Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Chlamydia: A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Lymphogranuloma Venereum: Subacute inflammation of the inguinal lymph glands caused by certain immunotypes of CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. It is a sexually transmitted disease in the U.S. but is more widespread in developing countries. It is distinguished from granuloma venereum (see GRANULOMA INGUINALE), which is caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.Female Urogenital Diseases: Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Genital Diseases, Female: Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Male Urogenital Diseases: Pathological processes of the male URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, MALE).Uterine Cervicitis: Inflammation of the UTERINE CERVIX.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Trachoma: A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Chlamydophila psittaci: A genus of CHLAMYDOPHILA infecting primarily birds. It contains eight known serovars, some of which infect more than one type of host, including humans.Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.Urethra: A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.Chlamydia muridarum: Species of CHLAMYDIA causing pneumonitis in mice and hamsters. These isolates formerly belonged to CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Salpingitis: Inflammation of the uterine salpinx, the trumpet-shaped FALLOPIAN TUBES, usually caused by ascending infections of organisms from the lower reproductive tract. Salpingitis can lead to tubal scarring, hydrosalpinx, tubal occlusion, INFERTILITY, and ectopic pregnancy (PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC)Urethritis: Inflammation involving the URETHRA. Similar to CYSTITIS, clinical symptoms range from vague discomfort to painful urination (DYSURIA), urethral discharge, or both.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial: Bacterial diseases transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Uterine Cervical Diseases: Pathological processes of the UTERINE CERVIX.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Conjunctivitis, Inclusion: An infection of the eyes characterized by the presence in conjunctival epithelial cells of inclusion bodies indistinguishable from those of trachoma. It is acquired by infants during birth and by adults from swimming pools. The etiological agent is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS whose natural habitat appears to be the genito-urinary tract. Inclusion conjunctivitis is a less severe disease than trachoma and usually clears up spontaneously.Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Urethral Diseases: Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Ligase Chain Reaction: A DNA amplification technique based upon the ligation of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES. The probes are designed to exactly match two adjacent sequences of a specific target DNA. The chain reaction is repeated in three steps in the presence of excess probe: (1) heat denaturation of double-stranded DNA, (2) annealing of probes to target DNA, and (3) joining of the probes by thermostable DNA ligase. After the reaction is repeated for 20-30 cycles the production of ligated probe is measured.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Vaginal Diseases: Pathological processes of the VAGINA.Arthritis, Reactive: An aseptic, inflammatory arthritis developing secondary to a primary extra-articular infection, most typically of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or UROGENITAL SYSTEM. The initiating trigger pathogens are usually SHIGELLA; SALMONELLA; YERSINIA; CAMPYLOBACTER; or CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Reactive arthritis is strongly associated with HLA-B27 ANTIGEN.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Reproductive Tract Infections: Infections of the genital tract in females or males. They can be caused by endogenous, iatrogenic, or sexually transmitted organisms.Mycoplasma genitalium: A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from urethral specimens of patients with non-gonoccocal URETHRITIS. In primates it exists in parasitic association with ciliated EPITHELIAL CELLS in the genital and respiratory tracts.Genital Diseases, Male: Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Psittacosis: Infection with CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI (formerly Chlamydia psittaci), transmitted to humans by inhalation of dust-borne contaminated nasal secretions or excreta of infected BIRDS. This infection results in a febrile illness characterized by PNEUMONITIS and systemic manifestations.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Doxycycline: A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Chlamydophila Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.Fallopian Tube Diseases: Diseases involving the FALLOPIAN TUBES including neoplasms (FALLOPIAN TUBE NEOPLASMS); SALPINGITIS; tubo-ovarian abscess; and blockage.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Proctitis: INFLAMMATION of the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the RECTUM, the distal end of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Mycoplasma Infections: Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.Ureaplasma: A genus of gram-negative, nonmotile bacteria which are common parasitic inhabitants of the urogenital tracts of humans, cattle, dogs, and monkeys.Trichomonas vaginalis: A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.ConjunctivitisChaperonin 60: A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Chlamydiaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Chlamydophila pneumoniae: A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Chlamydiaceae: A family of gram-negative, coccoid microorganisms, in the order CHLAMYDIALES, pathogenic for vertebrates. Genera include CHLAMYDIA and CHLAMYDOPHILA.Trichomonas Infections: Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Trichomonas Vaginitis: Inflammation of the vagina, marked by a purulent discharge. This disease is caused by the protozoan TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS.Conjunctivitis, Bacterial: Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. Some of the more commonly found genera causing conjunctival infections are Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Chlamydia.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.DEAE-Dextran: Used as a support for ion-exchange chromatography.Mycoplasma hominis: A common inhabitant of the vagina and cervix and a potential human pathogen, causing infections of the male and female reproductive tracts. It has also been associated with respiratory disease and pharyngitis. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Mycoplasmatales Infections: Infections with bacteria of the order MYCOPLASMATALES.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Genitalia: The external and internal organs related to reproduction.Leukorrhea: A clear or white discharge from the VAGINA, consisting mainly of MUCUS.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Rectal Diseases: Pathological developments in the RECTUM region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Pharyngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Ophthalmia Neonatorum: Acute conjunctival inflammation in the newborn, usually caused by maternal gonococcal infection. The causative agent is NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE. The baby's eyes are contaminated during passage through the birth canal.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Vaginal Discharge: A common gynecologic disorder characterized by an abnormal, nonbloody discharge from the genital tract.Epididymitis: Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.Ureaplasma urealyticum: A species of gram-negative bacteria found in the human genitourinary tract (UROGENITAL SYSTEM), oropharynx, and anal canal. Serovars 1, 3, 6, and 14 have been reclassed into a separate species UREAPLASMA parvum.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Chlamydial Pneumonia: Pneumonia caused by infections with the genus CHLAMYDIA; and CHLAMYDOPHILA, usually with CHLAMYDOPHILA PNEUMONIAE.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Vaginosis, Bacterial: Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ureaplasma Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus UREAPLASMA.Sulfisoxazole: A short-acting sulfonamide antibacterial with activity against a wide range of gram- negative and gram-positive organisms.Chlamydophila: A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE comprising gram-negative non CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS-like species infecting vertebrates. Chlamydophila do not produce detectable quantities of glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI.Venereology: A branch of medicine which deals with sexually transmitted disease.Abortion Applicants: Individuals requesting induced abortions.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Cervix Mucus: A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.

Chlamydial and human heat shock protein 60s activate human vascular endothelium, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. (1/2917)

Both chlamydial and human heat shock protein 60s (HSP 60), which colocalize in human atheroma, may contribute to inflammation during atherogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that chlamydial or human HSP 60 activates human endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and monocyte-derived macrophages. We examined the expression of adhesion molecules such as endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and the production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). We also tested whether either HSP 60 induces nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which contributes to the gene expression of these molecules. Either chlamydial or human HSP 60 induced E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 expression on ECs similar to levels induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Each HSP 60 also significantly induced IL-6 production by ECs, SMCs, and macrophages to an extent similar to that induced by E. coli LPS, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In ECs, either HSP 60 triggered activation of NF-kappaB complexes containing p65 and p50 Rel proteins. Heat treatment abolished all these effects, but did not alter the ability of E. coli LPS to induce these functions. Chlamydial and human HSP 60s therefore activate human vascular cell functions relevant to atherogenesis and lesional complications. These findings help to elucidate the mechanisms by which a chronic asymptomatic chlamydial infection might contribute to the pathophysiology of atheroma.  (+info)

Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the murine genital mucosa does not require perforin-mediated cytolysis or Fas-mediated apoptosis. (2/2917)

The molecular mechanisms of resistance to genital infection with the mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) strain of Chlamydia trachomatis are unknown. A role for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted, interleukin-12-dependent CD4(+) T cells has been established, but the functional activity of these cells does not depend on secretion of gamma interferon. Here we examined the potential contribution of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis to mucosal clearance of MoPn by using mice deficient in the molecular mediators of target cell lysis. Animals lacking perforin, Fas, Fas ligand, or both perforin and Fas ligand were infected genitally with C. trachomatis MoPn and monitored for expression of immunity to chlamydial antigens and clearance of MoPn from the genital mucosa. In each case, the profile of spleen cytokine production, the magnitude of the host antibody response, and the kinetics of chlamydial clearance were similar to those of genetically intact controls. Compensatory overproduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha, an alternate mediator of apoptosis in certain cell types, did not appear to account for the ability of mutant mice to resolve Chlamydia infections. These results fail to support CD4(+) T-cell-mediated apoptosis or CD8(+) T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity as being critical to the clearance of C. trachomatis MoPn urogenital infections.  (+info)

Nongonococcal urethritis--a new paradigm. (3/2917)

Urethritis in men has been categorized historically as gonococcal or nongonococcal (NGU). The major pathogens causing NGU are Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Trichomonas vaginalis may be involved occasionally. In up to one-half of cases, an etiologic organism may not be identified. In this review we present recent advances in the diagnosis and management of NGU and discuss how they may be applied in a variety of clinical settings, including specialized STD clinics and primary health care practices. In particular, the development of the noninvasive urine-based nucleic acid amplification tests may warrant rethinking of the traditional classification of urethritis as gonococcal urethritis or NGU. Diagnostic for Chlamydia are strongly recommended because etiologic diagnosis of chlamydial urethritis may have important public health implications, such as the need for partner referral and reporting. A single 1-g dose of azithromycin was found to be therapeutically equivalent to the tetracyclines and may offer the advantage of better compliance.  (+info)

Chlamydia infections and heart disease linked through antigenic mimicry. (4/2917)

Chlamydia infections are epidemiologically linked to human heart disease. A peptide from the murine heart muscle-specific alpha myosin heavy chain that has sequence homology to the 60-kilodalton cysteine-rich outer membrane proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. psittaci, and C. trachomatis was shown to induce autoimmune inflammatory heart disease in mice. Injection of the homologous Chlamydia peptides into mice also induced perivascular inflammation, fibrotic changes, and blood vessel occlusion in the heart, as well as triggering T and B cell reactivity to the homologous endogenous heart muscle-specific peptide. Chlamydia DNA functioned as an adjuvant in the triggering of peptide-induced inflammatory heart disease. Infection with C. trachomatis led to the production of autoantibodies to heart muscle-specific epitopes. Thus, Chlamydia-mediated heart disease is induced by antigenic mimicry of a heart muscle-specific protein.  (+info)

Persistent chlamydial envelope antigens in antibiotic-exposed infected cells trigger neutrophil chemotaxis. (5/2917)

An in vitro coculture model system was used to explore conditions that trigger neutrophil chemotaxis to Chlamydia trachomatis infected human epithelial cells (HEC-1B). Polarized HEC-1B monolayers growing on extracellular matrix (ECM) were infected with C. trachomatis serovar E. By 36 h, coincident with the secretion of chlamydial lipopolysaccharide and major outer membrane protein to the surfaces of infected cells, human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNL) loaded with azithromycin migrated through the ECM and infiltrated the HEC-1B monolayer. Bioreactive azithromycin was delivered by the chemotactic PMNL to infected epithelial cells in concentrations sufficient to kill intracellular chlamydiae. However, residual chlamydial envelopes persisted for 4 weeks, and PMNL chemotaxis was triggered to epithelial cells containing residual envelopes. Infected endometrial cells demonstrated up-regulation of ENA-78 and GCP-2 chemokine mRNA. Thus, despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy, residual chlamydial envelope antigens may persist in infected tissues of culture-negative women and provide one source for sustained inflammation.  (+info)

Mailed, home-obtained urine specimens: a reliable screening approach for detecting asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections. (6/2917)

