Species of CHLAMYDIA causing pneumonitis in mice and hamsters. These isolates formerly belonged to CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
Infections of the genital tract in females or males. They can be caused by endogenous, iatrogenic, or sexually transmitted organisms.
Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.
A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
Pathological processes of the VAGINA.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE. Members contain aculeatin D, beta-sitosterol, and STIGMASTEROL. Some members have been reclassified to ELETTARIA and other ZINGIBERACEAE.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
Diseases involving the FALLOPIAN TUBES including neoplasms (FALLOPIAN TUBE NEOPLASMS); SALPINGITIS; tubo-ovarian abscess; and blockage.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.
A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.

CADD, a Chlamydia protein that interacts with death receptors. (1/134)

We report here the identification of a bacterial protein capable of interacting with mammalian death receptors in vitro and in vivo. The protein is encoded in the genome of Chlamydia trachomatis and has homologues in other Chlamydia species. This protein, which we refer to as "Chlamydia protein associating with death domains" (CADD), induces apoptosis in a variety of mammalian cell lines when expressed by transient gene transfection. Apoptosis induction can be blocked by Caspase inhibitors, indicating that CADD triggers cell death by engaging the host apoptotic machinery. CADD interacts with death domains of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family receptors TNFR1, Fas, DR4, and DR5 but not with the respective downstream adaptors. In infected epithelial cells, CADD is expressed late in the infectious cycle of C. trachomatis and co-localizes with Fas in the proximity of the inclusion body. The results suggest a role for CADD modulating the apoptosis pathways of cells infected, revealing a new mechanism of host-pathogen interaction.  (+info)

Dynamic diversity of the tryptophan pathway in chlamydiae: reductive evolution and a novel operon for tryptophan recapture. (2/134)

BACKGROUND: Complete genomic sequences of closely related organisms, such as the chlamydiae, afford the opportunity to assess significant strain differences against a background of many shared characteristics. The chlamydiae are ubiquitous intracellular parasites that are important pathogens of humans and other organisms. Tryptophan limitation caused by production of interferon-gamma by the host and subsequent induction of indoleamine dioxygenase is a key aspect of the host-parasite interaction. It appears that the chlamydiae have learned to recognize tryptophan depletion as a signal for developmental remodeling. The consequent non-cultivable state of persistence can be increasingly equated to chronic disease conditions. RESULTS: The genes encoding enzymes of tryptophan biosynthesis were the focal point of this study. Chlamydophila psittaci was found to possess a compact operon containing PRPP synthase, kynureninase, and genes encoding all but the first step of tryptophan biosynthesis. All but one of the genes exhibited translational coupling. Other chlamydiae (Chlamydia trachomatis, C. muridarum and Chlamydophila pneumoniae) lack genes encoding PRPP synthase, kynureninase, and either lack tryptophan-pathway genes altogether or exhibit various stages of reductive loss. The origin of the genes comprising the trp operon does not seem to have been from lateral gene transfer. CONCLUSIONS: The factors that accommodate the transition of different chlamydial species to the persistent (chronic) state of pathogenesis include marked differences in strategies deployed to obtain tryptophan from host resources. C. psittaci appears to have a novel mechanism for intercepting an early intermediate of tryptophan catabolism and recycling it back to tryptophan. In effect, a host-parasite metabolic mosaic has evolved for tryptophan recycling.  (+info)

Role of proapoptotic BAX in propagation of Chlamydia muridarum (the mouse pneumonitis strain of Chlamydia trachomatis) and the host inflammatory response. (3/134)

The BCL-2 family member BAX plays a critical role in regulating apoptosis. Surprisingly, bax-deficient mice display limited phenotypic abnormalities. Here we investigate the effect of BAX on infection by the sexually transmitted pathogen, Chlamydia muridarum (the mouse pneumonitis strain of Chlamydia trachomatis). Bax(-/-) cells are relatively resistant to Chlamydia-induced apoptosis, and fewer bacteria are recovered after two infection cycles from Bax(-/-) cells than from wild-type cells. These results suggest that BAX-dependent apoptosis may be used to initiate a new round of infection, most likely by releasing Chlamydia-containing apoptotic bodies from infected cells that could be internalized by neighboring uninfected cells. Nonetheless, infected Bax(-/-) cells die through necrosis, which is normally associated with inflammation, more often than infected wild-type cells. These studies were confirmed in mice infected intravaginally with C. muridarum; since the infection disappears more quickly from Bax(-/-) mice than from wild-type mice, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines is increased in Bax(-/-) mice, and large granulomas are present in the genital tract of Bax(-/-) mice. Taken together, these data suggest that chlamydia-induced apoptosis via BAX contributes to bacterial propagation and decreases inflammation. Bax deficiency results in lower infection and an increased inflammatory cytokine response associated with more severe pathology.  (+info)

Rab GTPases are recruited to chlamydial inclusions in both a species-dependent and species-independent manner. (4/134)

Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that replicate within an inclusion that is trafficked to the peri-Golgi region where it fuses with exocytic vesicles. The host and chlamydial proteins that regulate the trafficking of the inclusion have not been identified. Since Rab GTPases are key regulators of membrane trafficking, we examined the intracellular localization of several green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Rab GTPases in chlamydia-infected HeLa cells. GFP-Rab4 and GFP-Rab11, which function in receptor recycling, and GFP-Rab1, which functions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi trafficking, are recruited to Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia muridarum, and Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusions, whereas GFP-Rab5, GFP-Rab7, and GFP-Rab9, markers of early and late endosomes, are not. In contrast, GFP-Rab6, which functions in Golgi-to-ER and endosome-to-Golgi trafficking, is associated with C. trachomatis inclusions but not with C. pneumoniae or C. muridarum inclusions, while the opposite was observed for the Golgi-localized GFP-Rab10. Colocalization studies between transferrin and GFP-Rab11 demonstrate that a portion of GFP-Rab11 that localizes to inclusions does not colocalize with transferrin, which suggests that GFP-Rab11's association with the inclusion is not mediated solely through Rab11's association with transferrin-containing recycling endosomes. Finally, GFP-Rab GTPases remain associated with the inclusion even after disassembly of microtubules, which disperses recycling endosomes and the Golgi apparatus within the cytoplasm, suggesting a specific interaction with the inclusion membrane. Consistent with this, GFP-Rab11 colocalizes with C. trachomatis IncG at the inclusion membrane. Therefore, chlamydiae recruit key regulators of membrane trafficking to the inclusion, which may function to regulate the trafficking or fusogenic properties of the inclusion.  (+info)

Murine oviduct epithelial cell cytokine responses to Chlamydia muridarum infection include interleukin-12-p70 secretion. (5/134)

Epithelial cells play an important role in host defense as sentinels for invading microbial pathogens. Chlamydia trachomatis is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that replicates in reproductive tract epithelium. Epithelial cells lining the reproductive tract likely play a key role in triggering inflammation and adaptive immunity during Chlamydia infections. For this report a murine oviduct epithelial cell line was derived in order to determine how epithelial cells influence innate and adaptive immune responses during Chlamydia infections. As expected, oviduct epithelial cells infected by Chlamydia muridarum produced a broad spectrum of chemokines, including CXCL16, and regulators of the acute-phase response, including interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. In addition, infected epithelial cells expressed cytokines that augment gamma interferon (IFN) production, including IFN-alpha/beta and IL-12-p70. To my knowledge this is the first report of a non-myeloid/lymphoid cell type making IL-12-p70 in response to an infection. Equally interesting, infected epithelial cells significantly upregulated transforming growth factor alpha precursor expression, suggesting a mechanism by which they might play a direct role in the pathological scarring seen as a consequence of Chlamydia infections. Data from these in vitro studies predict that infected oviduct epithelium contributes significantly to host innate and adaptive defenses but may also participate in the immunopathology seen with Chlamydia infections.  (+info)

The infecting dose of Chlamydia muridarum modulates the innate immune response and ascending infection. (6/134)

