Female Urogenital Diseases
Genital Diseases, Female
Male Urogenital Diseases
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
Ligase Chain Reaction
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Reagent Kits, Diagnostic
Reproductive Tract Infections
Genital Diseases, Male
Sensitivity and Specificity
Fallopian Tube Diseases
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
Molecular Sequence Data
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
False Negative Reactions
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Ambulatory Care Facilities
Chlamydial and human heat shock protein 60s activate human vascular endothelium, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. (1/2917)Both chlamydial and human heat shock protein 60s (HSP 60), which colocalize in human atheroma, may contribute to inflammation during atherogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that chlamydial or human HSP 60 activates human endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and monocyte-derived macrophages. We examined the expression of adhesion molecules such as endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and the production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). We also tested whether either HSP 60 induces nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which contributes to the gene expression of these molecules. Either chlamydial or human HSP 60 induced E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 expression on ECs similar to levels induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Each HSP 60 also significantly induced IL-6 production by ECs, SMCs, and macrophages to an extent similar to that induced by E. coli LPS, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In ECs, either HSP 60 triggered activation of NF-kappaB complexes containing p65 and p50 Rel proteins. Heat treatment abolished all these effects, but did not alter the ability of E. coli LPS to induce these functions. Chlamydial and human HSP 60s therefore activate human vascular cell functions relevant to atherogenesis and lesional complications. These findings help to elucidate the mechanisms by which a chronic asymptomatic chlamydial infection might contribute to the pathophysiology of atheroma. (+info)
Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the murine genital mucosa does not require perforin-mediated cytolysis or Fas-mediated apoptosis. (2/2917)The molecular mechanisms of resistance to genital infection with the mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) strain of Chlamydia trachomatis are unknown. A role for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted, interleukin-12-dependent CD4(+) T cells has been established, but the functional activity of these cells does not depend on secretion of gamma interferon. Here we examined the potential contribution of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis to mucosal clearance of MoPn by using mice deficient in the molecular mediators of target cell lysis. Animals lacking perforin, Fas, Fas ligand, or both perforin and Fas ligand were infected genitally with C. trachomatis MoPn and monitored for expression of immunity to chlamydial antigens and clearance of MoPn from the genital mucosa. In each case, the profile of spleen cytokine production, the magnitude of the host antibody response, and the kinetics of chlamydial clearance were similar to those of genetically intact controls. Compensatory overproduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha, an alternate mediator of apoptosis in certain cell types, did not appear to account for the ability of mutant mice to resolve Chlamydia infections. These results fail to support CD4(+) T-cell-mediated apoptosis or CD8(+) T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity as being critical to the clearance of C. trachomatis MoPn urogenital infections. (+info)
Nongonococcal urethritis--a new paradigm. (3/2917)Urethritis in men has been categorized historically as gonococcal or nongonococcal (NGU). The major pathogens causing NGU are Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Trichomonas vaginalis may be involved occasionally. In up to one-half of cases, an etiologic organism may not be identified. In this review we present recent advances in the diagnosis and management of NGU and discuss how they may be applied in a variety of clinical settings, including specialized STD clinics and primary health care practices. In particular, the development of the noninvasive urine-based nucleic acid amplification tests may warrant rethinking of the traditional classification of urethritis as gonococcal urethritis or NGU. Diagnostic for Chlamydia are strongly recommended because etiologic diagnosis of chlamydial urethritis may have important public health implications, such as the need for partner referral and reporting. A single 1-g dose of azithromycin was found to be therapeutically equivalent to the tetracyclines and may offer the advantage of better compliance. (+info)
Chlamydia infections and heart disease linked through antigenic mimicry. (4/2917)Chlamydia infections are epidemiologically linked to human heart disease. A peptide from the murine heart muscle-specific alpha myosin heavy chain that has sequence homology to the 60-kilodalton cysteine-rich outer membrane proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. psittaci, and C. trachomatis was shown to induce autoimmune inflammatory heart disease in mice. Injection of the homologous Chlamydia peptides into mice also induced perivascular inflammation, fibrotic changes, and blood vessel occlusion in the heart, as well as triggering T and B cell reactivity to the homologous endogenous heart muscle-specific peptide. Chlamydia DNA functioned as an adjuvant in the triggering of peptide-induced inflammatory heart disease. Infection with C. trachomatis led to the production of autoantibodies to heart muscle-specific epitopes. Thus, Chlamydia-mediated heart disease is induced by antigenic mimicry of a heart muscle-specific protein. (+info)
Persistent chlamydial envelope antigens in antibiotic-exposed infected cells trigger neutrophil chemotaxis. (5/2917)An in vitro coculture model system was used to explore conditions that trigger neutrophil chemotaxis to Chlamydia trachomatis infected human epithelial cells (HEC-1B). Polarized HEC-1B monolayers growing on extracellular matrix (ECM) were infected with C. trachomatis serovar E. By 36 h, coincident with the secretion of chlamydial lipopolysaccharide and major outer membrane protein to the surfaces of infected cells, human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNL) loaded with azithromycin migrated through the ECM and infiltrated the HEC-1B monolayer. Bioreactive azithromycin was delivered by the chemotactic PMNL to infected epithelial cells in concentrations sufficient to kill intracellular chlamydiae. However, residual chlamydial envelopes persisted for 4 weeks, and PMNL chemotaxis was triggered to epithelial cells containing residual envelopes. Infected endometrial cells demonstrated up-regulation of ENA-78 and GCP-2 chemokine mRNA. Thus, despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy, residual chlamydial envelope antigens may persist in infected tissues of culture-negative women and provide one source for sustained inflammation. (+info)
Mailed, home-obtained urine specimens: a reliable screening approach for detecting asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections. (6/2917)The use of mailed, home-obtained urine specimens could facilitate screening programs for the detection of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Since transport time could have an adverse effect on the sensitivity of C. trachomatis detection by PCR, the influence of DNA degradation on amplification was monitored over the course of 1 week. Therefore, urine specimens were aliquoted on the day of collection or arrival. Two groups of urine specimens were investigated. Group I contains first-void C. trachomatis-positive and -negative urine samples. DNA degradation was monitored in group I samples for 7 days at room temperature (RT) and at 4 degrees C by amplifying different lengths of the human beta-globin gene and the C. trachomatis plasmid target. DNA degradation was observed only for the larger human beta-globin fragments at days 5 to 7 at RT. In contrast, at 4 degrees C all targets could be amplified. Urine specimens were also frozen and thawed before aliquoting to mimic freezing during transport. This resulted in a lower sensitivity for the detection of C. trachomatis after thawing and 3 to 4 days at RT. In addition, mailed, home-obtained C. trachomatis-positive urine specimens (group II) were analyzed for 7 days after arrival by two commercially available C. trachomatis detection systems (PCR and ligase chain reaction [LCR]). The C. trachomatis plasmid target in mailed, home-obtained urine specimens could be amplified by both PCR and LCR after 1 week of storage and/or transport at RT. In conclusion, our findings indicate that mailed, home-obtained urine specimens are suitable for the sensitive detection of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infections by amplification methods, even if the transport time is up to 1 week at RT. These findings support the feasibility and validity of screening programs based on mailed, home-obtained urine specimens. Larger studies should be initiated to confirm our results. (+info)
Chlamydia trachomatis infections: progress and problems. (7/2917)Chalmydia trachomatis infections are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. A substantial proportion of initial infections in both men and women are asymptomatic. Use of nucleic acid amplification-based diagnostic tests on first-void urine makes it possible to initiate community-based screening programs aimed at identifying asymptomatically infected men and women. Directly observed single-dose therapy with azithromycin is now available. Screening programs have been demonstrated to reduce the overall prevalence of chlamydial infection in the tested population and to reduce the incidence of subsequent pelvic inflammatory disease in previously screened women. The sequelae of chlamydial infections are likely due to immunopathologically mediated events in which both the chlamydial 60 kDa heat-shock protein and genetic predisposition of specific patients play a role. An improved understanding of immunologic events leading to upper genital tract scarring is needed to target specific interventions and facilitate development of a vaccine. (+info)
Immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis induced by vaccination with live organisms correlates with early granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-12 production and with dendritic cell-like maturation. (8/2917)As is true for other intracellular pathogens, immunization with live Chlamydia trachomatis generally induces stronger protective immunity than does immunization with inactivated organism. To investigate the basis for such a difference, we studied immune responses in BALB/c mice immunized with viable or UV-killed C. trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn). Strong, acquired resistance to C. trachomatis infection was elicited by immunization with viable but not dead organisms. Immunization with viable organisms induced high levels of antigen-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), gamma interferon production, and immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses. Immunization with inactivated MoPn mainly induced interleukin-10 (IL-10) production and IgG1 antibody without IgA or DTH responses. Analysis of local early cytokine and cellular events at days 3, 5, and 7 after peritoneal cavity immunization showed that high levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-12 were detected with viable but not inactivated organisms. Furthermore, enrichment of a dendritic cell (DC)-like population was detected in the peritoneal cavity only among mice immunized with viable organisms. The results suggest that early differences in inducing proinflammatory cytokines and activation and differentiation of DCs may be the key mechanism underlying the difference between viable and inactivated organisms in inducing active immunity to C. trachomatis infection. (+info)
The symptoms of chlamydia infections can vary depending on the location of the infection. In genital infections, symptoms may include:
* Discharge from the penis or vagina
* Painful urination
* Abnormal bleeding or spotting
* Painful sex
* Testicular pain in men
* Pelvic pain in women
In eye infections, symptoms can include:
* Redness and swelling of the eye
* Discharge from the eye
* Pain or sensitivity to light
In respiratory infections, symptoms may include:
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
If left untreated, chlamydia infections can lead to serious complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women and epididymitis in men. Chlamydia infections can also increase the risk of infertility and other long-term health problems.
