Molecular evidence for the existence of additional members of the order Chlamydiales. (1/47)Respiratory tract infections in man may be caused by several members of the genus Chlamydia and also by two Chlamydia-like strains, 'Simkania negevensis' (Z-agent) and 'Parachlamydia acanthamoebae' (Bng). To facilitate diagnostic procedures a PCR assay able to detect all known Chlamydiaceae sequences in one reaction was developed. For this purpose, primers were selected to amplify a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. Characterization of the amplified fragments was done by hybridization with specific probes and by sequencing. PCR assays were carried out using DNA isolated from nose/throat specimens or from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with respiratory tract infections, and from vessel wall specimens of abdominal aneurysms. Six of the 42 nose/throat swab specimens analysed yielded strong bands and one yielded a faint band. Three of these bands were identified as Chlamydia pneumoniae and one as Chlamydia trachomatis by sequencing. Analysis of the three other bands yielded two different new sequences. DNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of one patient yielded a third new sequence. DNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of four healthy controls was negative. One of the abdominal aneurysm specimens also yielded a strong band. Sequencing revealed a fourth new sequence. All negative controls included during specimen processing and PCR analysis remained negative. The typical secondary structure of microbial 16S genes was present in all four new sequences indicating the validity of the sequence data. All four new sequences were distinct from other bacteria and clustered together with known Chlamydiaceae sequences. Phylogenetic analysis suggested a new lineage, separating the four new sequences, 'S. negevensis' and 'P. acanthamoebae' from the genus Chlamydia with the four known chlamydial species. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the existence of several new members of the order Chlamydiales. Since the source of the Chlamydia-like strains has not been identified and serological and/or molecular cross-reactivities may be expected, results of identification of infecting recognized organisms should be interpreted cautiously. (+info)
Emended description of the order Chlamydiales, proposal of Parachlamydiaceae fam. nov. and Simkaniaceae fam. nov., each containing one monotypic genus, revised taxonomy of the family Chlamydiaceae, including a new genus and five new species, and standards for the identification of organisms. (2/47)The current taxonomic classification of Chlamydia is based on limited phenotypic, morphologic and genetic criteria. This classification does not take into account recent analysis of the ribosomal operon or recently identified obligately intracellular organisms that have a chlamydia-like developmental cycle of replication. Neither does it provide a systematic rationale for identifying new strains. In this study, phylogenetic analyses of the 16S and 23S rRNA genes are presented with corroborating genetic and phenotypic information to show that the order Chlamydiales contains at least four distinct groups at the family level and that within the Chlamydiaceae are two distinct lineages which branch into nine separate clusters. In this report a reclassification of the order Chlamydiales and its current taxa is proposed. This proposal retains currently known strains with > 90% 16S rRNA identity in the family Chlamydiaceae and separates other chlamydia-like organisms that have 80-90% 16S rRNA relatedness to the Chlamydiaceae into new families. Chlamydiae that were previously described as 'Candidatus Parachlamydia acanthamoebae' Amann, Springer, Schonhuber, Ludwig, Schmid, Muller and Michel 1997, become members of Parachlamydiaceae fam. nov., Parachlamydia acanthamoebae gen. nov., sp. now. 'Simkania' strain Z becomes the founding member of Simkaniaceae fam. nov., Simkania negevensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The fourth group, which includes strain WSU 86-1044, was left unnamed. The Chlamydiaceae, which currently has only the genus Chlamydia, is divided into two genera, Chlamydia and Chlamydophila gen. nov. Two new species, Chlamydia muridarum sp. nov. and Chlamydia suis sp. nov., join Chlamydia trachomatis in the emended genus Chlamydia. Chlamydophila gen. nov. assimilates the current species, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia psittaci, to form Chlamydophila pecorum comb. nov., Chlamydophila pneumoniae comb. nov. and Chlamydophila psittaci comb. nov. Three new Chlamydophila species are derived from Chlamydia psittaci: Chlamydophila abortus gen. nov., sp. nov., Chlamydophila caviae gen. nov., sp. nov. and Chlamydophila felis gen. nov., sp. nov. Emended descriptions for the order Chlamydiales and for the family Chlamydiaceae are provided. These families, genera and species are readily distinguished by analysis of signature sequences in the 16S and 23S ribosomal genes. (+info)
