Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
Subacute inflammation of the inguinal lymph glands caused by certain immunotypes of CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. It is a sexually transmitted disease in the U.S. but is more widespread in developing countries. It is distinguished from granuloma venereum (see GRANULOMA INGUINALE), which is caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.
Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Pathological processes of the male URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, MALE).
Inflammation of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
A genus of CHLAMYDOPHILA infecting primarily birds. It contains eight known serovars, some of which infect more than one type of host, including humans.
A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.
A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.
Species of CHLAMYDIA causing pneumonitis in mice and hamsters. These isolates formerly belonged to CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
Inflammation of the uterine salpinx, the trumpet-shaped FALLOPIAN TUBES, usually caused by ascending infections of organisms from the lower reproductive tract. Salpingitis can lead to tubal scarring, hydrosalpinx, tubal occlusion, INFERTILITY, and ectopic pregnancy (PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC)
Inflammation involving the URETHRA. Similar to CYSTITIS, clinical symptoms range from vague discomfort to painful urination (DYSURIA), urethral discharge, or both.
Bacterial diseases transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Pathological processes of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
An infection of the eyes characterized by the presence in conjunctival epithelial cells of inclusion bodies indistinguishable from those of trachoma. It is acquired by infants during birth and by adults from swimming pools. The etiological agent is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS whose natural habitat appears to be the genito-urinary tract. Inclusion conjunctivitis is a less severe disease than trachoma and usually clears up spontaneously.
A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
A DNA amplification technique based upon the ligation of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES. The probes are designed to exactly match two adjacent sequences of a specific target DNA. The chain reaction is repeated in three steps in the presence of excess probe: (1) heat denaturation of double-stranded DNA, (2) annealing of probes to target DNA, and (3) joining of the probes by thermostable DNA ligase. After the reaction is repeated for 20-30 cycles the production of ligated probe is measured.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Pathological processes of the VAGINA.
An aseptic, inflammatory arthritis developing secondary to a primary extra-articular infection, most typically of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or UROGENITAL SYSTEM. The initiating trigger pathogens are usually SHIGELLA; SALMONELLA; YERSINIA; CAMPYLOBACTER; or CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Reactive arthritis is strongly associated with HLA-B27 ANTIGEN.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Infections of the genital tract in females or males. They can be caused by endogenous, iatrogenic, or sexually transmitted organisms.
A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from urethral specimens of patients with non-gonoccocal URETHRITIS. In primates it exists in parasitic association with ciliated EPITHELIAL CELLS in the genital and respiratory tracts.
Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Infection with CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI (formerly Chlamydia psittaci), transmitted to humans by inhalation of dust-borne contaminated nasal secretions or excreta of infected BIRDS. This infection results in a febrile illness characterized by PNEUMONITIS and systemic manifestations.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.
Diseases involving the FALLOPIAN TUBES including neoplasms (FALLOPIAN TUBE NEOPLASMS); SALPINGITIS; tubo-ovarian abscess; and blockage.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
INFLAMMATION of the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the RECTUM, the distal end of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.
A genus of gram-negative, nonmotile bacteria which are common parasitic inhabitants of the urogenital tracts of humans, cattle, dogs, and monkeys.
A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Infections with bacteria of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A family of gram-negative, coccoid microorganisms, in the order CHLAMYDIALES, pathogenic for vertebrates. Genera include CHLAMYDIA and CHLAMYDOPHILA.
Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Inflammation of the vagina, marked by a purulent discharge. This disease is caused by the protozoan TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS.
Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. Some of the more commonly found genera causing conjunctival infections are Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Chlamydia.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Sexual activities of humans.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Used as a support for ion-exchange chromatography.
A common inhabitant of the vagina and cervix and a potential human pathogen, causing infections of the male and female reproductive tracts. It has also been associated with respiratory disease and pharyngitis. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Infections with bacteria of the order MYCOPLASMATALES.
Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The external and internal organs related to reproduction.
A clear or white discharge from the VAGINA, consisting mainly of MUCUS.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.
Pathological developments in the RECTUM region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Acute conjunctival inflammation in the newborn, usually caused by maternal gonococcal infection. The causative agent is NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE. The baby's eyes are contaminated during passage through the birth canal.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A common gynecologic disorder characterized by an abnormal, nonbloody discharge from the genital tract.
Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.
A species of gram-negative bacteria found in the human genitourinary tract (UROGENITAL SYSTEM), oropharynx, and anal canal. Serovars 1, 3, 6, and 14 have been reclassed into a separate species UREAPLASMA parvum.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Pneumonia caused by infections with the genus CHLAMYDIA; and CHLAMYDOPHILA, usually with CHLAMYDOPHILA PNEUMONIAE.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Infections with bacteria of the genus UREAPLASMA.
A short-acting sulfonamide antibacterial with activity against a wide range of gram- negative and gram-positive organisms.
A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE comprising gram-negative non CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS-like species infecting vertebrates. Chlamydophila do not produce detectable quantities of glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI.
A branch of medicine which deals with sexually transmitted disease.
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.

Chlamydial and human heat shock protein 60s activate human vascular endothelium, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. (1/2917)

Both chlamydial and human heat shock protein 60s (HSP 60), which colocalize in human atheroma, may contribute to inflammation during atherogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that chlamydial or human HSP 60 activates human endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and monocyte-derived macrophages. We examined the expression of adhesion molecules such as endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and the production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). We also tested whether either HSP 60 induces nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which contributes to the gene expression of these molecules. Either chlamydial or human HSP 60 induced E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 expression on ECs similar to levels induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Each HSP 60 also significantly induced IL-6 production by ECs, SMCs, and macrophages to an extent similar to that induced by E. coli LPS, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In ECs, either HSP 60 triggered activation of NF-kappaB complexes containing p65 and p50 Rel proteins. Heat treatment abolished all these effects, but did not alter the ability of E. coli LPS to induce these functions. Chlamydial and human HSP 60s therefore activate human vascular cell functions relevant to atherogenesis and lesional complications. These findings help to elucidate the mechanisms by which a chronic asymptomatic chlamydial infection might contribute to the pathophysiology of atheroma.  (+info)

Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the murine genital mucosa does not require perforin-mediated cytolysis or Fas-mediated apoptosis. (2/2917)

The molecular mechanisms of resistance to genital infection with the mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) strain of Chlamydia trachomatis are unknown. A role for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted, interleukin-12-dependent CD4(+) T cells has been established, but the functional activity of these cells does not depend on secretion of gamma interferon. Here we examined the potential contribution of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis to mucosal clearance of MoPn by using mice deficient in the molecular mediators of target cell lysis. Animals lacking perforin, Fas, Fas ligand, or both perforin and Fas ligand were infected genitally with C. trachomatis MoPn and monitored for expression of immunity to chlamydial antigens and clearance of MoPn from the genital mucosa. In each case, the profile of spleen cytokine production, the magnitude of the host antibody response, and the kinetics of chlamydial clearance were similar to those of genetically intact controls. Compensatory overproduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha, an alternate mediator of apoptosis in certain cell types, did not appear to account for the ability of mutant mice to resolve Chlamydia infections. These results fail to support CD4(+) T-cell-mediated apoptosis or CD8(+) T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity as being critical to the clearance of C. trachomatis MoPn urogenital infections.  (+info)

Nongonococcal urethritis--a new paradigm. (3/2917)

Urethritis in men has been categorized historically as gonococcal or nongonococcal (NGU). The major pathogens causing NGU are Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Trichomonas vaginalis may be involved occasionally. In up to one-half of cases, an etiologic organism may not be identified. In this review we present recent advances in the diagnosis and management of NGU and discuss how they may be applied in a variety of clinical settings, including specialized STD clinics and primary health care practices. In particular, the development of the noninvasive urine-based nucleic acid amplification tests may warrant rethinking of the traditional classification of urethritis as gonococcal urethritis or NGU. Diagnostic for Chlamydia are strongly recommended because etiologic diagnosis of chlamydial urethritis may have important public health implications, such as the need for partner referral and reporting. A single 1-g dose of azithromycin was found to be therapeutically equivalent to the tetracyclines and may offer the advantage of better compliance.  (+info)

Chlamydia infections and heart disease linked through antigenic mimicry. (4/2917)

Chlamydia infections are epidemiologically linked to human heart disease. A peptide from the murine heart muscle-specific alpha myosin heavy chain that has sequence homology to the 60-kilodalton cysteine-rich outer membrane proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. psittaci, and C. trachomatis was shown to induce autoimmune inflammatory heart disease in mice. Injection of the homologous Chlamydia peptides into mice also induced perivascular inflammation, fibrotic changes, and blood vessel occlusion in the heart, as well as triggering T and B cell reactivity to the homologous endogenous heart muscle-specific peptide. Chlamydia DNA functioned as an adjuvant in the triggering of peptide-induced inflammatory heart disease. Infection with C. trachomatis led to the production of autoantibodies to heart muscle-specific epitopes. Thus, Chlamydia-mediated heart disease is induced by antigenic mimicry of a heart muscle-specific protein.  (+info)

Persistent chlamydial envelope antigens in antibiotic-exposed infected cells trigger neutrophil chemotaxis. (5/2917)

An in vitro coculture model system was used to explore conditions that trigger neutrophil chemotaxis to Chlamydia trachomatis infected human epithelial cells (HEC-1B). Polarized HEC-1B monolayers growing on extracellular matrix (ECM) were infected with C. trachomatis serovar E. By 36 h, coincident with the secretion of chlamydial lipopolysaccharide and major outer membrane protein to the surfaces of infected cells, human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNL) loaded with azithromycin migrated through the ECM and infiltrated the HEC-1B monolayer. Bioreactive azithromycin was delivered by the chemotactic PMNL to infected epithelial cells in concentrations sufficient to kill intracellular chlamydiae. However, residual chlamydial envelopes persisted for 4 weeks, and PMNL chemotaxis was triggered to epithelial cells containing residual envelopes. Infected endometrial cells demonstrated up-regulation of ENA-78 and GCP-2 chemokine mRNA. Thus, despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy, residual chlamydial envelope antigens may persist in infected tissues of culture-negative women and provide one source for sustained inflammation.  (+info)

Mailed, home-obtained urine specimens: a reliable screening approach for detecting asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections. (6/2917)

The use of mailed, home-obtained urine specimens could facilitate screening programs for the detection of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Since transport time could have an adverse effect on the sensitivity of C. trachomatis detection by PCR, the influence of DNA degradation on amplification was monitored over the course of 1 week. Therefore, urine specimens were aliquoted on the day of collection or arrival. Two groups of urine specimens were investigated. Group I contains first-void C. trachomatis-positive and -negative urine samples. DNA degradation was monitored in group I samples for 7 days at room temperature (RT) and at 4 degrees C by amplifying different lengths of the human beta-globin gene and the C. trachomatis plasmid target. DNA degradation was observed only for the larger human beta-globin fragments at days 5 to 7 at RT. In contrast, at 4 degrees C all targets could be amplified. Urine specimens were also frozen and thawed before aliquoting to mimic freezing during transport. This resulted in a lower sensitivity for the detection of C. trachomatis after thawing and 3 to 4 days at RT. In addition, mailed, home-obtained C. trachomatis-positive urine specimens (group II) were analyzed for 7 days after arrival by two commercially available C. trachomatis detection systems (PCR and ligase chain reaction [LCR]). The C. trachomatis plasmid target in mailed, home-obtained urine specimens could be amplified by both PCR and LCR after 1 week of storage and/or transport at RT. In conclusion, our findings indicate that mailed, home-obtained urine specimens are suitable for the sensitive detection of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infections by amplification methods, even if the transport time is up to 1 week at RT. These findings support the feasibility and validity of screening programs based on mailed, home-obtained urine specimens. Larger studies should be initiated to confirm our results.  (+info)

Chlamydia trachomatis infections: progress and problems. (7/2917)

Chalmydia trachomatis infections are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. A substantial proportion of initial infections in both men and women are asymptomatic. Use of nucleic acid amplification-based diagnostic tests on first-void urine makes it possible to initiate community-based screening programs aimed at identifying asymptomatically infected men and women. Directly observed single-dose therapy with azithromycin is now available. Screening programs have been demonstrated to reduce the overall prevalence of chlamydial infection in the tested population and to reduce the incidence of subsequent pelvic inflammatory disease in previously screened women. The sequelae of chlamydial infections are likely due to immunopathologically mediated events in which both the chlamydial 60 kDa heat-shock protein and genetic predisposition of specific patients play a role. An improved understanding of immunologic events leading to upper genital tract scarring is needed to target specific interventions and facilitate development of a vaccine.  (+info)

Immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis induced by vaccination with live organisms correlates with early granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-12 production and with dendritic cell-like maturation. (8/2917)

