Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Chlamydia: A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Chlamydia muridarum: Species of CHLAMYDIA causing pneumonitis in mice and hamsters. These isolates formerly belonged to CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Chlamydophila psittaci: A genus of CHLAMYDOPHILA infecting primarily birds. It contains eight known serovars, some of which infect more than one type of host, including humans.Chlamydophila Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.Lymphogranuloma Venereum: Subacute inflammation of the inguinal lymph glands caused by certain immunotypes of CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. It is a sexually transmitted disease in the U.S. but is more widespread in developing countries. It is distinguished from granuloma venereum (see GRANULOMA INGUINALE), which is caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.Arenaviruses, New World: One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Genital Diseases, Female: Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Female Urogenital Diseases: Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Uterine Cervicitis: Inflammation of the UTERINE CERVIX.Urethritis: Inflammation involving the URETHRA. Similar to CYSTITIS, clinical symptoms range from vague discomfort to painful urination (DYSURIA), urethral discharge, or both.Male Urogenital Diseases: Pathological processes of the male URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, MALE).Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial: Bacterial diseases transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Cockatoos: Large crested BIRDS in the family Cacatuidae, found in Australia, New Guinea, and islands adjacent to the Philippines. The cockatiel (species Nymphicus hollandicus) is much smaller.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Salpingitis: Inflammation of the uterine salpinx, the trumpet-shaped FALLOPIAN TUBES, usually caused by ascending infections of organisms from the lower reproductive tract. Salpingitis can lead to tubal scarring, hydrosalpinx, tubal occlusion, INFERTILITY, and ectopic pregnancy (PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC)Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Conjunctivitis, Inclusion: An infection of the eyes characterized by the presence in conjunctival epithelial cells of inclusion bodies indistinguishable from those of trachoma. It is acquired by infants during birth and by adults from swimming pools. The etiological agent is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS whose natural habitat appears to be the genito-urinary tract. Inclusion conjunctivitis is a less severe disease than trachoma and usually clears up spontaneously.Ligase Chain Reaction: A DNA amplification technique based upon the ligation of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES. The probes are designed to exactly match two adjacent sequences of a specific target DNA. The chain reaction is repeated in three steps in the presence of excess probe: (1) heat denaturation of double-stranded DNA, (2) annealing of probes to target DNA, and (3) joining of the probes by thermostable DNA ligase. After the reaction is repeated for 20-30 cycles the production of ligated probe is measured.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Chlamydiaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE.Chlamydiaceae: A family of gram-negative, coccoid microorganisms, in the order CHLAMYDIALES, pathogenic for vertebrates. Genera include CHLAMYDIA and CHLAMYDOPHILA.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Urethral Diseases: Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.Uterine Cervical Diseases: Pathological processes of the UTERINE CERVIX.Reproductive Tract Infections: Infections of the genital tract in females or males. They can be caused by endogenous, iatrogenic, or sexually transmitted organisms.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Arthritis, Reactive: An aseptic, inflammatory arthritis developing secondary to a primary extra-articular infection, most typically of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or UROGENITAL SYSTEM. The initiating trigger pathogens are usually SHIGELLA; SALMONELLA; YERSINIA; CAMPYLOBACTER; or CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Reactive arthritis is strongly associated with HLA-B27 ANTIGEN.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Genital Diseases, Male: Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Chaperonin 60: A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Doxycycline: A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.Fallopian Tube Diseases: Diseases involving the FALLOPIAN TUBES including neoplasms (FALLOPIAN TUBE NEOPLASMS); SALPINGITIS; tubo-ovarian abscess; and blockage.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mycoplasma genitalium: A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from urethral specimens of patients with non-gonoccocal URETHRITIS. In primates it exists in parasitic association with ciliated EPITHELIAL CELLS in the genital and respiratory tracts.ConjunctivitisUrogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.DEAE-Dextran: Used as a support for ion-exchange chromatography.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Body Piercing: The perforation of an anatomical region for the wearing of jewelry.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Conjunctivitis, Bacterial: Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. Some of the more commonly found genera causing conjunctival infections are Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Chlamydia.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Venereology: A branch of medicine which deals with sexually transmitted disease.Chlamydiales: An order of obligately intracellular, gram-negative bacteria that have the chlamydia-like developmental cycle of replication. This is a two-stage cycle that includes a metabolically inactive infectious form, and a vegetative form that replicates by binary fission. Members of Chlamydiales are disseminated by aerosol or by contact. There are at least six recognized families: CHLAMYDIACEAE, Criblamydiaceae, Parachlamydiaceae, Rhabdochlamydia, Simkaniaceae, and Waddliaceae.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Phascolarctidae: A family of marsupials in the order Diprotodontia, native to Australia and possessing vestigial tails. There is a single living genus and species: Phascolarctos cinereus, the koala.Trichomonas Infections: Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Proctitis: INFLAMMATION of the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the RECTUM, the distal end of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Trichomonas vaginalis: A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Mycoplasma Infections: Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Chlamydophila: A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE comprising gram-negative non CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS-like species infecting vertebrates. Chlamydophila do not produce detectable quantities of glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI.Trichomonas Vaginitis: Inflammation of the vagina, marked by a purulent discharge. This disease is caused by the protozoan TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS.Ureaplasma: A genus of gram-negative, nonmotile bacteria which are common parasitic inhabitants of the urogenital tracts of humans, cattle, dogs, and monkeys.Vaginal Discharge: A common gynecologic disorder characterized by an abnormal, nonbloody discharge from the genital tract.Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Chlamydial Pneumonia: Pneumonia caused by infections with the genus CHLAMYDIA; and CHLAMYDOPHILA, usually with CHLAMYDOPHILA PNEUMONIAE.Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Epididymitis: Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Pharyngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.Sulfisoxazole: A short-acting sulfonamide antibacterial with activity against a wide range of gram- negative and gram-positive organisms.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Vaginosis, Bacterial: Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Asterias: A genus of STARFISH in the family Asteriidae. One species, Asterias rubens, is the most common in the north-east Atlantic region.Mycoplasma hominis: A common inhabitant of the vagina and cervix and a potential human pathogen, causing infections of the male and female reproductive tracts. It has also been associated with respiratory disease and pharyngitis. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Pneumonia, Mycoplasma: Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.Uterine Cervical Erosion: Loss or destruction of the epithelial lining of the UTERINE CERVIX.Victoria: A state in southeastern Australia, the southernmost state. Its capital is Melbourne. It was discovered in 1770 by Captain Cook and first settled by immigrants from Tasmania. In 1851 it was separated from New South Wales as a separate colony. Self-government was introduced in 1851; it became a state in 1901. It was named for Queen Victoria in 1851. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1295 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p574)Mycoplasmatales Infections: Infections with bacteria of the order MYCOPLASMATALES.Leukorrhea: A clear or white discharge from the VAGINA, consisting mainly of MUCUS.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Genitalia: The external and internal organs related to reproduction.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gynecological Examination: Inspection and PALPATATION of female breasts, abdomen, and GENITALIA, as well as obtaining a gynecological history. (from Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology)Mice, Inbred BALB CSuriname: A republic in the north of South America, bordered on the west by GUYANA (British Guiana) and on the east by FRENCH GUIANA. Its capital is Paramaribo. It was formerly called Netherlands Guiana or Dutch Guiana or Surinam. Suriname was first settled by the English in 1651 but was ceded to the Dutch by treaty in 1667. It became an autonomous territory under the Dutch crown in 1954 and gained independence in 1975. The country was named for the Surinam River but the meaning of that name is uncertain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1167 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p526)

