Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.
A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
Species of CHLAMYDIA causing pneumonitis in mice and hamsters. These isolates formerly belonged to CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
A genus of CHLAMYDOPHILA infecting primarily birds. It contains eight known serovars, some of which infect more than one type of host, including humans.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.
Subacute inflammation of the inguinal lymph glands caused by certain immunotypes of CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. It is a sexually transmitted disease in the U.S. but is more widespread in developing countries. It is distinguished from granuloma venereum (see GRANULOMA INGUINALE), which is caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.
Infection with CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI (formerly Chlamydia psittaci), transmitted to humans by inhalation of dust-borne contaminated nasal secretions or excreta of infected BIRDS. This infection results in a febrile illness characterized by PNEUMONITIS and systemic manifestations.
Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.
Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Inflammation of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Inflammation involving the URETHRA. Similar to CYSTITIS, clinical symptoms range from vague discomfort to painful urination (DYSURIA), urethral discharge, or both.
Pathological processes of the male URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, MALE).
A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Bacterial diseases transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.
A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Inflammation of the uterine salpinx, the trumpet-shaped FALLOPIAN TUBES, usually caused by ascending infections of organisms from the lower reproductive tract. Salpingitis can lead to tubal scarring, hydrosalpinx, tubal occlusion, INFERTILITY, and ectopic pregnancy (PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC)
A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
An infection of the eyes characterized by the presence in conjunctival epithelial cells of inclusion bodies indistinguishable from those of trachoma. It is acquired by infants during birth and by adults from swimming pools. The etiological agent is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS whose natural habitat appears to be the genito-urinary tract. Inclusion conjunctivitis is a less severe disease than trachoma and usually clears up spontaneously.
A DNA amplification technique based upon the ligation of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES. The probes are designed to exactly match two adjacent sequences of a specific target DNA. The chain reaction is repeated in three steps in the presence of excess probe: (1) heat denaturation of double-stranded DNA, (2) annealing of probes to target DNA, and (3) joining of the probes by thermostable DNA ligase. After the reaction is repeated for 20-30 cycles the production of ligated probe is measured.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
Infections with bacteria of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE.
A family of gram-negative, coccoid microorganisms, in the order CHLAMYDIALES, pathogenic for vertebrates. Genera include CHLAMYDIA and CHLAMYDOPHILA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.
Pathological processes of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Infections of the genital tract in females or males. They can be caused by endogenous, iatrogenic, or sexually transmitted organisms.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An aseptic, inflammatory arthritis developing secondary to a primary extra-articular infection, most typically of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or UROGENITAL SYSTEM. The initiating trigger pathogens are usually SHIGELLA; SALMONELLA; YERSINIA; CAMPYLOBACTER; or CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Reactive arthritis is strongly associated with HLA-B27 ANTIGEN.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
Pathological processes of the VAGINA.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.
Diseases involving the FALLOPIAN TUBES including neoplasms (FALLOPIAN TUBE NEOPLASMS); SALPINGITIS; tubo-ovarian abscess; and blockage.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from urethral specimens of patients with non-gonoccocal URETHRITIS. In primates it exists in parasitic association with ciliated EPITHELIAL CELLS in the genital and respiratory tracts.
Conjunctivitis is an inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva, the transparent membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye, resulting in symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, burning, discharge, and increased sensitivity to light.
All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
Used as a support for ion-exchange chromatography.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Sexual activities of humans.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. Some of the more commonly found genera causing conjunctival infections are Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Chlamydia.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A branch of medicine which deals with sexually transmitted disease.
An order of obligately intracellular, gram-negative bacteria that have the chlamydia-like developmental cycle of replication. This is a two-stage cycle that includes a metabolically inactive infectious form, and a vegetative form that replicates by binary fission. Members of Chlamydiales are disseminated by aerosol or by contact. There are at least six recognized families: CHLAMYDIACEAE, Criblamydiaceae, Parachlamydiaceae, Rhabdochlamydia, Simkaniaceae, and Waddliaceae.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
A family of marsupials in the order Diprotodontia, native to Australia and possessing vestigial tails. There is a single living genus and species: Phascolarctos cinereus, the koala.
Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.
Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.
INFLAMMATION of the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the RECTUM, the distal end of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE comprising gram-negative non CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS-like species infecting vertebrates. Chlamydophila do not produce detectable quantities of glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI.
Inflammation of the vagina, marked by a purulent discharge. This disease is caused by the protozoan TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS.
A genus of gram-negative, nonmotile bacteria which are common parasitic inhabitants of the urogenital tracts of humans, cattle, dogs, and monkeys.
A common gynecologic disorder characterized by an abnormal, nonbloody discharge from the genital tract.
The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.
Pneumonia caused by infections with the genus CHLAMYDIA; and CHLAMYDOPHILA, usually with CHLAMYDOPHILA PNEUMONIAE.
Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.
A short-acting sulfonamide antibacterial with activity against a wide range of gram- negative and gram-positive organisms.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A common inhabitant of the vagina and cervix and a potential human pathogen, causing infections of the male and female reproductive tracts. It has also been associated with respiratory disease and pharyngitis. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.
Loss or destruction of the epithelial lining of the UTERINE CERVIX.
A state in southeastern Australia, the southernmost state. Its capital is Melbourne. It was discovered in 1770 by Captain Cook and first settled by immigrants from Tasmania. In 1851 it was separated from New South Wales as a separate colony. Self-government was introduced in 1851; it became a state in 1901. It was named for Queen Victoria in 1851. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1295 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p574)
Infections with bacteria of the order MYCOPLASMATALES.
A clear or white discharge from the VAGINA, consisting mainly of MUCUS.
Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.
The external and internal organs related to reproduction.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Inspection and PALPATATION of female breasts, abdomen, and GENITALIA, as well as obtaining a gynecological history. (from Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
A republic in the north of South America, bordered on the west by GUYANA (British Guiana) and on the east by FRENCH GUIANA. Its capital is Paramaribo. It was formerly called Netherlands Guiana or Dutch Guiana or Surinam. Suriname was first settled by the English in 1651 but was ceded to the Dutch by treaty in 1667. It became an autonomous territory under the Dutch crown in 1954 and gained independence in 1975. The country was named for the Surinam River but the meaning of that name is uncertain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1167 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p526)

Studies on the response of ewes to live chlamydiae adapted to chicken embryos or tissue culture. (1/481)

Ewes infected before gestation with chicken embryo or tissue culture adapted chlamydial strain B-577 were challenge inoculated with the homologous strain at four to 18 weeks of gestation. The ewes responsed with group specific complement fixing antibody titers of 1:8 to 1:256 by the second week after initial infection. A secondary antibody response in the surviving challenge inoculated ewes occurred at the time of lambing and reached titers of 1:32 to 1:256 by the second week after parturition. Group specific complement fixing antibodies did not appear to play a significant role in resistance to chlamydial infection. Ewes infected with the chicken embryo adapted strain B-577 excreted chlamydiae in their feces 60 days after inoculation. However, chlamydiae were not recovered from feces of ewes infected with the tissue culture adapted strain B-577. Placentas of ewes challenge inoculated by the intravenous route were consistently infected. Chlamydiae were recovered from placentas, some fetuses and lambs. In two instances when challenge inoculation was given by the intramuscular route, infection was detected only by the direct fluorescent antibody method.  (+info)

Chlamydia infections and heart disease linked through antigenic mimicry. (2/481)

Chlamydia infections are epidemiologically linked to human heart disease. A peptide from the murine heart muscle-specific alpha myosin heavy chain that has sequence homology to the 60-kilodalton cysteine-rich outer membrane proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. psittaci, and C. trachomatis was shown to induce autoimmune inflammatory heart disease in mice. Injection of the homologous Chlamydia peptides into mice also induced perivascular inflammation, fibrotic changes, and blood vessel occlusion in the heart, as well as triggering T and B cell reactivity to the homologous endogenous heart muscle-specific peptide. Chlamydia DNA functioned as an adjuvant in the triggering of peptide-induced inflammatory heart disease. Infection with C. trachomatis led to the production of autoantibodies to heart muscle-specific epitopes. Thus, Chlamydia-mediated heart disease is induced by antigenic mimicry of a heart muscle-specific protein.  (+info)

The in-vitro activity of HMR 3647, a new ketolide antimicrobial agent. (3/481)

The in-vitro activity of HMR 3647, a novel ketolide, was investigated in comparison with those of erythromycin A, roxithromycin, clarithromycin (14-membered ring macrolides), amoxycillin-clavulanate and ciprofloxacin against 719 recent clinical Gram-positive, Gram-negative and anaerobic isolates and type cultures. HMR 3647 generally demonstrated greater activity than the other compounds with MIC90s of < or =0.5 mg/L, except for Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC90 > 128 mg/L), Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90 = 2 mg/L), Enterococcus faecalis (MIC90 = 2 mg/L), Enterococcus faecium (MIC90 = 1 mg/L) and the anaerobes, Bacteroides fragilis (MIC90 = 2 mg/L) and Clostridium difficile (MIC90 = 1 mg/L). In general, an increase in the size of the inoculum from 10(4) to 10(6) cfu on selected strains had little effect on the MICs of HMR 3647. Additionally, the in-vitro activity of HMR 3647 was not affected by the presence of either 20 or 70% (v/v) human serum. The antichlamydial activity of HMR 3647 was generally greater than that of commonly used antichlamydial antimicrobials.  (+info)

Chlamydia infection of epithelial cells expressing dynamin and Eps15 mutants: clathrin-independent entry into cells and dynamin-dependent productive growth. (4/481)

Chlamydiae enter epithelial cells via a mechanism that still remains to be fully elucidated. In this study we investigated the pathway of entry of C. psittaci GPIC and C. trachomatis LGV/L2 into HeLa cells and demonstrated that it does not depend on clathrin coated vesicle formation. We used mutant cell lines defective in clathrin-mediated endocytosis due to overexpression of dominant negative mutants of either dynamin I or Eps15 proteins. When clathrin-dependent endocytosis was inhibited by overexpression of the dynK44A mutant of dynamin I (defective in GTPase activity), Chlamydia entry was not affected. However, in these cells there was a dramatic inhibition in the proliferation of Chlamydia and the growth of the chlamydia vacuole (inclusion). When clathrin-dependent endocytosis was inhibited by overexpression of an Eps15 dominant negative mutant, the entry and growth of Chlamydia was unaltered. These results indicate that the effect on the growth of Chlamydia in the dynK44A cells was not simply due to a deprivation of nutrients taken up by endocytosis. Instead, the dominant-negative mutant of dynamin most likely affects the vesicular traffic between the Chlamydia inclusion and intracellular membrane compartments. In addition, cytochalasin D inhibited Chlamydia entry by more than 90%, indicating that chlamydiae enter epithelial cells by an actin-dependent mechanism resembling phagocytosis. Finally, dynamin is apparently not involved in the formation of phagocytic vesicles containing Chlamydia.  (+info)

Gamma interferon and interleukin-10 gene expression in synovial tissues from patients with early stages of Chlamydia-associated arthritis and undifferentiated oligoarthritis and from healthy volunteers. (5/481)

Genetically determined differences in interleukin-10 (IL-10) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses in mice correlate with clearance of Chlamydia pneumonitis infection. We measured the synovial expression of IL-10 and IFN-gamma and additional cytokine genes in patients who had recent-onset Chlamydia-associated arthritis (Chl-AA). IL-10 and IFN-gamma mRNA were relatively abundant in recent-onset Chl-AA.  (+info)

Comparative in-vitro activity of moxifloxacin, minocycline and azithromycin against Chlamydia spp. (6/481)

The in-vitro activity of moxifloxacin, a new 8-methoxyquinolone, was compared with minocycline and azithromycin against 40 strains of Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia psittaci. Both the MIC and the MBC of moxifloxacin ranged from 0.03 to 0.125 mg/L. MICs of minocycline ranged from 0.015 to 0.06 mg/L and MBCs between 0.03 and 0.25 mg/L. MICs of azithromycin ranged from 0.03 to 0.125 mg/L and the MBCs between 0.06 and 0.5 mg/L. MBC values of moxifloxacin were the same as MICs in 32 (80%) of 40 strains tested, whereas those of minocycline and azithromycin were two to four times higher than their MICs. These data confirm those previously obtained indicating that quinolones kill chlamydial strains at concentrations equivalent to their MICs.  (+info)

Genomic relatedness of Chlamydia isolates determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. (7/481)

The genomic relatedness of 19 Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates (17 from respiratory origin and 2 from atherosclerotic origin), 21 Chlamydia trachomatis isolates (all serovars from the human biovar, an isolate from the mouse biovar, and a porcine isolate), 6 Chlamydia psittaci isolates (5 avian isolates and 1 feline isolate), and 1 Chlamydia pecorum isolate was studied by analyzing genomic amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints. The AFLP procedure was adapted from a previously developed method for characterization of clinical C. trachomatis isolates. The fingerprints of all C. pneumoniae isolates were nearly identical, clustering together at a Dice similarity of 92.6% (+/- 1.6% standard deviation). The fingerprints of the C. trachomatis isolates of human, mouse, and swine origin were clearly distinct from each other. The fingerprints of the isolates from the human biovar could be divided into at least 12 different types when the presence or absence of specific bands was taken into account. The C. psittaci fingerprints could be divided into a parakeet, a pigeon, and a feline type. The fingerprint of C. pecorum was clearly distinct from all others. Cluster analysis of selected isolates from all species revealed groups other than those based on sequence data from single genes (in particular, omp1 and rRNA genes) but was in agreement with available DNA-DNA hybridization data. In conclusion, cluster analysis of AFLP fingerprints of representatives of all species provided suggestions for a grouping of chlamydiae based on the analysis of the whole genome. Furthermore, genomic AFLP analysis showed that the genome of C. pneumoniae is highly conserved and that no differences exist between isolates of respiratory and atherosclerotic origins.  (+info)

Epitheliocystis agents in sea bream Sparus aurata: morphological evidence for two distinct chlamydia-like developmental cycles. (8/481)

The morphology of membrane-bound intracellular inclusions, or 'cysts', of epitheliocystis from sea bream Sparus aurata is described. Inclusions under the light microscope appear either granular or amorphous. Granular inclusions do not elicit a proliferative host reaction and contain the 3 distinctive developmental stages of chlamydial organisms: the highly pleomorphic reproductive form or reticulate body, the condensing form or intermediate body and the infective non-dividing rather uniform elementary body. Amorphous inclusions may elicit a proliferative host reaction and contain prokaryotic organisms which differ morphologically from those reported within granular cysts. More or less elongated electron-lucent organisms divide by fission to give rise to electron-dense non-dividing small cells with a dense nucleoid. Vacuolated and non-vacuolated small cells are reported. The morphology and developmental cycle of sea bream epitheliocystis agents would support their chlamydial nature; however, the immunohistochemical study conducted on gill samples which carried both inclusions failed to demonstrate the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) chlamydial antigen. The different stages of the 2 distinct developmental cycles described in the present study are compared with electron microscope observations of epitheliocystis organisms reported from different host species. The hypothesis that epitheliocystis infection in the sea bream might be caused by a unique highly pleomorphic chlamydia-like agent, the life history of which includes 2 entirely different developmental cycles, is discussed.  (+info)

Chlamydia infections are caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis and can affect multiple body sites, including the genitals, eyes, and respiratory system. The most common type of chlamydia infection is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that affects the genitals.

In women, chlamydia infections can cause symptoms such as abnormal vaginal discharge, burning during urination, and pain in the lower abdomen. In men, symptoms may include discharge from the penis, painful urination, and testicular pain or swelling. However, many people with chlamydia infections do not experience any symptoms at all.

If left untreated, chlamydia infections can lead to serious complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women, which can cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy. In men, chlamydia infections can cause epididymitis, an inflammation of the tube that carries sperm from the testicles, which can also lead to infertility.

Chlamydia infections are diagnosed through a variety of tests, including urine tests and swabs taken from the affected area. Once diagnosed, chlamydia infections can be treated with antibiotics such as azithromycin or doxycycline. It is important to note that treatment only clears the infection and does not repair any damage caused by the infection.

Prevention measures include practicing safe sex, getting regular STI screenings, and avoiding sharing towels or other personal items that may come into contact with infected bodily fluids.

'Chlamydia trachomatis' is a species of bacterium that is the causative agent of several infectious diseases in humans. It is an obligate intracellular pathogen, meaning it can only survive and reproduce inside host cells. The bacteria are transmitted through sexual contact, and can cause a range of genital tract infections, including urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and epididymitis. In women, chlamydial infection can also lead to serious complications such as ectopic pregnancy and infertility.

In addition to genital infections, 'Chlamydia trachomatis' is also responsible for two other diseases: trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). Trachoma is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide, affecting mostly children in developing countries. It is spread through contact with contaminated hands, clothing, or eye secretions. LGV is a sexually transmitted infection that can cause inflammation of the lymph nodes, rectum, and genitals.

'Chlamydia trachomatis' infections are often asymptomatic, making them difficult to diagnose and treat. However, they can be detected through laboratory tests such as nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) or culture. Treatment typically involves antibiotics such as azithromycin or doxycycline. Prevention measures include safe sex practices, regular screening for STIs, and good hygiene.

Chlamydia is a bacterial infection caused by the species Chlamydia trachomatis. It is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) worldwide. The bacteria can infect the genital tract, urinary tract, eyes, and rectum. In women, it can also infect the reproductive organs and cause serious complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy.

Chlamydia is often asymptomatic, especially in women, which makes it easy to spread unknowingly. When symptoms do occur, they may include abnormal vaginal or penile discharge, burning sensation during urination, pain during sexual intercourse, and painful testicular swelling in men. Chlamydia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including urine tests and swab samples from the infected site.

The infection is easily treated with antibiotics, but if left untreated, it can lead to serious health complications. It's important to get tested regularly for STIs, especially if you are sexually active with multiple partners or have unprotected sex. Prevention methods include using condoms during sexual activity and practicing good personal hygiene.

'Chlamydia muridarum' is a species of the genus Chlamydia, which are obligate intracellular bacteria that can cause infectious diseases in humans and animals. 'Chlamydia muridarum' is closely related to 'Chlamydia trachomatis', which is a major cause of sexually transmitted infections in humans.

'Chlamydia muridarum' is primarily found in rodents, particularly mice, and can cause respiratory tract infections and reproductive tract diseases in these animals. It has been used as a model organism to study the pathogenesis and immunology of Chlamydia infections in mammals.

