chain or branch of an amylopectin molecule, resulting in the formation of starch.

There are several isoforms of starch synthase that have been identified in plants, including granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), which is responsible for synthesizing the highly branched and crystalline amylose component of starch, and soluble starch synthases (SSI, SSII, SSIII, and SSIV), which contribute to the synthesis of the more branched and less crystalline amylopectin component.

Defects in starch synthase activity have been associated with various genetic disorders in humans, such as glycogen storage disease type II (Pompe disease) and transient infantile hyperammonemia, which are caused by mutations in the genes encoding for the enzymes involved in the synthesis of glycogen and starch, respectively.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Microtubule proteins are a class of structural proteins that make up the microtubules, which are key components of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. The main microtubule protein is tubulin, which exists in two forms: alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin. These tubulins polymerize to form heterodimers, which then assemble into protofilaments, which in turn aggregate to form hollow microtubules. Microtubules are dynamic structures that undergo continuous assembly and disassembly, and they play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including intracellular transport, cell division, and maintenance of cell shape. Other microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) also bind to microtubules and regulate their stability, dynamics, and interactions with other cellular structures.

Chlorella is a type of single-celled, green freshwater microalgae that is rich in nutrients, including proteins, vitamins, minerals, and chlorophyll. It is often marketed as a dietary supplement or health food because of its high nutritional content. Chlorella contains all the essential amino acids, making it a complete protein source, and is also rich in antioxidants, such as vitamin C, beta-carotene, and various phytochemicals.

Chlorella has been studied for its potential health benefits, including its ability to support immune function, detoxify heavy metals from the body, improve digestion, and reduce chronic inflammation. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and determine safe and effective dosages. It's important to note that chlorella supplements are not regulated by the FDA, so it's crucial to choose reputable brands and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any new supplements.

Spectinomycin is an antibiotic that belongs to the aminoglycoside family. It works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and leading to bacterial cell death. Spectinomycin is primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including gonorrhea, penicillin-resistant streptococci, and some anaerobes. It is administered parenterally (usually intramuscularly) and has a relatively narrow spectrum of activity compared to other aminoglycosides. Spectinomycin is not commonly used in many countries due to the availability of alternative antibiotics with broader spectra and fewer side effects.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Potassium acetate is a medication and a type of salt known as a potassium salt. It is made up of potassium ions (K+) and acetate ions (C2H3O2-). In medical contexts, it is often used as an electrolyte replenisher in intravenous fluids to maintain proper potassium levels in the body. It may also be used to treat or prevent low potassium levels (hypokalemia) and metabolic acidosis, a condition characterized by excessive acidity in the blood.

Potassium is an essential mineral that plays crucial roles in various bodily functions, including heartbeat regulation, nerve transmission, and muscle contractions. Acetate is a substance that can be converted into bicarbonate in the body, which helps neutralize acid and maintain the proper pH balance.

As with any medication or treatment, potassium acetate should be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional to ensure safe and appropriate use.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Photobiology is the study of the interactions between non-ionizing radiation, primarily ultraviolet (UV), visible, and infrared radiation, and living organisms. It involves how these radiations affect organisms, their metabolic processes, and biological rhythms. This field also includes research on the use of light in therapy, such as phototherapy for treating various skin conditions and mood disorders. Photobiology has important implications for understanding the effects of sunlight on human health, including both beneficial and harmful effects.

Phototrophic processes refer to the metabolic pathways used by certain organisms, such as plants, algae, and some bacteria, to convert light energy into chemical energy. This is primarily achieved through a process called photosynthesis, where these organisms use light, usually from the sun, to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. The glucose serves as an energy source for the organism, while the oxygen is released as a byproduct. This process is fundamental to life on Earth as it provides the majority of the oxygen in our atmosphere and forms the base of many food chains.

"Genetic crosses" refer to the breeding of individuals with different genetic characteristics to produce offspring with specific combinations of traits. This process is commonly used in genetics research to study the inheritance patterns and function of specific genes.

There are several types of genetic crosses, including:

1. Monohybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of a single gene or trait.
2. Dihybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of two genes or traits.
3. Backcross: A cross between an individual from a hybrid population and one of its parental lines.
4. Testcross: A cross between an individual with unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive individual.
5. Reciprocal cross: A cross in which the male and female parents are reversed to determine if there is any effect of sex on the expression of the trait.

These genetic crosses help researchers to understand the mode of inheritance, linkage, recombination, and other genetic phenomena.

Axonemal dyneins are motor proteins that are located in the axoneme of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. The axoneme is the internal structure of these cellular appendages, and it is composed of nine microtubule doublets arranged in a ring around two central single microtubules.

