Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial
Genital Diseases, Female
Male Urogenital Diseases
Female Urogenital Diseases
Genital Diseases, Male
Fallopian Tube Diseases
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sensitivity and Specificity
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Studies on the response of ewes to live chlamydiae adapted to chicken embryos or tissue culture. (1/2783)Ewes infected before gestation with chicken embryo or tissue culture adapted chlamydial strain B-577 were challenge inoculated with the homologous strain at four to 18 weeks of gestation. The ewes responsed with group specific complement fixing antibody titers of 1:8 to 1:256 by the second week after initial infection. A secondary antibody response in the surviving challenge inoculated ewes occurred at the time of lambing and reached titers of 1:32 to 1:256 by the second week after parturition. Group specific complement fixing antibodies did not appear to play a significant role in resistance to chlamydial infection. Ewes infected with the chicken embryo adapted strain B-577 excreted chlamydiae in their feces 60 days after inoculation. However, chlamydiae were not recovered from feces of ewes infected with the tissue culture adapted strain B-577. Placentas of ewes challenge inoculated by the intravenous route were consistently infected. Chlamydiae were recovered from placentas, some fetuses and lambs. In two instances when challenge inoculation was given by the intramuscular route, infection was detected only by the direct fluorescent antibody method. (+info)
Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. (2/2783)OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for evidence that chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and Institute of Science and Information bibliographic databases were searched at the end of September 1998. Indexing terms used were chlamydi*, heart, coronary, and atherosclerosis. Serological and pathological studies published as papers in any language since 1988 or abstracts since 1997 were selected. DATA EXTRACTION: It was assumed that chronic C pneumoniae infection is characterised by the presence of both specific IgG and IgA, and serological studies were examined for associations that fulfilled these criteria. Pathological studies were also reviewed for evidence that the presence of C pneumoniae in diseased vessels is associated with the severity and extent of atherosclerosis. DATA SYNTHESIS: The majority of serological studies have shown an association between C pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. However, the number of cases in studies that have reported a positive association when using strict criteria for chronic infection is similar to the number of cases in studies which found no association. Nevertheless, the organism is widely found in atherosclerotic vessels, although it may not be at all diseased sites and is not confined to the most severe lesions. Rabbit models and preliminary antibiotic trials suggest that the organism might exacerbate atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION: More evidence is required before C pneumoniae can be accepted as playing a role in atherosclerosis. Although use of antibiotics in routine practice is not justified, large scale trials in progress will help to elucidate the role of C pneumoniae. (+info)
Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus: population based study of coronary heart disease. (3/2783)OBJECTIVE: To study possible associations between coronary heart disease and serological evidence of persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. DESIGN: Population based, case-control study, nested within a randomised trial. SETTING: Five general practices in Bedfordshire, UK. INDIVIDUALS: 288 patients with incident or prevalent coronary heart disease and 704 age and sex matched controls. RESULTS: High concentrations of serum IgG antibodies to H pylori were present in 54% of cases v 46% of controls, with corresponding results for C pneumoniae seropositivity (33% v 33%), and cytomegalovirus seropositivity (40% v 31%). After adjustments for age, sex, smoking, indicators of socioeconomic status, and standard risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for coronary heart disease of seropositivity to these agents were: 1.28 (0.93 to 1.75) for H pylori, 0.95 (0.66 to 1.36) for C pneumoniae, and 1.40 (0.96 to 2. 05) for cytomegalovirus. CONCLUSIONS: There is no good evidence of strong associations between coronary heart disease and serological markers of persistent infection with H pylori, C pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. To determine the existence of moderate associations between these agents and disease, however, larger scale studies will be needed that can keep residual confounders to a minimum. (+info)
Nongonococcal urethritis--a new paradigm. (4/2783)Urethritis in men has been categorized historically as gonococcal or nongonococcal (NGU). The major pathogens causing NGU are Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Trichomonas vaginalis may be involved occasionally. In up to one-half of cases, an etiologic organism may not be identified. In this review we present recent advances in the diagnosis and management of NGU and discuss how they may be applied in a variety of clinical settings, including specialized STD clinics and primary health care practices. In particular, the development of the noninvasive urine-based nucleic acid amplification tests may warrant rethinking of the traditional classification of urethritis as gonococcal urethritis or NGU. Diagnostic for Chlamydia are strongly recommended because etiologic diagnosis of chlamydial urethritis may have important public health implications, such as the need for partner referral and reporting. A single 1-g dose of azithromycin was found to be therapeutically equivalent to the tetracyclines and may offer the advantage of better compliance. (+info)
Chlamydia infections and heart disease linked through antigenic mimicry. (5/2783)Chlamydia infections are epidemiologically linked to human heart disease. A peptide from the murine heart muscle-specific alpha myosin heavy chain that has sequence homology to the 60-kilodalton cysteine-rich outer membrane proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. psittaci, and C. trachomatis was shown to induce autoimmune inflammatory heart disease in mice. Injection of the homologous Chlamydia peptides into mice also induced perivascular inflammation, fibrotic changes, and blood vessel occlusion in the heart, as well as triggering T and B cell reactivity to the homologous endogenous heart muscle-specific peptide. Chlamydia DNA functioned as an adjuvant in the triggering of peptide-induced inflammatory heart disease. Infection with C. trachomatis led to the production of autoantibodies to heart muscle-specific epitopes. Thus, Chlamydia-mediated heart disease is induced by antigenic mimicry of a heart muscle-specific protein. (+info)