The medical relevance of 'Chlamydia muridarum' lies in its use as a research tool to better understand Chlamydia infections and develop new treatments and vaccines for these diseases. However, it is not considered a direct threat to human health, as it does not naturally infect humans.

'Chlamydophila psittaci' is a gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterium that causes psittacosis, also known as parrot fever. It is commonly found in birds, particularly parrots and psittacines, but can also infect other bird species, mammals, and humans. In humans, it can cause a wide range of symptoms, including fever, headache, cough, and pneumonia. Human-to-human transmission is rare, and the disease is typically acquired through inhalation of dried secretions or feces from infected birds.

Chlamydophila infections are caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Chlamydophila, which includes several species that can infect humans and animals. The two most common species that cause infections in humans are Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydophila trachomatis.

Chlamydophila pneumoniae is responsible for respiratory infections, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinusitis. It is usually spread through respiratory droplets and can cause both mild and severe illnesses.

Chlamydophila trachomatis causes a wide range of infections, depending on the serovar (strain) involved. The most common types of Chlamydia trachomatis infections include:

1. Nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis: These are sexually transmitted infections that can cause inflammation of the urethra and cervix, respectively. Symptoms may include discharge, pain during urination, and painful intercourse.
2. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV): This is a sexually transmitted infection that primarily affects the lymphatic system. It can cause symptoms such as genital ulcers, swollen lymph nodes, and rectal pain and discharge.
3. Trachoma: This is an eye infection caused by a specific serovar of Chlamydia trachomatis. It is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide and primarily affects populations in developing countries with poor sanitation.
4. Inclusion conjunctivitis: This is an eye infection that mainly affects newborns, causing inflammation of the conjunctiva (the membrane lining the eyelids). It can be transmitted from mother to child during childbirth and may lead to vision problems if left untreated.

Diagnosis of Chlamydophila infections typically involves laboratory tests such as nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) or culture methods. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics, such as azithromycin or doxycycline, and may involve additional measures depending on the site and severity of infection. Prevention strategies include practicing safe sex, maintaining good hygiene, and receiving appropriate vaccinations for at-risk populations.

Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection caused by certain strains of the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It primarily affects the lymphatic system, leading to inflammation and swelling of the lymph nodes, particularly in the genital area.

The progression of LGV typically occurs in three stages:
1. Primary stage: A small painless papule or ulcer forms at the site of infection, usually on the genitals, within 3-30 days after exposure. This stage is often asymptomatic and resolves on its own within a few weeks.
2. Secondary stage: Within a few weeks to months after the initial infection, patients may develop painful inguinal or femoral lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes) in the groin area, which can sometimes break open and drain. Other possible symptoms include fever, chills, malaise, headache, and joint pain.
3. Tertiary stage: If left untreated, LGV can lead to chronic complications such as fibrosis (scarring) and strictures of the lymphatic vessels, genital elephantiasis (severe swelling of the genitals), and rectovaginal fistulas (abnormal connections between the rectum and vagina).

LGV is more common in tropical and subtropical regions but has been increasingly reported in industrialized countries, particularly among men who have sex with men. Diagnosis typically involves laboratory testing of fluid from an infected lymph node or a sample from the genital ulcer. Treatment consists of antibiotics such as doxycycline, azithromycin, or erythromycin, which can effectively cure the infection if administered promptly.

Psittacosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia psittaci, which is typically found in birds. It can be transmitted to humans through inhalation of dried secretions or feces from infected birds, and less commonly, through direct contact with infected birds or their environments. The disease is characterized by symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle aches, cough, and pneumonia. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, heart inflammation, and even death if left untreated. It's important to note that psittacosis is treatable with antibiotics, and early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for a favorable prognosis.

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as "gono" bacteria. It can infect various parts of the body including the genitals, rectum, and throat. The bacteria are typically transmitted through sexual contact with an infected person.

Symptoms may vary but often include abnormal discharge from the genitals or rectum, painful or burning sensations during urination, and in women, vaginal bleeding between periods. However, many people with gonorrhea do not develop symptoms, making it essential to get tested regularly if you are sexually active with multiple partners or have unprotected sex.

If left untreated, gonorrhea can lead to severe complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women and epididymitis in men, which may result in infertility. In rare cases, it can spread to the bloodstream and cause life-threatening conditions like sepsis.

Gonorrhea is curable with appropriate antibiotic treatment; however, drug-resistant strains of the bacteria have emerged, making accurate diagnosis and effective treatment increasingly challenging. Prevention methods include using condoms during sexual activity and practicing safe sex habits.

Genital diseases in females refer to various medical conditions that affect the female reproductive system, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, and ovaries. These conditions can be caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, hormonal imbalances, or structural abnormalities. Some common examples of genital diseases in females include bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus (HPV), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), endometriosis, uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, and vulvar or vaginal cancer. Symptoms of genital diseases in females can vary widely depending on the specific condition but may include abnormal vaginal discharge, pain or discomfort during sex, irregular menstrual bleeding, painful urination, and pelvic pain. It is important for women to receive regular gynecological care and screenings to detect and treat genital diseases early and prevent complications.

Female urogenital diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the female urinary and genital systems. These systems include the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, vulva, vagina, and reproductive organs such as the ovaries and uterus.

Some common female urogenital diseases include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are infections that occur in any part of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra.
2. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): This is an infection of the reproductive organs, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
3. Endometriosis: This is a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, often on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, or other pelvic structures.
4. Ovarian cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form on the ovaries.
5. Uterine fibroids: These are noncancerous growths that develop in the muscular wall of the uterus.
6. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS): This is a chronic bladder condition characterized by pain, pressure, and discomfort in the bladder and pelvic area.
7. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): These are infections that are passed from person to person during sexual contact. Common STIs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV.
8. Vulvodynia: This is chronic pain or discomfort of the vulva, the external female genital area.
9. Cancers of the reproductive system, such as ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and uterine cancer.

These are just a few examples of female urogenital diseases. It's important for women to receive regular medical care and screenings to detect and treat these conditions early, when they are often easier to manage and have better outcomes.

Uterine cervicitis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the uterine cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. It can be caused by various factors, including bacterial or viral infections, allergies, or irritants. The symptoms of cervicitis may include abnormal vaginal discharge, pain during sexual intercourse, bleeding after sex, and irregular menstrual bleeding. In some cases, cervicitis may not cause any noticeable symptoms. If left untreated, cervicitis can increase the risk of developing more severe complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease or infertility. Treatment for cervicitis typically involves antibiotics to eliminate any underlying infections and management of symptoms. Regular gynecological exams and Pap tests are essential for early detection and prevention of cervical diseases.

Urethritis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the urethra, which is the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. Urethritis can be caused by various factors, including bacterial or viral infections, chemical irritants, or trauma to the urethra.

The most common cause of urethritis is a bacterial infection, such as chlamydia or gonorrhea, which can be transmitted through sexual contact. Other symptoms of urethritis may include pain or burning during urination, discharge from the urethra, and frequent urination.

Urethritis is typically diagnosed through a physical examination and laboratory tests to identify the underlying cause of the inflammation. Treatment for urethritis depends on the cause but may include antibiotics or other medications to treat infections, as well as measures to relieve symptoms such as pain and discomfort.

"Male urogenital diseases" refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the urinary and reproductive systems in males. This can include:

1. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): An enlarged prostate gland that can cause difficulties with urination.

2. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland, which can cause pain, urinary frequency and difficulty, and sexual dysfunction.

3. Erectile Dysfunction (ED): The inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual activity.

4. Peyronie's Disease: A condition where scar tissue causes the penis to bend or curve during an erection.

5. Testicular Cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the testicle.

6. Epididymitis: Inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube at the back of the testicle where sperm matures.

7. Orchitis: Inflammation of the testicle, often caused by an infection.

8. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): Bacterial infections that can occur anywhere along the urinary tract.

9. Kidney Stones: Small, hard mineral deposits that form in the kidneys and can cause severe pain when passed.

10. Bladder Cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the bladder.

These conditions can vary greatly in severity and treatment, so it's important for individuals to seek medical advice if they suspect they may have a urogenital disease.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the reproductive organs in women, specifically the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries. It is often caused by an infection that ascends from the cervix or vagina into the upper genital tract. The infectious agents are usually sexually transmitted bacteria such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, but other organisms can also be responsible.

Symptoms of PID may include lower abdominal pain, irregular menstrual bleeding, vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor, fever, painful sexual intercourse, or pain in the lower back. However, some women with PID may not experience any symptoms at all. If left untreated, PID can lead to serious complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain.

Diagnosis of PID is typically based on a combination of clinical findings, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection and may also include pain management and other supportive measures. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for more intensive treatment or if complications arise.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are infections that can be passed from one person to another through sexual contact. When referring to bacterial STDs, these are infections caused by bacteria. Examples of bacterial STDs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). These infections can be treated with antibiotics, but if left untreated, they can cause serious health problems, such as infertility, organ damage, and even death. It is important to practice safe sex and get regular STD screenings to prevent and promptly treat bacterial STDs.

Trachoma is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It primarily affects the eyes, causing repeated infections that lead to scarring of the inner eyelid and eyelashes turning inward (trichiasis), which can result in damage to the cornea and blindness if left untreated.

The disease is spread through direct contact with eye or nose discharge from infected individuals, often through contaminated fingers, shared towels, or flies that have come into contact with the discharge. Trachoma is prevalent in areas with poor sanitation and limited access to clean water, making it a significant public health issue in many developing countries.

Preventive measures include improving personal hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, promoting facial cleanliness, and providing safe water and sanitation facilities. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the infection and surgery for advanced cases with trichiasis or corneal damage.

The cervix uteri, often simply referred to as the cervix, is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that connects to the vagina. It has an opening called the external os through which menstrual blood exits the uterus and sperm enters during sexual intercourse. During childbirth, the cervix dilates or opens to allow for the passage of the baby through the birth canal.

The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. In males, it also serves as the conduit for semen during ejaculation. The male urethra is longer than the female urethra and is divided into sections: the prostatic, membranous, and spongy (or penile) urethra. The female urethra extends from the bladder to the external urethral orifice, which is located just above the vaginal opening.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

Salpingitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of the fallopian tubes, which are the pair of narrow tubes that transport the egg from the ovaries to the uterus during ovulation. This condition can occur due to various reasons, including bacterial infections (such as chlamydia or gonorrhea), pelvic inflammatory disease, or complications following surgical procedures.

Acute salpingitis is characterized by symptoms like lower abdominal pain, fever, vaginal discharge, and irregular menstrual bleeding. Chronic salpingitis may not present any noticeable symptoms, but it can lead to complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or fallopian tube damage if left untreated. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the infection and, in severe cases, surgery to remove or repair damaged tissues.

Azithromycin is a widely used antibiotic drug that belongs to the class of macrolides. It works by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, which leads to the death of susceptible bacteria. This medication is active against a broad range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, atypical bacteria, and some parasites.

Azithromycin is commonly prescribed to treat various bacterial infections, such as:

1. Respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinusitis
2. Skin and soft tissue infections
3. Sexually transmitted diseases, like chlamydia
4. Otitis media (middle ear infection)
5. Traveler's diarrhea

The drug is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, suspension, and intravenous solutions. The typical dosage for adults ranges from 250 mg to 500 mg per day, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Like other antibiotics, azithromycin should be used judiciously to prevent antibiotic resistance. It is essential to complete the full course of treatment as prescribed by a healthcare professional, even if symptoms improve before finishing the medication.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a species of gram-negative, aerobic diplococcus that is the etiologic agent of gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted infection. It is commonly found in the mucous membranes of the reproductive tract, including the cervix, urethra, and rectum, as well as the throat and eyes. The bacterium can cause a range of symptoms, including discharge, burning during urination, and, in women, abnormal menstrual bleeding. If left untreated, it can lead to more serious complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. It is important to note that N. gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to many antibiotics over time, making treatment more challenging. A culture or nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) is used for the diagnosis of this infection.

Inclusion bodies are abnormal, intracellular accumulations or aggregations of various misfolded proteins, protein complexes, or other materials within the cells of an organism. They can be found in various tissues and cell types and are often associated with several pathological conditions, including infectious diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and genetic diseases.

Inclusion bodies can vary in size, shape, and location depending on the specific disease or condition. Some inclusion bodies have a characteristic appearance under the microscope, such as eosinophilic (pink) staining with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histological stain, while others may require specialized stains or immunohistochemical techniques to identify the specific misfolded proteins involved.

Examples of diseases associated with inclusion bodies include:

1. Infectious diseases: Some viral infections, such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, and herpes simplex virus, can lead to the formation of inclusion bodies within infected cells.
2. Neurodegenerative disorders: Several neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the presence of inclusion bodies, including Alzheimer's disease (amyloid-beta plaques and tau tangles), Parkinson's disease (Lewy bodies), Huntington's disease (Huntingtin aggregates), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (TDP-43 and SOD1 inclusions).
3. Genetic diseases: Certain genetic disorders, such as Danon disease, neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease, and some lysosomal storage disorders, can also present with inclusion bodies due to the accumulation of abnormal proteins or metabolic products within cells.

The exact role of inclusion bodies in disease pathogenesis remains unclear; however, they are often associated with cellular dysfunction, oxidative stress, and increased inflammation, which can contribute to disease progression and neurodegeneration.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT), Direct is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory diagnostic tests. It is a method for identifying and locating specific antigens in cells or tissues by using fluorescent-labeled antibodies that directly bind to the target antigen.

In this technique, a sample (such as a tissue section or cell smear) is prepared and then treated with a fluorescently labeled primary antibody that specifically binds to the antigen of interest. After washing away unbound antibodies, the sample is examined under a fluorescence microscope. If the antigen is present in the sample, it will be visible as distinct areas of fluorescence, allowing for the direct visualization and localization of the antigen within the cells or tissues.

Direct FAT is commonly used in diagnostic laboratories to identify and diagnose various infectious diseases, including bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. It can also be used to detect specific proteins or antigens in research and clinical settings.

Inclusion conjunctivitis is a type of bacterial conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva) that is caused by specific types of bacteria, most commonly Chlamydia trachomatis. It is also known as trachoma, which is a leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. The infection leads to the formation of small, inclusion-containing intracytoplasmic inclusions in the conjunctival epithelial cells, hence the name "inclusion conjunctivitis."

The symptoms of inclusion conjunctivitis include redness, irritation, and discharge from the eyes. It can also cause swelling of the lymph nodes near the ears. In severe cases, it can lead to scarring and damage to the cornea, potentially resulting in vision loss. The infection is typically spread through direct contact with eye or nose discharge from an infected person, and it can also be sexually transmitted.

Treatment for inclusion conjunctivitis usually involves antibiotics, such as azithromycin or doxycycline, to eliminate the bacteria causing the infection. It is important to complete the full course of treatment to ensure that the infection is fully cleared and to prevent recurrence. In addition, good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing and avoiding sharing personal items like towels and washcloths, can help prevent the spread of the infection.

Ligase Chain Reaction (LCR) is a highly specific and sensitive method used in molecular biology for the detection of point mutations or small deletions or insertions in DNA. It is an enzymatic reaction-based technique that relies on the repeated ligation of adjacent oligonucleotide probes to form a continuous strand, followed by thermal denaturation and reannealing of the strands.

The LCR process involves the use of a thermostable ligase enzyme, which catalyzes the formation of a phosphodiester bond between two adjacent oligonucleotide probes that are hybridized to complementary sequences in the target DNA. The oligonucleotides are designed to have a gap at the site of the mutation or deletion/insertion, such that ligation can only occur if the probe sequences match perfectly with the target DNA.

After each round of ligation and denaturation, the reaction mixture is subjected to PCR amplification using primers flanking the region of interest. The amplified products are then analyzed for the presence or absence of ligated probes, indicating the presence or absence of the mutation or deletion/insertion in the target DNA.

LCR has been widely used in diagnostic and research applications, including the detection of genetic diseases, infectious agents, and cancer-associated mutations. However, it has largely been replaced by other more sensitive and high-throughput methods such as real-time PCR and next-generation sequencing.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), also known as Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), are a group of diseases or infections that spread primarily through sexual contact, including vaginal, oral, and anal sex. They can also be transmitted through non-sexual means such as mother-to-child transmission during childbirth or breastfeeding, or via shared needles.

STDs can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, and some may not show any symptoms at all. Common STDs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), hepatitis B, and pubic lice.

If left untreated, some STDs can lead to serious health complications, such as infertility, organ damage, blindness, or even death. It is important to practice safe sex and get regular screenings for STDs if you are sexually active, especially if you have multiple partners or engage in high-risk behaviors.

Preventive measures include using barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, dental dams, and female condoms, getting vaccinated against HPV and hepatitis B, and limiting the number of sexual partners. If you suspect that you may have an STD, it is important to seek medical attention promptly for diagnosis and treatment.

Chlamydiaceae infections are caused by bacteria belonging to the family Chlamydiaceae, including the species Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae. These bacteria can infect various tissues in the human body and cause a range of diseases.

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide, causing urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, epididymitis, and infertility in both men and women. It can also cause ocular and respiratory tract infections, including trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide.

Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia and bronchitis, as well as pharyngitis, sinusitis, and otitis media. It can also cause chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic pathogen that primarily infects birds but can occasionally cause severe respiratory illness in humans, known as psittacosis or ornithosis.

Diagnosis of Chlamydiaceae infections typically involves nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, which can detect the genetic material of the bacteria in clinical samples. Treatment usually involves antibiotics such as azithromycin or doxycycline, which can eliminate the infection and prevent complications. Prevention measures include safe sexual practices, proper hygiene, and avoiding contact with infected animals.

Chlamydiaceae is a family of bacteria that includes several species known to cause diseases in humans and animals. The most well-known member of this family is Chlamydia trachomatis, which is responsible for a range of human illnesses including sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, urethritis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. It can also cause ocular infections like trachoma, which is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide.

Another important member of this family is Chlamydophila pneumoniae, which causes respiratory infections such as community-acquired pneumonia and bronchitis. Additionally, Chlamydophila psittaci can cause psittacosis, a zoonotic disease that humans can acquire from infected birds.

Chlamydiaceae bacteria are obligate intracellular pathogens, meaning they require host cells to survive and replicate. They have a unique biphasic developmental cycle, involving two distinct forms: the elementary body (EB) and the reticulate body (RB). The EB is the infectious form that attaches to and enters host cells, while the RB is the metabolically active form that multiplies within the host cell. Once the RBs have replicated sufficiently, they convert back into EBs, which are then released from the host cell to infect other cells.