Chlamydia infections are typically diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) or a culture test. Treatment for chlamydia infections typically involves antibiotics, which can effectively cure the infection. It is important to note that sexual partners of someone with a chlamydia infection should also be tested and treated, as they may also have the infection.
Prevention methods for chlamydia infections include safe sex practices such as using condoms and dental dams, as well as regular screening and testing for the infection. It is important to note that chlamydia infections can be asymptomatic, so regular testing is crucial for early detection and treatment.
In conclusion, chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted bacterial infection that can cause serious complications if left untreated. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing long-term health problems and the spread of the infection. Safe sex practices and regular screening are also important for preventing chlamydia infections.
Symptoms of LGV can include:
* Swollen lymph nodes in the groin (inguinal lymphadenitis)
* Painless swellings or ulcers on the genitals, anus, or mouth
* Loss of appetite
LGV can be diagnosed with a physical examination, blood tests, and/or a biopsy. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and surgical drainage of any swellings. Untreated LGV can lead to serious complications such as abscesses, chronic lymphadenitis, and scarring.
Prevention of LGV includes safe sex practices (such as using condoms) and avoiding sexual contact with people who have the infection. Vaccines are also available for prevention of LGV caused by serovars L1 and L2.
Lymphogranuloma Venereum is rare in developed countries, but it remains a significant public health issue in developing countries where access to healthcare and safe sex practices may be limited.
1. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): These are infections that occur in the bladder, kidneys, or urethra, and can cause symptoms such as burning during urination, frequent urination, and abdominal pain.
2. Overactive Bladder (OAB): This condition is characterized by sudden, intense urges to urinate, often with urgency and frequency.
3. Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS): This chronic condition causes pain and discomfort in the bladder and pelvic area, and can lead to increased urination and frequency.
4. Vaginal Infections: These are infections that occur in the vagina and can cause symptoms such as itching, burning, and abnormal discharge.
5. Vulvodynia: This chronic condition is characterized by pain and discomfort in the vulva, and can be caused by a range of factors including infection, inflammation, or nerve damage.
6. Endometriosis: This is a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing symptoms such as pelvic pain, heavy menstrual bleeding, and infertility.
7. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): This is a hormonal disorder that can cause symptoms such as irregular menstrual periods, cysts on the ovaries, and excess hair growth.
8. Vaginal Prolapse: This occurs when the muscles and tissues in the vagina weaken, causing the vagina to protrude into the vulva or rectum.
9. Menorrhagia: This is a condition characterized by heavy, prolonged menstrual periods that can cause anemia and other complications.
10. Dyspareunia: This is pain during sexual activity, which can be caused by a range of factors including vaginal dryness, cervical narrowing, or nerve damage.
These are just a few examples of the many conditions that can affect the vulva and vagina. It's important to note that many of these conditions can have similar symptoms, so it's important to see a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
1. Vaginitis: An inflammation of the vagina, often caused by bacterial or yeast infections.
2. Cervicitis: Inflammation of the cervix, often caused by bacterial or viral infections.
3. Endometritis: Inflammation of the lining of the uterus, often caused by bacterial or fungal infections.
4. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): A serious infection of the reproductive organs that can cause chronic pelvic pain and infertility.
5. Vulvodynia: Chronic pain of the vulva, often caused by a combination of physical and psychological factors.
6. Vaginal cancer: A rare type of cancer that affects the vagina.
7. Cervical dysplasia: Abnormal cell growth on the cervix, which can develop into cervical cancer if left untreated.
8. Ovarian cysts: Fluid-filled sacs on the ovaries that can cause pelvic pain and other symptoms.
9. Fibroids: Noncancerous growths in the uterus that can cause heavy bleeding, pain, and infertility.
10. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): A hormonal disorder that can cause irregular menstrual cycles, cysts on the ovaries, and excess hair growth.
These are just a few examples of the many genital diseases that can affect women. It's important for women to practice good hygiene, get regular gynecological check-ups, and seek medical attention if they experience any unusual symptoms to prevent and treat these conditions effectively.
1. Erectile dysfunction (ED): The inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance.
2. Premature ejaculation (PE): Ejaculation that occurs within one minute of vaginal penetration, with minimal sexual stimulation and before the person wishes it.
3. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): A noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that can cause urinary frequency, hesitancy, and retention.
4. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland, which can cause painful urination, pelvic pain, and fever.
5. Testicular torsion: A condition in which the spermatic cord becomes twisted, cutting off blood flow to the testicle.
6. Varicocele: A swelling of the veins in the scrotum that can affect fertility.
7. Hypogonadism: A condition in which the body does not produce enough testosterone, leading to symptoms such as low libido, erectile dysfunction, and osteoporosis.
8. Peyronie's disease: A condition that causes scar tissue to form inside the penis, leading to curvature and pain during erection.
9. Priapism: A persistent and painful erection that can cause damage to the penis if left untreated.
These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, such as age, genetics, infection, injury, and lifestyle choices. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as ultrasound or biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and can include medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.
It's important to note that many of these conditions can be prevented or treated with timely medical care. Therefore, it is crucial to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms or discomfort in your testicles or penis. Early detection and treatment can help to alleviate symptoms, improve quality of life, and prevent long-term complications.
Symptoms of cervicitis may include:
* Pain or discomfort during sex
* Vaginal bleeding or spotting
* Abnormal vaginal discharge
* Itching or burning sensation in the vagina
* Pain or pressure in the lower abdomen
To diagnose cervicitis, a healthcare provider may perform a physical examination and may also use tests such as a pelvic examination, Pap smear, or vaginal swab culture to rule out other conditions.
Treatment for cervicitis typically involves antibiotics if the condition is caused by a bacterial infection. If the cause is an STI, treatment may involve antiviral or antibacterial medication. In addition, home remedies such as applying warm compresses to the area, taking over-the-counter pain relievers, and avoiding sexual intercourse until the symptoms resolve can be helpful.
Preventive measures for cervicitis include:
* Practicing safe sex by using condoms or other barrier methods
* Getting regular Pap smears to detect any abnormal cell changes in the cervix
* Avoiding douching, as it can disrupt the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina and lead to infection
* Wearing breathable cotton underwear and avoiding tight-fitting clothing that can trap moisture and bacteria close to the skin.
Symptoms of gonorrhea in men include:
* A burning sensation when urinating
* Discharge from the penis
* Painful or swollen testicles
* Painful urination
Symptoms of gonorrhea in women include:
* Increased vaginal discharge
* Painful urination
* Painful intercourse
* Abnormal vaginal bleeding
Gonorrhea can be diagnosed through a physical exam and laboratory tests, such as a urine test or a swab of the affected area. It is typically treated with antibiotics.
If left untreated, gonorrhea can cause serious complications, including:
* Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women
* Epididymitis (inflammation of the tube that carries sperm) in men
* Chronic pain
* Increased risk of HIV transmission
Gonorrhea is a reportable disease, meaning that healthcare providers are required by law to report cases to public health authorities. This helps to track and prevent the spread of the infection.
Prevention methods for gonorrhea include:
* Safe sex practices, such as using condoms or dental dams
* Avoiding sexual contact with someone who has gonorrhea
* Getting regularly tested for STIs
* Using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention
It is important to note that gonorrhea can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms even if they have the infection. Therefore, regular testing is important for early detection and treatment.
Trachoma affects the conjunctiva and cornea, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to blindness if left untreated. The disease is transmitted through direct contact with eye discharge from an infected person, or through shared items such as towels or clothes.
The symptoms of trachoma include:
1. Inflammation of the conjunctiva (conjunctivitis)
2. Eye discharge and crusting around the eyelids
3. Redness and swelling of the conjunctiva
4. Blindness or vision loss if left untreated
Trachoma is diagnosed through a physical examination of the eyes, and laboratory tests to confirm the presence of the bacteria. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria, and surgery to remove any scar tissue that has developed. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices such as washing hands regularly, and avoiding sharing items with infected individuals.