The in-vitro activity of HMR 3647, a new ketolide antimicrobial agent. (6/2783)The in-vitro activity of HMR 3647, a novel ketolide, was investigated in comparison with those of erythromycin A, roxithromycin, clarithromycin (14-membered ring macrolides), amoxycillin-clavulanate and ciprofloxacin against 719 recent clinical Gram-positive, Gram-negative and anaerobic isolates and type cultures. HMR 3647 generally demonstrated greater activity than the other compounds with MIC90s of < or =0.5 mg/L, except for Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC90 > 128 mg/L), Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90 = 2 mg/L), Enterococcus faecalis (MIC90 = 2 mg/L), Enterococcus faecium (MIC90 = 1 mg/L) and the anaerobes, Bacteroides fragilis (MIC90 = 2 mg/L) and Clostridium difficile (MIC90 = 1 mg/L). In general, an increase in the size of the inoculum from 10(4) to 10(6) cfu on selected strains had little effect on the MICs of HMR 3647. Additionally, the in-vitro activity of HMR 3647 was not affected by the presence of either 20 or 70% (v/v) human serum. The antichlamydial activity of HMR 3647 was generally greater than that of commonly used antichlamydial antimicrobials. (+info)
Prospective study of Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG seropositivity and risks of future myocardial infarction. (7/2783)BACKGROUND: Chlamydia pneumoniae has been hypothesized to play a role in atherothrombosis. However, prospective data relating exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae and risks of future myocardial infarction (MI) are sparse. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective cohort of nearly 15 000 healthy men, we measured IgG antibodies directed against Chlamydia pneumoniae in blood samples collected at baseline from 343 study participants who subsequently reported a first MI and from an equal number of age- and smoking-matched control subjects who did not report vascular disease during a 12-year follow-up period. The proportion of study subjects with IgG antibodies directed against Chlamydia increased with age and cigarette consumption. However, prevalence rates of Chlamydia IgG seropositivity were virtually identical at baseline among men who subsequently reported first MI compared with age- and smoking-matched control subjects. Specifically, the relative risks of future MI associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG titers >/=1:16, 1:32, 1:64, 1:128, and 1:256 were 1.1, 1.0, 1.1, 1.0, and 0.8, respectively (all probability values not significant). There was no association in analyses adjusted for other risk factors, evaluating early as compared with late events, or among nonsmokers. Further, there was no association between seropositivity and concentration of C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation that predicts MI risk in this cohort. CONCLUSIONS: In a large-scale study of socioeconomically homogeneous men that controlled for age, smoking, and other cardiovascular risk factors, we found no evidence of association between Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG seropositivity and risks of future MI. (+info)
Role of innate and adaptive immunity in the outcome of primary infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, as analyzed in genetically modified mice. (8/2783)Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of acute respiratory disease in man and is also associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disorder. Herein, we have compared bacterial load and immune parameters of C. pneumoniae-infected mice genomically lacking T cell coreceptors, cytokine receptors, or cytotoxic effector molecules. A protective role for CD8+ cells is shown by the enhanced severity of infection of CD8-/- or TAP-1-/-/beta2-microglobulin -/- mice. CD8+ cells hindered a parasite growth-promoting role of CD4+ T cells, as indicated by the higher sensitivity to early infection of CD8-/- than CD4-/-/CD8-/- mice, which was further confirmed in experiments in which SCID mice were reconstituted with either CD4+ or CD4+ plus CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, CD4+ T cells played a dual role, detrimental early (14 and 24 days) after infection but protective at later time points (60 days after infection). The CD8+ T cell protection was perforin independent. The early deleterious role of CD4+ in the absence of CD8+ T cells was associated with enhanced IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA levels and delayed IFN-gamma mRNA accumulation in lungs. In line with this, IFN-gammaR-/- (but not TNFRp55 -/-) mice showed dramatically increased susceptibility to C. pneumoniae, linked to reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA accumulation, but not to diminished levels of specific Abs. The increased susceptibility of iNOS-/- mice indicates a protective role for iNOS activity during infection with C. pneumoniae. The higher sensitivity of IFN-gammaR-/- mice to C. pneumoniae compared with that of SCID or recombination-activating gene-1-/- mice suggested a relevant protective role of IFN-gamma-dependent innate mechanisms of protection. (+info)
The symptoms of chlamydia infections can vary depending on the location of the infection. In genital infections, symptoms may include:
* Discharge from the penis or vagina
* Painful urination
* Abnormal bleeding or spotting
* Painful sex
* Testicular pain in men
* Pelvic pain in women
In eye infections, symptoms can include:
* Redness and swelling of the eye
* Discharge from the eye
* Pain or sensitivity to light
In respiratory infections, symptoms may include:
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
If left untreated, chlamydia infections can lead to serious complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women and epididymitis in men. Chlamydia infections can also increase the risk of infertility and other long-term health problems.
Chlamydia infections are typically diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) or a culture test. Treatment for chlamydia infections typically involves antibiotics, which can effectively cure the infection. It is important to note that sexual partners of someone with a chlamydia infection should also be tested and treated, as they may also have the infection.
Prevention methods for chlamydia infections include safe sex practices such as using condoms and dental dams, as well as regular screening and testing for the infection. It is important to note that chlamydia infections can be asymptomatic, so regular testing is crucial for early detection and treatment.
In conclusion, chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted bacterial infection that can cause serious complications if left untreated. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing long-term health problems and the spread of the infection. Safe sex practices and regular screening are also important for preventing chlamydia infections.