Dyneins are large protein complexes that use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to move along microtubules, generating force and motion. Axonemal dyneins are responsible for the sliding of the microtubule doublets relative to each other, which leads to the bending and movement of cilia and flagella.

There are several types of axonemal dyneins, classified based on their structure and function. The outer dynein arms are larger complexes that generate the power stroke for ciliary beating, while the inner dynein arms are smaller complexes involved in regulating the beat pattern and frequency.

Defects in axonemal dyneins can lead to a variety of genetic disorders known as ciliopathies, which affect the structure and function of cilia and flagella. These disorders can cause a range of symptoms, including respiratory problems, infertility, and developmental abnormalities.

There doesn't seem to be a specific medical definition for "DNA, protozoan" as it is simply a reference to the DNA found in protozoa. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and the digestive tracts of animals.

Protozoan DNA refers to the genetic material present in these organisms. It is composed of nucleic acids, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which contain the instructions for the development, growth, and reproduction of the protozoan.

The DNA in protozoa, like in other organisms, is made up of two strands of nucleotides that coil together to form a double helix. The four nucleotide bases that make up protozoan DNA are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). These bases pair with each other to form the rungs of the DNA ladder, with A always pairing with T and G always pairing with C.

The genetic information stored in protozoan DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nucleotide bases. This information is used to synthesize proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of the organism's cells. Protozoan DNA also contains other types of genetic material, such as regulatory sequences that control gene expression and repetitive elements with no known function.

Understanding the DNA of protozoa is important for studying their biology, evolution, and pathogenicity. It can help researchers develop new treatments for protozoan diseases and gain insights into the fundamental principles of genetics and cellular function.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Volvocida" is not a recognized medical term or condition in human or animal health. It seems that you might have made a typo or the term could be related to a different field. If you meant something else or if you have any other concerns, please provide more context or clarify, and I'll be happy to help you further.

Protein biosynthesis is the process by which cells generate new proteins. It involves two major steps: transcription and translation. Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA. This RNA copy, or messenger RNA (mRNA), carries the genetic information to the site of protein synthesis, the ribosome. During translation, the mRNA is read by transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, which bring specific amino acids to the ribosome based on the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA. The ribosome then links these amino acids together in the correct order to form a polypeptide chain, which may then fold into a functional protein. Protein biosynthesis is essential for the growth and maintenance of all living organisms.

Gene expression regulation in plants refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and RNA from the genes present in the plant's DNA. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli in plants. It can occur at various levels, including transcription (the first step in gene expression, where the DNA sequence is copied into RNA), RNA processing (such as alternative splicing, which generates different mRNA molecules from a single gene), translation (where the information in the mRNA is used to produce a protein), and post-translational modification (where proteins are chemically modified after they have been synthesized).

In plants, gene expression regulation can be influenced by various factors such as hormones, light, temperature, and stress. Plants use complex networks of transcription factors, chromatin remodeling complexes, and small RNAs to regulate gene expression in response to these signals. Understanding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in plants is important for basic research, as well as for developing crops with improved traits such as increased yield, stress tolerance, and disease resistance.

Plastids are membrane-bound organelles found in the cells of plants and algae. They are responsible for various cellular functions, including photosynthesis, storage of starch, lipids, and proteins, and the production of pigments that give plants their color. The most common types of plastids are chloroplasts (which contain chlorophyll and are involved in photosynthesis), chromoplasts (which contain pigments such as carotenoids and are responsible for the yellow, orange, and red colors of fruits and flowers), and leucoplasts (which do not contain pigments and serve mainly as storage organelles). Plastids have their own DNA and can replicate themselves within the cell.

A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that carries genetic information. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity and are responsible for the development and function of all living organisms. They code for proteins or RNA molecules, which carry out various functions within cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and each person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Variations in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including physical characteristics, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental factors.

Medical genetics is the study of genes and their role in health and disease. It involves understanding how genes contribute to the development and progression of various medical conditions, as well as identifying genetic risk factors and developing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

A protozoan genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in a protozoan organism. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic microorganisms that lack cell walls and have diverse morphology and nutrition modes. The genome of a protozoan includes all the genes that code for proteins, as well as non-coding DNA sequences that regulate gene expression and other cellular processes.

The size and complexity of protozoan genomes can vary widely depending on the species. Some protozoa have small genomes with only a few thousand genes, while others have larger genomes with tens of thousands of genes or more. The genome sequencing of various protozoan species has provided valuable insights into their evolutionary history, biology, and potential as model organisms for studying eukaryotic cellular processes.

It is worth noting that the study of protozoan genomics is still an active area of research, and new discoveries are continually being made about the genetic diversity and complexity of these fascinating microorganisms.