Studies on the response of ewes to live chlamydiae adapted to chicken embryos or tissue culture. (1/481)

Ewes infected before gestation with chicken embryo or tissue culture adapted chlamydial strain B-577 were challenge inoculated with the homologous strain at four to 18 weeks of gestation. The ewes responsed with group specific complement fixing antibody titers of 1:8 to 1:256 by the second week after initial infection. A secondary antibody response in the surviving challenge inoculated ewes occurred at the time of lambing and reached titers of 1:32 to 1:256 by the second week after parturition. Group specific complement fixing antibodies did not appear to play a significant role in resistance to chlamydial infection. Ewes infected with the chicken embryo adapted strain B-577 excreted chlamydiae in their feces 60 days after inoculation. However, chlamydiae were not recovered from feces of ewes infected with the tissue culture adapted strain B-577. Placentas of ewes challenge inoculated by the intravenous route were consistently infected. Chlamydiae were recovered from placentas, some fetuses and lambs. In two instances when challenge inoculation was given by the intramuscular route, infection was detected only by the direct fluorescent antibody method.  (+info)

Chlamydia infections and heart disease linked through antigenic mimicry. (2/481)

Chlamydia infections are epidemiologically linked to human heart disease. A peptide from the murine heart muscle-specific alpha myosin heavy chain that has sequence homology to the 60-kilodalton cysteine-rich outer membrane proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. psittaci, and C. trachomatis was shown to induce autoimmune inflammatory heart disease in mice. Injection of the homologous Chlamydia peptides into mice also induced perivascular inflammation, fibrotic changes, and blood vessel occlusion in the heart, as well as triggering T and B cell reactivity to the homologous endogenous heart muscle-specific peptide. Chlamydia DNA functioned as an adjuvant in the triggering of peptide-induced inflammatory heart disease. Infection with C. trachomatis led to the production of autoantibodies to heart muscle-specific epitopes. Thus, Chlamydia-mediated heart disease is induced by antigenic mimicry of a heart muscle-specific protein.  (+info)

The in-vitro activity of HMR 3647, a new ketolide antimicrobial agent. (3/481)

The in-vitro activity of HMR 3647, a novel ketolide, was investigated in comparison with those of erythromycin A, roxithromycin, clarithromycin (14-membered ring macrolides), amoxycillin-clavulanate and ciprofloxacin against 719 recent clinical Gram-positive, Gram-negative and anaerobic isolates and type cultures. HMR 3647 generally demonstrated greater activity than the other compounds with MIC90s of < or =0.5 mg/L, except for Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC90 > 128 mg/L), Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90 = 2 mg/L), Enterococcus faecalis (MIC90 = 2 mg/L), Enterococcus faecium (MIC90 = 1 mg/L) and the anaerobes, Bacteroides fragilis (MIC90 = 2 mg/L) and Clostridium difficile (MIC90 = 1 mg/L). In general, an increase in the size of the inoculum from 10(4) to 10(6) cfu on selected strains had little effect on the MICs of HMR 3647. Additionally, the in-vitro activity of HMR 3647 was not affected by the presence of either 20 or 70% (v/v) human serum. The antichlamydial activity of HMR 3647 was generally greater than that of commonly used antichlamydial antimicrobials.  (+info)

Chlamydia infection of epithelial cells expressing dynamin and Eps15 mutants: clathrin-independent entry into cells and dynamin-dependent productive growth. (4/481)

Chlamydiae enter epithelial cells via a mechanism that still remains to be fully elucidated. In this study we investigated the pathway of entry of C. psittaci GPIC and C. trachomatis LGV/L2 into HeLa cells and demonstrated that it does not depend on clathrin coated vesicle formation. We used mutant cell lines defective in clathrin-mediated endocytosis due to overexpression of dominant negative mutants of either dynamin I or Eps15 proteins. When clathrin-dependent endocytosis was inhibited by overexpression of the dynK44A mutant of dynamin I (defective in GTPase activity), Chlamydia entry was not affected. However, in these cells there was a dramatic inhibition in the proliferation of Chlamydia and the growth of the chlamydia vacuole (inclusion). When clathrin-dependent endocytosis was inhibited by overexpression of an Eps15 dominant negative mutant, the entry and growth of Chlamydia was unaltered. These results indicate that the effect on the growth of Chlamydia in the dynK44A cells was not simply due to a deprivation of nutrients taken up by endocytosis. Instead, the dominant-negative mutant of dynamin most likely affects the vesicular traffic between the Chlamydia inclusion and intracellular membrane compartments. In addition, cytochalasin D inhibited Chlamydia entry by more than 90%, indicating that chlamydiae enter epithelial cells by an actin-dependent mechanism resembling phagocytosis. Finally, dynamin is apparently not involved in the formation of phagocytic vesicles containing Chlamydia.  (+info)

Gamma interferon and interleukin-10 gene expression in synovial tissues from patients with early stages of Chlamydia-associated arthritis and undifferentiated oligoarthritis and from healthy volunteers. (5/481)

Genetically determined differences in interleukin-10 (IL-10) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses in mice correlate with clearance of Chlamydia pneumonitis infection. We measured the synovial expression of IL-10 and IFN-gamma and additional cytokine genes in patients who had recent-onset Chlamydia-associated arthritis (Chl-AA). IL-10 and IFN-gamma mRNA were relatively abundant in recent-onset Chl-AA.  (+info)

Comparative in-vitro activity of moxifloxacin, minocycline and azithromycin against Chlamydia spp. (6/481)

The in-vitro activity of moxifloxacin, a new 8-methoxyquinolone, was compared with minocycline and azithromycin against 40 strains of Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia psittaci. Both the MIC and the MBC of moxifloxacin ranged from 0.03 to 0.125 mg/L. MICs of minocycline ranged from 0.015 to 0.06 mg/L and MBCs between 0.03 and 0.25 mg/L. MICs of azithromycin ranged from 0.03 to 0.125 mg/L and the MBCs between 0.06 and 0.5 mg/L. MBC values of moxifloxacin were the same as MICs in 32 (80%) of 40 strains tested, whereas those of minocycline and azithromycin were two to four times higher than their MICs. These data confirm those previously obtained indicating that quinolones kill chlamydial strains at concentrations equivalent to their MICs.  (+info)

Genomic relatedness of Chlamydia isolates determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. (7/481)