As is true for other intracellular pathogens, immunization with live Chlamydia trachomatis generally induces stronger protective immunity than does immunization with inactivated organism. To investigate the basis for such a difference, we studied immune responses in BALB/c mice immunized with viable or UV-killed C. trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn). Strong, acquired resistance to C. trachomatis infection was elicited by immunization with viable but not dead organisms. Immunization with viable organisms induced high levels of antigen-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), gamma interferon production, and immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses. Immunization with inactivated MoPn mainly induced interleukin-10 (IL-10) production and IgG1 antibody without IgA or DTH responses. Analysis of local early cytokine and cellular events at days 3, 5, and 7 after peritoneal cavity immunization showed that high levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-12 were detected with viable but not inactivated organisms. Furthermore, enrichment of a dendritic cell (DC)-like population was detected in the peritoneal cavity only among mice immunized with viable organisms. The results suggest that early differences in inducing proinflammatory cytokines and activation and differentiation of DCs may be the key mechanism underlying the difference between viable and inactivated organisms in inducing active immunity to C. trachomatis infection.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunobiology of monocytes and macrophages during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. AU - Nielsen, Mads Lausen. AU - Christiansen, Gunna. AU - Poulsen, Thomas Bouet Guldbæk. AU - Birkelund, Svend. PY - 2019/3/1. Y1 - 2019/3/1. N2 - Infections caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis are a global health burden affecting more than 100 million people annually causing damaging long-lasting infections. In this review, we will present and discuss important aspects of the interaction between C. trachomatis and monocytes/macrophages.. AB - Infections caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis are a global health burden affecting more than 100 million people annually causing damaging long-lasting infections. In this review, we will present and discuss important aspects of the interaction between C. trachomatis and monocytes/macrophages.. KW - Chlamydia trachomatis. KW - Macrophages. KW - Monocytes. UR - ...
Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted pathogens. Since it is an obligate intracellular bacterium, efficient colonization of genital mucosal epithelial cells is crucial to the infectious process. Serovar E elementary bodies (EB) metabolically radiolabeled with 35S-Cys-Met and harvested from microcarrier bead cultures, which significantly improves the infectious EB-to-particle ratio, provided a more accurate picture of the parameters of attachment of EB to human endometrial epithelial cells (HEC-1B) than did less infectious 14C-EB harvested from flask cultures. Binding of serovar E EB was (i) equivalent at 35 and 4 degrees C, (ii) decreased by preexposure of EB to heat or the topical microbicide C31G, (iii) comparable among common eukaryotic cell lines (HeLa, McCoy), and (iv) significantly increased to the apical surfaces of polarized cells versus nonpolarized cells. In parallel experiments with C. trachomatis serovar L2, serovar E attachment was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Update on Chlamydia trachomatis infections. AU - Quinn, T. C.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections in the U.S., with an estimated annual incidence of 4.5 million cases. The clinical spectrum of chlamydial infections includes urethritis, epididymitis, and proctitis in men; cervicitis, salpingitis, and acute urethral syndrome in women; and conjunctivitis and pneumonia in newborn infants, as well as asymptomatic infections. Revised guidelines from the U.S. Public Health Service now recommend more widespread screening of young, high-risk individuals for genital chlamydial infection. To aid in routine screening for these infections, a number of new diagnostic assays have become available in addition to routine in vitro cultivation.. AB - Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections in the U.S., with an estimated annual ...
In an attempt to establish a model of chlamydial ascending salpingitis and infertility, three inbred strains of mice, C3H/HeN (H-2k), C57BL/6N (H-2b), and BALB/cAnN (H-2d), were inoculated intravaginally with 3 x 10(7) inclusion-forming units of the Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis biovar. Mice mated 6 weeks following inoculation were found to have a significant decrease in fertility rate compared with the control groups, as shown by a reduction in the number of pregnant mice and a decrease in the number of embryos. ...
In this work, the geometrical characteristics of two different types of cells observed with Electron Microscopy were analysed. The nuclear envelope of Wild-type HeLa cells and Chlamydia trachomatis-infected HeLa cells were automatically segmented and then modelled against a spheroid and converted to a two-dimensional surface. Geometric measurements from this surface and the volumetric nuclear envelope were extracted to compare the two types of cells. The measurements included the nuclear volume, the sphericity of the nucleus, its flatness or spikiness. In total 13 different cells were segmented: 7 Wild-type and 6 Chlamydia trachomatis-infected. The cells were statistically different in the following measurements. Wild-type HeLa cells have greater volumes than that of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected HeLa cells and they are more spherical as Jaccard index suggests. Standard deviation (σ), and range of values for the nuclear envelope, which shows the distance of the highest peaks and deepest ...
The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is a major human pathogen and a main cause of genital and ocular diseases. During its intracellular cycle, C. trachomatis replicates inside a membrane-bound vacuole termed an inclusion. Acquisition of lipids (and other nutrients) from the host cell is a critical step in chlamydial replication. Lipid droplets (LD) are ubiquitous, ER-derived neutral lipid-rich storage organelles surrounded by a phospholipids monolayer and associated proteins. Previous studies have shown that LDs accumulate at the periphery of, and eventually translocate into, the chlamydial inclusion. These observations point out to Chlamydia-mediated manipulation of LDs in infected cells, which may impact the function and thereby the protein composition of these organelles. By means of a label-free quantitative mass spectrometry approach we found that the LD proteome is modified in the context of C. trachomatis infection. We determined that LDs isolated from C. ...
Objectives: Sampling of both the cervix and urine increases the chance of detection of Chlamydia trachomatis compared with sampling either site alone. We determined the effect of combining urine and cervical swab specimens in the clinic setting on the sensitivity of C trachomatis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing.. Methods: For each of 100 women attending a genitourinary medicine clinic with high likelihood of genital C trachomatis infection, one endocervical swab was placed in transport medium and another in one of two aliquots of first void urine. Four PCR assays per patient (urine + swab, swab alone, and urine alone both pre- and post-freeze-thawing) were processed by automated C trachomatis PCR (Cobas, Amplicor). An inhibition control was included with each assay to identify specimens containing PCR inhibitors.. Results: 71% of women were Amplicor C trachomatis PCR positive (according to the results of at least one specimen). PCR test results were concordant for 95/100 patients, and of ...
The present disclosure relates to a solid phase immunoassay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in a clinical specimen, wherein the Chlamydia trachomatis antigens to be determined are coated or adsorbed on the solid phase.
TY - JOUR. T1 - HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis co-detection in young asymptomatic women from high incidence area for cervical cancer. AU - Bellaminutti, Serena. AU - Seraceni, Silva. AU - de Seta, Francesco. AU - Gheit, Tarik. AU - Tommasino, Massimo. AU - Comar, Manola. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Chlamydia trachomatis causing chronic inflammatory diseases has investigated as possible human papillomavirus (HPV) cofactor in cervical cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV co-infection in different cohorts of asymptomatic women from a Northern Italy area at high incidence for cervical cancer. Cervical samples from 441 females were collected from Cervical Cancer Screening Program, Sexually Transmitted Infectious and Assisted Reproductive Technology centres. HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis were detected simultaneously and genotyped using a highly sensitive bead based assay. The overall prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis was estimated 9.7%, in ...
Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar D ATCC ® VR-885™ Designation: Trachoma type D strain UW-3/Cx Application: Sexually Transmitted Disease Research
article{2075419, abstract = {BACKGROUND: In many developing countries, little is known about the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections and complications, such as infertility, thus preventing any policy from being formulated regarding screening for C. trachomatis of patients at risk for infertility. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and evaluate the diagnostic utility of serological markers namely anti-C. trachomatis IgG and IgA antibodies in women attending an infertility clinic. METHODS: Serum and vaginal swab specimens of 303 women presenting with infertility to the infertility clinic of the Kigali University Teaching Hospital and 312 fertile controls who recently delivered were investigated. Two commercial species-specific ELISA were used to determine serum IgG and IgA antibodies to C. trachomatis and vaginal swabs specimens were tested by PCR. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) was performed in subfertile women. RESULTS: The PCR ...
The gene encoding the major outer membrane protein of the Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis biovar was sequenced and the amino acid sequence deduced. The primary structure of this protein is similar to that of the lymphogranuloma venereum and trachoma biovars in that it consists of four variab …
Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection and can cause significant reproductive morbidity in women. There is insufficient knowledge of C. trachomatis-specific immune responses in humans, which could be important in guiding vaccine development efforts. In contrast, murine models have clearly demonstrated the essential role of T helper type 1 (Th1) cells, especially interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-producing CD4+ T cells, in protective immunity to chlamydia. To determine the frequency and magnitude of Th1 cytokine responses elicited to C. trachomatis infection in humans, we stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 90 chlamydia-infected women with C. trachomatis elementary bodies, Pgp3, and major outer membrane protein and measured IFN-γ-, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-, and interleukin-2 (IL-2)-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses using intracellular ...
AIMS--To examine the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in ectopic pregnancy by detection of DNA in archival salpingectomy specimens, and in their preceding cervical specimens and endometrial biopsies, by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS--Archival paraffin embedded salpingectomy tissues (n = 48) from 37 women with ectopic pregnancy were examined for the presence of C trachomatis plasmid and omp1 DNA by PCR. In addition, preceding cervical specimens (n = 58) stored either as cervical cell suspensions or as archival cervical smears, and preceding endometrial biopsies (n = 18), taken 0-5.8 years before the ectopic pregnancy, were examined by PCR for the presence of C trachomatis. RESULTS--C trachomatis DNA was detected in only one of the 48 salpingectomy specimens from 37 women. However, in six of the 37 women, C trachomatis DNA was detected in the genital specimens (cervix and/or endometrial) taken before salpingectomy. C trachomatis infections were mostly found in endometrial or ...
A method is described in which smears on slides, which had been examined previously in a direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) test for Chlamydia trachomatis, were tested by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twenty four (73%) of 33 smears which contained fewer than 10 elementary bodies when examined by the DFA test were positive by the PCR. Of the nine negative smears, seven contained only one or two elementary bodies. However, single elementary bodies were detected by the PCR in seven of the 24 positive samples. Fifteen smears were negative by both methods. The ability to detect small numbers of elementary bodies by the PCR and its specificity for negative smears indicates its potential for retrospective analysis of stored, archival smears on slides.. ...
Urogenital infections by Chlamydia trachomatis are now recognized as highly prevalent sexually transmissible infections. In frequency, they surpass the classic sexually transmissible diseases such as syphilis and gonorrhea, and thus constitute a serious public health problem. Chlamydia trachomatis has 15 serovars (A- K, L1, L2 L3 and Ba) [1]. The growth of serovars D to K seems restricted to epithelial columnar and transitional cells, while serovars L1, L2 and L3 cause systemic disease (lymphogranuloma venereum - LGV). The location of the infection determines the nature of the clinical disease [2]. Studies made by the Centers for Disease Control USA have shown that three to four million new cases of chlamydial infection are detected annually in United States [3]. They estimated the cost of this infection is about 1.4 billion dollars / year [4]. Uyeda et al. [5] found infection rates of over 20% in healthy carriers; and research in family clinics and prenatal planning centers revealed rates of ...
Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in first-void urine to identify asymptomatic male carriers.: Early morning first-void urine collected from 279 sexua
With more than 90 million new cases annually, Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease. Untreated endocervical C. trachomatis infections can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a disorder of the endometrium, fallopian tubes, and adjacent structures that occurs after ascension of the bacterium from the lower to upper genital tract. Adverse outcomes secondary to C. trachomatis-induced PID include tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Vaccine development has been identified as essential for control of C. trachomatis infections, and current evidence suggests that an effective vaccine will likely be based on several C. trachomatis antigens. Experimental models of infection have identified HSP60, major outer-membrane protein (MOMP), outer membrane protein 2 (OMP2), and polymorphic membrane protein D (PmpD) as promising vaccine candidates. A prospective study of Kenyan commercial sex workers found that production of interferon-gamma ...
NATtrol Chlamydia Trachomatis serotype D External Run Control is ready to use, inactivated full process controls designed to evaluate performance of molecular tests. They can be used for verification of assays, training of laboratory personnel and to monitor assay-kit lot performance.
Chlamydia trachomatis causes a high number of sexually transmitted infections worldwide, but reproducible and precise strain typing to link partners is lacking. We evaluated multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for this purpose by detecting sequence types (STs) concordant for the ompA genotype, a single-locus typing standard. We tested samples collected during April 2000-October 2003 from members of established heterosexual partnerships (dyads) in the Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, area who self-reported being coital partners within the previous 30 days. C. trachomatis DNA from 28 dyads was tested by MLST; sequences were aligned and analyzed for ST and phylogenetic relationships. MLST detected 9 C. trachomatis STs, 4 unique to Indianapolis; STs were identical within each dyad. Thirteen unique strains were identified; 9 (32%) dyads harbored novel recombinant strains that phylogenetically clustered with strains comprising the recombinants. The high rate of novel C. trachomatis recombinants identified supports
The Gram-negative, intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes acute and chronic urogenital tract infection, potentially leading to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The only partially characterized cytotoxin CT166 of serovar D exhibits a DXD motif, which is important for the enzymatic activity of many bacterial and mammalian type A glycosyltransferases, leading to the hypothesis that CT166 possess glycosyltransferase activity. CT166-expressing HeLa cells exhibit actin reorganization, including cell rounding, which has been attributed to the inhibition of the Rho-GTPases Rac/Cdc42. Exploiting the glycosylation-sensitive Ras(27H5) antibody, we here show that CT166 induces an epitope change in Ras, resulting in inhibited ERK and PI3K signaling and delayed cell cycle progression. Consistent with the hypothesis that these effects strictly depend on the DXD motif, CT166 with the mutated DXD motif causes neither Ras-ERK inhibition nor delayed cell cycle progression. In contrast, CT166 with the
Our research addresses the molecular basis of the interactions between disease-causing bacteria and their mammalian hosts. In particular, we study the intracellular biology of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. C.trachomatis is the leading bacterial agent of sexually transmitted disease worldwide and in developing nations causes blindness (trachoma), a neglected tropical disease.. Chlamydia forces its own entry into eukaryotic cells and forges a replicative niche within a specialised membrane-bound compartment (an inclusion), reprogrammed by the bacteria to mimic a host organelle. The inclusion remains segregated from the cellular endocytic pathway but is able to selectively engage with the secretory pathway.. Like some other Gram-negative bacteria including Salmonella and enteropathogenic E.coli, Chlamydia encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS), a sophisticated macromolecular assembly that spans the bacterial envelope and translocates virulence effector proteins ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Chlamydia trachomatis LPS. Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies, L2 serovar. (MAB6165) - Products - Abnova
TY - JOUR. T1 - Asymptomatic urethral infections due to chlamydia trachomatis in male u.s. military personnel. AU - Podoore, John K.. AU - Holmes, Kino K.. AU - Alexander, E. R.. PY - 1982/12. Y1 - 1982/12. N2 - Asymptomatic genital infections due to C. trachomatis represent the major form of chlamydial genital infection in women. The prevalence of asymptomatic urethral infection due to C. trachomatis in men is not as welldocumented. Previous surveys of chlamydial infection in asymptomatic men have been conducted in selected populations of men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics for various nongenitourinary complaints; prevalence rates were 0-7010 [2]. In the present study we evaluated the prevalence of urethral infection due to C. trachomatis in sexuallyactive enlisted men in the U.S. Army when presenting to the troop medical clinic for routine examination.. AB - Asymptomatic genital infections due to C. trachomatis represent the major form of chlamydial genital infection in women. ...
Pathogenic bacterial strains can alter the normal function of cells and induce different levels of inflammatory responses that are connected to the development of different diseases, such as tuberculosis, diarrhea, cancer etc. Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is an intracellular obligate gram-negative bacterium which has been connected with the cervical cancer etiology. Nevertheless, establishment of causality and the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis of cervical cancer associated with C. trachomatis remain unclear. Studies reveal the existence of C. trachomatis in cervical cancer patients. The DNA repair pathways including mismatch repair, nucleotide excision, and base excision are vital in the abatement of accumulated mutations that can direct to the process of carcinogenesis. C. trachomatis recruits DDR proteins away from sites of DNA damage and, in this way, impedes the DDR. Therefore, by disturbing host cell-cycle control, chromatin and DDR repair, C. trachomatis makes a ...
The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually-transmitted pathogen in the developed world, |100 million persons are inf...
Microimmunofluorescence (MIF), a Chlamydia trachomatis species-specific enzyme immunoassay incorporating lipopolysaccharide-extracted Chlamydia trachomatis L2 elementary bodies, two different synthetic peptide-based species-specific tests, and a recombinant lipopolysaccharide genus-specific test wer …
Objective: To measure the coverage and uptake of systematic postal screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis and the prevalence of infection in the general population in the United Kingdom. To investigate factors associated with these measures. Design: Cross sectional survey of people randomly selected from general practice registers. Invitation to provide a specimen collected at home. Setting: England. Participants: 19 773 men and women aged 16-39 years invited to participate in screening. Main outcome measures: Coverage and uptake of screening; prevalence of chlamydia. Results: Coverage of chlamydia screening was 73% and was lower in areas with a higher proportion of non-white residents. Uptake in 16-24 year olds was 31.5% and was lower in men, younger adults, and practices in disadvantaged areas. Overall prevalence of chlamydia was 2.8% (95% confidence interval 2.2% to 3.4%) in men and 3.6% (3.1% to 4.9%) in women, but it was higher in people younger than 25 years (men 5.1%; 4.0% to 6.3%; women 6.2