Effective antibiotic treatment for Chlamydiaceae infections typically involves macrolides (such as azithromycin) or tetracyclines (such as doxycycline). Prevention strategies include safe sexual practices, proper hygiene, and avoiding contact with infected animals or their secretions.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Urethral diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the urethra, which is the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as pain or discomfort during urination, difficulty in urinating, blood in urine, and abnormal discharge. Some common urethral diseases include urethritis (inflammation of the urethra), urethral stricture (narrowing of the urethra due to scar tissue or inflammation), and urethral cancer. The causes of urethral diseases can vary, including infections, injuries, congenital abnormalities, and certain medical conditions. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing urethral diseases and preventing complications.

Uterine cervical diseases refer to conditions that affect the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. These diseases can range from minor abnormalities to more serious conditions, such as:

1. Cervical dysplasia: This is a precancerous condition characterized by the presence of abnormal cells on the cervix. It is usually caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and can be detected through a Pap test.
2. Cervical cancer: This is a malignant tumor that develops in the cervical tissue. The most common type of cervical cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, which arises from the cells lining the surface of the cervix.
3. Cervicitis: This is an inflammation of the cervix, which can be caused by infections, irritants, or allergies. Symptoms may include vaginal discharge, pain, and bleeding.
4. Cervical polyps: These are benign growths that develop on the cervix. They are usually small and asymptomatic but can cause abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge.
5. Cervical incompetence: This is a condition where the cervix begins to open prematurely during pregnancy, leading to a risk of miscarriage or preterm labor.

It's important to note that regular screening and early detection can help prevent or manage many cervical diseases, including cervical cancer.

Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs) refer to infections that are localized in the reproductive organs, including the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and prostate gland. These infections can be caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites.

RTIs can lead to a range of complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and increased risk of HIV transmission. They can also cause symptoms such as abnormal vaginal discharge, pain during sexual intercourse, irregular menstrual bleeding, and lower abdominal pain.

RTIs are often sexually transmitted but can also be caused by other factors such as poor hygiene, use of intrauterine devices (IUDs), and invasive gynecological procedures. Prevention measures include safe sexual practices, good personal hygiene, and timely treatment of infections.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Medical mass screening, also known as population screening, is a public health service that aims to identify and detect asymptomatic individuals in a given population who have or are at risk of a specific disease. The goal is to provide early treatment, reduce morbidity and mortality, and prevent the spread of diseases within the community.

A mass screening program typically involves offering a simple, quick, and non-invasive test to a large number of people in a defined population, regardless of their risk factors or symptoms. Those who test positive are then referred for further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical interventions. Examples of mass screening programs include mammography for breast cancer detection, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing for prostate cancer, and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer.

It is important to note that mass screening programs should be evidence-based, cost-effective, and ethically sound, with clear benefits outweighing potential harms. They should also consider factors such as the prevalence of the disease in the population, the accuracy and reliability of the screening test, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment options.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Reactive arthritis is a form of inflammatory arthritis that occurs in response to an infection in another part of the body, such as the genitals, urinary tract, or gastrointestinal tract. It is also known as Reiter's syndrome. The symptoms of reactive arthritis include joint pain and swelling, typically affecting the knees, ankles, and feet; inflammation of the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes; and urethritis or cervicitis. It is more common in men than women and usually develops within 1-4 weeks after a bacterial infection. The diagnosis is made based on the symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Treatment typically includes antibiotics to eliminate the underlying infection and medications to manage the symptoms of arthritis.

Urine is a physiological excretory product that is primarily composed of water, urea, and various ions (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and others) that are the byproducts of protein metabolism. It also contains small amounts of other substances like uric acid, creatinine, ammonia, and various organic compounds. Urine is produced by the kidneys through a process called urination or micturition, where it is filtered from the blood and then stored in the bladder until it is excreted from the body through the urethra. The color, volume, and composition of urine can provide important diagnostic information about various medical conditions.

Vaginal diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the vagina, which is the female reproductive organ that extends from the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the external part of the genitalia (vulva). These diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including discharge, itching, burning, pain, and discomfort. Some common vaginal diseases include:

1. Vaginitis: It is an inflammation or infection of the vagina that can cause abnormal discharge, itching, and irritation. The most common causes of vaginitis are bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, and trichomoniasis.
2. Vulvovaginitis: It is an inflammation or infection of both the vagina and vulva that can cause redness, swelling, itching, and pain. The causes of vulvovaginitis are similar to those of vaginitis and include bacterial infections, yeast infections, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
3. Vaginal dryness: It is a common condition that affects many women, especially after menopause. It can cause discomfort during sexual intercourse and lead to other symptoms such as itching and burning.
4. Vaginal cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that develop in the vagina due to various reasons, including inflammation, injury, or congenital abnormalities.
5. Vaginal cancer: It is a rare type of cancer that affects the vagina. The most common symptoms include abnormal vaginal bleeding, discharge, and pain during sexual intercourse.
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Several STIs, such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus (HPV), can affect the vagina and cause various symptoms, including discharge, pain, and sores.

It is essential to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of vaginal diseases to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

Bacterial pneumonia is a type of lung infection that's caused by bacteria. It can affect people of any age, but it's more common in older adults, young children, and people with certain health conditions or weakened immune systems. The symptoms of bacterial pneumonia can vary, but they often include cough, chest pain, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.

The most common type of bacteria that causes pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Other types of bacteria that can cause pneumonia include Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Bacterial pneumonia is usually treated with antibiotics, which are medications that kill bacteria. The specific type of antibiotic used will depend on the type of bacteria causing the infection. It's important to take all of the prescribed medication as directed, even if you start feeling better, to ensure that the infection is completely cleared and to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.

In severe cases of bacterial pneumonia, hospitalization may be necessary for close monitoring and treatment with intravenous antibiotics and other supportive care.

Specimen handling is a set of procedures and practices followed in the collection, storage, transportation, and processing of medical samples or specimens (e.g., blood, tissue, urine, etc.) for laboratory analysis. Proper specimen handling ensures accurate test results, patient safety, and data integrity. It includes:

1. Correct labeling of the specimen container with required patient information.
2. Using appropriate containers and materials to collect, store, and transport the specimen.
3. Following proper collection techniques to avoid contamination or damage to the specimen.
4. Adhering to specific storage conditions (temperature, time, etc.) before testing.
5. Ensuring secure and timely transportation of the specimen to the laboratory.
6. Properly documenting all steps in the handling process for traceability and quality assurance.

Nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) are medical laboratory methods used to increase the number of copies of a specific DNA or RNA sequence. These techniques are widely used in molecular biology and diagnostics, including the detection and diagnosis of infectious diseases, genetic disorders, and cancer.

The most commonly used NAAT is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate and replicate DNA strands. Other NAATs include loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), and transcription-mediated amplification (TMA).

NAATs offer several advantages over traditional culture methods for detecting pathogens, including faster turnaround times, increased sensitivity and specificity, and the ability to detect viable but non-culturable organisms. However, they also require specialized equipment and trained personnel, and there is a risk of contamination and false positive results if proper precautions are not taken.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Contact tracing is a key public health strategy used to control the spread of infectious diseases. It involves identifying and monitoring individuals (contacts) who have come into close contact with an infected person (case), to prevent further transmission of the disease. The process typically includes:

1. Case identification: Identifying and confirming cases of infection through diagnostic testing.
2. Contact identification: Finding people who may have been in close contact with the infected case during their infectious period, which is the time when they can transmit the infection to others. Close contacts are usually defined as individuals who have had face-to-face contact with a confirmed case within a certain distance (often 6 feet or closer) and/or shared confined spaces for prolonged periods (usually more than 15 minutes).
3. Contact listing: Recording the identified contacts' information, including their names, addresses, phone numbers, and potentially other demographic data.
4. Risk assessment: Evaluating the level of risk associated with each contact based on factors such as the type of exposure, duration of contact, and the infectiousness of the case.
5. Notification: Informing contacts about their potential exposure to the infection and providing them with necessary health information, education, and guidance. This may include recommendations for self-quarantine, symptom monitoring, testing, and vaccination if available.
6. Follow-up: Monitoring and supporting contacts during their quarantine or isolation period, which typically lasts 14 days from the last exposure to the case. Public health professionals will check in with contacts regularly to assess their symptoms, provide additional guidance, and ensure they are adhering to the recommended infection prevention measures.
7. Data management: Documenting and reporting contact tracing activities for public health surveillance, evaluation, and future planning purposes.

Contact tracing is a critical component of infectious disease control and has been used effectively in managing various outbreaks, including tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, Ebola, and more recently, COVID-19.

Porins are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. They form water-filled channels, or pores, that allow small molecules such as ions, nutrients, and waste products to pass through the otherwise impermeable outer membrane. Porins are important for the survival of gram-negative bacteria, as they enable the selective transport of essential molecules while providing a barrier against harmful substances.

There are different types of porins, classified based on their structure and function. Some examples include:

1. General porins (also known as nonspecific porins): These are the most common type of porins and form large, water-filled channels that allow passive diffusion of small molecules up to 600-700 Da in size. They typically have a trimeric structure, with three identical or similar subunits forming a pore in the membrane.
2. Specific porins: These porins are more selective in the molecules they allow to pass through and often have smaller pores than general porins. They can be involved in the active transport of specific molecules or ions, requiring energy from the cell.
3. Autotransporters: While not strictly considered porins, autotransporter proteins share some structural similarities with porins and are involved in the transport of protein domains across the outer membrane. They consist of an N-terminal passenger domain and a C-terminal translocator domain, which forms a β-barrel pore in the outer membrane through which the passenger domain is transported.

Porins have attracted interest as potential targets for antibiotic development, as they play crucial roles in bacterial survival and virulence. Inhibiting porin function or blocking the pores could disrupt essential processes in gram-negative bacteria, providing a new approach to treating infections caused by these organisms.

Genital diseases in males refer to various medical conditions that affect the male reproductive and urinary systems, including the penis, testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and urethra. These conditions can be infectious, inflammatory, degenerative, or neoplastic (cancerous) in nature. Some common examples of male genital diseases include:

1. Balanitis: Inflammation of the foreskin and glans penis, often caused by infection, irritants, or poor hygiene.
2. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland, which can be acute or chronic, bacterial or non-bacterial in origin.
3. Epididymitis: Inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube at the back of the testicle that stores and carries sperm. It is often caused by infection.
4. Orchitis: Inflammation of the testicle, usually resulting from infection or autoimmune disorders.
5. Testicular torsion: A surgical emergency characterized by twisting of the spermatic cord, leading to reduced blood flow and potential tissue damage in the testicle.
6. Varicocele: Dilated veins in the scrotum that can cause pain, discomfort, or fertility issues.
7. Peyronie's disease: A connective tissue disorder causing scarring and curvature of the penis during erections.
8. Penile cancer: Malignant growths on the penis, often squamous cell carcinomas, which can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
9. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): Non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that can cause lower urinary tract symptoms such as difficulty initiating or maintaining a steady stream of urine.
10. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Infectious diseases, like chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and human papillomavirus (HPV), that can be transmitted through sexual contact and affect the male genital region.

Reagent kits, diagnostic are prepackaged sets of chemical reagents and other components designed for performing specific diagnostic tests or assays. These kits are often used in clinical laboratories to detect and measure the presence or absence of various biomarkers, such as proteins, antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, or small molecules, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues.

Diagnostic reagent kits typically contain detailed instructions for their use, along with the necessary reagents, controls, and sometimes specialized equipment or supplies. They are designed to simplify the testing process, reduce human error, and increase standardization, ensuring accurate and reliable results. Examples of diagnostic reagent kits include those used for pregnancy tests, infectious disease screening, drug testing, genetic testing, and cancer biomarker detection.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

Chaperonin 60, also known as CPN60 or HSP60 (heat shock protein 60), is a type of molecular chaperone found in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. Molecular chaperones are proteins that assist in the proper folding and assembly of other proteins. Chaperonin 60 is a member of the HSP (heat shock protein) family, which are proteins that are upregulated in response to stressful conditions such as heat shock or oxidative stress.

Chaperonin 60 forms a large complex with a barrel-shaped structure that provides a protected environment for unfolded or misfolded proteins to fold properly. The protein substrate is bound inside the central cavity of the chaperonin complex, and then undergoes a series of conformational changes that facilitate its folding. Chaperonin 60 has been shown to play important roles in mitochondrial protein import, folding, and assembly, as well as in the regulation of apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Defects in chaperonin 60 have been linked to a variety of human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which is a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. It belongs to the tetracycline class of antibiotics. Doxycycline works by inhibiting the production of proteins that bacteria need to survive and multiply.

Doxycycline is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory infections, skin infections, urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and severe acne. It is also used to prevent malaria in travelers who are visiting areas where malaria is common.

Like all antibiotics, doxycycline should be taken exactly as directed by a healthcare professional. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which can make infections harder to treat in the future.

It's important to note that doxycycline can cause photosensitivity, so it is recommended to avoid prolonged sun exposure and use sun protection while taking this medication. Additionally, doxycycline should not be taken during pregnancy or by children under the age of 8 due to potential dental and bone development issues.

Fallopian tube diseases refer to conditions that affect the function or structure of the Fallopian tubes, which are a pair of narrow tubes that transport the egg from the ovaries to the uterus during ovulation and provide a pathway for sperm to reach the egg for fertilization. Some common Fallopian tube diseases include:

1. Salpingitis: This is an inflammation of the Fallopian tubes, usually caused by an infection. The infection can be bacterial, viral, or fungal in origin and can lead to scarring, blockage, or damage to the Fallopian tubes.
2. Hydrosalpinx: This is a condition where one or both of the Fallopian tubes become filled with fluid, leading to swelling and distension of the tube. The cause of hydrosalpinx can be infection, endometriosis, or previous surgery.
3. Endometriosis: This is a condition where the tissue that lines the inside of the uterus grows outside of it, including on the Fallopian tubes. This can lead to scarring, adhesions, and blockage of the tubes.
4. Ectopic pregnancy: This is a pregnancy that develops outside of the uterus, usually in the Fallopian tube. An ectopic pregnancy can cause the Fallopian tube to rupture, leading to severe bleeding and potentially life-threatening complications.
5. Tubal ligation: This is a surgical procedure that involves blocking or cutting the Fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy. In some cases, tubal ligation can lead to complications such as ectopic pregnancy or tubal sterilization syndrome, which is a condition where the fallopian tubes reconnect and allow for pregnancy to occur.

These conditions can cause infertility, chronic pain, and other health problems, and may require medical or surgical treatment.

The vagina is the canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal because babies pass through it during childbirth. The vagina is where sexual intercourse occurs and where menstrual blood exits the body. It has a flexible wall that can expand and retract. During sexual arousal, the vaginal walls swell with blood to become more elastic in order to accommodate penetration.

It's important to note that sometimes people use the term "vagina" to refer to the entire female genital area, including the external structures like the labia and clitoris. But technically, these are considered part of the vulva, not the vagina.

Mycoplasma genitalium is a small, bacteria that lack a cell wall and can be found in the urinary and genital tracts of humans. It's known to cause several urogenital infections, such as urethritis in men and cervicitis in women. In some cases, it may also lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and complications like infertility or ectopic pregnancy in women. Mycoplasma genitalium can be sexually transmitted and is often associated with HIV transmission. Due to its small size and atypical growth requirements, it can be challenging to culture and diagnose using standard microbiological methods. Molecular tests, such as nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), are commonly used for detection in clinical settings.

Conjunctivitis is an inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva, a thin, clear membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the outer surface of the eye. The condition can cause redness, itching, burning, tearing, discomfort, and a gritty feeling in the eyes. It can also result in a discharge that can be clear, yellow, or greenish.

Conjunctivitis can have various causes, including bacterial or viral infections, allergies, irritants (such as smoke, chlorine, or contact lens solutions), and underlying medical conditions (like dry eye or autoimmune disorders). Treatment depends on the cause of the condition but may include antibiotics, antihistamines, anti-inflammatory medications, or warm compresses.

It is essential to maintain good hygiene practices, like washing hands frequently and avoiding touching or rubbing the eyes, to prevent spreading conjunctivitis to others. If you suspect you have conjunctivitis, it's recommended that you consult an eye care professional for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

The urogenital system is a part of the human body that includes the urinary and genital systems. The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, which work together to produce, store, and eliminate urine. On the other hand, the genital system, also known as the reproductive system, is responsible for the production, development, and reproduction of offspring. In males, this includes the testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, and penis. In females, it includes the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, and external genitalia.

The urogenital system is closely related anatomically and functionally. For example, in males, the urethra serves as a shared conduit for both urine and semen, while in females, the urethra and vagina are separate but adjacent structures. Additionally, some organs, such as the prostate gland in males and the Skene's glands in females, have functions that overlap between the urinary and genital systems.

Disorders of the urogenital system can affect both the urinary and reproductive functions, leading to a range of symptoms such as pain, discomfort, infection, and difficulty with urination or sexual activity. Proper care and maintenance of the urogenital system are essential for overall health and well-being.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or oviducts, are a pair of slender tubular structures in the female reproductive system. They play a crucial role in human reproduction by providing a passageway for the egg (ovum) from the ovary to the uterus (womb).

Each Fallopian tube is typically around 7.6 to 10 centimeters long and consists of four parts: the interstitial part, the isthmus, the ampulla, and the infundibulum. The fimbriated end of the infundibulum, which resembles a fringe or frill, surrounds and captures the released egg from the ovary during ovulation.

Fertilization usually occurs in the ampulla when sperm meets the egg after sexual intercourse. Once fertilized, the zygote (fertilized egg) travels through the Fallopian tube toward the uterus for implantation and further development. The cilia lining the inner surface of the Fallopian tubes help propel the egg and the zygote along their journey.

In some cases, abnormalities or blockages in the Fallopian tubes can lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancies, which are pregnancies that develop outside the uterus, typically within the Fallopian tube itself.

DEAE-Dextran is a water-soluble polymer that is often used in biochemistry and molecular biology research. The acronym "DEAE" stands for diethylaminoethyl, which is a type of charged group that can bind to and interact with negatively charged molecules such as DNA. Dextran is a type of sugar polymer that makes the DEAE groups more soluble in water.