The genomic relatedness of 19 Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates (17 from respiratory origin and 2 from atherosclerotic origin), 21 Chlamydia trachomatis isolates (all serovars from the human biovar, an isolate from the mouse biovar, and a porcine isolate), 6 Chlamydia psittaci isolates (5 avian isolates and 1 feline isolate), and 1 Chlamydia pecorum isolate was studied by analyzing genomic amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints. The AFLP procedure was adapted from a previously developed method for characterization of clinical C. trachomatis isolates. The fingerprints of all C. pneumoniae isolates were nearly identical, clustering together at a Dice similarity of 92.6% (+/- 1.6% standard deviation). The fingerprints of the C. trachomatis isolates of human, mouse, and swine origin were clearly distinct from each other. The fingerprints of the isolates from the human biovar could be divided into at least 12 different types when the presence or absence of specific bands was taken into account. The C. psittaci fingerprints could be divided into a parakeet, a pigeon, and a feline type. The fingerprint of C. pecorum was clearly distinct from all others. Cluster analysis of selected isolates from all species revealed groups other than those based on sequence data from single genes (in particular, omp1 and rRNA genes) but was in agreement with available DNA-DNA hybridization data. In conclusion, cluster analysis of AFLP fingerprints of representatives of all species provided suggestions for a grouping of chlamydiae based on the analysis of the whole genome. Furthermore, genomic AFLP analysis showed that the genome of C. pneumoniae is highly conserved and that no differences exist between isolates of respiratory and atherosclerotic origins.  (+info)

Epitheliocystis agents in sea bream Sparus aurata: morphological evidence for two distinct chlamydia-like developmental cycles. (8/481)

The morphology of membrane-bound intracellular inclusions, or 'cysts', of epitheliocystis from sea bream Sparus aurata is described. Inclusions under the light microscope appear either granular or amorphous. Granular inclusions do not elicit a proliferative host reaction and contain the 3 distinctive developmental stages of chlamydial organisms: the highly pleomorphic reproductive form or reticulate body, the condensing form or intermediate body and the infective non-dividing rather uniform elementary body. Amorphous inclusions may elicit a proliferative host reaction and contain prokaryotic organisms which differ morphologically from those reported within granular cysts. More or less elongated electron-lucent organisms divide by fission to give rise to electron-dense non-dividing small cells with a dense nucleoid. Vacuolated and non-vacuolated small cells are reported. The morphology and developmental cycle of sea bream epitheliocystis agents would support their chlamydial nature; however, the immunohistochemical study conducted on gill samples which carried both inclusions failed to demonstrate the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) chlamydial antigen. The different stages of the 2 distinct developmental cycles described in the present study are compared with electron microscope observations of epitheliocystis organisms reported from different host species. The hypothesis that epitheliocystis infection in the sea bream might be caused by a unique highly pleomorphic chlamydia-like agent, the life history of which includes 2 entirely different developmental cycles, is discussed.  (+info)

*Chlamydia (genus)

The three Chlamydia species include Chlamydia trachomatis (a human pathogen), Chlamydia suis (affects only swine), and ... Because of Chlamydia's unique developmental cycle, it was taxonomically classified in a separate order. Chlamydia is part of ... Chlamydia is a genus of pathogenic bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites. Chlamydia infections are the most common ... Chlamydiae.com "Chlamydia" by Hunter Handsfield.[permanent dead link]. ...

*Chlamydia suis

... is a member of the genus Chlamydia. C. suis has only been isolated from swine, in which it may be endemic. ... The deduced ompA gene products of various Chlamydia suis strains contain vs4 epitopes TLNPTIAG(A.K.T)G(D.K.N.T), TWNPTIAGAGS or ... Glycogen has been detected in Chlamydia suis inclusions in infected swine tissues and in cell culture. C. suis is associated ... These epitopes are identical or nearly identical to the Chlamydia MOMP core epitopes NPTI, TLNPTI, LNPTIA or LNPTI, which are ...

*Chlamydia infection

... , often simply known as chlamydia, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia ... Chlamydia is known as the "silent epidemic" as in women, it may not cause any symptoms in 70-80% of cases, and can linger for ... Chlamydia can be spread during vaginal, anal, or oral sex, and can be passed from an infected mother to her baby during ... The word "chlamydia" is from the Greek, χλαμύδα meaning "cloak". Chlamydial infection of the cervix (neck of the womb) is a ...

*Chlamydia trachomatis

Chlamydiae.com "Chlamydia trachomatis". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 813. Type strain of Chlamydia trachomatis at BacDive - the ... commonly known as chlamydia, is one of four bacterial species in the genus Chlamydia. Chlamydia is a genus of pathogenic ... Chlamydia cell culture is a test in which the suspected Chlamydia sample is grown in a vial of cells. The pathogen infects the ... Chlamydia species can exchange DNA between the different strains, thus the evolution of new strains is common. Chlamydia ...

*Chlamydia muridarum

... MoPn binds mAbs recognizing Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP vs4 core epitope (T)LNPT(IA). DNA sequence analysis ... Chlamydia muridarum is an intracellular bacterial species that at one time belonged to Chlamydia trachomatis. However, C. ... 2000). "Genome sequences of Chlamydia trachomatis MoPn and Chlamydia pneumoniae AR39". Nucleic Acids Res. 28 (6): 1397-406. doi ... and hamster SFPD strains of Chlamydia trachomatis with other Chlamydia strains". Mol Biol Evol. 10 (6): 1327-42. PMID 8277858. ...

*Chlamydia psittaci

... is transmitted by inhalation, contact or ingestion among birds and to mammals. Psittacosis in birds and in ... Chlamydia psittaci is a lethal intracellular bacterial species that may cause endemic avian chlamydiosis, epizootic outbreaks ... Birds are excellent, highly mobile vectors for the distribution of chlamydia infection, because they feed on, and have access ...

*Chlamydia antibodies

Testing for Chlamydia antibodies is not the mainstay diagnostic tool for Chlamydia infection, which is preferentially diagnosed ... Chlamydia antibodies are antibodies targeting bacteria of the Chlamydia genus, but it generally refers specifically to ... antibodies targeting Chlamydia trachomatis, which is the cause of Chlamydia infection in humans. ... "Chlamydia antibody testing and diagnosing tubal pathology in subfertile women: An individual patient data meta-analysis". Human ...

*Chlamydia research

... is the systematic study of the organisms in the taxonomic group of bacteria Chlamydiae, the diagnostic ... Chlamydia infections in wildlife are part of the research into Chlamydia particularly koalas genomics and gene regulation ... "Study brings chlamydia vaccine hope " The EPT". Retrieved 2015-07-26. "Significant breakthrough in study of chlamydia". ... "Chlamydia Research". Retrieved 2015-07-25. "Chlamydia promotes gene mutations". Max-Plank-Gesselshaft. June 20, 2013. Retrieved ...

*Chlamydia (disambiguation)

Chlamydia may refer to: Chlamydia infection, a sexually transmitted infection Chlamydiae, class of bacteria including ... a genus of pathogenic bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis, causing human sexually transmitted disease and eye infections Chlamydia ... also known as Chlamydia pneumoniae, an airborne chlamydial species responsible for human respiratory infection and numerous ... muridarum, causing disease in mice and hamsters (the Muridae) Chlamydia suis, bacteria that infect pigs (Sus scrofa) ...