Murine vaginal infection with the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia muridarum is commonly used as a model for ascending Chlamydia infections of the human female genital tract. Gamma interferon-producing Th1 cells, in concert with other mononuclear infiltrates, primarily mediate antichlamydial immunity. However, many factors modify this response, including the bacterial load. To investigate the manner in which the inoculating dose of C. muridarum modulates a genital infection, we measured innate and adaptive cell numbers, CD4+ lymphocyte cytokine profile, chemokine expression, course of infection, and pathological sequelae in genital tracts of BALB/c mice infected with doses of C. muridarum ranging from 10(4) to 10(7) inclusion-forming units. We found that the influx of both innate and adaptive immune cells responded similarly in the lower genital tract (cervical-vaginal tissues) and upper genital tract (oviduct tissues) to increasing inoculating doses. However, cells expressing the innate markers Gr-1 and CD11c were affected to a greater degree by increasing dose than lymphocytes of the adaptive immune response (Th1, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+), resulting in a change in the balance of innate and adaptive cell numbers to favor innate cells at higher infecting doses. Surprisingly, we detected greater numbers of viable chlamydiae in the oviducts at lower inoculating doses, and the number of organisms appeared to directly correlate with hydrosalpinx formation after both primary infection and repeat infection. Taken together, these data suggest that innate immune cells contribute to control of ascending infection.  (+info)

Differences in growth characteristics and elementary body associated cytotoxicity between Chlamydia trachomatis oculogenital serovars D and H and Chlamydia muridarum. (7/134)

AIM: In vitro growth and elementary body (EB) associated cytotoxicity of two Chlamydia trachomatis strains belonging to serovars D and H and C muridarum were compared to identify difference(s) that correlate with virulence variations between these strains in the mouse model of human female genital tract infection, and phenotypic characteristics that could explain human epidemiological data on serovar prevalence and levels of shedding during serovar D and H infection. METHODS: Replication cycle kinetics, inclusion characteristics, and EB associated cytotoxicity were assessed in McCoy cell monolayers using culture, light microscopy, and lactate dehydrogenase release. RESULTS: Over 72 hours, more rapid production and release of inclusion forming units (ifu) allowed C muridarum to initiate two replication rounds, resulting in 4-8 times more ifu/input unit of infection than with serovars D and H. Although C muridarum EBs were significantly more cytotoxic to McCoy cell monolayers than serovar D at moderate and high multiplicity of infection ratios (MOI), serovar H EBs were significantly more cytotoxic than C muridarum, even at the lowest MOI tested. CONCLUSIONS: These phenotypic differences are consistent with the more invasive course and severe pathological outcome of infection in mice infected with C muridarum, providing an objective basis for questioning the appropriateness of C muridarum as a surrogate for the human biovar of C trachomatis in the murine model of female genital tract infection. The differences seen between the human strains could help explain human epidemiological data relating to differences in prevalence and level of shedding that occurs during infection with oculogenital serovars D and H.  (+info)

Molecular basis for the potency of IL-10-deficient dendritic cells as a highly efficient APC system for activating Th1 response. (8/134)

Identification and targeting of novel immunobiological factors that regulate the induction of Th1 cells are crucial for designing effective vaccines against certain intracellular pathogens, including Chlamydia. IL-10-deficient dendritic cells (DC) are potent APCs and effective cellular vaccines that activate a high frequency of specific Th1 cells. To elucidate the molecular basis for the potency of the IL-10-deficient APC system, we tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia Ag-primed IL-10 knockout (IL-10KO) DC are quantitatively and qualitatively distinct in their metabolic characteristics relating to T cell activation. Using a combination of RT-PCR, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and MALDI-TOF-based proteomics analyses, the transcriptional and translational activities of Chlamydia-pulsed DC from wild-type and IL-10KO mice were assessed. IL-10 deficiency caused early maturation and activation of pulsed DC (i.e., high CD11c, CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, IL-1, IL-12, and the T cell-attracting chemokine CCL27/CTACK) and consequently an enhanced ability to process and present Ags for a rapid and robust T cell activation. Supporting comparative proteomics revealed further that IL-10 deficient DC possess specific immunobiological properties, e.g., the T cell-attracting chemokine CCL27/CTACK, calcium-dependent protein kinase, and the IL-1/IL-12 inducer, NKR-P1A (CD161), which differentiated them immunologically from wild-type DC that express molecules relating to anti-inflammatory, differentiative, and metabolic processes, e.g., the anti-IL-12 molecule peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and thymidine kinase. Collectively, these results provide a molecular basis for the high Th1-activating capacity of IL-10KO APC and may provide unique immunomodulation targets when designing vaccines against pathogens controlled by T cell immunity.  (+info)