Identification of nine species of the Chlamydiaceae using PCR-RFLP. (3/47)The family Chlamydiaceae contains two genera and nine species. Rapid and easy identification of these species is essential for taxonomic, epidemiological and clinical determinations. Currently, DNA sequence analysis is the only accepted method that decisively distinguishes all nine species. In this study, a simple and rapid PCR-RFLP procedure was developed by which laboratory-cultured chlamydial specimens could be identified. To accomplish this, conserved oligonucleotide primers and restriction sites were deduced from 16S and 23S rRNA sequence data from > 50 chlamydial strains representing all nine species. DNA from 25 previously characterized chlamydial strains were tested with these primers and restriction enzymes. All nine chlamydial species were reliably distinguished in the tests. The procedure was optimized by adjusting the annealing temperature using both a standard and a heat-activated DNA polymerase to reduce mismatch PCR amplification of mycoplasmas and other bacteria. The result was that a PCR method for species identification of chlamydial isolates and for distinguishing mycoplasmas and chlamydiae was created. This method can be used to rapidly identify known species of the family Chlamydiaceae. (+info)
Simkania negevensis strain ZT: growth, antigenic and genome characteristics. (4/47)Simkania negevensis is the type species of Simkaniaceae, a recently proposed family in the order Chlamydiales. In the current study, growth, antigenic and genomic characteristics of this intracellular bacterium were investigated and compared to those of members of the family Chlamydiaceae. Growth of the organism, as assessed by infectivity assays, reached a plateau in 2-3 d although by light microscopy the cytopathic effect on the host cells increased for 12 or more days after infection. S. negevensis growth was unaffected by sulfadiazine. Cells infected by S. negevensis strain ZT were not recognized by either of two monoclonal antibodies specific for Chlamydiaceae LPS and several specific Chlamydiaceae ompA primers were unable to PCR amplify a S. negevensis gene. The S. negevensis genome contained one copy of the ribosomal operon. The genome size of S. negevensis strain ZT was determined by PFGE to be 1.7 Mbp, and the G + C content was 42.5 mol%. These data, taken together with other published data, are consistent with the proposal that S. negevensis belongs to a distinct family in the order Chlamydiales. (+info)
'Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis', a newly described pathogen of abalone, Haliotis spp., along the west coast of North America. (5/47)Withering syndrome is a fatal disease of wild and cultured abalone, Haliotis spp., that inhabit the west coast of North America. The aetiological agent of withering syndrome has recently been identified as a member of the family Rickettsiaceae in the order Rickettsiales. Using a combination of morphological, serological, life history and genomic (16S rDNA) characterization, we have identified this bacterium as a unique taxon and propose the provisional status of 'Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis'. The Gram-negative, obligate intracellular pleomorphic bacterium is found within membrane-bound vacuoles in the cytoplasm of abalone gastrointestinal epithelial cells. The bacterium is not cultivable on synthetic media or in fish cell lines (e.g. CHSE-214) and may be controlled by tetracyclines (oxytetracycline) but not by chloramphenicol, clarithromycin or sarafloxicin. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rDNA of 'Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis' places it in the alpha-subclass of the class Proteobacteria but not to the four recognized subtaxa of the alpha-Proteobacteria (alpha-1, alpha-2, alpha-3 and alpha-4). The bacterium can be detected in tissue squashes stained with propidium iodide, microscopic examination of stained tissue sections, PCR or in situ hybridization. 'Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis' can be differentiated from other closely related alpha-Proteobacteria by its unique 16S rDNA sequence. (+info)
Chlamydophila abortus in a Brown skua (Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi) from a subantarctic island. (6/47)On Bird Island, South Georgia, a new strain of Chlamydophila abortus was detected in one Brown skua out of 37 specimens from six different seabird species. Phylogenetic analysis of the rnpB and omp1 genes indicated the strain to be more closely related to C. abortus than to 6BC, the type strain of Chlamydophila psittaci. (+info)
Comparative analyses of secondary gene products of 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid transferases from Chlamydiaceae in Escherichia coli K-12. (7/47)The waaA gene encoding the essential, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific 3-deoxy-Dmanno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) transferase was inactivated in the chromosome of a heptosyltransferase I and II deficient Escherichia coli K-12 strain by insertion of gene expression cassettes encoding the waaA genes of Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae or Chlamydophila psittaci. The three chlamydial Kdo transferases were able to complement the knockout mutation without changing the growth or multiplication behaviour. The LPS of the mutants were serologically and structurally characterized in comparison to the LPS of the parent strain using compositional analyses, high performance anion exchange chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and specific monoclonal antibodies. The data show that chlamydial Kdo transferases can replace in E. coli K-12 the host's Kdo transferase and retain the product specificities described in their natural background. In addition, we unequivocally proved that WaaA from C. psittaci transfers predominantly four Kdo residues to lipid A, forming a branched tetrasaccharide with the structure alpha-Kdo-(2-->8)-[alpha-Kdo-(2-->4)]-alpha-Kdo-(2-->4)-alpha-Kdo. (+info)