In research settings, DEAE-Dextran is commonly used to precipitate DNA or to create complexes with DNA that can be used for various purposes, such as transfection (the process of introducing genetic material into cells). The positive charge of the DEAE groups allows them to interact strongly with the negative charges on the DNA molecule, forming a stable complex that can be taken up by cells.

It's important to note that DEAE-Dextran is not used in clinical medicine, but rather as a research tool in laboratory settings.

Female genitalia refer to the reproductive and sexual organs located in the female pelvic region. They are primarily involved in reproduction, menstruation, and sexual activity. The external female genitalia, also known as the vulva, include the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and the external openings of the urethra and vagina. The internal female genitalia consist of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. These structures work together to facilitate menstruation, fertilization, pregnancy, and childbirth.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Sexual behavior refers to any physical or emotional interaction that has the potential to lead to sexual arousal and/or satisfaction. This can include a wide range of activities, such as kissing, touching, fondling, oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex, and masturbation. It can also involve the use of sexual aids, such as vibrators or pornography.

Sexual behavior is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. It is an important aspect of human development and relationships, and it is essential to healthy sexual functioning and satisfaction. However, sexual behavior can also be associated with risks, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies, and it is important for individuals to engage in safe and responsible sexual practices.

It's important to note that sexual behavior can vary widely among individuals and cultures, and what may be considered normal or acceptable in one culture or context may not be in another. It's also important to recognize that all individuals have the right to make informed decisions about their own sexual behavior and to have their sexual rights and autonomy respected.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Bacterial conjunctivitis is a type of conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva) that is caused by bacterial infection. The most common bacteria responsible for this condition are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae.

The symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis include redness, swelling, and pain in the eye, along with a thick, sticky discharge that can cause the eyelids to stick together, especially upon waking up. Other symptoms may include tearing, itching, and sensitivity to light. Bacterial conjunctivitis is highly contagious and can spread easily through contact with infected individuals or contaminated objects such as towels, handkerchiefs, or makeup.

Treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis typically involves the use of antibiotic eye drops or ointments to eliminate the infection. In some cases, oral antibiotics may also be prescribed. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have bacterial conjunctivitis, as untreated infections can lead to serious complications such as corneal ulcers and vision loss.

Female infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to conceive after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or the inability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth. The causes of female infertility can be multifactorial and may include issues with ovulation, damage to the fallopian tubes or uterus, endometriosis, hormonal imbalances, age-related factors, and other medical conditions.

Some common causes of female infertility include:

1. Ovulation disorders: Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, premature ovarian failure, and hyperprolactinemia can affect ovulation and lead to infertility.
2. Damage to the fallopian tubes: Pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or previous surgeries can cause scarring and blockages in the fallopian tubes, preventing the egg and sperm from meeting.
3. Uterine abnormalities: Structural issues with the uterus, such as fibroids, polyps, or congenital defects, can interfere with implantation and pregnancy.
4. Age-related factors: As women age, their fertility declines due to a decrease in the number and quality of eggs.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, celiac disease, and autoimmune disorders, can contribute to infertility.

In some cases, female infertility can be treated with medications, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). A thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional is necessary to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of the human body. It is primarily found in external secretions, such as saliva, tears, breast milk, and sweat, as well as in mucous membranes lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. IgA exists in two forms: a monomeric form found in serum and a polymeric form found in secretions.

The primary function of IgA is to provide immune protection at mucosal surfaces, which are exposed to various environmental antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and allergens. By doing so, it helps prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens into the body, reducing the risk of infections and inflammation.

IgA functions by binding to antigens present on the surface of pathogens or allergens, forming immune complexes that can neutralize their activity. These complexes are then transported across the epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces and released into the lumen, where they prevent the adherence and invasion of pathogens.

In summary, Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a vital antibody that provides immune defense at mucosal surfaces by neutralizing and preventing the entry of harmful antigens into the body.

"Evaluation studies" is a broad term that refers to the systematic assessment or examination of a program, project, policy, intervention, or product. The goal of an evaluation study is to determine its merits, worth, and value by measuring its effects, efficiency, and impact. There are different types of evaluation studies, including formative evaluations (conducted during the development or implementation of a program to provide feedback for improvement), summative evaluations (conducted at the end of a program to determine its overall effectiveness), process evaluations (focusing on how a program is implemented and delivered), outcome evaluations (assessing the short-term and intermediate effects of a program), and impact evaluations (measuring the long-term and broad consequences of a program).

In medical contexts, evaluation studies are often used to assess the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of new treatments, interventions, or technologies. These studies can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care, guide policymakers in developing evidence-based policies, and promote accountability and transparency in healthcare systems. Examples of evaluation studies in medicine include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the outcomes of a new treatment to those of a standard or placebo treatment, observational studies that examine the real-world effectiveness and safety of interventions, and economic evaluations that assess the costs and benefits of different healthcare options.

Venereology is a branch of medicine that deals with the study, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or venereal diseases. The term "venereal" comes from Venus, the Roman goddess of love, due to the association of these diseases with sexual activity.

A medical professional who specializes in venereology is called a venereologist. They are trained to diagnose and manage various types of STIs, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, HIV/AIDS, and genital warts, among others.

Venereologists work in various settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and public health departments. They often collaborate with other healthcare professionals, including primary care physicians, nurses, and counselors, to provide comprehensive care for patients with STIs. Additionally, venereologists play a crucial role in promoting sexual health education and advocating for policies that help prevent the spread of STIs.

Chlamydiales is an order of obligate intracellular bacteria that includes several families, including Chlamydiaceae, which contains the genus Chlamydia. This genus includes well-known pathogens such as Chlamydia trachomatis, which can cause a range of diseases in humans, including sexually transmitted infections and eye infections. Other families within Chlamydiales include Parachlamydiaceae, Simkaniaceae, and Waddliaceae, which contain bacteria that can cause respiratory and other infections in animals and humans.

Chlamydiales bacteria are characterized by their unique biphasic developmental cycle, which involves two distinct forms: the elementary body (EB) and the reticulate body (RB). The EB is the infectious form of the bacterium, which can attach to and enter host cells. Once inside the host cell, the EB differentiates into the RB, which replicates within a membrane-bound vacuole called an inclusion. After several rounds of replication, the RBs differentiate back into EBs, which are then released from the host cell to infect other cells.

Chlamydiales infections can be treated with antibiotics such as azithromycin or doxycycline, but accurate diagnosis is important to ensure appropriate treatment and prevent complications.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

In medical terminology, "sexual partners" refers to individuals who engage in sexual activity with each other. This can include various forms of sexual contact, such as vaginal, anal, or oral sex. The term is often used in the context of discussing sexual health and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It's important to note that full disclosure of sexual partners to healthcare providers can help in diagnosing and treating STIs, as well as in understanding an individual's sexual health history.

The conjunctiva is the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and covers the front part of the eye, also known as the sclera. It helps to keep the eye moist and protected from irritants. The conjunctiva can become inflamed or infected, leading to conditions such as conjunctivitis (pink eye).

Phascolarctidae is a family of marsupials commonly known as koalas or koala bears, although they are not actually bears. They are native to Australia and are recognized by their thick, woolly fur, large ears, and distinctive nose. The medical definition related to Phascolarctidae might refer to any health issues specifically affecting koalas, such as diseases that impact their unique gut microbiome or conservation efforts addressing threats to their population.

Trichomonas infection, also known as trichomoniasis, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. It primarily affects the urogenital tract and is more common in women than men. The symptoms in women can include vaginal discharge with an unpleasant smell, itching, redness, and pain during sexual intercourse or urination. Many men with trichomoniasis do not develop any symptoms, although some may experience discomfort, burning after urination, or a slight discharge from the penis. If left untreated, trichomoniasis can increase the risk of acquiring or transmitting other sexually transmitted infections, such as HIV. Diagnosis is usually made through microscopic examination of a sample of vaginal or urethral discharge, and treatment typically involves prescription antibiotics like metronidazole or tinidazole.

A vaginal smear, also known as a Pap test or Pap smear, is a medical procedure in which a sample of cells is collected from the cervix (the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina) and examined under a microscope. The purpose of this test is to detect abnormal cells, including precancerous changes, that may indicate the presence of cervical cancer or other conditions such as infections or inflammation.

During the procedure, a speculum is inserted into the vagina to allow the healthcare provider to visualize the cervix. A spatula or brush is then used to gently scrape cells from the surface of the cervix. The sample is spread onto a microscope slide and sent to a laboratory for analysis.

Regular Pap smears are recommended for women as part of their routine healthcare, as they can help detect abnormalities at an early stage when they are more easily treated. The frequency of Pap smears may vary depending on age, medical history, and other factors. It is important to follow the recommendations of a healthcare provider regarding the timing and frequency of Pap smears.

Proctitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation of the lining of the rectum, which is the lower end of the colon. The symptoms of proctitis may include rectal pain, discomfort, or a feeling of fullness; rectal bleeding, often in the form of mucus or blood; diarrhea; and urgency to have a bowel movement.

Proctitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections (such as sexually transmitted infections, foodborne illnesses, or inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), radiation therapy, trauma, or autoimmune disorders. The diagnosis of proctitis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and sometimes endoscopic procedures to visualize the rectum and take tissue samples for further testing. Treatment depends on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or other therapies.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

Trichomonas vaginalis is a species of protozoan parasite that causes the sexually transmitted infection known as trichomoniasis. It primarily infects the urogenital tract, with women being more frequently affected than men. The parasite exists as a motile, pear-shaped trophozoite, measuring about 10-20 micrometers in size.

T. vaginalis infection can lead to various symptoms, including vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor, itching, and irritation in women, while men may experience urethral discharge or discomfort during urination. However, up to 50% of infected individuals might not develop any noticeable symptoms, making the infection challenging to recognize and treat without medical testing.

Diagnosis typically involves microscopic examination of vaginal secretions or urine samples, although nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are becoming more common due to their higher sensitivity and specificity. Treatment usually consists of oral metronidazole or tinidazole, which are antibiotics that target the parasite's ability to reproduce. It is essential to treat both partners simultaneously to prevent reinfection and ensure successful eradication of the parasite.

Infectious pregnancy complications refer to infections that occur during pregnancy and can affect the mother, fetus, or both. These infections can lead to serious consequences such as preterm labor, low birth weight, birth defects, stillbirth, or even death. Some common infectious agents that can cause pregnancy complications include:

1. Bacteria: Examples include group B streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause sepsis, meningitis, or pneumonia in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.
2. Viruses: Examples include cytomegalovirus, rubella, varicella-zoster, and HIV, which can cause congenital anomalies, developmental delays, or transmission of the virus to the fetus.
3. Parasites: Examples include Toxoplasma gondii, which can cause severe neurological damage in the fetus if transmitted during pregnancy.
4. Fungi: Examples include Candida albicans, which can cause fungal infections in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.

Preventive measures such as vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding high-risk behaviors can help reduce the risk of infectious pregnancy complications. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of infections during pregnancy are also crucial to prevent adverse outcomes.

Mycoplasma infections refer to illnesses caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Mycoplasma. These are among the smallest free-living organisms, lacking a cell wall and possessing a unique molecular structure. They can cause various respiratory tract infections (like pneumonia, bronchitis), urogenital infections, and other systemic diseases in humans, animals, and birds.

The most common Mycoplasma species that infect humans include M. pneumoniae, M. genitalium, M. hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Transmission usually occurs through respiratory droplets or sexual contact. Symptoms can vary widely depending on the site of infection but may include cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, fatigue, joint pain, rash, and genital discharge or pelvic pain in women. Diagnosis often requires specific laboratory tests due to their unique growth requirements and resistance to many common antibiotics. Treatment typically involves macrolide or fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

"Chlamydophila" is a genus of bacteria that includes several species that can cause human diseases. The most well-known species in this genus is "Chlamydophila trachomatis," which is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide and can also cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Other species in the genus include "Chlamydophila pneumoniae," which can cause respiratory infections, and "Chlamydophila psittaci," which can cause psittacosis, a type of pneumonia that is often associated with exposure to birds.

It's worth noting that the taxonomy of these bacteria has been subject to some debate and revision in recent years. Some experts have proposed reclassifying the genus "Chlamydophila" as a subgroup within the genus "Chlamydia," which would make the species "Chlamydophila trachomatis" become "Chlamydia trachomatis," and so on. However, this proposal has not been universally accepted, and both classifications continue to be used in the scientific literature.

Trichomonas vaginitis is a type of vaginal infection caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. It is transmitted through sexual contact and primarily affects the urogenital tract. The infection can cause various symptoms in women, such as vaginal discharge with an unpleasant smell, itching, redness, and pain during urination or sex. However, up to 50% of infected individuals may be asymptomatic. In men, it often does not cause any symptoms but can lead to urethritis (inflammation of the urethra). Diagnosis is usually made through microscopic examination of vaginal secretions or a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Treatment typically involves prescription antibiotics like metronidazole or tinidazole, targeting both sexual partners to prevent reinfection.

Ureaplasma is a genus of bacteria that are commonly found in the lower reproductive tract of humans. They belong to the family Mycoplasmataceae and are characterized by their small size and lack of a cell wall. Ureaplasmas are unique because they have the ability to metabolize urea, which they use as a source of energy for growth.

There are several species of Ureaplasma that can infect humans, including Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum. These bacteria can cause a variety of clinical syndromes, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying respiratory or genitourinary tract disorders.

Infections caused by Ureaplasma are often asymptomatic but can lead to complications such as urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and pneumonia. In newborns, Ureaplasma infections have been associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a chronic lung disorder that can lead to long-term respiratory problems.

Diagnosis of Ureaplasma infections typically involves the use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics such as macrolides or fluoroquinolones, which are effective against these bacteria.

Vaginal discharge refers to the fluid that comes out of the vagina on a regular basis. It's a normal and healthy process for the body to keep the vagina clean and maintain its pH balance. The amount, color, and consistency of vaginal discharge can vary throughout a woman's menstrual cycle and can also be influenced by various factors such as pregnancy, sexual arousal, and infections.

Normal vaginal discharge is typically clear or white and may have a mild odor. However, if the discharge changes in color, consistency, or smell, or if it's accompanied by symptoms such as itching, burning, or pain, it could be a sign of an infection or other medical condition that requires treatment.

It is important to note that while vaginal discharge is a normal bodily function, any abnormal changes should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to ensure appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

Prostitution is not typically defined in medical terms, but it is a social and legal issue. However, in the context of public health, prostitution might be defined as the act or practice of engaging in sexual activity for payment, which can carry significant risks to physical and mental health, including exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), violence, and psychological trauma.

Prostitution is often associated with marginalization, poverty, and social inequality, and it can be a complex issue that involves questions of personal autonomy, consent, and human rights. It's important to note that the legal and cultural approaches to prostitution vary widely around the world, ranging from criminalization to decriminalization and legalization.

Chlamydial pneumonia is a type of lung infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydophila pneumoniae (previously known as Chlamydia pneumoniae). It is often a mild to moderate respiratory infection, but in some cases, it can be more severe and require hospitalization.

The symptoms of chlamydial pneumonia may include cough, chest pain, fever, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. The infection is usually spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It can also be spread by touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the mouth or nose.

Chlamydial pneumonia is often treated with antibiotics, such as azithromycin or doxycycline. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for more severe infections, especially in people with weakened immune systems or other underlying health conditions.

It's worth noting that chlamydial pneumonia is different from chlamydia trachomatis, which is a sexually transmitted infection caused by a different species of Chlamydia.

"Mycoplasma pneumoniae" is a type of bacteria that lacks a cell wall and can cause respiratory infections, particularly bronchitis and atypical pneumonia. It is one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia. Infection with "M. pneumoniae" typically results in mild symptoms, such as cough, fever, and fatigue, although more severe complications can occur in some cases. The bacteria can also cause various extrapulmonary manifestations, including skin rashes, joint pain, and neurological symptoms. Diagnosis of "M. pneumoniae" infection is typically made through serological tests or PCR assays. Treatment usually involves antibiotics such as macrolides or tetracyclines.

I. Definition:

An abortion in a veterinary context refers to the intentional or unintentional termination of pregnancy in a non-human animal before the fetus is capable of surviving outside of the uterus. This can occur spontaneously (known as a miscarriage) or be induced through medical intervention (induced abortion).

II. Common Causes:

Spontaneous abortions may result from genetic defects, hormonal imbalances, infections, exposure to toxins, trauma, or other maternal health issues. Induced abortions are typically performed for population control, humane reasons (such as preventing the birth of a severely deformed or non-viable fetus), or when the pregnancy poses a risk to the mother's health.

III. Methods:

Veterinarians may use various methods to induce abortion depending on the species, stage of gestation, and reason for the procedure. These can include administering drugs that stimulate uterine contractions (such as prostaglandins), physically removing the fetus through surgery (dilation and curettage or hysterectomy), or using techniques specific to certain animal species (e.g., intrauterine infusion of hypertonic saline in equids).

IV. Ethical Considerations:

The ethics surrounding veterinary abortions are complex and multifaceted, often involving considerations related to animal welfare, conservation, population management, and human-animal relationships. Veterinarians must weigh these factors carefully when deciding whether to perform an abortion and which method to use. In some cases, legal regulations may also influence the decision-making process.

V. Conclusion:

Abortion in veterinary medicine is a medical intervention that can be used to address various clinical scenarios, ranging from unintentional pregnancy loss to deliberate termination of pregnancy for humane or population control reasons. Ethical considerations play a significant role in the decision-making process surrounding veterinary abortions, and veterinarians must carefully evaluate each situation on a case-by-case basis.

Ectopic pregnancy is a type of abnormal pregnancy that occurs outside the uterine cavity. The most common site for an ectopic pregnancy is the fallopian tube, accounting for about 95% of cases. This condition is also known as tubal pregnancy. Other less common sites include the ovary, cervix, and abdominal cavity.

In a normal pregnancy, the fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube and implants itself in the lining of the uterus. However, in an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg implants and starts to develop somewhere other than the uterus. The growing embryo cannot survive outside the uterus, and if left untreated, an ectopic pregnancy can cause life-threatening bleeding due to the rupture of the fallopian tube or other organs.

Symptoms of ectopic pregnancy may include abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, shoulder pain, lightheadedness, fainting, and in severe cases, shock. Diagnosis is usually made through a combination of medical history, physical examination, ultrasound, and blood tests to measure the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy.