Epithelial cells play an important role in host defense as sentinels for invading microbial pathogens. Chlamydia trachomatis is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that replicates in reproductive tract epithelium. Epithelial cells lining the reproductive tract likely play a key role in triggering inflammation and adaptive immunity during Chlamydia infections. For this report a murine oviduct epithelial cell line was derived in order to determine how epithelial cells influence innate and adaptive immune responses during Chlamydia infections. As expected, oviduct epithelial cells infected by Chlamydia muridarum produced a broad spectrum of chemokines, including CXCL16, and regulators of the acute-phase response, including interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. In addition, infected epithelial cells expressed cytokines that augment gamma interferon (IFN) production, including IFN-α/β and IL-12-p70. To my knowledge this is the first report of a non-myeloid/lymphoid cell ...
FIG. 4. Absence of ABCD-1 (CCL22) mRNA in infected Bm1.11 cells. RT-PCR assays for ABCD-1 and Mig (CXCL9) were performed on total RNA isolated from Bm1.11 cells infected with C. muridarum for 18 h and activated peritoneal macrophages (Activated MACS) as a positive control. Asterisks mark the specific RT-PCR products for each primer pair. There is a spurious PCR band (280 bp) in the ABCD-1 (220 bp) RT-PCR that is present in both activated peritoneal macrophages and infected Bm1.11 cells (see Materials and Methods). Mig, a low-level transcript in infected epithelial cells, is readily detected in infected Bm1.11 cells by using the same RNA samples. Data are representative of three independent experiments showing the same result. ...
Problem: Chlamydia trachomatis is a significant worldwide health problem, and the often-asymptomatic disease can result in infertility. To develop a successful vaccine, a complete understanding of the immune response to chlamydial infection and development of genital tract pathology is required. Method of Study We utilized the murine genital model of chlamydial infection. Mice were immunized with chlamydial major outer membrane protein, and vaginal lavage was assessed for the presence of neutralizing antibodies. These samples were then pre-incubated with Chlamydia muridarum and administered to the vaginal vaults of immune-competent female BALB⁄ c mice to determine the effect on infection. Results The administration of C. muridarum in conjunction with neutralizing antibodies reduced the numbers of mice infected, but a surprising finding was that this accelerated the development of severe oviduct pathology. Conclusion Antibodies play an under-recognized role in chlamydial infection and pathology
CD14 has been postulated to play a role in chlamydial immunity and immunopathology. There is evidence to support this role in human infections but its function in a mouse model has not been investigated. Female CD14 gene knockout and C57BL/6J wild type mice were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia muridarum. The infection course was monitored by detection of viable chlamydiae from serially collected cervical-vaginal swabs. The sequela of tubal factor infertility was assessed using hydrosalpinx formation as a surrogate marker. A significantly abbreviated infection course was observed in the CD14 gene knockout mice but hydrosalpinx formation occurred at similar rates between the two groups. Involvement of CD14 during chlamydial infection impedes infection resolution but this does not affect the sequela of infertility as assessed by hydrosalpinx formation.
There is a strong epidemiological link between infection with the intracellular bacteria C. pneumoniae and asthma exacerbation. A recent investigation also shows that early life infection with the mouse pneumonitis biovar Cmu exacerbates allergic asthma in a mouse model of the disease (28). However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underpin this association are poorly understood. In this investigation, we show that Cmu can form a viable infection within BMDC and that infection subverts DC function. This confirms a recent study demonstrating that murine DCs can be infected with the murine Chlamydia, Cmu (29), and importantly demonstrates that infection also alters DC function and induction of T cell responses. Chlamydia infection of BMDC inhibited the expression of the constitutive costimulatory marker CD80 and enhanced CD86 expression, a phenotype initially reported to promote Th2 responses (30). However, the actual effect on the polarization of T cells is perhaps more complex (31, ...
The ability to edit genes in living organisms offers the opportunity to treat a plethora of inherited diseases. However, many types of gene-editing tools 1f52c read all about Biology
Long Beach City College is committed to making its electronic and information technologies accessible to individuals with disabilities by meeting or exceeding the requirements of Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act (29 U.S.C. 794d), as amended in 1998. Section 508 is a federal law that requires agencies to provide individuals with disabilities equal access to electronic information and data comparable to those who do not have disabilities unless an undue burden would be imposed on the agency.. ...
Read user reviews, compare products and contact manufacturers of Size Exclusion products, including columns, services and software on SelectScience.
A practitioner-strength, multi-strain live culture combination supplement with 20 billion live organisms per capsule, for support of the digestive tract. Suitable for vegetarians.
The mechanistic details of the pathogenesis of Chlamydia, an obligate intracellular pathogen of global importance, have eluded scientists due to the scarcity of traditional molecular genetic tools to investigate this organism. Here we report a chemical biology strategy that has uncovered the first essential protease for this organism. Identification and application of a unique CtHtrA inhibitor (JO146) to cultures of Chlamydia resulted in a complete loss of viable elementary body formation. JO146 treatment during the replicative phase of development resulted in a loss of Chlamydia cell morphology, diminishing inclusion size, and ultimate loss of inclusions from the host cells. This completely prevented the formation of viable Chlamydia elementary bodies. In addition to its effect on the human Chlamydia trachomatis strain, JO146 inhibited the viability of the mouse strain, Chlamydia muridarum, both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we report a chemical biology approach to establish an essential role for
To test vaccines, formulated with novel antigens, to protect mice against Chlamydia infections.To determine the ability of polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) to induce cross-species protective immune responses, recombinant fragments from all nine C. trachomatis serovar E Pmps were used to vaccinate BALB/c mice utilizing CpG-1826 and Montanide ISA 720 as adjuvants. C. muridarum recombinant MOMP a ...
These are the list of medicines you can take if you experience the following chlamydia symptoms and/or if you found out that you already had this STD or
CPn0444 is similar to CT871, CT874, CT413, CT812, CT872, CT414, CT412, CT870, CT869, and CT456. They are predicted outer membrane proteins. CT871 is a predicted pmpG outer membrane protein G. Residues 470-1407 are 28% similar to CT871 ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
Belmonts School of Physical Therapy recently held its annual research symposium and poster session featuring research projects from ten student groups. Topics covered were diverse and included projects on pediatrics, geriatrics, dementia, pathology and athletes including swimmers football players, golfers and professional dancers. Projects examined screening, diagnostics and intervention on over 930 subjects. Presented projects included: The impact…
Investigation for genital chlamydial infections was carried out on 160 patients of fertile age attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic. Thirteen (9%) of the 144 patients with valid specimens were found to be Chlamydia-positive. Seven (54%) of them had antichlamydial antibodies by the complement-fixation test, and 11 (85%) antichlamydial antibodies by a single-antigen immunofluorescence test compared with 21 (16%) and 70 (53%), respectively, of the 131 Chlamydia-negative patients. Patients with overt genital chlamydial infection often complained of ocular and urethral symptoms. Usually there was clinical evidence of cervical infection as well as of inflammation on cervicovaginal smears. Colposcopical and histological examinations did not show any specific alterations.. ...
Chlamydia infections in women - MedHelps Chlamydia infections in women Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Chlamydia infections in women. Find Chlamydia infections in women information, treatments for Chlamydia infections in women and Chlamydia infections in women symptoms.
Global Chlamydia Infection Industry 2022 Market Research Report Purchase This Report by calling ResearchnReports.com at +1-888-631-6977.. This report is a compressive analysis of every situation of Chlamydia Infection market. With precise investigation of the past situation, present market scenario and future anticipated progress has been offered in this report respectively. Exact data of the prime strategies, market share values and products of the key leading companies is stated apprehensively.. Download sample pages of this report: https://www.researchnreports.com/request_sample.php?id=62526 It provides accurate outline if Chlamydia Infection market depending on the key parameters such as applications, end users, products, regions and many other sub segmentations. Estimated growth by volume and revenue with respect to the global market for Chlamydia Infection over the future years has been mentioned in detail.. An additional deals into the major geographical segmentations of this particular ...
Genitourinary chlamydia infection, Chlamydia trachomatis infection, Chlamydiasis, Genitourinary chlamydia infection, Genital chlamydia infection. Authoritative facts from DermNet New Zealand.
Doctor answers on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More: Dr. Boelter on worst chlamydia infections symptom: If you have an infection, the earlier you start taking antibiotics the better to prevent spreading of the infection for topic: Worst Chlamydia Infections Symptom
1 Answer - Posted in: eye conditions, infections, chlamydia infection - Answer: Yes it can cause something like pink eye. Amoxicillin will cure it.
Chlamydia infection is a common sexually transmitted infection. Recently do you have UN-protected sex. Thinking you are affected with STD. Know Chlamydia.