Author(s): Al-Kuhlani, Mufadhal Mohammed | Advisor(s): Ojcius, David; Manilay, Jennifer O | Abstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually-transmitted disease (STD) around the world. The response of the immune system to eliminate C. trachomatis infection through inflammation is a very efficient process. However, persistent infection or uncontrolled inflammation causes a complication in the upper genital tract, which can ultimately lead to infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Therefore, inflammation has to be tightly regulated to avoid an uncontrolled immune response. The genetic factors that regulate inflammation during Chlamydia infection have not been clearly characterized. SIGIRR, Triad3A and TRAIL-R are proteins that have been shown to manipulate inflammation in response to various pathogens and diseases. However, little is known about their role during C. trachomatis infection.Our results indicate that in the absence of SIGIRR, epithelial cells induce higher levels of
Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar Ba ATCC ® VR-347™ Designation: Apache-2 Application: Sexually Transmitted Disease Research
Greenwell, Pamela, Kakourou , Georgia and Rughooputh, Sanjiv (2006) Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype. Internet Journal of Medical Update, 1 (1). ISSN 1694-0423 Full text not available from this repository ...
Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D-K are the leading cause of bacterially-acquired sexually transmitted infections in the United States. As an obligate intracellular pathogen, C. trachomatis infects columnar epithelial cells of the genital mucosae and can cause deleterious sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Several chlamydial antigens reach the host cell cytosol prior to the natural release of chlamydiae at the end of the developmental cycle. While some of these extra-inclusion antigens traffic to the host cell surface, others remain intracellular where they are proposed to influence vital host cell functions and antigen trafficking and presentation. The research herein examines the escape and trafficking of the immunodominant chlamydial antigens MOMP, LPS, and cHsp60 within C. trachomatis serovar E-infected polarized human endometrial epithelial cells. Studies using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immuno-TEM report the novel escape
Objective: To characterise a Chlamydio trachomatis variant strain from a patient with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) whose first void urine (FVU) displayed discrepant C trachomatis test results and describe the clinical response to treatment. Methods: The FVU specimen was assayed with an immune based Chlamydio Rapid Test (CRT) and various nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) to establish C trachomatis infection. Sequencing of the major outer membrane protein gene (omp I also known as ompA) was undertaken to identify the serovar of the variant strain. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was also conducted to determine whether the strain harboured deletions in the cryptic plasmid or was plasmid free. Results: The FVU specimen was strongly reactive in CRT but negative with the plasmid based Amplicor PCR (Roche) and ProbeTec ET (Becton-Dickinson) assays. However, NAATs for 16S RNA (Aptima Combo 2, GenProbe), omp 1 (RealArt CT PCR, Artus and in-house NAATs) or the outer membrane complex B ...
Bidirectionally degrades single-stranded DNA into large acid-insoluble oligonucleotides, which are then degraded further into small acid-soluble oligonucleotides.
The mechanistic details of the pathogenesis of Chlamydia, an obligate intracellular pathogen of global importance, have eluded scientists due to the scarcity of traditional molecular genetic tools to investigate this organism. Here we report a chemical biology strategy that has uncovered the first essential protease for this organism. Identification and application of a unique CtHtrA inhibitor (JO146) to cultures of Chlamydia resulted in a complete loss of viable elementary body formation. JO146 treatment during the replicative phase of development resulted in a loss of Chlamydia cell morphology, diminishing inclusion size, and ultimate loss of inclusions from the host cells. This completely prevented the formation of viable Chlamydia elementary bodies. In addition to its effect on the human Chlamydia trachomatis strain, JO146 inhibited the viability of the mouse strain, Chlamydia muridarum, both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we report a chemical biology approach to establish an essential role for
TY - JOUR. T1 - Older partners not associated with recurrence among female teenagers infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. AU - Kissinger, Patricia. AU - Clayton, John L.. AU - OBrien, Megan E.. AU - Kent, Charlotte. AU - Whittington, William L.H.. AU - Oh, M. Kim. AU - Fortenberry, Dennis. AU - Hillis, Susan E.. AU - Litchfield, Billy. AU - Bolan, Gail A.. AU - Handsfield, H. Hunter. AU - Farley, Thomas A.. AU - Berman, Stuart. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - Background: Chlamydia trachomatis-infected female teenagers with older partners may be less likely to discuss the infection with their partner(s) and to use condoms and therefore may be more likely to get reinfected. Goal: To determine if C trachomatis-infected female teenagers with older partners were more likely to be reinfected than those with same-aged partners. Study Design: Females aged 14 years to 18 years who had uncomplicated chlamydial infection, were nonpregnant, attended clinics in five United States cities from June 1995 to ...
Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection in Europe. In Germany, Ct screening is offered free of charge to pregnant women since 1995 and to women | 25 years of age since 2008. For symptomatic individuals, testing is covered by statutory health insurance. Study results have shown that repeat Ct infection occurs in 10-20% of previously infected women and men. Our aim was to describe persons tested for Ct and to investigate the determinants of (repeat) Ct infection in women and men in Germany. We analysed Ct test results from men and women tested between 2008 and 2014 in laboratories participating in the German Chlamydia trachomatis Laboratory Sentinel surveillance. Reinfection was defined as at least 2 positive laboratory tests within more than 30 days. We performed logistic regression stratified by sex and, for women, reason for testing to determine the effect of previous test results and age group on subsequent test results. In total, 2,574
Goat polyclonal antibody raised against Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP. Native purified MOMP from Chlamydia trachomatis strain L2. (PAB13907) - Products - Abnova
Painful urination.. - Lower stomachache.. - Bleeding from the penis in men.. - Testicular pain in men.. See your doctor if you have discharge from your vagina or penis, have pain while urinating, or experience signs and symptoms of chlamydia. It is important to treat chlamydia before it leads to other health problems. Also, see a doctor if your sexual partner reveals that he or she has chlamydia, even if there are no symptoms. Symptoms may not occur until several weeks after infection, or do not occur.. Reason. The bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis causes chlamydia. The most common condition is sexually transmitted and other intimate contact between the genitals and the rectum area. It is also possible for a mother to spread chlamydia to her child, causing pneumonia or serious eye infection.. A bunch of other pathogenic Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria are sexually transmitted, called lymphogranuloma venereum LGV). Initial signs of LGV include genital sores, followed by fever and swollen glands in ...
The natural course of sexually transmitted infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis varies between individuals. In addition to parasite and host effects, the vaginal microbiota might play a key role in the outcome of C. trachomatis infections. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), known for its anti-chlamydial properties, activates the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) in epithelial cells, an enzyme that catabolizes the amino acid L- tryptophan into N-formylkynurenine, depleting the host cells pool of tryptophan. Although C. trachomatis is a tryptophan auxotroph, urogenital strains (but not ocular strains) have been shown in vitro to have the ability to produce tryptophan from indole using the tryptophan synthase (trpBA) gene. It has been suggested that indole producing bacteria from the vaginal microbiota could influence the outcome of Chlamydia infection. We used two in vitro models (treatment with IFN-γ or direct limitation of tryptophan), to study the effects of direct rescue by the addition
The aim of this study was to evaluate how patients with Chlamydia trachomatis infection perceived the legal enforcement of partner notification and to seek their views on legislation impinging on their own sexual behaviour. The investigation was performed at STD clinics in Stockholm, Sweden in 1997. Consecutive patients (n=192) answered a questionnaire about sexual behaviour and contact tracing. More men (40%) than women (21%) had had sexual intercourse during the past 6 months with an occasional partner. The mean number (6 months prior to this) was 2.3 partners (1-15) for men and 2.2 partners (1-21) for women. Eighteen per cent admitted to having avoided disclosing the name of their partner(s). Ninety per cent considered it beneficial that chlamydial infection was regulated and that a named partner could be forced to undergo STD testing. Partly based on this report, the government has recommended police enforcement to be removed from the legislation as a tool for contact tracing in chlamydial ...
Ocular immune responses, Chlamydia trachomatis infection and clinical signs of trachoma before and after azithromycin mass drug administration in a treatment naïve trachoma-endemic Tanzanian community
The NATtrol Chlamydia trachomatis serotype D, External Run Control, Medium from Zeptometrix Inc. supplied next week by Genprice is the best reagent! The catalog number is NATCT(D-UW3)-ERCM and the price is 338 EUR.. ...
Expansion microscopy (ExM) is a novel tool to improve the resolution of fluorescence-based microscopy that has not yet been used to visualize intracellular pathogens. Here we show the expansion of the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, enabling to differentiate its two distinct forms, catabolic active reticulate bodies (RB) and infectious elementary bodies (EB), on a conventional confocal microscope. We show that ExM enables the possibility to precisely locate chlamydial effector proteins, such as CPAF or Cdu1, within and outside of the chlamydial inclusion. Thus, we claim that ExM offers the possibility to address a broad range of questions and may be useful for further research on various intracellular pathogens.
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the causative infectious agent for a variety of diseases in men: urethritis, proctitis, conjunctivitis, epididymitis, and Reiters Syndrome. Among woman, the consequences of chlamydial infections are severe if left untreated; CT infection can cause urethritis, cervicitis, conjunctivitis, endometritis, salpingitis (with subsequent infertility or ectopic pregnancy) and perihepatitis. Infants from infected mothers can develop conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, and pneumonia.. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most commonly diagnosed and reported sexually transmitted bacterial infection in Canada. The number of reported cases in Canada in 2006 was , 65,000 (202 per 100,000) and has been increasing annually. This, however, is an underestimate as the disease is often asymptomatic and therefore undiagnosed. CT infections are more common among females between the ages of 15-24 and young men aged 20-29.. Genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis often go unrecognized as ...
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the causative infectious agent for a variety of diseases in men: urethritis, proctitis, conjunctivitis, epididymitis, and Reiters Syndrome. Among woman, the consequences of chlamydial infections are severe if left untreated; CT infection can cause urethritis, cervicitis, conjunctivitis, endometritis, salpingitis (with subsequent infertility or ectopic pregnancy) and perihepatitis. Infants from infected mothers can develop conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, and pneumonia.. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most commonly diagnosed and reported sexually transmitted bacterial infection in Canada. The number of reported cases in Canada in 2006 was , 65,000 (202 per 100,000) and has been increasing annually. This, however, is an underestimate as the disease is often asymptomatic and therefore undiagnosed. CT infections are more common among females between the ages of 15-24 and young men aged 20-29.. Genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis often go unrecognized as ...
Since publication of CDCs 1993 guidelines (CDC. Recommendations for the prevention and management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections, 1993. MMWR 1993;42[No. RR-12]:1--39), nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have been introduced as critical new tools to diagnose and treat C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. NAATs for C. trachomatis are substantially more sensitive than previous tests. When using a NAAT, any sacrifice in performance when urine is substituted for a traditional swab specimen is limited, thus reducing dependence on invasive procedures and expanding the venues where specimens can be obtained. NAATs can also detect both C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae organisms in the same specimen. However, NAATs are usually more expensive than previous tests, making test performance from an economic perspective a key consideration. This report updates the 1993 guidelines for selecting laboratory tests for C. trachomatis with an emphasis on screening men and women in the ...
Among 830 women attending a clinic for sexually transmitted disease, Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 180(22%)and Neisseria gonorrhoeae from 84 (10%). Retrospective analysis showed that 43 of the women were given outpatient treatment for acute pelvic inflammatory disease because they had low abdominal pain, deep dyspareunia, or unusual vaginal bleeding, or all of these, for less than 2 months in association with cervical motion or adnexal tenderness, or both. None had adnexal masses. C. trachomatis was isolated from 22 and N. gonorrhoeae from 15 of this subgroup of 43 women. This presentation of pelvic inflammatory disease occurred in 10 of the 37 women in the whole study with both C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae, 12 of 143 women with C. trachomatis alone, five of 47 women with N. gonorrhoeae alone, and 16 of 603 women with neither organism. Thus, in North America, C. trachomatis is associated with a syndrome usually diagnosed as mild pelvic inflammatory disease and managed on an ...
Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for both trachoma and sexually transmitted infections, causing substantial morbidity and economic cost globally. Despite this, our knowledge of its population and evolutionary genetics is limited. Here we present a detailed phylogeny based on whole-genome sequencing of representative strains of C. trachomatis from both trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) biovars from temporally and geographically diverse sources. Our analysis shows that predicting phylogenetic structure using ompA, which is traditionally used to classify Chlamydia, is misleading because extensive recombination in this region masks any true relationships present. We show that in many instances, ompA is a chimera that can be exchanged in part or as a whole both within and between biovars. We also provide evidence for exchange of, and recombination within, the cryptic plasmid, which is another key diagnostic target. We used our phylogenetic framework to show how genetic exchange has ...
OBJECTIVE: To study peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferative response to Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies in (a) controls, (b) various stages of gonococcal (c) and non-gonococcal urethritis, and (d) women with a clinical diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). METHODS: We categorised 102 men presenting to a GUM clinic with urethritis by organisms (C trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) (both by culture), and whether it was their first (urethritis naive) or subsequent (urethritis experienced) attack. 23 women presenting to the clinic with a clinical diagnosis of PID were also investigated. We measured PBMC proliferative responses to C trachomatis (DK20--an oculogenital strain, serovar E), lysate of McCoy cells (used to propagate chlamydiae), and the recall antigen PPD. Controls were 37 men and women without present or past history of urethritis or chlamydial infection. Results were expressed as the ratio of the stimulation index (SI) obtained with DK20 ...
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen causing ocular and urogenital infections that are a significant clinical and public health concern. This bacterium uses a type III secretion (T3S) system to manipulate host cells, through the delivery of effector proteins into their cytosol, membranes, and nucleus. In this work, we aimed to find previously unidentified C. trachomatis T3S substrates. We first analyzed the genome of C. trachomatis L2/434 strain for genes encoding mostly uncharacterized proteins that did not appear to possess a signal of the general secretory pathway and which had not been previously experimentally shown to be T3S substrates. We selected several genes with these characteristics and analyzed T3S of the encoding proteins using Yersinia enterocolitica as a heterologous system. We identified 23 C. trachomatis proteins whose first 20 amino acids were sufficient to drive T3S of the mature form of β-lactamase TEM-1 by Y. enterocolitica. We found that 10 of these
OLIVEIRA, Francisca Laís Araújo de et al. Use of different Taq DNA polymerases for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in cervical samples. Rev Pan-Amaz Saude [online]. 2015, vol.6, n.4, pp.19-24. ISSN 2176-6223.. INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia trachomatis is a small gram-negative bacterium sexually transmitted, which progresses asymptomatically in the majority of infected people, causing long-term damage mainly in the female reproductive system. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been the diagnostic method most widely used in recent epidemiological studies by presenting superior sensitivity than the other sensitivity tests. For a good performance of PCR, the choice of enzymes is very important because they have different characteristics that influence their performance. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare the detection of C. trachomatis using three commercial enzymes Taq DNA polymerases in 280 cervical samples. METHODS: The enzymes used were: Taq DNA Polymerase Recombinant (Invitrogen, USA), ...
Problem: Chlamydia trachomatis is a significant worldwide health problem, and the often-asymptomatic disease can result in infertility. To develop a successful vaccine, a complete understanding of the immune response to chlamydial infection and development of genital tract pathology is required. Method of Study We utilized the murine genital model of chlamydial infection. Mice were immunized with chlamydial major outer membrane protein, and vaginal lavage was assessed for the presence of neutralizing antibodies. These samples were then pre-incubated with Chlamydia muridarum and administered to the vaginal vaults of immune-competent female BALB⁄ c mice to determine the effect on infection. Results The administration of C. muridarum in conjunction with neutralizing antibodies reduced the numbers of mice infected, but a surprising finding was that this accelerated the development of severe oviduct pathology. Conclusion Antibodies play an under-recognized role in chlamydial infection and pathology
Chlamydia antibodies are antibodies targeting bacteria of the Chlamydia genus, but it generally refers specifically to antibodies targeting Chlamydia trachomatis, which is the cause of Chlamydia infection in humans. Testing for Chlamydia antibodies is not the mainstay diagnostic tool for Chlamydia infection, which is preferentially diagnosed by Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, testing for Chlamydia antibodies is a cost-effective screening device in detecting fallopian tube pathology, as it is often related to Chlamydia infection. The preferred technique for this purpose is by micro-immunofluorescence (MIF), because it is superior in the assessment of tubal pathology when compared with immunofluorescence (IF) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Kodaman PH, Arici A, Seli E (June 2004). Evidence-based diagnosis and management of tubal factor infertility. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 16 (3): 221-9. ...
We carried out a study to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae genital infections in school-based adolescents in Northern Italy. Systematic screening for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae genital infection was performed in 13th grade students in the province of Brescia, an industrialized area in Northern Italy. Student filled in a questionnaire on sexual behaviour and provided a urine sample for microbiological testing. A total of 2,718 students (mean age: 18.4 years; 59.1 % females) provided complete data (62.2 % of those eligible). Overall 2,059 students (75.8 %) were sexually active (i.e. had had at least one partner), and the mean age at sexual debut was 16.1 years (SD: 1.4). Only 27.5 % of the sexually active students reported regular condom use during the previous 6 months, with higher frequency in males than in females (33.8 % vs 24.2 %). No case of N. gonorrhoeae infection was detected, while C. trachomatis was found in 36 adolescents, with a prevalence of 1