Kartagener Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that primarily affects the respiratory system. It is characterized by the triad of chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis (damage and widening of the airways in the lungs), and situs inversus totalis - a condition where the major visceral organs are mirrored or reversed from their normal positions.

In Kartagener Syndrome, the cilia (tiny hair-like structures) lining the respiratory tract are abnormal or dysfunctional, which impairs their ability to clear mucus and other particles. This leads to recurrent respiratory infections, bronchiectasis, and ultimately, progressive lung damage.

The condition is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the defective gene - one from each parent - to develop the syndrome. Kartagener Syndrome is a subtype of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a group of disorders affecting ciliary structure and function.

Introns are non-coding sequences of DNA that are present within the genes of eukaryotic organisms, including plants, animals, and humans. Introns are removed during the process of RNA splicing, in which the initial RNA transcript is cut and reconnected to form a mature, functional RNA molecule.

After the intron sequences are removed, the remaining coding sequences, known as exons, are joined together to create a continuous stretch of genetic information that can be translated into a protein or used to produce non-coding RNAs with specific functions. The removal of introns allows for greater flexibility in gene expression and regulation, enabling the generation of multiple proteins from a single gene through alternative splicing.

In summary, introns are non-coding DNA sequences within genes that are removed during RNA processing to create functional RNA molecules or proteins.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Coproporphyrinogen Oxidase is a mitochondrial enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of heme, which is an essential component of hemoglobin and other hemoproteins. This enzyme catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX, a key step in the heme biosynthetic pathway.

Deficiency or dysfunction of Coproporphyrinogen Oxidase can lead to a rare genetic disorder known as Hereditary Coproporphyria (HCP), which is characterized by the accumulation of coproporphyrinogen III and its derivative, coproporphyrin, in various tissues and body fluids. This accumulation can result in a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, neurological disturbances, and skin manifestations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Organelle Size" is not a recognized medical term or concept with a specific definition. Organelles are specialized structures within cells that have specific functions, such as mitochondria, ribosomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. The size of these organelles can vary depending on the type of cell, its function, and various other factors. However, there is no standardized medical definition for the term "Organelle Size." If you have more specific questions about the size or function of certain organelles, I'd be happy to help further!