After a proper diagnosis, the doctor might recommend oral antibiotics such as ofloxacin, azithromycin, doxycycline, and erythromycin. Antibiotics might be advised as one-time dosage or every day does not less than one week. The two doses are in much the same way useful. Then again, if the sufferer will drop daily intake of antibiotics, then it would be smart to go for the one-time dose program, which can be much more expensive when compared with the daily antibiotic plan. Greater than 95% of cases of Chlamydia infection is treated with the antibiotic system.
Reviews and ratings for zmax when used in the treatment of chlamydia infection. Share your experience with this medication by writing a review.
Chlamydia can be cured through treatments with antibiotics. With appropriate treatment, chlamydial infections can be cured 95% of the time. The complication, however, can occur in chlamydia infection as many cases do not develop symptoms and there
A Chlamydia test kit is actually a valuable tool to help people find out whether they have contracted it. It can provide the info about whether or not their warning signs suggest Chlamydia or not. This product is accessible in stores and also online. It is suitable for people that are too uneasy or terrified to stop by the hospital and see a health practitioner.
Chlamydia is a very common sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by bacteria. You can get chlamydia from vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Chlamydia is common in the U.S. with over 1 million cases reported each year. Among all age groups, teens and young adults have the highest rates of infection.. Most females (and some males) who have chlamydia have no symptoms, and annual testing for chlamydia is recommended for all sexually active women age 25 and under.. ...
Chlamydia trachomatis continues to be the most commonly reported sexually transmitted bacterial infection with more than 100 million new cases diagnosed annual...
The majority of women with Chlamydia infection are without symptoms. Many men are asymptomatic as well. Regular screening for Chlamydia, as recommended by the
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that is caused by a bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydia is a common STI that can be spread during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. It can also be transmitted from an infected mother to her baby at birth. Teenagers and young adults are most commonly infected. Most people infected with chlamydia dont have symptoms and should therefore be screened for the infection regularly. Symptoms Men
Chlamydia, Read about Chlamydia symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment. Also read Chlamydia articles about how to live with Chlamydia, and more.
Salk Institute researchers have developed a new tool -- dubbed SATI -- to edit the mouse genome, enabling the team to target a broad range of mutations and cell types. The new genome-editing technology could be expanded for use in a broad range of gene mutation conditions such as Huntingtons disease and the rare premature aging syndrome, progeria.
You will find the whole information you need to know about chlamydia including the definition, cause, symptom, test and treatment in here!
Understanding Chlamydia - one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the U.S. Find out what problems can chlamydia cause, the most common treatments for Chlamydia is single dose of azithromycin
You will find the whole information you need to know about chlamydia including the definition, cause, symptom, test and treatment in here!
New post (Chlamydia is Common in Both Sexes: Chlamydia may have Devistating Outcomes for Men, Women and Babies) has been published on Be Healthy - http://behealthy.news/health-medicine-news/chlamydia-devistating-outcomes ...
Chlamydia is a common STI - but its often a silent infection- how do you know you have it? How do you catch chlamydia? Is there a cure for chlamydia? Get all the key facts.
Chlamydia can go unnoticed and untreated. Can chlamydia cause long-term damage in men? What happens if a man has chlamydia for a long time? Heres what to know.
Feedback is always we expect from readers who have taken the time to take part in this website. And we all expect that people with a chlamydia infection was on the wane. ...
Buna fetele , am si eu o intrebare am facut niste analize de sange printre care si pentru chlamydia. As vrea sa ma ajutati sa interpretez analizele. Ac anti chlamydia trachomatis IgA (ser chorus trio elisa) rezultat
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection and easily passed to your sexual partners. It is actually a bacterial infection disease transmitted when two
Chlamydia is a bacterial infection. It is the most common infection especially in people under 26 years of age. It is treated with antibiotics. Often, there are no symptoms of Chlamydia, so many people dont know they have the infection. When symptoms occur, it can cause:. ...
Chlamydia Definition - Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease (STD), where infection is caused by bacteria spread through sexual contact. Both...
Chlamydia cannot kill you. Nonetheless, if chlamydia is left untreated, it can cause damage -- particularly to a womans reproductive organs. Its very ...
Is it possible to tell how long Ive had chlamydia.. Not usually, because chlamydia often doesnt cause any symptoms.. This means you can have the infection without knowing - you could have had it for months or even years.. Depending on how many people youve had sex with, it can be hard to trace it to one person... ...
Someone please describe Chlamydia discharge or tell me if mine sounds like it. I am confused. Mine is: yellowish/grayish, cloudy (it is not clear), watery (comes out like pee), excessive amounts, and ...
If chlamydia symptoms appear at all, they are often mild and occur within 1 to 3 weeks after being infected. This eMedTV Web page contains a list of other symptoms and explains what happens when chlamydia is left untreated.
People with chlamydia usually dont have symptoms, so most people dont know they have it. If you do notice signs of chlamydia, get tested.
Chlamydia is a bacterial infection that is more common among women than in men especially those who are below the age of 24. It is a sexually transmitted disease. It transmits through vaginal, oral or anal sex.
If you are on a personal connection, why do I have to complete a CAPTCHA? Like at chlamydia symptoms in women, completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and
In case you are interested in the symptoms of chlamydia in a woman you should know that this is a dangerous STD that could result in severe complications
You might not be intimately familiar with the name, but chlamydia is actually the most commonly reported bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the U.S.
Read about the possible symptoms of chlamydia that can be experienced by men and women, and find out when you should seek medical advice.
Chlamydia is an STD that often has no symptoms, so lots of people can have it and not know it. Read this article to learn how to protect yourself.
The long-term effects of chlamydia can be very serious, especially for patients who have not sought any treatment for their condition.
Read, ask and answer 7 questions in the Chlamydia topic on Blurtit, the community question and answer site designed to help people, to help each other: To ask, to learn, to share, to grow.
SIMCOE COUNTY - Chlamydia is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Simcoe Muskoka, with almost 1,300 cases in 2012, and yet it is preventable when the appropriate...
Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. The infection is transmitted via unprotected vaginal, oral or anal sex with an infected person. It can also be transmitted from an infected mother to a baby during childbirth.
Does Zithromax Cure Chlamydia. Only Top quality tabs, Visa and MasterCard credit cards accepted, Available with World Wide Delivery.
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease that commonly spreads undetected because the infected persons can be asymptomatic despite the infection.
2007). "Epithelial membrane protein 2 modulates infectivity of Chlamydia muridarum (MoPn)". Microbes Infect. 9 (8): 1003-10. ...
Three species belong to Chlamydia: C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, and C. suis. C. trachomatis has been found only in humans, C. ... muridarum in hamsters and mice (family Muridae), and C. suis in swine. Chlamydia species produce a small amount of detectable ... C. trachomatis is the cause of an infection commonly transmitted sexually (often referred as just "Chlamydia") and also is the ... The Chlamydiaceae are a family of gram-negative bacteria that belongs to the phylum Chlamydiae, order Chlamydiales. ...
2008). "Chlamydia muridarum evades growth restriction by the IFN-gamma-inducible host resistance factor Irgb10". J Immunol. 180 ... versus Chlamydia muridarum, mouse adapted, inclusions following entry. C. trachomatis inclusions recruit a full repertoire of ... The model highlights the co-evolution demonstrated by effector molecules of C. muridarum functioning to restrict accumulation ... "cPLA2 regulates the expression of type I interferons and intracellular immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis". J Biol Chem. 285 (28 ...
... a vital role to activate canonical and non-canonical inflammasome to response to a pathogen infection via chlamydia muridarum. ...
Chlamydia MeSH B03.440.190.190.190.500 - Chlamydia muridarum MeSH B03.440.190.190.190.750 - Chlamydia trachomatis MeSH B03.440. ...
The genus Chlamydia contains the species C. trachomatis, C. psittaci, C. abortus, C. felis, C. muridarum, C. suis, C. caviae, C ... Chlamydia felis (formerly Chlamydophila felis and before that Chlamydia psittaci var. felis) is a Gram-negative, obligate ... Many of the genes are highly conserved within the Chlamydia genus. A specific plasmid is also highly conserved among Chlamydia ... Many metabolic processes and genes are highly conserved among Chlamydia. Due to C. felis's, and Chlamydia in general, small ...
In contrast to chlamydia trachomatis, chlamydia muridarum lacks a tryptophan operon. Due to this, chlamydia muridarum responds ... Chlamydia muridarum is an intracellular bacterial species that at one time belonged to Chlamydia trachomatis. However, C. ... Chlamydia muridarum MoPn binds mAbs recognizing Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP vs4 core epitope (T) LNPT (IA). DNA sequence ... Type strain of Chlamydia muridarum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ...
Species include Chlamydia trachomatis (a human pathogen), Ch. suis (affects only swine), and Ch. muridarum (affects only mice ... Chlamydia is part of the order Chlamydiales, family Chlamydiaceae. In the early 1990s six species of Chlamydia were known. A ... Chlamydia is a genus of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites. Chlamydia infections are ... Chlamydia". This appears to have been accepted by the community, bringing the number of (valid) Chlamydia species up to 9. Many ...