1. Vaginitis: An inflammation of the vagina, often caused by bacterial or yeast infections.
2. Cervicitis: Inflammation of the cervix, often caused by bacterial or viral infections.
3. Endometritis: Inflammation of the lining of the uterus, often caused by bacterial or fungal infections.
4. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): A serious infection of the reproductive organs that can cause chronic pelvic pain and infertility.
5. Vulvodynia: Chronic pain of the vulva, often caused by a combination of physical and psychological factors.
6. Vaginal cancer: A rare type of cancer that affects the vagina.
7. Cervical dysplasia: Abnormal cell growth on the cervix, which can develop into cervical cancer if left untreated.
8. Ovarian cysts: Fluid-filled sacs on the ovaries that can cause pelvic pain and other symptoms.
9. Fibroids: Noncancerous growths in the uterus that can cause heavy bleeding, pain, and infertility.
10. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): A hormonal disorder that can cause irregular menstrual cycles, cysts on the ovaries, and excess hair growth.
These are just a few examples of the many genital diseases that can affect women. It's important for women to practice good hygiene, get regular gynecological check-ups, and seek medical attention if they experience any unusual symptoms to prevent and treat these conditions effectively.
1. Erectile dysfunction (ED): The inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance.
2. Premature ejaculation (PE): Ejaculation that occurs within one minute of vaginal penetration, with minimal sexual stimulation and before the person wishes it.
3. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): A noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that can cause urinary frequency, hesitancy, and retention.
4. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland, which can cause painful urination, pelvic pain, and fever.
5. Testicular torsion: A condition in which the spermatic cord becomes twisted, cutting off blood flow to the testicle.
6. Varicocele: A swelling of the veins in the scrotum that can affect fertility.
7. Hypogonadism: A condition in which the body does not produce enough testosterone, leading to symptoms such as low libido, erectile dysfunction, and osteoporosis.
8. Peyronie's disease: A condition that causes scar tissue to form inside the penis, leading to curvature and pain during erection.
9. Priapism: A persistent and painful erection that can cause damage to the penis if left untreated.
These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, such as age, genetics, infection, injury, and lifestyle choices. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as ultrasound or biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and can include medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.
It's important to note that many of these conditions can be prevented or treated with timely medical care. Therefore, it is crucial to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms or discomfort in your testicles or penis. Early detection and treatment can help to alleviate symptoms, improve quality of life, and prevent long-term complications.
Symptoms of cervicitis may include:
* Pain or discomfort during sex
* Vaginal bleeding or spotting
* Abnormal vaginal discharge
* Itching or burning sensation in the vagina
* Pain or pressure in the lower abdomen
To diagnose cervicitis, a healthcare provider may perform a physical examination and may also use tests such as a pelvic examination, Pap smear, or vaginal swab culture to rule out other conditions.
Treatment for cervicitis typically involves antibiotics if the condition is caused by a bacterial infection. If the cause is an STI, treatment may involve antiviral or antibacterial medication. In addition, home remedies such as applying warm compresses to the area, taking over-the-counter pain relievers, and avoiding sexual intercourse until the symptoms resolve can be helpful.
Preventive measures for cervicitis include:
* Practicing safe sex by using condoms or other barrier methods
* Getting regular Pap smears to detect any abnormal cell changes in the cervix
* Avoiding douching, as it can disrupt the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina and lead to infection
* Wearing breathable cotton underwear and avoiding tight-fitting clothing that can trap moisture and bacteria close to the skin.
1. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): These are infections that occur in the bladder, kidneys, or urethra, and can cause symptoms such as burning during urination, frequent urination, and abdominal pain.
2. Overactive Bladder (OAB): This condition is characterized by sudden, intense urges to urinate, often with urgency and frequency.
3. Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS): This chronic condition causes pain and discomfort in the bladder and pelvic area, and can lead to increased urination and frequency.
4. Vaginal Infections: These are infections that occur in the vagina and can cause symptoms such as itching, burning, and abnormal discharge.
5. Vulvodynia: This chronic condition is characterized by pain and discomfort in the vulva, and can be caused by a range of factors including infection, inflammation, or nerve damage.
6. Endometriosis: This is a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing symptoms such as pelvic pain, heavy menstrual bleeding, and infertility.
7. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): This is a hormonal disorder that can cause symptoms such as irregular menstrual periods, cysts on the ovaries, and excess hair growth.
8. Vaginal Prolapse: This occurs when the muscles and tissues in the vagina weaken, causing the vagina to protrude into the vulva or rectum.
9. Menorrhagia: This is a condition characterized by heavy, prolonged menstrual periods that can cause anemia and other complications.
10. Dyspareunia: This is pain during sexual activity, which can be caused by a range of factors including vaginal dryness, cervical narrowing, or nerve damage.
These are just a few examples of the many conditions that can affect the vulva and vagina. It's important to note that many of these conditions can have similar symptoms, so it's important to see a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
This definition of 'Genital Diseases, Male' is from the Healthcare Professionals Network (HPN) Thesaurus, a comprehensive collection of terms used in healthcare and related fields.
Trachoma affects the conjunctiva and cornea, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to blindness if left untreated. The disease is transmitted through direct contact with eye discharge from an infected person, or through shared items such as towels or clothes.
The symptoms of trachoma include:
1. Inflammation of the conjunctiva (conjunctivitis)
2. Eye discharge and crusting around the eyelids
3. Redness and swelling of the conjunctiva
4. Blindness or vision loss if left untreated
Trachoma is diagnosed through a physical examination of the eyes, and laboratory tests to confirm the presence of the bacteria. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria, and surgery to remove any scar tissue that has developed. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices such as washing hands regularly, and avoiding sharing items with infected individuals.