... acidophila Chlamydomonas caudata Wille Chlamydomonas ehrenbergii Gorozhankin Chlamydomonas elegans G.S.West 1915 ... Chlamydomonas moewusii Chlamydomonas muriella J.W.G.Lund 1947 Chlamydomonas nivalis Chlamydomonas ovoidae Chlamydomonas ... Chlamydomonas Center Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Transcription Factor Database Archived 2009-04-25 at the Wayback Machine 3D ... ISBN 978-1-904890-31-7 Harris, Elizabeth H. ( 2009) "The Genus Chlamydomonas" In The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook (Second Edition ...
Chlamydomonas species are widely distributed worldwide in soil and fresh water. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an especially well ... "Home - Chlamydomonas reinhardtii v3.0". "Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mitochondrion, complete genome". February 2010. {{cite ... Protist locomotion#Biohybrid microswimmers D66 strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii "CC-125 wild type mt+ 137c". Chlamydomonas ... cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) "Chlamydomonas Chloroplast Genome Portal". "Chlamydomonas Center - ...
The name Chlamydomonas nivalis is of compound Greek and Latin origin. Chlamydomonas is ultimately derived from the Ancient ... "Definition of CHLAMYDOMONAS". "Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, nĭvālis". Guiry, M. D. in Guiry, M.D. & ... Chlamydomonas nivalis, also referred to as Chloromonas typhlos, is a unicellular red-coloured photosynthetic green alga that is ... Most habitats these algae reside in are very different from other species of the rest of the genus Chlamydomonas. This includes ...
... is a species of freshwater green algae. Algological notes XIV-XVII. West G.S., 1915, Journal of Botany, ... Chlamydomonas elegans at AlgaeBase v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, ...
Most wild-type Chlamydomonas strains can grow on fixed carbon sources (e.g., acetate) in the dark. It is possible that the D66 ... The D66 (mating type +) strain has been used by a number of labs for the creation of Chlamydomonas mutant libraries. Because ... The D66 strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a single-celled green alga, is a cell-wall-deficient strain of algae that exhibits ... The D66 strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been genetically engineered with no cell wall in order to increase the strain's ...
For example, the E. coli moves by rotating its helical flagellum, Chlamydomonas flagella have a breaststroke kind of motion. ... Mitchell, David R. (2001). "Chlamydomonas flagella". Journal of Phycology. 36 (2): 261-273. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2000.99218. ...
Snow algae species such as Chloromonas sp., Chlamydomonas sp., and Chlorella sp. are found in polar environments. Some ...
Gutman, Benjamin L.; Niyogi, Krishna K. (2004-06-01). "Chlamydomonas and Arabidopsis. A Dynamic Duo". Plant Physiology. 135 (2 ... model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and soybean as its "flagship" species for plant genomics geared towards bioenergy ... thaliana along with the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.) Prior to this, a handful of A. thaliana geneticists had become HHMI ...
The green algae Chlamydomonas snowiae is named after her, as is the bacterial Genus Snowella. Her older brother, Dr. Benjamin ... Guiry, M. D. (April 11, 2002). "Chlamydomonas snowiae Printz". AlgaeBase. National University of Ireland, Galway. Retrieved ...
Euglena and Chlamydomonas). This flagella-associated structure observed in the large selenomonad can perhaps best be described ...
Examples: Chlamydomonas ("cloak unit"); Pseudomonas ("false unit"); Metamonad ("encompassing unit") -morph: Pronunciation: / ...
Lessons from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiology. 127 (4): 1500-7. doi:10.1104/pp.010807. PMC 1540183. PMID 11743094. ...
Lessons from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiology. 127 (4): 1500-1507. doi:10.1104/pp.010807. PMC 1540183. PMID ...
Lessons from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiology. 127 (4): 1500-1507. doi:10.1104/pp.010807. PMC 1540183. PMID ...
Lessons from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiology. 127 (4): 1500-7. doi:10.1104/pp.010807. PMC 1540183. PMID 11743094. ...
"Chlamydomonas Ehrenberg, 1833: 288". algaeBASE. Retrieved 19 May 2013. "Spirogyra Link, 1820: 5". algaeBASE. Retrieved 19 May ... Rochaix JD (1998). The molecular biology of chloroplasts and mitochondria in Chlamydomonas. Dordrecht [u.a.]: Kluwer Acad. Publ ... Chlamydomonas), a ribbon-like spiral around the edges of the cell (e.g., Spirogyra), or slightly twisted bands at the cell ... "Ultrastructure of DNA-containing areas in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas". J. Cell Biol. 13 (3): 383-91. doi:10.1083/jcb.13.3 ...
Crutchfield A, Diller K, Brand J (1999). "Cryopreservation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyta)". European Journal of ...
Chlamydomonas, Ulothrix, anisogamous e.g. Chlamydomonas, Eudorina or Oogamous e.g. Chlamydomonas, Volvox. Chlamydomonas has all ... The chloroplast may be discoid, cup-shaped (e.g. Chlamydomonas), spiral or ribbon shaped[example needed] Most chlorophytes have ...
Crutchfield A, Diller K, Brand J (1999-02-01). "Cryopreservation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyta)". European Journal ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri). The latter implies that UVR8 potentially appeared before the evolutionary split ...
This location is one of the most southerly locations where red snow algae (Chlamydomonas sp., Chloromonas sp., and ... Chlamydomonas nivalis) are found. The location is favourable for vegetation growth because of warm summer temperatures. Its ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) and archaea (e.g., Methanococcus jannaschii). The proteins are of about 450 amino acyl residues in ...