Trachoma is a significant public health problem in many developing countries, where it affects millions of people and causes substantial blindness and disability. The World Health Organization (WHO) has included trachoma on its list of neglected tropical diseases, and there are ongoing efforts to control and eliminate the disease through improved access to healthcare and sanitation, as well as mass drug administration programs to prevent and treat the infection.
Symptoms of PID may include:
* Abdominal pain
* Heavy vaginal discharge with a strong odor
* Pain during sex
* Painful urination
PID can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as pelvic exams, ultrasound, or blood tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection, and may also involve hospitalization for severe cases. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair any damage caused by the infection.
Preventive measures for PID include:
* Safe sexual practices, such as using condoms and avoiding sexual intercourse during outbreaks of STIs
* Regular gynecological exams and screening for STIs
* Avoiding the use of douches or other products that can disrupt the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina.
Symptoms of salpingitis may include:
* Pain in the lower abdomen
* Abnormal vaginal bleeding or spotting
* Abdominal tenderness
* Nausea and vomiting
Diagnosis of salpingitis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as pelvic ultrasound, endometrial biopsy, and laparoscopy. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to clear up any underlying infections, as well as pain management and other supportive measures. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected fallopian tube or tubes.
Salpingitis can have serious complications if left untreated, such as chronic pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy (when an embryo implants outside of the uterus). Therefore, it is important for women who experience any symptoms of salpingitis to seek medical attention promptly.
In women, urethritis is more common than in men due to the shorter length of their urethra and their closer proximity to the anus, which can increase the risk of bacterial infection. In addition, certain sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, can cause urethritis in both men and women.
If you suspect that you or a partner may have urethritis, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Untreated urethritis can lead to complications such as recurrent infections, infertility, and an increased risk of certain types of cancer. A healthcare provider can diagnose urethritis by performing a physical examination, taking a urine sample for testing, and possibly performing additional tests such as a pelvic exam or ultrasound to rule out other conditions. With prompt and appropriate treatment, however, most cases of urethritis can be effectively managed and cured.
Some common types of uterine cervical diseases include:
1. Cervical dysplasia: A condition where abnormal cells are found on the surface of the cervix. These cells can be precancerous and can potentially develop into cancer if left untreated.
2. Cervical cancer: A type of cancer that originates in the cervix. It is usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and can be prevented by regular Pap smears.
3. Cervicitis: Inflammation of the cervix, often caused by bacterial or viral infections.
4. Cervical ectropion: A condition where the cells of the cervix grow outside of the uterus, causing bleeding and discharge.
5. Cervical polyps: Growths on the surface of the cervix that can be benign or precancerous.
6. Endocervical adenocarcinoma: A type of cancer that starts in the glands of the cervix.
7. Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: The most common type of cervical cancer, it originates in the squamous cells on the surface of the cervix.
8. Adenocarcinoma of the cervix: Cancer that starts in the glands of the cervix.
9. Cervical stenosis: Narrowing of the cervix, which can cause difficulty with menstrual bleeding and sexual intercourse.
10. Cervical incompetence: A condition where the cervix is unable to support a pregnancy, leading to recurrent miscarriage or preterm labor.
These uterine cervical diseases can be diagnosed through various tests such as Pap smear, HPV test, colposcopy, biopsy, and imaging studies like ultrasound and MRI. Treatment options vary depending on the type and severity of the condition, and may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy. It is important to maintain regular gynecological check-ups to prevent and detect any uterine cervical diseases early on.
This condition is characterized by the presence of small, white, raised spots or patches on the conjunctiva, which can be seen with a microscope. The spots are made up of immune cells and other substances that accumulate in response to an underlying infection.
Inclusion conjunctivitis is more common in people who wear contact lenses, have weakened immune systems, or have pre-existing eye conditions such as dry eye or uveitis. Symptoms of inclusion conjunctivitis may include redness, discharge, tearing, and blurred vision.
Treatment typically involves antibiotic eye drops or ointments to clear the infection, as well as measures to manage any underlying conditions that may be contributing to the development of the condition. In severe cases, oral antibiotics or steroids may be prescribed.
1. Urethritis: This is an inflammation of the urethra, often caused by bacterial or viral infections. Symptoms can include burning during urination, frequent urination, and discharge.
2. Urethral stricture: This is a narrowing of the urethra, which can cause difficulty urinating and may require surgical treatment.
3. Urethral cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the cells lining the urethra. Symptoms can include blood in the urine, painful urination, and weight loss.
4. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): This is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland, which can cause symptoms such as frequent urination, difficulty starting or stopping urination, and incontinence.
5. Prostatitis: This is inflammation of the prostate gland, which can cause symptoms such as painful urination, frequency, and discomfort during sex.
6. Erectile dysfunction (ED): This is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. It can be caused by a range of factors, including urethral diseases.
7. Premature ejaculation: This is when a man experiences orgasm and expels semen too quickly, often before he or his partner is ready. It can be caused by a range of factors, including urethral diseases.
8. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are infections that affect the urinary tract, including the urethra, bladder, and kidneys. Symptoms can include burning during urination, frequent urination, and discomfort during sex.
9. Interstitial cystitis: This is a chronic condition characterized by recurring discomfort or pain in the bladder and pelvic area, often accompanied by frequency and urgency of urination.
10. Peyronie's disease: This is a condition that causes the development of scar tissue inside the penis, which can lead to curvature, shrinkage, and pain during sex.
It is important to note that many of these conditions can have similar symptoms, making it difficult to diagnose them without proper medical testing and evaluation. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Some common types of vaginal diseases include:
1. Vaginitis: This is an inflammation of the vagina, often caused by bacterial or yeast infections. Symptoms can include itching, burning, and discharge.
2. Bacterial vaginosis (BV): This is a condition caused by an imbalance of bacteria in the vagina, which can lead to symptoms such as itching, burning, and a strong fishy odor.
3. Yeast infection: This is a common condition caused by the overgrowth of candida yeast in the vagina, which can cause symptoms such as itching, burning, and thick, white discharge.
4. Trichomoniasis: This is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis, which can cause symptoms such as itching, burning, and a thick, yellowish discharge.
5. Vulvodynia: This is a chronic pain condition that affects the vulva (the external female genital area), which can cause symptoms such as pain during sex, itching, and burning.
6. Lichen sclerosus: This is a skin condition that affects the vulva and vagina, which can cause symptoms such as itching, burning, and thickening of the skin.
7. Vulvar cancer: This is a rare type of cancer that affects the vulva, which can cause symptoms such as itching, bleeding, and a lump or sore on the vulva.
Treatment for vaginal diseases depends on the underlying cause and can range from antibiotics and antifungal medications to surgery and lifestyle changes. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Reactive arthritis is caused by an immune system response to an infection or inflammation in another part of the body. Common causes include bacterial infections such as chlamydia, salmonella, and Campylobacter, as well as viral infections such as HIV and hepatitis B.
Symptoms of reactive arthritis typically develop within 2-4 weeks after the initial infection or inflammation. They can include:
Pain and stiffness in the affected joints, particularly in the knees, ankles, and feet
Swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected joints
Loss of range of motion and flexibility in the affected joints
Fatigue and general feeling of illness
To diagnose reactive arthritis, a healthcare provider will typically begin with a physical examination and medical history. They may also order additional tests to rule out other conditions and confirm the presence of an underlying infection or inflammation. These tests can include:
Blood tests to check for the presence of antibodies or other signs of infection
Joint fluid tests to check for the presence of bacteria or other signs of inflammation
Imaging studies such as X-rays or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to rule out other conditions and assess joint damage
The goal of treatment for reactive arthritis is to reduce inflammation, relieve pain, and improve range of motion and flexibility in the affected joints. Treatment can include:
Antibiotics to treat any underlying bacterial infections
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to relieve pain and reduce inflammation
Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and swelling in the affected joints
Physical therapy to improve range of motion and flexibility in the affected joints
Joint aspiration to drain fluid from the affected joint and relieve pressure
In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints.
The most common types of RTIs include:
1. Bacterial vaginosis (BV): A condition caused by an imbalance of bacteria in the vagina, which can lead to symptoms such as itching, burning, and discharge.
2. Yeast infections: Caused by a type of fungus called Candida, these infections can cause itching, burning, and discharge.
3. Trichomoniasis: A parasitic infection that can cause itching, burning, and discharge.
4. Chlamydia: A bacterial infection that can cause symptoms such as pain during sex, abnormal bleeding, and difficulty getting pregnant.
5. Gonorrhea: Another bacterial infection that can cause symptoms such as pain during sex, abnormal bleeding, and difficulty getting pregnant.
6. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): A type of infection that can cause symptoms such as pelvic pain, fever, and abdominal pain.
RTIs are usually caused by bacteria or viruses, and can be spread through sexual contact or other forms of contact with an infected person. Risk factors for RTIs include having multiple sexual partners, poor hygiene, and using certain types of birth control.