Treatment for ectopic pregnancy depends on several factors, including the location, size, and growth rate of the ectopic mass, as well as the patient's overall health and desire for future pregnancies. Treatment options may include medication to stop the growth of the embryo or surgery to remove the ectopic tissue. In some cases, both methods may be used together. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious complications and improve the chances of preserving fertility in future pregnancies.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Serologic tests are laboratory tests that detect the presence or absence of antibodies or antigens in a patient's serum (the clear liquid that separates from clotted blood). These tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases, as well as autoimmune disorders and other medical conditions.

In serologic testing for infectious diseases, a sample of the patient's blood is collected and allowed to clot. The serum is then separated from the clot and tested for the presence of antibodies that the body has produced in response to an infection. The test may be used to identify the specific type of infection or to determine whether the infection is active or has resolved.

Serologic tests can also be used to diagnose autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, by detecting the presence of antibodies that are directed against the body's own tissues. These tests can help doctors confirm a diagnosis and monitor the progression of the disease.

It is important to note that serologic tests are not always 100% accurate and may produce false positive or false negative results. Therefore, they should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory test results.

Epididymitis is defined as the inflammation of the epididymis, a curved tube-like structure located at the back of the testicle that stores and transports sperm. The inflammation can result from infection, trauma, or other causes, and may cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and tenderness in the scrotum. In some cases, epididymitis may also be associated with urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted infections, or other medical conditions. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat any underlying infection, as well as pain relief measures and supportive care to help reduce symptoms and promote healing.

Arteriosclerosis is a general term that describes the hardening and stiffening of the artery walls. It's a progressive condition that can occur as a result of aging, or it may be associated with certain risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle.

The process of arteriosclerosis involves the buildup of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances, in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this buildup can cause the artery walls to thicken and harden, reducing the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the body's organs and tissues.

Arteriosclerosis can affect any of the body's arteries, but it is most commonly found in the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, the cerebral arteries that supply blood to the brain, and the peripheral arteries that supply blood to the limbs. When arteriosclerosis affects the coronary arteries, it can lead to heart disease, angina, or heart attack. When it affects the cerebral arteries, it can lead to stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). When it affects the peripheral arteries, it can cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the limbs, and in severe cases, gangrene and amputation.

Pharyngeal diseases refer to conditions that affect the pharynx, which is the part of the throat that lies behind the nasal cavity and mouth, and above the esophagus and larynx. The pharynx plays a crucial role in swallowing, speaking, and breathing. Pharyngeal diseases can cause symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, pain during swallowing, swollen lymph nodes, and earaches.

Some common pharyngeal diseases include:

1. Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the pharynx, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
2. Tonsillitis: Inflammation of the tonsils, which are two masses of lymphoid tissue located on either side of the back of the throat.
3. Epiglottitis: Inflammation of the epiglottis, a flap of cartilage that covers the windpipe during swallowing to prevent food and liquids from entering the lungs.
4. Abscesses: A collection of pus in the pharynx caused by a bacterial infection.
5. Cancer: Malignant tumors that can develop in the pharynx, often caused by smoking or heavy alcohol use.
6. Dysphagia: Difficulty swallowing due to nerve damage, muscle weakness, or structural abnormalities in the pharynx.
7. Stridor: Noisy breathing caused by a narrowed or obstructed airway in the pharynx.

Treatment for pharyngeal diseases depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, pain relievers, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Sulfisoxazole is an antibacterial drug, specifically a sulfonamide. It is defined as a synthetic, short-acting, bacteriostatic antibiotic that inhibits the growth of certain bacteria by interfering with their ability to synthesize folic acid, an essential component for their survival. Sulfisoxazole is used to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and skin infections.

It's important to note that the use of sulfonamides like sulfisoxazole has declined over time due to the emergence of bacterial resistance and the availability of alternative antibiotics with better safety profiles. Additionally, adverse reactions such as rashes, allergies, and blood disorders have been associated with their use, so they should be prescribed with caution and only when necessary.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a condition that occurs when there's an imbalance or overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina. It's not technically considered a sexually transmitted infection (STI), but certain activities such as unprotected sex can increase the risk of developing BV. The normal balance of bacteria in the vagina is disrupted, leading to symptoms such as abnormal vaginal discharge with a strong fishy odor, burning during urination, and itching or irritation around the outside of the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is diagnosed through a pelvic examination and laboratory tests to identify the type of bacteria present in the vagina. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, either in the form of pills or creams that are inserted into the vagina. It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have bacterial vaginosis, as it can increase the risk of complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease and preterm labor during pregnancy.

Erythromycin is a type of antibiotic known as a macrolide, which is used to treat various types of bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the bacteria's ability to produce proteins, which are necessary for the bacteria to survive and multiply. Erythromycin is often used to treat respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted diseases. It may also be used to prevent endocarditis (inflammation of the lining of the heart) in people at risk of this condition.

Erythromycin is generally considered safe for most people, but it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It may also interact with other medications, so it's important to tell your doctor about all the drugs you are taking before starting erythromycin.

Like all antibiotics, erythromycin should only be used to treat bacterial infections, as it is not effective against viral infections such as the common cold or flu. Overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which makes it harder to treat infections in the future.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Seroepidemiologic studies are a type of epidemiological study that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in a population's blood serum to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of infectious diseases. These studies help to identify patterns of infection and immunity within a population, which can inform public health policies and interventions.

Seroepidemiologic studies typically involve collecting blood samples from a representative sample of individuals in a population and testing them for the presence of antibodies against specific pathogens. The results are then analyzed to estimate the prevalence of infection and immunity within the population, as well as any factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection.

These studies can provide valuable insights into the spread of infectious diseases, including emerging and re-emerging infections, and help to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programs. Additionally, seroepidemiologic studies can also be used to investigate the transmission dynamics of infectious agents, such as identifying sources of infection or tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Mycoplasma hominis is a species of bacteria that lack a cell wall and are among the smallest free-living organisms. They are commonly found as part of the normal flora in the genitourinary tract of humans, particularly in the urethra, cervix, and vagina. However, they can also cause various infections, especially in individuals with compromised immune systems or in the presence of other risk factors.

M. hominis has been associated with several types of infections, including:

1. Genital tract infections: M. hominis can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), cervicitis, urethritis, and endometritis in women. In men, it may lead to urethritis and prostatitis.
2. Postpartum and post-abortion fever: M. hominis can contribute to febrile morbidity following delivery or abortion.
3. Respiratory tract infections: While rare, M. hominis has been implicated in some cases of respiratory tract infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals.
4. Joint and soft tissue infections: M. hominis can cause septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and other soft tissue infections, especially in patients with underlying joint diseases or compromised immune systems.
5. Central nervous system (CNS) infections: Although uncommon, M. hominis has been associated with CNS infections such as meningitis and brain abscesses, primarily in immunocompromised individuals.
6. Bloodstream infections: Bacteremia due to M. hominis is rare but can occur in immunocompromised patients or those with indwelling catheters.

Diagnosis of M. hominis infections typically involves the detection of the organism through various laboratory methods, such as culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or serological tests. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics that target mycoplasmas, such as macrolides (e.g., azithromycin) or tetracyclines (e.g., doxycycline). However, resistance to certain antibiotics has been reported in some M. hominis strains.

Ambulatory care facilities are healthcare providers where patients receive medical services, treatments, or procedures that do not require an overnight hospital stay. These facilities are often used for diagnosis, observation, and outpatient care such as same-day surgery, preventive health screenings, and minor procedures. They can include a wide range of settings like physician offices, community clinics, urgent care centers, dialysis centers, and surgical centers. The goal of ambulatory care facilities is to provide high-quality medical services in a convenient and cost-effective manner for patients who do not require hospitalization.

Host-pathogen interactions refer to the complex and dynamic relationship between a living organism (the host) and a disease-causing agent (the pathogen). This interaction can involve various molecular, cellular, and physiological processes that occur between the two entities. The outcome of this interaction can determine whether the host will develop an infection or not, as well as the severity and duration of the illness.

During host-pathogen interactions, the pathogen may release virulence factors that allow it to evade the host's immune system, colonize tissues, and obtain nutrients for its survival and replication. The host, in turn, may mount an immune response to recognize and eliminate the pathogen, which can involve various mechanisms such as inflammation, phagocytosis, and the production of antimicrobial agents.

Understanding the intricacies of host-pathogen interactions is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases. This knowledge can help identify new targets for therapeutic interventions, inform vaccine design, and guide public health policies to control the spread of infectious agents.

Bacterial RNA refers to the genetic material present in bacteria that is composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Unlike higher organisms, bacteria contain a single circular chromosome made up of DNA, along with smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. These bacterial genetic materials contain the information necessary for the growth and reproduction of the organism.

Bacterial RNA can be divided into three main categories: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). mRNA carries genetic information copied from DNA, which is then translated into proteins by the rRNA and tRNA molecules. rRNA is a structural component of the ribosome, where protein synthesis occurs, while tRNA acts as an adapter that brings amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Bacterial RNA plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is essential for developing new antibiotics and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Pneumonia is an infection or inflammation of the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in one or both lungs. It's often caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Accumulated pus and fluid in these air sacs make it difficult to breathe, which can lead to coughing, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. The severity of symptoms can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the underlying cause, the patient's overall health, and age. Pneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics for bacterial pneumonia, antivirals for viral pneumonia, and supportive care like oxygen therapy, hydration, and rest.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It progresses in several stages if left untreated, with symptoms varying in each stage. The primary stage involves the appearance of a single, painless sore or multiple sores at the site where the bacteria entered the body, often on the genitals or around the mouth. During the secondary stage, individuals may experience rashes, fever, swollen lymph nodes, and other flu-like symptoms. In later stages, syphilis can lead to severe complications affecting the heart, brain, and other organs, known as tertiary syphilis. Neurosyphilis is a form of tertiary syphilis that affects the nervous system, causing various neurological problems. Congenital syphilis occurs when a pregnant woman with syphilis transmits the infection to her unborn child, which can result in serious birth defects and health issues for the infant. Early detection and appropriate antibiotic treatment can cure syphilis and prevent further complications.

Medical definitions are often provided by authoritative medical bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) or the American Psychiatric Association (APA). It's important to note that these organizations have evolved their understanding and classification of homosexuality over time.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), produced by the APA, sexual orientation is not considered a mental disorder. The manual does not provide a definition or classification for 'homosexuality, male' as a medical condition.

The current understanding in the medical community is that homosexuality is a normal and natural variation of human sexual orientation. It is not considered a disorder or an illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders in 1990.

Mycoplasma pneumonia is a type of atypical pneumonia, which is caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae. This organism is not a true bacterium, but rather the smallest free-living organisms known. They lack a cell wall and have a unique mode of reproduction.

Mycoplasma pneumonia infection typically occurs in small outbreaks or sporadically, often in crowded settings such as schools, colleges, and military barracks. It can also be acquired in the community. The illness is often mild and self-limiting, but it can also cause severe pneumonia and extra-pulmonary manifestations.

The symptoms of Mycoplasma pneumonia are typically less severe than those caused by typical bacterial pneumonia and may include a persistent cough that may be dry or produce small amounts of mucus, fatigue, fever, headache, sore throat, and chest pain. The infection can also cause extrapulmonary manifestations such as skin rashes, joint pain, and neurological symptoms.

Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumonia is often challenging because the organism is difficult to culture, and serological tests may take several weeks to become positive. PCR-based tests are now available and can provide a rapid diagnosis.

Treatment typically involves antibiotics such as macrolides (e.g., azithromycin), tetracyclines (e.g., doxycycline), or fluoroquinolones (e.g., levofloxacin). However, because Mycoplasma pneumonia is often self-limiting, antibiotic treatment may not shorten the duration of illness but can help prevent complications and reduce transmission.

Uterine cervical erosion, also known as ectropion or cervical ectopy, is not typically considered a disease or a medical condition but rather a normal variant in the appearance of the cervix. It occurs when the cells that normally line the inside of the cervical canal (glandular cells) extend out onto the surface of the exocervix, which is the portion of the cervix that is visible during a routine pelvic examination.

This extension of glandular cells can appear as a red, smooth, and shiny area on the cervix, and it may be more prone to bleeding or discomfort during intercourse or menstruation. Cervical erosion can be caused by various factors, including hormonal changes, inflammation, or irritation of the cervix.

While cervical erosion is not typically harmful, it can increase the risk of certain infections, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is essential to monitor and treat any underlying conditions that may contribute to cervical erosion. In some cases, cervical erosion may resolve on its own without treatment, but if it causes discomfort or bleeding, treatment options such as cryotherapy, laser therapy, or cauterization may be recommended.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Victoria" is not a medical term or condition. It is a name, which is often used as a place name, such as the capital city of British Columbia, Canada, or Victoria, Australia. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Mycoplasmatales infections refer to illnesses caused by bacteria belonging to the order Mycoplasmatales, which are characterized as the smallest self-replicating organisms lacking a cell wall. The most common pathogens in this group include Mycoplasma pneumoniae, M. genitalium, M. hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia, while M. genitalium is associated with sexually transmitted infections, including urethritis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. M. hominis and U. urealyticum are typically commensals but can cause invasive diseases such as septic arthritis, endocarditis, or meningitis, especially in immunocompromised individuals.

Infections caused by these organisms often present with nonspecific symptoms, making diagnosis challenging. Diagnosis usually involves serological tests, nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs), or culture methods. Treatment typically includes macrolides, tetracyclines, or fluoroquinolones, depending on the specific pathogen and its antibiotic susceptibility profile.

Leukorrhea is a medical term that refers to a white or yellowish-white discharge from the vagina. It's composed of cells shed from the lining of the vagina, fluid, and bacteria. While it can be normal and occur throughout a woman's reproductive years due to hormonal changes, it can also indicate an infection or inflammation, particularly when it's accompanied by symptoms like itching, burning, foul odor, or pain. Common causes of abnormal leukorrhea include bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, and sexually transmitted infections.

Point-of-care (POC) systems refer to medical diagnostic tests or tools that are performed at or near the site where a patient receives care, such as in a doctor's office, clinic, or hospital room. These systems provide rapid and convenient results, allowing healthcare professionals to make immediate decisions regarding diagnosis, treatment, and management of a patient's condition.

POC systems can include various types of diagnostic tests, such as:

1. Lateral flow assays (LFAs): These are paper-based devices that use capillary action to detect the presence or absence of a target analyte in a sample. Examples include pregnancy tests and rapid strep throat tests.
2. Portable analyzers: These are compact devices used for measuring various parameters, such as blood glucose levels, coagulation status, or electrolytes, using small volumes of samples.
3. Imaging systems: Handheld ultrasound machines and portable X-ray devices fall under this category, providing real-time imaging at the point of care.
4. Monitoring devices: These include continuous glucose monitors, pulse oximeters, and blood pressure cuffs that provide real-time data to help manage patient conditions.

POC systems offer several advantages, such as reduced turnaround time for test results, decreased need for sample transportation, and increased patient satisfaction due to faster decision-making and treatment initiation. However, it is essential to ensure the accuracy and reliability of these tests by following proper testing procedures and interpreting results correctly.

Genitalia, also known as the genitals, refer to the reproductive organs located in the pelvic region. In males, these include the penis and testicles, while in females, they consist of the vulva, vagina, clitoris, and ovaries. Genitalia are essential for sexual reproduction and can also be associated with various medical conditions, such as infections, injuries, or congenital abnormalities.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a soluble cytokine that is primarily produced by the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, especially CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against viral and intracellular bacterial infections, as well as tumor cells. IFN-γ has several functions, including activating macrophages to enhance their microbicidal activity, increasing the presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of T cells and NK cells, and inducing the production of other cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, IFN-γ has direct antiproliferative effects on certain types of tumor cells and can enhance the cytotoxic activity of immune cells against infected or malignant cells.

Anti-infective agents are a class of medications that are used to treat infections caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These agents work by either killing the microorganism or inhibiting its growth, thereby helping to control the infection and alleviate symptoms.

There are several types of anti-infective agents, including:

1. Antibiotics: These are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections. They work by either killing bacteria (bactericidal) or inhibiting their growth (bacteriostatic).
2. Antivirals: These are medications that are used to treat viral infections. They work by interfering with the replication of the virus, preventing it from spreading and causing further damage.
3. Antifungals: These are medications that are used to treat fungal infections. They work by disrupting the cell membrane of the fungus, killing it or inhibiting its growth.
4. Antiparasitics: These are medications that are used to treat parasitic infections. They work by either killing the parasite or inhibiting its growth and reproduction.

It is important to note that anti-infective agents are not effective against all types of infections, and it is essential to use them appropriately to avoid the development of drug-resistant strains of microorganisms.

Ofloxacin is an antibacterial drug, specifically a fluoroquinolone. It works by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, which is essential for the bacteria to replicate. This results in the death of the bacteria and helps to stop the infection. Ofloxacin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted diseases. It is available in various forms, such as tablets, capsules, and eye drops. As with any medication, it should be used only under the direction of a healthcare professional, and its use may be associated with certain risks and side effects.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A gynecological examination is a medical procedure performed by a healthcare professional, typically a gynecologist, to evaluate the female reproductive system. The examination may include a variety of tests and procedures, such as:

1. Medical history review: The doctor will ask questions about the patient's menstrual cycle, sexual activity, contraceptive use, pregnancy history, and any symptoms or concerns.
2. External examination: The doctor will inspect the external genitalia for any signs of infection, irritation, or abnormalities.
3. Speculum exam: A speculum, a medical instrument that resembles a duckbill, is inserted into the vagina to allow the doctor to visualize the cervix and vaginal walls. This helps in detecting any abnormalities such as cervical polyps, inflammation, or cancerous growths.
4. Pelvic exam: The doctor will insert gloved fingers into the patient's vagina while simultaneously pressing on the lower abdomen to assess the size, shape, and position of the reproductive organs, including the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.
5. Pap test: A sample of cells is collected from the cervix using a spatula or brush and sent to a laboratory for analysis. This helps in detecting any precancerous or cancerous changes in the cervical cells.
6. Other tests: Depending on the patient's age, medical history, and symptoms, additional tests such as STD screening, breast exam, or imaging studies (e.g., ultrasound, MRI) may be recommended.