Background: Tests available for molecular diagnosis of chlamydial infections detect Chlamydiatrachomatis, but do not find other Chlamydia species associated with genital, ophthalmic, cardiovascular, respiratory or neurological diseases. The routine detection of all Chlamydia species would improve the prognosis of infected people and guide therapeutic choices.. Aim: To design and validate a sensitive, specific, reproducible, inexpensive and easy-to-perform assay to quantify most Chlamydia species.. Methods: Primers and probe were selected using the gene coding for the 16S rRNA. The detection limits were assessed for suspensions of Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pneumoniae. The performance of this test was compared with that of two commercial kits (Amplicor-Roche and Artus) on 100 samples obtained from children with trachoma.. Results: The detection capacities for Chlamydia trachomatis of the broad-range real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were similar or slightly ...
Chlamydia infections in women - MedHelps Chlamydia infections in women Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Chlamydia infections in women. Find Chlamydia infections in women information, treatments for Chlamydia infections in women and Chlamydia infections in women symptoms.
What Is LGV? LGV (Lymphogranuloma venereum) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by three strains of the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The ...
Genitourinary chlamydia infection, Chlamydia trachomatis infection, Chlamydiasis, Genitourinary chlamydia infection, Genital chlamydia infection. Authoritative facts from DermNet New Zealand.
Although both are caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV) presents differently from the infections caused by Oculogenital (OG) strains. The endothelium of blood and lymph vessels allows passage of ...
Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria, coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). These spherical bacteria (orange and green) are human parasites and live only inside host human cells and cause various types of genital, eye and lymph node infections. These infections include sexually transmitted diseases, non-specific urethritis (NSU) and lymphogranuloma venereum (enlarged lymph glands). The bacteria also cause trachoma eye disease, a leading cause of blindness. Treatment is with antibiotics. Magnification: x26000 when printed 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C002/5595
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antigenic analysis of the chlamydial 75-kilodalton protein. AU - Zhong, G.. AU - Brunham, R. C.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Both B- and T-cell immunogenicity of a chlamydial 75-kDa protein was analyzed by using 131 partially overlapped decapeptide homologs of the 75-kDa protein from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2. Six rabbit antiserum specimens raised with serovars B, C, and L2 were used to assay the antibody reactivities of the decapeptides. Seventy-five of the 131 decapeptides were recognized by at least one antiserum specimen, and two peptides were found to be immunodominant and surface accessible on native organisms. The same set of decapeptides were cleaved from the pins and tested for their T-cell- stimulating activity in an in vitro proliferation assay. A single decapeptide was able to stimulate proliferation of chlamydial antigen-primed lymph node T cells from BALB/c mice.. AB - Both B- and T-cell ...
achat Doxycycline belgique 500mg pour la chlamydia acheter Doxycycline vente vidalia vente doxycycline 100mg cm- 100mg onglet.2 - Chlamydia trachomatis; 1.2. Le choix de première intention est lazithromycine (Zithromax). doxycycline (100 mg 2 fois/j.Linfection à Chlamydia Trachomatis est devenue 50à 80 fois plus fréquente que la gonococcie et représente la première maladie bactérienne sexuellement.Lazithromycine est un antibiotique très efficace utilisé pour un certain nombre dinfections bactériennes, y compris le traitement de la chlamydia. Doxycycline.Lazithromycine est à privilégier car il sagit du. Une antibioprophylaxie monodose par doxycycline après piqûre de tique a été démontrée comme étant.. Les pénicillines, les cyclines (dont la doxycycline),. doxycycline 100 mg x 2/ j pdt 7 jours ou ttt minute anti chlamydia: Azithromycine 1 g per os.Pour en savoir plus sur la chlamydia, cette IST, les causes,. La Chlamydia peut être traitée par ces deux antibiotiques: la ...
Fujibio Chlamydia Rapid Test Kit intended for in vitro diagnostic use in the rapid, qualitative detection of Chlamydia trachomatis directly from female endocervical swab and male urethral swab, in addition to ocular specimens from symptomatic patients. The test is intended for use as an aid in the diagnosis of Chlamydia infections.. The one step Chlamydia test is a rapid qualitative immunoassay based on the immunochromatographic principle. (In the assay procedure, a clinical specimen is obtained and place into an extraction tube containing extraction solution. A. after two minutes. Extraction Solution B is added to the tube. 3 drops (approximately 150 ul) of extracted samples is added to the sample well).. The membrane is pre-coated with anti-genus specific lipopolysaccharide (LPS) monoclonal antibody on the test band (T) region and goat anti-mouse antibody on the control band (C) region. During testing, the sample is allowed to react with the colloidal gold particles which have been coated with ...
Chlamydia trachomatis & Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA Probe,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research and development. ARUP offers an extensive test menu of highly complex and unique medical tests in clinical and anatomic pathology. Owned by the University of Utah, ARUP Laboratories client,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
We traced the Chlamydia trachomatis L2b variant in Amsterdam and San Francisco. All recent lymphogranuloma venereum cases in Amsterdam were caused by the L2b variant. This variant was also present in the 1980s in San Francisco. Thus, the current out ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Viable Bacterial Load Is Key to Azithromycin Treatment Failure in Rectally Chlamydia trachomatis Infected Women (FemCure). AU - Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.. AU - Wolffs, Petra F. G.. AU - de Vries, Henry J. C.. AU - Götz, Hannelore M.. AU - Janssen, Kevin. AU - Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.. PY - 2019/9/13. Y1 - 2019/9/13. UR - https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=85072234660&origin=inward. UR - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31107956. U2 - 10.1093/infdis/jiz267. DO - 10.1093/infdis/jiz267. M3 - Letter. C2 - 31107956. VL - 220. SP - 1389. EP - 1390. JO - Journal of Infectious Diseases. JF - Journal of Infectious Diseases. SN - 0022-1899. IS - 8. ER - ...
Identification of proteins differentially expressed by Chlamydia trachomatis treated with chlamydiaphage capsid protein VP1 during intracellular growth. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The overall aim of this study was to establish molecular techniques for the detection and identification of difficult to grow - bacteria in mixed bacterial populations in clinical samples without the need for culturing procedures.. Material and Methods: Thirty-nine strains of Mobiluncus were used as a model system for phylogenetic classification of fastidious bacteria based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences. To test the application of the 16S rDNA broad range PCR concept for detecting bacteria clinically, urine samples spiked with Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies and real urine test samples from 12 C. trachomatis positive and negative male volunteers were tested in a semiblind manner against routine procedures. Furthermore, gastric biopsy samples from 22 individuals (13 defined as having Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, and 9 defined as normal controls) were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter 16S rDNA and the virulence genes cagA, vacA, and ureA. PCR products were ...
Data for competition of the seven β-lactam antibiotics with [3H]benzylpenicillin for the three PBPs are presented in Table 1. As the PBP assay is based on competitive binding, these data are expressed as 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s), i.e., the concentration of β-lactam required to inhibit subsequent binding of [3H]benzylpenicillin by 50% (2, 4, 5). The only quantitative PBP binding data previously reported for C. trachomatis RBs concern the binding of benzylpenicillin, where IC50s of 0.03 μg/ml (PBP1), 0.006 μg/ml (PBP2), and 0.003 μg/ml (PBP3) were reported (1). For benzylpenicillin we observed a similar range of IC50s, with no more than a sixfold difference in affinity between the individual PBPs.. Studies with other bacteria, particularly theEnterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have indicated that the killing target or targets for a particular β-lactam are usually represented by those PBPs that are most readily saturated by the antibiotic (2, 4, 5, 23). On this basis, ...
When people go for either a Chlamydia test or a Gonorrhea test, they always go for a combined Chlamydia and Gonorrhea test.. The main reason for that is that both the tests are quite similar. Additionally, Chlamydia symptoms are very similar to Gonorrhea symptoms, so its only wise to test for both infections together to ascertain the exact type of infection.. This test is called the Nucleic Acid Amplification Test or NAAT. Both Chlamydia and Gonorrhea are caused by bacteria. When somebody is infected with these bacteria, theres supposed to be the presence of the bacteria in the urine sample.. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Test Window Period is generally 3 to 7 days. It means 3 to 7 days after the infection period the detection of the individual bacteria can be done positively. In most of the cases people come for a test much after that, but if youre not among them then its better that you wait for at least 7 to 10 days.. The NAAT test carries out an amplification of the DNA of the bacteria and ...
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is an infectious contagious disease of inflammatory and invasive nature of the urogenital tract that is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. In many parts of the world, VLG has become an important cause of anogenital disease among men who have sex with other men 41.. LGV is caused by invasive serotypes L1, L2 and L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis in contrast with serotypes A-C of this agent, which cause ocular infection, such as trachoma, and the more common serotypes D-K that cause genital infections 42.. Epidemiology. LGV is a relatively rare disease in industrialized countries, but it is endemic in parts of Africa, Asia, South America and the Caribbean 43. The incidence of infection by Chlamydia trachomatis after sexual contact is unknown, but probably it is smaller than gonorrhea and canchroid. The peak of incidence of the infection is between the second and third decades of life, the most active period of the sexual life. The period of sexual transmissibility in ...
This test was performed using the APTIMA® COMBO2 Assay (GEN-PROBE).. Clinical Significance. C. trachomatis infections are the leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. C. trachomatis is known to cause cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), epididymitis and proctitis. It is also the most frequent cause of non-gonococcal urethritis in men. Among women, the consequences of Chlamydial infections are severe if left untreated. Approximately half of Chlamydial infections are asymptomatic.Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococci) is the causative agent of gonorrhea. In men, this disease generally results in anterior urethritis accompanied by purulent exudate. In women, the disease is most often found in the cervix, but the vagina and uterus may also be infected.. Alternative Name(s) CT/NG APTIMA®, CT/GC APTIMA®, Hologic, CT/GC TMA, CT/NG TMA. ...
Know about Chlamydia Symptoms In Women. The bacteria exclusively enter the body sexually through the warm moist skin of the mouth, penis or in the rectum.
It is an ancient eye disease which is begins with acute inflammatory changes in the conjunctiva and cornea and progresses to scarring then leads to blindness. The infection is transmitted through vectors such as host flies which are spread through its bite. Endemic trachoma is treated with azithromycin. It is prevented through frequent face and hand washing, good hygiene, and clean environment (which decrease the occurrence of host flies responsible for spreading the disease).. Lymphogranuloma Venereum. C. Trachomatis causes sexually transmitted diseases. This is an uncommon sexually transmitted disease which involves the lymph glands of the genital area and is transmitted via sexual contact. The disease undergoes 3 phases:. 1. There is the spread of infection in the blood, spinal fluid and other tissues which goes with fever, chills, and anorexia. Then painless ulcers start to appear which is frequently overlooked.. 2. Appearance of inguinal lymphadenopathy is visible after the vesicular ...
Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular bacteria that infect a broad range of mammalian hosts. Members of related genera are pathogens of a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species. Despite the diversity of Chlamydia, all species contain an outer membrane lipooligosaccharide (LOS) that is comprised of a genus-conserved, and genus-defining, trisaccharide 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid Kdo region. Recent studies with lipopolysaccharide inhibitors demonstrate that LOS is important for the C. trachomatis developmental cycle during RB- > EB differentiation. Here, we explore the effects of one of these inhibitors, LPC-011, on the developmental cycle of five chlamydial species. Sensitivity to the drug varied in some of the species and was conserved between others. We observed that inhibition of LOS biosynthesis in some chlamydial species induced formation of aberrant reticulate bodies, while in other species, no change was observed to the
The late chlamydial inclusion membrane is not derived from the endocytic pathway and is relatively deficient in host proteins.: Chlamydiae are obligate intracel
Global Chlamydia Infection Industry 2022 Market Research Report Purchase This Report by calling ResearchnReports.com at +1-888-631-6977.. This report is a compressive analysis of every situation of Chlamydia Infection market. With precise investigation of the past situation, present market scenario and future anticipated progress has been offered in this report respectively. Exact data of the prime strategies, market share values and products of the key leading companies is stated apprehensively.. Download sample pages of this report: https://www.researchnreports.com/request_sample.php?id=62526 It provides accurate outline if Chlamydia Infection market depending on the key parameters such as applications, end users, products, regions and many other sub segmentations. Estimated growth by volume and revenue with respect to the global market for Chlamydia Infection over the future years has been mentioned in detail.. An additional deals into the major geographical segmentations of this particular ...
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is an uncommon sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. LGV is endemic in certain areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, India, the Caribbean, and South America.
1. National Health and Medical Research Council. The Australian Immunisation Handbook. 8th edn. Canberra; 2003.. 2. National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research. HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia. Annual surveillance report, 2007. Sydney: University of New South Wales; 2007.. 3. Heymann D, editor. Control of Communicable Diseases Manual. 18th edn. Washington: American Public Health Association; 2004.. 4. OzFoodNet Working Group. Monitoring the incidence and causes of diseases potentially transmitted by food in Australia: Annual Report of the OzFoodNet Network, 2006. Commun Dis Intell 2007;31:345-363.. 5. Hocking J, Fairley C, Counahan M, Crofts N. The pattern of notification and testing for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Victoria, 1998-2000: an ecological analysis. Aust N Z J Public Health 2003;27:405-408.. 6. Chen M, Fairley C, Donovan B. Nowhere near the point of diminishing returns: correlations between chlamydia testing and ...
Symptoms of LGV can begin a few days to a month after coming in contact with the bacteria. Symptoms include: * Small painless ulcer on the male genitalia or in the female genital tract * Swelling and redness of the skin in the groin area * Swollen groin lymph nodes on one or both sides; it may also affect lymph nodes around the rectum in those who have anal intercourse * Drainage from lymph nodes in groin * Blood or pus from the rectum (blood in the stools) * Painful bowel movements (tenesmus) ...
Pelvic inflammatory disease or pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID) is an infection of the upper part of the female reproductive system namely the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, and inside of the pelvis. Often there may be no symptoms. Signs and symptoms, when present may include lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, fever, burning with urination, pain with sex, or irregular menstruation. Untreated PID can result in long term complications including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and cancer. The disease is caused by bacteria that spread from the vagina and cervix. Infections by Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis are present in 75 to 90 percent of cases. Often multiple different bacteria are involved. Without treatment about 10 percent of those with a chlamydial infection and 40 percent of those with a gonorrhea infection will develop PID. Risk factors are similar to those of sexually transmitted infections generally and include a high number of sexual ...
Lymphogranuloma venereum is a sexually transmitted condition that is caused by the L1, L2 and L3 serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis, which is an obligate intracellular bacterial agent. The condition is most commonly observed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, although recently outbreaks in Europe and North America were observed.
Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infections remain a significant national and global health problem that is especially important in womens reproductive heal...
Key words: maxillary sinusitis, etiology, microbiological tests. Otorynolaryngologia, 2002, 1 (3), 187-189. Chlamydia pneumoniae. 3, 4. Candida albicans. Journal of clinical microbiology 2005; 43 (9): 4914-5. 2005: Friedek d; Romanik m; Ekiel a; Chelmicki z; Martirosian g Occurrence of chlamydial cervicitis in.European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Zas, ujemny posiew krwi, w kale. Inne bakterie w pochwie-Chlamydia pneumoniae.Chlamydia pneumoniae oraz wiru-sów należących do czterech ro-teriology and Applied Microbiology. The. World of microbes. Abstracts, Paris.. Obecności Chlamydia trachomatis i/lub Mycoplasma hominis Ureaplasma urealyticum. bcm Microbiology, 2005; 5: 61; Reid g. Bruce a. w. Selection of.Everett k. d. Chlamydia and Chlamydiales: more than meets the eye. Vet. bmc Microbiology 2004, 4, 48-59. 16. Greub g. Raoult d. Crescent bodies of.Non-authorized microbiology lectures notices ad 1996. Version 0. 1. Dzieci i dorośli 5-40 lat-wirusy: Mycoplasma, ...
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Chlamydia trachomatis: 5 days post-birth to 2 weeks (Late onset-C.trachomatis has longer incubation period) ... In contrast, conjunctivitis secondary to infection with chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) produces conjunctivitis after day ... Chlamydia trachomatis. In: Red Book: 2015 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 30th, Kimberlin DW (Ed), American ... Neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis should be treated with oral erythromycin. Topical therapy is ...
"Vertical transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis in Chongqing China". Curr. Microbiol. 58 (4): 315-320. doi:10.1007/s00284-008- ...
For infections due to Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae *^ Or homatropine (hydrobromide) or cyclopentolate ( ...
Miller KE (April 2006). "Diagnosis and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection". Am Fam Physician. 73 (8): 1411-6. PMID ...
Haemophilus influenzae and Chlamydia trachomatis are coccobacilli. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a gram negative ...
... or L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. LGV is primarily an infection of lymphatics and lymph nodes. Chlamydia trachomatis is the ... Spaargaren J, Fennema HS, Morré SA, de Vries HJ, Coutinho RA (July 2005). "New lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis ... Schaeffer A; Henrich B (2008). "Rapid detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and typing of the Lymphogranuloma venereum associated ... anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2b in men who have sex with men". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 45 (3): 1029-31. ...
"Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis Among Women Reporting Extragenital Exposures". Sexually Transmitted Diseases. ... "Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae prevalence and coinfection in adolescents entering selected US juvenile ... Extragenital gonorrhea and chlamydia are highest in men who have sex with men (MSM).[42] Additionally, the USPSTF also ... In the US, it is the second-most-common bacterial sexually transmitted infections; chlamydia remains first.[64][65] According ...
"Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis Among Women Reporting Extragenital Exposures". Sexually Transmitted Diseases. ... "Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae prevalence and coinfection in adolescents entering selected US juvenile ... Extragenital gonorrhea and chlamydia are highest in men who have sex with men (MSM).[42] Additionally, the USPSTF also ... "CDC Fact Sheet - Chlamydia". Archived from the original on 16 December 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2008.. ...
Chlamydia trachomatis: 5 days after birth to 2 weeks (late onset - C. trachomatis has a longer incubation period)[1] ... "Chlamydia trachomatis". In: Red Book: 2015 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 30th, Kimberlin DW (Ed), Elk Grove ... or a bacterial infection such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis.[1] ... Babies infected with chlamydia may develop pneumonitis (chest infection) at a later stage (range 2-19 weeks after delivery). ...
Chlamydia trachomatis, que causa a enfermidade ocular chamada tracoma e a infección de transmisión sexual por clamidias que ... Storz J, Page LA (1971). "Taxonomy of the Chlamydiae: reasons for classifying organisms of the genus Chlamydia, family ... Comprobouse que Chlamydia trachomatis carece da proteína FtsZ, necesaria para a formación da parede divisoria na división ... En 1966, as clamidias foron recoñecidas como bacterias e o foi validado o xénero Chlamydia.[3] A orde Chlamydiales foi creada ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis), and normal fauna of the genitourinary tract (e.g., Candida albicans) are ... "Vertical Transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis in Chongqing China". Current Microbiology. 58 (4): 315-320. doi:10.1007/s00284- ... Chlamydia HIV Human T-lymphotropic virus Syphilis Zika fever, caused by Zika virus, can cause microcephaly and other brain ... Chlamydia infection, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and human papillomavirus) S - Syphilis The signs and symptoms of a vertically ...
Bakken IJ (February 2008). "Chlamydia trachomatis and ectopic pregnancy: recent epidemiological findings". Current Opinion in ... The risk of ectopic pregnancy after chlamydia infection is low. The exact mechanism through which chlamydia increases the risk ... Prevention is by decreasing risk factors such as chlamydia infections through screening and treatment. While some ectopic ... Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy include pelvic inflammatory disease, often due to chlamydia infection; tobacco smoking; ...
Less commonly, Chlamydia spp. may be the cause. Bacteria such as Chlamydia trachomatis or Moraxella spp. can cause a ... Inclusion conjunctivitis of the newborn is a conjunctivitis that may be caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, and may ... People who wear contact lenses and those whose infection is caused by gonorrhea or chlamydia should be treated. Allergic cases ... have disease which is thought to be due to chlamydia or gonorrhea, have a fair bit of pain, or have copious discharge. ...
Yasin B, Harwig SS, Lehrer RI, Wagar EA (March 1996). "Susceptibility of Chlamydia trachomatis to protegrins and defensins". ...
... chlamydia trachomatis screening); neurology (Guillain Barré syndrome, stroke); and traumatic brain injury (prognosis and ...
ISBN 978-0-521-88115-9. Yu J, Wu S, Li F, Hu L (January 2009). "Vertical transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis in Chongqing ... Examples include: Chickenpox Chlamydia Herpes simplex or Neonatal herpes simplex HIV Human T-lymphotropic virus Syphilis ...
Testing pregnant women for Group B Streptococcus and Chlamydia trachomatis, and administering antibiotic treatment, if needed, ... Darville T (October 2005). "Chlamydia trachomatis infections in neonates and young children". Seminars in Pediatric Infectious ... Exposure to birds is associated with Chlamydia psittaci; farm animals with Coxiella burnetti; aspiration of stomach contents ... Mycoplasma, Legionella, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia can also be detected using PCR techniques on bronchoalveolar lavage and ...
Diener-West, Marie (1998). "Incident Chlamydia trachomatis Infections Among Inner-city Adolescent Females". JAMA. 280 (6): 521- ... Burstein, Gale R. (1998). "JAMA Network , JAMA , Incident Chlamydia trachomatis Infections Among Inner-city Adolescent Females ...
and Chlamydia trachomatis from the mother to the newborn". Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 241 (3): 165-70. doi:10.1007/ ...
Haemophilus influenzae, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Chlamydia trachomatis are coccobacilli. Aggregatibacter ...
... versus Chlamydia muridarum, mouse adapted, inclusions following entry. C. trachomatis inclusions recruit a full repertoire of ... "cPLA2 regulates the expression of type I interferons and intracellular immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis". J Biol Chem. 285 (28 ... "IFN-gamma-inducible Irga6 mediates host resistance against Chlamydia trachomatis via autophagy". PLoS ONE. 4 (2): e4588. ... 2008). "Chlamydia muridarum evades growth restriction by the IFN-gamma-inducible host resistance factor Irgb10". J Immunol. 180 ...
"Arlt's syndrome": A contagious eye infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. "Arlt's triangle": keratic precipitates ... Linear scar present in sulcus subtarsalis during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. "Arlt's operation": Transplantation of ...
Chlamydia trachomatis can also contribute to development of corneal ulcer. Superficial ulcers involve a loss of part of the ... Among them are bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, and chlamydia: Bacterial keratitis is caused by Staphylococcus aureus, ...
... is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, serotypes (serovars) A, B, and C. It is spread by direct contact with eye, nose, ... Trachoma is an infectious disease caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The infection causes a roughening of the inner ... "Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the male genital tract: An update". Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 100 (1): 37-53. doi: ... Antibiotic treatment reduces the risk of active trachoma in individuals infected with chlamydial trachomatis. Surgery: For ...
Tong CY, Mallinson H (May 2002). "Moving to nucleic acid-based detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis". Expert Review of ... Molecular diagnostics are used to identify infectious diseases such as chlamydia, influenza virus and tuberculosis; or specific ...
"Chlamydia trachomatis infection in female partners of circumcised and uncircumcised adult men". Am J Epidemiol. 162 (9): 907- ...
"Polymorphisms in Chlamydia trachomatis tryptophan synthase genes differentiate between genital and ocular isolates". J Clin ...
2001). Chlamydia trachomatis cytotoxicity associated with complete and partial cytotoxin genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: ...
Tubal factor is one complication of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women. Sexually transmitted Chlamydia and genital ... Tubal factor infertility can be due to Chlamydia infection and testing for Chlamydia antibodies is one diagnostic tool. A ... Infertility can have multiple possible causes and may not be recognized for years after a gonorrhea, Chlamydia or Mycoplasma ... Ljubin-Sternak, Suncanica; Mestrovic, Tomislav (2014). "Review: Chlamydia trachonmatis and Genital Mycoplasmias: Pathogens with ...
Chlamydia. *Chlamydia psittaci (Psittacosis). *Chlamydia pneumoniae. *Chlamydia trachomatis *Chlamydia. *Lymphogranuloma ...
Ang pagsusuri sa mga kababaihan para sa Group B Streptococcus at Chlamydia trachomatis, at pagbibigay ng paggamot gamit ang ... Darville, T (October 2005). "Chlamydia trachomatis infections in neonates and young children". Seminars in pediatric infectious ... Ang pagkakalantad sa mga ibon ay iniuugnay sa Chlamydia psittaci; ang mga hayop sa bukid ay iniuugnay sa Coxiella burnetti; ...
Chlamydiae (Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia trachomatis). *Radioresistant micrococci and relatives *Deinococcus group ( ... Chlamydiae. Deinococcus-Thermus. Fusobacteria. Gemmatimonadetes. Nitrospirae. Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia/Chlamydiae (PVC ...
Chlamydia trachomatis[27]. *Coxiella burnetii[28]. *Ehrlichia[29]. *Leptospira. *Listeria[30]. *Mycobacterium tuberculosis[31] ...
Chlamydia trachomatis can also contribute to development of corneal ulcer.. Superficial ulcers involve a loss of part of the ... Among them are bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, and chlamydia: *Bacterial keratitis is caused by Staphylococcus aureus, ...
... a Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection may be the cause.[9][43] These infections are typically classified ... Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium can infect the urethra but not the bladder.[26] These infections are usually ...
Bacteria such as Chlamydia trachomatis or Moraxella spp. can cause a nonexudative but persistent conjunctivitis without much ... Inclusion conjunctivitis of the newborn is a conjunctivitis that may be caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, and may ... People who wear contact lenses and those whose infection is caused by gonorrhea or chlamydia should be treated.[2] Allergic ... have disease which is thought to be due to chlamydia or gonorrhea, have a fair bit of pain, or have copious discharge.[11] ...
Chlamydia trachomatis. *Chlamydiae. *Chlorobi. *Chromobacterium violaceum. *Clostridium acetobutylicum. *Clostridium botulinum ...
Chlamydia trachomatis. *Belsoğukluğu. *Frengi. *HIV Enfeksiyonu. *AIDS. 3. Viral hepatitler. *Viral Hepatitler (Hepatit A • ...
Kankroid (Haemophilus ducreyi) • Klamidia (Chlamydia trachomatis) • Donovanosis (Granuloma Inguinale) • Lymphogranuloma ... Chlamydia: Ito ay epektibong magagamot ng mga antibiotiko kapag ito ay natukoy. Ang kasalukuyang mga antibiotiko para dito ang ...
Chlamydia. *Chlamydia trachomatis *Chlamydia. *Lymphogranuloma venereum. *Trachoma. Bacteroidetes. *Bacteroides fragilis. * ...
Chlamydia. *Chlamydia trachomatis *Chlamydia. *Lymphogranuloma venereum. *Trachoma. Bacteroidetes. *Bacteroides fragilis. * ...
Chlamydia trachomatis bakterien blir for første gang kultivert (i eggeplommesekken) av Feifan Tang og kollegaer.[5] ... advances in the diagnostic isolation of Chlamydia, including TRIC agent, from the eye, genital tract, and rectum». British ...
Chlamydia/Lymphogranuloma venereum (Chlamydia trachomatis). *Donovanosis or Granuloma Inguinale (Klebsiella granulomatis). * ...
Chlamydia trachomatis. *Chlamydiae. *Chlorobi. *Chromobacterium violaceum. *Clostridium acetobutylicum. *Clostridium butyricum ...
... og unge mænd kan få symptomer på urinvejsfektioner ved infektion af Chlamydia trachomatis eller Neisseria gonorrhoeae.[2][25] ...
Chlamydiae (Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia trachomatis). *Radioresistant micrococci and relatives (now commonly referred to as ... Chlamydiae[edit]. Main article: Chlamydiae. The Chlamydiae (diderms, weakly Gram negative) is a phylum of the PVC superphylum. ... The PVC group (now called Planctobacteria) includes Chlamydiae, Lentisphaerae, candidate phylum Omnitrophica, Planctomycetes, ...
Kankroid (Haemophilus ducreyi) • Klamidia (Chlamydia trachomatis) • Donovanosis (Granuloma Inguinale) • Lymphogranuloma ...
Chlamydia/Lymphogranuloma venereum (Chlamydia trachomatis). *Donovanosis or Granuloma Inguinale (Klebsiella granulomatis). * ...
... which employs a hybridization protection assay to distinguish Chlamydia trachomatis infections.[14] Various detection and ...
Chlamydia/Lymphogranuloma venereum (Chlamydia trachomatis). *Donovanosis or Granuloma Inguinale (Klebsiella granulomatis). * ...
A clamidia é unha doenza de transmisión sexual causada pola bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. Nas mulleres os síntomas poden ir ... "Chlamydia Infections: MedlinePlus". Nlm.nih.gov. Consultado o 2013-06-30.. *↑ http://www.webmd.com/genital-herpes/guide/genital ... "Chlamydia trachomatisand Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health". Journal of Pathogens ...
Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of reactive arthritis following urethritis. Ureaplasma and mycoplasma are rare ... The most common triggering infection in the US is a genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Other bacteria known to cause ... with Chlamydia trachomatis).[7]. It most commonly strikes individuals aged 20-40 years of age, is more common in men than in ... In Norway between 1988 and 1990, the incidence was 563.3 cases per 100,000 for chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis and 5 cases ...
Ginocchio C, Chapin K (2012). "Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria ... Prevalence and Incidence of Selected Sexually Transmitted Infections, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis ...
Chlamydia trachomatis és un bacteri paràsit intracel·lular estricte dels humans i una de tres espècies del gènere Chlamydia.[1] ... Chlamydia». MicrobeWiki, 15-08-2006. [Consulta: 27 octubre 2008]. *↑ Budai, I «Chlamydia trachomatis: milestones in clinical ... Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection (en anglès). A: Chlamydia. Chapter 17 (Mares, M; Ed.) IntechOpen, 2012; Mar 30, pp ... Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis cossos d'inclusió (en marró) en un cultiu cel·lular de McCoy. ...
Chlamydia trachomatis, genital infections (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/chlamydia-trachomatis-genital-infections/) ... Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection , 2010 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/chlamydia-trachomatis-infection/ ...
... Genital tract infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are a major ... TABLE 1. Number and rate * of reported cases of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, by state and sex -- United States, 1995 ... Recommendations for the prevention and management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections, 1993. MMWR 1993;42(no. RR-12). ... surveillance data on chlamydia and data on chlamydia test positivity among women screened in family-planning clinics funded ...
Population based screening for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection has been postulated since the introduction of ... Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. BMJ 2012; 345 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e4231 (Published 05 July 2012) Cite this as ... of participants were C trachomatis positive at the first invitation and there was only … ...
Chlamydia Trachomatis, Genital Infections , 1996 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/chlamydia-trachomatis- ... Chlamydia Trachomatis, Genital Infections , 1995 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/chlamydia-trachomatis- ... Chlamydia Trachomatis, Genital Infections , 1990 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/chlamydia-trachomatis- ... Chlamydia trachomatis infection (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/chlamydia-trachomatis-infection/) ...
Chlamydia trachomatis. These include techniques to identify Chlam ... Mutagenesis of Chlamydia trachomatis Using TargeTron Mary M. ... Chlamydia trachomatis. These include techniques to identify Chlamydia trachomatis in patient samples, ranging from simple point ... Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Using Multiplex Strand Invasion Based Amplification (mSIBA) ... Proximity Labeling of the Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Membrane Macy G. Olson, Lisa M. Jorgenson, Ray E. Widner, Elizabeth A ...
UDP-3-O-[3-HYDROXYMYRISTOYL] GLUCOSAMINE N-ACYLTRANSFERASEBeta-MercaptoethanolPalmitic AcidSulfate IonUridine-Diphosphate-N-Acetylglucosamine
... wherein the Chlamydia trachomatis antigens to be determined are coated or adsorbed on the solid phase. ... The present disclosure relates to a solid phase immunoassay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in a clinical ... Chlamydia trachomatis LGV Type II strain Tang, Chlamydia trachomatis Trachoma serotype A strain HAR-13, Chlamydia trachomatis ... a) lysing Chlamydia trachomatis cells in the specimen to release Chlamydia trachomatis antigen; ...
Pathophysiology of Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis is the most widespread bacterial agent of STD all over the world. Genital ... Pathophysiology of Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis is the most widespread bacterial agent of STD all over the world. Genital ... Chlamydia Trachomatis : The Most Widespread Bacterial Agent Of Std All Over The World. 1475 Words6 Pages ... More about Chlamydia Trachomatis : The Most Widespread Bacterial Agent Of Std All Over The World. ...
... Designation: Trachoma type K strain UW-31/Cx Application: Note that activities with high ... TRIC type K, a new immunologic type of Chlamydia trachomatis. J. Immunol. 113: 591-596, 1974. PubMed: 4210884 ... Feed with fresh growth medium containing FBS prescreened for Chlamydia antibodies and 1-2 ug/mL cycloheximide. Incubate at 37°C ...
... Designation: Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV III) strain 404 Application: Sexually ...
Chlamydia trachomatis,Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, NAA. TEST: 183160 Test number copied ... Patient Information: Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Trichomoniasis. Protect Your Patients From the Consequences of Untreated ... Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Trichomonas: Easily Detected and Easily Treated. Trichomonas vaginalis: Detect More Infections With ...
Chlamydiae.com "Chlamydia trachomatis". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 813. Type strain of Chlamydia trachomatis at BacDive - the ... Chlamydia trachomatis (/kləˈmɪdiə trəˈkoʊmətɪs/), commonly known as chlamydia, is a bacterium that causes chlamydia, which can ... trachomatis. In the 1990s it was shown that there are several species of Chlamydia. Chlamydia trachomatis was first described ... "Chlamydia". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. Retrieved 2008-09-11. "Chlamydia trachomatis". Elwell C, ...
All about Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis). FACTS: Chlamydia is perhaps the most common of all sexually transmitted diseases, ... Its caused by a bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis and is passed from person-to-person during unprotected sex.. ... In addition to its venereal impact, Chlamydia trachomatis is also responsible for trachoma, the leading cause of preventable ... In addition to its venereal impact, Chlamydia trachomatis is also responsible for trachoma, the leading cause of preventable ...
C trachomatis infection affects the cervix, urethra, salpinges, uterus, nasopharynx, and epididymis{ref1}{ref2}{ref3}; it is ... C trachomatis)?) and Which medical conditions are caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C trachomatis)? What to Read Next on ... Which medical conditions are caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C trachomatis)?. Updated: Sep 25, 2018 ... Role of Chlamydia trachomatis in miscarriage. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Sep. 17(9):1630-5. [Medline]. [Full Text]. ...
Do you know which doctor should you consult if you have Chlamydia Trachomatis. This and other commonly asked questions about ... Drugs for Chlamydia Trachomatis. Amoxicillin. This medication is a penicillin-like , β-lactam antibiotic. It is used to treat ... 2. Which Organs can be affected by Chlamydia?. Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD). It can infect ... If infected and treated for chlamydia infection can there be a recurrence of infection?. Yes, the treatment is not for lifetime ...
... have discovered that Chlamydia is much more diverse than was previously thought. ... Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) both in the UK and globally, with approximately ... Research highlights risks with current method of tracking Chlamydia trachomatis. Published: 12 March 2012 ... A cell infected with chlamydia. The team found there appeared to be no barriers to the swapping of DNA when circumstances allow ...
A mutant Chlamydia trachomatis variant was detected in Sweden in 2006 and has since also been diagnosed in Norway, but not in ... Mutant Chlamydia trachomatis in Denmark * S Hoffmann1, J S Jensen1 ... A mutant Chlamydia trachomatis variant was detected in Sweden in 2006 and has since also been diagnosed in Norway, but not in ... Mutant Chlamydia trachomatis in Denmark. Euro Surveill. 2007;12(10):pii=738. https://doi.org/10.2807/esm.12.10.00738-en ...
Inoculation of the mouse pneumonitis biovar of Chlamydia trachomatis into the ovarian bursa of mice resulted in salpingitis. An ... Chlamydia trachomatis-induced salpingitis in mice J Infect Dis. 1983 Dec;148(6):1101-7. doi: 10.1093/infdis/148.6.1101. ... Inoculation of the mouse pneumonitis biovar of Chlamydia trachomatis into the ovarian bursa of mice resulted in salpingitis. An ... This model for salpingitis may be useful in understanding some aspects of the pathogenesis of C trachomatis genital infections ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide ... MGB Alert Chlamydia pneumoniae ASR*. 7. Chlamydia EIA. 8. Chlamydia IgG. 9. Chlamydia DFA Direct Specimen Collection Kit. 10. ... Chlamydia OIA. 2. Clearview Chlamydia. 3. Pathfinder® Chlamydia DFA. 4. Pathfinder Chlamydia Microplate (EIA Microplate). 5. ... Chlamydia DFA Direct Specimen Test. 11. Chlamydia Antibody Panel, IgG by IFA. ...
Deep sequencing-based discovery of the Chlamydia trachomatis transcriptome.. Albrecht M1, Sharma CM, Reinhardt R, Vogel J, ... Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogenic bacterium that has been refractory to genetic manipulations. ... B) Northern analysis of C. trachomatis plasmid transcripts reveals a highly abundant small RNA pL2-sRNA1 of ∼100 nt in length ... A) Length distribution of reads after 5′ end-linker and polyA-tail clipping of four sequenced C. trachomatis cDNA libraries ...
Initial and Repeat Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis During Pregnancy. Alexander D. Allaire,1 John F. Huddleston,2 William L ... Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and risk factors for positive ... Results: The prevalence of C. trachomatis was 14.8%. At initial testing, 10.4% of the women were positive. If the initial test ... trachomatis at Grady Memorial Hospital or a Grady-affiliated clinic between July 1, 1993 and December 31, 1994. We calculated ...