The use of mailed, home-obtained urine specimens could facilitate screening programs for the detection of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Since transport time could have an adverse effect on the sensitivity of C. trachomatis detection by PCR, the influence of DNA degradation on amplification was monitored over the course of 1 week. Therefore, urine specimens were aliquoted on the day of collection or arrival. Two groups of urine specimens were investigated. Group I contains first-void C. trachomatis-positive and -negative urine samples. DNA degradation was monitored in group I samples for 7 days at room temperature (RT) and at 4 degrees C by amplifying different lengths of the human beta-globin gene and the C. trachomatis plasmid target. DNA degradation was observed only for the larger human beta-globin fragments at days 5 to 7 at RT. In contrast, at 4 degrees C all targets could be amplified. Urine specimens were also frozen and thawed before aliquoting to mimic freezing during transport. This resulted in a lower sensitivity for the detection of C. trachomatis after thawing and 3 to 4 days at RT. In addition, mailed, home-obtained C. trachomatis-positive urine specimens (group II) were analyzed for 7 days after arrival by two commercially available C. trachomatis detection systems (PCR and ligase chain reaction [LCR]). The C. trachomatis plasmid target in mailed, home-obtained urine specimens could be amplified by both PCR and LCR after 1 week of storage and/or transport at RT. In conclusion, our findings indicate that mailed, home-obtained urine specimens are suitable for the sensitive detection of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infections by amplification methods, even if the transport time is up to 1 week at RT. These findings support the feasibility and validity of screening programs based on mailed, home-obtained urine specimens. Larger studies should be initiated to confirm our results.  (+info)

Chlamydia trachomatis infections: progress and problems. (7/2917)

Chalmydia trachomatis infections are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. A substantial proportion of initial infections in both men and women are asymptomatic. Use of nucleic acid amplification-based diagnostic tests on first-void urine makes it possible to initiate community-based screening programs aimed at identifying asymptomatically infected men and women. Directly observed single-dose therapy with azithromycin is now available. Screening programs have been demonstrated to reduce the overall prevalence of chlamydial infection in the tested population and to reduce the incidence of subsequent pelvic inflammatory disease in previously screened women. The sequelae of chlamydial infections are likely due to immunopathologically mediated events in which both the chlamydial 60 kDa heat-shock protein and genetic predisposition of specific patients play a role. An improved understanding of immunologic events leading to upper genital tract scarring is needed to target specific interventions and facilitate development of a vaccine.  (+info)

Immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis induced by vaccination with live organisms correlates with early granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-12 production and with dendritic cell-like maturation. (8/2917)

As is true for other intracellular pathogens, immunization with live Chlamydia trachomatis generally induces stronger protective immunity than does immunization with inactivated organism. To investigate the basis for such a difference, we studied immune responses in BALB/c mice immunized with viable or UV-killed C. trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn). Strong, acquired resistance to C. trachomatis infection was elicited by immunization with viable but not dead organisms. Immunization with viable organisms induced high levels of antigen-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), gamma interferon production, and immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses. Immunization with inactivated MoPn mainly induced interleukin-10 (IL-10) production and IgG1 antibody without IgA or DTH responses. Analysis of local early cytokine and cellular events at days 3, 5, and 7 after peritoneal cavity immunization showed that high levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-12 were detected with viable but not inactivated organisms. Furthermore, enrichment of a dendritic cell (DC)-like population was detected in the peritoneal cavity only among mice immunized with viable organisms. The results suggest that early differences in inducing proinflammatory cytokines and activation and differentiation of DCs may be the key mechanism underlying the difference between viable and inactivated organisms in inducing active immunity to C. trachomatis infection.  (+info)

*Chlamydia trachomatis

Chlamydiae.com "Chlamydia trachomatis". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 813. Type strain of Chlamydia trachomatis at BacDive - the ... Chlamydia trachomatis (/kləˌmɪdiə/ /trəˈkoʊmətɪs/), commonly known as chlamydia, is one of four bacterial species in the genus ... Chlamydia is a genus of pathogenic bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites. C. trachomatis is a weakly Gram-negative ... "Chlamydia trachomatis". Ryan KJ, Ray CG, eds. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 463-70. ISBN 0- ...

*Chlamydiae

Three species of Chlamydiae that commonly infect humans are described: Chlamydia trachomatis, which causes the eye-disease ... Chlamydia trachomatis was first cultured by Tang Fei-fan, though they were not yet recognized as bacteria. In 1966, Chlamydiae ... Malhotra M, Sood S, Mukherjee A, Muralidhar S, Bala M (September 2013). "Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: an update". Indian J. ... Chlamydiae are most successfully isolated while still inside their host cells. Chlamydiae is the most common bacterial STD in ...

*Bacterial phyla

Chlamydiae (Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia trachomatis) Radioresistant micrococci and relatives (now commonly referred to as ... Species include Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia infection). Chlorobi is a member of the FBC superphylum. It contains only 7 ... The Chlamydiae (diderms, weakly Gram negative) is a phylum of the PVC superphylum. It is composed of only 6 genera of obligate ... The PVC group (now called Planctobacteria) includes Chlamydiae, Lentisphaerae, candidate phylum Omnitrophica, Planctomycetes, ...

*Conjunctivitis

Less commonly Chlamydia trachomatis is involved. Bacteria such as Chlamydia trachomatis or Moraxella can cause a non-exudative ... Inclusion conjunctivitis of the newborn (ICN) is a conjunctivitis that may be caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis, and ... Those who wear contact lens and those with either gonorrhea or chlamydia as the cause should be treated. Allergic cases can be ... Gonorrhea or chlamydia infections require both oral and topical antibiotics. When appropriate, the choice of antibiotic varies ...

*Chlamydia infection

... often simply known as chlamydia, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Most people ... Chlamydia trachomatis only occurs in humans. Diagnosis is often by screening which is recommended yearly in sexually active ... Chlamydia is known as the "silent epidemic" as in women, it may not cause any symptoms in 70-80% of cases, and can linger for ... Chlamydia can be spread during vaginal, anal, or oral sex, and can be passed from an infected mother to her baby during ...

*Cough

Miller KE (April 2006). "Diagnosis and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection". Am Fam Physician. 73 (8): 1411-6. PMID ... while a staccato cough has been classically described with chlamydia pneumonia. A cough in children may be either a normal ...

*Bacterial cellular morphologies

Haemophilus influenzae and Chlamydia trachomatis are coccobacilli. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a gram negative ...

*Lymphogranuloma venereum

L2a or L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. LGV is primarily an infection of lymphatics and lymph nodes. Chlamydia trachomatis is the ... Spaargaren J, Fennema HS, Morré SA, de Vries HJ, Coutinho RA (July 2005). "New lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis ... Schaeffer A, Henrich B (2008). "Rapid detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and typing of the Lymphogranuloma venereum associated ... anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2b in men who have sex with men". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 45 (3): 1029-31. ...

*Vertically transmitted infection

Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis), and normal fauna of the genitourinary tract (e.g., Candida albicans) are ... "Vertical Transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis in Chongqing China". Current Microbiology. 58 (4): 315-320. doi:10.1007/s00284- ... Chlamydia HIV Human T-lymphotropic virus Syphilis Zika fever, caused by Zika virus, can cause microcephaly and other brain ... Chlamydia infection, Ureaplasma urealyticum, human papillomavirus) S - Syphilis The signs and symptoms of a vertically ...

*Intercurrent disease in pregnancy

ISBN 0-521-88115-3. Yu J, Wu S, Li F, Hu L (January 2009). "Vertical transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis in Chongqing China ... Examples include: Chickenpox Chlamydia Herpes simplex or Neonatal herpes simplex HIV Human T-lymphotropic virus Syphilis ...

*Pneumonia

Testing pregnant women for Group B Streptococcus and Chlamydia trachomatis, and administering antibiotic treatment, if needed, ... Darville, T (October 2005). "Chlamydia trachomatis infections in neonates and young children". Seminars in pediatric infectious ... Exposure to birds is associated with Chlamydia psittaci; farm animals with Coxiella burnetti; aspiration of stomach contents ...

*Chlamydia (genus)

The three Chlamydia species include Chlamydia trachomatis (a human pathogen), Chlamydia suis (affects only swine), and ... "Genome sequences of Chlamydia trachomatis MoPn and Chlamydia pneumoniae AR39". Nucleic Acids Research. 28 (6): 1397-1406. doi: ... About 80% of the genes in C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae are orthologs. Adapted after Read et al. 2000 Chlamydia may be found ... "Chlamydia trachomatis". Retrieved June 18, 2010. "Chlamydial taxonomy since 1999". Archived from the original on June 21, 2010 ...

*Marie Diener-West

Diner-West, Marie (1998). "Incident Chlamydia trachomatis Infections Among Inner-city Adolescent Females". JAMA. 280 (6): 521- ... "JAMA Network , JAMA , Incident Chlamydia trachomatis Infections Among Inner-city Adolescent Females". Jama.jamanetwork.com. ...

*Thrombocytopenia

and Chlamydia trachomatis from the mother to the newborn". Archives of gynecology and obstetrics. 241 (3): 165-70. doi:10.1007/ ...

*Coccobacillus

Haemophilus influenzae, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Chlamydia trachomatis are coccobacilli. Aggregatibacter ...

*Gonorrhea

"Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis Among Women Reporting Extragenital Exposures". Sexually Transmitted Diseases. ... Extragenital gonorrhea and chlamydia are highest in men who have sex with men (MSM). Additionally, the USPSTF also recommends ... "CDC Fact Sheet - Chlamydia". Archived from the original on 16 December 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2008. "STD Trends in the ... In the US, it is the second-most-common bacterial sexually transmitted infections; chlamydia remains first. According to the ...

*Cervicitis

MPC can be caused by Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae; however, in most cases neither organism can be isolated. ... 1] Cervicitis can be caused by any of a number of infections, of which the most common are chlamydia and gonorrhea, with ... Patients who have MPC should be tested for C. trachomatis and for N. gonorrhoeae with the most sensitive and specific test ... However, MPC is not a sensitive predictor of infection with these organisms; most women who have C. trachomatis or N. ...

*Carl Ferdinand von Arlt

"Arlt's syndrome": A contagious eye infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. "Arlt's triangle": keratic precipitates ... Linear scar present in sulcus subtarsalis during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. "Arlt's operation": Transplantation of ...

*Corneal ulcer

Chlamydia trachomatis can also contribute to development of corneal ulcer. Superficial ulcers involve a loss of part of the ... Among them are bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, and chlamydia: Bacterial keratitis is caused by Staphylococcus aureus, ...

*Trachoma

... is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, serotypes (serovars) A, B, and C. It is spread by direct contact with eye, nose, ... Trachoma is an infectious disease caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The infection causes a roughening of the inner ... Antibiotic treatment reduces the risk of active trachoma in individuals infected with chlamydia trachomatis. Surgery: For ... "Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the male genital tract: An update". Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 100: 37-53. doi: ...

*Molecular diagnostics

Tong, C. W.; Mallinson, H. (2002). "Moving to nucleic acid-based detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis". Expert Review of ... Molecular diagnostics are used to identify infectious diseases such as chlamydia, influenza virus and tuberculosis; or specific ...

*Pelvic inflammatory disease

Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are usually the main cause of PID. Data suggest that PID is often polymicrobial ... Infections by Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis are present in 75 to 90 percent of cases. Often multiple different ... Chlamydia trachomatis Neisseria gonorrhoeae Prevotella spp. Streptococcus pyogenes Prevotella bivia Prevotella disiens ... Globally about 106 million cases of chlamydia and 106 million cases of gonorrhea occurred in 2008. The number of cases of PID ...

*Hinokitiol

... has inhibitory effects on Chlamydia trachomatis and may be clinically useful as a topical drug. The name originates ... "In vitro inhibitory effects of hinokitiol on proliferation of Chlamydia trachomatis". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 49 ...

*Clostridial Cytotoxin family

2001). Chlamydia trachomatis cytotoxicity associated with complete and partial cytotoxin genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: ...

