Chlamydomonas: A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.Algal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of algae.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.RNA, Algal: Ribonucleic acid in algae having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Axoneme: A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Cytochromes f: Cytochromes f are found as components of the CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX. They play important role in the transfer of electrons from PHOTOSYSTEM I to PHOTOSYSTEM II.DNA, Algal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Cytochrome b6f Complex: A protein complex that includes CYTOCHROME B6 and CYTOCHROME F. It is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE and plays an important role in process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS by transferring electrons from PLASTOQUINONE to PLASTOCYANIN or CYTOCHROME C6. The transfer of electrons is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.Photosystem II Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Photosystem I Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Plastocyanin: A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.Thylakoids: Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes: Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Arylsulfatases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Volvox: A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Volvocaceae. They form spherical colonies of hundreds or thousands of bi-flagellated cells in a semi-transparent gelatinous ball.Plastoquinone: Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Diuron: A pre-emergent herbicide.Darkness: The absence of light.Amylopectin: A highly branched glucan in starch.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.RNA, Chloroplast: Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Cytochromes c6: Cytochromes of the c type that are involved in the transfer of electrons from CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX and PHOTOSYSTEM I.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Microalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Agglutinins: Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Chloroplast Proteins: Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cytochrome b Group: Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Centrioles: Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Hydrogenase: An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Carbonic Anhydrases: A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Starch Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from ADPglucose to glucose-containing polysaccharides in 1,4-alpha-linkages. EC 2.4.1.21.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Malate Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Microtubule Proteins: Proteins found in the microtubules.Chlorella: Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.Spectinomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces spectabilis. It is active against gram-negative bacteria and used for the treatment of gonorrhea.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Potassium Acetate: A potassium salt used to replenish ELECTROLYTES, for restoration of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE, as well as a urinary and systemic alkalizer, which can be administered orally or by intravenous infusion. Formerly, it was used in DIURETICS and EXPECTORANTS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Photobiology: The branch of biology dealing with the effect of light on organisms.Phototrophic Processes: Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Axonemal Dyneins: Dyneins that are responsible for ciliary and flagellar beating.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Volvocida: An order of CHLOROPHYTA commonly found in freshwater habitats. Characteristics include the presence of a cellulose wall and two to four equal, smooth, apical flagella.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Kartagener Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Coproporphyrinogen Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX by the conversion of two propionate groups to two vinyl groups. It is the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME, and is encoded by CPO gene. Mutations of CPO gene result in HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.Organelle Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of ORGANELLES.

The internal Cys-207 of sorghum leaf NADP-malate dehydrogenase can form mixed disulphides with thioredoxin. (1/808)

The role of the internal Cys-207 of sorghum NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) in the activation of the enzyme has been investigated through the examination of the ability of this residue to form mixed disulphides with thioredoxin mutated at either of its two active-site cysteines. The h-type Chlamydomonas thioredoxin was used, because it has no additional cysteines in the primary sequence besides the active-site cysteines. Both thioredoxin mutants proved equally efficient in forming mixed disulphides with an NADP-MDH devoid of its N-terminal bridge either by truncation, or by mutation of its N-terminal cysteines. They were poorly efficient with the more compact WT oxidised NADP-MDH. Upon mutation of Cys-207, no mixed disulphide could be formed, showing that this cysteine is the only one, among the four internal cysteines, which can form mixed disulphides with thioredoxin. These experiments confirm that the opening of the N-terminal disulphide loosens the interaction between subunits, making Cys-207, located at the dimer contact area, more accessible.  (+info)

Chlamydomonas chloroplast ferrous hemoglobin. Heme pocket structure and reactions with ligands. (2/808)

We report the optical and resonance Raman spectral characterization of ferrous recombinant Chlamydomonas LI637 hemoglobin. We show that it is present in three pH-dependent equilibrium forms including a 4-coordinate species at acid pH, a 5-coordinate high spin species at neutral pH, and a 6-coordinate low spin species at alkaline pH. The proximal ligand to the heme is the imidazole group of a histidine. Kinetics of the reactions with ligands were determined by stopped-flow spectroscopy. At alkaline pH, combination with oxygen, nitric oxide, and carbon monoxide displays a kinetic behavior that is interpreted as being rate-limited by conversion of the 6-coordinate form to a reactive 5-coordinate form. At neutral pH, combination rates of the 5-coordinate form with oxygen and carbon monoxide were much faster (>10(7) microM-1 s-1). The dissociation rate constant measured for oxygen is among the slowest known, 0.014 s-1, and is independent of pH. Replacement of the tyrosine 63 (B10) by leucine or of the putative distal glutamine by glycine increases the dissociation rate constant 70- and 30-fold and increases the rate of autoxidation 20- and 90-fold, respectively. These results are consistent with at least two hydrogen bonds stabilizing the bound oxygen molecule, one from tyrosine B10 and the other from the distal glutamine. In addition, the high frequency (232 cm-1) of the iron-histidine bond suggests a structure that lacks any proximal strain thus contributing to high ligand affinity.  (+info)

Cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain 1b is required for flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas. (3/808)

A second cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain (cDhc) has recently been identified in several organisms, and its expression pattern is consistent with a possible role in axoneme assembly. We have used a genetic approach to ask whether cDhc1b is involved in flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas. Using a modified PCR protocol, we recovered two cDhc sequences distinct from the axonemal Dhc sequences identified previously. cDhc1a is closely related to the major cytoplasmic Dhc, whereas cDhc1b is closely related to the minor cDhc isoform identified in sea urchins, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Tetrahymena. The Chlamydomonas cDhc1b transcript is a low-abundance mRNA whose expression is enhanced by deflagellation. To determine its role in flagellar assembly, we screened a collection of stumpy flagellar (stf) mutants generated by insertional mutagenesis and identified two strains in which portions of the cDhc1b gene have been deleted. The two mutants assemble short flagellar stumps (<1-2 micrometer) filled with aberrant microtubules, raft-like particles, and other amorphous material. The results indicate that cDhc1b is involved in the transport of components required for flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas.  (+info)

Cell division: The renaissance of the centriole. (4/808)

Centrioles are located at the center of the cytoskeleton and duplicate exactly once per cell cycle. Recent studies suggest that centrioles are required for the organization of a functional centrosome and that centriole assembly requires both gamma- and delta-tubulin.  (+info)

Intracellular motility: A special delivery service. (5/808)

Recent studies have identified a delivery service that operates in specialised cell appendages: two motor proteins and a novel protein organelle use axonemal microtubules as tracks to shuttle essential components to the tips of flagella and the dendrites of sensory neurons.  (+info)

Drosophila roadblock and Chlamydomonas LC7: a conserved family of dynein-associated proteins involved in axonal transport, flagellar motility, and mitosis. (6/808)

Eukaryotic organisms utilize microtubule-dependent motors of the kinesin and dynein superfamilies to generate intracellular movement. To identify new genes involved in the regulation of axonal transport in Drosophila melanogaster, we undertook a screen based upon the sluggish larval phenotype of known motor mutants. One of the mutants identified in this screen, roadblock (robl), exhibits diverse defects in intracellular transport including axonal transport and mitosis. These defects include intra-axonal accumulations of cargoes, severe axonal degeneration, and aberrant chromosome segregation. The gene identified by robl encodes a 97-amino acid polypeptide that is 57% identical (70% similar) to the 105-amino acid Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein-associated protein LC7, also reported here. Both robl and LC7 have homology to several other genes from fruit fly, nematode, and mammals, but not Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, we demonstrate that members of this family of proteins are associated with both flagellar outer arm dynein and Drosophila and rat brain cytoplasmic dynein. We propose that roadblock/LC7 family members may modulate specific dynein functions.  (+info)

Domains in the 1alpha dynein heavy chain required for inner arm assembly and flagellar motility in Chlamydomonas. (7/808)

Flagellar motility is generated by the activity of multiple dynein motors, but the specific role of each dynein heavy chain (Dhc) is largely unknown, and the mechanism by which the different Dhcs are targeted to their unique locations is also poorly understood. We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the Chlamydomonas Dhc1 gene and the corresponding deduced amino acid sequence of the 1alpha Dhc of the I1 inner dynein arm. The 1alpha Dhc is similar to other axonemal Dhcs, but two additional phosphate binding motifs (P-loops) have been identified in the NH(2)- and COOH-terminal regions. Because mutations in Dhc1 result in motility defects and loss of the I1 inner arm, a series of Dhc1 transgenes were used to rescue the mutant phenotypes. Motile cotransformants that express either full-length or truncated 1alpha Dhcs were recovered. The truncated 1alpha Dhc fragments lacked the dynein motor domain, but still assembled with the 1beta Dhc and other I1 subunits into partially functional complexes at the correct axoneme location. Analysis of the transformants has identified the site of the 1alpha motor domain in the I1 structure and further revealed the role of the 1alpha Dhc in flagellar motility and phototactic behavior.  (+info)

The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. Two radically different evolutionary patterns within green algae. (8/808)

Green plants appear to comprise two sister lineages, Chlorophyta (classes Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, and Prasinophyceae) and Streptophyta (Charophyceae and Embryophyta, or land plants). To gain insight into the nature of the ancestral green plant mitochondrial genome, we have sequenced the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. These two green algae are presumptive members of the Prasinophyceae. This class is thought to include descendants of the earliest diverging green algae. We find that Nephroselmis and Pedinomonas mtDNAs differ markedly in size, gene content, and gene organization. Of the green algal mtDNAs sequenced so far, that of Nephroselmis (45,223 bp) is the most ancestral (minimally diverged) and occupies the phylogenetically most basal position within the Chlorophyta. Its repertoire of 69 genes closely resembles that in the mtDNA of Prototheca wickerhamii, a later diverging trebouxiophycean green alga. Three of the Nephroselmis genes (nad10, rpl14, and rnpB) have not been identified in previously sequenced mtDNAs of green algae and land plants. In contrast, the 25,137-bp Pedinomonas mtDNA contains only 22 genes and retains few recognizably ancestral features. In several respects, including gene content and rate of sequence divergence, Pedinomonas mtDNA resembles the reduced mtDNAs of chlamydomonad algae, with which it is robustly affiliated in phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirm the existence of two radically different patterns of mitochondrial genome evolution within the green algae.  (+info)