Harz H, Hegemann P (1991-06-06). "Rhodopsin-regulated calcium currents in Chlamydomonas". Nature. 351 (6326): 489-491. Bibcode: ... they could demonstrate that a single gene from the alga Chlamydomonas produced large photocurrents when expressed in the oocyte ...
Johnson KA, Rosenbaum JL (December 1992). "Polarity of flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas". The Journal of Cell Biology. 119 ( ... Drosophila melanogaster and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In mammals, disruption of the transition zone reduces the ciliary ...
Photocurrents of the Chlorophyceae Heamatococcus pluvialis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were studied over many years in the ... Harz H, Hegemann P (June 1991). "Rhodopsin-regulated calcium currents in Chlamydomonas". Nature. 351 (6326): 489-491. Bibcode: ... Kateriya, S. Fuhrmann, M. Hegemann, P.: Direct Submission: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii retinal binding protein (cop4) gene; ... February 2003). "Archaeal-type rhodopsins in Chlamydomonas: model structure and intracellular localization". Biochemical and ...
"Radial spoke proteins of Chlamydomonas flagella". Journal of Cell Science. 119 (Pt 6): 1165-74. doi:10.1242/jcs.02811. PMC ...
based on the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome. It has 866 unique ORFs, 1862 metabolites, 2499 gene-enzyme-reaction-association ... a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of algae based on the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome". BMC Genomics. 12 Suppl 4: S5. ...
Ensuing studies 20 years after the identification of the same mutant strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii found that the ... When a photorespiratory mutant of the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was studied, the mutant strain was ... Suzuki K, Marek LF, Spalding MH (May 1990). "A photorespiratory mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiology. 93 (1 ... "Transcriptional Analysis of the Three Phosphoglycolate Phosphatase Genes in Wild Type and the pgp1 Mutant of Chlamydomonas ...
As of 1956, she reported on the photosynthetic products of Chlamydomonas. In January 1957 she was listed by the Phycological ... Allen, Mary Belle (1 June 1956). "Excretion of organic compounds by Chlamydomonas". Archiv für Mikrobiologie. 24 (2): 163-168. ...
Staub M, Denes G (1966). "Mechanism of arginine biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardti. I Purification and properties of ...
Chlamydomonas acidophila Chlamydomonas caudata Wille Chlamydomonas ehrenbergii Gorozhankin Chlamydomonas elegans G.S.West 1915 ... Chlamydomonas moewusii Chlamydomonas muriella J.W.G.Lund 1947 Chlamydomonas nivalis Chlamydomonas ovoidae Chlamydomonas ... Chlamydomonas Center Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Transcription Factor Database Archived 2009-04-25 at the Wayback Machine 3D ... ISBN 978-1-904890-31-7 Harris, Elizabeth H. ( 2009) "The Genus Chlamydomonas" In The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook (Second Edition ...
... Faezeh Koohestani via chlamy%40net.bio.net (by fkoohestani from gmail.com). Mon Jul 23 10:17 ... Chlamydomonas] protein expression , , To: chlamy from magpie.bio.indiana.edu , , Message-ID: , , , ...
We chose to study Chlamydomonas reinhardtii centrin (Crcen) and its interaction with melittin (MLT) as a model for CaBP ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii centrin bound to melittin. *PDB DOI: https://doi.org/10.2210/pdb3QRX/pdb ...
Chlamydomonas eustigma strain NIES-2499, whole genome shotgun sequencing project Chlamydomonas eustigma strain NIES-2499, whole ... Chlamydomonas eustigma strain NIES-2499, whole genome shotgun sequencing project. GenBank: BEGY00000000.1 ...
In the model unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , the TRX family contains seven types, with f- and h-types represented ... Crystal structure of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii thioredoxin h1. *PDB DOI: https://doi.org/10.2210/pdb6I19/pdb ... Crystal structure of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii thioredoxin h1 ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: TRXH. ...
Culturing of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. All strains of C. reinhardtii were obtained from the Chlamydomonas Resource Centre, ... For example, Chlamydomonas sp. alter their depth depending on light level and quality to attenuate photo-oxidative stress4. As ... 7). Mean ABA levels varied between 2.2 × 10−9 to 4.3 × 10−9 µg cell−1, which assuming a mean Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell ... The observation that Chlamydomonas cells move towards ABA in the light and away in the dark, taken together with the ABA- ...
... One of the biggest changes in evolutionary theory in the late 20th century was the growing ... In fact, mutations that prevent gene silencing by microRNAs in Chlamydomonas dont seem to have much effect on the algae:. In ... A new paper by Betty Y-W. Chung and colleagues in Nature Plants shows that the regulatory mechanisms of Chlamydomonas microRNAs ... c, In Chlamydomonas, microRNAs regulate endogenous target messenger RNAs by RNA degradation and/or translational repression via ...
Subramanyam, R., Jolley, C., Thangaraj, B. et al. Structural and functional changes of PSI-LHCI supercomplexes of Chlamydomonas ... Endo T, Schreiber U, Asada K (1995) Suppression of quantum yield of photosystem II by hyperosmotic stress in Chlamydomonas ... Fischer N, Setif P, Rochaix JD (1997) Targeted mutations in the psaC gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: preferential reduction ... Gibasiewicz K, Ramesh VM, Lin S, Woodbury NW, Webber AN (2002) Excitation dynamics in eukaryotic PS I from Chlamydomonas ...