*Tubal factor infertility

Tubal factor is one complication of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women. Sexually transmitted Chlamydia and genital ... Tubal factor infertility can be due to Chlamydia infection and testing for Chlamydia antibodies is one diagnostic tool. Women ... Infertility can have multiple possible causes and may not be recognized for years after a gonorrhea, Chlamydia or Mycoplasma ...

*Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome

It is usually caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Chlamydia) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonorrhea) though other bacteria such as ... Testing for gonorrhea and chlamydia should be performed to make the diagnosis. An endocervical or low vaginal swab should be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunobiology of monocytes and macrophages during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. AU - Nielsen, Mads Lausen. AU - Christiansen, Gunna. AU - Poulsen, Thomas Bouet Guldbæk. AU - Birkelund, Svend. PY - 2019/3/1. Y1 - 2019/3/1. N2 - Infections caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis are a global health burden affecting more than 100 million people annually causing damaging long-lasting infections. In this review, we will present and discuss important aspects of the interaction between C. trachomatis and monocytes/macrophages.. AB - Infections caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis are a global health burden affecting more than 100 million people annually causing damaging long-lasting infections. In this review, we will present and discuss important aspects of the interaction between C. trachomatis and monocytes/macrophages.. KW - Chlamydia trachomatis. KW - Macrophages. KW - Monocytes. UR - ...
Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted pathogens. Since it is an obligate intracellular bacterium, efficient colonization of genital mucosal epithelial cells is crucial to the infectious process. Serovar E elementary bodies (EB) metabolically radiolabeled with 35S-Cys-Met and harvested from microcarrier bead cultures, which significantly improves the infectious EB-to-particle ratio, provided a more accurate picture of the parameters of attachment of EB to human endometrial epithelial cells (HEC-1B) than did less infectious 14C-EB harvested from flask cultures. Binding of serovar E EB was (i) equivalent at 35 and 4 degrees C, (ii) decreased by preexposure of EB to heat or the topical microbicide C31G, (iii) comparable among common eukaryotic cell lines (HeLa, McCoy), and (iv) significantly increased to the apical surfaces of polarized cells versus nonpolarized cells. In parallel experiments with C. trachomatis serovar L2, serovar E attachment was ...
In an attempt to establish a model of chlamydial ascending salpingitis and infertility, three inbred strains of mice, C3H/HeN (H-2k), C57BL/6N (H-2b), and BALB/cAnN (H-2d), were inoculated intravaginally with 3 x 10(7) inclusion-forming units of the Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis biovar. Mice mated 6 weeks following inoculation were found to have a significant decrease in fertility rate compared with the control groups, as shown by a reduction in the number of pregnant mice and a decrease in the number of embryos. ...
The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is a major human pathogen and a main cause of genital and ocular diseases. During its intracellular cycle, C. trachomatis replicates inside a membrane-bound vacuole termed an "inclusion". Acquisition of lipids (and other nutrients) from the host cell is a critical step in chlamydial replication. Lipid droplets (LD) are ubiquitous, ER-derived neutral lipid-rich storage organelles surrounded by a phospholipids monolayer and associated proteins. Previous studies have shown that LDs accumulate at the periphery of, and eventually translocate into, the chlamydial inclusion. These observations point out to Chlamydia-mediated manipulation of LDs in infected cells, which may impact the function and thereby the protein composition of these organelles. By means of a label-free quantitative mass spectrometry approach we found that the LD proteome is modified in the context of C. trachomatis infection. We determined that LDs isolated from C. ...
Objectives: Sampling of both the cervix and urine increases the chance of detection of Chlamydia trachomatis compared with sampling either site alone. We determined the effect of combining urine and cervical swab specimens in the clinic setting on the sensitivity of C trachomatis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing.. Methods: For each of 100 women attending a genitourinary medicine clinic with high likelihood of genital C trachomatis infection, one endocervical swab was placed in transport medium and another in one of two aliquots of first void urine. Four PCR assays per patient (urine + swab, swab alone, and urine alone both pre- and post-freeze-thawing) were processed by automated C trachomatis PCR (Cobas, Amplicor). An inhibition control was included with each assay to identify specimens containing PCR inhibitors.. Results: 71% of women were Amplicor C trachomatis PCR positive (according to the results of at least one specimen). PCR test results were concordant for 95/100 patients, and of ...
The present disclosure relates to a solid phase immunoassay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in a clinical specimen, wherein the Chlamydia trachomatis antigens to be determined are coated or adsorbed on the solid phase.
Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar D ATCC ® VR-885™ Designation: Trachoma type D strain UW-3/Cx Application: Sexually Transmitted Disease Research
article{2075419, abstract = {BACKGROUND: In many developing countries, little is known about the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections and complications, such as infertility, thus preventing any policy from being formulated regarding screening for C. trachomatis of patients at risk for infertility. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and evaluate the diagnostic utility of serological markers namely anti-C. trachomatis IgG and IgA antibodies in women attending an infertility clinic. METHODS: Serum and vaginal swab specimens of 303 women presenting with infertility to the infertility clinic of the Kigali University Teaching Hospital and 312 fertile controls who recently delivered were investigated. Two commercial species-specific ELISA were used to determine serum IgG and IgA antibodies to C. trachomatis and vaginal swabs specimens were tested by PCR. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) was performed in subfertile women. RESULTS: The PCR ...
Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection and can cause significant reproductive morbidity in women. There is insufficient knowledge of C. trachomatis-specific immune responses in humans, which could be important in guiding vaccine development efforts. In contrast, murine models have clearly demonstrated the essential role of T helper type 1 (Th1) cells, especially interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-producing CD4+ T cells, in protective immunity to chlamydia. To determine the frequency and magnitude of Th1 cytokine responses elicited to C. trachomatis infection in humans, we stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 90 chlamydia-infected women with C. trachomatis elementary bodies, Pgp3, and major outer membrane protein and measured IFN-γ-, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-, and interleukin-2 (IL-2)-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses using intracellular ...
AIMS--To examine the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in ectopic pregnancy by detection of DNA in archival salpingectomy specimens, and in their preceding cervical specimens and endometrial biopsies, by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS--Archival paraffin embedded salpingectomy tissues (n = 48) from 37 women with ectopic pregnancy were examined for the presence of C trachomatis plasmid and omp1 DNA by PCR. In addition, preceding cervical specimens (n = 58) stored either as cervical cell suspensions or as archival cervical smears, and preceding endometrial biopsies (n = 18), taken 0-5.8 years before the ectopic pregnancy, were examined by PCR for the presence of C trachomatis. RESULTS--C trachomatis DNA was detected in only one of the 48 salpingectomy specimens from 37 women. However, in six of the 37 women, C trachomatis DNA was detected in the genital specimens (cervix and/or endometrial) taken before salpingectomy. C trachomatis infections were mostly found in endometrial or ...
A method is described in which smears on slides, which had been examined previously in a direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) test for Chlamydia trachomatis, were tested by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twenty four (73%) of 33 smears which contained fewer than 10 elementary bodies when examined by the DFA test were positive by the PCR. Of the nine negative smears, seven contained only one or two elementary bodies. However, single elementary bodies were detected by the PCR in seven of the 24 positive samples. Fifteen smears were negative by both methods. The ability to detect small numbers of elementary bodies by the PCR and its specificity for negative smears indicates its potential for retrospective analysis of stored, archival smears on slides.. ...
Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in first-void urine to identify asymptomatic male carriers.: Early morning first-void urine collected from 279 sexua
With more than 90 million new cases annually, Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease. Untreated endocervical C. trachomatis infections can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a disorder of the endometrium, fallopian tubes, and adjacent structures that occurs after ascension of the bacterium from the lower to upper genital tract. Adverse outcomes secondary to C. trachomatis-induced PID include tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Vaccine development has been identified as essential for control of C. trachomatis infections, and current evidence suggests that an effective vaccine will likely be based on several C. trachomatis antigens. Experimental models of infection have identified HSP60, major outer-membrane protein (MOMP), outer membrane protein 2 (OMP2), and polymorphic membrane protein D (PmpD) as promising vaccine candidates. A prospective study of Kenyan commercial sex workers found that production of interferon-gamma ...
NATtrol Chlamydia Trachomatis serotype D External Run Control is ready to use, inactivated full process controls designed to evaluate performance of molecular tests. They can be used for verification of assays, training of laboratory personnel and to monitor assay-kit lot performance.
The Gram-negative, intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes acute and chronic urogenital tract infection, potentially leading to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The only partially characterized cytotoxin CT166 of serovar D exhibits a DXD motif, which is important for the enzymatic activity of many bacterial and mammalian type A glycosyltransferases, leading to the hypothesis that CT166 possess glycosyltransferase activity. CT166-expressing HeLa cells exhibit actin reorganization, including cell rounding, which has been attributed to the inhibition of the Rho-GTPases Rac/Cdc42. Exploiting the glycosylation-sensitive Ras(27H5) antibody, we here show that CT166 induces an epitope change in Ras, resulting in inhibited ERK and PI3K signaling and delayed cell cycle progression. Consistent with the hypothesis that these effects strictly depend on the DXD motif, CT166 with the mutated DXD motif causes neither Ras-ERK inhibition nor delayed cell cycle progression. In contrast, CT166 with the
Our research addresses the molecular basis of the interactions between disease-causing bacteria and their mammalian hosts. In particular, we study the intracellular biology of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. C.trachomatis is the leading bacterial agent of sexually transmitted disease worldwide and in developing nations causes blindness (trachoma), a neglected tropical disease.. Chlamydia forces its own entry into eukaryotic cells and forges a replicative niche within a specialised membrane-bound compartment (an inclusion), reprogrammed by the bacteria to mimic a host organelle. The inclusion remains segregated from the cellular endocytic pathway but is able to selectively engage with the secretory pathway.. Like some other Gram-negative bacteria including Salmonella and enteropathogenic E.coli, Chlamydia encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS), a sophisticated macromolecular assembly that spans the bacterial envelope and translocates virulence effector proteins ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Chlamydia trachomatis LPS. Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies, L2 serovar. (MAB6165) - Products - Abnova
The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually-transmitted pathogen in the developed world, |100 million persons are inf...
Objective: To measure the coverage and uptake of systematic postal screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis and the prevalence of infection in the general population in the United Kingdom. To investigate factors associated with these measures. Design: Cross sectional survey of people randomly selected from general practice registers. Invitation to provide a specimen collected at home. Setting: England. Participants: 19 773 men and women aged 16-39 years invited to participate in screening. Main outcome measures: Coverage and uptake of screening; prevalence of chlamydia. Results: Coverage of chlamydia screening was 73% and was lower in areas with a higher proportion of non-white residents. Uptake in 16-24 year olds was 31.5% and was lower in men, younger adults, and practices in disadvantaged areas. Overall prevalence of chlamydia was 2.8% (95% confidence interval 2.2% to 3.4%) in men and 3.6% (3.1% to 4.9%) in women, but it was higher in people younger than 25 years (men 5.1%; 4.0% to 6.3%; women 6.2
Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar Ba ATCC ® VR-347™ Designation: Apache-2 Application: Sexually Transmitted Disease Research
Greenwell, Pamela, Kakourou , Georgia and Rughooputh, Sanjiv (2006) Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype. Internet Journal of Medical Update, 1 (1). ISSN 1694-0423 Full text not available from this repository ...
Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D-K are the leading cause of bacterially-acquired sexually transmitted infections in the United States. As an obligate intracellular pathogen, C. trachomatis infects columnar epithelial cells of the genital mucosae and can cause deleterious sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Several chlamydial antigens reach the host cell cytosol prior to the natural release of chlamydiae at the end of the developmental cycle. While some of these extra-inclusion antigens traffic to the host cell surface, others remain intracellular where they are proposed to influence vital host cell functions and antigen trafficking and presentation. The research herein examines the escape and trafficking of the immunodominant chlamydial antigens MOMP, LPS, and cHsp60 within C. trachomatis serovar E-infected polarized human endometrial epithelial cells. Studies using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immuno-TEM report the novel escape
Objective: To characterise a Chlamydio trachomatis variant strain from a patient with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) whose first void urine (FVU) displayed discrepant C trachomatis test results and describe the clinical response to treatment. Methods: The FVU specimen was assayed with an immune based Chlamydio Rapid Test (CRT) and various nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) to establish C trachomatis infection. Sequencing of the major outer membrane protein gene (omp I also known as ompA) was undertaken to identify the serovar of the variant strain. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was also conducted to determine whether the strain harboured deletions in the cryptic plasmid or was plasmid free. Results: The FVU specimen was strongly reactive in CRT but negative with the plasmid based Amplicor PCR (Roche) and ProbeTec ET (Becton-Dickinson) assays. However, NAATs for 16S RNA (Aptima Combo 2, GenProbe), omp 1 (RealArt CT PCR, Artus and in-house NAATs) or the outer membrane complex B ...
Bidirectionally degrades single-stranded DNA into large acid-insoluble oligonucleotides, which are then degraded further into small acid-soluble oligonucleotides.