Assembly of flagellar radial spoke proteins in Chlamydomonas: identification of the axoneme binding domain of radial spoke protein 3 ...
With 1 Figure in the Text. This work was conducted in the Department of Biological Sciences at Stanford University, and was supported in part by a Henry Newell Fellowship, and in part by a Research Fellowship (GF-6012) from the National Institutes of Health. ...
The radial spoke is a key element in a transducer apparatus controlling the motility of eukaryotic cilia. The transduction biomechanics is a long-standing question in cilia biology. The radial spoke has three regions - a spoke head, a bifurcated neck and a stalk. While the neck and the stalk are asymmetric, two-fold symmetry of the head has remained controversial.. In this work we used single particle cryo-EM analysis to generate 3D structure of the whole radial spoke at unprecedented resolution. We show the head region at 15Å resolution and confirm two-fold symmetry. Using distance constraints generated by crosslinking mass spectrometry we locate two components, RSP2 and 4 at the head/neck regions. Our biophysical analysis of isolated RSPs 4, 9, and 10 affirmed their oligomeric state. Our results enabled us to redefine the boundaries of the regions and propose a model of organization of the radial spoke component proteins. ...
We have shown that the Chlamydomonas mutants ida5 (Kato et al., 1993) and ida5-t, lacking four subspecies of inner-arm dynein, have mutations in an actin-encoding gene such that its gene product is totally lost. The axoneme of these mutants contain NAP instead of conventional actin, as evidenced by the two novel spots in two-dimensional electrophoresis patterns. These findings are unexpected since Chlamydomonas and a related species, Volvox, have been shown to have a single gene for actin, which is ∼90% homologous to rabbit skeletal muscle actin (Cresnar et al., 1990; Sugase et al., 1996). The fact that ida5 and ida5-t grow normally suggests either that NAP or other proteins may be able to substitute for conventional actin in important functions, or that actin is not essential for the growth of Chlamydomonas.. The molecular identity of NAP remains to be studied, but it appears to be somehow related to actin. This is because NAP and actin have similar molecular weights, can serve as the subunit ...
Amoroso, G., D. Sueltemeyer, C. Thyssen and H.P. Fock (1998). Uptake of HCO3- and CO2 in cells and chloroplasts from the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Dunaliella tertiolecta. Plant Physiol. 116, 193-201. Asleson, C.M. and P.A. Lefebvre (1998). Genetic analysis of flagellar length control in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A new long-flagella locus and extragenic suppressor mutations. Genetics 148, 693-702. Bhattacharya, D. and L. Medlin (1998). Algal phylogeny and the origin of land plants. Plant Physiol. 116, 9-15. Boschetti, A. and K. Schmid (1998). Energy supply for ATP-synthase deficient chloroplasts of Chlamydomonas reinhardii. Plant Cell Physiol. 39, 160-168. Brosch-Salomon, S., M. Hoeftberger, A. Holzinger and U. Luetz-Meindl (1998). Ultrastructural localization of polysaccharides and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine in the secretory pathway of green algae (Desmidiaceae). J. Exp. Bot. 49, 145-153. Calenberg, M., U. Brohsonn, M. Zedlacher and G. Kreimer (1998). Light- and Ca2+-modulated ...
Molecular analysis of LC7 from the Chlamydomonas outer dynein arm. (A) Two tryptic peptides from outer arm dynein LC7 were completely sequenced, yielding a tota
Fertilization tubules in wild-type (A) and ida5 (B) mt+ gametes produced in response to a 1-h exposure to 10 mM dibutyryl-cAMP and 1 mM IBMX. Bar, 0.3 μm.
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on PNAS.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Read "UV-mediated Chlamydomonas mutants with enhanced nuclear transgene expression by disruption of DNA methylation-dependent and independent silencing systems, Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
In 1933, Marjory Stephenson and her student Stickland reported that cell suspensions catalysed the reduction of methylene blue with H2. Six years later, Hans Gaffron observed that the green photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, would sometimes produce hydrogen.[17] In the late 1990s Anastasios Melis discovered that deprivation of sulfur induces the alga to switch from the production of oxygen (normal photosynthesis) to the production of hydrogen. He found that the enzyme responsible for this reaction is hydrogenase, but that the hydrogenase lost this function in the presence of oxygen. Melis also discovered that depleting the amount of sulfur available to the algae interrupted their internal oxygen flow, allowing the hydrogenase an environment in which it can react, causing the algae to produce hydrogen.[18] Chlamydomonas moewusii is also a promising strain for the production of hydrogen.[19][20] ...
Definition of chlamydomonas - a common single-celled green alga which typically has two flagella for swimming, living in water and moist soil.
Anti-Lhcb4 (CP29) Chlamydomonas reinhardti, Lhcb4, CP29, Lhcbm4 antibody , Lhcb4 | CP29 (Lhcb4) homolog, Chlamydomonas, Q93WD2, AS06 117
Algae Detail UTEX Number: 943Class: ChlorophyceaeStrain: Chlamydomonas giganteaMedia: Modified Bold 3N MediumOrigin: Description of Location: Type Culture: NoCo
Algae Detail UTEX Number: 969Class: ChlorophyceaeStrain: Chlamydomonas applanataMedia: Modified Bold 3N MediumOrigin: Williamson Co., Texas, USADescription of L
Immunofluorescence micrograph of a Chlamydomonas cell stained with acetylated tubulin antibody to label flagella (green) and with an antibody against the protein EB1 that labels the flagella tip and base (red/yellow). Image from Lotte Pedersen, University of Copenhagen. To previous page ...
Introduction Bio 2010 01/31/2014 The objectives of this lab were to understand natural selection and understand the biotic and abiotic characteristics of a niche. In order to understand natural selection in this lab we observed characteristics of three different algae families; Volvox, Chlamydomonas, and Gonium. By observing these algae will give us a better understanding of how a simple cellular organism evolved due to natural selection and are able to survive today. These organisms will give us context into natural selection occurring on bigger organisms as we move on in lab. Similarly, in order to understand biotic and abiotic characteristics of a niche, we observed a transect. By observing a transect will provide insight into how the biosphere works by focussing on biotic and biotic components of a home to many organisms. Procedure 1: The Volvicine Line In this experiment we observed an isogamous, single celled, motile alga called chlamydomonas. We prepared a slide of a living Chlamydomonas ...
View Notes - 10. [R] nlm = non linear minimization (Jan24) from AM 1234 at UWO. model.fit Page 1 of 1 25/01/2011 http://www.stats.uwo.ca/faculty/kulperger/Stat3858/Computing/RScripts/nlm-eg-exp.txt
Hybridoma technology is used to fuse fusion a B cell and myeloma to form a hybridoma that produces identical monoclonal antibodies.
Alphabetic Listing of Presenting Authors - R. If you have any questions or comments then please send an email to [email protected] ...
pep:novel chromosome:VEGA66:10:33905485:33915883:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000029742 transcript:OTTMUST00000073807 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Rsph4a description:radial spoke head 4 homolog A (Chlamydomonas ...
Bukeye umukobwa numuhungu, mu masaha yigicamunsi barahura ngo batembere, sinzi uko umuhungu yaje kurabukwa igishyimbo mu menyo yumukobwa, umuhungu aba uwo munsi yari afite twa duti dukura ibiryo mu menyo, amuha kamwe agira ati " Akira ukure ifiriti mu menyo". ...
The nuclear genome of the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains genes for a dozen hemoglobins of the truncated lineage. Of those, THB1 is known to be expressed, but the product and its function have not yet been characterized. We present mutagenesis, optical, and nuclear magnetic resonance data for the recombinant protein and show that at pH near neutral in the absence of added ligand, THB1 coordinates the heme iron with the canonical proximal histidine and a distal lysine. In the cyanomet state, THB1 is structurally similar to other known truncated hemoglobins, particularly the heme domain of Chlamydomonas eugametos LI637, a light-induced chloroplastic hemoglobin. Recombinant THB1 is capable of binding nitric oxide (NO(*)) in either the ferric or ferrous state and has efficient NO(*) dioxygenase activity. By using different C. reinhardtii strains and growth conditions, we demonstrate that the expression of THB1 is under the control of the NIT2 regulatory gene and that the hemoglobin is
RNA pyrophosphohydrolase (RppH) catalyzes the removal of pyrophosphate from 5 triphosphorylated RNAs thereby initiating RNA degradation. The enzyme has originally been identified in bacteria but homologs are present in eukaryotes where they are thought to be located in plastids or mitochondria. A homolog of the bacterial RNA pyrophosphohydrolase is present in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii suggesting that Chlamydomonas RppH has a role in mRNA degradation in the chloroplast of the alga. The purpose of this project was to determine the localization of the RppH homologue in C. reinhardtii. Localization was investigated using two different constructs, a histidine-tagged version of the Chlamydomonas rppH and a histidine-tagged 5rppH-GFP construct.. A plasmid vector containing Chlamydomonas rppH-6xHN was introduced into C. reinhardtii by nuclear transformation. PCR, RT-PCR, sequencing, and DNA and RNA blotting techniques were used to indentify positive transformants at the DNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The OPR Protein MTHI1 Controls the Expression of Two Different Subunits of ATP Synthase CFo in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. AU - Ozawa, Shin Ichiro. AU - Cavaiuolo, Marina. AU - Jarrige, Domitille. AU - Kuras, Richard. AU - Rutgers, Mark. AU - Eberhard, Stephan. AU - Drapier, Dominique. AU - Wollman, Francis André. AU - Choquet, Yves. PY - 2020/4/1. Y1 - 2020/4/1. N2 - In the green alga Chlamydomonas (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), chloroplast gene expression is tightly regulated posttranscriptionally by gene-specific trans-acting protein factors. Here, we report the identification of the octotricopeptide repeat protein MTHI1, which is critical for the biogenesis of chloroplast ATP synthase oligomycin-sensitive chloroplast coupling factor. Unlike most trans-acting factors characterized so far in Chlamydomonas, which control the expression of a single gene, MTHI1 targets two distinct transcripts: it is required for the accumulation and translation of atpH mRNA, encoding a subunit of ...
We present a new Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagellar mutant in which central pair projections are missing and the central pair microtubules are twisted along the length of the flagellum. We have named this mutant tcp1 for twisted central pair. Immunoblots using an antibody that recognizes the heavy chain of sea urchin kinesin reveal that a 70 kDa protein present in wild-type and pf18 (central pairless) axonemes is absent in tcp1, suggesting the presence of an uncharacterized kinesin associated with the central pair apparatus. We demonstrate that the kinesin-like protein Klp1 is not attached to central pair microtubules in tcp1, but rather is located in, or is part of, a region we have termed the internal axonemal matrix. It is proposed that this matrix acts as a scaffold for axonemal proteins that may also be associated with the central pair apparatus.. ...