Trachoma is a significant public health problem in many developing countries, where it affects millions of people and causes substantial blindness and disability. The World Health Organization (WHO) has included trachoma on its list of neglected tropical diseases, and there are ongoing efforts to control and eliminate the disease through improved access to healthcare and sanitation, as well as mass drug administration programs to prevent and treat the infection.
Symptoms of gonorrhea in men include:
* A burning sensation when urinating
* Discharge from the penis
* Painful or swollen testicles
* Painful urination
Symptoms of gonorrhea in women include:
* Increased vaginal discharge
* Painful urination
* Painful intercourse
* Abnormal vaginal bleeding
Gonorrhea can be diagnosed through a physical exam and laboratory tests, such as a urine test or a swab of the affected area. It is typically treated with antibiotics.
If left untreated, gonorrhea can cause serious complications, including:
* Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women
* Epididymitis (inflammation of the tube that carries sperm) in men
* Chronic pain
* Increased risk of HIV transmission
Gonorrhea is a reportable disease, meaning that healthcare providers are required by law to report cases to public health authorities. This helps to track and prevent the spread of the infection.
Prevention methods for gonorrhea include:
* Safe sex practices, such as using condoms or dental dams
* Avoiding sexual contact with someone who has gonorrhea
* Getting regularly tested for STIs
* Using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention
It is important to note that gonorrhea can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms even if they have the infection. Therefore, regular testing is important for early detection and treatment.
There are several types of fallopian tube diseases, including:
1. Hydrosalpinx: A condition in which the fallopian tubes become filled with fluid, leading to inflammation and scarring.
2. Salpingitis: An inflammation of the fallopian tubes, often caused by bacterial or fungal infections.
3. Tubal pregnancy: A rare condition in which a fertilized egg implants in the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.
4. Ectopic pregnancy: A condition in which a fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus, often in the fallopian tube.
5. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): An infection of the reproductive organs in the pelvis, which can cause scarring and damage to the fallopian tubes.
6. Endometriosis: A condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, often affecting the fallopian tubes.
7. Adenomyosis: A condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows into the muscle of the uterus, often affecting the fallopian tubes.
8. Fimbrial tumors: Rare growths that can occur in the fallopian tubes, often benign but can be cancerous.
9. Mullerian duct anomalies: Congenital abnormalities of the fallopian tubes and other reproductive organs.
10. Oophoritis: Inflammation of the ovaries, which can affect the fallopian tubes.
Fallopian tube diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including hysterosalpingography (HSG), laparoscopy, and ultrasound. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition and can include antibiotics for infections, surgery to remove blockages or scar tissue, or assisted reproductive technology such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) if the fallopian tubes are damaged or blocked.
1. Group B streptococcus (GBS): This type of bacterial infection is the leading cause of infections in newborns. GBS can cause a range of complications, including pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis.
2. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are common during pregnancy and can be caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Staphylococcus saprophyticus. UTIs can lead to complications such as preterm labor and low birth weight.
3. HIV: Pregnant women who are infected with HIV can pass the virus to their baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.
4. Toxoplasmosis: This is an infection caused by a parasite that can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta. Toxoplasmosis can cause a range of complications, including birth defects and stillbirth.
5. Listeriosis: This is a rare infection caused by eating contaminated food, such as soft cheeses or hot dogs. Listeriosis can cause complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, and premature labor.
6. Influenza: Pregnant women who contract the flu can be at higher risk for complications such as pneumonia and hospitalization.
7. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): This virus can cause complications such as preterm labor, low birth weight, and neonatal herpes.
8. Human parvovirus (HPV): This virus can cause complications such as preterm labor, low birth weight, and stillbirth.
9. Syphilis: This is a sexually transmitted infection that can be passed to the fetus during pregnancy, leading to complications such as stillbirth, premature birth, and congenital syphilis.
10. Chickenpox: Pregnant women who contract chickenpox can be at higher risk for complications such as preterm labor and low birth weight.
It's important to note that the risks associated with these infections are relatively low, and many pregnant women who contract them will have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies. However, it's still important to be aware of the risks and take steps to protect yourself and your baby.
Here are some ways to reduce your risk of infection during pregnancy:
1. Practice good hygiene: Wash your hands frequently, especially before preparing or eating food.
2. Avoid certain foods: Avoid consuming raw or undercooked meat, eggs, and dairy products, as well as unpasteurized juices and soft cheeses.
3. Get vaccinated: Get vaccinated against infections such as the flu and HPV.
4. Practice safe sex: Use condoms or other forms of barrier protection to prevent the spread of STIs.
5. Avoid close contact with people who are sick: If someone in your household is sick, try to avoid close contact with them if possible.
6. Keep your environment clean: Regularly clean and disinfect surfaces and objects that may be contaminated with germs.
7. Manage stress: High levels of stress can weaken your immune system and make you more susceptible to infection.
8. Get enough rest: Adequate sleep is essential for maintaining a healthy immune system.
9. Stay hydrated: Drink plenty of water throughout the day to help flush out harmful bacteria and viruses.
10. Consider taking prenatal vitamins: Prenatal vitamins can help support your immune system and overall health during pregnancy.
Remember, it's always better to be safe than sorry, so if you suspect that you may have been exposed to an infection or are experiencing symptoms of an infection during pregnancy, contact your healthcare provider right away. They can help determine the appropriate course of action and ensure that you and your baby stay healthy.
Some common types of Chlamydophila infections include:
1. Pneumonia: Chlamydophila pneumoniae can cause pneumonia, which is an inflammation of the lungs that can lead to fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
2. Trachoma: Chlamydia trachomatis can cause trachoma, a highly contagious eye infection that can lead to blindness if left untreated.
3. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia psittaci can cause PID, an infection of the female reproductive organs that can lead to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy.
4. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia caviae can cause UTIs, which are infections of the urinary tract that can lead to symptoms such as burning during urination and frequent urination.
5. Rectal infections: Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia psittaci can cause rectal infections, which can lead to symptoms such as rectal pain, bleeding, and discharge.
Chlamydophila infections are typically treated with antibiotics, and early treatment can help prevent long-term complications and reduce the risk of transmission to others. It is important to practice safe sex and good hygiene to prevent the spread of these infections.
Symptoms of LGV can include:
* Swollen lymph nodes in the groin (inguinal lymphadenitis)
* Painless swellings or ulcers on the genitals, anus, or mouth
* Loss of appetite
LGV can be diagnosed with a physical examination, blood tests, and/or a biopsy. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and surgical drainage of any swellings. Untreated LGV can lead to serious complications such as abscesses, chronic lymphadenitis, and scarring.
Prevention of LGV includes safe sex practices (such as using condoms) and avoiding sexual contact with people who have the infection. Vaccines are also available for prevention of LGV caused by serovars L1 and L2.
Lymphogranuloma Venereum is rare in developed countries, but it remains a significant public health issue in developing countries where access to healthcare and safe sex practices may be limited.
Psittacosis is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted between animals and humans. It is important to take precautions when handling birds or their droppings to avoid infection. Treatment of psittacosis typically involves antibiotics, and early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Psittacosis is a rare disease, but it is important for veterinarians, avian specialists, and other professionals who work with birds to be aware of the risk of transmission and take appropriate precautions to protect themselves and others.
In women, urethritis is more common than in men due to the shorter length of their urethra and their closer proximity to the anus, which can increase the risk of bacterial infection. In addition, certain sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, can cause urethritis in both men and women.
If you suspect that you or a partner may have urethritis, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Untreated urethritis can lead to complications such as recurrent infections, infertility, and an increased risk of certain types of cancer. A healthcare provider can diagnose urethritis by performing a physical examination, taking a urine sample for testing, and possibly performing additional tests such as a pelvic exam or ultrasound to rule out other conditions. With prompt and appropriate treatment, however, most cases of urethritis can be effectively managed and cured.
Symptoms of PID may include:
* Abdominal pain
* Heavy vaginal discharge with a strong odor
* Pain during sex
* Painful urination
PID can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as pelvic exams, ultrasound, or blood tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection, and may also involve hospitalization for severe cases. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair any damage caused by the infection.
Preventive measures for PID include:
* Safe sexual practices, such as using condoms and avoiding sexual intercourse during outbreaks of STIs
* Regular gynecological exams and screening for STIs
* Avoiding the use of douches or other products that can disrupt the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina.
Infections associated with diseases
Sexually transmitted infection
Infectious causes of cancer
Carl Ferdinand von Arlt
Microbotryum violaceum infection of Silene latifolia
Urine test strip
Tubal factor infertility
2022 monkeypox outbreak in North America
2022 monkeypox outbreak
List of diseases (C)
2022 monkeypox outbreak in Spain
Blind Boy Fuller
Sexual and reproductive health
Prostitution in Latvia
1957 in science
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Screening of potential sperm bank donors
Threshold host density
Chlamydial Infections - STI Treatment Guidelines
Chlamydia Infections | Chlamydia | Chlamydia Symptoms | MedlinePlus
Chlamydia (Chlamydial Genitourinary Infections): Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology
Chlamydia Infections May Increase Cancer Risk | Live Science
Recommendations for the Prevention and Management of Chlamydia trachomatis Infections, 1993
Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in Female Soldiers, Israel - Volume 9, Number 10-October 2003 - Emerging Infectious Diseases...
Chlamydia trachomatis diagnostics | Sexually Transmitted Infections
What are some types of and treatments for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or sexually transmitted infections (STIs)? |...
Sexual behaviour in Britain: reported sexually transmitted infections and prevalent genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection
Completeness of and duration of time before treatment after screening women for Chlamydia trachomatis infections - PubMed
ZOONOSES : Chlamydial infection in lambing ewes = ZOONOSES : Infection à Chlamydiae chez les brebis en période d'agnelage
Modified self-obtained pooled sampling to screen for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in men who have...
Essential Observations by Dr. Charles Stratton on Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection and Disease | Cpnhelp.org
Chlamydia Trachomatis, Genital Infections| CDC
Chlamydia trachomatis genovars causing urogenital infections in Santiago, Chile. | Infect Dis (Lond);47(3): 156-60, 2015 Mar. ...
Novel Vaccine for Prevention and Treatment of Chlamydia Infection | Technology Transfer
DailyMed - ERYTHROMYCIN capsule, delayed release
Chlamydia infections Forum: the discussions on Carenity
Lyme Co-Infections: What Is Chlamydia Pneumoniae? - Lyme Time
Details for: Prevalence and incidence of selected sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria...
View of Comparing age and sex trends of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, hepatitis and syphilis infections in Samoa in 2012 and 2017 ...
Clinical characteristic, serology and serovar studies on Chlamydia trachomatis infections - Immunogenetics.nl
Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea infections lead to pregnancy complications - Private GP Canary Wharf London - Dr. Wayne Cottrell
ICD-10-CM/PCS MS-DRG v37.0 Definitions Manual
Occurrence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae in paediatric respiratory infections. | Department of Microbiology...