The mechanistic details of the pathogenesis of Chlamydia, an obligate intracellular pathogen of global importance, have eluded scientists due to the scarcity of traditional molecular genetic tools to investigate this organism. Here we report a chemical biology strategy that has uncovered the first essential protease for this organism. Identification and application of a unique CtHtrA inhibitor (JO146) to cultures of Chlamydia resulted in a complete loss of viable elementary body formation. JO146 treatment during the replicative phase of development resulted in a loss of Chlamydia cell morphology, diminishing inclusion size, and ultimate loss of inclusions from the host cells. This completely prevented the formation of viable Chlamydia elementary bodies. In addition to its effect on the human Chlamydia trachomatis strain, JO146 inhibited the viability of the mouse strain, Chlamydia muridarum, both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we report a chemical biology approach to establish an essential role for
Goat polyclonal antibody raised against Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP. Native purified MOMP from Chlamydia trachomatis strain L2. (PAB13907) - Products - Abnova
The natural course of sexually transmitted infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis varies between individuals. In addition to parasite and host effects, the vaginal microbiota might play a key role in the outcome of C. trachomatis infections. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), known for its anti-chlamydial properties, activates the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) in epithelial cells, an enzyme that catabolizes the amino acid L- tryptophan into N-formylkynurenine, depleting the host cells pool of tryptophan. Although C. trachomatis is a tryptophan auxotroph, urogenital strains (but not ocular strains) have been shown in vitro to have the ability to produce tryptophan from indole using the tryptophan synthase (trpBA) gene. It has been suggested that indole producing bacteria from the vaginal microbiota could influence the outcome of Chlamydia infection. We used two in vitro models (treatment with IFN-γ or direct limitation of tryptophan), to study the effects of direct rescue by the addition
The aim of this study was to evaluate how patients with Chlamydia trachomatis infection perceived the legal enforcement of partner notification and to seek their views on legislation impinging on their own sexual behaviour. The investigation was performed at STD clinics in Stockholm, Sweden in 1997. Consecutive patients (n=192) answered a questionnaire about sexual behaviour and contact tracing. More men (40%) than women (21%) had had sexual intercourse during the past 6 months with an occasional partner. The mean number (6 months prior to this) was 2.3 partners (1-15) for men and 2.2 partners (1-21) for women. Eighteen per cent admitted to having avoided disclosing the name of their partner(s). Ninety per cent considered it beneficial that chlamydial infection was regulated and that a named partner could be forced to undergo STD testing. Partly based on this report, the government has recommended police enforcement to be removed from the legislation as a tool for contact tracing in chlamydial ...
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The results of this study indicate that consistent condom use is significantly associated with a 90% reduction in the prevalence of C trachomatis infection among those with known exposure to an infected partner. The present analyses provide a more refined estimate than previously reported by restricting the analyses to a single infection, C trachomatis, and by restricting the sample population to only those who reported exposure to infection. Indeed, our estimate exceeds others (90% effective v 26% to 58% effective), perhaps because our estimate was undiluted by the inclusion of people who do not contribute meaningful observations to the analyses-namely, individuals who may not have been exposed to C trachomatis; their condom use would not be expected to provide protection. While our estimate is greater than the one estimated by Warner and colleagues who also only included contacts to infected people, the substantial overlap of the 95% confidence intervals indicates they are indeed quite ...
Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Compensatory T cell responses in IRG-deficient mice prevent sustained Chlamydia trachomatis infections.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Assessing a Potential Role of Host Pannexin 1 during Chlamydia trachomatis Infection. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TRIVITRON HEALTHCARE PVT. LTD. - Exporter, Manufacturer, Distributor & Supplier of Chlamydia trachomatis EIA tests chlamydia-trachomatis-eia-tests chlamydia-trachomatis-eia-tests based in New Delhi, India
Quality Chlamydia Trachomatis IgM ELISA kit from ELISA kits manufacturer and elisa kits supplier: Chlamydia Trachomatis IgA ELISA kit. Our kits are FDA-CE and ISO certified.
RapidSTDTestKit Rapid Chlamydia Test [Chlamydia-T] - home chlamydia test kit Chlamidia Home Testing Kit Uses a cervical swab for women and a urethral swab for men. Rapid test to detect the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis in males and females Easy to use - 2 easy steps Visible result in 10 minutes Test interpretation: p { margin-bottom: 0.08in; } Technical details of the test: Uses double sandwich immunoassay technology to detect
A cross-sectional survey of 1216 newly pregnant women (mean age = 31 years) from 32 general practices and five family planning clinics was conducted to find the prevalence of chlamydial infection and to evaluate self-administered vaginal swabs and first-pass urines for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by ligase chain reaction assay. Overall prevalence of infection was 2.4% (95% CI = 1.5 to 3.3) but in women aged less than 25 years it was 8.6% (95% CI = 4.1 to 12.9) and in pregnant teenagers it was 14.3% (95% CI = 3.7 to 24.9). In 1161 women with both swab and urine results, 25 women were positive on both specimens three on swab alone, and one on urine alone. When asked which they preferred to provide, 47% said urine, 59 swab and 48% preferred both equally. This is the first study to show that non-invasive screening in early pregnancy is feasible in the community. Although swabs detected 10% more infections, nearly half the women preferred providing urine specimens. ...
The etiological diagnosis of what is today known as infection by Chlamydia trachomatis was first made possible in 1907 when Halberstaedter and von Prowazek identified inclusions in conjunctival scrapings by means of Giemsa staining. C. trachomatis wa
Cell division in Chlamydiae is poorly understood as apparent homologs to most conserved bacterial cell division proteins are lacking and presence of elongation (rod shape) associated proteins indicate non-canonical mechanisms may be employed. The rod-shape determining protein MreB has been proposed as playing a unique role in chlamydial cell division. In other organisms, MreB is part of an elongation complex that requires RodZ for proper function. A recent study reported that the protein encoded by ORF CT009 interacts with MreB despite low sequence similarity to RodZ. The studies in this paper expand on those observations through protein structure, mutagenesis and cellular localization analyses. Structural analysis indicated that CT009 shares high level of structural similarity to RodZ, revealing the conserved orientation of two residues critical for MreB interaction. Substitutions eliminated MreB protein interaction and partial complementation provided by CT009 in RodZ deficient Escherichia ...
Urogenital chlamydia infection, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection in Sweden. In 2008 it was estimated by WHO that there were 105.7 million new cases of CT worldwide, an increase by 4.2 million cases (4.1%) compared to 2005. If untreated, CT infections can progress to serious reproductive health problems, especially in women. These complications include subfertility/infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pain. The CT infection is often asymptomatic and reliable diagnostic methods and contact tracing are important tools for identifying infected individuals. CT infection is classified in the Swedish Communicable Diseases Act as a serious disease; consequently, written reporting and contact tracing are compulsory. Previous or ongoing CT infection is not uncommon in infertile couples, especially in women with tubal factor infertility (TFI). We have tested 244 infertile couples for CT antibodies, and CT IgG positive ...
Chlamydia trachomatis continues to be the most commonly reported sexually transmitted bacterial infec-tion in many countries with more than 100 million new cases estimated annually. These acute infectionstranslate into significant downstream health care costs, particularly for women, where complicationscan include pelvic inflammatory disease and other disease sequelae such as tubal factor infertility.Despite years of research, the immunological mechanisms responsible for protective immunity versusimmunopathology are still not well understood, although it is widely accepted that T cell driven IFN-gand Th17 responses are critical for clearing infection. While antibodies are able to neutralize infectionsin vitro, alone they are not protective, indicating that any successful vaccine will need to elicit botharms of the immune response. In recent years, there has been an expansion in the number and types ofantigens that have been evaluated as vaccines, and combined with the new array of mucosal adjuvants,this
Mucosal immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis in a mouse model of female genital tract infection is mediated predominantly by Th1-type cells, as shown by in vivo neutralization of cytokines involved in the Th1 vs Th2 pathways. Neutralization of IL-12 was associated with an apparent decrease in the infiltration of CD4+ T cells into infected tissues, systemic reductions in the production of IFN-gamma, and prolonged shedding of high levels of bacteria. Neutralization of IL-4 had no detectable effect on host immunity or on bacterial clearance. To dissociate the protective role of IL-12 from that of IL-12-induced IFN-gamma, resistance to C. trachomatis was compared in IL-12-depleted and IFN-gamma-deficient animals. IL-12-depleted mice displayed minimal bacterial clearance for 1 mo post-infection but eventually resolved genital tract infections completely. IFN-gamma-deficient mice, on the other hand, cleared 99.9% of genital Chlamydia within the first 3 wk but then developed systemic disease associated ...
Mucosal immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis in a mouse model of female genital tract infection is mediated predominantly by Th1-type cells, as shown by in vivo neutralization of cytokines involved in the Th1 vs Th2 pathways. Neutralization of IL-12 was associated with an apparent decrease in the infiltration of CD4+ T cells into infected tissues, systemic reductions in the production of IFN-gamma, and prolonged shedding of high levels of bacteria. Neutralization of IL-4 had no detectable effect on host immunity or on bacterial clearance. To dissociate the protective role of IL-12 from that of IL-12-induced IFN-gamma, resistance to C. trachomatis was compared in IL-12-depleted and IFN-gamma-deficient animals. IL-12-depleted mice displayed minimal bacterial clearance for 1 mo post-infection but eventually resolved genital tract infections completely. IFN-gamma-deficient mice, on the other hand, cleared 99.9% of genital Chlamydia within the first 3 wk but then developed systemic disease associated ...
Novel simultaneous RNA-Seq analysis tracks host/pathogen interactions. Investigators at the Institute for Genome Sciences at the University of Maryland School of Medicine have developed a new technique that can track the activity of a disease-causing microbe and the host cell response to that pathogen simultaneously. Using the new method to examine Chlamydia trachomatis infection, the study team observed how the response of the infected cell contributes to one of the hallmark outcomes of chlamydial disease -- tissue scarring. Their findings appear in the December 4 issue of PLOS One.. Chlamydia trachomatis is an intracellular, disease-causing bacterium responsible for the most common human sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and infectious blindness (trachoma) globally. Sexually transmitted chlamydial infections are often asymptomatic, and cause tissue damage and scarring. For example, chlamydial-induced scar tissue within the fallopian tubes can block the tubal opening and lead to ...
Development of sensitive and reproducible assays for clinical and life science research of C. trachomatis is essential to monitor and help prevent further spread of this pathogen. DNA was purified from 130 urine research samples using a fully automated protocol on the BioRobot® M48 workstation together with the MagAttract® DNA Mini M48 Kit. Purified DNA performed well in a real-time PCR assay being developed for the amplification of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA. Comparison of this easy-to-use proce
Introduction: Parvovirus B19, Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most common microorganisms which cause different sequela during pregnancy such as c...
Screening guidelines recommend testing all sexually active female adolescents for Chlamydia trachomatis during a pelvic examination at each clinic visit. Such criteria have been based on cross-sectional studies ; new evaluations should take into account multiple clinic visits and assess whether criteria are appropriate when a prior test is...
Chlamydia trachomatis has emerged as the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen in the United States and is now recognized to cause substantial mor
RapidSTDTestKit Rapid Chlamydia Test - Urine [chl-u] - Chlamidia Home Testing Kit Sterile rapid test to detect the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis in males and females from urine sample Easy to use - 2 easy steps Unique wand design Visible result in 10 minutes Kit includes: 1x wand, full instructions leaflet and range leaflet Chlamydia is the most common bacterial STD in the
Vaccination strategies for protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are lacking due to an incomplete understanding of genital tract T cell responses. This thesis dissects the generation of T helper subsets, including the recently discovered Th17 subset, during genital tract infection with a common sexually transmitted pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, and addresses vaccine requirements for the generation of genital tract CD4+ T cell immunity. Our studies demonstrate the presence of anatomically distinct T helper differentiation patterns in the genital tract. C57BL/6 mice were infected with C. trachomatis and the response in the upper genital tract (UGT) was found to be dominated by Th1 cells, whereas the lower genital tract (LGT) hosted Th2 cells in the presence of IL-10-producing DCs. Additionally, Treg and Th17 responses were demonstrated in both the UGT and LGT following infection. For the generation of T cell-mediated immunity against infection, costimulatory signals through ...
The majority of participants with laboratory-diagnosed chlamydial infection were asymptomatic. Among the 44 women and 118 men infected with CT, 29 (56.8%) and 74 (61.9%), respectively, reported "no genitourinary symptoms during last six months.". DISCUSSION. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of chlamydial infection in select marginalized urban men and women in coastal Peru. According to the results, CT infection was more common in women than in men (Table 2), corroborating other studies (24-27). While the prevalence of chlamydia in men was very similar to that found elsewhere (24, 27, 28), the prevalence in women was much higher compared to other studies done in Latin America (8, 13, 14, 27). In comparison with a study among women in the general population of Peru, the rate of chlamydial infection among the marginalized women in this analysis was twice that of women in the general population (1, 12).. Chlamydial infection was significantly associated with age in both men and ...
Whole-genome analysis of diverse Chlamydia trachomatis strains identifies phylogenetic relationships masked by current clinical typing ...
A higher median frequency of CD8(+) T-cell responses was detected in women with lower genital tract chlamydial infection, compared with those with upper genital tract chlamydial infection (13.8% vs 9.5%; P =04), but the CD4(+) T-cell response frequencies were not different. Women who remained uninfected displayed a greater frequency of positive CD4(+) T-cell responses (29% vs 18%; P < .0001), compared with women who had incident infection, while the frequencies of CD8(+) T-cell responses did not differ. A subset of proteins involved in central metabolism, type III secretion, and protein synthesis were associated with protection. CONCLUSIONS ...