We report here on the UV-induced vanadate-dependent cleavage of the alpha and beta heavy chains of the outer arm dynein from Chlamydomonas flagella. Both polypeptides are cleaved at a single site (termed the V1 site) by UV irradiation in the presence of Mg2+, ATP, and vanadate. The alpha chain yields fragments of Mr 290,000 and 190,000. Fragments of Mr 255,000 and 185,000 are obtained from the beta chain. Ultraviolet irradiation of the alpha and beta chains in the presence of vanadate and Mn2+ (but no nucleotide) induces cleavage of both molecules at sites (termed the V2 sites) distinct from the V1 sites. The single V2 site within the beta chain is located 75,000 daltons from the site of V1 cleavage within the Mr 255,000 V1 fragment. The alpha chain contains three distinct sites of V2 cleavage; all are located within the Mr 290,000 V1 fragment, 60,000, 90,000, and 100,000 daltons from the site of V1 cleavage. From these studies, we estimate the masses of the alpha and beta heavy chains to be 480,000 and
The Chlamydomonas Gopher Server at Duke University offers the following files: A description of the Chlamydomonas Genetics Center Catalogue of Chlamydomonas strains available from the Center List of plasmids available from the Center List of genes that have been sequenced from Chlamydomonas species also from Volvox and Dunaliella Recent literature citations Addresses of colleagues Nuclear genetic maps, in postscript and Macintosh bin-hex formats Chloroplast and mitochondrial genetic/physical maps, same formats Methods files This server can be accessed through the Duke University Computer ASSIST Center Gopher, who have kindly provided the following access information: Name=Duke University Computer ASSIST Center Type=1 Port=70 Path= Host=gopher.duke.edu If you are not running a gopher server, you can connect by pointing your gopher client to gopher.duke.edu, port 70. If you do not have access to a gopher client, gopher client and server software is available via anonymous ftp from ...
The radial spoke is known to play a role in the mechanical movement of the flagellum/cilium. For example, mutant organisms lacking properly functioning radial spokes have flagella and cilia that are immotile. Radial spokes also influence the cilium "waveform"; that is, the exact bending pattern the cilium repeats. How the radial spoke carries out this function is poorly understood. Radial spokes are believed to interact with both the central pair microtubules and the dynein arms, perhaps in a way that maintains the rhythmic activation of the dynein motors. For example, one of the radial spoke subunits, RSP3, is an anchor protein predicted to hold another protein called protein kinase A (PKA). PKA would theoretically then be able to activate/inactivate the adjacent dynein arms via its kinase activity. However, the identities and functions of the many radial spoke subunits are just beginning to be elucidated. ...
The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possesses a CO2 concentratingmechanism (CCM) which helps in successful acclimationto low CO2 conditions. Current models of the CCM postulate that aseries of ion transporters bring HCO3- from outside the cell to thethylakoid lumen, where the carbonic anhydrase CAH3 dehydratesaccumulated HCO3- to CO2, raising the CO2 concentration forRubisco. Previously, HCO3- transporters have been identified atboth the plasma membrane and the chloroplast envelope, butthe transporter thought to be on the thylakoid membrane hasnot been identified. Three paralogous genes (BST1, BST2, BST3)belonging to the bestrophin family have been found to be upregulatedin low CO2 conditions, and their expression is controlledby CIA5, a transcription factor that controls many CCM genes.YFP fusions demonstrate that all three proteins are located onthe thylakoid membrane, and interactome studies indicate thatthey might associate with chloroplast CCM components. A singlemutant defective in ...
Fusion of green fluorescent protein (GFP) to proteins is a powerful method to investigate dynamic processes in vivo. The green flagellate Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model organism for studying the eukaryotic flagella. In this work the GFP-tagging of proteins was employed in order to analyse proteins of the flagellar basal apparatus. Striated fiber assembling (SFA), centrin and deflagellation induced protein of 13 kDa (DIP13) were tagged with GFP at the C-terminal domain. In addition SFA was tagged at the N-terminal domain. The chimeric genes were stably transformed in C. reinhardtii. SFA is the mayor component of the striated microtubule associated fibers (SMAFS). GFP tagged SFA was incorporated into this fibers. N-terminal tagged SFA had similar properties like the wild-type protein. The length of the fibers increased with the strength of expression. The head domain of SFA is essential for fiber formation and photobleaching experiments did not show a pronounced dynamic of the fibers. The ...
View Stock Photo of The Green Algae Chlamydomonas With Its Two Flagella Sem X6000. Find premium, high-resolution photos at Getty Images.
... and retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT). particles. The IFT particles then associate into linear arrays known as IFT trains (Pigino et al., 2009), which move processively from the base of the flagellum out to the tip. This anterograde transport Mouse monoclonal to CD74(PE) is driven by kinesin-2, a heterotrimeric complex composed of the FLA10 and FLA8 motor subunits (Walther et al., 1994) and the buy BS-181 HCl kinesin-associated protein KAP (Cole et al., 1993; Mueller et al., 2005). After their anterograde motion to the flagellar tip, IFT particles rearrange into a new set of IFT trains that move back to the base of the flagellum. This retrograde transport is powered by cytoplasmic dynein 1b, a large complex composed of the heavy chain motor subunit DHC1b (Pazour et al., 1999a; Porter et al., 1999; Signor et al., 1999) and numerous smaller components including D1bLIC (Perrone et al., 2003; Schafer et al., 2003; Hou ...
Our initial mapping data placed Mcd4 into two possible locations. In both cases, it was desirable to generate bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs for eventual complementation, as well as additional markers. As a case study, we describe how BAC contigs can be extended using Chlamydomonas resources and our experience in generating site-specific markers.. Several BAC libraries have been constructed for Chlamydomonas, two of which are available through the Clemson Genomics Institute (http://www.genome.clemson.edu/groups/bac/). In addition, BAC contigs (http://www.biology.duke.edu/chlamy_genome/BAC/index.html) have been assembled for most of the STS and RFLP markers. In the case of mcd4, Gsp1 resides on scaffold 2 and CNA45 on scaffold 66. A 41-BAC contig exists for scaffold 2 covering approximately 1,000 kb (R. Nguyen, personal communication), and a smaller contig is linked to scaffold 66 and CNA45 (Fig. 6). An unknown amount of DNA separates scaffolds 2 and 66; such discontinuities in the ...
Buy RSPH4A elisa kit, Human radial spoke head 4 homolog A (Chlamydomonas) ELISA Kit-NP_001010892.1 (MBS9339167) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
Chlamydomonas PsbK protein: required for the stability of the photosystem II complex and essential for photoautotrophic growth; stability requirements of the photosynthetic complexes differ between cyanobacteria and C. reinhardtii; MW 4 kDa; has been sequenced
This model does not account for two published observations: An mt+ strain carrying the MID gene transposed to an autosome differentiates as minus, as do mt+ cells transformed with the MID gene, even though neither possesses a copy of the MTD1 gene (Ferris and Goodenough 1997). To reconcile these observations with the results reported here, we are led to propose that plus gametes express a system, the "MTD1-equivalent system," that is functionally equivalent to the "MTD1 system" but achieves this outcome without requiring the Mtd1 protein itself. When MID is introduced into a plus background, the MTD1-equivalent system enables sufficiently high MID expression to allow transformants to undergo minus differentiation, albeit success is usually incomplete (see results and Ferris and Goodenough 1997), meaning that the MTD1-equivalent system is not repressible by Mid. Importantly, at least one essential gene in the posited plus MTD-equivalent system must be resident in the MT+ locus. If the system were ...
https://version-10-5.string-db.org/cgi/network.pl?all_channels_on=1&block_structure_pics_in_bubbles=0&direct_neighbor=1&hide_disconnected_nodes=0&hide_node_labels=0&network_display_mode=svg&network_flavor=evidence&targetmode=proteins&identifier=3055. ...
https://version-10-5.string-db.org/cgi/network.pl?all_channels_on=1&block_structure_pics_in_bubbles=0&direct_neighbor=1&hide_disconnected_nodes=0&hide_node_labels=0&network_display_mode=svg&network_flavor=evidence&targetmode=proteins&identifier=3055. ...
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
When mating type plus and minus gametes of Chlamydomonas are mixed, they agglutinate with each other via their flagella, fuse, then initiate the zygote formation program which includes synthesis of the zygote cell wall, fusion of nuclei and chloroplasts, and the digestion of chloroplast DNA from the minus parent. The mRNAs from gamete and zygote cells was isolated and hybridized to cDNA-macroarray filters both to identify new genes expressed during the mating reaction and the early zygote formation process and to analyze the gene expression programs that underlie these sexual processes. Twenty-one novel genes were identified in this screen, designated as EZY (early zygote expressed) genes. The EZY genes included genes encoding proteins whose function is unknown, and genes encoding proteins that appear to be involved in processes such as cell wall synthesis, gene expression, intracellular trafficking or secretion, and vesicular transport in zygotic cells. All of the EZY genes were strongly ...
Kutta, Roger J., Hofinger, Edith S. A., Preuss, Hendrik, Bernhardt, Günther und Dick, Bernhard (2008) Blue-light induced interaction of LOV domains from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology 9 (12), S. 1931-1938 ...
Reactivity: Bat, REACT_Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Cow and more. Compare 95 different DNAJB6 Antibodies. Buy directly at antibodies-online.com!
I just got my marks back, and they are not the greatest to say the least... |br|I failed my calculus course with a 47, and I only got a 58 in biology 1001A. |br
Aren. We spoke a while ago. I am 48 y/o. No other medical conditions. I've felt like Ive had a UTI since the beginning - Answered by a verified Doctor
A summary of Thus Spoke Zarathustra in s Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900). Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
In the run-up to World Aids Day, Willemien Brummer spoke to Zackie Achmat about his own depression and the interaction between the virus and his soul.
Cell growth is tightly coupled to nutrient availability. The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase transmits nutritional and environmental cues to the cellular growth machinery. TOR functions in two distinct multiprotein complexes, termed TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2). While the structure and functions of TORC1 are highly conserved in all eukaryotes, including algae and plants, TORC2 core proteins seem to be missing in photosynthetic organisms. TORC1 controls cell growth by promoting anabolic processes, including protein synthesis and ribosome biogenesis, and inhibiting catabolic processes such as autophagy. Recent studies identified rapamycin-sensitive TORC1 signaling regulating cell growth, autophagy, lipid metabolism, and central metabolic pathways in the model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The central role that microalgae play in global biomass production, together with the high biotechnological potential of these organisms in biofuel production, has drawn attention