*Chlamydiae

... are most successfully isolated while still inside their host cells. Chlamydiae is the most common bacterial STD in ... In 1966, Chlamydiae were recognized as bacteria and the genus Chlamydia was validated. The order Chlamydiales was created by ... 2015 ["Chlamydia avium" Sachse et al. 2014] Species C. gallinacea Sachse et al. 2015 ["Chlamydia gallinacea" Sachse et al. 2014 ... Three species of Chlamydiae that commonly infect humans are described: Chlamydia trachomatis, which causes the eye-disease ...

*Mutual monogamy

"Chlamydia". Health and Human Services. 17 August 2016. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public ... It is also effective for lowering the risk of syphilis, chlamydia and pubic lice. The lack of a more precise definition of ...

*Chlamydophila pneumoniae

Zhan P, Suo LJ, Qian Q, Shen XK, Qiu LX, Yu LK, Song Y (March 2011). "Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and lung cancer risk: a ... Until recently, it was known as Chlamydia pneumoniae, and that name is used as an alternate in some sources. In some cases, to ... Hahn DL, Schure A, Patel K, Childs T, Drizik E, Webley W (2012). "Chlamydia pneumoniae-specific IgE is prevalent in asthma and ... Cho YS, Kim TB, Lee TH, Moon KA, Lee J, Kim YK, Lee KY, Moon HB (December 2005). "Chlamydia pneumoniae infection enhances ...

*Gonorrhea

Extragenital gonorrhea and chlamydia are highest in men who have sex with men (MSM). Additionally, the USPSTF also recommends ... "CDC Fact Sheet - Chlamydia". Archived from the original on 16 December 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2008. "STD Trends in the ... In the US, it is the second-most-common bacterial sexually transmitted infections; chlamydia remains first. According to the ... All people testing positive for gonorrhea should be tested for other sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia, syphilis ...

*Asymptomatic carrier

Chlamydia, an STI that affects both men and women, can also be asymptomatic in most individuals. Although the infection is not ... "STD Facts - Chlamydia". cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-02-14. Ousmane M. Diop; Cara C. Burns; Roland W. Sutter; Steven G. Wassilak; ... Like Chlamydia, PID can also be asymptomatic. A small number of asymptomatic carriers (referred to as chronic excretors) ...

*Chlamydophila

All Chlamydiae are anaerobic bacteria with a biphasic developmental lifecycle that depends on obligately intracellular growth ... In 1999, many Chlamydia strains were reorganized into the genus Chlamydophila. Comparative genomic analyses have identified ... "Chlamydia/Chlamydophila group". NCBI taxonomy database. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of ... The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Chlamydophila and Chlamydia are close to 95% identical. However, 95% is not a cutoff ...

*Bacteria

Chlamydia, another phylum of obligate intracellular parasites, contains species that can cause pneumonia, or urinary tract ... Belland RJ, Ouellette SP, Gieffers J, Byrne GI (2004). "Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis". Cell Microbiol. 6 (2): 117- ...

*Pathogenic bacteria

Chlamydia is a phylum of intracellular parasites. These pathogens can cause pneumonia or urinary tract infection and may be ... Belland R, Ouellette S, Gieffers J, Byrne G (2004). "Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis". Cell Microbiol. 6 (2): 117-27. ...

*Waddlia

"Chlamydiae". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. Retrieved 2008-09-11. Baud, David; Goy, Geneviève; ... Species in this genus have a Chlamydia-like cycle of replication and their ribosomal RNA genes are 80-90% identical to ...

*Simkaniaceae

... is a family of bacteria in the order Chlamydiales, class Chlamydiae, phylum Chlamydiae, domain Bacteria. Species ... "Chlamydiae". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. Retrieved 2008-09-11. ... in this family have a chlamydia-like cycle of replication and their ribosomal RNA genes are 80-90% identical to ribosomal genes ...

*Parachlamydiaceae

"Chlamydiae". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. Retrieved 2008-09-11. R. J. Birtles; T. J. Rowbotham; C. ... Species in this family have a Chlamydia-like cycle of replication and their ribosomal RNA genes are 80-90% identical to ... Storey; T. J. Marrie; D. Raoult (1997). "Chlamydia-like obligate parasite of free-living amoebae". The Lancet. 349 (9056): 925- ...

*Chlamydophila pecorum

Fukushi, H.; Hirai, K. (1992). "Proposal of Chlamydia Pecorum sp. nov. for Chlamydia Strains Derived from Ruminants". ... Chlamydophila pecorum, also known as Chlamydia pecorum is a species of Chlamydiaceae that has been isolated only from mammals: ... Chlamydiae.com Type strain of Chlamydophila pecorum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ... cattle and sheep strains of Chlamydia pecorum". BMC Genomics. 15 (1): 667. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-667. Retrieved 6 November ...

*Testicular immunology

Chlamydia is caused by the sexually transmitted bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis which infects the genitals. It more commonly ... 3]Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet. Restrepo, B.; Cardona-Maya, W. (October 2013). "Antisperm antibodies and fertility association". ...

*Chlamydophila felis

doi:10.1111/j.1863-2378.2011.01397.x. Chlamydiae.com. ...

*Phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis

including virus, fungus, chlamydia, and nematodes. Malinovsky, Victor (2006). "Phylctenular Ulcers" (PDF). Indiana University ... followed by Chlamydia trachomatis. Active bacterial infections may be treated with a topical antibiotic or a combination ...