Preventing RTIs includes practicing safe sex, such as using condoms and dental dams, and getting regular check-ups and screenings with a healthcare provider. Treatment for RTIs usually involves antibiotics or other medications, and can help relieve symptoms and prevent long-term complications.
This definition of 'Genital Diseases, Male' is from the Healthcare Professionals Network (HPN) Thesaurus, a comprehensive collection of terms used in healthcare and related fields.
STDs can cause a range of symptoms, including genital itching, burning during urination, unusual discharge, and painful sex. Some STDs can also lead to long-term health problems, such as infertility, chronic pain, and an increased risk of certain types of cancer.
STDs are usually diagnosed through a physical exam, blood tests, or other diagnostic tests. Treatment for STDs varies depending on the specific infection and can include antibiotics, antiviral medication, or other therapies. It's important to practice safe sex, such as using condoms, to reduce the risk of getting an STD.
Some of the most common STDs include:
* Chlamydia: A bacterial infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and unusual discharge.
* Gonorrhea: A bacterial infection that can cause similar symptoms to chlamydia.
* Syphilis: A bacterial infection that can cause a painless sore on the genitals, followed by a rash and other symptoms.
* Herpes: A viral infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and painful sex.
* HPV: A viral infection that can cause genital warts and increase the risk of cervical cancer.
* HIV/AIDS: A viral infection that can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, fatigue, and weight loss, and can lead to AIDS if left untreated.
It's important to note that some STDs can be spread through non-sexual contact, such as sharing needles or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth. It's also important to know that many STDs can be asymptomatic, meaning you may not have any symptoms even if you are infected.
If you think you may have been exposed to an STD, it's important to get tested as soon as possible. Many STDs can be easily treated with antibiotics or other medications, but if left untreated, they can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems.
It's also important to practice safe sex to reduce the risk of getting an STD. This includes using condoms, as well as getting vaccinated against HPV and Hepatitis B, which are both common causes of STDs.
In addition to getting tested and practicing safe sex, it's important to be aware of your sexual health and the risks associated with sex. This includes being aware of any symptoms you may experience, as well as being aware of your partner's sexual history and any STDs they may have. By being informed and proactive about your sexual health, you can help reduce the risk of getting an STD and maintain good sexual health.
Psittacosis is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted between animals and humans. It is important to take precautions when handling birds or their droppings to avoid infection. Treatment of psittacosis typically involves antibiotics, and early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Psittacosis is a rare disease, but it is important for veterinarians, avian specialists, and other professionals who work with birds to be aware of the risk of transmission and take appropriate precautions to protect themselves and others.
Some common types of Chlamydophila infections include:
1. Pneumonia: Chlamydophila pneumoniae can cause pneumonia, which is an inflammation of the lungs that can lead to fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
2. Trachoma: Chlamydia trachomatis can cause trachoma, a highly contagious eye infection that can lead to blindness if left untreated.
3. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia psittaci can cause PID, an infection of the female reproductive organs that can lead to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy.
4. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia caviae can cause UTIs, which are infections of the urinary tract that can lead to symptoms such as burning during urination and frequent urination.
5. Rectal infections: Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia psittaci can cause rectal infections, which can lead to symptoms such as rectal pain, bleeding, and discharge.
Chlamydophila infections are typically treated with antibiotics, and early treatment can help prevent long-term complications and reduce the risk of transmission to others. It is important to practice safe sex and good hygiene to prevent the spread of these infections.
There are several types of fallopian tube diseases, including:
1. Hydrosalpinx: A condition in which the fallopian tubes become filled with fluid, leading to inflammation and scarring.
2. Salpingitis: An inflammation of the fallopian tubes, often caused by bacterial or fungal infections.
3. Tubal pregnancy: A rare condition in which a fertilized egg implants in the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.
4. Ectopic pregnancy: A condition in which a fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus, often in the fallopian tube.
5. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): An infection of the reproductive organs in the pelvis, which can cause scarring and damage to the fallopian tubes.
6. Endometriosis: A condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, often affecting the fallopian tubes.
7. Adenomyosis: A condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows into the muscle of the uterus, often affecting the fallopian tubes.
8. Fimbrial tumors: Rare growths that can occur in the fallopian tubes, often benign but can be cancerous.
9. Mullerian duct anomalies: Congenital abnormalities of the fallopian tubes and other reproductive organs.
10. Oophoritis: Inflammation of the ovaries, which can affect the fallopian tubes.
Fallopian tube diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including hysterosalpingography (HSG), laparoscopy, and ultrasound. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition and can include antibiotics for infections, surgery to remove blockages or scar tissue, or assisted reproductive technology such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) if the fallopian tubes are damaged or blocked.
Causes of Female Infertility
There are several potential causes of female infertility, including:
1. Hormonal imbalances: Disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid dysfunction, and premature ovarian failure can affect hormone levels and ovulation.
2. Ovulatory disorders: Problems with ovulation, such as anovulation or oligoovulation, can make it difficult to conceive.
3. Tubal damage: Damage to the fallopian tubes due to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, or surgery can prevent the egg from traveling through the tube and being fertilized.
4. Endometriosis: This condition occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to infertility.
5. Fibroids: Noncancerous growths in the uterus can interfere with implantation of a fertilized egg or disrupt ovulation.
6. Pelvic adhesions: Scar tissue in the pelvis can cause fallopian tubes to become damaged or blocked, making it difficult for an egg to travel through the tube and be fertilized.
7. Uterine or cervical abnormalities: Abnormalities such as a bicornuate uterus or a narrow cervix can make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus.
8. Age: A woman's age can affect her fertility, as the quality and quantity of her eggs decline with age.
9. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being overweight or underweight can affect fertility.
10. Stress: Chronic stress can disrupt hormone levels and ovulation, making it more difficult to conceive.
It's important to note that many of these factors can be treated with medical assistance, such as medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technology (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). If you are experiencing difficulty getting pregnant, it is recommended that you speak with a healthcare provider to determine the cause of your infertility and discuss potential treatment options.
Symptoms of proctitis may include:
* Pain and discomfort in the rectum and anus
* Blood in the stool
* Discharge of pus from the anus
* Itching or burning sensation in the anus
* Difficulty passing stools
* Abdominal pain
If you suspect that you may have proctitis, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional will be able to diagnose proctitis through a physical examination and may also perform additional tests such as a rectal swab or biopsy. Treatment for proctitis usually involves antibiotics to clear up any underlying infection, as well as measures to manage symptoms such as pain relief and increased fluid intake. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue.
Preventing proctitis includes practicing good hygiene, avoiding anal sex, and taking steps to prevent constipation. If you have a history of proctitis, it is important to follow a healthcare professional's recommendations for managing the condition and preventing future episodes.
There are several types of Mycoplasma bacteria that can cause infection in humans, including:
1. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which is the most common cause of atypical pneumonia and can also cause sinus infections, bronchitis, and other respiratory infections.
2. Mycoplasma genitalium, which can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, epididymitis, and urethritis.
3. Mycoplasma hominis, which is a common inhabitant of the human respiratory tract and can cause infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis.
4. Mycoplasma fermentans, which is associated with respiratory infections and has been linked to conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Mycoplasma infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood cultures and PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests. Treatment for Mycoplasma infections usually involves antibiotics, but the type and duration of treatment may vary depending on the severity and location of the infection.
Prevention measures for Mycoplasma infections include good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing. Vaccines are also available for some types of Mycoplasma bacteria, such as the M. pneumoniae vaccine, which is recommended for certain high-risk groups.
Overall, Mycoplasma infections can be serious and potentially life-threatening, especially in certain populations such as young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have a Mycoplasma infection, it is important to seek medical attention right away.
There are several different types of conjunctivitis, including:
1. Allergic conjunctivitis: This type is caused by an allergic reaction and is more common in people who have a history of allergies.
2. Bacterial conjunctivitis: This type is caused by a bacterial infection and is often accompanied by a thick discharge and redness of the eye.
3. Viral conjunctivitis: This type is caused by a viral infection and is highly contagious.
4. Chemical conjunctivitis: This type is caused by exposure to chemicals or foreign objects, such as smoke, dust, or pollen.
5. Irritant conjunctivitis: This type is caused by exposure to irritants such as chemicals or foreign objects.
Symptoms of conjunctivitis can include redness and discharge of the eye, itching, burning, and tearing. Treatment typically involves antibiotic eye drops or ointments for bacterial conjunctivitis, anti-inflammatory medication for allergic conjunctivitis, and viral conjunctivitis is usually self-limiting and requires supportive care only.
It's important to note that conjunctivitis can be highly contagious, so it's important to practice good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently, avoiding sharing personal items like towels or makeup, and not touching the eyes. If you suspect you have conjunctivitis, it's important to see a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Chlamydiaceae infections are a group of bacterial infections caused by the bacterium Chlamydia. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the respiratory tract, genitourinary tract, and eyes. Chlamydia is a common cause of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and can also be spread through contact with infected bodily fluids.