Read "Characterization of the LI818 polypeptide from the green unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Ergosterol is the major sterol found in the membranes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. While past studies have identified some ergosterol mutants in C. reinhardtii, very little is known about sterol biosynthesis pathways in this species. With the elucidation of the Chlamydomonas genome, bioinformatics analysis has allowed us to determine potential genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. With this knowledge, a working model of the pathway was designed for future analysis. Several of the ergosterol biosynthetic genes were analyzed in respect to their role and involvement in flagellar regeneration. These genes were upregulated during the regrowth of the flagella. Also Chlamydomonas strains lacking flagella were analyzed by Q-RT PCR to determine what role ergosterol biosynthetic genes played in the absence of their flagella. Finally, one of the genes with homology to the yeast sterol C-5 desaturase, ERG3, was chosen for further analysis. To test whether ERG3 of C. reinhardtii had a similar function, yeast
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an ideal model organism for studies of ciliary function and assembly. In assays for biological and biochemical effects of various factors on flagellar structure and function, synchronous culture is advantageous for minimizing variability. Here, we have characterized a method in which 100% synchronization is achieved with respect to flagellar length but not with respect to the cell cycle. The method requires inducing flagellar regeneration by amputation of the entire cell population and limiting regeneration time. This results in a maximally homogeneous distribution of flagellar lengths at 3 h postamputation. We found that time-limiting new protein synthesis during flagellar synchronization limits variability in the unassembled pool of limiting flagellar protein and variability in flagellar length without affecting the range of cell volumes. We also found that long- and short-flagella mutants that regenerate normally require longer and ...
The molecular mechanism(s) responsible for posttranscriptional gene silencing and RNA interference remain poorly understood. We have cloned a gene (Mut6) from the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that is required for the silencing of a transgene and two transposon families.Mut6 encodes a protein that is highly homologous to RNA helicases of the DEAH-box family. This protein is necessary for the degradation of certain aberrant RNAs, such as improperly processed transcripts, which are often produced by transposons and some transgenes. ...
Cell biologists are becoming increasingly aware that cilia and flagella are important sensory organelles, which detect changes in the extracellular environment and convey these signals to the cell body. The biflagellate green alga, Chlamydomonas, is a model organism for the study of flagella function and has allowed researchers to link ciliary dysfunction to a range of human genetic disorders. We are using molecular, biochemical and cell physiological techniques to study signalling processes in Chlamydomonas flagella. We have developed techniques to image Ca2+ in both the cytosol and the flagella of Chlamydomonas and have recently demonstrated that intraflagellar Ca2+ elevations regulate the important process of intraflagellar transport (IFT) (Collingridge et al, 2013). This project aims to understand the mechanisms that generate Ca2+ signals in flagella and how they act to regulate the transport of flagellar proteins ...
The data presented here suggest that 3′ end processing may be required for translation of atpB and rbcLmRNAs in Chlamydomonas chloroplasts. Unprocessed atpB transcripts, defined as those that do not accumulate as an abundant size class of approximately 2 kb, were only present in nonpolysomal fractions. Processed mRNAs were present in both polysomal and nonpolysomal fractions. Since the 3′ ends of most chloroplast transcripts are generated from longer pre-mRNAs by exo- and/or endonucleolytic mechanisms (17, 36, 37, 44, 47), this 3′ processing apparatus may interact with or signal the translational machinery.. Our ability to detect a heterogeneous collection of putative processing intermediates or incorrectly processed transcripts for atpBand rbcL suggests that these molecules are relatively stable in the chloroplast. When they were analyzed by RNase protection, it was possible to detect partially processed transcripts in theChlamydomonas chloroplast petD-trnR region (29), and in certain ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Scaffold subunits support associated subunit assembly in the Chlamydomonas ciliary nexin-dynein regulatory complex. AU - Gui, Long. AU - Song, Kangkang. AU - Tritschler, Douglas. AU - Bower, Raqual. AU - Yan, Si. AU - Dai, Aguang. AU - Augspurger, Katherine. AU - Sakizadeh, Jason. AU - Grzemska, Magdalena. AU - Ni, Thomas. AU - Porter, Mary E.. AU - Nicastro, Daniela. PY - 2019/11/12. Y1 - 2019/11/12. N2 - The nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC) in motile cilia and flagella functions as a linker between neighboring doublet microtubules, acts to stabilize the axonemal core structure, and serves as a central hub for the regulation of ciliary motility. Although the N-DRC has been studied extensively using genetic, biochemical, and structural approaches, the precise arrangement of the 11 (or more) N-DRC subunits remains unknown. Here, using cryo-electron tomography, we have compared the structure of Chlamydomonas wild-type flagella to that of strains with specific DRC subunit ...
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii excels at acclimating to a changing environment. We analyzed expression patterns of its three genomes in cells grown under light-dark cycles. Nearly 85% of transcribed genes show differential expression, with different sets of transcripts being up-regulated over the course of the day to coordinate cellular growth before undergoing cell division. Parallel measurements of select metabolites and pigments, physiological parameters and a subset of proteins allow us to infer metabolic events and to evaluate the impact of the transcriptome on the proteome. Among new findings is the observation that Chlamydomonas exhibits low respiratory activity at night and relies instead on fermentative metabolism; we propose that the ferredoxin FDX9 acts as the electron donor to fermentative hydrogenases. The light stress responsive genes PSBS, LHCSR1 and LHCSR3 all show an acute response to light at dawn under abrupt dark-to light transitions. LHCSR3 genes also ...
Veja Foto de stock de Chlamydomonas Are Common Unicellular Green Algae With Two Flagella Sem. Encontre fotografias premium e de alta resolução na Getty Images.
The flagella connector (FC) of procyclic trypanosomes is a mobile, transmembrane junction important in providing cytotactic morphogenetic information to the daughter cell. Quantitative analyses of FC positioning along the old flagellum, involving direct observations and use of the MPM2 anti-phosphoprotein monoclonal reveals a `stop point is reached on the old flagellum which correlates well with the initiation of basal body migration and kinetoplast segregation. This demonstrates further complexities of the FC and its movement in morphogenetic events in trypanosomes than have hitherto been described. We used intraflagellar transport RNAi mutants to ablate the formation of a new flagellum. Intriguingly the FC could still move, indicating that a motor function beyond the new flagellum is sufficient to move it. When such a FC moves, it drags a sleeve of new flagellar membrane out of the flagellar pocket. This axoneme-less flagellar membrane maintains appropriate developmental relationships to the ...
MicroRNAs play an important role in abiotic stress responses in higher plants and animals, but their role in stress adaptation in algae remains unknown. In this study, the expression of identified and putative miRNAs in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction; some of the miRNAs (Cre-miR906-3p) were up-regulated, whereas others (Cre-miR910) were downregulated when the species was subjected to multiple abiotic stresses. With degradome sequencing data, we also identified ATP4 (the d-subunit of ATP synthase) and NCR2 (NADPH: cytochrome P450 reductase) as one of the several targets of Cre-miR906-3p and Cre-miR910, respectively. Q-PCR data indicated that ATP4, which was expressed inversely in relation to Cre-miR906-3p under stress conditions. Overexpressing of Cre-miR906-3p enhanced resistance to multiple stresses; conversely, overexpressing of ATP4 produced the opposite effect. These data of Q-PCR, degradome sequencing and adaptation of overexpressing ...
In this article, we combine multi-level profiling methods with bioinformatic and theoretical modeling approaches to characterize the molecular repertoire of C. reinhardtii under reference conditions. We analyzed and integrated (i) a combination of database resources, such as existing genome annotations from JGI v3.1, EST collections, six-frame translation of the genomic sequence, protein domain scanning, and pathway annotation information; (ii) systematic high-resolution shotgun proteomics for high-throughput protein identification; (iii) systematic metabolite profiling and projection of identified metabolites to the reconstructed metabolic draft network in Chlamydomonas on the basis of existing gene annotation; and (iv) structural modeling of the reconstructed metabolic network to identify minimum extension pathways on the basis of the presence of identified metabolites.. MapMan classification of the predicted Chlamydomonas protein set and comparison with other organisms yielded information for ...
The observation that the membranes of flagella are enriched in sterols and sphingolipids has led to the hypothesis that flagella might be enriched in raft-forming lipids. However, a detailed lipidomic analysis of flagellar membranes is not available. Novel protocols to detach and isolate intact flagella from Trypanosoma brucei procyclic forms in combination with reverse-phase liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry allowed us to determine the phospholipid composition of flagellar membranes relative to whole cells. Our analyses revealed that phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, ceramide and the sphingolipids inositol phosphorylceramide and sphingomyelin are enriched in flagella relative to whole cells. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol are strongly depleted in flagella. Within individual glycerophospholipid classes, we observed a preference for ether-type over diacyl-type molecular species in membranes of flagella. Our study provides direct ...