The search for new nontraditional targets is a high priority in antibiotic design today. Bacterial membrane energetics based on sodium ion circulation offers potential alternative targets. The present work identifies the Na+-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR), a key respiratory enzyme in many microbial pathogens, as indispensible for the Chlamydia trachomatis infectious process. Infection by Chlamydia trachomatis significantly increased first H+ and then Na+ levels within the host mammalian cell. A newly designed furanone Na+-NQR inhibitor, PEG-2S, blocked the changes in both H+ and Na+ levels induced by Chlamydia trachomatis infection. It also inhibited intracellular proliferation of Chlamydia trachomatis with a half-minimal inhibitory concentration in the submicromolar range but did not affect the viability of mammalian cells or bacterial species representing benign intestinal microflora. At low nanomolar concentrations (IC50 value = 1.76 nmol/L), PEG-2S inhibited the ...
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In female patients have discovered two types of bacteria chlamydia, the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumonia. The bacteria is still classified into one disease chlamydia. In a pregnant woman, the bacteria that can threaten the health of the fetus baby in her womb. Transmission can cause serious problems such as paralysis of the eye that will be taken by a baby when it was born. ...
Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) in North America, affecting both men and women, although women report the disease approximately three times more often than men. The infection is named after the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Most women that are infected with the bacteria have no symptoms and therefore dont know they have chlamydia. Its easily treated, but can sometimes lead to serious complications if it isnt caught early enough. For example, it is estimated that 20 to 25% of untreated women will develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can be a very painful illness. Risk for abnormal pregnancies or infertility also increases with untreated chlamydia infection.
Pathogenesis of Chlamydia trachomatis Chlamydia are acquired by direct contact with mucous membranes or abraded skin, that is, by sexual contact or by direct inoculation into the eye in the case of trachoma or neonatal conjunctivitis. Two forms of the organism are needed for infection and disease to occur: the infectious, extracellular form called an […] ...
Pathogenesis of Chlamydia trachomatis Chlamydia are acquired by direct contact with mucous membranes or abraded skin, that is, by sexual contact or by direct inoculation into the eye in the case of trachoma or neonatal conjunctivitis. Two forms of the organism are needed for infection and disease to occur: the infectious, extracellular form called an […] ...
Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP antibody for ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr. Anti-Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP pAb (GTX41698) is tested in Chlamydia trachomatis samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Chlamydia trachomatis W4-W5, 1 mg. |p class=db_paraghraph|Chlamydia is a common term for infection with any bacterium belonging to the phylum Chlamydiae.
Chlamydia trachomatis antibody [103] for ELISA. Anti-Chlamydia trachomatis mAb (GTX40767) is tested in Chlamydia samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
In this study we analysed the time to clearance of anogenital C. trachomatis after treatment in patients coinfected with N. gonorrhoeae, using modern RNA- and DNA-based NAATs and daily collected samples. The median time to clearance was 7 days for RNA and 6 days for DNA. Ninety-five per cent of patients had cleared C. trachomatis RNA and DNA after 13 and 14 days, respectively.. Several previous studies reported on in vivo clearance of C. trachomatis after treatment, but used different molecular testing methods, and a sampling frequency of no more than twice a week. Some studies observed clearance of DNA within 3 weeks using ligase chain reaction or in-house PCR methods [13, 14], while other studies reported 5-25 % DNA persistence after 3-4 weeks [9, 15, 16, 25]. The exact time to clearance of RNA, when tested by NAAT, was also previously unknown. Sena et al. reported 12 % RNA persistence after 4 weeks in men, while Dukers et al. reported 42 % intermittent positive results up to 51 days [9, 19]. ...
Chlamydia infections have an immense impact on public health and are associated with diverse disease manifestations including atherosclerosis, blindness, and sterility. The chlamydial developmental cycle is intrinsically linked with the ability of the organism to cause disease. The mechanisms that regulate the developmental cycle are poorly understood; however, transcription appears to play a governing role. An OmpR/PhoB subfamily response regulator termed ChxR exhibits expression patterns that indicate an important role during the developmental cycle. Previously, ChxR was demonstrated to interact with its own promoter and facilitate the transcriptional activation of the chxR gene. To begin to understand the functional role of ChxR, I identified the DNA sequence recognized by ChxR to identify its gene targets. Primarily using gel mobility shift assays, I determined that ChxR interacts with, and has differential affinity for six binding sites in the chxR promoter region. Using the DNA sequences ...
A new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis (nvCT) was discovered in Sweden in 2006, and it could not be detected by diagnostic systems from Abbott and Roche, whereas the third system used, from Becton Dickinson (BD), detects nvCT. We analyzed 3648 samples from 2 counties that used Roche and 2 counties that used BD methods from 2007 to 2011. After implementation of a Roche method that detects nvCT, its proportion has decreased and converged in the 4 counties but are still at different levels in Roche and BD counties. Future studies are needed to see if nvCT will decline further.. ...
Bacterial and Cell Culture Escherichia coli strain DH5α was used for all cloning procedures. E. coli were grown in either LB broth or on LB agar plates supplemented with antibiotics (100 μg/ml ampicillin, 100 μg/ml spectinomycin, and/or 20 μg/ml chloramphenicol) at 30 °C. Mouse L2 fibroblasts were used for cell culture experiments and passage of C. trachomatis L2 434/Bu. Cells were grown in DMEM supplemented with 10 % FBS at 37 °C with 5 % CO2. For routine growth of C. trachomatis, cells were grown until confluent and then infected with EBs via centrifugation at 545g for 1 hour. Chlamydia-infected cells were grown at 37 °C with 5 % CO2 in DMEM, 10 % FBS, 0.2 μg/ml cycloheximide, and 1× non-essential amino acids. EB stocks were titered using the inclusion forming unit assay (IFU) and stored in sucrose phosphate-buffered glutamic acid (SPG, 0.19 mM KH2PO4, 0.36 mM K2HPO4, 0.245 mM l-glutamic acid, 10.9 mM sucrose) at −80 °C. Strains created in this study and specific growth conditions ...
The objective of this study was to identify the frequency of coinfection by human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in cervical lesions and relate it with immunohistochemical expression of p16INK4a and Ki67, both oncogenicity markers. A cross-sectional study with 86 women from primary care units in southern Brazil was conducted. Cervical swabs were collected for HPV-DNA and CT-DNA detection, through the polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR). The immunohistochemical analysis was performed on biopsy cervical tissue material to identify the expression of p16INK4a and Ki67 cell cycle markers. About 83 % were positive for HPV-DNA and 19% had coinfection with CT-DNA. Among coinfected women, 56% expressed p16INK4a. There was a statistically significant association between the histological grade of the lesion and Ki67 expression. All high-grade lesions, 50% of low-grade lesions and 31% of negative biopsies expressed Ki67 (p = 0.004). A total of 37% of coinfected women expressed ...
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Chlamydia is a common bacterial infection (STI) in humans caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. Types of foods to prevent and treat Chlamydia infection 1. Turmeric In the study to evaluate the Berberine of a plant alkaloid with a long history of medicinal use in both Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine, presented abundantly in turmeric, found …. ...
Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of IgM antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis in human serum or plasma. SmartEIA kit is specifically designed for automated analysis using the Agility instrument.
When we think about selection pressure the first thing that comes to mind are antibiotics that selectively kill susceptible bacteria and thus allow more resistant bacteria to fill the ecological niche.. But fewer people realise that selection pressure can also be caused (indirectly) by laboratory diagnosis. Microbes which are diagnosed in the laboratory often end up getting treated and eradicated. However a microbe which mutates sufficiently to avoid diagnosis will have a selection advantage over its diagnosable counterpart. This concept is particularly applicable to microbes which are diagnosed by molecular techniques such as PCR where only a minor mutation or deletion can potentially create sufficient change in the base sequence to make the microbe undetectable by the original molecular test.. The most classic example of this is the "Swedish Variant".. In 2006, a drop in Chlamydia trachomatis diagnoses was noticed on a particular molecular platform X, but not on others in use within Sweden. ...
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Reaktivität: Bakterien Wirt: Maus Klon: 1312-236 Konjugat: Alexa Fluor 647 | Chlamydia Trachomatis, LPS Antikörper (ABIN4263148).
Do you know which doctor should you consult if you have Chlamydia Trachomatis. This and other commonly asked questions about this condition.
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Chlamydia is Australias most common sexually transmitted disease and because there are often no symptoms. You might not even know you have it... and that could be dangerous - as it causes major health risks like infertility, chronic pain or infection of the liver or joints.. What is it?. It is caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis and can infect the vagina, penis, urethra, cervix, uterus, anus and eye.. Who is most likely to get it?. Any sexually active person can get it.. How to avoid getting it?. Safe sex practices using a barrier such as a condom or dam and limiting the number of sexual partners.. How do you find out if you have it?. A simple urine test at your GP.. How can it be treated?. There are various treatment regimes but the simplest treatment/cure is just one dose of a particular antibiotic.. Can I get it again?. Yes, every time you have unsafe sex you are at risk.. Where do I go for help?. See your doctor or contact :. ...
Population based screening for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection has been postulated since the introduction of nucleic amplification techniques that enable testing on non-invasive samples.1 Screening also seems logical because the infection is common and curable, and asymptomatic, and symptomatic infections are thought to be important causes of pelvic inflammatory disease and other complications of the female reproductive system.2. In the linked cluster randomised trial with a stepped wedge design (doi:10.1136/bmj.e4316), van den Broek and colleagues report on the effectiveness of screening in more than 300 000 Dutch men and women.3 The study provides important new information on the feasibility of screening. The results are disappointing and suggest that the strategy should be reconsidered. Over the course of three rounds of screening the participation rate fell from 16.1% to 9.5%. In addition, 4.2% of participants were C trachomatis positive at the first invitation and there was ...
Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, which affects the genital tract if acquired through vaginal sex, or the mouth or anus if acquired from oral or anal sex. Chlamydia is spread through unprotected sex with an infected person; it can also be spread from an infected mother to her baby at birth ...
REFERENCES 1. Newman L, Rowley J, Hoorn SV, Wijesooriya NS, Unemo M, Low N, et al. Global estimates of the prevalence and incidence of four curable sexually transmitted infections in 2012 based on systematic review and global reporting. PLoS ONE 2015; 10:e0143304.Available at: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0143304. [ Links ] 2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2009. Atlanta: US. Department of Health and Human Services; 2010. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats09/surv2009-Complete.pdf. [ Links ] 3. Fenton KA, Lowndes CM. Recent trends in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in the Europe Union. Sex Transm Infect 2004; 80:255-263. [ Links ] 4. La Montagne DS, Patrick LE, Fine DN, Marrazzo JM. Region X Infertility Prevention Project. Re-evaluating selective screening criteria for Chlamydial infection among women in the US Pacific Northwest. Sex Transm Dis 2004; 31:283-289. [ Links ] ...
Although progress in Chlamydia genetics has been rapid, genomic modification has previously been limited to point mutations and group II intron insertions which truncate protein products. The bacterium has thus far been intractable to gene deletion or more-complex genomic integrations such as allelic exchange. Herein, we present a novel suicide vector dependent on inducible expression of a chlamydial gene that renders Chlamydia trachomatis fully genetically tractable and permits rapid reverse genetics by fluorescence-reported allelic exchange mutagenesis (FRAEM). We describe the first available system of targeting chlamydial genes for deletion or allelic exchange as well as curing plasmids from C. trachomatis serovar L2. Furthermore, this approach permits the monitoring of mutagenesis by fluorescence microscopy without disturbing bacterial growth, a significant asset when manipulating obligate intracellular organisms. As proof of principle, trpA was successfully deleted and replaced with a sequence
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. [email protected] OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with ...
The most common bacterial STD: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common reportable infectious disease in the United States and the number of cases is growing every year thanks in part to increasing screening efforts. It is particularly of concern in adolescents and young adults, and also in African-American populations, among who reported case rates are 8-fold higher than in whites. The major adverse events associated with chlamydial infections are borne by women and include pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy and infertility. The organism also can infect infants at birth and causing conjunctivitis and, more importantly, pneumonia. In men C. trachomatis causes urethritis and occasionally a testicular inflammatory condition known as epididymitis. However, most chlamydial infections are asymptomatic. These silent infections form a large reservoir of infection in the population resulting in potential for continuous transmission of the organism among those who are ...
Purpose. To improve the screening of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) in Brazil, an accurate and affordable method is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and assess the performance and costs of a new in-house real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection. Methodology. Asymptomatic women aged 14-25 years who attended primary health services in Manaus, Brazil, were screened for C. trachomatis using the Digene Hybrid Capture II CT-ID (HCII CT-ID) DNA test. A subset of cervical specimens were tested using an in-house qPCR and a commercial qPCR, Artus C. trachomatis Plus RG PCR 96 CE (Artus qPCR) kit, as a reference test. A primer/probe based on the sequence of cryptic plasmid (CP) was designed. An economic evaluation was conducted from the providers perspective. Results. The primers were considered specific for C. trachomatis because they did not amplify any product from non-sexually transmitted bacterial species tested. Overall, 292 specimens were tested by
The majority of women with Chlamydia infection are without symptoms. Many men are asymptomatic as well. Regular screening for Chlamydia, as recommended by the
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium associated with trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. During its intracellular developmental cycle, Chlamydia resides in a membrane bound compartment called the inclusion. A subset of Type III secreted effectors, the inclusion membrane proteins (Inc), are inserted into the inclusion membrane. Inc proteins are strategically positioned to promote inclusion interaction with host factors and organelles, a process required for bacterial replication, but little is known about Inc proteins function or host interacting partners. Moreover, it is unclear whether each Inc protein has a distinct function or if a subset of Inc proteins interacts with one another to perform their function. Here, we used IncD as a model to investigate Inc/Inc interaction in the context of Inc protein expression in C. trachomatis. We developed a co-infection model system to display different tagged Inc proteins on the surface of the same inclusion. We also designed