Types of Chlamydiaceae Infections:
1. Trachoma: A bacterial eye infection that can lead to blindness if left untreated.
2. Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonia: A type of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
3. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV): A rare and severe STI caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis that affects the lymphatic system.
4. Rectal infections: Chlamydia can infect the rectum and cause symptoms such as rectal pain, bleeding, and discharge.
5. Proctitis: Inflammation of the rectum and anus caused by Chlamydia.
6. Endometritis: Inflammation of the lining of the uterus caused by Chlamydia.
7. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): A condition that affects the reproductive organs in women and can be caused by Chlamydia.
8. Epididymitis: Inflammation of the epididymis, a tube that stores sperm, caused by Chlamydia.
Symptoms of Chlamydiaceae Infections:
The symptoms of Chlamydiaceae infections can vary depending on the type of infection and the individual infected. Common symptoms include:
* Discharge from the eyes or genitals
* Painful urination
* Abnormal vaginal bleeding
* Pain during sex
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Abdominal pain
* Nausea and vomiting
Diagnosis of Chlamydiaceae Infections:
Diagnosis of Chlamydiaceae infections is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Laboratory tests may include:
1. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test: A test that detects the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in a sample of cells or tissue.
2. NAAT (nucleic acid amplification test): A test that detects the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis RNA or DNA in a sample of cells or tissue.
3. Culture: A test that grows Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria from a sample of cells or tissue.
4. Immunoassay: A test that detects the presence of antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis in the blood or other body fluids.
Treatment of Chlamydiaceae Infections:
Chlamydiaceae infections are typically treated with antibiotics. The choice of antibiotic depends on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the patient's age, health status, and any allergies they may have. Common antibiotics used to treat Chlamydiaceae infections include:
1. Azithromycin (Z-Pak)
4. Levofloxacin (Levaquin)
5. Ofloxacin (Floxin)
6. Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
7. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
It is important to note that antibiotics should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional, and the patient should complete the full course of treatment as directed, even if symptoms resolve before finishing the medication. Untreated Chlamydiaceae infections can lead to serious complications, such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and pelvic inflammatory disease.
Prevention of Chlamydiaceae Infections:
To prevent Chlamydiaceae infections, it is important to practice safe sex, including:
1. Using condoms or dental dams for all sexual activities
2. Avoiding sexual contact with anyone who has a Chlamydiaceae infection
3. Getting regularly tested for Chlamydiaceae infections if you are sexually active
4. Informing any sexual partners if you have a Chlamydiaceae infection
5. Using a new condom or dental dam for each sexual activity
6. Avoiding sharing of sex toys
7. Washing your hands after sexual activity
8. Getting vaccinated against Chlamydia trachomatis if you are at high risk for infection.
It is also important to note that Chlamydiaceae infections can be spread from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth, so it is important for pregnant women to be screened and treated for Chlamydiaceae infections if they are positive.
In conclusion, Chlamydiaceae infections are a common cause of genitourinary tract infections and can have serious complications if left untreated. It is important to practice safe sex, get regularly tested, and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. With proper treatment and prevention methods, Chlamydiaceae infections can be effectively managed and the risk of complications reduced.
1. Group B streptococcus (GBS): This type of bacterial infection is the leading cause of infections in newborns. GBS can cause a range of complications, including pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis.
2. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are common during pregnancy and can be caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Staphylococcus saprophyticus. UTIs can lead to complications such as preterm labor and low birth weight.
3. HIV: Pregnant women who are infected with HIV can pass the virus to their baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.
4. Toxoplasmosis: This is an infection caused by a parasite that can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta. Toxoplasmosis can cause a range of complications, including birth defects and stillbirth.
5. Listeriosis: This is a rare infection caused by eating contaminated food, such as soft cheeses or hot dogs. Listeriosis can cause complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, and premature labor.
6. Influenza: Pregnant women who contract the flu can be at higher risk for complications such as pneumonia and hospitalization.
7. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): This virus can cause complications such as preterm labor, low birth weight, and neonatal herpes.
8. Human parvovirus (HPV): This virus can cause complications such as preterm labor, low birth weight, and stillbirth.
9. Syphilis: This is a sexually transmitted infection that can be passed to the fetus during pregnancy, leading to complications such as stillbirth, premature birth, and congenital syphilis.
10. Chickenpox: Pregnant women who contract chickenpox can be at higher risk for complications such as preterm labor and low birth weight.
It's important to note that the risks associated with these infections are relatively low, and many pregnant women who contract them will have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies. However, it's still important to be aware of the risks and take steps to protect yourself and your baby.
Here are some ways to reduce your risk of infection during pregnancy:
1. Practice good hygiene: Wash your hands frequently, especially before preparing or eating food.
2. Avoid certain foods: Avoid consuming raw or undercooked meat, eggs, and dairy products, as well as unpasteurized juices and soft cheeses.
3. Get vaccinated: Get vaccinated against infections such as the flu and HPV.
4. Practice safe sex: Use condoms or other forms of barrier protection to prevent the spread of STIs.
5. Avoid close contact with people who are sick: If someone in your household is sick, try to avoid close contact with them if possible.
6. Keep your environment clean: Regularly clean and disinfect surfaces and objects that may be contaminated with germs.
7. Manage stress: High levels of stress can weaken your immune system and make you more susceptible to infection.
8. Get enough rest: Adequate sleep is essential for maintaining a healthy immune system.
9. Stay hydrated: Drink plenty of water throughout the day to help flush out harmful bacteria and viruses.
10. Consider taking prenatal vitamins: Prenatal vitamins can help support your immune system and overall health during pregnancy.
Remember, it's always better to be safe than sorry, so if you suspect that you may have been exposed to an infection or are experiencing symptoms of an infection during pregnancy, contact your healthcare provider right away. They can help determine the appropriate course of action and ensure that you and your baby stay healthy.
* Vaginal discharge (in women) or abnormal semen (in men)
* Itching, burning, or redness of the genitals
* Painful urination
* Discomfort during sex
* Abdominal cramps
If left untreated, trichomoniasis can lead to complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women and epididymitis in men. The infection can also increase the risk of HIV transmission.
Trichomoniasis is typically diagnosed through a physical examination and a wet preparation, where a sample of vaginal fluid is examined under a microscope for the presence of the parasite. Treatment involves antiparasitic medications such as metronidazole or tinidazole, which are effective in eliminating the infection. It's important to treat both partners simultaneously to prevent re-infection.
Prevention measures for trichomoniasis include:
* Safe sexual practices such as using condoms and dental dams
* Avoiding sexual contact during outbreaks
* Practicing good hygiene and drying the genital area after sexual activity
* Getting regular STI tests
It's important to note that trichomoniasis can be a recurring infection, so it's important to practice safe sex and get regular check-ups to prevent re-infection.
1. Vaginal itching, burning, or soreness
2. A thick, frothy, yellow-green discharge with a strong odor
3. Painful urination
4. Pain during sex
5. Abdominal cramps
Trichomoniasis is usually diagnosed through a physical examination and microscopic examination of vaginal secretions. Treatment involves the use of antiparasitic medications, such as metronidazole or tinidazole, which are effective in clearing the infection. It is important to treat the infection promptly, as untreated trichomoniasis can lead to complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and increased risk of HIV transmission.
Prevention of trichomoniasis includes:
1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sexual contact during outbreaks
3. Proper hygiene and drying of the genital area after sexual activity
4. Avoiding sharing of sexual devices
5. Regular screening for STIs
Trichomoniasis is a common infection that can have serious complications if left untreated. It is important to practice safe sex and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
* Redness and swelling of the conjunctiva
* Discharge (pus) in the eye
* Itching or burning sensation in the eye
* Crusting of the eyelids
* Blurred vision
* Sensitivity to light
Diagnosis is usually made based on symptoms and physical examination, but may require laboratory testing to rule out other causes.
Treatment typically includes antibiotic eye drops or ointments, which can help to clear up the infection within a few days. In severe cases, oral antibiotics may be prescribed. Anti-inflammatory medications may also be used to reduce swelling and discomfort. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with others, can help to prevent the spread of the infection.
Prognosis is generally good, but complications can include corneal ulcers, which can lead to vision loss if left untreated. Recurrent conjunctivitis may occur in some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems or other underlying medical conditions.
Prevention includes good hygiene practices, avoiding close contact with others, and avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or makeup. Vaccination against streptococcal infections can also help to prevent conjunctivitis caused by this type of bacteria.
Example sentence: "The patient was diagnosed with a mycoplasmatales infection and was prescribed antibiotics to treat the condition."
1. Bacterial vaginosis: This is an overgrowth of harmful bacteria in the vagina that can cause a white or grayish discharge with a strong odor.
2. Yeast infection: A common condition caused by the fungus Candida, which can lead to a thick, cottage cheese-like discharge.
3. Trichomoniasis: A sexually transmitted infection caused by a parasite that can cause a frothy, yellowish discharge with a strong odor.