This body of work presents mutagenesis studies conducted on two c-type cytochromes from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Cytochrome f, a unique c-type cytochrome, is investigated in regards to its redox potential, the dependence of the redox potential, and the thermal stability of the protein. The mutations made were Y1F, Y9F, Y160F, Y160L, R156L, and R156K. The residues that were mutated surround the heme. It was found that, relative to the wild-type, only the Y160L and R156 mutants showed any difference in midpoint potential at pH 7. Wild-type and mutants both had a midpoint potential that was dependent upon pH indicating that none of the investigated residues are responsible for the alkaline transition seen in cytochrome f. The stability of each of the mutants also did not vary from that of the wild-type protein. The arginine mutants were unsuitable to be investigated by current methods in regards to the pH dependence of the midpoint potential and stability. Cytochrome c6, a typical class I, c-type
The rhodopsin nature of the photoreceptor for the behavioural light responses in Chlamydomonas has originally been revealed by action spectroscopy. Meanwhile most physiological experiments and the identification of all-trans-retinal in cell extracts favour that this chlamyrhodopsin contains an all-t …
The maintenance of flagellar length is believed to require both anterograde and retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT). However, it is difficult to uncouple the functions of retrograde transport from anterograde, as null mutants in dynein heavy ch
Olmsted, J; Witman, G; Carlson, K; and Rosenbaum, J L., "Comparison of the microtubule proteins of neuroblastoma cells, brain, and chlamydomonas flagella." (1971). Subject Strain Bibliography 1971. 942 ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The microtubule axoneme is an iconic structure in eukaryotic cell biology and the defining structure in all eukaryotic flagella (or cilia). Flagella occur in taxa spanning the breadth of eukaryotic evolution, which indicates that the organelles origin predates the radiation of extant eukaryotes from a last common ancestor. During evolution, the flagellar architecture has been subject to both elaboration and moderation. Even conservation of 9+2 architecture-the classic microtubule configuration seen in most axonemes-belies surprising variation in protein content. Classically considered as organelles of motility that support cell swimming or fast movement of material across a cell surface, it is now clear that the functions of flagella are also far broader; for instance, the involvement of flagella in sensory perception and protein secretion has recently been made evident in both protists and animals. Here, we review and discuss, in an evolutionary context, recent advances in our understanding of ...
1FCT: NMR structures of ferredoxin chloroplastic transit peptide from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii promoted by trifluoroethanol in aqueous solution.
Technology Networks is an internationally recognised publisher that provides access to the latest scientific news, products, research, videos and posters.
The Grossman lab is seeking a highly motivated, detail-oriented undergraduate student to assist in various aspects of algal biological research. Projects in the lab are focused on improving our understanding of photosynthesis and metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (model alga).. The undergraduate student research assistant will be expected to help with the following:. -Media preparation. -General lab upkeep and maintenance. -Strain propagation and cryopreservation. -Strain genotyping and phenotyping. -Data analysis. A strong candidate will have previous laboratory research experience and be familiar with a molecular biology lab setting. Student candidate will be trained to grow Chlamydomonas and to conduct experiments in molecular biology, genetics, and biochemistry. Student will initially work together with a group, but will also be given the opportunity to work independently.. This is a 10-20 hour per week position, no benefits.. The position could be filled as soon as March 15, 2014. ...
Now that you understand the terminology used surrounding OEE, I believe you will want to reap the benefits by implementing OEE in your plant. I recommend four ways to start the transformation:. 1) Start small. Pick a single area first, youll want to start small, because that will allow you to compare multiple areas once you begin using OEE across operations. If you can prove success on the line where you implemented OEE, it would help persuade other decision-makers to implement OEE across the plant.. 2) Identify metrics to use. Once youve selected the OEE/TPM framework, youll need to select the most appropriate metrics to use to get the most productivity out of that framework. Sure, youre measuring availability, productivity and quality, but theres a lot of freedom under those measurements to define what constitutes planned work time or unplanned worktime. Any changes will affect your entire formula, so identify your metrics carefully. These metrics need to be planned from the start and ...
In this thesis, I studied the cell-size control in Chlamydomonas and contributed to the below two projects. First, preliminary results show that cdkg1 mutants reduce cell division and show large-cell phenotype. CDKG1 interacts with cyclinD3, and phosphorylates MAT3/RB. CDKG1 concentration peaks at S/M, and scales with mother cell size. CDKG1 concentration per nucleus decreases as cells divide. My data show that CDKG1 mis-expression has a small-cell phenotype that may be due to the inability of cells to eliminate the protein at the end of S/M phase. By measuring the N/C ratio during cell division I ruled out the dilution model for CDKG1 elimination and was able to show that CDKG1 must be actively degraded with each round of cell division. We were able to conclude that CDKG1 functions as a titratable regulator that couples cell size to cell-cycle progression. Second, with an in vivo nuclei marker ble-GFP, I measured N/C in wild-type, cell-size mutants, and vegetative diploids of Chlamydomonas. I concluded
Joachim Frank (Columbia University, New York, USA) is a pioneer of single particle reconstruction, which is the most used reconstruction method for 3DEM structures in EMDB and EM entries in PDB. And also, he is a develper of Spider, which is one of the most famous software in this field, and is used for some EM Navigor data (e.g. map projection/slice images ...
ARM assembly for eVC with the Mono Jit macros; Author: Sjoerd_B; Updated: 14 Jul 2007; Section: Windows Phone 7/8; Chapter: Mobile Development; Updated: 14 Jul 2007
What kind of diseases are they? Normal mammal development requires that maternal and paternal gene sets differed functionally. In certain genes, only the maternal copy should work. And in others - only the paternal copy should. The mechanism regulating functional differences of parental genomes is called genomic imprinting. This is a complicated and multi-step process, which starts in the parental gametal cells, where special enzymes mark and disconnect the required genes (a human being has about 70 of them), and continues after impregnation. Heavy pathologies can be caused by failure of such marking at some stage, and several genomic imprinting diseases are known with human beings. Genomic imprinting reacts to external factors, and the researchers expected that the auxiliary reproductive technologies could influence it. The first example of such influence was discovered in experiments on animals artificial impregnation. The "large posterity syndrome" sometimes develops with big horned cattle ...
AS06 175, HSP70B | stromal alfa-HSP70 antibodies, HSP70B antibody, heat shock, chloroplast co-chaperone HSP70 chlamydomonas reinhardtii antibodies; CGE1 antibody;
Engel BD*, Ludington WB* and Marshall WF. (2009) Intraflagellar transport particle size scales inversely with flagellar length: revisiting the balance point model. Journal of Cell Biology. 187:1 ...
Shop our huge selection of BMX Spokes and Spoke Nipples at Albes BMX. Choose from Stainless Steel Spokes, Titanium Spokes, Alloy Nipples and more. SHOP NOW!
Trueing a wheel after replacing a broken spoke is the easiest wheel-trueing job, because you often only have to adjust the one new spoke. Mark the new spoke somehow so you can identify it. Once the spoke is getting tight, continue to tighten it bit by bit, spinning the wheel to check for true. If your skills are limited, the best is the enemy of the good. You may make things worse if you try to correct remaining minor wobbles by adjusting other spokes. Try to figure out why the spoke broke. Were all the spokes too loose? If you are skillful at wheelbuilding, you may be able to strengthen it by increasing spoke tension. If the wheel is true but spoke tension is uneven, then the spokes were adjusted to pull an untrue rim into line, resulting in an invisible problem. A good repair would then require all the spokes to be loosened, to reveal the natural shape of the rim -- then either straighten it, if possible (see below), or replace the rim, and finally, tension and true the wheel.. Lacking tools ...
Motility is achieved in most bacterial species by the flagellar apparatus. It consists of dozens of different proteins with thousands of individual subunits. The published literature about bacterial chemotaxis and flagella ...
Need an Invacare Wheel Assembly w/Alum Handrim 8 Spoke Pneu 24 In 9153651275? Cascade Healthcare has Invacare Wheel Assembly w/Alum Handrim 8 Spoke Pneu 24 In 9153651275 - 1165878
Your like the fujitsu lifebook lh532 service manual hyundai dragon ball series yonkis, naruto shippuden ultimate ninja storm 4 mugen 7 spoke
In this week’s episode, we spoke with a patient and his doctor about genomic testing and how it can change treatment outcomes for patients with cancer.
List of 27 causes for Absent abdominal reflexes and Babinskis reflex, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a key model organism for studying photosynthesis and oxidative stress in unicellular eukaryotes. Using a forward genetics approach, we have identified and characterized a mutant x32, which lacks a predicted protein named CGLD1 (Conserved in Green Lineage and Diatom 1) in GreenCut2, under normal and stress conditions. We show that loss of CGLD1 resulted in minimal photoautotrophic growth and PSII activity in the organism. We observed reduced amount of PSII complex and core subunits in the x32 mutant based on blue-native (BN)/PAGE and immunoblot analysis. Moreover, x32 exhibited increased sensitivity to high-light stress and altered tolerance to different reactive oxygenic species (ROS) stress treatments, i.e. decreased resistance to H2O2/or tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) and increased tolerance to neutral red (NR) and rose bengal (RB) that induce the formation of singlet oxygen, respectively. Further analysis via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enzymatic properties of the ferredoxin-dependent nitrite reductase from chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Evidence for hydroxylamine as a late intermediate in ammonia production. AU - Hirasawa, Masakazu. AU - Tripathy, Jatindra N.. AU - Sommer, Frederik. AU - Somasundaram, Ramasamy. AU - Chung, Jung Sung. AU - Nestander, Matthew. AU - Kruthiventi, Mahima. AU - Zabet-Moghaddam, Masoud. AU - Johnson, Michael K.. AU - Merchant, Sabeeha S.. AU - Allen, James Paul. AU - Knaff, David B.. PY - 2010/1. Y1 - 2010/1. N2 - The ferredoxin-dependent nitrite reductase from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged recombinant protein, and purified to homogeneity. The spectra, kinetic properties and substrate-binding parameters of the C. reinhardtii enzyme are quite similar to those of the ferredoxin-dependent spinach chloroplast nitrite reductase. Computer modeling, based on the published structure of spinach nitrite reductase, predicts ...