Dr. Kyle Scarborough, MD - Family Medicine Specialist in Conroe, TX | Healthgrades
Weekly statistics from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS).
Weekly statistics from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS).
Centers for Diseas3
- Diagnosis and management of uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis infections in adolescents and adults: summary of evidence reviewed for the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines. (jpmh.org)
- METHODS: We obtained annual reported rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, number of active shale wells from Enverus (formerly known as DrillingInfo), and sociodemographic covariates from the US Census Bureau. (nih.gov)
- Sexually transmitted diseases or infections (STDs or STIs) affect millions of people in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (healthline.com)
- Chlamydial infection is the most frequently reported bacterial infectious disease in the United States, and prevalence is highest among persons aged ≤24 years ( 141 , 784 ). (cdc.gov)
- To detect chlamydial infection, health care providers frequently rely on screening tests. (cdc.gov)
- In a community-based cohort of female college students, incident chlamydial infection was also associated with BV and high-risk HPV infection ( 785 ). (cdc.gov)
- Chlamydial infection can cause disease in many organ systems, including the genitourinary tract. (medscape.com)
- The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends routine screening for chlamydial infections. (medscape.com)
- Routine Chlamydia screening of sexually active young women is recommended to prevent consequences of untreated chlamydial infection (eg, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility , ectopic pregnancy , and chronic pelvic pain). (medscape.com)
- The pathophysiologic mechanisms of chlamydial infection are poorly understood at best. (medscape.com)
- Infection with chlamydial organisms invokes a humoral cell response, resulting in secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) and circulatory immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and a cellular immune response. (medscape.com)
- Those guidelines highlighted the prevalence and morbidity of chlamydial infections and stressed the need to include antibiotics effective against chlamydia when treating patients for urethritis, mucopurulent cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. (cdc.gov)
- In addition, these recommendations propose a national strategy for reducing the morbidity of chlamydial infections by detection and treatment and through the prevention of transmission to uninfected persons. (cdc.gov)
- Because chlamydial infections are common among adolescents and young adults throughout the United States, health-care providers and other agencies serving these groups should become more involved if a sufficiently large proportion of the chlamydia-infected population is to be reached. (cdc.gov)
- More than 4 million chlamydial infections occur annually (2,3). (cdc.gov)
- In the United States, published studies of sexually active females screened during visits to health-care providers indicate that age is the sociodemographic factor most strongly associated with chlamydial infection. (cdc.gov)
- The prevalence of chlamydial infection also has been higher among those patients who live in inner cities, have a lower socioeconomic status, or are black (5-11). (cdc.gov)
- We show substantial heterogeneity in distribution of reported STIs, and the demographic and behavioural determinants of prevalent genital chlamydial infection. (nih.gov)
- From Dr. Stratton's perspective on the biology of Cpn, and utilizing the evidence from Stewart, Yamaguchi and others, if 25% of "healthy" volunteers are in fact infected with Cpn, including potentially liver and immune system (white cells) cells as important sites of infection (see explanation below), then a highly potent anti-chlamydial agent will kill many Cpn in parasitized cells. (cpnhelp.org)
- Understanding the plasmid's role in chlamydial pathogenesis at a molecular level is an important objective for the future control of chlamydial infections. (nih.gov)
- The NIAID inventor had studied chlamydia strains in both non-human primate and murine infectious models providing evidence that plasmids play an important role in chlamydial pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
Prevalence of chlamydia5
- Although evidence is insufficient to recommend routine screening for C. trachomatis among sexually active young men because of certain factors (i.e., feasibility, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness), screening of sexually active young men should be considered in clinical settings with a high prevalence of chlamydia (e.g., adolescent clinics, correctional facilities, or STD specialty clinics) or for populations with a high burden of infection (e.g. (cdc.gov)
- We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Israeli female soldiers. (cdc.gov)
- Recent studies from the United States and Europe report that the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis ranges from 5% to 20% in sexually active persons ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- The results of this analysis confirm previously observed trends in Samoa for younger age groups' prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhoea, and for older age groups' prevalence of hepatitis B and C. But the analysis also unexpectedly found that older age groups (aged 45 and above) are more likely to test positive for syphilis (for years 2014 and 2017). (who.int)
- Some countries are so worried about the prevalence of Chlamydia that they have created national screening initatives and advise that people under 25 who are sexually active should be tested for the infection annually. (sophos.com)
Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis2
- Oakeshott P, Kerry S, Aghaizu A, Atherton H, Hay S, Taylor-Robinson D, Simms I, Hay P. Randomised controlled trial of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease: the POPI (prevention of pelvic infection) trial. (jpmh.org)
- Urine-based screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics. (canada.ca)
- What are some types of and treatments for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or sexually transmitted infections (STIs)? (nih.gov)
- As part of a national survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles (Natsal 2000) in Britain, we estimated the frequency of self-reported STIs, and the prevalence of urinary Chlamydia trachomatis infection. (nih.gov)
- Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are an ongoing health challenge in Samoa and across the Pacific. (who.int)
- 8 This suggests a persistently high prevalence of STIs, particularly chlamydia, for the past decade. (who.int)
- Studies of the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STI) are largely based on surveillance data. (nih.gov)
- Molecular epidemiology and genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a cohort of young asymptomatic sexually active women (18-25 years) in Milan, Italy. (jpmh.org)