... Abebayehu N. Yilma,1 Shree R. Singh,1 ... Chlamydia trachomatis, the agent of bacterial sexually transmitted infections, can manifest itself as either acute cervicitis, ... Our data demonstrates that naringenin is an immunomodulator of inflammation triggered by C. trachomatis, which possibly may be ... Inflammation induced by C. trachomatis contributes greatly to the pathogenesis of disease. Here we evaluated the anti- ...
Culture for Chlamydia on such nongential specimens can be ordered on the same specimen. If a GC culture is also requested see ...
... Designation: Apache-2 Application: Sexually Transmitted Disease Research ... Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar Ba (ATCC® VR-347™) Classification: Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydia / Product Format: frozen 1 mL per ... Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar Ba ATCC® VR-347™ frozen 1 mL per vial ... FBS used to culture Chlamydia must be prescreened to verify that the serum does not contain antibodies to Chlamydia or other ...
Chlamydia Trachomatis (Urine). Does this test have other names?. No.. What is this test?. This test looks for Chlamydia ... C. trachomatis bacteria cause chlamydia. Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the U.S. ... They should be if their partners are diagnosed with chlamydia. In women, chlamydia may lead to cervicitis. This is an ... In men, chlamydia can cause urethritis. This is a swelling of the urethra and may cause blood in the urine. Babies born to ...
Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis infection seems to also be associated with cervical cancer. We investigated whether C. trachomati … ... Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis infection seems to also be associated with cervical cancer. We investigated whether C. trachomatis ... Chlamydia trachomatis infection and persistence of human papillomavirus Int J Cancer. 2005 Aug 10;116(1):110-5. doi: 10.1002/ ... trachomatis infection (relative risk in multivariate model = 2.09; 95% confidence interval = 1.05-4.18). We conclude that ...
Diseases : Chlamydia pneumoniae , Chlamydia trachomatis, Pneumonia. Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Bacterial Agents, ... Diseases : Chlamydia trachomatis, Inflammation. Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Bacterial Agents, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, ... 4 Abstracts with Chlamydia trachomatis Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Bioactive compounds of Nigella sativa essential oil as antibacterial agents against Chlamydia Trachomatis D.Sep 18, 2019. ...
The etiological diagnosis of what is today known as infection by Chlamydia trachomatis was first made possible in 1907 when ... Chlamydia trachomatis / isolation & purification*, physiology. Cricetinae. Cycloheximide / pharmacology. Female. Humans. ... The etiological diagnosis of what is today known as infection by Chlamydia trachomatis was first made possible in 1907 when ... C. trachomatis was originally classified as a virus, and the culture systems used were those for viruses. Macchiavello was the ...
Bacteria; Chlamydiae; Chlamydiales; Chlamydiaceae; Chlamydia/Chlamydophila group; Chlamydia. Data source. GenBank (Assembly: ... Whole-genome analysis of diverse Chlamydia trachomatis strains identifies phylogenetic relationships masked by current clinical ...
  • Genital tract infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are a major cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, and infertility among women, and perinatal transmission of C. trachomatis to infants can cause neonatal conjunctivitis and pneumonia. (cdc.gov)
  • Rodent Infections for Chlamydia spp. (springer.com)
  • Diagnosis and management of uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis infections in adolescents and adults: summary of evidence reviewed for the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines. (medscape.com)
  • It is really important to carry out research into Chlamydia to safeguard the sexual health of our young people, especially so, because chlamydial infections are associated with many serious complications such as infertility and ectopic pregnancy. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Clinical diagnosis of Chlamydia infections simply returns a positive or negative result, providing no information about the nature of the infecting strain. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • This model for salpingitis may be useful in understanding some aspects of the pathogenesis of C trachomatis genital infections. (nih.gov)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis , the agent of bacterial sexually transmitted infections, can manifest itself as either acute cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, or a chronic asymptomatic infection. (hindawi.com)
  • We conclude that persistence of oncogenic HPV infections is more likely among women with a previous C. trachomatis infection. (nih.gov)
  • C. trachomatis is a commonly sexually transmitted pathogen (causing more than a million chlamydial infections in the U.S. each year). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although the serovars of this bacterial species typically vary between ocular and genital infections there is a clear connection between genital C. trachomatis infections and the development of trachoma in infants, such that the solutions to these infections are closely related. (mdpi.com)
  • It is the unique life cycle of the C. trachomatis bacteria which primarily leads to chronic infections and challenges in treatment using conventional antibiotics. (mdpi.com)
  • Untreated endocervical C. trachomatis infections can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a disorder of the endometrium, fallopian tubes, and adjacent structures that occurs after ascension of the bacterium from the lower to upper genital tract. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Vaccine development has been identified as essential for control of C. trachomatis infections, and current evidence suggests that an effective vaccine will likely be based on several C. trachomatis antigens. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • While approximately 70% of infections with C. trachomatis in young women are asymptomatic, 20% - 40% of these occult infections will progress from endocervical inflammation to the development of PID. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Although data from both experimental models and clinical studies suggest that antigen specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are required for optimal control of genital tract chlamydial infections, the current lack of information regarding the specific C. trachomatis antigens eliciting protective immune responses in humans hinders vaccine development. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections have been recognised as a major public health problem. (bmj.com)
  • 2 - 5 Thus, the healthcare costs due to complications caused by C trachomatis infections are enormous. (bmj.com)
  • The Impact of Screening and Partner Notification on Chlamydia Prevalence and Numbers of Infections Averted in the United States, 2000-2015: Evaluation of Epidemiologic Trends Using a Pair-Formation Transmission Model. (harvard.edu)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis causes various types of genital, eye and lymph node infections. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Therefore, the known cases of genital chlamydia infections in men depend largely on reporting of symptomatic cases, or partners of women with a diagnosed infection. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • For men who have sex with men (MSM) who practice receptive anal sex, rectal chlamydia infections are common, and most are asymptomatic. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • In 1985, CDC published Policy Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Chlamydia trachomatis infections (1). (cdc.gov)
  • Those guidelines highlighted the prevalence and morbidity of chlamydial infections and stressed the need to include antibiotics effective against chlamydia when treating patients for urethritis, mucopurulent cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Because chlamydial infections are common among adolescents and young adults throughout the United States, health-care providers and other agencies serving these groups should become more involved if a sufficiently large proportion of the chlamydia-infected population is to be reached. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis infections are common in sexually active adolescents and young adults in the United States (CDC, unpublished review). (cdc.gov)
  • Here we show that ivermectin also inhibits infection of epithelial cells by the bacterial pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, at doses that could be envisioned clinically for sexually-transmitted or ocular infections by Chlamydia. (harvard.edu)
  • Bebear C, de Barbeyrac B (2009) Genital chlamydia trachomatis infections. (springer.com)
  • How C. trachomatis can adapt to a persistent growth state in host epithelial cells in vivo is not well understood, but is an important question, since it extends the host-bacterial relationship in vitro and has thus been indicated as a survival mechanism in chronic chlamydial infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D-K account for the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) worldwide. (frontiersin.org)
  • C. trachomatis infections of women also pose a risk to infants, as infants born from mothers with C. trachomatis infections can develop conjunctivitis and/or pneumonia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Repeated infections with C. trachomatis lead to serious sequelae, such as infertility. (jimmunol.org)
  • It is unclear why the adaptive immune system, specifically the CD8 + T cell response, is unable to protect against subsequent C. trachomatis infections. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this article, we show that the CD8 + T cell response to genital infection with C. trachomatis , as with chronic viral infections, is negatively affected by the immunoinhibitory receptor PD-1 and its ligand, PD-L1. (jimmunol.org)
  • It is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world, with more than 100 million new cases of genital tract infections with C. trachomatis occurring each year. (asm.org)
  • Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. (asm.org)
  • In this paper, the most commonly used animal models to study female genital tract infections with C. trachomatis will be reviewed, namely, the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate models. (asm.org)
  • World Health Organization values for 2008 estimated an annual increase of over 100 million genital tract infections with C. trachomatis worldwide ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Genital tract infections with C. trachomatis can cause cervicitis in women and urethritis in men. (asm.org)
  • A vaccination program would be much cheaper and have a greater impact in controlling C. trachomatis infections worldwide. (asm.org)
  • Intravaginal inoculation of C. muridarum in mice results in a genital tract infection that closely resembles acute genital C. trachomatis infections in women ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Delineation of host factors that increase the likelihood that C. trachomatis will avoid immune destruction and survive within host epithelial cells and utilization of this knowledge to design individualized preventative and treatment protocols are needed to more effectively combat infections by this persistent pathogen. (asm.org)
  • Genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) 1 ) ( 2 , greatly affects sexual and reproductive health, and is prevalent in both developed and developing countries 3 ) ( 4 . (scielo.br)
  • Infections caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis are a global health burden affecting more than 100 million people annually causing damaging long-lasting infections. (aau.dk)
  • The largest number of genital chlamydial patients studied belonged to the age group of 20 - 35 years, totalling of 116 patients, who could be considered as the sexually active group.The verification of the sex distributionof all patients examined, who were suffering from genital Chlamydia trachmatis infections showed that the male patients were more prevalent than the female ones. (unikom.ac.id)
  • Occurrence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae in paediatric respiratory infections. (umassmed.edu)
  • C. trachomatis causes infections that can affect the eyes, urogenital area, or cause pneumonia in infants born to infected mothers, depending on how the infection is transmitted. (healthengine.com.au)
  • C. trachomatis infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections ( STI s) in the United States, UK and Australia. (healthengine.com.au)
  • The present study investigated the involvement of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections and immunological markers (C-reactive protein, CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) in the process of atherosclerosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Infections with the human pathogenic bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, which can lead to chronic pain or infertility, were analyzed in these models. (hu-berlin.de)
  • These studies show that persistent C. trachomatis maintains viability for extended periods, illustrate the reversibility of immunologically mediated persistent infections, and characterize reactivation at the ultrastructural and biochemical levels. (asm.org)
  • This book explores cutting-edge methods to work with the notoriously difficult, but highly prevalent, obligate intracellular pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis . (springer.com)
  • Authoritative, practical, and relevant, Chlamydia trachomatis: Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal reference for scientists searching for a better understanding of the pathogen, allowing for the development of improved treatment regimens and the discovery of new drugs. (springer.com)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate prokaryotic intracellular pathogen of humans that infects mucosal epithelial cells. (pnas.org)
  • We still need to understand the advantage that glycogen accumulation brings to Chlamydia trachomatis, a pathogen that develop exclusively in humans. (pasteur.fr)
  • It is important to understand and sequence the genome of ''C. trachomatis'' because it would help us better understand its functions as a pathogen--the properties that allow it to live within its human host and its virulence and biological capabilities as a pathogen. (kenyon.edu)
  • In the article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases on Nov. 15, 2017, Bavoil and colleagues present a multifactorial hypothesis based on revising the status of C. trachomatis from "principal pathogen to commensal organism/opportunistic pathogen," which they urge both researchers and clinicians to explore. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis , an obligate intracellular pathogen, has been considered a bacterium since 1964. (scielo.br)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis , the most common human pathogen that causes trachoma and sexually transmitted disease, has developed various strategies for inhibiting host cell apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • Byrne GI, Ojcius DM (2004) Chlamydia and apoptosis: life and death decisions of an intracellular pathogen. (springer.com)
  • Here, we review recent findings on the mechanistic aspects of bacterial adaptation to stress with a focus on how C. trachomatis remodels its envelope, produces MVs, and the potential important consequences of MV production with respect to host-pathogen interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that infects 1.4 million people in the United States each year, and the incidence of infection has continued to rise since 2000 ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. (asm.org)
  • Chlamydia muridarum , previously known as C. trachomatis mouse pneumonitis biovar or MoPn, is a natural mouse pathogen that causes pneumonitis and was originally isolated from the lungs of mice ( 19 ). (asm.org)
  • In this review, we describe the unique attributes of C. trachomatis that contribute to its success as an intracellular pathogen of the female genital tract, delineate the host factors that influence consequences following an initial exposure to this organism, and highlight potential areas for future research. (asm.org)
  • The bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen that is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States and a major public health concern. (jimmunol.org)
  • C hlamydia trachomatis (CT) is an obligate intracellular human pathogen. (omicsonline.org)
  • However, because C. trachomatis bacteria can be transmitted from a mother to a child during birth, half of the children born to mothers with chlamydia enter the world with an eye infection - or worse: chlamydia has also been implicated in causing infant pneumonia, as well as premature- and still-births. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Over the course of the C. trachomatis life cycle, the bacteria take on two distinct forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C. trachomatis genome is substantially smaller than that of many other bacteria at approximately 1.04 megabases, encoding approximately 900 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. trachomatis are bacteria in the genus Chlamydia, a group of obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This test looks for Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria in a sample of cells collected from your urine. (rochester.edu)
  • C. trachomatis bacteria cause chlamydia. (rochester.edu)
  • A positive result means that chlamydia bacteria were found and that you are likely infected with the disease. (rochester.edu)
  • All of the studies reported on curing chlamydia, based on the elimination of the bacteria, with an antibiotic. (cochrane.org)
  • The neglected tropical disease (NTD) trachoma is currently the leading cause of eye disease in the world, and the pathogenic bacteria causing this condition, Chlamydia trachomatis, is also the most common sexually transmitted pathogenic bacterium. (mdpi.com)
  • Coloured trans- mission electron micrograph (TEM) of Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria (red dots) inside a cell inclusion (yellow). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria, coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). (sciencephoto.com)
  • The purpose of this on-going study is to study the number of days after antibiotic treatment has commenced (due to infection caused by the sexually transmitted bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Mycoplasma genitalium(Mg)) it takes to be cured i.e to get a negative test result. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Although there was no difference in the cytokine profile between patients previously infected with both species of Chlamydia , and uninfected patients, the presence of the bacteria antigens in the three biological specimens indicates it is important to focus on the role of C. trachomatis . (dovepress.com)
  • In mouse models of Chlamydia infection, CD8 + T cells can enhance the clearance of the bacteria. (jimmunol.org)
  • The recent advent of a method for transforming Chlamydia has enabled the development of essential molecular tools to better study these medically important bacteria. (ku.edu)
  • Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria. (healthengine.com.au)
  • IFN-gamma-deficient mice, on the other hand, cleared 99.9% of genital Chlamydia within the first 3 wk but then developed systemic disease associated with dissemination of bacteria to multiple organs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Infectious neonatal conjunctivitis is typically contracted during vaginal delivery from exposure to bacteria from the birth canal, most commonly Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. trachomatis is the most common infectious cause of blindness and the most common sexually transmitted bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is a gram-negative bacterium that can replicate only within a host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogenic bacterium that has been refractory to genetic manipulations. (nih.gov)
  • A publication in eLife from researchers of the Institut Pasteur, CNRS, University of Lille and Indiana University (USA) explains the mechanisms by which the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis hijacks nutrients of its host to its own benefit. (pasteur.fr)
  • the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis . (cdc.gov)
  • Chlamydia is a common term for infection with any bacterium belonging to the phylum Chlamydiae. (prospecbio.com)
  • The obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis , typically has a biphasic lifestyle, but can enter into an altered growth state typified by morphologically aberrant chlamydial forms, termed persistent growth forms, when induced by stress in vitro . (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, epidemiological evidence indicates that C. trachomatis infection of the reproductive tract also may increase the risk of HIV transmission, making the study and understanding of the pathogenicity of this bacterium imperative. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis , a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease. (asm.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium whose only natural host is humans. (asm.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium. (asm.org)
  • Although endothelial and cardiac muscle cells may not be common targets for Chlamydia trachomatis infection, this bacterium can reach the circulatory system through infected monocytes and macrophages. (frontiersin.org)
  • Studies indicate that Chlamydia pneumoniae results in the airway disease, and it has been found in some situation of atherosclerosis (Barber, 2013). (bartleby.com)