The time course of and the influence of light intensity and light quality on the induction of a mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was characterized using western and northern blots. This CA was expressed only under low-CO2 conditions (ambient air). In asynchronously grown cells, the mRNA was detected 15 min after transfer from air containing 5% CO2 to ambient air, and the 21-kD polypeptide was detected on western blots after 1 h. When transferred back to air containing 5% CO2, the mRNA disappeared within 1 h and the polypeptide was degraded within 3 d. Photosynthesis was required for the induction in asynchronous cultures. The induction increased with light up to 500 mu mol m(-2) s(-1), where saturation occurred. In cells grown synchronously, however, expression of the mitochondrial CA was also detected in darkness. Under such conditions the expression followed a circadian rhythm, with mRNA appearing in the dark 30 min before the light ...
The effect of salt on the green alga Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl (UWO241) was investigated. This physchrophilic alga was discovered in a permanently ice-covered lake in Antarctica in the beginning of the 90s and was then classified as Chlamydomonas subcaudata. A phylogenetic study by Pocock et al. (2004) revealed that this alga was in fact a C.raudensis species. The latter type species was first discovered in an alpine meadow in Czech republic and kept in the SAG culture collection as strain number 49.72. The aim of this study was to use the potential high sensitivity of the extremophile to understand the effect of salinity on photosynthesis of phytoplankton in the oceans, where microalgae play a key role in the carbon cycle on earth. It has to be determined if global warming, which is leading to the melting of the north ice cap and thus to the dilution of the North Atlantic ocean will have a negative impact on algal populations. This study lays the foundations for a larger study, which ...
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a zinc containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of CO2 and HCO3-. There are three evolutionarily unrelated CA families designated alpha, beta and gamma CA. Vertebrates have members of the alpha CA family, while higher plants, algae and cyanobacteria have members belonging to all three CA families. In the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, five CAs have previously been identified including three alpha CAs and two beta CAs. This dissertation describes the identification and characterization of new CA genes from C. reinhardtii. Four new CA or CA like genes have been discovered including two beta CAs and two gamma CAs. Three CAs were investigated further including the alpha CA Cah3, one of the new beta CAs, Cah6; and a new gamma CA designated Gclp1 for gamma CA like protein. Cah3 is an alpha CA located in the thylakoid. Past studies with two Cah3 mutants, ca-1 and cia3 have shown that Cah3 plays an important role in the CO2 concentrating ...
en] Photosynthetic activities were analyzed in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mitochondrial mutants affected in different complexes (I, III, IV, I + III, and I + IV) of the respiratory chain. Oxygen evolution curves showed a positive relationship between the apparent yield of photosynthetic linear electron transport and the number of active proton-pumping sites in mitochondria. Although no significant alterations of the quantitative relationships between major photosynthetic complexes were found in the mutants, 77 K fluorescence spectra showed a preferential excitation of photosystem I (PSI) compared with wild type, which was indicative of a shift toward state 2. This effect was correlated with high levels of phosphorylation of light-harvesting complex II polypeptides, indicating the preferential association of light-harvesting complex II with PSI. The transition to state 1 occurred in untreated wild-type cells exposed to PSI light or in 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea-treated cells exposed ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
In this report, we present novel evidence linking FLP to high-affinity Fe transport and propose that FLP is a ferroxidase, functioning in the reoxidation of Fe2+ before its uptake into the cell. Initial evidence in support of this hypothesis comes from the deduced FLP amino acid sequence. FLP contains two multicopper oxidase I and one multicopper oxidase signature II motifs. In addition, the amino acid sequence of FLP shows the highest homology to multicopper oxidases in mammals (HEPH and ceruloplasmin) and yeast (FET3). These proteins are ferroxidases that are themselves involved in high-affinity Fe assimilation (Stearman et al., 1996;Askwith and Kaplan, 1998; Mukhopadhyay et al., 1998; Attieh et al., 1999; Vulpe et al., 1999). The involvement of FLP in Fe homeostasis is evident from the regulation of its synthesis. Both the transcription of the FLP gene and synthesis of FLP are greatly increased in Fe-deficient cells and reversed after resupply of Fe. Although we have not demonstrated the ...
Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that are expressed on the surface of most cells in the mammalian body. Intraflagellar transport (IFT), the process by which cilia are formed and maintained, was first described in Chlamydomonas, and proteins required for IFT concentrate at the base of cilia, where they assemble into large protein complexes called IFT particles (Kozminski et al., 1995; Piperno and Mead, 1997). The IFT particles are trafficked along the axoneme by a heterotrimeric kinesin-II and a cytoplasmic dynein in the anterograde and retrograde directions, respectively. Cilia and flagella have diverse functions ranging from fluid and cell movement to mechanosensation and sensory perception (Davenport and Yoder, 2005; Scholey, 2003).. In mammals, Kif3a is a component of the kinesin-II motor protein complex required for cilia assembly while Ift88 (also known as Tg737 or polaris) is a core component of the IFT particle (Cole et al., 1998; Pazour et al., 2000; Taulman et al., 2001). Mice ...
Cilia and flagella are cell surface organelles with microtubule-based axonemal cores. Although these organelles have been known to biologists for centuries, only in the last five years has it been recognized that cilia are crucial for mammalian embryonic development as well as for the function of multiple adult organs (Pan et al., 2005). Many potential ciliary proteins have been identified in various species in recent years using biochemical, comparative genomic and proteomic methods. Nevertheless, the spectrum of factors required for the formation and/or function of cilia, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of cilia biogenesis, have yet to be fully revealed.. Two multiprotein complexes, the intraflagellar transport (IFT, complex A and B) complexes, are present in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Rosenbaum and Witman, 2002). The IFT complexes move within the flagella, suggesting that they are likely to be involved in the transportation of molecules inside the ...
in Molecular and General Genetics (1998), 259(3), 294-8. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mutants defective in the cytochrome pathway of respiration lack the capacity to grow under heterotrophic conditions (in darkness on acetate). In the dark- strain duM18, a + 1 ... [more ▼]. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mutants defective in the cytochrome pathway of respiration lack the capacity to grow under heterotrophic conditions (in darkness on acetate). In the dark- strain duM18, a + 1 T addition in a run of four Ts, located at codon 145 of the mitochondrial cox1 gene encoding subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase, is responsible for the mutant phenotype. A leaky revertant (su11) that grows heterotrophically at a lower rate than wild-type cells was isolated from dum18. Its respiration sensitivity to cyanide was low and its cytochrome c oxidase activity was only 4% of that of the wild-type enzyme. Meiotic progeny obtained from crosses between revertant and wild-type cells inherited the phenotype of the mt- ...
In nearly all of the contexts in biology in which groups of cilia or flagella are found they exhibit some form of synchronized behaviour. Since the experimental observations of Lord Rothschild in the late 1940s and G.I. Taylors celebrated waving-sheet model, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony is due in large part to hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. But it is only in the last few years that suitable methods have been developed to test this hypothesis. Those methods have led to the discovery of significant intrinsic biochemical noise in the beating of eukaryotic flagella. This stochasticity occurs at the level of individual beats, with interesting variations within the cycle, and is correlated and even recurrent, with memory extending to hundreds of beats. Possible biological origins of this behaviour will be discussed ...
3 Spoke Wheels, 3 Spoke Wheels Suppliers Directory - Find variety 3 Spoke Wheels Suppliers, Manufacturers, Companies from around the World at 5 spoke carbon wheel ,8 spoke white steel wheel ,tri spoke wheel, Bicycle Wheel
Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) can automatically generate 3D images with superior z-axis resolution, yielding data that needs minimal image registration and related post-processing. Obstacles blocking wider adoption of FIB-SEM include slow imaging speed and lack of long-term system stability, which caps the maximum possible acquisition volume. Here we present techniques that accelerate image acquisition while greatly improving FIB-SEM reliability, allowing the system to operate for months and generating continuously imaged volumes , 10(6) µm(3). These volumes are large enough for connectomics, where the excellent z resolution can help in tracing of small neuronal processes and accelerate the tedious and time-consuming human proofreading effort. Even higher resolution can be achieved on smaller volumes. We present example data sets from mammalian neural tissue, Drosophila brain, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to illustrate the power of this novel high-resolution technique ...
Bacteria also come within the division of thallophytes that are dependent on green plants, for they are a group of minute organisms without any cholorophyll. They are parasites or saprophytes and are usually single celled often with the power of movement in the same way as chlamydomonas. They increase by straightforward division of an old…
Potassium channel, KCN11. The UniProt entry included here is not complete. The correct gene ID is Cre06.g278111 in the Chlamydomonas genome database Phytozome. The complete sequence and description of its function are published by Xu et al. (2016). KCN11 is a 6 TMS organelle K+ channel found exclusively in the contractile vacuole. It is required for osmoregulation under hypotonic conditions (Xu et al. 2016 ...
"Chlamydomonas Ehrenberg, 1833: 288". algaeBASE. Retrieved 19 May 2013.. *^ "Spirogyra Link, 1820: 5". algaeBASE. Retrieved 19 ... J D, Rochaix (1998). The molecular biology of chloroplasts and mitochondria in Chlamydomonas. Dordrecht [u.a.]: Kluwer Acad. ... Transmission electron micrograph of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a green alga that contains a pyrenoid surrounded by starch. ... Chlamydomonas),[95] a ribbon-like spiral around the edges of the cell (e.g., Spirogyra),[96] or slightly twisted bands at the ...
anisogamous e.g. Chlamydomonas, Ulothrix or Ooulothrix e.g. Chlamydomonas , Volvox, Chara. Chlamydomonas has all three types of ... The following orders are typically recognised: Dunaliellales (e.g. Dunaliella) Volvocales (e.g. Volvox, Chlamydomonas) ...