2015 Species C. pecorum Fukushi & Hirai 1992 Species C. muridarum Everett, Bush & Andersen 1999 Species C. trachomatis (Busacca ... and Chlamydia trachomatis, which causes chlamydia. Chlamydia is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the ... Of various Chlamydiae that cause human disease, the two most important species are Chlamydia pneumoniae, which causes a type of ... In 1966, Chlamydiae were recognized as bacteria and the genus Chlamydia was validated. The order Chlamydiales was created by ...
... causing human sexually transmitted disease and eye infections Chlamydia muridarum, causing disease in mice and hamsters (the ... Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydia may also refer to: ... Muridae) Chlamydia suis, infects pigs (Sus scrofa) Chlamydia psittaci, causes parrot fever Chlamydiae, class of bacteria ... Chlamydia (genus), a genus of pathogenic bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis, ...
Chlamydia. C. muridarum Everett et al. 1999 C. suis Everett et al. 1999 ... Storz J, Page LA (1971). "Taxonomy of the Chlamydiae: reasons for classifying organisms of the genus Chlamydia, family ... único de Chlamydiae permitiu o uso de análises de ADN para o diagnóstico das clamidias.[16] Comprobouse que Chlamydia ... En 1966, as clamidias foron recoñecidas como bacterias e o foi validado o xénero Chlamydia.[3] A orde Chlamydiales foi creada ...
However, these mAbs may also cross-react with two other Chlamydia species, C. suis and C. muridarum. Nucleic acid amplification ... Chlamydia trachomatis (/kləˈmɪdiə trəˈkoʊmətɪs/), commonly known as chlamydia, is a bacterium that causes chlamydia, which can ... Chlamydiae.com "Chlamydia trachomatis". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 813. Type strain of Chlamydia trachomatis at BacDive - the ... Chlamydia cell culture is a test in which the suspected Chlamydia sample is grown in a vial of cells. The pathogen infects the ...
... muridarum (microorganisme que causa principalment infeccions en múrids i que sovint s'utilitza per estudiar els mecanismes ... Chlamydia trachomatis és un bacteri paràsit intracel·lular estricte dels humans i una de tres espècies del gènere Chlamydia.[1] ... Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection (en anglès). A: Chlamydia. Chapter 17 (Mares, M; Ed.) IntechOpen, 2012; Mar 30, pp ... Chlamydia». MicrobeWiki, 15-08-2006. [Consulta: 27 octubre 2008]. *↑ Budai, I «Chlamydia trachomatis: milestones in clinical ...
Effective results for Chlamydia muridarum str. Nigg (eggnog40). Summary. Number of putative secreted proteins: 133 - Predicted ...
Chlamydia muridarum Nigg Bacteria normal 0.105676 n/a -. NC_014212 Mesil_0053 DNA replication and repair protein RecF 33.43 ...
Chlamydia muridarum Nigg Bacteria normal 1 n/a -. NC_002936 DET1630 DNA gyrase, A subunit 42.01 ...
Evaluating Potential Vaccine Antigens in both the Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia muridarum Intravaginal Mouse Challenge ...
Transcutaneous immunization with combined cholera toxin and CpG adjuvant protects against Chlamydia muridarum genital tract ... 1Chlamydia 1DNA binding cleft 1Gp2 1H10N7 virus 1Mendelian inheritance 1Microbacterium esteraromaticum 1MyD88 1Nostoc ... 1Chlamydia 1DNA binding cleft 1Gp2 1H10N7 virus 1Mendelian inheritance 1Microbacterium esteraromaticum 1MyD88 1Nostoc ...
"Development of Transposon Mutagenesis for Chlamydia muridarum.", J Bacteriol, vol. 201, no. 23, 2019. ...
"Development of Transposon Mutagenesis for Chlamydia muridarum.", J Bacteriol, vol. 201, no. 23, 2019. ... M. Xia, Suchland, R. J., Bumgarner, R. E., Peng, T., Rockey, D. D., and Stamm, W. E., "Chlamydia trachomatis variant with ... M. Xia, Suchland, R. J., Bumgarner, R. E., Peng, T., Rockey, D. D., and Stamm, W. E., "Chlamydia trachomatis variant with ... D. T. Alzhanov, Suchland, R. J., Bakke, A. C., Stamm, W. E., and Rockey, D. D., "Clonal isolation of chlamydia-infected cells ...
"Development of Transposon Mutagenesis for Chlamydia muridarum.", J Bacteriol, vol. 201, no. 23, 2019. ...
"Development of Transposon Mutagenesis for Chlamydia muridarum.", J Bacteriol, vol. 201, no. 23, 2019. ... D. D. Rockey, Lenart, J., and Stephens, R. S., "Genome sequencing and our understanding of chlamydiae.", Infect Immun, vol. 68 ... D. D. Rockey, Lenart, J., and Stephens, R. S., "Genome sequencing and our understanding of chlamydiae.", Infection and immunity ... W. M. Geisler, Suchland, R. J., Rockey, D. D., and Stamm, W. E., "Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of unique Chlamydia ...
  • The infected cells also began transforming growth factor alpha precursor expression which may lead to the pathological scarring seen from Chlamydia infections. (kenyon.edu)
  • Thus infected epithelium cells contribute greatly to the host's adaptive defenses but also contribute the immunopathology associated with Chlamydia infections. (kenyon.edu)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of genital tract and ocular infections ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Epithelial cells lining the reproductive tract likely play a key role in triggering inflammation and adaptive immunity during Chlamydia infections. (asm.org)
  • For this report a murine oviduct epithelial cell line was derived in order to determine how epithelial cells influence innate and adaptive immune responses during Chlamydia infections. (asm.org)
  • Equally interesting, infected epithelial cells significantly upregulated transforming growth factor alpha precursor expression, suggesting a mechanism by which they might play a direct role in the pathological scarring seen as a consequence of Chlamydia infections. (asm.org)
  • Data from these in vitro studies predict that infected oviduct epithelium contributes significantly to host innate and adaptive defenses but may also participate in the immunopathology seen with Chlamydia infections. (asm.org)
  • Using the Cm mouse model for human Chlamydia genital tract infections, we demonstrated that TLR3 -/- mice had increased Cm shedding during early and mid-stage genital infection. (elsevier.com)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the leading cause of sexually transmitted infections of bacterial origin. (chromoscience.com)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of sexually transmitted infections of bacterial origin and the most common cause of non-congenital blindness due to trachoma [1]. (chromoscience.com)
  • Of interest to this study, the mouse-adapted strain C. muridarum is commonly used to model human female genital tract infections, because intravaginal C. muridarum infection in mice recapitulates the upper genital tract pathology observed with C. trachomatis infection in women [4]. (chromoscience.com)
  • Diagnosis and management of uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis infections in adolescents and adults: summary of evidence reviewed for the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines. (medscape.com)
  • What are the treatment options for chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)? (medscape.com)
  • CorA at a concentration of 1 μg/mL was also effective against already established C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae infections (up to 24 h.p.i.) in epithelial cells, while efficacy against C. muridarum was limited to earlier time points. (frontiersin.org)
  • H undreds of millions of people globally are afflicted by Chlamydia trachomatis infections. (pnas.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and preventable blindness. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is a pathogen of global significance, causing ocular trachoma, and urogenital infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • Enhanced Virulence of Chlamydia muridarum Respiratory Infections in the Absence of TLR2 Activation. (bu.edu)
  • Here we show that chlamydial species associated with human infections, Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae , exhibit unique requirements for Src-family kinases throughout their developmental cycle. (asm.org)
  • With one in six couples experiencing infertility across Australia, Dr Kate Redgrove is looking at the environmental effects on male reproductive health, specifically, the impact of long term Chlamydia infections. (edu.au)
  • Unfortunately, Chlamydia is one of those STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections) that doesn't often show symptoms. (edu.au)
  • Chlamydia Infections" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA. (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chlamydia Infections" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Chlamydia Infections" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Chlamydia Infections" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • The Impact of Screening and Partner Notification on Chlamydia Prevalence and Numbers of Infections Averted in the United States, 2000-2015: Evaluation of Epidemiologic Trends Using a Pair-Formation Transmission Model. (harvard.edu)
  • IMPORTANCE Chlamydia is a significant cause of disease in humans, including sexually transmitted infections, the ocular infection trachoma, and pneumonia. (asm.org)
  • Along with genitourinary infections, Chlamydia is also the leading cause of blinding trachoma, affecting nearly 1.9 million people across 42 different countries. (ku.edu)
  • For the duration of solitary infections of Chlamydia, a quantity of TLRs are needed to distinct the infection. (wallinside.com)
  • While Chlamydia muridarum an infection stimulates host cell TLRs two, three, four and 9 in tradition, only TLRs 2 and 3 show up to be expected for clearance of genital tract bacterial infections in mice.This defense was primarily due to the inhibition of macrophage MR signaling which brings about glomerular injury and subsequently promotes renal operate impairment, tubular injury and the development of renal fibrosis. (wallinside.com)
  • 4. O'Connell CM, Ferone ME (2016) Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections. (prolekare.cz)
  • 6. Marrazzo J, Suchland R (2014) Recent advances in understanding and managing Chlamydia trachomatis infections. (prolekare.cz)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted infections globally and the leading cause of preventable blindness in the developing world. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We and others have reported that mice remain infected in the GI tract with Chlamydia muridarum indefinitely in the absence of pathology ( 1 - 3 ) even though genital infections resolve within 3 to 4 weeks with an intense inflammatory response. (asm.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women are often asymptomatic and if left untreated can lead to significant late sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal factor infertility. (cpnhelp.org)