4. Chlamydia and gonorrhea: These are sexually transmitted bacterial infections that can cause a thin, watery discharge.
5. Vaginal atrophy: This is a condition where the vaginal walls become thin and dry due to decreased estrogen levels, leading to a thin, watery discharge.
6. Vaginal cancer: A rare but serious condition that can cause an abnormal vaginal discharge.
7. Bartholin's gland cyst or abscess: A blockage of the Bartholin's gland can cause a thick, cottage cheese-like discharge.
1. Abnormal vaginal discharge that may be thin and watery or thick and cottage cheese-like.
2. Itching, burning, or pain during urination.
3. Unpleasant odor.
4. Painful sexual activity.
5. Vaginal bleeding or spotting.
A healthcare provider will perform a physical exam and may collect a sample of the discharge for further testing, such as a wet prep or a bacterial culture, to determine the underlying cause of the leukorrhea. Additional tests, such as a pelvic exam, vaginal ultrasound, or endometrial biopsy, may be ordered to rule out other conditions.
The treatment of leukorrhea depends on the underlying cause. Some common treatments include:
1. Antibiotics for bacterial infections.
2. Anti-fungal medication for fungal infections.
3. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to increase estrogen levels.
4. Vaginal creams or suppositories to help manage symptoms.
5. Surgery may be necessary for more severe cases or if other treatments are not effective.
Preventive measures include:
1. Practicing good hygiene, such as wiping from front to back and washing hands before and after sexual activity.
2. Avoiding tight clothing and underwear that can trap moisture and bacteria.
3. Using clean and dry towels and avoiding douching.
4. Getting regular gynecological exams to detect any underlying conditions early on.
5. Avoiding smoking and limiting alcohol consumption, as these can increase the risk of infections.
6. Maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine to support overall health and well-being.
It's important to note that leukorrhea is not a dangerous condition, but it can be uncomfortable and disrupt daily life. If you are experiencing any of the symptoms mentioned above, it's important to speak with your healthcare provider to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
1) The patient was diagnosed with a rectal disease and was advised to make dietary changes to manage their symptoms.
2) The doctor performed a rectal examination to rule out any underlying rectal diseases that may be causing the patient's bleeding.
3) The patient underwent surgery to remove a rectal polyp and treat their rectal disease.
Some common types of pharyngeal diseases include:
1. Pharyngitis: This is an inflammation of the pharynx, often caused by viral or bacterial infections. Symptoms may include sore throat, fever, and difficulty swallowing.
2. Tonsillitis: This is an inflammation of the tonsils, which are small gland-like structures located on either side of the back of the throat. Symptoms may include sore throat, fever, and difficulty swallowing.
3. Adenoiditis: This is an inflammation of the adenoids, which are small gland-like structures located in the back of the nasopharynx. Symptoms may include sore throat, fever, and difficulty breathing through the nose.
4. Epiglottitis: This is an inflammation of the epiglottis, which is a flap-like structure that covers the entrance to the larynx (voice box). Symptoms may include fever, sore throat, and difficulty breathing.
5. Laryngitis: This is an inflammation of the larynx (voice box), often caused by viral or bacterial infections. Symptoms may include hoarseness, loss of voice, and difficulty speaking.
6. Sinusitis: This is an inflammation of the sinuses, which are air-filled cavities located within the skull. Symptoms may include facial pain, headache, and nasal congestion.
7. Otitis media: This is an infection of the middle ear, often caused by viral or bacterial infections. Symptoms may include ear pain, fever, and difficulty hearing.
8. Laryngosporangium: This is a type of fungal infection that affects the larynx (voice box) and is more common in hot and humid climates. Symptoms may include hoarseness, cough, and difficulty speaking.
9. Subglottic stenosis: This is a narrowing of the airway below the vocal cords, which can be caused by inflammation or scarring. Symptoms may include difficulty breathing, wheezing, and coughing.
10. Tracheomalacia: This is a softening of the walls of the trachea (windpipe), which can cause the airway to become narrow and obstructed. Symptoms may include difficulty breathing, wheezing, and coughing.
It's important to note that these are just some of the possible causes of a sore throat and difficulty breathing, and it's always best to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Note: Ophthalmia Neonatorum is a medical condition that affects newborn babies, caused by infection transmitted from the mother during delivery. It can cause redness, discharge, swelling of the eyelids, and sensitivity to light. Treatment typically involves antibiotic eye drops or ointment and warm compresses to the eyes.
* Severe abdominal pain, often on one side of the abdomen
* Vaginal bleeding, which may be heavy or light
* Faintness or dizziness
* Shoulder pain or a sense of heaviness in the shoulder
* Feeling faint or lightheaded
An ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube. This can happen due to various reasons such as pelvic inflammatory disease, previous surgery, or abnormalities in the shape of the uterus or fallopian tubes. If left untreated, an ectopic pregnancy can lead to severe bleeding, organ damage, and even death.
There are several methods for diagnosing an ectopic pregnancy, including:
* Ultrasound: This test uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the uterus and surrounding tissues. It can help identify the location of the pregnancy and detect any abnormalities.
* Blood tests: These tests can measure the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced by the placenta during pregnancy. In an ectopic pregnancy, the level of hCG may be lower than expected.
* Laparoscopy: This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that involves inserting a thin, lighted tube through a small incision in the abdomen to visualize the pelvic organs. It can help confirm the diagnosis and locate the ectopic pregnancy.
Treatment for an ectopic pregnancy usually involves medication or surgery, depending on the severity of the condition. Medications such as methotrexate can be used to dissolve the pregnancy tissue and allow it to pass out of the body. Surgery may be necessary if the pregnancy is not responding to medication or if there are any complications. In some cases, the fallopian tube may need to be removed if it is severely damaged or if there is a risk of further damage.
Preventive measures for ectopic pregnancy include:
* Using contraception: Using a reliable form of contraception can help prevent unintended pregnancies, which can reduce the risk of an ectopic pregnancy.
* Avoiding risky behaviors: Avoiding risky sexual behaviors such as unprotected sex and multiple partners can help reduce the risk of infection and other complications that can lead to an ectopic pregnancy.
* Getting regular pelvic exams: Regular pelvic exams can help detect any abnormalities or changes in the reproductive organs, which can help identify any potential problems early on.
It is important to note that while these measures can help reduce the risk of an ectopic pregnancy, they are not foolproof and there is always a risk of complications during any pregnancy. If you suspect you may be experiencing an ectopic pregnancy or have any other concerns, it is important to seek medical attention right away.
There are many different types of vaginal discharge, each with its own characteristics and potential causes. Some common types of vaginal discharge include:
* White, cloudy discharge: This is the most common type of vaginal discharge, and it is usually a sign of a healthy menstrual cycle.
* Clear or light yellow discharge: This type of discharge is often seen during pregnancy or when taking certain medications.
* Thick, white discharge: This type of discharge can be a sign of a yeast infection.
* Frothy, bubbly discharge: This type of discharge can be a sign of a sexually transmitted infection (STI).
Causes of abnormal vaginal discharge include:
* Infections such as bacterial vaginosis or yeast infections
* STIs such as chlamydia or gonorrhea
* Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menopause
* Allergies or sensitivities to certain products, such as soaps or douches
* Certain medications, such as antidepressants or blood pressure medications.
Treatment for abnormal vaginal discharge depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat an infection. In other cases, over-the-counter medications such as yeast infection creams or suppositories may be recommended. It is important to see a healthcare provider if you experience any abnormal vaginal discharge, as it can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition.
American Urological Association. (2019). Epididymitis. Retrieved from
Some common causes of bacteriuria include:
1. Escherichia coli (E. coli): This type of bacteria is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract and can spread to the urinary tract through the bloodstream or through sexual contact.
2. Staphylococcus saprophyticus: This type of bacteria is also commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract and can cause UTIs.
3. Klebsiella: This type of bacteria can be found in the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and respiratory tract, and can cause UTIs.
4. Proteus mirabilis: This type of bacteria is commonly found in the urinary tract and can cause UTIs.
5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: This type of bacteria can be found in the urinary tract and can cause UTIs, particularly in people with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes or a weakened immune system.
Bacteriuria can cause symptoms such as frequency, urgency, and painful urination, as well as cloudy or strong-smelling urine. If left untreated, bacteriuria can lead to more serious complications such as kidney infections or sepsis. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection, as well as measures to manage symptoms such as drinking plenty of fluids and using a heating pad to alleviate pain.
In addition to UTIs, bacteriuria can also be a sign of other underlying medical conditions such as kidney stones, bladder cancer, or a blockage in the urinary tract. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of bacteriuria or UTI, particularly if you have a weakened immune system or underlying medical conditions.
Symptoms of chlamydial pneumonia can include fever, cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and fatigue. In severe cases, the infection can progress to respiratory failure, pneumonia, and even death.