"Radial spoke proteins of Chlamydomonas flagella". Journal of Cell Science. 119 (Pt 6): 1165-74. doi:10.1242/jcs.02811. PMC ...
Lessons from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiol. 127 (4): 1500-1507. doi:10.1104/pp.010807. PMC 1540183 . PMID 11743094 ...
Lessons from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiology. 127: 1500-1507. doi:10.1104/pp.010807. PMC 1540183 . PMID 11743094. ...
"Chlamydomonas Ehrenberg, 1833: 288". algaeBASE. Retrieved 19 May 2013. "Spirogyra Link, 1820: 5". algaeBASE. Retrieved 19 May ... J D, Rochaix (1998). The molecular biology of chloroplasts and mitochondria in Chlamydomonas. Dordrecht [u.a.]: Kluwer Acad. ... Chlamydomonas), a ribbon-like spiral around the edges of the cell (e.g., Spirogyra), or slightly twisted bands at the cell ... Required for Normal Pyrenoid Formation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant Physiology. 156 (2): 884-96. doi:10.1104/pp. ...
S. M. Miller (2010). "Volvox, Chlamydomonas, and the evolution of multicellularity". Nature Education. 3 (9): 65.. ...
Crutchfield A, Diller K, Brand J (1999). "Cryopreservation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyta)". European Journal of ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri). The latter implies that UVR8 potentially appeared before the evolutionary split ...
based on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome. It has 866 unique ORFs, 1862 metabolites, 2499 gene-enzyme-reaction-association ... a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of algae based on the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome". BMC Genomics. 12 Suppl 4: S5. ...
Crutchfield A, Diller K, Brand J (1999). "Cryopreservation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyta)". European Journal of ...
This location is one of the most southerly locations where red snow algae (Chlamydomonas sp., Chloromonas sp., and ... Chlamydomonas nivalis) are found. The location is favourable for vegetation growth because of warm summer temperatures. Its ...
2008). "Toxicity of silver nanoparticles to chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Environ Sci Technol. 42 (23): 8959-64. Bibcode:2008EnST ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) and archaea (e.g., Methanococcus jannaschii). The proteins are of about 450 amino acyl residues in ...
Harz, Hartmann; Hegemann, Peter (1991-06-06). "Rhodopsin-regulated calcium currents in Chlamydomonas". Nature. 351 (6326): 489- ... they could demonstrate that a single gene from the alga Chlamydomonas produced large photocurents when expressed in the oocyte ...
"Molecular Biology of the Cell". Johnson, KA; Rosenbaum, JL (1992). "Polarity of flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas". Journal ...
Photocurrents of the Chlorophyceae Heamatococcus pluvialis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were studied over many years in the ... Harz H, Hegemann P (June 1991). "Rhodopsin-regulated calcium currents in Chlamydomonas". Nature. 351 (6326): 489-491. doi: ... Channelrhodopsin-1 (ChR1) and Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) from the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are the first ... Kateriya, S. Fuhrmann, M. Hegemann, P.: Direct Submission: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii retinal binding protein (cop4) gene; ...
Ensuing studies 20 years after the identification of the same mutant strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii found that the ... When a photorespiratory mutant of the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was studied, the mutant strain was ... Suzuki, Kensaku; Marek, Laura Fredrick; Spalding, Martin H. (1990-05-01). "A Photorespiratory Mutant of Chlamydomonas ... Transcriptional Analysis of the Three Phosphoglycolate Phosphatase Genes in Wild Type and the pgp1 Mutant of Chlamydomonas ...
"Retrograde bilin signaling enables Chlamydomonas greening and phototrophic survival". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
The single celled green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, while not an embryophyte itself, contains a green-pigmented chloroplast ... The Molecular Biology of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria in Chlamydomonas. Dordrecht, Germany: Kluwer Academic. ISBN 978-0-7923- ...
"An energy balance from absorbed photons to new biomass for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlamydomonas acidophila under neutral ... In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Photosystem II produces in direct conversion of sunlight 80% of the electrons that end up in the ... Six years later, Hans Gaffron observed that the green photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, would sometimes produce ... Chlamydomonas moewusii is also a promising strain for the production of hydrogen.[19][20] ...
Staub M, Denes G (1966). "Mechanism of arginine biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardti. I Purification and properties of ...
Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (1967). Organelle development in Chlamydomonas reinhardii (PhD thesis). University of London. OCLC ... "Organelle Development in Chlamydomonas reinhardii". From 1967 to 1969, he was a guest investigator at Rockefeller University. ...
Chlamydomonas)". Bell SE, Mavila A, Salazar R, Bayless KJ, Kanagala S, Maxwell SA, Davis GE (August 2001). "Differential gene ...
Finst, Rip J.; Kim, Peter J.; Quarmby, Lynne M. (1998). "Genetics of the deflagellation pathway in Chlamydomonas". Genetics. ... Through her research using the single-celled ciliated green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism, Quarmby ... "The FA2 gene of Chlamydomonas encodes a NIMA family kinase with roles in cell cycle progression and microtubule severing during ...
... and central metabolic pathways in the model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The central role that microalgae ... 7. Control of Primary Metabolism by TOR in Chlamydomonas. The sensitivity of Chlamydomonas to rapamycin has been considered an ... The FKBP12 gene is highly conserved in Chlamydomonas, and an evolutionary analysis revealed that Chlamydomonas FKBP12 does not ... Chlamydomonas FKBP12 binds rapamycin both in vitro and in vivo, but its affinity to this drug is lower compared to yeast or ...
"Characterization of the LI818 polypeptide from the green unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Plant Molecular Biology" ... The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii LI818 gene represents a distant relative of the cabI/II genes that is regulated during the cell ... Regulation of accumulation of the major thylakoid polypeptides in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii y-1 at 25 º C and 38 º C ... Characterization of the LI818 polypeptide from the green unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Richard, Christian; ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Transcription Factor Database. *"Chlamydomonas", a song by Andy Offutt Irwin about the life cycle of ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[9]. Ecology[edit]. Widely distributed in freshwater or damp soil.[1]It is generally found in habitat ... Chlamydomonas is a genus of green algae consisting of about 325 species[1] all unicellular flagellates, found in stagnant water ... Chlamydomonass asexual reproduction occurs by zoospores, by aplanospores, by hypnospores or by a palmella stage;[10] sexual ...
... Dr. Morgan L. Vis vis-chia at oak.cats.ohiou.edu Sat Mar 9 19:19:19 EST 2002 *Previous message: ... The 10th International Conference on the Cell and Molecular Biology of Chlamydomonas will be held in Vancouver, Canada, June 11 ... Elizabeth Harris chlamy at duke.edu Chlamydomonas Genetics Center home page: http://www.biology.duke.edu/chlamy/ Resource ...
... Sara Cline via chlamy%40net.bio.net (by cline.228 from osu.edu). Thu May 5 18:31:52 EST 2011 * ... Hello, I was wondering if anyone had ever performed a Dot Blot of Chlamydomonas whole cell extract directly on PVDF or ...
The Chlamydomonas Gopher Server at Duke University offers the following files: A description of the Chlamydomonas Genetics ... Chlamydomonas gopher server. chlamy at HERCULES.ACPUB.DUKE.EDU chlamy at HERCULES.ACPUB.DUKE.EDU Mon Jul 12 12:14:02 EST 1993 * ... Center Catalogue of Chlamydomonas strains available from the Center List of plasmids available from the Center List of genes ... that have been sequenced from Chlamydomonas species also from Volvox and Dunaliella Recent literature citations Addresses of ...
High-frequency nuclear transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.. K L Kindle. PNAS February 1, 1990 87 (3) 1228-1232; https ... PF15p Is the Chlamydomonas Homologue of the Katanin p80 Subunit and Is Required for Assembly of Flagellar Central Microtubules ... Chlamydomonas DIP13 and human NA14: a new class of proteins associated with microtubule structures is involved in cell division ... Chlamydomonas IFT70/CrDYF-1 Is a Core Component of IFT Particle Complex B and Is Required for Flagellar Assembly ...
GENETIC CONTROL OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDI. R. P. Levine. PNAS July 1, 1960 46 (7) 972-978; https://doi.org/ ...
The Chlamydomonas cell cycle.. Cross FR1, Umen JG.. Author information. 1. The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, 10065, USA ... The position of Chlamydomonas within the eukaryotic phylogeny makes it a unique model in at least two important ways: as a ... Chlamydomonas multiple‐fission cell cycle. Schematic from left to right of one multiple‐fission cycle. Daughter cells grow ... The Chlamydomonas cell cycle has a striking temporal and functional separation between cell growth and rapid cell division, ...
Chlamydomonas species are widely distributed worldwide in soil and fresh water. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an especially well ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell, life cycle, strains, mating types Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at the Encyclopedia of Life Guiry, ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii resources The Chlamydomonas Center - genomic, genetic and bibliographic information and the ... "CC-125 wild type mt+ 137c". Chlamydomonas Center core collection list. The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook, ISBN 978-0-12-370873-1) ...
Chlamydomonas elegans is a species of freshwater green algae. Algological notes XIV-XVII. West G.S., 1915, Journal of Botany, ...
... Ruta via chlamy%40net.bio.net (by rutajank from mail.tele2.lt). Sun Jul 4 11:36:11 EST ...
... Elizabeth Harris chlamy at duke.edu Fri Aug 12 13:22:24 EST 2005 *Previous message ... Elizabeth H. Harris Chlamydomonas Center http://www.chlamy.org/ *Previous message: [Chlamydomonas] new molecular markers ...
... Elizabeth Harris chlamy at duke.edu Fri Aug 12 13:20:42 EST 2005 *Previous message: [ ... Elizabeth H. Harris Chlamydomonas Center http://www.chlamy.org/ *Previous message: [Chlamydomonas] plagiarized article ... From David Stern: One of the goals of the current Chlamydomonas genome project is to saturate the genome with molecular markers ... We hope the community will take advantage of these resources to further our understanding of Chlamydomonas biology. -- ...