- This study aims at evaluating the prevalence of Ct infection in young sexually active asymptomatic women aged 18-25, and characterizing the molecular epidemiology of the different circulating genovars in this population. (jpmh.org)
- Genital Chlamydia infections: epidemiology and reproductive sequelae. (jpmh.org)
- Prevalence and incidence of selected sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis and trichomonas vaginalis : methods and results used by WHO to generate 2005 estimates. (who.int)
- Odds ratio and χ 2 tests were conducted to compare the rates of positivity of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis across age groups from 2012 and 2017 surveillance data in Samoa. (who.int)
- 2 Samoa has historically reported high rates of chlamydia and gonorrhoea and low rates of HIV and syphilis from cross-sectional antenatal prevalence studies. (who.int)
- The first seroprevalence survey in the country, conducted in 2000, found that chlamydia and trichomoniasis infections were common among pregnant women (30.9% and 20.8%, respectively), with a low prevalence of gonorrhoea and syphilis (3.3% and 0.5%, respectively). (who.int)
- The 2017 national positivity rates for chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis (24.2%, 5.6% and 1.04%, respectively) are similar to previous prevalence rates. (who.int)
- For a cross-sectional study, the data of all patients in the country who had an STI investigation (routine or suspect) from any provider were analysed for years 2012 ( n = 18 804) and 2017 ( n = 48 898) to compare trends in the positive diagnosis of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis by age and sex. (who.int)
Trachomatis infection among women1
- Multiple sequelae can result from C. trachomatis infection among women, the most serious of which include PID, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. (cdc.gov)
- Among women, the primary focus of chlamydia screening should be to detect and treat chlamydia, prevent complications, and test and treat their partners, whereas targeted chlamydia screening for men should be considered only when resources permit, prevalence is high, and such screening does not hinder chlamydia screening efforts for women ( 789 - 791 ). (cdc.gov)
- Women who have had chlamydia infections more than once are at higher risk of serious reproductive health complications. (medlineplus.gov)
- Complications from untreated infections are rare in men, but the condition can cause a burning sensation when urinating, and very rarely, prevent a man from fathering children, the CDC says. (livescience.com)
- To prevent health complications and sexual transmission, treatment should be provided promptly for all persons testing positive for infection, and recent sexual partners should be treated at the same time to prevent reinfection. (nih.gov)
- Numerous complications, some of them fatal, can ensue from this kind of infection. (lyme-time.com)
- New Research published in the Journal of Sexually Transmitted diseases indicates that infection with chlamydia or gonorrhoea in the lead up to or during pregnancy can increase the risk of complications such as stillbirth or premature birth. (drwaynecottrell.com)
- Looking at this study I think it is difficult to draw straightforward conclusions from the figures , as the infections might just be a marker for women at high risk of birth complications, and the study authors noted this too. (drwaynecottrell.com)
- 4. Reproductive tract complications associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection in US Air Force males within 4 years of testing. (nih.gov)
- Asymptomatic infection is common among both men and women. (cdc.gov)
- Most importantly, for up to 80% of infected women, infection is asymptomatic, resulting in failure to seek timely medical care and the exacerbation of such sequelae ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- To assess whether pooled sample testing with nucleic acid amplification tests was a potential alternative to three single-site sample testing to screen for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in asymptomatic men who have sex with men. (nih.gov)
- Despite this, on its own chlamydia pneumoniae can be asymptomatic or mild, especially in the early stages. (lyme-time.com)
- This study underlines the high prevalence of asymptomatic Ct-infections among young women. (jpmh.org)
- Overall, about half of asymptomatic infections is sustained by genovar E. The introduction in Italy of a systematic screening program should be considered to allow a better understanding of Ct spreading and providing women with an opportunity for early treatment to protect their sexual and reproductive health. (jpmh.org)
- Chlamydia may be under-detected because the majority of people with an infection are asymptomatic Footnote 2 Footnote 3 and empiric treatment may be given without laboratory testing. (canada.ca)
- Because chlamydia and gonorrhea often occur together, people who have one infection are typically treated for both by their health care provider. (nih.gov)
- Like chlamydia, if left untreated, gonorrhea can cause pelvic inflammatory disease , which can lead to chronic pelvic pain and permanent damage to a woman's reproductive organs. (nih.gov)
- What are the symptoms of chlamydia? (medlineplus.gov)
- Chlamydia doesn't usually cause any symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
- But even if you don't have symptoms, you can still pass the infection to others. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you do have symptoms, they may not appear until several weeks after you have sex with someone who has chlamydia. (medlineplus.gov)
- You should go to your provider for a test if you have symptoms of chlamydia or if you have a partner who has an STD. (medlineplus.gov)
- Infection by this organism is insidious -- symptoms are absent or minor among most infected women and many men. (cdc.gov)
- Many infected individuals will not experience symptoms, but chlamydia can cause fever, abdominal pain, and unusual discharge from the penis or vagina. (nih.gov)
- Co-infections can exacerbate Lyme symptoms, induce similar disease manifestations, or both. (lyme-time.com)
- Chlamydia pneumoniae is an infectious bacterium that can produce symptoms similar to Lyme. (lyme-time.com)
- For most people who catch chlamydia pneumoniae independently of other conditions, this is the extent of the symptoms. (lyme-time.com)
- These two infections can compound each other, worsening symptoms for patients. (lyme-time.com)
- Chlamydia pneumoniae can be tough to diagnose initially, especially if there are minimal or no symptoms, but there are multiple ways of going about it. (lyme-time.com)
- Just like malware on your computer, Chlamydia commonly shows no obvious symptoms. (sophos.com)
- 14. Isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis from the urethra and from prostatic fluid in men with signs and symptoms of acute urethritis. (nih.gov)