Diagnosis of chlamydial pneumonia typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to detect the presence of the bacteria in the body.
Treatment of chlamydial pneumonia usually involves antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation.
Prevention of chlamydial pneumonia includes vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding close contact with people who are infected with the bacteria. Vaccines are available for certain populations, such as children and adults who are at high risk of infection.
In conclusion, chlamydial pneumonia is a serious bacterial infection that can cause severe symptoms and complications if left untreated. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with antibiotics can help to alleviate symptoms and prevent complications. Prevention measures such as vaccination and good hygiene practices can also help reduce the risk of infection.
The symptoms of BV can include:
* A strong, unpleasant odor
* Thin, white or grayish discharge
* Itching or burning sensation in the vagina
* Pain or discomfort during sex
BV is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination and laboratory tests, such as a vaginal swab or fluid sample. Treatment typically involves antimicrobial medications to eradicate the overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria. In some cases, metronidazole, an antibiotic that is effective against anaerobic bacteria, may be prescribed.
Complications of BV can include:
* Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
* Ectopic pregnancy
* Premature labor
Prevention of BV includes good hygiene practices, such as washing the genital area with mild soap and water, avoiding douching, and wearing breathable clothing. Sexual partners should also be treated to prevent re-infection.
It is important to note that BV is not a sexually transmitted infection (STI), but it can be more common in women who have multiple sexual partners or who have a new sexual partner. It is also more common during pregnancy, and in women with diabetes or HIV/AIDS.
There are several types of ureaplasma infections, including:
1. Pneumonia: Ureaplasma pneumonia is a type of pneumonia that occurs when the bacteria infects the lungs. It can cause symptoms such as fever, cough, and difficulty breathing.
2. Urethritis: Urethritis is an infection of the urethra, which is the tube that carries urine out of the body. It can cause symptoms such as burning during urination, frequent urination, and discharge.
3. Endometritis: Endometritis is an infection of the lining of the uterus, which can occur after a miscarriage or abortion. It can cause symptoms such as vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, and fever.
4. Meningitis: Ureaplasma meningitis is a rare but potentially life-threatening infection of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. It can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and stiff neck.
Diagnosis of ureaplasma infections typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood tests or culture tests to detect the presence of the bacteria. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and reduce symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care and monitor the patient's condition.
Bacterial cellular morphologies
Vertically transmitted infection
Ewout W. Steyerberg
Carl Ferdinand von Arlt
Clostridial Cytotoxin family
Tubal factor infertility
List of sequenced bacterial genomes
Effects of human sexual promiscuity
List of diseases (C)
1957 in science
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Sexually transmitted infection
Fallopian tube obstruction
CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS INFECTIONS Policy Guidelines for Prevention and Control
Chlamydia Trachomatis | health.am
Recommendations for the Prevention and Management of Chlamydia trachomatis Infections, 1993
Sexual behaviour in Britain: reported sexually transmitted infections and prevalent genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection
Confirming the Chlamydia trachomatis status of referred rectal specimens | Sexually Transmitted Infections
WHO EMRO | Chlamydia trachomatis and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in married women in a Middle Eastern community | Volume...
Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection| CDC
Chlamydia trachomatis genovars causing urogenital infections in Santiago, Chile. | Infect Dis (Lond);47(3): 156-60, 2015 Mar. ...
Chlamydia Trachomatis (Swab) | UCLA Health Library, Los Angeles, CA
DHS Search Results | Wisconsin Department of Health Services
NHANES 2009-2010 Examination Data Overview
BioPerfectus - Neisseria Gonorrhoeae/Chlamydia Trachomatis/U. Urealyticum Real Time PCR Kit
Clinical characteristic, serology and serovar studies on Chlamydia trachomatis infections - Immunogenetics.nl
Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy and Physiology
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Place de l'infection a chlamydia trachomatis dans les oligoasthenospermies a Abidjan | Med. Afr. noire (En ligne);42(3): 125...
Modulation of the Chlamydia trachomatis In vitro transcriptome response by the sex hormones estradiol and progesterone
Chlamydia Test: MedlinePlus Medical Test
Weekly statistics from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS).
Weekly statistics from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS).
TABLE 2c. Weekly cases* of selected notifiable diseases ( ≥ 1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and selected low...
Chlamydia (for Teens) - Barbara Bush Children's Hospital
Initial Characterization of the Two ClpP Paralogs of Chlamydia trachomatis Suggests Unique Functionality for Each (Journal...
- These policy guidelines for the prevention and control of Chlamydia trachomatis infections were established after careful deliberation by a group of experts* and staff of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (cdc.gov)
- Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis are now recognized as the most prevalent--and are among the most damaging--of all sexually transmitted diseases (STD) seen in the United States today (1). (cdc.gov)
- C. trachomatis is now recognized as the causative agent for a diverse group of genital and neonatal infections, including many that were previously considered to be of unknown cause (1,3,4) (Table 1). (cdc.gov)
- Most of these infections are asymptomatic, but C. trachomatis also plays an important role in causing mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC) (5), acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (6), and maternal and infant infections during pregnancy and following delivery (7). (cdc.gov)
- These infections, in addition to C. trachomatis infections of the fallopian tube not clinically recognized as PID, contribute significantly to the increasing number of women who experience ectopic pregnancy or involuntary infertility. (cdc.gov)
- The pathogenesis of C. trachomatis infections has not been clearly defined. (health.am)
- There are a number of situations such as NGU, PID, epididymitis, and confirmed gonococcal infection (5 to 30% of men and 25 to 50% of women with gonorrhea have concurrent chlamydia) that are associated frequently with chlamydia infections and necessitate immediate "presumptive" treatment to alleviate symptoms and to prevent complications and further transmission to partners. (health.am)
- In 1985, CDC published Policy Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Chlamydia trachomatis infections (1). (cdc.gov)
- Those guidelines highlighted the prevalence and morbidity of chlamydial infections and stressed the need to include antibiotics effective against chlamydia when treating patients for urethritis, mucopurulent cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. (cdc.gov)
- Because chlamydial infections are common among adolescents and young adults throughout the United States, health-care providers and other agencies serving these groups should become more involved if a sufficiently large proportion of the chlamydia-infected population is to be reached. (cdc.gov)
- Chlamydia trachomatis infections are common in sexually active adolescents and young adults in the United States (CDC, unpublished review). (cdc.gov)
- L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer la relation entre les infections vaginales à Chlamydia et la néoplasie cervicale intraépithéliale (CIN). (who.int)
- Chlamydia trachomatis genovars causing urogenital infections in Santiago, Chile. (bvsalud.org)
- Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Chile , but little is known about the genovar distribution in genital infections . (bvsalud.org)
- Prevalence and incidence of selected sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis and trichomonas vaginalis : methods and results used by WHO to generate 2005 estimates. (who.int)
- IMPORTANCE Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of preventable infectious blindness and of bacterial sexually transmitted infections worldwide. (nsf.gov)
- Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the most common bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and is associated with severe long-term sequelae in female populations. (jpmh.org)
- Genital Chlamydia infections: epidemiology and reproductive sequelae. (jpmh.org)
- Diagnosis and management of uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis infections in adolescents and adults: summary of evidence reviewed for the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines. (jpmh.org)
- Chlamydia is the most commonly reported notifiable infection in the US, which means it's the most prevalent of all the sexually transmitted infections. (cdc.gov)
- However, there is substantial interest at NIH, WHO, and CDC supporting the development of research activity that could lead to an effective vaccine for chlamydia and other sexually transmitted infections. (cdc.gov)
- While C. trachomatis infection is currently not a reportable disease on a national level in the United States, data obtained from metropolitan STD clinics suggest sharp increases in incidence in the period 1975-1983 (1). (cdc.gov)
- Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular parasites, and disease appears to result from both the destruction of cells during the growth cycle and the body's immune response to the infection producing inflammation. (health.am)
- As part of a national survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles (Natsal 2000) in Britain, we estimated the frequency of self-reported STIs, and the prevalence of urinary Chlamydia trachomatis infection. (nih.gov)
- Half of all sexually experienced respondents aged 18-44 years were invited to provide a urine sample for ligase chain reaction testing for C trachomatis infection. (nih.gov)
- 10.8% of men and 12.6% of women reported ever having an STI, 3.6% of men and 4.1% of women reported ever being diagnosed with genital warts, and 1.4% of men and 3.1% of women reported previous infection with C trachomatis. (nih.gov)
- Non-married status, age, and reporting partner concurrency or two or more sexual partners in the past year were independently associated with infection with C trachomatis. (nih.gov)