*Pelvic inflammatory disease

Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are usually the main cause of PID. Data suggest that PID is often polymicrobial ... Globally about 106 million cases of chlamydia and 106 million cases of gonorrhea occurred in 2008. The number of cases of PID ... Anaerobes and facultative bacteria were also isolated from 50 percent of the patients from whom Chlamydia and Neisseria were ... Infections by Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis are present in 75 to 90 percent of cases. Often multiple different ...
Background: Tests available for molecular diagnosis of chlamydial infections detect Chlamydiatrachomatis, but do not find other Chlamydia species associated with genital, ophthalmic, cardiovascular, respiratory or neurological diseases. The routine detection of all Chlamydia species would improve the prognosis of infected people and guide therapeutic choices.. Aim: To design and validate a sensitive, specific, reproducible, inexpensive and easy-to-perform assay to quantify most Chlamydia species.. Methods: Primers and probe were selected using the gene coding for the 16S rRNA. The detection limits were assessed for suspensions of Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pneumoniae. The performance of this test was compared with that of two commercial kits (Amplicor-Roche and Artus) on 100 samples obtained from children with trachoma.. Results: The detection capacities for Chlamydia trachomatis of the broad-range real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were similar or slightly ...
article{8506862, abstract = {The porcine pathogen Chlamydia suis is widespread in pig farming. Isolation of Chlamydia suis in cell culture is crucial for the generation and characterization of new isolates. However, isolation of Chlamydia suis strains from field samples is fastidious. Therefore, we exploited high-content microscopy to quantify the growth of Chlamydia suis strains in different cell lines. We found that the cell line yielding optimal propagation of Chlamydia suis differed among isolates, and we identified cell lines outperforming those routinely used for chlamydial isolation. We conclude that adaptation of the propagation procedure to the origin of the putative field isolate is highly recommended to improve the recovery rate.}, author = {De Puysseleyr, Leentje and De Puysseleyr, Kristien and Vanrompay, Daisy and De Vos, Winnok}, issn = {1059-910X}, journal = {MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE}, keyword = {Chlamydia,cell culture,high-content microscopy,isolation,swine,GNOTOBIOTIC ...
Chlamydia pecorum is a globally recognised pathogen of livestock and koalas. To date, comparative genomics of C. pecorum strains from sheep, cattle and koalas has revealed that only single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a limited number of pseudogenes appear to contribute to the genetic diversity of this pathogen. No chlamydial plasmid has been detected in these strains despite its ubiquitous presence in almost all other chlamydial species. Genomic analyses have not previously included C. pecorum from porcine hosts. We sequenced the genome of three C. pecorum isolates from pigs with differing pathologies in order to re-evaluate the genetic differences and to update the phylogenetic relationships between C. pecorum from each of the hosts. Whole genome sequences for the three porcine C. pecorum isolates (L1, L17 and L71) were acquired using C. pecorum-specific sequence capture probes with culture-independent methods, and assembled in CLC Genomics Workbench. The pairwise
FRIDAY, Sept. 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) - Three cases of community-acquired pneumonia involving Chlamydia caviae after exposure to ill guinea pigs have been described, according to a research letter published online Sept. 6 in the New England Journal of Medicine.. Bart P. Ramakers, M.D., Ph.D., from Bernhoven in the Netherlands, and colleagues described three unrelated cases of infection in otherwise healthy adults in their early 30s who had respiratory failure caused by severe community-acquired pneumonia after exposure to ill guinea pigs.. The researchers found that the three cases appeared over a period of about three years and occurred in individuals from different families, at different hospitals, and in different geographic areas. All three patients had chlamydia DNA detected in specimens obtained from the respiratory tract, serum, or both; the species was identified as C. caviae. There were no other causes of community-acquired pneumonia detected. All three of the patients recovered after ...
Species of Chlamydia are the etiologic agent of endemic blinding trachoma, the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases, significant respiratory pathogens, and a zoonotic threat. Their dependence on an intracellular growth niche and their peculiar developmental cycle are major challenges to elucidating their biology and virulence traits. The last decade has seen tremendous advances in our ability to perform a molecular genetic analysis of Chlamydia species. Major achievements include the generation of large collections of mutant strains, now available for forward- and reverse-genetic applications, and the introduction of a system for plasmid-based transformation enabling complementation of mutations; expression of foreign, modified, or reporter genes; and even targeted gene disruptions. This review summarizes the current status of the molecular genetic toolbox for Chlamydia species and highlights new insights into their biology and new challenges in the nascent field of Chlamydia ...
Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular bacteria that infect a broad range of mammalian hosts. Members of related genera are pathogens of a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species. Despite the diversity of Chlamydia, all species contain an outer membrane lipooligosaccharide (LOS) that is comprised of a genus-conserved, and genus-defining, trisaccharide 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid Kdo region. Recent studies with lipopolysaccharide inhibitors demonstrate that LOS is important for the C. trachomatis developmental cycle during RB- > EB differentiation. Here, we explore the effects of one of these inhibitors, LPC-011, on the developmental cycle of five chlamydial species. Sensitivity to the drug varied in some of the species and was conserved between others. We observed that inhibition of LOS biosynthesis in some chlamydial species induced formation of aberrant reticulate bodies, while in other species, no change was observed to the
The periplasmic High Temperature Requirement protein A (HtrA) plays important roles in bacterial protein folding and stress responses. However, the role of chlamydial HtrA (cHtrA) in chlamydial pathogenesis is not clear. The cHtrA was detected both inside and outside the chlamydial inclusions. The detection was specific since both polyclonal and monoclonal anti-cHtrA antibodies revealed similar intracellular labeling patterns that were only removed by absorption with cHtrA but not control fusion proteins. In a Western blot assay, the anti-cHtrA antibodies detected the endogenous cHtrA in Chlamydia-infected cells without cross-reacting with any other chlamydial or host cell antigens. Fractionation of the infected cells revealed cHtrA in the host cell cytosol fraction. The periplasmic cHtrA protein appeared to be actively secreted into host cell cytosol since no other chlamydial periplasmic proteins were detected in the host cell cytoplasm. Most chlamydial species secreted cHtrA into host cell cytosol and
Background and purpose: Chlamydia spp. are important pathogens of humans and animals that cause a wide range of acute and chronic infections. A persistence model has been developed in which Chlamydia spp. do not complete their developmental cycle, have significantly reduced infectivity for new host cells, and exhibit abnormal inclusion and reticulate body morphology. This study was performed to compare the interferon-γ (IFN-γ) induction and iron-limitation models of persistence for Chlamydia spp. to investigate the common and unique transcriptional pathways involved. Methods: A quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction approach was used to compare the IFN-γ induction and iron-limitation models of Chlamydia pneumoniae persistence at the transcriptional level by analyzing selected genes in each of 5 distinct, functionally relevant subcategories. Results: The models showed minimal evidence of a general transcriptional stress response in persistence, with only 1 of the 7 genes analyzed in the IFN
Chlamydia bacteria. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of Chlamydia sp. bacteria (small blue spheres) in a human cell (large blue sphere). The bacteria are in an inclusion body (yellow) within the cell. Some of the bacteria are reproducing by dividing into two new cells. Chlamydia are Gram-negative round (cocci) bacteria. Several species are pathogenic to humans including, C. trachomatis, which causes the sexually transmitted infection chlamydia, and C. pneumoniae, which causes a form of pneumonia. - Stock Image B220/1709