- Most people with chlamydia don't experience symptoms. (healthline.com)
- Antibiotics will cure the infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- It is caused by bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis . (medlineplus.gov)
- Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. (livescience.com)
- To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Erythromycin Delayed-release Capsules, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Erythromycin Delayed-release Capsules, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (nih.gov)
- Erythromycin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following bacteria both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section. (nih.gov)
- When we talk about co-infections , we refer to infectious bacteria transmitted simultaneously with Lyme via tick bite. (lyme-time.com)
- There is also an aspect of the bacteria that makes it particularly dangerous for Lyme patients: chlamydia pneumoniae has been linked to the development of arthritis. (lyme-time.com)
- But combined with Lyme or other infections, the bacteria are afforded the opportunity to run rampant. (lyme-time.com)
- Certain women who receive a diagnosis of uncomplicated cervical infection already have subclinical upper genital tract infection. (cdc.gov)
- Until recently, chlamydia prevention and patient care were impeded by the lack of suitable laboratory tests for screening and diagnosis. (cdc.gov)
- When considering a Lyme diagnosis, it is crucial that all potential co-infections are tested for and addressed simultaneously. (lyme-time.com)
- If the chlamydia infects the rectum (in men or women), it can cause rectal pain, discharge, and bleeding. (medlineplus.gov)
- Chlamydia infects columnar epithelial cells, which places the adolescent female at particular risk because of the presence of the squamocolumnar junction on the ectocervix until early adulthood. (medscape.com)
- Please remember that these are his theoretical speculations based on his review of prior and emerging research, as well as on his considerable clinical experience treating Cpn infections. (cpnhelp.org)
- The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate or commercialize chlamydia vaccine. (nih.gov)
- 17. Chlamydia trachomatis and clinical genital infections: a general review. (nih.gov)
- Babies born to infected mothers can get eye infections and pneumonia from chlamydia. (medlineplus.gov)
- C trachomatis infection causes other diseases as well, including conjunctivitis, pneumonia or pneumonitis, afebrile pneumonia syndrome (in infants born vaginally to infected mothers), Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome, and trachoma (the world's leading cause of acquired blindness). (medscape.com)
- Can be transmitted to fetus during pregnancy or to infant during delivery, causing eye infections or pneumonia. (nih.gov)
- In 1985, CDC published Policy Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Chlamydia trachomatis infections (1). (cdc.gov)
- To facilitate such collaborations, this document outlines the elements of a chlamydia prevention program. (cdc.gov)
- These recommendations were developed by CDC after consultation with experts attending a chlamydia prevention workshop held in Atlanta, Georgia, March 26-28, 1991. (cdc.gov)
- In Samoa, the seroprevalence rates of sexually transmitted infections other than HIV have been endemically high over the past decade, despite years of prevention programming. (who.int)
- This program integrated services that had been provided via a number of smaller stand-alone contracts: In Vitro and Animal Models for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Tuberculosis (TB) Vaccine Testing and Research Materials, Animal Models for Prevention and Treatment of Hepatitis B & C, Animal Models of Human Viral Infection for Evaluation of Experimental Therapeutics, Schistosomiasis Research Reagent Resource Center, and Filariasis Research Resource Center. (nih.gov)
- Rectal and oropharyngeal C. trachomatis infection among persons engaging in receptive anal or oral intercourse can be diagnosed by testing at the anatomic exposure site. (cdc.gov)
- For women, C. trachomatis urogenital infection can be diagnosed by vaginal or cervical swabs or first-void urine. (cdc.gov)
- Earlier studies found an association between chlamydia infections and an increased risk of cervical and ovarian cancer in people, but such studies cannot prove cause and effect. (livescience.com)
- Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the U.S. and it is found in about 99% of cervical cancers. (medicinenet.com)
- It is important to note that most women infected with HPV do not develop cervical cancer and most HPV infections will eventually go away on their own. (medicinenet.com)
- Cervical samples collected from 909 sexually-active-young women (mean age 21.5 years) were analyzed through molecular assay for the detection of Ct infection. (jpmh.org)
- For men, C. trachomatis urethral infection can be diagnosed by testing first-void urine or a urethral swab. (cdc.gov)
- Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Chile , but little is known about the genovar distribution in genital infections . (bvsalud.org)
- Chlamydia is the most common reportable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Canada. (canada.ca)
- Report on sexually transmitted infection surveillance in Canada, 2019. (canada.ca)
- The infection most often presents as an upper respiratory tract infection. (lyme-time.com)
- Occurrence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae in paediatric respiratory infections. (umass.edu)
- The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of viable Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) and C. trachomatis (Ct) in the respiratory tracts of paediatric patients with chronic respiratory diseases. (umass.edu)
- Viable Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis occur frequently in children with chronic respiratory diseases and may be more prevalent in asthma patients. (umass.edu)
- Half of all sexually experienced respondents aged 18-44 years were invited to provide a urine sample for ligase chain reaction testing for C trachomatis infection. (nih.gov)
Rates of sexually transmitte1
- A Multiregion Analysis of Shale Drilling Activity and Rates of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United States. (nih.gov)
- In women, an untreated infection can spread to your uterus and fallopian tubes, causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). (medlineplus.gov)
- Unrecognized infection is highly prevalent in this group (CDC, unpublished review). (cdc.gov)
Risk for infec2
- 25 years is recommended, as is screening of older women at increased risk for infection (e.g., women aged ≥25 years who have a new sex partner, more than one sex partner, a sex partner with concurrent partners, or a sex partner who has an STI) ( 149 ). (cdc.gov)
- The USPSTF recommends screening for chlamydia in sexually active females aged 24 years or younger and in older women who are at increased risk for infection. (medscape.com)