  • C. trachomatis along with C. pneumoniae have been found to infect humans to a greater extent. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. trachomatis in the lungs presents as the chlamydia pneumoniae respiratory infection and can affect all ages. (wikipedia.org)
  • An extract from schisandra chinensis berries inhibited the growth of both C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This approach has been applied to ArtJ, an arginine-binding protein whose orthologs in Chlamydiae trachomatis (CT ArtJ) and pneumoniae (CPn ArtJ) are shown to have different immunogenic properties despite a high sequence similarity (60% identity). (rcsb.org)
  • Chronic coronary artery disease has been associated, as a consequence of the local inflammatory reaction with previous or persistent infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae , which led to the investigation of the association of cardiovascular disease and previous infection with C. trachomatis and the role of cytokine profile (in situ) markers in the vascular system tissues. (dovepress.com)
  • C. trachomatis infection was higher in valves, and C. pneumoniae in plaques, both without statistical significance. (dovepress.com)
  • Infectious Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with elevated interleukin-8 and airway neutrophilia in children with refractory asthma. (umassmed.edu)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis , Chlamydia pneumoniae (also known as Chlamydophila pneumoniae ), and Chlamydia psittacci . (healthengine.com.au)
  • In particular, bacterial components of Chlamydia pneumoniae have been associated with atheroma plaque genesis and the potential risk of acute myocardial infarction ( 6 , 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • It should be noted that the Chlamydia trachomatis comprises the trachoma serovars which are the primary cause of avoidable blindness globally. (bartleby.com)
  • In addition to its venereal impact, Chlamydia trachomatis is also responsible for trachoma, the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • C trachomatis infection causes other diseases as well, including conjunctivitis, pneumonia or pneumonitis, afebrile pneumonia syndrome (in infants born vaginally to infected mothers), Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome, and trachoma (the world's leading cause of acquired blindness). (medscape.com)
  • C. trachomatis is the single most important infectious agent associated with blindness (trachoma), and it also affects the eyes in the form of inclusion conjunctivitis and is responsible for about 19% of adult cases of conjunctivitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study is not just important for the treatment of the sexually transmitted strains of Chlamydia but also for the treatment of African Chlamydia strains that can cause infectious blindness, or trachoma. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • For many years various groups have observed co-circulating strains of Chlamydia causing trachoma. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Potroz MG, Cho N-J. Natural Products for the Treatment of Trachoma and Chlamydia trachomatis. (mdpi.com)
  • chlamydia infection called trachoma) in the world [5]. (kenyon.edu)
  • C. trachomatis serovars A, B, Ba, C that cause trachoma are endemic worldwide, but clinical disease affects primarily poor and rural populations in countries within Africa, Asia, the Middle East, South and Central America, Pacific Islands and in parts of Australia. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • 183160: Chlamydia trachomatis,Neisseria. (labcorp.com)
  • We report an HIV-infected person who was treated for lym- DNA by the C. trachomatis / Neisseria gonorrhoeae RT- phogranuloma venereum cervical lymphadenopathy and PCR (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). (cdc.gov)
  • Antibiotics are effective in the treatment of gonorrhoea and chlamydia in pregnancy, but before accepting the results of this review and deciding on which treatment regimen to follow, it would be essential for each country to determine the prevalence of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoea. (who.int)
  • While younger age, Caucasian race, oral contraception use, low secretory immunoglobulin secretion and cervical ectopy appear to be related to higher organism burdens, the associations of Chlamydia quantities with gender and concurrent infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae are variable. (asm.org)
  • A chlamydia symptom is urethritis (inflammation of the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder) that is not caused by Neisseria gonorrhoea . (healthengine.com.au)
  • The cytosolic localization of GlgA was conserved among all C. trachomatis serovars. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Genomic DNA libraries were constructed for Chlamydia trachomatis serovars B and C by using BamHI fragments, and recombinants that contained the major outer membrane protein (omp1) gene for each serovar were identified and sequenced. (asm.org)
  • The molecular basis of omp1 gene diversity among C. trachomatis serovars was observed to be clustered nucleotide substitutions for closely related serovars and insertions or deletions for distantly related serovars. (asm.org)
  • C. trachomatis is comprised of serovars that cause distinct clinical syndromes. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • All serovars of C. trachomatis are transmitted by intimate contact with an infected person, either sexual (genital chlamydia, LGV) or through oral, ocular or nasal secretions. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Lymphogranuloma venereum is a sexually transmitted infection caused by C. trachomatis serovars L1, L2, and L3. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • In a simple ELISA this is reactive with 15 serovars of C. trachomatis. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • In addition to the chromosome that contains most of the genome, nearly all C. trachomatis strains carry a 7.5 kilobase plasmid that contains 8 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. trachomatis strains are generally divided into three biovars based on the type of disease they cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using whole genome sequencing, the researchers show that the exchange of DNA between different strains of Chlamydia to form new strains is much more common than expected. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • In a study released today in Nature Genetics, the team highlights that current clinical testing methods do not capture the variation between Chlamydia strains. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • The researchers are working with hospitals to use their results to improve Chlamydia testing in terms of detecting variation between Chlamydia strains. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Relatively little is known about the evolution of the different strains of Chlamydia that are causing infection. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Dr Simon Harris, lead author of the study, from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, adds: "Scientists recently discovered that if two Chlamydia strains co-infect the same person at the same time, they can swap DNA by a process called recombination. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • The team sequenced strains of African Chlamydia and found that these strains are also using recombination to fool the human immune system. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Whole-genome analysis of diverse Chlamydia trachomatis strains identifies phylogenetic relationships masked by current clinical typing. (genome.jp)
  • We previously reported that laboratory reference strains of Chlamydia trachomatis differing in infection organotropism correlated with inactivating mutations in the pathogen's tryptophan synthase (trpBA) genes. (jci.org)
  • 2] ''C. trachomatis'' strains have an extrachromosomal plasmid, which was sequenced to be a 7493-base pair plasmid. (kenyon.edu)
  • Some ''C. trachomatis'' strains lack these plasmids, and the consequences aid in detection of the ''C. trachomatis'' strain. (kenyon.edu)
  • However, the fact that such strains exist shows that the plasmid is not essential for ''C. trachomatis'' survival [1]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Also shown are examples of relatively large, empty-appearing inclusions (small arrow) that are typically formed by TMP-sensitive strains of C. trachomatis (OFX r -1 in this experiment) in the presence of TMP. (asm.org)
  • To evaluate the performance of this method, α-mannosidase activities of C. trachomatis serotype D strain 、 and 29 standard strains related to clinical urogenital pathogens were investigated. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Feed with fresh growth medium containing FBS prescreened for Chlamydia antibodies and 1-2 ug/mL cycloheximide. (atcc.org)
  • FBS used to culture Chlamydia must be prescreened to verify that the serum does not contain antibodies to Chlamydia or other factors that would interfere with growth. (atcc.org)
  • No association has been shown between the presence of C trachomatis antibodies and the development of non-cervical anogenital cancers. (bmj.com)
  • Ninety-three per cent of 15 patients with Crohn's disease had IgG antibodies against Chlamydia, compared to 26% in the control group. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the 20 patients with ulcerative colitis, 45% had IgG antibodies against Chlamydia, compared to 10% in the control group. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Schuller JL, Piket-van Ulsen J, Veeken IV, Michel MF, Stolz E. Antibodies against Chlamydia of lymphogranuloma-venereum type in Crohn's disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Srivastava P, Jha R, Bas S, Salhan S, Mittal A. In infertile women, cells from Chlamydia trachomatis infected sites release higher levels of interferon-gamma, interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha upon heat-shock-protein stimulation than fertile women. (medscape.com)
  • This protein is immunoreactive with sera of Chlamydia Trachomatis infected individuals. (abcam.com)
  • Comparative genomic studies have identified many proteins that are found only in various Chlamydiae species and exhibit no significant sequence similarity to any protein in organisms that do not belong to this group. (rcsb.org)
  • The CT670 protein of Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the proteins whose genes are in one of the type III secretion gene clusters but whose cellular functions are not known. (rcsb.org)
  • A prospective study of Kenyan commercial sex workers found that production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) by peripheral blood cells stimulated with chlamydia heat-shock protein (HSP60) strongly correlated with protection against incident C. trachomatis infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis'' has a genome that consists of 1,042,519 nucleotide base pairs and has approximately 894 likely protein coding sequences. (kenyon.edu)
  • Diversity of Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein genes. (asm.org)
  • The E.coli derived recombinant 6xHis fusion at C-terminus protein contains Chlamydia Trachomatis MOMP protein epitopes, 191-286 amino acids. (prospecbio.com)
  • Chlamydia W4 protein although stable at 4°C for 1 week, should be stored below -18°C. (prospecbio.com)
  • Here, we reveal that the secreted C. trachomatis plasmid-encoded protein Pgp3 inhibits apoptosis in HeLa cells. (springer.com)
  • In its persistent form, C. trachomatis ceases to produce its major structural and membrane components, but synthesis of its 60-kDa heat shock protein (hsp60) is greatly upregulated and released from the cell. (asm.org)
  • Purified MOMP (major outer membrane protein) of Chlamydia trachomatis strain L2. (genetex.com)
  • Chlamydia W4-W5 protein was purified by proprietary chromatographic technique. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Treatment of chlamydia infection with antibiotics appears to be effective during pregnancy. (cochrane.org)
  • We conclude that well-designed studies of appropriate sample size, in different settings, are needed to further assess the effects of treatment of chlamydia infection in pregnancy. (cochrane.org)
  • Both antibiotics are recommended as the first line treatment of chlamydia infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The applicability of the results regarding the treatment of Chlamydia infection is difficult to comment, because information about this condition in developing countries is very limited. (who.int)
  • Cytokine polymorphisms and severity of tubal damage in women with Chlamydia-associated infertility. (medscape.com)
  • Adverse outcomes secondary to C. trachomatis-induced PID include tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 1 C trachomatis is the major cause of mucopurulent cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal factor infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. (bmj.com)
  • 17 , 20 - 22 However, although the association has become less convincing based on many subsequent larger studies, 23 - 27 it is tempting to speculate that a common cause of salpingitis, oophoritis, and infertility such as C trachomatis infection might explain the link between infertility and ovarian cancer found in some studies (fig 1). (bmj.com)
  • In a perspective based on historic and geographic patterns of Chlamydia trachomatis, Patrik M. Bavoil, PhD, professor at the University of Maryland School of Dentistry (UMSOD), and colleagues at the University of Maryland, Baltimore pose the question: "Does active oral sex contribute to female infertility? (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Infection may result in cervicitis, and in some women, C. trachomatis may ascend into the endometrium and Fallopian tubes, where it can establish a chronic infection leading to diseases such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adolescent girls and young women infected with C. trachomatis face reproductive tract damage and increased risk for ectopic pregnancy and infertility ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This term derives from the name of the bacterial genus Chlamydiain the family Chlamydiaceae, order Chlamydiales, class and phylum Chlamydiae. (prospecbio.com)
  • There are two genera in Chlamydiaceae: Chlamydia and Chlamydophila. (prospecbio.com)
  • Screening is an essential component of chlamydia surveillance because, even though infection can cause extensive inflammation and scarring of the genital tract, most infected women have only mild manifestations or are asymptomatic. (cdc.gov)
  • Population based screening for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection has been postulated since the introduction of nucleic amplification techniques that enable testing on non-invasive samples. (bmj.com)
  • citation needed] Clinical signs and symptoms of C. trachomatis infection in the genitalia present as the chlamydia infection, which may be asymptomatic or may resemble a gonorrhea infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlamydia is the most frequently reported bacterial genital infectious disease in women in the United States and may be asymptomatic or weakly symptomatic. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • A distinctive feature of C. trachomatis , especially in the female genital tract, is that the majority of infected women remain asymptomatic and, therefore, do not seek treatment. (asm.org)
  • In 2006, a plasmid deletion mutant of Chlamydia trachomatis was identified in Sweden that can not be detected with those commercial tests targeting the deleted area. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • based diagnosis of ''C. trachomatis'' because there are approximately 7-10 copies of the plasmid present per chlamydial particle. (kenyon.edu)
  • C. trachomatis cryptic plasmid DNA was detected in 7.4% of the samples. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present disclosure relates to a solid phase immunoassay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in a clinical specimen, wherein the Chlamydia trachomatis antigens to be determined are coated or adsorbed on the solid phase. (google.ca)
  • The Papanicolaou stain, well established for the detection of pre-cancer cervix lesions, has been used as alternative method for the diagnosis of the C. trachomatis [14]. (scielo.br)
  • Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical specimens by polymerase chain reaction. (asm.org)
  • A rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in cervical specimens is described. (asm.org)
  • Modification of the standard Chlamydia trachomatis ligase chain reaction (LCR) detection assay resulted in a quantitative test. (asm.org)
  • Quantitative LCR (qLCR) was used to measure the number of EB per milliliter in 158 urine samples from women in Madagascar that tested positive for C. trachomatis by the standard LCR detection assay. (asm.org)
  • We established another new rapid non-culture method for detection of C. trachomatis based on the measurement of α-mannosidase enzymatic activity in urogenital tract specimens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Huang W, Gaydos CA, Barnes MR, Jett-Goheen M, Blake DR. Comparative effectiveness of a rapid point-of-care test for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis among women in a clinical setting. (umassmed.edu)
  • In men, chlamydia can cause urethritis. (rochester.edu)
  • Urethritis due to Chlamydia trachomatis. (bmj.com)
  • Those subjects intended to treatment but with a lower degree of suspicion of Mg infection were randomized to either a treatment with doxycycline 200 mg the first day and 100 mg once daily the following nine days (the custom and recommendation in Sweden for treatment of chlamydia and non-specific urethritis or cervicitis) OR a treatment with azithromycin 1g as a single dose. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • C. trachomatis is often included in the category of non-gonnococcal urethritis. (healthengine.com.au)
  • 40% of non-gonococcal urethritis is due to chlamydia. (healthengine.com.au)
  • C. trachomatis can cause urethritis (inflammation of the urethra) in men. (healthengine.com.au)
  • In order to study the spread of this strain in France, a laboratory-based surveillance system was set up by the National Reference Centre for Chlamydiae and the Institut de Veille Sanitaire. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • A Chlamydia trachomatis Strain Expressing Ovalbumin Stimulates an Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cell Response in Mice. (harvard.edu)
  • Inclusions formed by each strain of C. trachomatis used in this study would have similar appearances in antibiotic-free culture medium or in a medium containing just that antibiotic to which the strain was resistant. (asm.org)
  • HeLa cells (ATCC CCL-2) were grown in Advanced DMEM (4.5 g glucose/L) (Invitrogen) supplemented with 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (Hyclone/Thermo Fisher) and 2mM GlutaMAX-I (Invitrogen) in 5% CO2 at 37°C. Cell monolayers were infected with C. trachomatis serovar L2, strain L2/434/Bu (ATCC VR-902B) at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 3 in sucrose-phosphate-glutamic acid (SPG). (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Prolonged exposure of the fallopian tube epithelium to C. trachomatis , or to antigens released by this microorganism, may lead to scarring and disruption of tubal integrity. (asm.org)
  • Chlamydia screening and prevalence-monitoring activities were initiated in Public Health Service (PHS) Region X in 1988 as a CDC-supported demonstration project. (cdc.gov)
  • In some regions, federally funded chlamydia screening supplements local- and state-funded screening programs. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlamydia screening among sexually active young female enrollees of health plans--United States, 2000-2007. (medscape.com)
  • Screening for Chlamydia and gonorrhea: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. (medscape.com)
  • 2001 May (revised 2012 Feb). Available at https://www.guideline.gov/summaries/summary/48874/screening-for-chlamydia-and-gonorrhea-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement?q=chlamydia . (medscape.com)
  • Hence, they suggest that to safeguard public health, clinicians should be encouraged to go beyond the traditional sampling of urogenital sites by expanding screening for C. trachomatis to rectal and, when appropriate, pharyngeal sites in sexually active adults. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In addition, chlamydia screening in women has been added as a quality measure for insurance plans and managed care organizations. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • While chlamydia screening is recommended by U.S. guidelines for all sexually active women younger than age 26, there is no similar recommendation for men who have sex with women. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Screening and prevention measures have largely eliminated the risk for progression with visual loss in developed countries, but ophthalmic infection with Chlamydia remains a significant cause of childhood ocular morbidity in resource-challenged areas of the world. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Until recently, chlamydia prevention and patient care were impeded by the lack of suitable laboratory tests for screening and diagnosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: are men the forgotten reservoir? (mja.com.au)
  • Rapid screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by detecting α-mannosidase activity in urogenital tract specimens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis may cause multiple different urogenital tract disorders, but current non-culture assays for rapid screening of C. trachomatis typically use immunochromatography-based methods. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These results showed that α-mannosidase activity could be utilised as a screening marker of C. trachomatis infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Huang W, Gaydos CA, Barnes MR, Jett-Goheen M, Blake DR. Cost-effectiveness analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis screening via internet-based self-collected swabs compared with clinic-based sample collection. (umassmed.edu)