Is Chlamydomonas a plant or an animal?. So, Chlamydomonas is a plant-animal, still related to the last common ancestor of the ... How do Chlamydomonas get nutrients?. Answer. Chlamydomonas makes its food in the same way as green plants, but without the ... Why is Chlamydomonas Protista?. Chlamydomonas is both an alga and a protozoan ( protista) because of chloroplasts it is called ... What do Chlamydomonas eat?. Normally, the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii uses the sun to turn carbon dioxide and water into ...
Isolated chloroplast membranes of the unicellular photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were exposed to low salt buffer ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Cell Line. ac-5 ac-31 Cellular Component. chloroplast plastid plastid thylakoid membrane ... Isolated chloroplast membranes of the unicellular photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were exposed to low salt buffer ... Ursula W. Goodenough, L. Andrew Staehelin (2011) CIL:38706, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. CIL. Dataset. https://doi.org/doi: ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain CC-1690 (wt, mt+) was obtained from the Chlamydomonas Resource Center (2016) (University of ... In this study, the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been used to develop a simple and rapid method to quantify ... A Simple and Non-destructive Method for Chlorophyll Quantification of Chlamydomonas Cultures Using Digital Image Analysis. ... 2011). Oil accumulation in the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: characterisation, variability between common ...
... event of flagellar disassembly revealed by analysis of flagellar phosphoproteins during flagellar shortening in Chlamydomonas J ... in the membrane/matrix fraction of flagella undergoing shortening as well as flagella from steady state cells of Chlamydomonas ...
Chlamydomonas sp. , Deposition: R.W. Hoshaw , Relatives: 65.72; CGC CC-1810 , Also Known As: formerly Chlamydomonas elliptica ... 1989); In 1990, UTEX, CCAP, and SAG strains of Chlamydomonas were investigated by H. Ettl & U.G. Schlosser and many were found ... Chlamydomonas culleus , Media: Soil Extract Medium , Origin: Hog Wallow, Bluefields, Nicaragua , Type Culture: No , Collection ... formerly Chlamydomonas elliptica var. britannica (Starr & Zeikus 1987). Notes:. deposited as 27; crosses with UTEX 1059 (Hoshaw ...
Green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Reference. Polle JE, Benemann JR, Tanaka A, Melis A. Photosynthetic apparatus ... organization and function in the wild type and a chlorophyll b-less mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Dependence on carbon ...
Green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Reference. Boyle NR, Morgan JA. Flux balance analysis of primary metabolism in ... P.12 left column bottom paragraph: Heterotrophic and mixotrophic cells were grown in TAP media [Harris EH: The Chlamydomonas ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. BMC Syst Biol. 2009 Jan 7 3: 4. p.12 of free online article - table 7PubMed ID19128495 ...
Radial spoke proteins of Chlamydomonas flagella. J Cell Sci. 2006 Mar 15; 119(Pt 6):1165-74. ...
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Author(s): Hong-Hermesdorf, Anne; Miethke, Marcus; Gallaher, Sean D; Kropat, Janette; Dodani, Sheel C; Chan, Jefferson; Barupala, Dulmini; Domaille, Dylan W; Shirasaki, Dyna I; Loo, Joseph A; Weber, Peter K; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Stemmler, Timothy L; Chang, Christopher J; Merchant, Sabeeha S
In addition to the previously studied pf-14 and pf-1 loci in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mutations for another five genes (pf-17 ... Radial spokes of Chlamydomonas flagella: genetic analysis of assembly and function. B Huang, B Huang ... B Huang, G Piperno, Z Ramanis, D J Luck; Radial spokes of Chlamydomonas flagella: genetic analysis of assembly and function.. J ... In addition to the previously studied pf-14 and pf-1 loci in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mutations for another five genes (pf-17 ...
... and roles in flagellar movement of specific axonemal components were studied in wild-type Chlamydomonas and paralyzed m ... Chlamydomonas flagellar mutants lacking radial spokes and central tubules. Structure, composition, and function of specific ... G B Witman, J Plummer, G Sander; Chlamydomonas flagellar mutants lacking radial spokes and central tubules. Structure, ... The axial periodicities of the central sheath, dynein arms, radial spokes, and nexin links of Chlamydomonas were determined by ...
Acclimation to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to extremely strong light. Published:. 31 March 2021, Version 1 , DOI: 10.17632/ ...
Chlamydomonas nivalis, to reveal insights into their contrasting responses to salinity stress. Each strain was grown ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model green alga strain for molecular studies; its fully sequenced genome has enabled omic- ... Algal species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain CC-4325 sta1-1 mt- [Ball I7] was obtained from the Chlamydomonas Resource Centre ... The impact of salt stress on the physiology of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlamydomonas nivalis A comparison of no ...
Biochemistry Paper M.Sc. Botany Final ...
... , Chlorophyta - Chlorophyceae; Country of origin: USA; Year: 1972 ...
The paper, "Highly efficient detection of insertional mutants in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by MAPINS," appears in an upcoming ...
About Chlamydomonas Chlamydomonas is a genus of unicellular green algae (Chlorophyta). These algae are found all over the world ... Chlamydomonas Spatial Interactome (CSI) Collection, Wang/Jonikas 2022. *Chlamydomonas Spatial Interactome (CSI) Collection, ... Chlamydomonas is used as a model system for research on many fundamental questions in cell and molecular biology: How do cells ... The most widely used laboratory species is Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Cells of this species are haploid, and can grow on a ...