trachomatis Inc proteins. To know whether this result also applied to C. pneumo niae, selleck chem inhibitor we raised antibodies against 7 putative Inc proteins from C. pneumoniae as GST tagged fusion proteins. As a control we used antibodies against the C. pneumoniae Inc protein CPn0186. The anti fusion protein antibodies were used to localize the endogenous proteins in cells infected by C. pneumoniae for 96 hours. In contrast to the inclusion labeling observed with anti CPn0186 antibodies, none of the 7 sera stained the inclusion membrane. The detection of endogenous antigens was removed by pre absorption with corresponding GST fusion proteins but not heterologous Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries GST fusion proteins, demonstrating the specificity of the antibodies.. While they did not stain the inclusion membrane, the 7 sera labeled the bacteria, demonstrating that the corresponding proteins Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries are expressed at this stage of infection, and remain bac teria ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for P94664 (OMCB_CHLCV), Large cysteine-rich periplasmic protein OmcB. Chlamydophila caviae (strain ATCC VR-813 / DSM 19441 / GPIC)(Chlamydia caviae)
Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of IgG antibodies to Chlamydia sp. (LPS) in human serum or plasma. SmartEIA kit is specifically designed for automated analysis using the Agility instrument.
Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of IgA antibodies to Chlamydia sp. (LPS) in human serum or plasma. SmartEIA kit is specifically designed for automated analysis using the Agility instrument.
Diseases associated with Chlamydia pecorum infection are a major cause of decline in koala populations in Australia. While koalas in care can generally be treated, a vaccine is considered the only option to effectively reduce the threat of infection and disease at the population level. In the current study, we vaccinated 30 free-ranging koalas with a prototype Chlamydia pecorum vaccine consisting of a recombinant chlamydial MOMP adjuvanted with an immune stimulating complex. An additional cohort of 30 animals did not receive any vaccine and acted as comparison controls. Animals accepted into this study were either uninfected (Chlamydia PCR negative) at time of initial vaccination, or infected (C. pecorum positive) at either urogenital (UGT) and/or ocular sites (Oc), but with no clinical signs of chlamydial disease. All koalas were vaccinated / sampled and then re-released into their natural habitat before re-capturing and re-sampling at 6 and 12 months. All vaccinated koalas produced a strong immune
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium associated with trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. During its intracellular developmental cycle, Chlamydia resides in a membrane bound compartment called the inclusion. A subset of Type III secreted effectors, the inclusion membrane proteins (Inc), are inserted into the inclusion membrane. Inc proteins are strategically positioned to promote inclusion interaction with host factors and organelles, a process required for bacterial replication, but little is known about Inc proteins function or host interacting partners. Moreover, it is unclear whether each Inc protein has a distinct function or if a subset of Inc proteins interacts with one another to perform their function. Here, we used IncD as a model to investigate Inc/Inc interaction in the context of Inc protein expression in C. trachomatis. We developed a co-infection model system to display different tagged Inc proteins on the surface of the same inclusion. We also designed
HealthDay Reporter. (HealthDay News) -- Been looking for a reason to turn down your childs pleas for a pet Guinea pig? Dutch researchers say the rodents may carry germs tied to serious pneumonia.. The bacteria, Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae), normally causes pink eye in guinea pigs.. But three adults in the Netherlands wound up hospitalized for pneumonia after contact with guinea pigs resulted in their infection with C. caviae.. Two of the three patients had to be put on a ventilator in intensive care units (ICUs), although all three survived following treatment with antibiotics, doctors reported.. C. caviae was not previously known as a bacteria that could infect humans, said the lead author of the report, Dr. Bart Ramakers. He is an intensive care doctor with Bernhoven Hospital in the Netherlands.. Doctors and veterinarians should be aware of the bacterium, especially now that we have demonstrated that it can be transmitted from guinea pigs to humans, Ramakers said. The bacterium also has ...
Chlamydial development is punctuated by changes in protein-protein interactions on elementary body (EB) and reticulate body (RB) surfaces. Reduction of disulfide cross-links in the chlamydial outer membrane complex (COMC) concomitant with attachment and entry of the EB is rapidly followed by transition to the fragile RB, which is specialized for acquisition of nutrients during chlamydial growth and differentiation. This chapter reviews knowledge about the progression starting with the structure of the EB envelope in the extracellular environment and the way in which this surface interacts with, and is altered during, the process of chlamydial attachment, entry, development, and exit from host cells. The presence of gram-negative double membranes was confirmed by early transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of RBs and EBs, but challenges in purification and fractionation of RB membranes shifted emphasis toward EB membranes in subsequent studies. Regularly spaced hexagonal lattices were observed
The bacteria that induces blindness is transmitted along with chlamydia, explains Dr. Andrew J. Baxton at Eureka Springs Hospital.. "Trachoma is an extremely painful tropical disease which causes the eyelid to turn inward, making the eyelashes scratch against the cornea and causing immense pain, followed by blindness.". A 2012 National Center for Health Statistics study suggests that the frequent practice of Golden showers by people over 65 years old and in LGBTQ communities was the number 2 cause of blindness in America.. ...
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Chlamydia infections in women - MedHelps Chlamydia infections in women Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Chlamydia infections in women. Find Chlamydia infections in women information, treatments for Chlamydia infections in women and Chlamydia infections in women symptoms.
Comparative morphological, histological, and biological studies suggest a close relationship between the meningopneumonitis virus of Francis and Magill and a virus recovered from thiamin-deficient pigeons. Both of these viruses are morphologically identical with typical psittacosis, and it seems probable that they are biologically modified strains of psittacosis. They both differ from typical psittacosis in that they are regularly more pathogenic for the pigeon after intracranial injection, and fail to produce hepatic necrosis after intraperitoneal injection in mice. A virus recently isolated from human cases of atypical pneumonia by Eaton, Beck, and Pearson may also be closely related to these two viruses.. A number of psittacosis viruses of pigeon origin showed a similarly increased pathogenicity for pigeons by the intracerebral route, as compared with psittacosis viruses of parrot origin. The viruses of parrot origin, however, commonly produced latent infection in pigeons even when clinical ...
Global Chlamydia Infection Industry 2022 Market Research Report" Purchase This Report by calling ResearchnReports.com at +1-888-631-6977.. This report is a compressive analysis of every situation of Chlamydia Infection market. With precise investigation of the past situation, present market scenario and future anticipated progress has been offered in this report respectively. Exact data of the prime strategies, market share values and products of the key leading companies is stated apprehensively.. Download sample pages of this report: https://www.researchnreports.com/request_sample.php?id=62526 It provides accurate outline if Chlamydia Infection market depending on the key parameters such as applications, end users, products, regions and many other sub segmentations. Estimated growth by volume and revenue with respect to the global market for Chlamydia Infection over the future years has been mentioned in detail.. An additional deals into the major geographical segmentations of this particular ...
Vidal, Sara; Kegler, Kristel; Greub, Gilbert; Aeby, Sébastien; Borel, Nicole; Dagleish, Mark P; Posthaus, Horst; Perreten, Vincent; Rodriguez-Campos, Sabrina (2017). Neglected zoonotic agents in cattle abortion: tackling the difficult to grow bacteria. BMC Veterinary Research, 13(1):373.. Li, Min; Jelocnik, Martina; Yang, Feng; Gong, Jianseng; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Polkinghorne, Adam; Feng, Zhixin; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Borel, Nicole; Song, Chunlian; Jiang, Ping; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jilei; Wang, Yaoyao; Wang, Jiawei; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Chengming (2017). Asymptomatic infections with highly polymorphic Chlamydia suis are ubiquitous in pigs. BMC Veterinary Research:13:370.. Taylor-Brown, Alyce; Spang, Labolina; Borel, Nicole; Polkinghorne, Adam (2017). Culture-independent metagenomics supports discovery of uncultivable bacteria within the genus Chlamydia. Scientific Reports, 7(1):10661.. Leonard, Cory Ann; Schoborg, Robert V; Borel, Nicole (2017). Productive and penicillin-stressed chlamydia pecorum ...