The frequency and type of gynecological examinations vary depending on a woman's age, health status, and individual needs. Regular check-ups are essential for early detection and prevention of reproductive system-related issues, including sexually transmitted infections, cervical cancer, and other gynecological conditions.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Suriname" is not a medical term. It is a country located in South America, known for its diverse culture and rich biodiversity. If you have any questions about medical terminology or Surinamese health issues, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

... , or more specifically a chlamydia infection, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia ... Chlamydia can be spread during vaginal, anal, or oral sex, and can be passed from an infected mother to her baby during ... Chlamydia is known as the "silent epidemic", as at least 70% of genital C. trachomatis infections in women (and 50% in men) are ... Repeated chlamydia infections of the eyes that go without treatment can result in trachoma, a common cause of blindness in the ...
Chlamydia is part of the order Chlamydiales, family Chlamydiaceae.[citation needed] In the early 1990s six species of Chlamydia ... Chlamydia is a genus of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites. Chlamydia infections are ... Data related to Chlamydia at Wikispecies Chlamydiae.com (CS1 errors: generic name, Articles with short description, Short ... Chlamydia". This appears to have been accepted by the community, bringing the number of (valid) Chlamydia species up to 9. Many ...
... is a lethal intracellular bacterial species that may cause endemic avian chlamydiosis, epizootic outbreaks ... Birds are excellent, highly mobile vectors for the distribution of chlamydia infection, because they feed on, and have access ...
... is a species of Chlamydia, an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects humans and is a major cause of ... Chlamydia pneumoniae has also been found in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Chlamydia ... Chlamydia pneumoniae has a complex life cycle and must infect another cell to reproduce; thus, it is classified as an obligate ... Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of pneumonia around the world; it is typically acquired by otherwise-healthy people and ...
... is a species in Chlamydiota that causes abortion and fetal death in mammals, including humans. Chlamydia ... Chlamydia abortus has been isolated from birds. Chlamydia abortus has a relatively small genome that contains 1.14 Mbp with 961 ... abortus and other more common species such as Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydia abortus is endemic among ruminants such as cows ... In 2015, this new name was reverted to Chlamydia. There are approximately one or two cases of chlamydiosis diagnosis in ...
... is the systematic study of the organisms in the taxonomic group of bacteria Chlamydiota (formerly Chlamydiae ... Chlamydia infections in wildlife are part of the research into chlamydia, particularly koalas' genomics and gene regulation ... "QUT - Chlamydia Research Program". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-07-25. "Breakthrough chlamydia ... "Chlamydia Research". Retrieved 2015-07-25. "Chlamydia promotes gene mutations". Max-Plank-Gesselshaft. June 20, 2013. Retrieved ...
Chlamydia may also refer to: Chlamydia (genus), a genus of pathogenic bacteria Chlamydia abortus, a chlamydial species that ... Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. ... Chlamydia pecorum, a chlamydial species common in livestock Chlamydia pneumoniae, also known as Chlamydophila pneumoniae, an ... Chlamydia trachomatis, causing human sexually transmitted disease and eye infections Chlamydia felis, a chlamydial species ...
... is a bacterium that can be recovered from the conjunctiva of Guinea pigs suffering from ocular inflammation ... Chlamydiae.com Type strain of Chlamydophila caviae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Gaede, Wolfgang; Reckling ... Apr 2003). "Genome sequence of Chlamydophila caviae (Chlamydia psittaci GPIC): examining the role of niche-specific genes in ... caviae and elicit a disease that is very similar to human Chlamydia trachomatis infection. C. caviae infects primarily the ...
Fukushi, H.; Hirai, K. (1992). "Proposal of Chlamydia Pecorum sp. nov. for Chlamydia Strains Derived from Ruminants". ... Fukushi, Hideto; Hirai, Katsuya (1992). "Proposal of Chlamydia Pecorum sp. nov. for Chlamydia Strains Derived from Ruminants". ... "Mixed infections with porcine Chlamydia trachomatis/pecorum and infections with ruminant Chlamydia psittaci serovar 1 ... Chlamydia pecorum, also known as Chlamydophila pecorum is a species of Chlamydiaceae that originated from ruminants, such as ...
... (formerly Chlamydophila felis and before that Chlamydia psittaci var. felis) is a Gram-negative, obligate ... Many of the genes are highly conserved within the Chlamydia genus. A specific plasmid is also highly conserved among Chlamydia ... Many metabolic processes and genes are highly conserved among Chlamydia. Due to C. felis's, and Chlamydia in general, small ... The genus Chlamydia contains the species C. trachomatis, C. psittaci, C. abortus, C. felis, C. muridarum, C. suis, C. caviae, C ...
... (/kləˈmɪdiə trəˈkoʊmətɪs/), commonly known as chlamydia, is a bacterium that causes chlamydia, which can ... Chlamydiae.com "Chlamydia trachomatis". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 813. Type strain of Chlamydia trachomatis at BacDive - the ... Chlamydia cell culture is a test in which the suspected Chlamydia sample is grown in a vial of cells. The pathogen infects the ... Chlamydia species are readily identified and distinguished from other Chlamydia species using DNA-based tests. Tests for ...
Testing for chlamydia antibodies is not the mainstay diagnostic tool for chlamydia infection, which is preferentially diagnosed ... Chlamydia antibodies are antibodies targeting bacteria of the genus Chlamydia, but it generally refers specifically to ... antibodies targeting Chlamydia trachomatis, which is the cause of chlamydia infection in humans. ... "Chlamydia antibody testing and diagnosing tubal pathology in subfertile women: An individual patient data meta-analysis". Human ...
... is a member of the genus Chlamydia. C. suis has only been isolated from swine, in which it may be endemic. ... Chlamydia suis at www.chlamydiae.com (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with ' ... The deduced ompA gene products of various Chlamydia suis strains contain vs4 epitopes TLNPTIAG(A.K.T)G(D.K.N.T), TWNPTIAGAGS or ... Glycogen has been detected in Chlamydia suis inclusions in infected swine tissues and in cell culture. C. suis is associated ...
In contrast to Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia muridarum lacks a tryptophan operon. Due to this, Chlamydia muridarum responds ... Chlamydia muridarum is an intracellular bacterial species that at one time belonged to Chlamydia trachomatis. However, C. ... Chlamydia muridarum MoPn binds mAbs recognizing Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP vs4 core epitope (T) LNPT (IA). DNA sequence ... 2000). "Genome sequences of Chlamydia trachomatis MoPn and Chlamydia pneumoniae AR39". Nucleic Acids Res. 28 (6): 1397-406. doi ...
Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi) Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) Granuloma inguinale or ( ... Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. In women, symptoms may include ... However, chlamydia can be cured with antibiotics. The two most common forms of herpes are caused by infection with herpes ... "Chlamydia Infections: MedlinePlus". Nlm.nih.gov. Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2013. "The Basics ...
"Chlamydia". Health and Human Services. 17 August 2016. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public ... It is also effective for lowering the risk of syphilis, chlamydia and pubic lice. The lack of a more precise definition of ...
Others, like Chlamydiae, were named using a class name or genus name as the stem (e.g., Chlamydia). In 2021, the decision was ... Aquificae and Chlamydiae, the male plurals Chloroflexi, Bacilli and Deinococci and the greek plurals Spirochaetes, ... from Chlamydia) Chlorobiota (from Chlorobium) Chloroflexota (from Chloroflexus) Chrysiogenota (from Chrysiogenes) ...
"Chlamydia trachomatis". In: Red Book: 2015 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 30th, Kimberlin DW (Ed), Elk Grove ... Babies infected with chlamydia may develop pneumonitis (chest infection) at a later stage (range 2-19 weeks after delivery). ... Chlamydia trachomatis: 5 days after birth to 2 weeks (late onset - C. trachomatis has a longer incubation period) Untreated ... Infants with chlamydia pneumonitis should be treated with oral erythromycin for 10-14 days. Diagnosis is performed after taking ...
Chlamydophila pneumoniae, formerly known as Chlamydia pneumoniae, is a bacterium that belongs to the phylum Chlamydiae, order ... Thus, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and human rhinoviruses are microbes that play a major role in non-atopic ... Hahn, DL (2021). "Chlamydia pneumoniae and chronic asthma: Updated systematic review and meta-analysis of population ... Hertzen, L.V. (2002). "Role of persistent infection in the control and severity of asthma: focus on Chlamydia pneumoniae". ...
"Chlamydia Infections". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2019-09-25. "Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in adults and ... Some examples of STIs are listed below: Bacterial STIs Chlamydia Gonorrhoea Syphilis Viral STIs Herpes Human Papilloma Virus ( ... These can take the form of antibiotics for bacterial infections such as chlamydia or highly active anti-retroviral therapy ( ...
Extragenital gonorrhea and chlamydia are highest in men who have sex with men (MSM). Additionally, the USPSTF also recommends ... "CDC Fact Sheet - Chlamydia". Archived from the original on 16 December 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2008. "STD Trends in the ... Datta SD, Sternberg M, Johnson RE, Berman S, Papp JR, McQuillan G, Weinstock H (July 2007). "Gonorrhea and chlamydia in the ... Studies have found co-infection with chlamydia ranging from 46 to 54% in young people with gonorrhea. Among persons in the ...
Chlamydia, an STI that affects both men and women, can also be asymptomatic in most individuals. Although the infection may not ... "STD Facts - Chlamydia". cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-02-14. Ousmane M. Diop; Cara C. Burns; Roland W. Sutter; Steven G. Wassilak; ... Like chlamydia, PID can also be asymptomatic. A small number of asymptomatic carriers of polio (referred to as chronic ...
2019). "Characteristics of Chlamydiae by James W. Moulder". Microbiology of Chlamydia. CRC Press. pp. 3-20. ISBN 978-0429276521 ... Byrne, G. I.; Moulder, J. W. (1978). "Parasite-specified phagocytosis of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis by L and ... Moulder, J. W. (1966). "The Relation of the Psittacosis Group (Chlamydiae) to Bacteria and Viruses". Annual Review of ... Moulder, J. W. (1993). "Why is Chlamydia sensitive to penicillin in the absence of peptidoglycan?". Infectious Agents and ...
Chlamydia. This was immediately seen as controversial. In 2015 the Chlamydophila species were reclassified as Chlamydia. The ... original genus Chlamydia, which now encompasses all 9 species including Chlamydia psittaci." As of 2013, Chlamydophila was ... Parte, A.C. "Chlamydia". LPSN. Bush RM, Everett KD (January 2001). "Molecular evolution of the Chlamydiaceae". International ... The merger of the genus Chlamydophila back into the genus Chlamydia is now generally accepted. According to the authors of the ...
Chlamydia psittaci Causes psittacosis. Coxiella burnetii Causes Q fever. Francisella tularensis Causes tularemia. Legionella ... The most common causative organisms are (often intracellular living) bacteria: Chlamydia pneumoniae Mild form of pneumonia with ... Mycoplasma is a type of bacteria without a cell wall and Chlamydias are intracellular bacteria). As the conditions caused by ...
Less commonly, Chlamydia spp. may be the cause. Bacteria such as Chlamydia trachomatis or Moraxella spp. can cause a ... People who wear contact lenses and those whose infection is caused by gonorrhea or chlamydia should be treated. Allergic cases ... Inclusion conjunctivitis of the newborn is a conjunctivitis that may be caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, and may ... have disease which is thought to be due to chlamydia or gonorrhea, have a fair bit of pain, or have copious discharge. ...
Chlamydia, another phylum of obligate intracellular parasites, contains species that can cause pneumonia or urinary tract ... Belland RJ, Ouellette SP, Gieffers J, Byrne GI (February 2004). "Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis". Cellular ...
Belland R, Ouellette S, Gieffers J, Byrne G (2004). "Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis". Cell Microbiol. 6 (2): 117-27. ... Another causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever.[citation needed] Chlamydia are intracellular parasites. These pathogens can cause ...
Chlamydia species produce a small amount of detectable glycogen and have two ribosomal operons. Chlamydia trachomatis is the ... Three species belong to Chlamydia: C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, and C. suis. C. trachomatis has been found only in humans, C. ... 2012 Chlamydia Jones et al. 1945 "Chlamydiifrater" Vorimore et al. 2021 Chlamydophila Everett, Bush & Andersen 1999 "Ca. ... "Chlamydiae". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Retrieved 2022-09-09. "The LTP". Retrieved ...
... and Chlamydia trachomatis, which causes chlamydia. Chlamydia is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the ... Ward M. "www.chlamydiae.com". University of Southampton. The comprehensive reference and education wiki on Chlamydia and the ... Storz J, Page LA (1971). "Taxonomy of the Chlamydiae: reasons for classifying organisms of the genus Chlamydia, family ... In 1956, Chlamydia trachomatis was first cultured by Tang Fei-fan, though they were not yet recognized as bacteria. In 1966, ...
... the primary focus of chlamydia screening should be to detect and treat chlamydia, prevent complications, and test and treat ... Persons who have chlamydia and HIV infection should receive the same treatment regimen as those who do not have HIV. ... MSM with chlamydia have a high risk for coexisting infections, especially undiagnosed HIV, among their partners and might have ... Chlamydia screening programs have been demonstrated to reduce PID rates among women (786,787). Although evidence is ...
Chlamydia is an infection caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. It is most often spread through sexual contact. ... Chlamydia is an infection caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. It is most often spread through sexual contact. ... Call your provider if you have symptoms of chlamydia.. Many people with chlamydia may not have symptoms. Therefore, sexually ... Even if you have no symptoms, you may need a chlamydia test if you:. *Are 24 years old or younger and sexually active (get ...
Chlamydiae are small gram-negative obligate intracellular microorganisms that preferentially infect squamocolumnar epithelial ... encoded search term (Chlamydia (Chlamydial Genitourinary Infections)) and Chlamydia (Chlamydial Genitourinary Infections) What ... Role of Chlamydia trachomatis in miscarriage. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Sep. 17(9):1630-5. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full Text]. ... Chlamydia trachomatis persistence in vitro: an overview. J Infect Dis. 2010 Jun 15. 201 Suppl 2:S88-95. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
Chlamydia Chlamydia is the most commonly reported infectious disease in the United States and may be one of the most dangerous ... A Closer Look at Chlamydia Chlamydia is widespread among the sexually active population, regardless of race, ethnicity, age, or ... chlamydia-chlamydia positivity-in family planning clinics by state provides a good indication of where the disease remains most ... Chlamydia also can cause prematurity, eye disease, and pneumonia in infants. Moreover, women infected with chlamydia are three ...
Chlamydia, or more specifically a chlamydia infection, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia ... Chlamydia can be spread during vaginal, anal, or oral sex, and can be passed from an infected mother to her baby during ... Chlamydia is known as the "silent epidemic", as at least 70% of genital C. trachomatis infections in women (and 50% in men) are ... Repeated chlamydia infections of the eyes that go without treatment can result in trachoma, a common cause of blindness in the ...
Chlamydia pecorum W73, complete genome Chlamydia pecorum W73, complete genome. gi,545578565,gb,CP004034.1, ...
I was treated for chlamydia a while ago and while I still had chlam... ... I was treated for chlamydia a while ago and while I still had chlamydia my ferret got into my garbage and played with one of my ... Could my chlamydia have been transmitted to him? Can chlamydia even live on a tampon applicator? ... Was diagnosed w chlamydia and have been on doxy. Finished a weeks course. Suffered the same symptoms after it was over. Back o ...
So the best way to prevent chlamydia is to get tested regularly and use condoms if you have sex. ... How can I make sure I dont give anyone chlamydia?. If you find out that you have chlamydia, dont panic. Chlamydia is easily ... Chlamydia is spread through sexual fluids like semen (cum), pre-cum, and vaginal fluids. So the best way to avoid chlamydia and ... Chlamydia is generally spread through sexual contact. So the best way to prevent chlamydia is to get tested regularly and use ...
Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria, it occurs at high rates in sexually active teenagers. A genital Chlamydia infection ... Your teenager can avoid getting chlamydia by practicing safe sex. If your teenaged daughter is sexually active, she should be ... To treat chlamydia, your pediatrician will prescribe antibiotics such as oral doxycycline or azithromycin. ... In fact, about 50% of infants delivered vaginally to infected mothers get chlamydia. A smaller number delivered by cesarean ...
Chlamydia trachomatis) are present and causing an infection. Nucleic ... Chlamydia tests use a sample of body fluid or urine to see whether chlamydia bacteria ( ... Chlamydia tests use a sample of body fluid or urine to see whether chlamydia bacteria (Chlamydia trachomatis) are present and ... Chlamydia tests. Normal:. No chlamydia antigens or DNA are found. More tests for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) ...
... chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital warts, syphilis, etc. at the Family First Health Center. Trusted health care for nearly 100 years ... We can test for gonorrhea and chlamydia. If this test shows an infection, then we will provide you with treatment and explain ... For testing involving urine samples, including chlamydia and gonorrhea, do not urinate or engage in sexual intercourse for one ...
But if left untreated, chlamydia can make it difficult for a woman to get pregnant. Get the facts here. ... Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease, which can be easily cured. ... Chlamydia. Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease, which can be easily cured. But if left untreated, chlamydia can ...
Unidentified asymptomatic rectal Chlamydia trachomatis could be a partial explanation for the high Chlamydia trachomatis ... Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in Europe and has large impacts on patients ... Unidentified asymptomatic rectal Chlamydia trachomatis could be a partial explanation for the high Chlamydia trachomatis ... Rectal chlamydia - should screening be recommended in women? Int J STD AIDS. 2017 Apr;28(5):476-479. doi: 10.1177/ ...
... Genitourin Med. 1987 Jun;63(3):179-81. doi: 10.1136/sti.63.3. ...
Chlamydia can be passed from a woman infected with chlamydia to her baby during delivery. Chlamydia cannot be spread by kissing ... How is chlamydia spread?. Chlamydia is spread from person-to-person during unprotected sex. It can be passed through vaginal, ... Is chlamydia dangerous?. If chlamydia is not treated, it can cause serious health problems. The infection usually begins on the ... How is chlamydia diagnosed?. Your health care provider can diagnose chlamydia by testing samples from the urine, vagina, or ...
Chlamydia is a bacterial infection, that is symptomless, making it difficult to diagnose without running tests during pregnancy ... What is chlamydia, and is it common?. Chlamydia is a bacterial infection and is the most commonly reported bacterial STI. It is ... How is chlamydia diagnosed?. Chlamydia may be diagnosed by your healthcare provider using a lab test to assess the secretions ... How is chlamydia treated during pregnancy?. Chlamydia may be treated and cured with antibiotics administered orally. This may ...
Chlamydia is one of the most significant threats to koalas, and so treatment after infection is simply not enough. ... A new vaccine may curb the koala chlamydia epidemic. Chlamydia is one of the most significant threats to koalas. ... Chlamydia is a heavy strain on the marsupials who are also dealing with the threats of fires, drought, heat waves, and habitat ... Chlamydia is one of the most significant threats to koalas, and so treatment after infection is simply not enough, said ...
... that is caused by a bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydia is a common STI that can be spread during vaginal, anal, ... Most people infected with chlamydia dont have symptoms and should therefore be screened for the infection regularly. Symptoms ... Chlamydia. Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that is caused by a bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis. ... Chlamydia is a common STI that can be spread during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. It can also be transmitted from an infected ...
Chlamydia Chlamydia is the most frequently reported STI in the United States. Although it affects both men and women, chlamydia ... Also, pregnant women with chlamydia can give chlamydia to their babies during childbirth. ... Chlamydia is considered a "silent" infection because most people who have it show no symptoms. That said, women who do have ... Like chlamydia, gonorrhea often causes no symptoms. If a woman does have symptoms, they may include:. *Pain or burning during ...