  • Inflammation and Fibrosis during Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection is Regulated by IL-1 and the NLRP3/ASC Inflammasome. (bu.edu)
  • It has also been described in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (TL Yahr & DW Frank, Genbank PAU56077), Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae (73A), Bordetella bronchiseptica (MH Yuk, ET Harvill, JF Miller, Genbank AFO49488), Bordetella pertussis (78A) and in Burkholderia pseudomallei (The Sanger Center, Cambridge, UK). (antievolution.org)
  • Emerging information about Chlamydia pneumoniae in disease & its treatment. (cpnhelp.org)
  • N-acetyl-cysteine increases the replication of Chlamydia pneumoniae and prolongs the clearance of the pathogen from mice. (doktori.hu)
  • We find a larger potential for recombination in Chlamydophila pneumoniae genomes as compared with Chlamydia trachomatis or Chlamydia muridarum. (pasteur.fr)
  • Dr. Mahony's research interests focus on the pathophysiology of respiratory pathogens including influenza, SARS and coronaviruses and the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae. (cpnhelp.org)
  • Chlamydia pneumoniae CopD translocator protein plays a critical role in type III secretion (T3S) and infection. (cpnhelp.org)
  • Structural characterization of a novel Chlamydia pneumoniae type III secretion-associated protein, Cpn0803. (cpnhelp.org)
  • The genital pathogen Chlamydia is known to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. (asm.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen worldwide, and there is a need to control this epidemic. (asm.org)
  • Although Chlamydia trachomatis is a human genital tract pathogen, chlamydial organisms have frequently been detected in both vaginal and rectal swab samples of animals and humans. (asm.org)
  • Collectively, these data suggest that Chlamydia infection of DCs allows the pathogen to deviate the induced immune response from a protective Th1 to a nonprotective Th2 response that could permit ongoing chronic infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • In mouse cells, IFN-γ can effectively restrict growth of the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis but fails to control growth of the closely related mouse pathogen Chlamydia muridarum . (jimmunol.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that replicates in reproductive tract epithelium. (asm.org)
  • The kinetics of C. muridarum growth were similar in the mouse strains used, but the pathogen burden was higher in the BALB/c mice in the late phase of infection. (elsevier.com)
  • Eight years into the post-genetic era, significant advances to expand the Chlamydia genetic toolbox have been made to facilitate the study of this important human pathogen. (chromoscience.com)
  • Altogether, we present here a new set of genetic tools for C. trachomatis and C. muridarum that will be instrumental as the field continues to harness the power of genetics to study this important pathogen. (chromoscience.com)
  • In our recent in vivo work we have observed that TLR2 plays a protective role in the lung but a detrimental role in the genital tract during infected of mice with the mouse pathogen, C. muridarum. (bu.edu)
  • In each occasion, the institution of defense towards the secondary an infection was attributed to the manufacturing of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the additional hints 1st pathogen.We created a Chlamydia muridarum and HSV-two super-an infection model to even more recognize the ailment development of Chlamydia and HSV-two STIs inside the host genital tract. (wallinside.com)
  • The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis , alternates between two developmental forms: the extracellular, infectious elementary body (EB), and the intracellular, replicative form called the reticulate body (RB). (prolekare.cz)
  • The human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis grows in a glycogen-rich vacuole. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, C. trachomatis naturally only infects humans and C. muridarum naturally infects only members of the family Muridae (includes both mice and hamsters, Alderton, 1996). (wikipedia.org)
  • Two strains of Chlamydia muridarum, MoPn (originally named Nigg) and SFPD, have been isolated from mice and hamsters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to this, chlamydia muridarum responds to interferon gamma (IFN-γ) differently than chlamydia trachomatis, which effects the degree to which the two different chlamydia strains are inhibited in infected mice and humans, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlamydia muridarum was isolated in 1942 from the lungs of albino Swiss mice which all had similar symptoms. (kenyon.edu)
  • Chlamydia muridarum live in oviduct epithelial cells in female mice and prostate epithelial cells in male mice. (kenyon.edu)
  • Chlamydia muridarum lives within the cells of infected mice and hamsters. (kenyon.edu)
  • Penicillin kills Chlamydia following the fusion of bacteria with lysosomes and prevents genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-infected mice. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In addition we show that pG is significantly more efficient than doxycycline at preventing genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-C57Bl/6 infected mice. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Female CD14 gene knockout and C57BL/6J wild type mice were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia muridarum . (biomedcentral.com)
  • We previously demonstrated that Chlamydia muridarum (Cm) induces IFN-β in oviduct epithelial cells (OE) in a TLR3-dependent manner, and that the synthesis of several cytokines and chemokines are diminished in Cm-challenged OE derived from TLR3 -/- 129S1 mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Our aims were to describe the transcriptional pattern of the pMoPn genes in C. muridarum-infected mice and to evaluate the host immune responses against pGP3 and pGP4 proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • BALB/c and C57BL/6N female mice were inoculated intranasally with C. muridarum and sacrificed at different time points, and the total RNA was extracted from the lung suspensions to determine the levels of expression of the different plasmid genes by RT qPCR. (elsevier.com)
  • Selected groups of BALB/c and C57BL/6N mice were infected with C. muridarum 1-3 times. (elsevier.com)
  • Similarly to the humoral immune response, cellular immune responses to pGP3 and pGP4 were detected in the C. muridarum-infected C57BL/6N mice, but the spleen cells of BALB/c mice responded with proliferation only to the pGP3 protein. (elsevier.com)
  • Human pathology can be recapitulated in mice with the mouse adapted strain C. muridarum. (chromoscience.com)
  • Vitamin D receptor knock-out mice (VDR(-/-)) and wild-type mice (VDR(+/+)) were infected with 10(3) inclusion forming units of Chlamydia muridarum and cervical epithelial cells (HeLa cells) were infected with C. muridarum at multiplicity of infection 5:1 in the presence and absence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. (nih.gov)
  • Canadian researchers found mice treated with an experimental vaccine given as a nasal spray fought off infection with a mouse variant of chlamydia faster. (www.nhs.uk)
  • They tested the mice for production of anti-chlamydia antibodies. (www.nhs.uk)
  • They infected vaccinated mice with chlamydia bacteria, then tested them to monitor how quickly they fought off the virus and how many of them got a condition called hydrosalpinx, which is blockage of the fallopian tubes caused by infection. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The mice had blood tests afterwards to check for antibodies specific to chlamydia bacteria. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Twenty mice (10 vaccinated and 10 controls) were infected with a mouse variant of chlamydia called Chlamydia muridarum. (www.nhs.uk)
  • All mice given the vaccine produced antibodies to chlamydia, while no mice given the dummy vaccine did. (www.nhs.uk)
  • C. muridarum and C. caviae were isolated from mice and guinea pigs, respectively ( 3 , 4 ), and are not known to infect humans. (asm.org)
  • I also created a novel model of rectal chlamydia infection in mice. (etsu.edu)
  • A Chlamydia trachomatis Strain Expressing Ovalbumin Stimulates an Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cell Response in Mice. (harvard.edu)
  • Tn from C. muridarum showed decreases in bacterial burden in the uterine horns of mice. (ku.edu)
  • Incredibly, this super-infection situation rewards the host when mice are pre-contaminated with Chlamydia possibly prior to, simultaneously with, or shortly right after problem with HSV-two, by reducing the frequency of HSV-2 deadly neurologic disease. (wallinside.com)
  • TNFR1 KO, TNFR2 KO, and TNFR1/2 DKO mice displayed comparable clearance of primary or secondary genital Chlamydia muridarum infection but significantly reduced oviduct pathology, compared with WT animals. (ovid.com)
  • To determine the effect of azithromycin on persistent chlamydial gut infection, C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were infected orally and genitally and treated with azithromycin (Az) orally (20, 40, or 80 mg/kg of body weight), and the numbers of chlamydiae were determined from cervix and cecal tissues. (asm.org)
  • Following intravaginal challenge with C. muridarum, immunized mice had a 95% reduction in chlamydial shedding from the vagina at the peak of infection and cleared the infection sooner than control mice. (cpnhelp.org)
  • Chlamydia muridarum MoPn binds mAbs recognizing Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP vs4 core epitope (T) LNPT (IA). (wikipedia.org)
  • The chromosome and extrachromosomal plasmid of MoPn were sequenced and was discovered to bind a molecule known as mAbs which also binds to the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis , which is the sexually transmitted disease seen in humans. (kenyon.edu)
  • We utilized an established C3H/HeJ murine cervicovaginal infection model with C. trachomatis serovars D and L2 and the Chlamydia muridarum strain MoPn to monitor the (i) time course of infection and mode of host cell exit, (ii) mucosal and systemic immune response to infection, and (iii) gross and histopathology following clearance of active infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • One such study concerning Chlamydia muridarum investigated the fact that epithelial cells play an important part in host defense against microbial pathogens. (kenyon.edu)
  • Chlamydia muridarum can infect and replicate in a rat adenocarcinoma cell line with characteristics of prostate epithelial cells (MAT-LU) and in a PPEC line which is a nontransformed rat prostate epithelial cell line. (kenyon.edu)
  • A murine oviduct epithelial cell line was constructed to observed how epithelial cells conduct adaptive immune responses to Chlamydia muridarum infection. (kenyon.edu)