Molecular evolution of the Chlamydiaceae. (8/47)Phylogenetic analyses of surface antigens and other chlamydial proteins were used to reconstruct the evolution of the Chlamydiaceae. Trees for all five coding genes [the major outer-membrane protein (MOMP), GroEL chaperonin, KDO-transferase, small cysteine-rich lipoprotein and 60 kDa cysteine-rich protein] supported the current organization of the family Chlamydiaceae, which is based on ribosomal, biochemical, serological, ecological and DNA-DNA hybridization data. Genetic distances between some species were quite large, so phylogenies were evaluated for robustness by comparing analyses of both nucleotide and protein sequences using a variety of algorithms (neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood, maximum-parsimony with bootstrapping, and quartet puzzling). Saturation plots identified areas of the trees in which factors other than relatedness may have determined branch attachments. All nine species were clearly differentiated by distinctness ratios calculated for each gene. The distribution of virulence traits such as host and tissue tropism were mapped onto the consensus phylogeny. Closely related species were no more likely to share virulence characters than were more distantly related species. This phylogenetically disjunct distribution of virulence traits could not be explained by lateral transfer of the genes we studied, since we found no evidence for lateral gene transfer above the species level. One interpretation of this observation is that when chlamydiae gain access to a new niche, such as a new host or tissue, significant adaptation ensues and the virulence phenotype of the new species reflects adaptation to its environment more strongly than it reflects its ancestry. (+info)
Chlamydiaceae infections refer to a group of bacterial infections caused by members of the family Chlamydiaceae. These bacteria are obligate intracellular parasites, meaning they require a host cell to survive and replicate. Chlamydiaceae infections can affect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and plants. In humans, Chlamydiaceae infections can cause a variety of diseases, including sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and trichomoniasis, as well as respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis. These infections can be asymptomatic or cause mild to severe symptoms, depending on the type and severity of the infection. Chlamydiaceae infections are typically diagnosed through laboratory testing, such as nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) or culture. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, although some strains of chlamydia have become resistant to certain antibiotics. Prevention measures include practicing safe sex, avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and getting vaccinated against certain types of chlamydia.
Pestivirus infections are a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the genus Pestivirus, which is a member of the family Flaviviridae. These viruses are primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route and can infect a wide range of animals, including cattle, pigs, sheep, and deer. In cattle, pestivirus infections are commonly known as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and can cause a range of clinical signs, including diarrhea, fever, weight loss, and reproductive problems. In pigs, pestivirus infections are known as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and can cause reproductive failure, respiratory problems, and increased mortality in piglets. Pestivirus infections can also have significant economic impacts on the livestock industry, as they can reduce productivity and increase the cost of veterinary care and treatment. In addition, these viruses can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals or their products, although human infections are relatively rare.
Trachoma is a contagious eye infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The infection affects the eyelids and the inner surface of the eyelids, causing inflammation, scarring, and thickening of the eyelashes. This can lead to the formation of small bumps on the eyelids, known as trachoma follicles, and the development of a condition called trachoma trichiasis, in which the eyelashes turn inward and scratch the cornea, causing pain, redness, and vision loss.，trachoma。
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- Here, we determined the first high-quality draft genome sequence of the fish pathogen "Candidatus Clavichlamydia salmonicola", representing a separate genus within the human and animal pathogenic Chlamydiaceae. (univie.ac.at)
- lactamase-producing Enterobacteria- nus within the family Chlamydiaceae . (cdc.gov)
- The Chlamydiaceae family shares a unique developmental cycle that is different from all other bacteria. (cdc.gov)