The objective of this study was to determine the association between vaginal Chlamydia infection and cervical intraepithelial ... Chlamydia trachomatis and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in married women in a Middle Eastern community ... Chlamydia trachomatis infection as a risk factor for invasive cervical cancer. International journal of cancer, 2000, 85:35-9. ... Serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis and risk for development of cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Journal of the American ...
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that can affect anyone. Dr Naveen, Associate Clinical Director, explains ... What causes chlamydia?. Chlamydia is caused by a type of bacterial infection. You can get or pass on chlamydia through having ... How serious is chlamydia?. Chlamydia is usually easily treated with antibiotics. If you get tested and treated for chlamydia ... How is chlamydia treated?. Chlamydia is usually easily treated with oral antibiotics (antibiotics you take as tablets). Your ...
Learn about the short-term and long-term effects of Chlamydia and the complications that can result from untreated Chlamydia ... Home › STDs › Chlamydia And Gonorrhea › Effects Of Chlamydia. Effects of Chlamydia. Chlamydia Basics. Chlamydia, one of the ... Short-Term Chlamydia Effects. When symptoms of Chlamydia do appear, they first range from mild to moderate and surface one to ... Long-term Chlamydia Effects. If Chlamydia is undetected, the infection may spread and cause inflammation of the reproductive or ...
Drunken teenage girl, dancing down the street: I taste like fucking condoms!
What you may not know is that Chlamydia can cause infertility. ... Almost 3 million people in the US are infected with Chlamydia, ... About Chlamydia. Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease that can be passed on through vaginal, anal and oral sex. In women ... What few people realize is that infertility and Chlamydia are often linked. As a matter of fact, Chlamydia is one of the ... It is estimated that almost 3 million people in the US are infected with Chlamydia. When you consider that Chlamydia often ...
... explains the mechanisms by which the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis hijacks nutrients of its host to its own benefit. ... How Chlamydia trachomatis hijacks energy stores from its host. Human cells infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. © Institut ... Chlamydia trachomatis is also able to colonize the eye, and the resulting inflammation is the leading cause of blindness by an ... In the case of Chlamydia trachomatis, it is known that the vacuole is rich in glycogen, an energy storage molecule made of ...
Chlamydia Symptoms in Men. Men have a difficult time spotting symptoms of chlamydia. The main reason for this is that the ... If you believe that you have chlamydia or have been sexually active with someone that has chlamydia, its important to get ... Chlamydia Symptoms in Women. Women also have sporadic symptoms which can change from one person to the next. The main issue ... The Most Common Signs of Chlamydia. Often called the "silent infection," its important to know that most people that have ...
Pages that link to "Chlamydia". From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource ...
Home » News » Hanson on Justin Biebers Music: "Its Chlamydia of the Ear" ...
News: Chlamydia Update This letter is in response to the recent article in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (38[2]:881-882, ... Failure to detect Chlamydia pneumoniae in brain tissues of Alzheimers disease. Neurology. 1999 Nov 10;53(8):1888. PubMed. ... Failure to detect Chlamydia pneumoniae in brain sections of Alzheimers disease patients. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Feb;38(2):881- ... Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in aortic lesions of atherosclerosis by immunocytochemical stain. Arterioscler Thromb. 1993 ...
  • Among women, the primary focus of chlamydia screening should be to detect and treat chlamydia, prevent complications, and test and treat their partners, whereas targeted chlamydia screening for men should be considered only when resources permit, prevalence is high, and such screening does not hinder chlamydia screening efforts for women ( 789 - 791 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To treat chlamydia, your pediatrician will prescribe antibiotics such as oral doxycycline or azithromycin. (healthychildren.org)
  • Antibiotic medications are used to treat Chlamydia, most often successfully. (wdxcyber.com)
  • If you treat chlamydia, it won't cause problems. (peacehealth.org)
  • He added: "One of the problems we see with current efforts to treat chlamydia is that despite a very big screening, test and treat programme, people get repeatedly re-infected. (zmescience.com)
  • Doxycycline gets to work very quickly, but it's very important to remember to take this treatment every day, even if you start feeling better in order to treat chlamydia successfully. (121doc.com)
  • Why is it important to treat chlamydia? (sfcityclinic.org)
  • Used to treat chlamydia, this antibiotic is often prescribed as an alternative to azithromycin, to which it is equally useful, although must be taken twice daily as opposed to the latter's single dose treatment. (anytimedoctor.co.uk)
  • Doxycycline, a well-absorbed tetracycline derivative, is the second drug of choice for genital chlamydia infections. (medscape.com)
  • Chlamydia is estimated to have declined from well over four million annual infections in the early 1980s to the current level of three million annual infections (Cates, 1999). (cdc.gov)
  • Chlamydia infections can occur in other areas besides the genitals, including the anus, eyes, throat, and lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Repeated chlamydia infections of the eyes that go without treatment can result in trachoma, a common cause of blindness in the developing world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections, affecting about 4.2% of women and 2.7% of men worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlamydia is known as the "silent epidemic", as at least 70% of genital C. trachomatis infections in women (and 50% in men) are asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis, and can linger for months or years before being discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Canadian guidelines on sexually transmitted infections: Chlamydia and LGV: Key information and resources. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Chlamydia should be treated early to prevent serious infections and infertility. (youngwomenshealth.org)
  • Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in the US. (youngwomenshealth.org)
  • If you or your partner(s) has a positive chlamydia test, you may need to have further testing to check for other possible infections. (youngwomenshealth.org)
  • In some cases, like pregnancy or history of multiple infections, your health care provider may decide to repeat a chlamydia test after treatment to make sure the infection is gone. (youngwomenshealth.org)
  • L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer la relation entre les infections vaginales à Chlamydia et la néoplasie cervicale intraépithéliale (CIN). (who.int)
  • In pregnant women, Chlamydia is associated with pre-term births, infant eye infections (conjunctivitis), and pneumonia. (wdxcyber.com)
  • And the rates for Chlamydia, among both men and women, have been rising in recent years, according to a 2021 report on sexually transmitted infections, or STIs, from the Defense Health Agency's Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch. (health.mil)
  • In both men and women, chlamydia can also affect different organs that come in contact with infected genital secretions, for example the rectum or the throat if engaging in anal or oral sexual activity, or eye infections if exposed. (health.mil)
  • Chlamydia Infections" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA. (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chlamydia Infections" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Chlamydia Infections" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Chlamydia Infections" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Gonorrhoea and Chlamydia are common bacterial infections which are sexually transmitted. (rainbow-project.org)
  • Babies born to infected mothers can get eye infections and pneumonia from chlamydia. (rxwiki.com)
  • Doxycycline is a tetracycline antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections, one of the most common being the STI chlamydia. (121doc.com)
  • This highly effective chlamydia treatment that prevents the spread of bacteria that causes sexually transmitted infections. (121doc.com)
  • Chlamydia infections are curable with antibiotics. (sfcityclinic.org)
  • Untreated chlamydia can also cause vaginal discharge, urinary tract infections, and miscarriage. (sfcityclinic.org)
  • P2.132 Pharyngeal and Conjunctival Chlamydia Trachomatis Infections: Chicken or Egg? (bmj.com)
  • There's an increased risk of gonorrhea and chlamydia coinfectionsin HIV-positive military personnel, according to a study published in the journalSexually Transmitted Infections (STI). (realhealthmag.com)
  • During a follow-up, researchers found that 11 percent ofparticipants had acquired gonorrhea or chlamydia and that the risk wassignificantly greater in young, African-American men with a history of sexuallytransmitted infections. (realhealthmag.com)
  • Sexually transmitted infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis may lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and chronic pelvic pain in women. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlamydia infections have been reported to cause silent infections in communities which becomes endemic and could remain unnoticed for a very long time . (bvsalud.org)
  • In men, chlamydia may cause symptoms similar to gonorrhea . (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you have symptoms of a chlamydia infection, your health care provider will collect a sample for culture or a test called a nucleic acid amplification. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Call your provider if you have symptoms of chlamydia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many people with chlamydia may not have symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Seventy-five percent of women and 50 percent of men with chlamydia have no symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • While men experience symptoms and seek treatment on their own more often than women, half of men with chlamydia are asymptomatic. (cdc.gov)
  • Hi must be a stupid question but how much does chlamydia itch in urethra my symptoms is itching not all the time frequent urination no bu. (medhelp.org)
  • See if your symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) are caused by a chlamydia infection. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • A chlamydia infection doesn't always cause symptoms. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • In this study, we evaluated rectal Chlamydia trachomatis testing in relation to symptoms and sexual habits in women and men who have sex with men. (nih.gov)
  • We suggest that rectal sampling should be considered in women visiting sexually transmitted infection clinics regardless of rectal symptoms and irrespective of anal intercourse, since our data suggest that several cases of rectal Chlamydia trachomatis otherwise would be missed, thus enabling further disease transmission. (nih.gov)
  • Most people who are infected with chlamydia don't have symptoms. (youngwomenshealth.org)
  • It is likely that there are many more people with chlamydia who haven't been diagnosed because they've never had symptoms. (youngwomenshealth.org)
  • What are the symptoms of chlamydia? (youngwomenshealth.org)
  • The majority of people who have chlamydia do not have symptoms. (youngwomenshealth.org)
  • Only about 10% of men and 5-30% of women with chlamydia will have symptoms. (youngwomenshealth.org)
  • If you are pregnant and you notice your partner is experiencing these symptoms, you should both be screened for STIs like chlamydia. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • Most people infected with chlamydia don't have symptoms and should therefore be screened for the infection regularly. (dc.gov)
  • If the male client has no symptoms of chlamydia, the clinician may request a urine sample that will be sent to the lab for analysis. (dc.gov)
  • Since the symptoms of gonorrhea and chlamydia are similar and both diseases can occur at the same time, most people who are treated for gonorrhea are also treated for Chlamydia. (dc.gov)
  • Chlamydia is considered a "silent" infection because most people who have it show no symptoms . (healthywomen.org)
  • Like chlamydia, gonorrhea often causes no symptoms. (healthywomen.org)
  • Most people who have chlamydia don't have any signs or symptoms. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Despite its prevalence among both men and women, the majority of individuals who contract the Chlamydia Trachomatis bacteria have no visible symptoms of the disease even weeks after becoming infected. (wdxcyber.com)
  • When symptoms of Chlamydia do appear, they first range from mild to moderate and surface one to three weeks after exposure. (wdxcyber.com)
  • In the short-term, the following are some of the symptoms associated with Chlamydia. (wdxcyber.com)
  • In such instances Chlamydia symptoms become painful and more severe. (wdxcyber.com)
  • When you consider that Chlamydia often produces no symptoms this statistic is not that surprising. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Some women experience a mild discharge with Chlamydia but the vast majority of women have no symptoms at all. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Since Chlamydia causes no symptoms, you or your partner may have contracted it long before entering into your monogamous relationship. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Often called the "silent infection," it's important to know that most people that have chlamydia do not experience any symptoms. (smartersex.org)
  • Men have a difficult time spotting symptoms of chlamydia. (smartersex.org)
  • Woollens said one of the big reasons chlamydia is so prevalent is that there's a large patient population that is infected with chlamydia without any symptoms, "providing an ongoing source for disease transmission. (health.mil)
  • When chlamydia does show symptoms, they can vary. (health.mil)
  • Chlamydia can cause serious problems but may not cause symptoms. (peacehealth.org)
  • Most people with chlamydia have no symptoms, or they may not appear until several weeks after sex with an infected partner. (rxwiki.com)
  • Even when chlamydia causes no symptoms, it can damage your reproductive system. (rxwiki.com)
  • Although it's true that not every person who gets a chlamydia test will get infected or know they have it, most health officials do recommend yearly testing for partners who are sexually active or for people whose symptoms are suspected. (bigbangblog.net)
  • Chlamydia can lead to PID in women even when there are no symptoms. (sfcityclinic.org)
  • Many people infected with chlamydia never have any symptoms at all. (sfcityclinic.org)
  • Most of the time women with chlamydia have no symptoms. (sfcityclinic.org)
  • During a complete check for chlamydia our experienced medical staff will ask you questions about your sexual history, examine any parts of the body where you have symptoms and take swabs and/or urine for testing. (sfcityclinic.org)
  • Chlamydia often has minimal or no symptoms. (anylabtestnow.com)
  • Because chlamydia often does not show symptoms, the best way to know if you have it is to test for it. (anylabtestnow.com)
  • Furthermore, chlamydia symptoms can be similar to symptoms of other STDs, so you may want to consider the Comprehensive STD Panel- this includes testing for chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. (anylabtestnow.com)
  • We are here to share all the important facts and information on the topic of Chlamydia - from causes and symptoms to treatment options and prevention! (performanceinsiders.com)
  • Chlamydia is very hard to be recognized because it hardly shows any symptoms at the beginning. (performanceinsiders.com)
  • If you are less than 25 years old and have ever had sexual intercourse, talk to your health care provider about getting tested for chlamydia at least once a year and more often if you change sex partners, or you have had chlamydia or other STIs before. (youngwomenshealth.org)
  • There are a number of services where you can get tested for chlamydia and other STIs for free, and straight away. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the U.S.. In the photo, a service member at Naval Medical Center Camp LeJeune Community Health Clinic gets tested for STIs. (health.mil)
  • Rates of chlamydia were greater than the sum of the other four most common STIs combined, according to the report. (health.mil)
  • And while "females statistically show higher incidences of chlamydia," this could be because "they are also more likely to be screened and therefore diagnosed with STIs due to recommended screening programs for all asymptomatic sexually active young women and pregnant women," she said. (health.mil)
  • Chlamydia can be cured by antibiotics with typically either azithromycin or doxycycline being used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlamydia may be treated and cured with antibiotics administered orally. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • Although many koalas with chlamydia can be treated using traditional antibiotics, some animals cannot be saved due to the severity of their infection. (popsci.com)
  • Chlamydia can be treated with antibiotics. (dc.gov)
  • Chlamydia can be cured with antibiotics and early treatment can prevent lasting damage to your body. (healthywomen.org)
  • Chlamydia is usually easily treated with antibiotics. (bupa.co.uk)
  • That's why it's important to have any chlamydia infection treated with antibiotics. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Chlamydia is usually easily treated with oral antibiotics (antibiotics you take as tablets). (bupa.co.uk)
  • Chlamydia can be treated with antibiotics such as azithromycin (taken for one day) or doxycycline (taken for 7 days). (rxwiki.com)
  • Chlamydia is very common in the UK and completely curable with the right antibiotics. (121doc.com)
  • Antibiotics cure chlamydia. (sfcityclinic.org)
  • Chlamydia is an important health threat, yet it can be so easily diagnosed through regular testing and treatment is a simple course of antibiotics. (gynob.com)
  • Optimal urogenital specimen types for chlamydia screening by using NAAT include first-catch urine (for men) and vaginal swabs (for women) ( 553 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Chlamydia can be spread during vaginal, anal, or oral sex, and can be passed from an infected mother to her baby during childbirth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlamydia is spread through sexual fluids like semen (cum), pre-cum, and vaginal fluids. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • So the best way to avoid chlamydia and other STDs is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex at all. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • A genital Chlamydia infection can be spread between sexual partners during vaginal, oral, or anal sexual contact. (healthychildren.org)
  • Anyone who is sexually active (outside of a monogamous relationship where you both have not had previous sexual partners) is at risk for contracting chlamydia via vaginal, anal, or oral sex. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • Chlamydia is a common STI that can be spread during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. (dc.gov)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the association between vaginal Chlamydia infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). (who.int)
  • You can get or pass on chlamydia through having unprotected vaginal, anal, or oral sex with an infected person. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease that can be passed on through vaginal, anal and oral sex. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Both men and women can get chlamydia during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with an infected partner. (rxwiki.com)
  • It is the most common bacterial STI in the U.S. Chlamydia can spread from person to person during oral, vaginal, and anal sex. (sfcityclinic.org)
  • If you are living with HIV and not taking antiretroviral medications, a chlamydia infection can lead to highly concentrated amounts of HIV virus in your genital tissue causing 8-10 times more HIV to be shed in your semen or vaginal secretions. (sfcityclinic.org)
  • The "rates of chlamydia have been steadily increasing in the general U.S. population among both females and males since 2000," according to the report. (health.mil)
  • Considering the rising rates of chlamydia among Black women, there is a need to act fast and now. (spokesman-recorder.com)
  • Young adults have the highest rates of chlamydia. (cliniquelactuel.com)
  • Results: Testing-adjusted rates of chlamydia notifications declined by 5.2% per annum (rate ratio [RR] = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.96) for women overall, and 2.3% (RR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-1.00) and 5.0% per annum (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.93-0.98) for men in LGAs with moderate and high densities of Medicare providers, respectively. (who.int)
  • Identification and localization of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Alzheimer's brain. (alzforum.org)
  • This letter is in response to the recent article in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (38[2]:881-882, 2000) entitled 'Failure to detect Chlamydia pneumoniae in brain sections of Alzheimer's Disease Patients' by Gieffers et al. (alzforum.org)
  • From the cultured samples 230 were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis and 99 positive to Chlamydia pneumoniae . (bvsalud.org)
  • How long can chlamydia go untreated to cause infertility in male? (medhelp.org)
  • Left untreated, Chlamydia can cause permanent infertility. (wdxcyber.com)
  • What few people realize is that infertility and Chlamydia are often linked. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • As a matter of fact, Chlamydia is one of the leading causes of infertility-preventable causes I should say. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • By leaving Chlamydia untreated a woman puts herself at high risk of ectopic pregnancy and infertility as well as other complications . (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Untreated gonorrhea and Chlamydia can lead to serious complications such as infertility and cervical cancer. (bigbangblog.net)