  • Another study was done to see if Chlamydia muridarum can infect and replicate in a rat adenocarcinoma cell line with characteristics of prostate epithelial cells (MAT-LU) and in a PPEC line which is a nontransformed rat prostate epithelial cell line. (kenyon.edu)
  • Chlamydia are primarily pathogens of epithelial cells, however they can infect a range of cell types including smooth muscle cells, vascular endothelial cells, and immune cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) 2 ( 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • As expected, oviduct epithelial cells infected by Chlamydia muridarum produced a broad spectrum of chemokines, including CXCL16, and regulators of the acute-phase response, including interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. (asm.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars primarily replicate in epithelial cells lining the reproductive tract. (elsevier.com)
  • Epithelial cells recognize Chlamydia through cell surface and cytosolic receptors, and/or endosomal innate receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). (elsevier.com)
  • We have a variety of in vitro and in vivo models in the laboratory to address the interaction of Neisseria and Chlamydia species with epithelial cells and macrophages. (bu.edu)
  • Transcriptome Analysis Indicates an Enhanced Activation of Adaptive and Innate Immunity by Chlamydia-Infected Murine Epithelial Cells Treated with Interferon γ , JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES 202: (9) pp. 1405-1414. (doktori.hu)
  • Variants in toll-like receptor 1 and 4 genes are associated with Chlamydia trachomatis among women with pelvic inflammatory disease. (medscape.com)
  • Chlamydia muridarum is included in a broad range of Gram-negative bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • Thus it was important to sequence the Chlamydia muridarum genome to parallel its similarities with the human bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis . (kenyon.edu)
  • Chlamydia muridarum is a Gram-negative bacteria, thus it contains an inner and outer cell wall. (kenyon.edu)
  • The chlamydia possesses a specialized type III secretion apparatus which allows it to inject virulence factors from the bacteria into the host cytosol. (kenyon.edu)
  • Chlamydia are obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria and three species are known human pathogens. (jimmunol.org)
  • An inability to mount an adequate Chlamydia -specific Th1 response can often lead to persistence of the bacteria and associated immunopathology in the host. (jimmunol.org)
  • Chlamydiae are Gram-negative bacteria, which replicate exclusively in the infected host cells. (hindawi.com)
  • These data demonstrate that pG treatment of cultured cells infected with Chlamydia results in the degradation of the bacteria. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The vaccine included three proteins from the membrane of the chlamydia bacteria thought to be important for enabling the bacteria to infect cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Chlamydiae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria that are the causative agents of several significant human diseases. (asm.org)
  • Additionally, our work highlights the potential of CppA to serve as a novel target for future therapeutic strategies and supports the feasibility of designing more potent PP2C phosphatase inhibitors for Chlamydia and other pathogenic bacteria. (asm.org)
  • The high prevalence of HLA-B27 among patients with Chlamydia -induced ReA ( 11 ), especially in its chronic form, suggests a pathogenetic mechanism based on interactive effects of the bacteria and HLA-B27 that seems unrelated to the capacity of C. trachomatis to infect or replicate into HLA-B27-positive cells ( 12 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacteria that causes disease. (elifesciences.org)
  • Previous work has shown that C. trachomatis is much better at accumulating glycogen than other Chlamydia bacteria are. (elifesciences.org)
  • Chlamydiae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria found as symbionts and pathogens in a wide range of eukaryotes, including protists, invertebrates and vertebrates ( Horn, 2008 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Chlamydia muridarum is an intracellular bacterial species that at one time belonged to Chlamydia trachomatis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differences in host tropism between Chlamydia species have been linked to host variations in IFN-γ-mediated immune responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • These effects are independent of host cell type, serovar, biovar and species of Chlamydia. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • C. felis, C. caviae, and C. suis are among Chlamydia species that infect animals [3]. (chromoscience.com)
  • Chlamydial plasmids are small, highly conserved, nonconjugative, and nonintegrative DNA molecules that are nearly ubiquitous in many chlamydial species, including Chlamydia trachomatis . (rupress.org)
  • Previous work in our laboratory established a role for TLR2 in cellular responses to chlamydia species. (bu.edu)
  • Chlamydiae are well known for their species specificity and tissue tropism, and yet the individual species and strains show remarkable genomic synteny and share an intracellular developmental cycle unique in the microbial world. (asm.org)
  • Nonhuman chlamydial species C. caviae and C. muridarum show none of these requirements and, instead, appear to be growth restricted by the activities of Src-family kinases. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Chlamydiae are well known for their species specificity and tissue tropism as well as their association with unique diseases. (asm.org)
  • The genus Chlamydia includes three species: C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, and C. suis. (prospecbio.com)
  • Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases. (harvard.edu)
  • Majority of information pertaining to Chlamydia's pathogenicity in a mammalian host has been derived from the mouse-adapted species, Chlamydia muridarum. (ku.edu)
  • Because chlamydiae persist in the GI tract of other mammalian and avian species, it is plausible that chlamydiae may also establish long-term colonization of the human GI tract. (asm.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis includes over 15 serologically defined variants, or serovars, associated with different diseases and tissue tropisms. (asm.org)
  • Dissemination and genetic diversity of chlamydial agents in Polish wildfowl: Isolation and molecular characterisation of avian Chlamydia abortus strains. (amedeo.com)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate whether chlamydial extrusions are shed in vivo following infection with multiple strains of Chlamydia . (frontiersin.org)
  • As part of this project, we are also trying to identify the specific ligands in chlamydia that are important for TLR2-dependent and independent cell activation, and characterize TLR2 signaling mutant strains of chlamydia that lack the cryptic plasmid. (bu.edu)
  • Recombinant CppA (rCppA) amino acid point mutants based upon missense mutations identified in growth-deficient Chlamydia trachomatis strains exhibited reduced, but not a complete loss of, phosphatase activity toward p -nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) and phosphopeptides. (asm.org)
  • There are two genera in Chlamydiaceae: Chlamydia and Chlamydophila. (prospecbio.com)
  • Altogether, the Chlamydia genetic tools described here will benefit the field, as we continue to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying Chlamydia-host interaction and pathogenesis. (chromoscience.com)
  • Because of the likely involvement of HLA-B27 in the pathogenesis of chronically evolving ReA, the role of CD8 + T-cell responses in the protective immunity against C. trachomatis and the presence of HLA-B27-restricted T-cells in patients with Chlamydia -induced ReA, the identification of relevant chlamydial epitopes becomes crucial to establish the pathogenetic mechanism of this disease. (mcponline.org)
  • These data suggest that C. muridarum has evolved a mechanism to escape the murine IFN-γ response by restricting access of Irgb10 and possibly other IRG proteins to the inclusion. (jimmunol.org)
  • These results suggest that the proteins encoded by pMoPn genes may modulate the host immune response during C. muridarum infection, and that the evolved immune response against plasmid proteins, similarly to that against other chlamydial proteins, depends on the genetic background of the host. (elsevier.com)
  • These versatile vectors allow for expression and localization studies of Chlamydia effectors, such as Inc proteins, and will be instrumental for mutant complementation studies. (chromoscience.com)
  • We are currently carrying out high throughput proteomics to dissect the function of the approximately 150 proteins that Chlamydia inject into the host cell to create a unique replicative niche and to escape the innate immune response. (ucsf.edu)
  • That human proteins contain sequences mimicking chlamydial T-cell epitopes suggests a basis for an autoimmune component of Chlamydia -induced HLA-B27-associated disease. (mcponline.org)
  • Together, these results suggest that highly conserved proteins of the chlamydial T3SS may represent good candidates for a Chlamydia vaccine. (cpnhelp.org)
  • The second major research interest of the laboratory is the characterization of proteins of the type III secretion system of Chlamydia and elucidating how these proteins interact to form the secretion apparatus. (cpnhelp.org)
  • In contrast, murine models have clearly demonstrated the essential role of T helper type 1 (Th1) cells, especially interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-producing CD4 + T cells, in protective immunity to chlamydia. (asm.org)
  • Availability of a chlamydia vaccine could improve chlamydia prevention efforts ( 3 , 4 ), but vaccine development efforts have been hindered in part by insufficient knowledge of the immune responses to C. trachomatis infection in humans that contribute to protective immunity ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Because of the ethical concerns about performing Chlamydia challenge or natural history studies in humans, animal models have played a critical role in identifying the mechanisms of protective immunity to chlamydia ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • In murine models of genital chlamydia, protective immunity is largely mediated through CD4 + T helper type 1 (Th1) cell responses, with interferon gamma (IFN-γ) playing an essential role ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Another Th1 cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), has also been implicated in protective immunity to chlamydia in murine studies ( 8 - 10 ). (asm.org)