To test vaccines, formulated with novel antigens, to protect mice against Chlamydia infections.To determine the ability of polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) to induce cross-species protective immune responses, recombinant fragments from all nine C. trachomatis serovar E Pmps were used to vaccinate BALB/c mice utilizing CpG-1826 and Montanide ISA 720 as adjuvants. C. muridarum recombinant MOMP a ...
ID DNAA2_CHLTR Reviewed; 455 AA. AC O84277; DT 01-JUN-2001, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. DT 01-NOV-1998, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 104. DE RecName: Full=Chromosomal replication initiator protein DnaA 2; GN Name=dnaA2; OrderedLocusNames=CT_275; OS Chlamydia trachomatis (strain D/UW-3/Cx). OC Bacteria; Chlamydiae; Chlamydiales; Chlamydiaceae; OC Chlamydia/Chlamydophila group; Chlamydia. OX NCBI_TaxID=272561; RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=D/UW-3/Cx; RX PubMed=9784136; DOI=10.1126/science.282.5389.754; RA Stephens R.S., Kalman S., Lammel C.J., Fan J., Marathe R., Aravind L., RA Mitchell W.P., Olinger L., Tatusov R.L., Zhao Q., Koonin E.V., RA Davis R.W.; RT "Genome sequence of an obligate intracellular pathogen of humans: RT Chlamydia trachomatis."; RL Science 282:754-759(1998). CC -!- FUNCTION: Plays an important role in the initiation and regulation CC of chromosomal replication. Binds to the origin of replication; it CC binds ...
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PROCEEDx V&V samples are covering all currently used pathogen testing lab methods. They represent a very cost-effective way of covering the specific needs...
Während der Schwangerschaft können Endozervikalinfektionen durch Chlamydien (C. trachomatis) eine Frühgeburt und sogar nach der Geburt zu Infektionen des kleinen Beckens führen. Bei infizierten...
Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) exists in latent form either as a nuclear episome or integrated into human chromosomes in more than 90% of healthy individuals without causing clinical symptoms. Immunosuppression and stress conditions can reactivate HHV-6 replication, associated with clinical complications and even death. We have previously shown that co-infection of Chlamydia trachomatis and HHV-6 promotes chlamydial persistence and increases viral uptake in an in vitro cell culture model. Here we investigated C. trachomatis-induced HHV-6 activation in cell lines and fresh blood samples from patients having Chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (CiHHV-6). We observed activation of latent HHV-6 DNA replication in CiHHV-6 cell lines and fresh blood cells without formation of viral particles. Interestingly, we detected HHV-6 DNA in blood as well as cervical swabs from C. trachomatis-infected women. Low virus titers correlated with high C. trachomatis load and vice versa, demonstrating a potentially ...
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that is caused by a bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydia is a common STI that can be spread during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. It can also be transmitted from an infected mother to her baby at birth. Teenagers and young adults are most commonly infected. Most people infected with chlamydia dont have symptoms and should therefore be screened for the infection regularly. Symptoms Men
Vaginal swab collection: Care provider specimen: Collect vaginal fluid sample using the Gen-Probe® Aptima® Vaginal Swab Kit by contacting the swab to the lower third of the vaginal wall, rotating the swab for 10 to 30 seconds to absorb the fluid. Immediately place the swab into the transport tube and carefully break the swab shaft against the side of the tube. Tightly screw on the cap. Patient self-collection instructions: Partially open the package. Do not touch the soft tip or lay the swab down. If the soft tip is touched, the swab is laid down, or the swab is dropped, use a new Aptima® Vaginal Swab Specimen Collection Kit. Remove the swab. Carefully insert the swab into the vagina about 2" past the introitus and gently rotate the swab for 10 to 30 seconds, making sure the swab touches the walls of the vagina so that moisture is absorbed by the swab. Withdraw the swab without touching the skin. Immediately place the swab into the transport tube and carefully break the swab shaft against the ...
April 25, 2017) -- Bernard P. Arulanandam, Jane and Roland Blumberg Professor in Bioscience and Interim Vice President for Research at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has been named a Fellow by the American Academy of Microbiology.. Elected by his peers in the scientific community, Arulanandam will be honored for his contributions to the field of microbiology at the annual Academy Fellows gathering on Friday, June 2 in New Orleans. Since joining the faculty at UTSA in 2001, Arulanandam has made significant contributions in the field of microbiology as a researcher and faculty member. He has conducted innovative research in vaccine development related to the pathogens Chlamydia trachomatis, which causes the sexually transmitted disease chlamydia, Francisella tularensis, which causes the respiratory infection tularemia, or "rabbit fever," and Acinetobacter Baumannii, a pathogen that has seen an uptick in occurrence in injured soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan.. As UTSAs Interim Vice ...
How soon do STI symptoms appear? In California alone, there were almost what to get for chlamydia,000 reported cases of chlamydia in 2016. The symptoms can take months to recover, and you should treat this with anti-inflammatory medicines. Recommendations for the Laboratory-Based Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae - 2014″. If you are at… Read More » ...
Chlamydial development is punctuated by changes in protein-protein interactions on elementary body (EB) and reticulate body (RB) surfaces. Reduction of disulfide cross-links in the chlamydial outer membrane complex (COMC) concomitant with attachment and entry of the EB is rapidly followed by transition to the fragile RB, which is specialized for acquisition of nutrients during chlamydial growth and differentiation. This chapter reviews knowledge about the progression starting with the structure of the EB envelope in the extracellular environment and the way in which this surface interacts with, and is altered during, the process of chlamydial attachment, entry, development, and exit from host cells. The presence of gram-negative double membranes was confirmed by early transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of RBs and EBs, but challenges in purification and fractionation of RB membranes shifted emphasis toward EB membranes in subsequent studies. Regularly spaced hexagonal lattices were observed
Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a leading cause of infertility and ectopic pregnancy in women. Although antibiotic therapy eliminates infection, it does not...
Obligate intracellular pathogens such as C. trachomatis necessitate the survival of the host to ensure the availability of the metabolites required for the completion of the developmental cycle. Noting the lack of several key metabolic pathway components in its genome, C. trachomatis is heavily influenced by host metabolic conditions and particularly sensitive to the perturbations that interfere with the production and availability of amino acids, nucleotides, and lipids (Saka and Valdivia, 2010). Previous studies show that C. trachomatis requires the production of ROS for normal development (Boncompain et al., 2010; Chumduri et al., 2013; Siegl et al., 2014). Our data further show that C. trachomatis infection results in reversible stress on the host mitochondrial network. Normally, the presence of such stress factors would induce an overall negative effect on host mitochondrial health, leading to rapid fragmentation and induction of apoptotic pathways. However, our study and previous evidence ...
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Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the causative infectious agent for a variety of diseases in men: urethritis, proctitis, conjunctivitis, epididymitis, and Reiters Syndrome. Among woman, the consequences of chlamydial infections are severe if left untreated; CT infection can cause urethritis, cervicitis, conjunctivitis, endometritis, salpingitis (with subsequent infertility or ectopic pregnancy) and perihepatitis. Infants from infected mothers can develop conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, and pneumonia.. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most commonly diagnosed and reported sexually transmitted bacterial infection in Canada. The number of reported cases in Canada in 2006 was , 65,000 (202 per 100,000) and has been increasing annually. This, however, is an underestimate as the disease is often asymptomatic and therefore undiagnosed. CT infections are more common among females between the ages of 15-24 and young men aged 20-29.. Genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis often go unrecognized as ...
Objective:To systematically evaluate associations between ureaplasma urealyticum(Uu)infection and chlamydia trachomatis(Ct)infection with female infertility.Methods:According to the strict inclusive and exclusive criteria,CNKI,CBMdisc,Wanfang,VIP and PubMed databases were searched.Furthermore,we manually searched the relevant references published from 2000 to 2014.Two reviewers selected trials and assessed trial quality independently by using the Cochrane Handbook 5.3.A meta-analysis was performed with the fix-effects model or randomeffects model according to the heterogeneity.Results:A total of 181 relevant studies,involving 132 Chinese studies and 49 foreign studies were retrieved.Eventually,13 eligible Chinese studies involving 3760 patients were included.The results of the meta-analysis were as follows:The merged odd ratio(OR)of Uu,Ct and(Uu + Ct)were 6.41(95%CI:4.85-8.47),6.76(95%CI:5.33-8.58)and 10.74(95%CI:6.87-16.81),respectively.The incidences of infertility in all groups were different when
Male genitourinary tract infections has always been the focus of debate in the era of male infertility. It is also estimated that approximately 15% of male infertility is related to genital tract infection [8]. C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, M. genitalium and U. urealyticum are common genitourinary tract pathogens and are widely studied in the current literature. It is also difficult to identify these infections due to their being clinically silent nature, the possibility of contamination with other organisms and the culture difficulty [9].. In our study, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, M. genitalium and U. urealyticum infection was detected in 1.0, 2.0, 0.2 and 54.5% of infertile men, respectively. Huang et al. found that U. urealyticum and M. genitalium infections were found in 19.6 and 2.5% in infertile males, respectively [10]. C. trachomatis prevalence showed a wide variance, with reported rates of 0.4-42.3% in asymptomatic males in infertile couples [11]. N. gonorrhoeae was less evaluated ...
The efficacy of both azithromycin and doxycycline was high for the treatment of urogenital chlamydia infection among adolescents in youth correctional facilities, with the noninferiority of azithromycin to doxycycline not established. This according to a study of 567 participants where 284 were randomly assigned to receive azithromycin, and 283 were randomly assigned to receive doxycycline. Researchers found: • There were no treatment failures in the doxycycline group. • Treatment failure occurred in 5 participants (3.2%) in the azithromycin group.
A nine-month study by Dr. Carter and colleagues, published in 2004 in the Journal of Rheumatology, was the first to compare combination antibiotic therapy (doxycycline and rifampin) with monotherapy (doxycycline only). It showed a dramatic response to the combination in patients with Chlamydia-induced arthritis.. Based on these promising early results, the USF-led research team devised a new prolonged course of combination antibiotic treatment, which attacked two different pathways allowing Chlamydia infection to persist in the joints. In the latest double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial, 42 patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups -- rifampin plus doxycycline, rifampin plus azithromycin, or placebo. All the patients tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis or Chlamydia pneumoniae. They received combination antibiotics or placebo for six months and were followed for three months post-treatment. Patients treated with the combination antibiotics improved ...
The Chlamydiaceae are a family of bacteria that belongs to the phylum Chlamydiae, order Chlamydiales. All Chlamydiaceae species are Gram-negative and express the family-specific lipopolysaccharide epitope αKdo-(2→8)-αKdo-(2→4)-αKdo (previously called the genus-specific epitope). Chlamydiaceae ribosomal RNA genes all have at least 90% DNA sequence identity. Chlamydiaceae species have varying inclusion morphology, varying extrachromosomal plasmid content, and varying sulfadiazine resistance. The Chlamydiaceae family currently includes two genera and one candidate genus: Chlamydia, Chlamydophila, and candidatus Clavochlamydia. Three species belong to Chlamydia: C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, and C. suis. C. trachomatis has been found only in humans, C. muridarum in hamsters and mice (family Muridae), and C. suis in swine. Chlamydia species produce a small amount of detectable glycogen and have two ribosomal operons. C. trachomatis is the cause of an infection commonly transmitted sexually ...
Chlamydia: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Chlamydia is an infection caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis.Sondage "Les 15-30 ans et le réchauffement climatique" - Sondage Odoxa-Puf. Des résultats surprenants !.Fluoxétine: Le premier. Overdose Une surdose ou est la prise,. Favoris des fans. Par cat gorie. Multi Anti-Âge. Anti-Rides. Soin Acné. Soin Solaire.. Alternative for flagyl High quality from Alternative for flagyl Generic And BRAND.tramadol overdose symptoms in cats; tramadol 100 mg hcl er; what does ambien 10mg look like;. Furosemide mylan trazodone action of fluoxetine hcl; tramadol,.. cat sleeping pills amide phentermine. fluoxetine insonnia clotrimazole on face. atarax overdose treatment acyclovir pregnancy dosage buy clomid online from usa.fluoxetine et douleurs. cordarone interaction médicament effet indésirable cat. louverture de pénurie et. âmes après soutenue à une overdose.avis sur fluoxetine achat posologie doliprane. effet du viagra pour homme sur les ...
article{4ba996f2-392e-407a-a241-e6491c85d22a, abstract = {Our objectives were to compare the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in 103 women undergoing induced legal abortion (LA) and in 101 women with confirmed, recent illegal abortion (IA), in Maputo, Mozambique. For the purpose of this study, LA was considered the abortion provided in the Maputo Central Hospital with the approval of the Ministry of Health, and IA the one not provided through the approved facility, mentioned above. Women with IA were recruited in the outpatient gynaecology ward and women with LA in the emergency gynaecology ward in the Maputo Central Hospital, during the same time period. Serological tests for syphilis (rapid plasma reagin, ELISA-IgC and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption), gonorrhoea (indirect haemagglutination) and chlamydia (microimmunofluorescence) were carried out. Direct immuno-fluorescence for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen was done on endocervical smears from all ...
OBJECTIVES: Mycoplasma genitalium has been associated with cervicitis, endometritis, and tubal factor infertility. Because the ability of this bacterium to ascend and infect the fallopian tube remains undefined, we performed an investigation to determine the prevalence of M genitalium in fallopian tube, endometrial, and cervical specimens from women laparoscopically diagnosed with acute salpingitis in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Women presenting with pelvic inflammatory disease were laparoscopically diagnosed with salpingitis. Infection with M genitalium in genital specimens was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: Of 123 subjects with acute salpingitis, M genitalium was detected by PCR in the cervix and/or endometrium in nine (7%) participants, and in a single fallopian tube specimen. In addition, those infected with M genitalium were more often HIV infected than women not infected by M genitalium (seven of nine (78%) v 42 of 114 (37%), p,0.03). CONCLUSIONS: M genitalium is able ...