Freezing Chlamydomonas Cells Freezing Chlamydomonas Cells. Johnson and Dutcher published a procedure for freezing Chlamydomonas ... Chlamydomonas Spatial Interactome (CSI) Collection, Wang/Jonikas 2022. *Chlamydomonas Spatial Interactome (CSI) Collection, ... Banner Photo Credit: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii zygotes were stained for immunofluorescence with anti-acetylated tubulin (green ... We will only send out a few select emails a year that are considered important for the Chlamydomonas community. ...
... Origin site. Collecting site. Evaluation site. Multi ...
Blue Light Photoreception by Chlamydomonas April 13, 2017. /0 Comments/in Plant Physiology: On The Inside, Research /by Peter ... Thus, it is of interest that pCRY is also involved in gametogenesis in Chlamydomonas. pCRY is down-regulated in pregametes and ... In summary, pCRY is a key blue light receptor in Chlamydomonas that is involved in both circadian timing and life cycle ... Animal and plant cryptochromes are evolutionarily divergent, although the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has both ...
  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model green microalga capable of heterotrophic growth on acetic acid but not fatty acids, despite containing a full complement of genes for β-oxidation. (edu.sa)
  • In this study, it was found that cell membrane permeability of green microalga Chlamydomonas sp. (manuscripts.cn)
  • The bacterium Pseudomonas protegens antagonizes the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using a blend of toxins. (leibniz-hki.de)
  • In the model unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , the TRX family contains seven types, with f- and h-types represented by two isozymes. (rcsb.org)
  • Therefore, the aim of this study was to define a specific role for ABA in the motile green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , providing evidence that this phytohormone mediates the light-dependent diurnal rhythm of up and down gravitaxis of the algae in the water column. (nature.com)
  • Here, we provide a comprehensive global analysis of the evolutionarily distant unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to quantify the effects of miRNA on protein synthesis and RNA abundance. (freethoughtblogs.com)
  • Isolated chloroplast membranes of the unicellular photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were exposed to low salt buffer, cryofixed, freeze-fractured, and surface replicas observed by transmission electron microscopy. (ucsd.edu)
  • The use of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in photosynthetic research has been growing in the last decades. (rug.nl)
  • The unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the bacterium Pseudomonas protegens serve as a model to study the interactions between photosynthetic and heterotrophic microorganisms. (leibniz-hki.de)
  • A combined 18S rDNA and rbcL phylogenetic analysis of Chloromonas and Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyceae, Volvocales ) emphasizing snow and other cold-temperature habitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acclimatory responses to high-salt stress in Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae) from Antarctica[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2012, (1): 116-124. (manuscripts.cn)
  • Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyta). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlamydomonas is a genus of unicellular green algae (Chlorophyta). (chlamycollection.org)
  • Chlamydomonas acidophila Chlamydomonas caudata Wille Chlamydomonas ehrenbergii Gorozhankin Chlamydomonas elegans G.S.West 1915 Chlamydomonas moewusii Chlamydomonas muriella J.W.G.Lund 1947 Chlamydomonas nivalis Chlamydomonas ovoidae Chlamydomonas priscuii Chlamydomonas smithii Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chlamydomonas is widely distributed in freshwater or damp soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we characterised physiological and proteomic changes between a low-starch C. reinhardtii strain and the snow alga Chlamydomonas nivalis, to reveal insights into their contrasting responses to salinity stress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • P.12 left column bottom paragraph: 'Heterotrophic and mixotrophic cells were grown in TAP media [Harris EH: The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook 1989] and autotrophic cells were grown in similar media without addition of acetic acid. (harvard.edu)
  • The older literature on this topic is reviewed in The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook. (chlamycollection.org)
  • Chlamydomonas is used as a model organism for molecular biology, especially studies of flagellar motility and chloroplast dynamics, biogenesis, and genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The red eyespot in Chlamydomonas is sensitive to light and hence determines movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9.Chlamydomonas: The Eyespot. (booksca.ca)
  • Asymmetric placement of the photosensory eyespot organelle in Chlamydomonas is normally patterned by mother-daughter differences between your two basal bodies which template the anterior flagella. (bibf1120.com)
  • Chlamydomonas flagellar mutants lacking radial spokes and central tubules. (rupress.org)
  • The fine structure, protein composition, and roles in flagellar movement of specific axonemal components were studied in wild-type Chlamydomonas and paralyzed mutants pf-14, pf-15A, and pf-19. (rupress.org)
  • The paper, "Highly efficient detection of insertional mutants in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by MAPINS," appears in an upcoming issue of Plant Physiology. (wustl.edu)