Chlamydia infections have an immense impact on public health and are associated with diverse disease manifestations including atherosclerosis, blindness, and sterility. The chlamydial developmental cycle is intrinsically linked with the ability of the organism to cause disease. The mechanisms that regulate the developmental cycle are poorly understood; however, transcription appears to play a governing role. An OmpR/PhoB subfamily response regulator termed ChxR exhibits expression patterns that indicate an important role during the developmental cycle. Previously, ChxR was demonstrated to interact with its own promoter and facilitate the transcriptional activation of the chxR gene. To begin to understand the functional role of ChxR, I identified the DNA sequence recognized by ChxR to identify its gene targets. Primarily using gel mobility shift assays, I determined that ChxR interacts with, and has differential affinity for six binding sites in the chxR promoter region. Using the DNA sequences ...
This is a default index page for a new domain.Cheap Generic Azithromycin Azithromycin zithromax azithromycin 500 mg for chlamydia azithromycin dose strep throat pefiatric zithromax oksentelu chlamydia doxycycline.Azithromycin during pregnancy, gonorrhea treatment azithromycin.. Buy Zithromax (Azithromycin) Online How Long Will It Take Azithromycin To Cure Chlamydia. 500 dosage can you crush them managing cialis side effects how long will it.Cheap Zithromax Online, Zithromax Treat Chlamydia Buy Cheap Zithromax azithromycin for tetanus azithromycin for aom zithromax oral suspension taste.U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-supported frontline health worker Ozara Husseini (left) talks to Najiba, who has five children, about the advantages.. More patient posts reported that Zithromax helped them when used for Chlamydia.Buy Zithromax (Azithromycin) Online Can You Treat Chlamydia With Azithromycin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunobiology of monocytes and macrophages during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. AU - Nielsen, Mads Lausen. AU - Christiansen, Gunna. AU - Poulsen, Thomas Bouet Guldbæk. AU - Birkelund, Svend. PY - 2019/3/1. Y1 - 2019/3/1. N2 - Infections caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis are a global health burden affecting more than 100 million people annually causing damaging long-lasting infections. In this review, we will present and discuss important aspects of the interaction between C. trachomatis and monocytes/macrophages.. AB - Infections caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis are a global health burden affecting more than 100 million people annually causing damaging long-lasting infections. In this review, we will present and discuss important aspects of the interaction between C. trachomatis and monocytes/macrophages.. KW - Chlamydia trachomatis. KW - Macrophages. KW - Monocytes. UR - ...
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Chlamydia pneumoniae is a species of bacteria that causes chlamydia, which affects humans and is a main trigger of pneumonia. Chlamydia pneumoniae has an intricate life cycle and can only thrive if it infects another cell. In this case, it is considered an "obligate intracellular pathogen." Moreover, it has been observed that c. pneumoniae is […] ...
Chlamydiae are medically important bacteria responsible for a wide range of human infections and diseases. Repeated episodes of infection promote chronic inflammation associated with detrimental immune system-mediated pathologic changes. However, the true nature of chlamydial pathogenesis may encompass repeated infection superimposed upon persistent infection, which would allow for heightened immune reactivity. During the course of chlamydial infection, numerous host elaborated factors with inhibitory or modifying effects may cause alterations in the chlamydia-host cell relationship such that the organism is maintained in a nonproductive stage of growth. Abnormal or persistent chlamydiae have been recognized under a variety of cell culture systems. The numerous factors associated with altered growth suggest an innate flexibility in the developmental cycle of chlamydiae. This review evaluates in vitro studies of chlamydial persistence and correlates these model systems to features of natural ...
Doctor answers on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More: Dr. Boelter on worst chlamydia infections symptom: If you have an infection, the earlier you start taking antibiotics the better to prevent spreading of the infection for topic: Worst Chlamydia Infections Symptom
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Chlamydia is a very common sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by bacteria. You can get chlamydia from vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Chlamydia is common in the U.S. with over 1 million cases reported each year. Among all age groups, teens and young adults have the highest rates of infection.. Most females (and some males) who have chlamydia have no symptoms, and annual testing for chlamydia is recommended for all sexually active women age 25 and under.. ...
Chlamydia is the second most common sexually transmitted diseases after papillomavirus. It affects both men and women but is more serious consequence at the fair sex.. Chlamydia causes severe irreversible damage to reproductive organs in women. The infection is the cause of clogging and blockage of the fallopian tubes, causing serious consequences such as infertility and creating conditions for the emergence of dangerous conditions such as the ectopic pregnancy.. Chlamydia trachomatis is transmitted through all forms of sex - vaginal, oral, anal. In most cases, the infection is symptomless - seven out of 10 people do not complain of any signs weeks after infection. If you are experiencing any symptoms, they include unusual vaginal discharge, burning during urination, possible rectal pain, anal spread of microorganisms, discharges and even bleeding from the rectum.. There are several types of antibiotic treatment in chlamydial infection. In one is considered a single dose of medicament, other ...
Chlamydia trachomatis, the causative agent of blinding trachoma and many sexually transmitted diseases, exists in two developmental forms: an infectious element...
1 Answer - Posted in: eye conditions, infections, chlamydia infection - Answer: Yes it can cause something like pink eye. Amoxicillin will cure it.
Chlamydia infection is a common sexually transmitted infection. Recently do you have UN-protected sex. Thinking you are affected with STD. Know Chlamydia.
Chlamydiae are pathogenic bacteria that probably evolved from host-independent, Gram-negative ancestors and are specialized for an intracellular existence. The chlamydial infectious elementary body binds to and enters the host cell by parasite-specified endocytosis, with a new generation of elementary bodies being released 30 to 48 h later....
In female patients have discovered two types of bacteria chlamydia, the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumonia. The bacteria is still classified into one disease chlamydia. In a pregnant woman, the bacteria that can threaten the health of the fetus baby in her womb. Transmission can cause serious problems such as paralysis of the eye that will be taken by a baby when it was born. ...
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that is caused by a bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydia is a common STI that can be spread during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. It can also be transmitted from an infected mother to her baby at birth. Teenagers and young adults are most commonly infected. Most people infected with chlamydia dont have symptoms and should therefore be screened for the infection regularly. Symptoms Men
Chlamydia can be cured through treatments with antibiotics. With appropriate treatment, chlamydial infections can be cured 95% of the time. The complication, however, can occur in chlamydia infection as many cases do not develop symptoms and there
Can you still get pregnant after having chlamydia - I had chlamydia for 6 or 7 mnths now im trying to get pregnut and I just dont come out Ive been trying for 5 mnths? Chlamydia. I suggest that you have a hsg (x-ray test to evaluate the patency of the fallopian tubes). A risk of having chlamydia is tubal scaring, so tht sperm cannot reach the egg.
Mouse monoclonal antibody specific for lipopolysaccharide of Chlamydia species C.trachomatis, C.pneumoniae and C.psittaci. The antibody is suitable for use with clone 1645 (MAB12272) in ELISA assays.. Full product information ...
Chlamydia is a common bacterial infection (STI) in humans caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. Types of foods to prevent and treat Chlamydia infection 1. Turmeric In the study to evaluate the Berberine of a plant alkaloid with a long history of medicinal use in both Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine, presented abundantly in turmeric, found …. ...
What is chlamydia infection?Chlamydia is an STD infection which may not present symptoms, but the patients can still infect others through sexual contact. There are no common symptoms for Chlamydia...
After a proper diagnosis, the doctor might recommend oral antibiotics such as ofloxacin, azithromycin, doxycycline, and erythromycin. Antibiotics might be advised as one-time dosage or every day does not less than one week. The two doses are in much the same way useful. Then again, if the sufferer will drop daily intake of antibiotics, then it would be smart to go for the one-time dose program, which can be much more expensive when compared with the daily antibiotic plan. Greater than 95% of cases of Chlamydia infection is treated with the antibiotic system.