Immunobiology of monocytes and macrophages during Chlamydia trachomatis infection
     - Aalborg Universitys Research PortalImmunobiology of monocytes and macrophages during Chlamydia trachomatis infection - Aalborg University's Research Portal

keywords = "Chlamydia trachomatis, Macrophages, Monocytes",. author = "Nielsen, {Mads Lausen} and Gunna Christiansen and ... Immunobiology of monocytes and macrophages during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Mads Lausen Nielsen, Gunna Christiansen, ... Immunobiology of monocytes and macrophages during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Microbes and Infection. 2019 Mar 1;21(2):73- ... Immunobiology of monocytes and macrophages during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. In: Microbes and Infection. 2019 ; Vol. 21, ...
more infohttps://vbn.aau.dk/en/publications/immunobiology-of-monocytes-and-macrophages-during-chlamydia-trach

Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Outpatients: Association with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae | Annals of...Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Outpatients: Association with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae | Annals of...

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in Women 15 to 29 Years of Age: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Annals of Internal Medicine; ... Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in Asymptomatic Women Attending Family Planning Clinics: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of ... Systematic Review: Noninvasive Testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Annals of Internal Medicine; 142 (11 ... Chlamydia trachomatis among Patients Infected with and Treated for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Sexually Transmitted Disease ...
more infohttps://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/477028/acute-pelvic-inflammatory-disease-outpatients-association-chlamydia-trachomatis-neisseria-gonorrhoeae

Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections using a...Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections using a...

Assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis, and Mycoplasma genitalium ... Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections using a ... Chlamydia trachomatis in subfertile couples undergoing an in vitro fertilization program: a prospective study. Eur J Obstet ... Simultaneous amplification testing Chlamydia trachomatis Neisseria gonorrhoeae Mycoplasma genitalium Ureaplasma urealyticum ...
more infohttps://ann-clinmicrob.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12941-017-0220-2

Inclusion Conjunctivitis - swollen, symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, DiagnosisInclusion Conjunctivitis - swollen, symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis

Inclusion conjunctivitis is caused by an intracellular organism called Chlamydia trachomatis . The signs and symptoms of adult ... The life cycle of chlamydia is 72 hours. Chlamydiae are found in parts of the body with a mucosal membrane, which are the eye, ... Forty percent of neonatal conjunctivitis is due to chlamydia. Between 35 and 50 percent of newborns infected with chlamydia ... Ten to 20 percent of infants infected with chlamydia develop pneumonia during the first six months of life. In the infant, ...
more infohttp://www.healthofchildren.com/I-K/Inclusion-Conjunctivitis.html

Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV) - TheBody.comLymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV) - TheBody.com

... caused by three strains of the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The ... ... this would not indicate if the chlamydia infection is LGV. However, the usual chlamydia tests that are available have not been ... trachomatis. The visual signs include genital papule(s) (e.g., raised surface or bumps) and or ulcers, and swelling of the ... LGV (Lymphogranuloma venereum) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by three strains of the bacterium Chlamydia ...
more infohttp://www.thebody.com/content/art17133.html?nxtprv

U.S Bacterial Conjunctivitis Drugs Market to Reach USD 439.8 Million in 2024U.S Bacterial Conjunctivitis Drugs Market to Reach USD 439.8 Million in 2024

Chlamydia trachomatis, Proteus mirabilis, etc.). As reported by Healio (specialty medical news and journal publisher), ...
more infohttps://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/mediarelease/u.s-bacterial-conjunctivitis-drugs-market.asp

The re-emergence of lymphogranuloma venereum in Europe, a Maltese caseThe re-emergence of lymphogranuloma venereum in Europe, a Maltese case

L3 Chlamydia trachomatis serovars. To date, there have been 60 documented diagnoses of rectal Chlamydia trachomatis, with one ... In April 2016, the GU Clinic in Malta started screening all MSM who test positive for rectal Chlamydia trachomatis for LGV, ... Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovars L1-L3, L2 ... screening all MSM who give a history of receptive anal intercourse in the previous 6 months for anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis ...
more infohttp://thesynapse.eu/corporate/associates/jamesco/item/4069-the-re-emergence-of-lymphogranuloma-venereum-in-europe-a-maltese-case

Rate of ectopic pregnancy following IVF has almost halved in past 12 years | (e) Science NewsRate of ectopic pregnancy following IVF has almost halved in past 12 years | (e) Science News

... of all infertility and is usually the result of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading cause of bacterial sexually ... such as the UKs National Chlamydia Screening Programme - should be further reinforced." Campaigns for the widespread use of ...
more infohttp://esciencenews.com/articles/2015/06/16/rate.ectopic.pregnancy.following.ivf.has.almost.halved.past.12.years

Ophthalmia neonatorum in developing countries. Syphilis control - a continuing challenge. Mass treatment with single-dose...Ophthalmia neonatorum in developing countries. Syphilis control - a continuing challenge. Mass treatment with single-dose...