  • Molecular phylogeny studies indicated that the traditional genus Chlamydomonas as defined using morphological data, was polyphyletic within Volvocales. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1990, UTEX, CCAP, and SAG strains of Chlamydomonas were investigated by H. Ettl & U.G. Schlosser and many were found to be incorrectly named. (utex.org)
  • The most commonly used strains of Chlamydomonas in the literature are 137c plus and minus (CC-125 and CC-124 respectively). (chlamycollection.org)
  • Some regulatory systems of Chlamydomonas are more complex than their homologs in Gymnosperms, with evolutionarily related regulatory proteins being larger and containing additional domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FLP proteins act as regulators of chlorophyll synthesis in response to light and plastid signals in Chlamydomonas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radial spoke proteins of Chlamydomonas flagella. (umassmed.edu)
  • We chose to study Chlamydomonas reinhardtii centrin (Crcen) and its interaction with melittin (MLT) as a model for CaBP complexes due to its amphipathic properties. (rcsb.org)
  • In addition to the previously studied pf-14 and pf-1 loci in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mutations for another five genes (pf-17, pf-24, pf-25, pf-26, and pf-27) have been identified and characterized as specifically affecting the assembly and function of the flagellar radial spokes. (rupress.org)
  • Gamete formation by vegetative Chlamydomonas cells is known to mainly triggered by blue light. (plantae.org)
  • Radial spokes of Chlamydomonas flagella: genetic analysis of assembly and function. (rupress.org)
  • The axial periodicities of the central sheath, dynein arms, radial spokes, and nexin links of Chlamydomonas were determined by electron microscopy using the lattice-spacing of crystalline catalase as an internal standard. (rupress.org)
  • Polle JE, Benemann JR, Tanaka A, Melis A. Photosynthetic apparatus organization and function in the wild type and a chlorophyll b-less mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (harvard.edu)
  • 6.Chlamydomonas: Anoxic Acclimation and Signaling. (booksca.ca)
  • This article tries to provide an overview of the different sensing and responding mechanisms involved in high light acclimation of Chlamydomonas. (rug.nl)
  • 1. Genomics and Functional Genomics in Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii. (booksca.ca)
  • Chlamydomonas makes its food in the same way as green plants, but without the elaborate system of roots, stem and leaves of the higher plants. (erasingdavid.com)
  • Banner Photo Credit: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii zygotes were stained for immunofluorescence with anti-acetylated tubulin (green), anti-phospholipase D (red), and DAPI (blue) by Karl F. Lechtreck (University of Georgia) and George B. Witman (University of Massachusetts Medical School). (chlamycollection.org)
  • understanding population genetic structure, dispersal, and differentiation in a dinoflagellate species complex that has recently diverged into multiple species/ecotypes, a freshwater invasive nuisance species Gonyostomum semen , and in the green alga Chlamydomonas present in lakes. (lu.se)
  • Here, we analyzed the phosphoproteins in the membrane/matrix fraction of flagella undergoing shortening as well as flagella from steady state cells of Chlamydomonas. (nih.gov)
  • Chlamydomonas is used as a model system for research on many fundamental questions in cell and molecular biology: How do cells move using flagella? (chlamycollection.org)
  • We show that, similar to metazoan steady-state systems, endogenous miRNAs in Chlamydomonas can regulate gene expression both by destabilization of the mRNA and by translational repression. (freethoughtblogs.com)
  • described general methods for freezing algal cells, including Chlamydomonas, in Cryo Letters 16, 267-274 (1995). (chlamycollection.org)
  • More than 500 different species of Chlamydomonas have been described, but most scientists work with only a few. (chlamycollection.org)
  • Johnson and Dutcher published a procedure for freezing Chlamydomonas in Trends in Genetics 9, 194-195 (1993). (chlamycollection.org)
  • Subcellular metal imaging identifies dynamic sites of Cu accumulation in Chlamydomonas. (escholarship.org)
  • From the home page, a search for "Chlamydomonas" will retrieve the information on how to order. (chlamycollection.org)
  • The majority of molecular research in this area has focused on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Endo T, Schreiber U, Asada K (1995) Suppression of quantum yield of photosystem II by hyperosmotic stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii . (springer.com)
  • Is Chlamydomonas a plant or an animal? (erasingdavid.com)
  • So, Chlamydomonas is a plant-animal, still related to the last common ancestor of the two kingdoms. (erasingdavid.com)
  • This research finding reports the three steps of acclimatization process of Chlamydomonas sp. (researchbib.com)
  • The effect of high salt concentration (100 mM NaCl) on the organization of photosystem I-light harvesting complex I supercomplexes (PSI-LHCI) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was studied. (springer.com)
  • One of the many striking features of Chlamydomonas is that it contains ion channels (channelrhodopsins) that are directly activated by light. (wikipedia.org)
  • In summary, pCRY is a key blue light receptor in Chlamydomonas that is involved in both circadian timing and life cycle progression. (plantae.org)
  • Flux balance analysis of primary metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (harvard.edu)
  • It is a little known fact that tetrad analysis was first described in Chlamydomonas. (chlamycollection.org)