  • This is especially important for women as chlamydia is symptomless for the vast majority of male and females but may cause long-term difficulties without curing the infection, such as infertility and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). (121doc.com)
  • For women, untreated chlamydia can lead to severe reproductive health problems, including infertility (i.e. difficulty or inability to get pregnant). (sfcityclinic.org)
  • Host Genetic Risk Factors for Chlamydia trachomatis-Related Infertility in Women. (bvsalud.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection ascending to the upper genital tract can cause infertility . (bvsalud.org)
  • Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, a highly prevalent sexually transmitted agent worldwide, is mostly asymptomatic (70%-80%) and often remains undetected. (who.int)
  • Repeat infection with chlamydia is common. (rxwiki.com)
  • Chlamydia, or more specifically a chlamydia infection, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis only occurs in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that is caused by a bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis. (dc.gov)
  • A publication in eLife from researchers of the Institut Pasteur, CNRS, University of Lille and Indiana University (USA) explains the mechanisms by which the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis hijacks nutrients of its host to its own benefit. (pasteur.fr)
  • Chlamydia is caused by a bacterium known as Chlamydia Trachomatis . (performanceinsiders.com)
  • This bacterium is transferred through direct contact, from one to another partner during an unprotected sexual act in a situation where one partner is a carrier of the bacterium or is affected by Chlamydia. (performanceinsiders.com)
  • This image reveals a close view of a patient's left eye with the upper lid retracted in order to reveal the inflamed conjunctival membrane lining the inside of both the upper and lower lids, due to what was determined to be a case of inclusion conjunctivitis, a type of conjunctival inflammation caused by the bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis. (medscape.com)
  • However, left undetected and untreated, Chlamydia can cause long-term damage to the male and female reproductive organs and lead to severe fertility complications in women. (wdxcyber.com)
  • The following are some of the long-term complications and effects associated with Chlamydia. (wdxcyber.com)
  • If left untreated, chlamydia can have severe consequences, particularly for women. (cdc.gov)
  • But if left untreated, chlamydia can make it difficult for a woman to get pregnant. (thirdage.com)
  • But there are much higher costs to pay chlamydia is left untreated. (spokesman-recorder.com)
  • Chlamydia tests use a sample of body fluid or urine to see whether chlamydia bacteria ( Chlamydia trachomatis ) are present and causing an infection. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • A chlamydia test is done on either a urine sample or fluid (direct sample) collected from the area of the body that is most likely to be infected. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • For testing involving urine samples, including chlamydia and gonorrhea, do not urinate or engage in sexual intercourse for one hour before testing. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • Your health care provider can diagnose chlamydia by testing samples from the urine, vagina, or cervix. (youngwomenshealth.org)
  • Testing for chlamydia is done with a swab test or urine test. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Your health care provider may ask you to collect a urine sample or may collect a fluid sample from your vagina to test for chlamydia . (rxwiki.com)
  • If you go to an STD clinic for a routine exam, the medical staff will give you a general checkup as well as a Chlamydia test and urine exam. (bigbangblog.net)
  • Genital chlamydia is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the world. (zmescience.com)
  • According to recent findings reported by researchers at Imperial College London and the Statens Serum Institut in Copenhagen, a vaccine designed for preventing genital chlamydia provoked an immune response. (zmescience.com)
  • We also obtained laboratory-confirmed genital chlamydia notifications in NSW residents for 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2010 and excluded notifications from public laboratories. (who.int)
  • These tests use a sample of body fluid from areas such as the cervix, vagina, eyes, rectum, or throat to find the genetic material ( DNA ) of chlamydia bacteria. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • If you have a chlamydia infection in your rectum (back passage), you might notice some discomfort and discharge from your anus. (bupa.co.uk)
  • The most common treatment for chlamydia is an antibiotic. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although evidence is insufficient to recommend routine screening for C. trachomatis among sexually active young men because of certain factors (i.e., feasibility, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness), screening of sexually active young men should be considered in clinical settings with a high prevalence of chlamydia (e.g., adolescent clinics, correctional facilities, or STD specialty clinics) or for populations with a high burden of infection (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • Unidentified asymptomatic rectal Chlamydia trachomatis could be a partial explanation for the high Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence. (nih.gov)
  • Rectal Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence was 9.1% in women and 0.9% in men who have sex with men. (nih.gov)
  • Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection and associated factors among asymptomatic pregnant women in Botswana. (harvard.edu)
  • Results of the Department of Health funded chlamydia screening pilots in Portsmouth and the Wirral found a prevalence of up to 9% among young men attending youth centres and nearly twice this among men attending GUM clinics. (bmj.com)
  • In this study we tried to determine the factual prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis seropositive women. (karger.com)
  • NHANES offers an opportunity to assess the prevalence of chlamydia in the general population and to monitor trends in prevalence as prevention programs are established and expanded. (cdc.gov)
  • Notification data provide no evidence for a general increase in the prevalence of chlamydia in the NSW community for this period. (who.int)
  • Recommendations for laboratory-based detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea -- 2014. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diagnostic Automation offers a OneStep Chlamydia RapiCard InstaTest is a rapid immunoassay for direct qualitative detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen endocervical or endourethral swab specimens. (rapidtest.com)
  • The OneStep Chlamydia Rapid Test utilizes the chemical extraction of a carbohydrate antigen from Chlamydia followed by the utilization of migratory color immunoassay technology for the qualitative detection of Chlamydia trachomatis. (rapidtest.com)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in Europe and has large impacts on patients' physical and emotional health. (nih.gov)
  • Chlamydia is a bacterial infection and is the most commonly reported bacterial STI. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • And the mechanisms of this vaccine might also prove useful for developing a chlamydia vaccine in humans, he added, since the bacterial culprits are related. (popsci.com)
  • Chlamydia is caused by a type of bacterial infection. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infection. (pasteur.fr)
  • Chlamydia (say "kluh-MID-ee-uh") is a bacterial infection spread through sexual contact. (peacehealth.org)
  • Chlamydia is the most frequently reported bacterial STD in the United States. (rxwiki.com)
  • Chlamydia is the most common bacterial STD (sexually transmitted disease) in the United States. (anylabtestnow.com)
  • Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV) Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a disease caused by 3 unique strains of Chlamydia trachomatis and characterized by a small, often asymptomatic skin lesion, followed by regional lymphadenopathy. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Since Chlamydia and Gonorrhea are often asymptomatic, they can go unrecognized, undiagnosed, and untreated. (wdxcyber.com)
  • In 1999, nearly 10 percent (9.9 percent) of 17- to 37-year-old women screened for STDs during their induction into the Army tested positive for chlamydia ( DSTDP, CDC, 2000). (cdc.gov)
  • therefore the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all sexually active individuals be tested yearly for Chlamydia and other STDs and that they use condoms properly and consistently during all sexual activity. (wdxcyber.com)
  • Unfortunately, the scenario has been quite different in the case of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea , two of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States. (wdxcyber.com)
  • Furthermore, a key benefit of the Thin-Prep Pap Test is its ability to perform additional testing from the same Pap test sample - that is, to test for the STDs Chlamydia and Gonorrhea. (wdxcyber.com)
  • Chlamydia also can cause prematurity, eye disease, and pneumonia in infants. (cdc.gov)
  • Women who have chlamydia during pregnancy can pass it on to their baby during childbirth, which can cause an eye infection or pneumonia in the newborn. (sfcityclinic.org)
  • If transmitted to infants during birth, Chlamydia can cause conjunctivitis and pneumonia. (rapidtest.com)
  • Chlamydia is a common, curable, sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by bacteria. (rxwiki.com)
  • Also, pregnant women with chlamydia can give chlamydia to their babies during childbirth. (healthywomen.org)
  • It's important to get a test in order to tell if you have gonorrhea or chlamydia. (youngwomenshealth.org)
  • Background Chlamydial inclusion conjunctivitis caused by genital serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is well-recognised, and usually thought to result from auto-inoculation from genital CT infection or direct sexual contact. (bmj.com)
  • Finally a clinician (a consultant, nurse, doctor or GP) will provide you with an oral swab which they will do to check for Gonorrhoea and Chlamydia in the throat. (rainbow-project.org)
  • We conclude that the currently used IPA method for chlamydia diagnosis overestimates C. trachomatis infection and its specificity for the diagnosis of C. trachomatis is limited. (karger.com)
  • The Chlamydia Rapid Test is a meaningful test for point-of-care diagnosis of a chlamydia infection. (rapidtest.com)
  • Proper screening of patients to include Chlamydia should be encouraged at all levels of medical diagnosis in the country so as to proffer treatment . (bvsalud.org)
  • Related to erythromycin, azithromycin is considered by many to be the treatment of choice for Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary infection because it may be administered in a single dose, which improves adherence to treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Alternative treatment for chlamydia is Azithromycin , which is available in two capsules of 500mg each to be taken immediately. (121doc.com)
  • These include the use of NAATs to detect chlamydia. (medscape.com)
  • In 2004, the Variant, Sweden proportion of positive chlamydia tests was similar whether laboratories used Abbott/Roche or BD test systems. (cdc.gov)
  • n, number of positive chlamydia cases analyzed. (cdc.gov)
  • Acquisition and synthesis of folates by obligate intracellular bacteria of the genus Chlamydia. (jci.org)
  • Chlamydia is the most commonly reported infectious disease in the United States and may be one of the most dangerous sexually transmitted diseases among women today. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlamydia is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection (STI) . (healthychildren.org)
  • Chlamydia - commonly known as "the clam" - is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the military community, military health data shows. (health.mil)
  • Chlamydia, the most commonly reported STI in Hennepin County, has had higher and faster-rising rates among Black women than White women. (spokesman-recorder.com)
  • Chlamydia, or also commonly known as "The Silent Infection", is represented as a part of the group of sexually transmitted diseases. (performanceinsiders.com)
  • The patients treated with medications for Chlamydia have reported the presence of side effects, most commonly - diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. (performanceinsiders.com)
  • Trich is more prevalent than chlamydia and gonorrhea combined. (healthywomen.org)
  • Chlamydia, one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases ( STD ) in the United States, has ironically been coined the "silent" disease. (wdxcyber.com)
  • Why is Chlamydia so Prevalent? (health.mil)
  • Men with untreated chlamydia can occasionally develop epididymitis, a painful infection of the testicles. (sfcityclinic.org)
  • We hope that similar investigations will be forthcoming in AD as well because, as most objective scientists would agree, we are far from understanding the basis for neurodegenerative processes as they may relate to infectious agents such as Chlamydia , Borrelia, Herpes simplex virus type I, and HIV. (alzforum.org)
  • Rectal chlamydia - should screening be recommended in women? (nih.gov)
  • Chlamydia can also lead to permanent rectal damage (damage to the back passage) in people with an STI called lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). (bupa.co.uk)
  • Rectal chlamydia may increase your chance of getting HIV by 10 to 20 times. (sfcityclinic.org)
  • From 1997 to 1999, chlamydia test positivity in family planning clinics actually increased in eight out of 10 regions. (cdc.gov)
  • Have you had a confirmatory negative test for chlamydia? (medhelp.org)
  • We can test for gonorrhea and chlamydia. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • Chlamydia may be diagnosed by your healthcare provider using a lab test to assess the secretions from the infected area which may include the cervix, urethra, anus, or throat. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • If you're sexually active and under the age of 25, it's recommended that you have a chlamydia test at least once a year. (bupa.co.uk)
  • There are several different ways you can test for Gonorrhoea and Chlamydia. (rainbow-project.org)
  • Why Get a Chlamydia Test? (peacehealth.org)
  • A lab test can tell if you have chlamydia. (rxwiki.com)
  • Experts recommend that sexually active women 25 and younger get a chlamydia test every year. (rxwiki.com)
  • Your doctor can show you how to collect your sample, then run a test for either chlamydia or gonorrhea using your samples. (bigbangblog.net)
  • Once you've had your Chlamydia Test and have received treatment, you'll need to use protection during intercourse. (bigbangblog.net)
  • The Thin-Prep Pap Test is not only the most sensitive and accurate Pap test to date in detecting precancerous cervical cells, but it has now also been FDA-approved to test for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea. (wdxcyber.com)
  • As well as ordering your chlamydia test online , you can also collect our test kits from stockists in West Devon . (freetest.me)
  • This Chlamydia Rapid Test is a quick, simple, and non-invasive test for use on female patients only. (rapidtest.com)
  • See Chlamydia Rapid Test Product Insert for specific details on preparation, procedures, quality control, and interpretation of test results. (rapidtest.com)
  • The positive sera were further confirmed by distinguishing the species of Chlamydia using the monoclonal antibody spot test kit. (bvsalud.org)
  • The CDC suggests that pregnant women who are treated for chlamydia infection should be retested at 3 weeks and 3 months post-treatment since reinfection is somewhat common. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • High Cure Rate Among Pregnant Women in a Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Testing and Treatment Intervention Study in Gaborone, Botswana. (harvard.edu)
  • Discrete Plasma Cytokine Profiles Among Pregnant Women in Botswana by Chlamydia trachomatis Infection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Status, and Gestational Age. (harvard.edu)
  • Trachoma Trachoma is a chronic conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and is characterized by progressive exacerbations and remissions. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Reducing the level of chlamydia will require continued expansion of screening and treatment among women and new efforts to reach men. (cdc.gov)
  • Reaching these men with treatment is critical to stem the spread of chlamydia and its severe consequences. (cdc.gov)
  • I was treated for chlamydia a while ago and while I still had chlamydia my ferret got into my garbage and played with one of my tampon applicators I used before treatment. (medhelp.org)
  • Chlamydia is one of the most significant threats to koalas, and so treatment after infection is simply not enough, said Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital veterinarian and research coordinator Amber Gillett in a statement . (popsci.com)
  • If you believe that you have chlamydia or have been sexually active with someone that has chlamydia, it's important to get tested and seek treatment as soon as possible. (smartersex.org)
  • The major issue with chlamydia is the fact that, most often, people carry it but are unaware of the fact, so they don't seek treatment. (zmescience.com)
  • A prescription for your chlamydia treatment will be sent straight to the pharmacy for speedy delivery. (121doc.com)
  • What is the Treatment Plan for Chlamydia? (performanceinsiders.com)
  • The percentage of women testing positive for chlamydia-chlamydia positivity-in family planning clinics by state provides a good indication of where the disease remains most wide-spread. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlamydia is generally spread through sexual contact. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • Chlamydia is easily cured, and there are a few ways to make sure you don't spread it to other people. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • Chlamydia is spread through unprotected sex. (youngwomenshealth.org)
  • Chlamydia is spread from person-to-person during unprotected sex. (youngwomenshealth.org)
  • Yes, chlamydia may be spread from mother to child during birth (perinatal transmission). (americanpregnancy.org)
  • If Chlamydia is undetected, the infection may spread and cause inflammation of the reproductive or other organs. (wdxcyber.com)
  • As a result, a person will continue to spread chlamydia to others unknowingly. (smartersex.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is also able to colonize the eye, and the resulting inflammation is the leading cause of blindness by an infectious agent in several developing countries. (pasteur.fr)
  • In 1999, 7.2 percent of 15- to 24-year-old females screened in selected prenatal clinics in 22 states were positive for chlamydia ( DSTDP, CDC , 2000). (cdc.gov)
  • Costs, Health Benefits, and Cost-Effectiveness of Chlamydia Screening and Partner Notification in the United States, 2000-2019: A Mathematical Modeling Analysis. (harvard.edu)
  • We examined the effect of adjusting for local testing rates on chlamydia notification trends in New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2000 to 2010. (who.int)
  • Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease, which can be easily cured. (thirdage.com)
  • How common is chlamydia? (youngwomenshealth.org)
  • What is chlamydia, and is it common? (americanpregnancy.org)
  • Here, I'll answer some very common questions about chlamydia. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Chlamydia is by far the most common STI in the military. (health.mil)
  • Chlamydia is the most common STI in Northern Ireland and across the world. (rainbow-project.org)
  • Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted disease. (bigbangblog.net)
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a common result of untreated chlamydia infection in women. (sfcityclinic.org)
  • Chlamydia has become the most common sexually transmitted infection and is believed to affect one in every ten youths between the ages of 15 and 24. (gynob.com)
  • Chlamydia screening programs have been demonstrated to reduce PID rates among women ( 786 , 787 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Reported chlamydia rates in women greatly exceed those in men largely because screening programs have been primarily directed at women.True rates are probably far more similar for women and men. (cdc.gov)
  • Since 1994, there has been increased funding available for chlamydia screening in publicly funded family planning and STD clinics. (cdc.gov)
  • Recent studies and screening programs in multiple settings throughout the country come to the same conclusion: chlamydia continues to exact a devastating toll among our nation's young people. (cdc.gov)
  • Six years after publication of the first expert advisory recommendations 1 and subsequent calls for the introduction of a national chlamydia screening programme, tentative steps are at last being made towards its implementation. (bmj.com)
  • We now have evidence which questions the wisdom of the targeting of sexual health screening by sex for chlamydia as men have an equal, or even greater, risk of infection than women. (bmj.com)
  • Britain's National Health Service (NHS) teamed up with the Accrington Stanley football club and a health charity called b-sure to offer free screening tests for the sexually transmitted disease (STD) known as chlamydia to football fans after a recent game. (gynob.com)
  • Medication for chlamydia should not be shared with anyone. (rxwiki.com)
  • For this reason and because of the body of literature from hundreds of different Chlamydia studies that demonstrate a tremendous variability in diagnosing, identifying, and localizing Chlamydia in clinical specimens, we went to the extreme in our investigations by using a large variety of techniques on different clinical specimens. (alzforum.org)
  • Tell your past and present sexual partners you have chlamydia, so they can get tested and treated too. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • If you have chlamydia, all of your sex partners from the last 60 days should be tested and treated footnote 1 . (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Where can I get tested and treated for chlamydia? (youngwomenshealth.org)
  • You can be tested and treated for chlamydia at family planning health centers, private doctors' offices, STI clinics, hospital clinics, and health departments. (youngwomenshealth.org)