  • Secretion of this cytokine is critical for the protective immunity against Chlamydia ( 8 ) because it inhibits the bacterial growth ( 9 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The plasmid-encoded pGP3, a genital tract virulence factor, is essential for Chlamydia muridarum to colonize the mouse. (asm.org)
  • Early Colonization of the Upper Genital Tract by Chlamydia muridarum Is Associated with Enhanced Inflammation Later in Infection. (harvard.edu)
  • Evidence from animal studies suggests that chlamydiae may persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and be a reservoir for reinfection of the genital tract. (asm.org)
  • Thus, we have proposed that chlamydiae can persist in the gastrointestinal tract and that women can be reinfected in the genital tract by autoinfection from the rectum. (asm.org)
  • However, if chlamydiae persist in the GI tract as a reservoir and this serves as a source for genital reinfection, then one must hypothesize that azithromycin (Az) treatment which clears the genital infection is not able to eliminate GI infection in all individuals. (asm.org)
  • At the tissue level, plasmid-positive Chlamydia . (asm.org)
  • Chlamydia muridarum carries a cryptic plasmid (pMoPn) of 7.5. (elsevier.com)
  • As shown in a magnified reticulate body, the chlamydial plasmid has eight ORFs, which encode plasmid maintenance and chlamydia-specific functions. (rupress.org)
  • Plasmid-deficient Chlamydia muridarum fail to induce immune pathology and protect against oviduct disease. (bu.edu)
  • This is essential knowledge if the plasmid is to be continued to be relied on as a key diagnostic marker, and for an understanding of the evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immunization with chlamydial type III secretion antigens reduces vaginal shedding and prevents fallopian tube pathology following live C. muridarum challenge. (cpnhelp.org)
  • The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia exists as two distinct forms. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes a diversity of severe and debilitating diseases worldwide. (asm.org)
  • Chlamydia is a common term for infection with any bacterium belonging to the phylum Chlamydiae. (prospecbio.com)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium whose only natural host is humans. (asm.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium. (asm.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis , an obligate intracellular bacterium, causes mucosal infection (chlamydia) of the genital, anorectal, and oropharyngeal surfaces in humans. (asm.org)
  • Members of the genus Chlamydia are characterized by an obligatory intracellular lifestyle and biphasic developmental cycle ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • This term derives from the name of the bacterial genus Chlamydiain the family Chlamydiaceae, order Chlamydiales, class and phylum Chlamydiae. (prospecbio.com)
  • The chapter addresses the surprising finding that chlamydiae have the tools to naturally acquire and integrate homologous DNA into their genome as long as the DNA is donated by a related chlamydial strain. (asmscience.org)
  • The relative abundance of candidate gene transfer systems in members of the Chlamydiales suggests that contemporary Chlamydia spp. (asmscience.org)
  • It has previously been suggested that C. muridarum inactivates the IRG protein Irga6 (Iigp1) to dampen the murine immune response. (jimmunol.org)
  • Importantly, we find that Irgb10 protein intimately associates with inclusions harboring C. trachomatis but is absent from inclusions formed by C. muridarum . (jimmunol.org)
  • Srivastava P, Jha R, Bas S, Salhan S, Mittal A. In infertile women, cells from Chlamydia trachomatis infected sites release higher levels of interferon-gamma, interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha upon heat-shock-protein stimulation than fertile women. (medscape.com)
  • Chlamydiae are susceptible to antibiotics that interfere with DNA and protein synthesis, including tetracyclines, macrolides, and quinolones. (medscape.com)
  • The E.coli derived recombinant 6xHis fusion at C-terminus protein contains Chlamydia Trachomatis MOMP protein epitopes, 191-286 amino acids. (prospecbio.com)
  • Chlamydia W4 protein although stable at 4°C for 1 week, should be stored below -18°C. (prospecbio.com)
  • Chlamydia W4-W5 protein was purified by proprietary chromatographic technique. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • To determine the frequency and magnitude of Th1 cytokine responses elicited to C. trachomatis infection in humans, we stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 90 chlamydia-infected women with C. trachomatis elementary bodies, Pgp3, and major outer membrane protein and measured IFN-γ-, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-, and interleukin-2 (IL-2)-producing CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell responses using intracellular cytokine staining. (asm.org)
  • While these findings substantiate the importance of protein phosphorylation in Chlamydia , the physiological impact of protein phosphorylation remains enigmatic. (asm.org)
  • In the present study, we show that Chlamydia muridarum infection of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) modulates the phenotype, cytokine secretion profile, and Ag-presenting capability of these BMDC. (jimmunol.org)
  • In the murine chlamydia model, the influence of TNF-α on chlamydia clearance appears to be specific to the mucosal site infected. (asm.org)
  • Infection of the host cells by Chlamydiae stimulates the innate immune system leading to an inflammatory response, which is manifested not only by secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 from monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, but also possibly by cell death mediated by Caspase-1 pyroptosis. (hindawi.com)
  • The chromosome 3 GBPs have also been implicated in activating the canonical inflammasome during Chlamydia muridarum infection in bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs). (harvard.edu)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects the urogenital epithelium. (mcponline.org)
  • Torrone E, Papp J, Weinstock H. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among persons aged 14-39 years--United States, 2007-2012. (medscape.com)
  • Despite over 2 decades of national screening efforts in the United States, the prevalence of chlamydia continues to rise ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. (nih.gov)
  • Chlamydia screening among sexually active young female enrollees of health plans--United States, 2000-2007. (medscape.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 90 million of all new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) per year are caused by Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Halford B, Piazza MB, Liu D, Obineme C. Chlamydia ascites: a call for sexually transmitted infection testing. (harvard.edu)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection and can cause significant reproductive morbidity in women. (asm.org)
  • Chlamydia is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide ( 1 ), and genital chlamydia is associated with significant reproductive morbidity, including tubal factor infertility. (asm.org)
  • The infection course was monitored by detection of viable chlamydiae from serially collected cervical-vaginal swabs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Changing are living chlamydiae with UV-irradiated, replication-incompetent chlamydiae failed to elicit major security from HSV-2-induced mortality, indicating that the continued existence of viable chlamydiae is expected to promote the protective result. (wallinside.com)
  • Numerous attempts to create a vaccine since 1957 have failed because of the rapid resistance of chlamydia to the vaccine, unwanted side effects, or even a worse response to chlamydia infection. (www.nhs.uk)
  • 5. Brunham RC, Rey-Ladino J (2005) Immunology of Chlamydia infection: implications for a Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine. (prolekare.cz)
  • We demonstrated previously that tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)-producing Chlamydia-specific CD8+ T cells cause oviduct pathological sequelae. (ovid.com)
  • All Chlamydia genera undergo a biphasic developmental cycle. (jimmunol.org)
  • Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that undergo an essential, but poorly understood, biphasic developmental cycle transitioning between the infectious elementary body and the replicative reticulate body. (asm.org)
  • This state is reversible as removal of the stressor allows the chlamydiae to re-enter and complete the normal developmental cycle. (prolekare.cz)
  • The developmental cycle of Chlamydiae involves two morphologically distinct forms. (elifesciences.org)
  • Since prior protection is recognized so early in the course of chlamydia an infection , it appears to be most likely that the protecting mechanism involves the activation of particular host innate immune responses instead than adaptive immune responses that come about later in an infection.Activation of toll-like receptors is an crucial initial phase in the initiation of the host innate immune reaction to a variety of pathogens. (wallinside.com)
  • is likely to be based on the near synteny of the different Chlamydia genomes ( 9 , 10 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that exhibit a broad range of host tropism. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, the involvement of RIP3 in inflammasome activation by Chlamydia muridarum infection has not been clarified. (hindawi.com)
  • The data indicated that RIP3 is involved in NLRP3 inflammasome activation in LPS/ATP-stimulated BMDMs but not in Chlamydia muridarum infection. (hindawi.com)
  • I show that the chromosome 3 GBPs activate the canonical inflammasome during C. trachomatis infection in BMDMs, though possibly by a different mechanism than in C. muridarum infection. (harvard.edu)
  • In fact, there is ample evidence that women become infected orally and that chlamydiae can be isolated from rectal swabs in the absence of anal intercourse ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common STIs in the UK, with more than 200,000 cases reported in 2015. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Chlamydia are known to replicate in a vacuole known as an inclusion. (kenyon.edu)
  • and ( ii ) targeting of the chlamydial vacuole to the perinuclear region where the organisms intercept essential lipids from the trans-Golgi exocytic pathway ( 8 ), the latter being unique to chlamydiae. (pnas.org)
  • The obligately intracellular chlamydiae develop within a host vacuole termed the inclusion. (rupress.org)
  • Following endocytosis by a host cell, chlamydiae reside within a vacuole termed an inclusion, which is nonfusogenic with the endosomal/lysosomal pathway but acquires sphingomyelin and cholesterol from the Golgi apparatus ( 6 - 8 ). (asm.org)