  • The cost-effectiveness of screening men for Chlamydia trachomatis: a review of the literature. (umassmed.edu)
  • In newborns, ophthalmic antibiotic solution should be instilled in the conjunctival sac of each eye to prevent neonatal conjunctivitis and blindness caused by Chlamydia . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In pregnant women, C. trachomatis infection can affect pregnancy outcome, causing preterm labor, puerperal endometritis, low-weight in the newborn, as well as conjunctivitis and neonatal pneumonia [9-11]. (scielo.br)
  • C. trachomatis can be transmitted via the birth canal of an infected mother, and neonates exposed to chlamydia at birth may develop conjunctivitis 5-13 days later. (healthengine.com.au)
  • citation needed] The two most common infectious causes of neonatal conjunctivitis are N. gonorrheae and Chlamydia, typically acquired from the birth canal during delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, conjunctivitis secondary to infection with C. trachomatis produces conjunctivitis 3 days to 2 weeks after delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The significance of this is that, although antibiotic resistant Chlamydia has never been seen in patients, it can occur in the laboratory. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • It is treated with antibiotic therapy , such as azithromycin or doxycycline ( http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Chlamydia/Pages/Treatment.aspx ). (immunology.org)
  • In contrast to Chlamydia trachomatis antibiotic resistance is common against tetracyclines and is emerging against macrolides such as azithromycin. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Erythromycin, a recommended antibiotic for the treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy has significant side-effects (mainly nausea and vomiting). (who.int)
  • An association between genital infection with Chlamydia and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervix carcinoma has been reported [6]. (scielo.br)
  • This molecular analysis of MOMP antigenic determinants and their surface topology on intact chlamydiae will be useful toward the development of a recombinant subunit or synthetic chlamydial vaccine. (pnas.org)
  • C. trachomatis serovar L2 (434/Bu) was propagated within McCoy cell monolayers grown in Eagle's MEM ( Invitrogen , Grand Island, NY) supplemented with 10% FCS, 1.5 g/l sodium bicarbonate, 0.1 M nonessential amino acids, and 1 mM sodium pyruvate. (jimmunol.org)
  • Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases. (harvard.edu)
  • Testing of throat, conjunctival, or anal/rectal swab specimens requires collection using M4 Collection Kit (swab and M4 media).Culture for Chlamydia on such nongential specimens can be ordered on the same specimen. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Among 1,141 C. trachomatis-positive specimens from all over France, the new variant was only detected in one case. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • However, these tests are not designed to accurately quantify chlamydia in clinical specimens. (asm.org)
  • C. trachomatis exists as multiple serovariants that exhibit distinct organotropism for the eye or urogenital tract. (abcam.com)
  • Early Colonization of the Upper Genital Tract by Chlamydia muridarum Is Associated with Enhanced Inflammation Later in Infection. (harvard.edu)
  • The authors observe that C. trachomatis transmitted via the fecal-oral or genital-oral routes may colonize gastrointestinal (GI) tract sites without symptoms. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • An indirect but compelling argument that supports the idea that C. trachomatis colonizes the GI tract without clinical disease is that most, if not all, other Chlamydia species are first and foremost innocuous gut commensals" in their hosts, the authors state. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Furthermore, rectal C. trachomatis may chronically or episodically contaminate and/or infect the female lower genital tract, exacerbating host responses and contributing to reproductive sequelae. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • A sobering thought is that with oral sex and GI tract colonization, C. trachomatis may have 'evolved' yet another, most unsophisticated way to elude the clinician, the infected patient, and the patient's own immune system," observe Bavoil and co-authors. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In this article, we characterize the mucosal CD8 + T cell response to C. trachomatis in the murine genital tract. (jimmunol.org)
  • The female mouse genital tract is susceptible to infection with both Chlamydia muridarum ( 9 ) and C. trachomatis ( 10 ), which has resulted in the establishment of two murine models: the C. trachomatis mouse model and the C. muridarum mouse model. (asm.org)
  • In a subset of women, C. trachomatis is able to avoid destruction by the host's innate and adaptive immune systems, and by autophagy, it migrates to the upper genital tract and establishes a chronic infection. (asm.org)
  • Following sexual transmission, Chlamydia trachomatis specifically targets genital tract epithelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • To determine whether Chlamydia -specific CD8 + T cells migrate to the genital tract in response to Chlamydia infection, we generated retrogenic mice that express a TCR specific for a Chlamydia -specific T cell Ag CrpA. (jimmunol.org)
  • We observed that the Chlamydia -specific retrogenic T cells proliferated in lymph nodes draining the genital tract in response to genital infection with C. trachomatis . (jimmunol.org)
  • Infection with C. trachomatis occurs naturally in the genital tract, where the organisms have a strict tropism for epithelial cells ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Because epithelial cells express abundant levels of MHC class I, we sought to determine whether Chlamydia -specific CD8 + T cells are recruited to the genital epithelium in response to Chlamydia infection of the genital tract. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mucosal immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis in a mouse model of female genital tract infection is mediated predominantly by Th1-type cells, as shown by in vivo neutralization of cytokines involved in the Th1 vs Th2 pathways. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mucosal cells tissues infected by Chlamydia include the dendritic cells, the epithelial cells, fibroblast, as well as the macrophages. (bartleby.com)
  • Moreover, we show that recombinant ArtJ binds to epithelial cells in vitro, suggesting a role for ArtJ in host-cell adhesion during Chlamydia infection. (rcsb.org)
  • Emerging data suggest that the generation of MVs may be an important mechanism for C. trachomatis intracellular survival of stress, and thus may aid in the establishment of a chronic infection in human genital epithelial cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • C. trachomatis has evolved successful mechanisms to avoid destruction by autophagy and the host immune system and persist within host epithelial cells. (asm.org)
  • Because epithelial cells are readily recognized by CD8 + T cells, the response of CD8 + T cells to Chlamydia infection has been explored in a number of studies. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although CD4 + T cells contribute significantly in controlling Chlamydia infection ( 10 , 11 ), they may not recognize Chlamydia -infected epithelial cells in the genital mucosa because epithelial cells typically express low levels of MHC class II. (jimmunol.org)
  • Via high resolution confocal analysis the infection with C. trachomatis was discovered to trigger profound changes in the epithelial mucosa, causing loss of cell adhesion and polarity. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Variants in toll-like receptor 1 and 4 genes are associated with Chlamydia trachomatis among women with pelvic inflammatory disease. (medscape.com)
  • FACTS: Chlamydia is perhaps the most common of all sexually transmitted diseases, though it is comparatively unsung. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD). (medindia.net)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) both in the UK and globally, with approximately 100 million new cases worldwide each year. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the U.S. (rochester.edu)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infection. (pasteur.fr)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis infection is an important cause of preventable blindness and sexually transmitted disease (STD) in humans. (abcam.com)
  • chief agent of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in the U.S. The type species of the genus Chlamydia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial infection which is sexually transmitted. (cochrane.org)
  • With more than 90 million new cases annually, Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • C. trachomatis is an obligate, intracellular, gram-negative microorganism recognized as the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Halford B, Piazza MB, Liu D, Obineme C. Chlamydia ascites: a call for sexually transmitted infection testing. (harvard.edu)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) genital infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) in China and the US. (lww.com)
  • C. trachomatis infection is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide, and the most common reportable disease in the United States, with 1.3 million cases in 2010. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Among 15-to 35-Year-Olds in Baltimore, MD. Sexually Transmitted Diseases , 38 (8), 743-749. (rti.org)
  • Such an effort is now possible because of a) expanding educational efforts stimulated by the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and other sexually transmitted diseases, and b) the availability of chlamydia tests that are easy to use, economical, and accurate, thereby allowing health-care providers to diagnose and treat infected persons and their sex partners. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection is the commonest bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide (Howie et al. (immunology.org)
  • C. Trachomatis causes sexually transmitted diseases. (nursingcrib.com)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. (jimmunol.org)
  • Sexually transmitted infection with Chlamydia trachomatis represents a tremendous burden of disease in the United States. (asm.org)
  • C. trachomatis is now extremely common and the most common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. (healthengine.com.au)
  • As C. trachomatis is sexually transmitted, it does not normally occur in children. (healthengine.com.au)
  • Although patients with any sexually transmitted infection ( STI ) are at increased risk of co-infection with another STI, co-infection of chlamydia and gonorrhea is most common. (healthengine.com.au)
  • C. trachomatis exclusively infects humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to several other C. trachomatis-secreted proteins, GlgA is immunogenic in women urogenitally infected with C. trachomatis, suggesting that GlgA is expressed and may be secreted into host cell cytosol during C. trachomatis infection in humans. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is also able to colonize the eye, and the resulting inflammation is the leading cause of blindness by an infectious agent in several developing countries. (pasteur.fr)
  • The closest relative to C. trachomatis is C. muridarum, which infects mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Chlamydia includes three species: C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, and C. suis. (prospecbio.com)
  • Inoculation of the mouse pneumonitis biovar of Chlamydia trachomatis into the ovarian bursa of mice resulted in salpingitis. (nih.gov)
  • Point-of-care management of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis via Gram stained smear analysis in male high-risk patients. (kit.nl)
  • To measure the effect of changing the point-of-care (POC) testing algorithm of urogenital chlamydia for all male high-risk patients to those with only symptoms with respect to: diagnostic accuracy, loss to follow-up, correctly managed consultations and costs. (kit.nl)
  • Though the interaction of Chlamydia with the Toll-like receptors plays a key role regarding the start of the pro-inflammatory cytokine as well as the production of the chemokine, the cell lysis mode at the end of the infectious phase is expected to have a great outcome on the response of the host (Herieka, 2005). (bartleby.com)
  • Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the most frequently reported infectious disease in the United States. (rti.org)
  • The current investigation evaluates the events that occur during reactivation of infectious Chlamydia trachomatis from persistently infected cell cultures. (asm.org)
  • In addition, reactivation of infectious organisms from persistent chlamydiae that were maintained in culture for several weeks was demonstrated. (asm.org)
  • These findings have provided important information for further understanding C. trachomatis pathogenic mechanisms. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • h) determining the labeled antiglobulin bound to the antigen-chlamydial antibody complex as a measure of the Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in the specimen. (google.ca)
  • The presence of specific IgM antibody to C. trachomatis in serum from some men developing PGU, from whom that organism was isolated, suggests that the infection was recent in those cases. (bmj.com)
  • Macchiavello was the first to describe the isolation of C. trachomatis in embryonated hens' eggs (1944), but the first isolation is usually credited to T'ang and co-workers (1957), also using eggs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Immunization of mice with recombinant vaccinia expressing CrpA provides immunity against systemic Chlamydia challenge, suggesting that CrpA-specific CD8 + T cells can play a role in limiting infection with C. trachomatis ( 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Torrone E, Papp J, Weinstock H. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among persons aged 14-39 years--United States, 2007-2012. (medscape.com)
  • This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection among women with HIV in São Paulo. (scielo.br)
  • The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and risk factors for positive repeat tests in a high-risk population presenting for early prenatal care. (hindawi.com)
  • Results: Among 2120 Baltimore residents aged 15 to 35 years, the estimated prevalence of chlamydia was 3.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8, 5.0). (rti.org)
  • Brazilian studies have revealed a high prevalence of Chlamydia among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive women 7 ) ( 8 ) ( 9 , and this co-infection increases the viral load in genital discharge, which increases the risk of HIV transmission 10 ) ( 11 . (scielo.br)
  • Negative test results mean that no chlamydia cells were found in your urine. (rochester.edu)
  • McCoy cells (mouse fibroblasts), HeLa 229 (derived from human cervical carcinoma cells) and BHK-21 cells (baby hamster kidney cells) are the cell types regularly used for the culture of C. trachomatis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, the significance of the GlgA secretion into host cell cytoplasm remains unclear since, while expression of chlamydial GlgA in HeLa cells increased glycogen stores, it did not affect a subsequent infection with C. trachomatis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 17 The link between C trachomatis and squamous cell carcinoma is unexpected since it is well known that the targets for C trachomatis are endocervical glandular cells, and that women with cervical ectopy are more susceptible to C trachomatis than women without cervical ectopy. (bmj.com)
  • However, the endocervical epithelium of the transformation zone undergoes a process known as squamous metaplasia, and metaplastic cells are also targets for C trachomatis . (bmj.com)
  • Fan T, Lu H, Hu H, Shi L, McClarty GA, Nance DM, Greenberg AH, Zhong G (1998) Inhibition of apoptosis in chlamydia-infected cells: blockade of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase activation. (springer.com)
  • Rajalingam K, Sharma M, Lohmann C, Oswald M, Thieck O, Froelich CJ, Rudel T (2008) Mcl-1 is a key regulator of apoptosis resistance in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells. (springer.com)
  • We performed SBEM on monolayers of C. trachomatis -infected HeLa cells. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • The next day, cells were washed 5X 2 minutes in double distilled water at room temperature and en bloc Walton's lead aspartate staining was performed for 10 minutes at 60°C. Following 5X 2-minute washes in double distilled water at room temperature, cells were dehydrated using a series of ice-cold graded ethanol solutions and then embedded in Durcupan ACM resin (Electron Microscopy Sciences). (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • During primary infection of mice, C. trachomatis infection stimulates a 100-fold expansion of CD8 + T cells that subsequently contract to form a memory population ( 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • It has been shown that CD8 + T cells are present in the genital tracts of mice following C. trachomatis infection, but the specificity of these T cells has remained undefined. (jimmunol.org)
  • T cells from the retrogenic mice were transferred into naive recipient animals to increase the frequency of Chlamydia -specific T cells to a level at which they could be tracked during primary infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD8 + T cells can be detected at the site of infection ( 1 , 2 ) and adoptive transfer of immune CD8 + T cells can protect against Chlamydia challenge ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Interestingly, Ags recognized by CD8 + T cells are typically derived from cytosolic proteins, yet C. trachomatis is strictly confined to a vacuole during the intracellular stages of development. (jimmunol.org)
  • Because the majority of C. trachomatis proteins also are confined to the vacuole, they are not typically processed for recognition by CD8 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, during replication there appears to be a limited subset of Chlamydia proteins that do have access to the cytoplasm, subjecting them to possible recognition by CD8 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Two of these proteins, Cap1 and CrpA, are recognized by CD8 + T cells following systemic Chlamydia infection ( 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Specifically, we wanted to track the localization of CrpA-specific T cells, their proliferation, and their effector functions during the early stages of primary Chlamydia infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • T cells from these mice have allowed us to examine the priming and trafficking of Chlamydia -specific CD8 + T cells following genital infection with C. trachomatis . (jimmunol.org)
  • Immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis is mediated by T helper 1 cells through IFN-gamma-dependent and -independent pathways. (jimmunol.org)
  • Indeed, Chlamydia species that infect other hosts do not accumulate glycogen. (pasteur.fr)
  • The etiological diagnosis of what is today known as infection by Chlamydia trachomatis was first made possible in 1907 when Halberstaedter and von Prowazek identified inclusions in conjunctival scrapings by means of Giemsa staining. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Considering that the Papanicolaou stain is routinely used in all the medical assistance services that attend woman, we evaluated its effectiveness for the initial diagnosis of Chlamydia infection in pregnant women. (scielo.br)
  • The 1.04-Mb C. trachomatis chromosome, showing the locations of mutant genes ( 32 ) (in bold and italics) that we used to isolate LGT recombinants. (asm.org)
  • Several important metabolic functions are not encoded in the C. trachomatis genome, and instead, are likely scavenged from the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes to the genome structure are not the aim of current diagnostics for Chlamydia. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • The genome encoded non-coding RNA, ctrR0332 was one of the most abundantly and differentially expressed RNA in EB and RB, implying an important role in the developmental cycle of C. trachomatis. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, an effort has been made to sequnce most of the ''C. trachomatis'' genome. (kenyon.edu)
  • Transitions to obligate intracellular parasitism have occurred at numerous times in the evolutionary past, The genome sequences of two obligate intracellular parasites, Rickettsia prowazekii and Chlamydia trachomatis, were published fast year. (diva-portal.org)
  • Quinn TC, Taylor HR, Schachter J. Experimental proctitis due to rectal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in nonhuman primates. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Glycogen has been localized both inside and outside Chlamydia trachomatis organisms. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Chlamydia organisms have a worldwide distribution. (healthengine.com.au)
  • Various culture techniques have been developed parallel to the expanding knowledge of the basic biology of the genus Chlamydia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • the type species of the genus Chlamydia . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2. A method according to claim 1 wherein the Chlamydia trachomatis antigen is lysed using buffered saline solution and a surfactant. (google.ca)
  • This proposal details an exploratory identification of the antigen-specific cell mediated immune responses associated with antecedent C. trachomatis infection in women. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This is an exploratory investigation in which we will develop the methodology needed to identify the antigen-specific cell mediated immune responses most strongly associated with protection against incident C. trachomatis infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)