- The objective of this study was to determine the association between vaginal Chlamydia infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). (who.int)
- Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, a highly prevalent sexually transmitted agent worldwide, is mostly asymptomatic (70%-80%) and often remains undetected. (who.int)
- We performed a whole genome transcriptional profiling study of C. trachomatis infection in ECC-1 cells under progesterone or estradiol treatment. (edu.au)
- Chlamydia often has no symptoms, so you may spread the disease without even knowing you have the infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- If a pregnant person has chlamydia, they can give the infection to their baby during childbirth. (medlineplus.gov)
- A chlamydia test is used to find out whether or not you have a chlamydia infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- The test is also done three months after treatment for chlamydia to check for re-infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- Molecular epidemiology and genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a cohort of young asymptomatic sexually active women (18-25 years) in Milan, Italy. (jpmh.org)
- Risk of sequelae after Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women. (jpmh.org)
- Oakeshott P, Kerry S, Aghaizu A, Atherton H, Hay S, Taylor-Robinson D, Simms I, Hay P. Randomised controlled trial of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease: the POPI (prevention of pelvic infection) trial. (jpmh.org)
- Chlamydia spreads through sex (vaginal, oral, or anal) with someone who has the infection. (kidshealth.org)
- Most people with chlamydia don't have symptoms, so they may spread the infection without realizing it. (kidshealth.org)
- Our study suggests that a successful chlamydia vaccine can have substantial impact on the prevalence of the infection. (cdc.gov)
- If this is the case, public-health-level interventions will be implemented - specifically the implementation of the SAFE (Surgery for trachomatous trichiasis, Antibiotics to clear ocular C. trachomatis infection, Facial cleanliness to reduce transmission of ocular C. trachomatis, Environmental improvement, particularly improved access to water and sanitation) strategy - would be recommended. (who.int)
- We report an HIV-infected person who was treated for lym- DNA by the C. trachomatis / Neisseria gonorrhoeae RT- phogranuloma venereum cervical lymphadenopathy and PCR (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). (cdc.gov)
- The Bioperfectus Technologies Neisseria Gonorrhoeae/Chlamydia Trachomatis/ U. urealyticum Real-Time PCR Kit is an in vitro diagnostic test, based on real-time PCR technology, for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum nucleic acids. (bioperfectus.com)
- the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis . (cdc.gov)
- Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is a bacterium that causes chlamydia. (bioperfectus.com)
- ABSTRACT Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that undergoes a complex developmental cycle in which the bacterium differentiates between two functionally and morphologically distinct forms, the elementary body (EB) and reticulate body (RB), each of which expresses its own specialized repertoire of proteins. (nsf.gov)
- Trachoma, an infectious eye disease caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. (who.int)
- The results have potentially wide application for proposed chlamydia screening programmes which, given the demonstrated prevalence, must now proactively seek to involve men. (nih.gov)
- Additionally, the prevalence of chlamydia, followed by the cost of vaccination, duration of vaccine- conferred immunity and vaccine efficacy had the most impact on the cost-effectiveness measure. (cdc.gov)
- Unlike viruses, however, chlamydiae contain both deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), divide by binary fission, and have cell walls similar to those of gram-negative bacteria. (cdc.gov)
- ABSTRACT Members of Chlamydia are obligate intracellular bacteria that differentiate between two distinct functional and morphological forms during their developmental cycle, elementary bodies (EBs) and reticulate bodies (RBs). (nsf.gov)
- A chlamydia test looks for chlamydia bacteria in a sample of fluid from your body. (medlineplus.gov)
- A type of bacteria, Chlamydia trachomatis , causes chlamydia. (kidshealth.org)
- Kwame Owusu-Edusei] Chlamydia is caused by a bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis . (cdc.gov)
- In England and Wales, where nongonococcal urethritis (about half the cases of which are caused by C. trachomatis) is a reportable disease, the incidence has nearly doubled in the last decade (1). (cdc.gov)
- C. trachomatis causes approximately 50% of the reported cases of nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) among men. (cdc.gov)
- In men, 20 to 50% of those with gonococcal urethritis are also infected with Chlamydia . (health.am)
- Chlamydia is responsible for 23 to 55% of nongonococcal urethritis in men, with higher rates among young boys. (health.am)
- C. trachomatis is the most common cause of nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men. (health.am)
- Of interest to the primary-care clinician is the ability to screen asymptomatic adolescent boys with the nonspecific LET applied to the first-void urine specimen (first 10 to 15 mL voided into premarked container) for urethritis, which is most frequently caused by chlamydia or gonorrhea. (health.am)
- Chlamydiae are developmentally regulated obligate intracellular pathogens that alternate between two functional and morphologic forms, with distinct repertoires of proteins. (nsf.gov)
- PROJECT DESCRIPTON: Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is an obligate intracellular human pathogen that multiplies within a parasitophorous vacuole called an inclusion. (berkeley.edu)
- Investigation of intracellular trafficking and secretory pathways involved in regulating inflammatory proteins by Chlamydia trachomatis to detect drug targets and develop a rational vaccine. (berkeley.edu)
- The assay is based on accumulation of a fluorescent marker by intracellular chlamydiae. (oregonstate.edu)
- Currently available tests for Chlamydia include the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test, the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test, the DNA probe test, the rapid chlamydia test, and the leukocyte esterase dipstick test (LET). (health.am)
- There are some rapid chlamydia tests that can provide results in 90 minutes or less. (medlineplus.gov)
- The Chlamydia -specific tests, such as the currently available EIA and DNA probe tests, show promise in their ability to detect Chlamydia in a urine specimen. (health.am)
- More recently the new technologies-including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the ligase chain reaction (LCR) with their capacity to amplify Chlamydia DNA in specimens-have also been applied to urine specimens with early success. (health.am)
- Because the sensitivity of the LET in screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea is 46 to 100% (it is a nonspecific indicator of the presence of polymorphonuclear cells), it is necessary to follow up all positive LETs with more specific gonorrhea and chlamydial tests (eg, EIAs, DFA). (health.am)
- Besides its association with mucopurulent cervicitis and PID, Chlamydia plays an important role in the urethral syndrome (dysuria-pyuria syndrome) and in perihepatitis or Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (1,8). (cdc.gov)
Usually doesn't cause symptoms2
- Health care providers treat chlamydia with antibiotics. (kidshealth.org)
- A total of 522 urogenital specimens, 403 from women and 119 from men , were analyzed for C. trachomatis by nested polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) targeting of the ompA gene . (bvsalud.org)
- To facilitate such collaborations, this document outlines the elements of a chlamydia prevention program. (cdc.gov)
- These recommendations were developed by CDC after consultation with experts attending a chlamydia prevention workshop held in Atlanta, Georgia, March 26-28, 1991. (cdc.gov)
- Until recently, chlamydia prevention and patient care were impeded by the lack of suitable laboratory tests for screening and diagnosis. (cdc.gov)
- Here, we characterized the two chlamydial ClpP paralogs by examining their expression in Chlamydia spp. (nsf.gov)
- For this reason, culture of Chlamydia has been difficult because expensive cell-culture methods similar to those used to recover viruses are required. (cdc.gov)
- If you get these symptoms it is usually 1-2 weeks after having sex with someone who has Chlamydia. (wisconsin.gov)
- Your provider will order a test if your sex partner has been diagnosed with chlamydia or if you have symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
- You should not use an at-home test if you have symptoms of chlamydia or if your partner has chlamydia. (medlineplus.gov)
- What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Chlamydia? (kidshealth.org)
- They assessed vaccination of 14-year-old girls and catch-up vaccination for 15 to 24-year-old women in the context of an existing chlamydia screening program. (cdc.gov)
- Today I'm talking with Dr. Kwame Owusu-Edusei about his co-authored article, Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women. (cdc.gov)
- We explored the potential cost and effectiveness of a chlamydia vaccination program, together with chlamydia screening, in young women. (cdc.gov)
- Test every 3 to 6 months if you or your partner have sex with more than one person, or if you have other sexual behaviors that may increase your risk for getting chlamydia. (medlineplus.gov)
- Chlamydia is a very common STD, especially in sexually active people ages 15 to 24. (medlineplus.gov)
- Get tested for chlamydia if you are pregnant. (medlineplus.gov)
- The wider availability of laboratory diagnostic tests for Chlamydia has opened the door to further exploration of the broad spectrum of disease caused by this organism. (cdc.gov)
- Such an effort is now possible because of a) expanding educational efforts stimulated by the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and other sexually transmitted diseases, and b) the availability of chlamydia tests that are easy to use, economical, and accurate, thereby allowing health-care providers to diagnose and treat infected persons and their sex partners. (cdc.gov)
- Is there a vaccine for chlamydia? (cdc.gov)
- Kwame Owusu-Edusei] There's currently no vaccine for chlamydia. (cdc.gov)
- The main reason for our study was to help advance the discussion surrounding the development of a successful chlamydia vaccine in the context of existing chlamydia preventive service guidelines. (cdc.gov)
- We hope this will inform the business case for investing in research and development, and inform and promote the development of future models that can be useful for chlamydia vaccine recommendations. (cdc.gov)
- 45;65 pour cent avaient des cellules a inclusion et 19 pour cent etaient positifs pour l'antigene chlamydia en Elisa . (bvsalud.org)