Purchase The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook: Organellar and Metabolic Processes - 2nd Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Provides methods for Chlamydomonas research and best practices for applications in research, including methods for culture, ... This second volume of The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook provides the background and techniques for using this important organism in ... and reviews of the current status of the diverse fields in which Chlamydomonas is used as a model organism ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: rbcL. EC: 4.1.1.39. Find proteins for P00877 (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Spinacia oleracea. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: RBCS-1, CHLRE_02g120100v5, CHLREDRAFT_82986. EC: 4.1. ... In the present study, chimeric small subunits were constructed by replacing the loop of the green alga Chlamydomonas ... When these engineered genes were transformed into a Chlamydomonas mutant that lacks small-subunit genes, photosynthesis- ...
1984 Effects of cell division on the stigma of wild-type and an "eyeless" mutant of Chlamydomonas. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 87: 46- ... Eyespot-Assembly Mutants in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mary Rose Lamb, Susan K. Dutcher, Cathy K. Worley and Carol L. Dieckmann ... 1992 The photoreceptor current of the green alga Chlamydomonas. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 338: 38-52. ... Eyespot-Assembly Mutants in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mary Rose Lamb, Susan K. Dutcher, Cathy K. Worley and Carol L. Dieckmann ...
New directions in Chlamydomonas biology. B. Select a presentation type: oral or poster.. Step 3. Enter all the author names and ... Correct format - Sample abstract title for the Chlamydomonas Conference Incorrect format - INCORRECT STYLE FOR THE ABSTRACT ... Chlamydomonas Conference abstracts and/or other compilations or collective works to be assembled and owned by GSA (together, ...
Shrager, J, Hauser, C, Chang, CW, Harris, EH, Davies, J, McDermott, J, Tamse, R, Zhang, Z, Grossman, AR 2003Chlamydomonas ... Maul, JE, Lilly, JW, Cui, L, DePamphilis, CW, Miller, W, Harris, EH, Stern, DB 2002The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid ... Boudreau, E, Nickelsen, J, Lemaire, SD, Ossenbuhl, F, Rochaix, JD 2000The Nac2 gene of Chlamydomonas encodes a chloroplast TPR- ... Klein, U, De Camp, JD, Bogorad, L 1992Two types of chloroplast gene promoters in Chlamydomonas reinhardtiiProc Natl Acad Sci ...
... William J. Snell william.snell at email.swmed.edu Tue Oct 20 11:53:51 EST 1998 ...
The type species (holotype) of the genus Chlamydomonas is Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P.A.Dangeard. ... Chlamydomonas spirotaenia Pascher. Classification: Empire Eukaryota. Kingdom Plantae. Subkingdom Viridiplantae. Infrakingdom ... Chlamydomonas spirotaenia Pascher 1930: 138, fig. 33. Published in: Pascher, A. (1930). Neue Volvocalen (Polyblepharidinen- ...
The type species (holotype) of the genus Chlamydomonas is Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P.A.Dangeard. ... Chlamydomonas clathrata Pascher. Classification: Empire Eukaryota. Kingdom Plantae. Subkingdom Viridiplantae. Infrakingdom ... Chlamydomonas clathrata Pascher 1927: 192 (key), 305, fig. 274b. Published in: Pascher, A. (1927). Volvocales = Phytomonadinae ... Pröschold, T., Marin, B., Schlösser, U.W. & Melkonian, M. (2001). Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Chlamydomonas ( ...
The type species (holotype) of the genus Chlamydomonas is Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P.A.Dangeard. ... Chlamydomonas isogama Korshikov. Classification: Empire Eukaryota. Kingdom Plantae. Subkingdom Viridiplantae. Infrakingdom ... Ettl, H. (1976). Die Gattung Chlamydomonas Ehrenberg. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 49: 1-1122, 67 figs, 168 pls. ... Chlamydomonas isogama Korshikov in Pascher 1927: 278, fig. 237. Published in: Pascher, A. (1927). Volvocales = Phytomonadinae. ...
The type species (holotype) of the genus Chlamydomonas is Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P.A.Dangeard. ... Chlamydomonas pila Ettl. Classification: Empire Eukaryota. Kingdom Plantae. Subkingdom Viridiplantae. Infrakingdom Chlorophyta ... Chlamydomonas pila Ettl 1965: 289, fig. 2. Published in: Ettl, H. (1965). Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Morphologie der Gattung ... Ettl, H. (1976). Die Gattung Chlamydomonas Ehrenberg. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 49: 1-1122, 67 figs, 168 pls. ...
Chlamydomonas debaryana strain NIES-2212, whole genome shotgun sequencing projec... Chlamydomonas debaryana strain NIES-2212, ... Chlamydomonas debaryana strain NIES-2212, whole genome shotgun sequencing project. GenBank: BDDB00000000.1 ...
  • The nitrate reductase gene from wild-type Chlamydomonas was used to complement a mutation in the corresponding gene of a strain containing nit1-305. (pnas.org)
  • This high frequency of cotransformation will allow any cloned gene to be introduced into Chlamydomonas. (pnas.org)
  • Establishment of publicly available cDNA material and information resource of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyta) to facilitate gene function analysis. (algaebase.org)
  • b ) High-level of GBSS- P. falciparum MSP 1-19 protein expression in one representative Chlamydomonas transformant (P5) was obtained by co-transformation of the BafR1 mutant strain lacking the GBSS gene. (nih.gov)
  • Our Invitrogen GeneArt Chlamydomonas Protein Expression Vector offers transgene expression from the nuclear genome but is optimized for high-level expression, provides selection against gene silencing, and offers dual protein tags for detection and/or purification of your gene of interest. (thermofisher.com)
  • The gene for the hydrolytic enzyme xylanase ( xyn1 ) from Trichoderma reesei was cloned into the vector pChlamy_4 and transformed into Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 137c. (thermofisher.com)
  • Accordingly, decades-long standing inefficiencies in targeted nuclear gene editing broadly hinder Chlamydomonas research. (pnas.org)
  • Phylogenetic reconstruction of changes in plastid genome content revealed that an accelerated rate of gene loss also characterized the Chlamydomonas/Chlorella lineage, a phenomenon that might be independent of the proliferation of SDRs. (plantcell.org)
  • Tools that have not been previously applied to Chlamydomonas, such as bulked segregant analysis and marker duplexing, are being implemented to increase the speed at which one can go from mutant phenotype to gene. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The Chlamydomonas mutant library constructed would also be valuable to identify any other gene with a screenable phenotype. (plantphysiol.org)
  • At least nine different lhca -related gene products were predicted by comparison of the mass spectrometric data against Chlamydomonas expressed sequence tag and genomic databases, demonstrating the extensive variability of the C. reinhardtii Lhca antenna system. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we used replicated deep mRNA sequencing and regulatory network reconstruction to capture a remarkable scope of changes in gene expression that occurs when Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells are shifted from high to very low levels of CO(2) (≤100 ppm). (nih.gov)
  • Screening of a Chlamydomonas insertional mutant library identified a strain strongly impaired in oil remobilization and defective in Cre05.g232002 (CrACX2), a gene encoding a member of the acyl-CoA oxidase/dehydrogenase superfamily. (nih.gov)
  • The functionality of Czzep gene by heterologous genetic complementation in the Chlamydomonas mutant npq2 , which lacks zeaxanthin epoxidase ( ZEP) activity and accumulates zeaxanthin in all conditions, was analyzed. (mdpi.com)
  • Rodríguez, H. Efficient Heterologous Transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii npq2 Mutant with the Zeaxanthin Epoxidase Gene Isolated and Characterized from Chlorella zofingiensis . (mdpi.com)
  • The respiratory deficient dum-1 mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii fails to grow in the dark because of a terminal 1.5 kb deletion in the linear 15.8 kb mitochondrial genome, which affects the apocytochrome b (CYB) gene. (nih.gov)
  • Teaming up with the electrophysiologist Georg Nagel at the Max Planck Institute in Frankfurt, they could demonstrate that a single gene from the alga Chlamydomonas produced large photocurents when expressed in the oocyte of a frog. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Chlamydomonas, there are two copies of the gene for the oxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lastly, we review recent genetic approaches and insights into Chlamydomonas cell-cycle regulation that have been enabled by a new generation of genomics-based tools. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic screening in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii previously identified a loop-6 V331A substitution that decreases carboxylation and CO2/O2 specificity. (rcsb.org)
  • A Chlamydomonas genetic stock center exists at Duke University, and an international Chlamydomonas research interest group meets on a regular basis to discuss research results. (wikipedia.org)
  • it also showed that there are multiple independent genetic systems in Chlamydomonas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subunit arrangement of Chlamydomonas rubisco is the same as those of the previously solved form I rubiscos. (nih.gov)
  • The central insertion of the Chlamydomonas S-subunit forms the longer betaA-betaB loop that protrudes deeper into the solvent channel of rubisco than higher plant, cyanobacterial, and red algal (red-like) betaA-betaB loops. (nih.gov)
  • This second volume of The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook provides the background and techniques for using this important organism in plant research. (elsevier.com)
  • Blaby, Ian K., and Blaby-Haas, Crysten E.. Genomics and functional genomics in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii . (osti.gov)
  • Jens Boesger, Volker Wagner, Wolfram Weisheit, and Maria Mittag, "Application of Phosphoproteomics to Find Targets of Casein Kinase 1 in the Flagellum of Chlamydomonas ," International Journal of Plant Genomics , vol. 2012, Article ID 581460, 9 pages, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • A combined 18S rDNA and rbcL phylogenetic analysis of Chloromonas and Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyceae, Volvocales ) emphasizing snow and other cold-termperature habitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. reinhardtii is remarkably tractable as a result of its short generation time (8-10 h), haploid genotype, sequenced genome ( 16 , 17 ), simple transformation methods ( 18 ⇓ ⇓ - 21 ), and plethora of resources, including the Chlamydomonas Resource Center (University of Minnesota) and Chlamydomonas Sourcebook ( 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • At the same time, the ease of nuclear transformation in Chlamydomonas, coupled with the plant-like nonhomologous integration of transforming DNA, facilitates the creation of insertional mutant collections. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In wild-type Chlamydomonas cells, two to four layers of carotenoid lipid granules are observed, each layer subtended by a thylakoid membrane. (genetics.org)
  • Identification and visualization of the sexual agglutinin from the mating-type plus flagellar membrane of Chlamydomonas . (springer.com)
  • The Chlamydomonas version is more complex: it crosses the membrane twice rather than once, contains additional domains and undergoes alternative splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • This novel system paves the way for the production of clinically relevant plasmodial antigens as algal starch-based particles designated herein as amylosomes, demonstrating that efficient production of edible vaccines can be genetically produced in Chlamydomonas. (nih.gov)