Conjunctival swabs are collected for quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction assay of Chlamydia trachomatis before and 2, 6, 12 ... one-round of very-high-coverage mass treatment with azithromycin can interrupt the transmission of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis ...
more infohttp://www.readabstracts.com/Health/Ophthalmia-neonatorum-in-developing-countries-Syphilis-control-a-continuing-challenge.html

Salpingitis. A rare cause of acute abdomen in a sexually inactive girl: a case report | Cases Journal | Full TextSalpingitis. A rare cause of acute abdomen in a sexually inactive girl: a case report | Cases Journal | Full Text

... most commonly Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorroea.[4] In young girls without a history of consensual sexual contact, ... Chlamydia coverage was not started because the patient did not have a history of sexual activity. ...
more infohttps://casesjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1757-1626-1-326

Case Report: Possible Psittacosis in a Military Family Member-Clinical and Public Health Management Issues in Military Settings...Case Report: Possible Psittacosis in a Military Family Member-Clinical and Public Health Management Issues in Military Settings...

16 cross-reactivity with other chlamydiae (C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, and C. felis) may occur. For this reason, the ... Results received on 10 March 2018 included the following values: C. trachomatis IgG ,1:64, C. trachomatis IgM 1:320, C. ... Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) psittaci. In: Pickering LK, ed. Red Book: 2003 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 28th ... For example, because the patients initial test IgM titer results appeared to be positive for all 3 types of Chlamydia (C. ...
more infohttps://health.mil/News/Articles/2019/07/01/Psittacosis

Chlamydiaceae infections in pig | Veterinary Research | Full TextChlamydiaceae infections in pig | Veterinary Research | Full Text

Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated ... Chlamydia suis. Before 1999, Chlamydia suis strains were referred to as C. trachomatis because of ompA DNA sequence homology [ ... In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae ... Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia suis can infect pigs. ...
more infohttps://veterinaryresearch.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1297-9716-42-29

Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection | Summary | NNDSSChlamydia Trachomatis Infection | Summary | NNDSS

Chlamydia trachomatis, genital infections (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/chlamydia-trachomatis-genital-infections/) ... Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection , 2010 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/chlamydia-trachomatis-infection/ ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/chlamydia-trachomatis-infection/

Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections -- United States, 1995Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections -- United States, 1995

... Genital tract infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are a major ... TABLE 1. Number and rate * of reported cases of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, by state and sex -- United States, 1995 ... Recommendations for the prevention and management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections, 1993. MMWR 1993;42(no. RR-12). ... surveillance data on chlamydia and data on chlamydia test positivity among women screened in family-planning clinics funded ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00046636.htm

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis | The BMJScreening for Chlamydia trachomatis | The BMJ

Population based screening for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection has been postulated since the introduction of ... Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. BMJ 2012; 345 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e4231 (Published 05 July 2012) Cite this as ... of participants were C trachomatis positive at the first invitation and there was only … ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/345/bmj.e4231

Chlamydia Trachomatis, Genital Infections | Summary | NNDSSChlamydia Trachomatis, Genital Infections | Summary | NNDSS

Chlamydia Trachomatis, Genital Infections , 1996 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/chlamydia-trachomatis- ... Chlamydia Trachomatis, Genital Infections , 1995 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/chlamydia-trachomatis- ... Chlamydia Trachomatis, Genital Infections , 1990 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/chlamydia-trachomatis- ... Chlamydia trachomatis infection (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/chlamydia-trachomatis-infection/) ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/chlamydia-trachomatis-genital-infections/

Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis)Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis)

All about Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis). FACTS: Chlamydia is perhaps the most common of all sexually transmitted diseases, ... Its caused by a bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis and is passed from person-to-person during unprotected sex.. ... In addition to its venereal impact, Chlamydia trachomatis is also responsible for trachoma, the leading cause of preventable ... In addition to its venereal impact, Chlamydia trachomatis is also responsible for trachoma, the leading cause of preventable ...
more infohttps://www.giantmicrobes.com/uk/products/chlamydia.html

Chlamydia trachomatis ATCC ® VR-901B™Chlamydia trachomatis ATCC ® VR-901B™

... Designation: Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV I) strain 440 Application: Sexually ... Chlamydia trachomatis (ATCC® VR-901B™) Classification: Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydia / Product Format: frozen 1 mL per vial ... FBS used to culture Chlamydia must be prescreened to verify that the serum does not contain antibodies to Chlamydia or other ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : AJ012175 Chlamydia trachomatis partial rnpB gene for RNase P RNA subunit. ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Viruses/Chlamydia_and_Rickettsia/VR-901B.aspx

183160: Chlamydia trachomatis,Neisseria... | LabCorp183160: Chlamydia trachomatis,Neisseria... | LabCorp

Chlamydia trachomatis,Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, NAA. TEST: 183160 Test number copied ... Patient Information: Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Trichomoniasis. Protect Your Patients From the Consequences of Untreated ... Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Trichomonas: Easily Detected and Easily Treated. Trichomonas vaginalis: Detect More Infections With ...
more infohttps://www.labcorp.com/test-menu/22381/chlamydia-trachomatisneisseria-gonorrhoeae-and-trichomonas-vaginalis-naa

Tracking Chlamydia Trachomatis | University of SouthamptonTracking Chlamydia Trachomatis | University of Southampton

... have discovered that Chlamydia is much more diverse than was previously thought. ... Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) both in the UK and globally, with approximately ... Research highlights risks with current method of tracking Chlamydia trachomatis. Published: 12 March 2012 ... A cell infected with chlamydia. The team found there appeared to be no barriers to the swapping of DNA when circumstances allow ...
more infohttps://www.southampton.ac.uk/news/2012/03/tracking-chlamydia-trachomatis.page

Eurosurveillance | Mutant Chlamydia trachomatis in DenmarkEurosurveillance | Mutant Chlamydia trachomatis in Denmark

A mutant Chlamydia trachomatis variant was detected in Sweden in 2006 and has since also been diagnosed in Norway, but not in ... Mutant Chlamydia trachomatis in Denmark * S Hoffmann1, J S Jensen1 ... A mutant Chlamydia trachomatis variant was detected in Sweden in 2006 and has since also been diagnosed in Norway, but not in ... Mutant Chlamydia trachomatis in Denmark. Euro Surveill. 2007;12(10):pii=738. https://doi.org/10.2807/esm.12.10.00738-en ...
more infohttp://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/esm.12.10.00738-en

Chlamydia Trachomatis - Frequently Asked Questions / FAQsChlamydia Trachomatis - Frequently Asked Questions / FAQ's

Do you know which doctor should you consult if you have Chlamydia Trachomatis. This and other commonly asked questions about ... Drugs for Chlamydia Trachomatis. Amoxicillin. This medication is a penicillin-like , β-lactam antibiotic. It is used to treat ... 2. Which Organs can be affected by Chlamydia?. Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD). It can infect ... If infected and treated for chlamydia infection can there be a recurrence of infection?. Yes, the treatment is not for lifetime ...
more infohttps://www.medindia.net/patients/patientinfo/chlamydiatrachomatis_faqs.htm

Chlamydia trachomatis & Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA ProbeChlamydia trachomatis & Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA Probe

... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide ... MGB Alert Chlamydia pneumoniae ASR*. 7. Chlamydia EIA. 8. Chlamydia IgG. 9. Chlamydia DFA Direct Specimen Collection Kit. 10. ... Chlamydia OIA. 2. Clearview Chlamydia. 3. Pathfinder® Chlamydia DFA. 4. Pathfinder Chlamydia Microplate (EIA Microplate). 5. ... Chlamydia DFA Direct Specimen Test. 11. Chlamydia Antibody Panel, IgG by IFA. ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-products/Chlamydia-trachomatis--26-Neisseria-gonorrhoeae-DNA-Probe-22028-1/

2IU9: Chlamydia Trachomatis Lpxd With 100mm Udpglcnac (complex Ii)2IU9: Chlamydia Trachomatis Lpxd With 100mm Udpglcnac (complex Ii)

UDP-3-O-[3-HYDROXYMYRISTOYL] GLUCOSAMINE N-ACYLTRANSFERASEBeta-MercaptoethanolPalmitic AcidSulfate IonUridine-Diphosphate-N-Acetylglucosamine
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/pdb/2IU9
  • C. trachomatis was isolated from 22 and N. gonorrhoeae from 15 of this subgroup of 43 women. (annals.org)
  • In 2006, a plasmid deletion mutant of Chlamydia trachomatis was identified in Sweden that can not be detected with those commercial tests targeting the deleted area. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • However, CSIs and CSPs have been found specifically for Chlamydophila species, supporting their distinctness from Chlamydia, perhaps warranting additional consideration of two separate groupings within the family. (wikipedia.org)
  • CSIs and CSPs have also been found that are exclusively shared by all Chlamydia that are further indicative of a lineage independent from Chlamydophila, supporting a means to distinguish Chlamydia species from neighbouring Chlamydophila members. (wikipedia.org)
  • This molecular analysis of MOMP antigenic determinants and their surface topology on intact chlamydiae will be useful toward the development of a recombinant subunit or synthetic chlamydial vaccine. (pnas.org)
  • This protein is immunoreactive with sera of Chlamydia Trachomatis infected individuals. (abcam.com)
  • McCoy cells (mouse fibroblasts), HeLa 229 (derived from human cervical carcinoma cells) and BHK-21 cells (baby hamster kidney cells) are the cell types regularly used for the culture of C. trachomatis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • All known Chlamydiae only grow by infecting eukaryotic host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlamydiae are most successfully isolated while still inside their host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testing of throat, conjunctival, or anal/rectal swab specimens requires collection using M4 Collection Kit (swab and M4 media).Culture for Chlamydia on such nongential specimens can be ordered on the same specimen. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Among 1,141 C. trachomatis-positive specimens from all over France, the new variant was only detected in one case. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • A modern description of chlamydia-like organisms was provided by Halberstaedrrter and von Prowazek in 1907. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our data demonstrates that naringenin is an immunomodulator of inflammation triggered by C. trachomatis , which possibly may be mediated upstream by modulation of TLR2, TLR4, and CD86 receptors on infected macrophages and downstream via the p38 MAPK pathway. (hindawi.com)
  • The current gaps in our understanding of the population makeup of Chlamydia limit our ability to implement health policies, because we do not fully understand how Chlamydia spreads within our population. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • In our inner-city population, most pregnant women have risk factors suggesting the need to rescreen for C. trachomatis in the second half of pregnancy. (hindawi.com)
  • In 1995, state-specific chlamydia test positivity among women aged 15-24 ye 2.8% to 9.4% ( Figure_1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • During this period, the annual positivity rate among women aged less than or equal to 19 years declined 16% (from 5.5% to 4.6%) in the Region VIII Chlamydia Project. (cdc.gov)
  • We completed a retrospective cohort study of 2,484 women who initiated prenatal care prior to 20 weeks gestation, delivered, and received testing for cervical C. trachomatis at Grady Memorial Hospital or a Grady-affiliated clinic between July 1, 1993 and December 31, 1994. (hindawi.com)