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Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Chlamydia trachomatis LPS. Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies, L2 serovar. (MAB6165) - Products - Abnova
A Chlamydia test kit is actually a valuable tool to help people find out whether they have contracted it. It can provide the info about whether or not their warning signs suggest Chlamydia or not. This product is accessible in stores and also online. It is suitable for people that are too uneasy or terrified to stop by the hospital and see a health practitioner.
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Chlamydia trachomatis W4-W5, 1 mg. |p class=db_paraghraph|Chlamydia is a common term for infection with any bacterium belonging to the phylum Chlamydiae.
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By Bianca Nogrady for ABC Science Online. Posted September 15, 2008 18:06:00 A vaccine against the sexually transmitted infection chlamydia could wipe out the disease even if the vaccine is not perfect at protecting against infection, according to Australian researchers. According to a paper presented at the Australasian Sexual Health Conference in Perth, the researchers predict that a 100 per cent effective chlamydia vaccine could eradicate the infection within 15-20 years.. Using data on the prevalence of chlamydia, how it is spread, and the sexual behaviour patterns of a typical heterosexual community, Dr Richard Gray and colleagues were able to create a model that they then used to predict how different styles of vaccine might work.. They add that a less protective vaccine, which makes a person less infectious or shortens the duration of the disease, could still have a dramatic effect on infection rates.. The model also examined the effect of vaccinating just women, or both men and ...
Another name for Chlamydia Lung Infection is Chlamydia Pneumonia. Home care for chlamydia pneumonia includes: * Stop smoking * Avoid exposure to secondary ...
Chlamydia is the most common bacterial infection (STI) in the United States, with about 3 million new cases reported annually. Chlamydia (cla-mid-ee-ah) is so common in young women that, by age 30, 50% of sexually active women have evidence that they have had chlamydia at some time during their lives.
Chlamydia is the most common bacterial infection (STI) in the United States, with about 3 million new cases reported annually. Chlamydia (cla-mid-ee-ah) is so common in young women that, by age 30, 50% of sexually active women have evidence that they have had chlamydia at some time during their lives.
These symptoms can, however, be so mild that they often go unnoticed. It is estimated that 75% of women and 25% of men who have chlamydia have no symptoms until complications set in. If they do appear, they usually do so two to four weeks after being infected. The only sure way to know whether or not you have chlamydia is to be tested. Doctors recommend that sexually active people who are not involved in a long-term, monogamous relationship be tested periodically. You should be aware, though, that the most reliable test for chlamydia is a tissue culture that is expensive and not widely available. For that reason, many doctors use a simpler slide test instead. A small amount of fluid is collected from the infected site with a cotton swab. Sometimes the results are available the same day of the test ...
Womens Chlamydia Treatment and Screening Clinic in Singapore. What is chlamydia? Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). It is caused by a
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Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease, or STD. The infection usually is transmitted through oral, vaginal, or anal sex. Among women, it is the most commonly spread STD, particularly those ages 15 to 24. Chlamydia often has no symptoms, but if left untreated, it can cause serious health problems for women, for example, infertility, and it can increase your risk of getting HIV infection.
You will find the whole information you need to know about chlamydia including the definition, cause, symptom, test and treatment in here!
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The majority of women with Chlamydia infection are without symptoms. Many men are asymptomatic as well. Regular screening for Chlamydia, as recommended by the
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recent studies have confirmed the presence of viable Chlamydia in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of pediatric patients with airway hyperresponsiveness. While specific IgG and IgM responses to C. pneumoniae are well described, the response and potential contribution of Ag-specific IgE are not known. The current study sought to determine if infection with Chlamydia triggers the production of pathogen-specific IgE in children with chronic respiratory diseases which might contribute to inflammation and pathology. METHODS: We obtained BAL fluid and serum from pediatric respiratory disease patients who were generally unresponsive to corticosteroid treatment as well as sera from age-matched control patients who saw their doctor for wellness checkups. Chlamydia-specific IgE was isolated from BAL and serum samples and their specificity determined by Western blot techniques. The presence of Chlamydia was confirmed by species-specific PCR and BAL culture assays. RESULTS: ...
What is chlamydia disease? Chlamydia is one of the most common bacterial infection that is well known as venereal disease or sexually transmitted disease. This bacteria normally live in the groin area, can be communicated to both men and women through vaginal, oral, anal sex and even through the placenta( from a mother to her child). It can infect the penis, urethra, anus, vagina, cervix, eyes and throat easily even there are many natural home remedies for chlamydia infection. Most people with positive test result do not show any signs or symptoms that they might not recognize that they got the sexually transmitted infection. Therefore, the reported cases of chlamydia infection have increased every year, and the annual prevalence in America is nearly 3 million people.. What are chlamydia signs and symptoms?. Normally, this sexually transmitted diseases signs and symptoms are too mild that you might not notice them or even confuse with something else. It will take a few weeks to appear the first ...
Chlamydia can be transmitted during vaginal, anal or oral sex. If you believe you may have Chlamydia infection, call 01 497 0022 STD Clinic Harolds Cross
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Chlamydia trachomatis continues to be the most commonly reported sexually transmitted bacterial infection with more than 100 million new cases diagnosed annual...
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Chlamydia is an often symptomless STI treated using antibiotics such as Azithromycin. At Treated.com, our prices include prescription, treatment and 24h tracked delivery.
Chlamydia is a bacterial infection. It is the most common infection especially in people under 26 years of age. It is treated with antibiotics. Often, there are no symptoms of Chlamydia, so many people dont know they have the infection. When symptoms occur, it can cause:. ...
Chlamydia Definition - Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease (STD), where infection is caused by bacteria spread through sexual contact. Both...
If chlamydia symptoms appear at all, they are often mild and occur within 1 to 3 weeks after being infected. This eMedTV Web page contains a list of other symptoms and explains what happens when chlamydia is left untreated.
Chlamydia cannot kill you. Nonetheless, if chlamydia is left untreated, it can cause damage -- particularly to a womans reproductive organs. Its very ...
Hello all medical experts, First of all, I got infected by Chlamydia (can see the symptom) and took a STD check up on beginning of 2010. The diagnosis result was Chlamydia positive (2.something in t...
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Do you know which doctor should you consult if you have Chlamydia Trachomatis. This and other commonly asked questions about this condition.
Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, which affects the genital tract if acquired through vaginal sex, or the mouth or anus if acquired from oral or anal sex. Chlamydia is spread through unprotected sex with an infected person; it can also be spread from an infected mother to her baby at birth ...
Chlamydiae: | | | | Chlamydiae | | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Feedback is always we expect from readers who have taken the time to take part in this website. And we all expect that people with a chlamydia infection was on the wane. ...
The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually-transmitted pathogen in the developed world, |100 million persons are inf...
While the pathological findings of the study will indeed be beneficial to antibiotic development, it is the innovative approach used in creating the in vitro model that must be highlighted.
Azithromycin is an extremely effective prescription antibiotic used to treat Chlamydia in a single dose. You can buy Azithromycin online at 121doc.
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Question - Do antibiotics cure chlamydia ?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Ciprofloxacin, Ask a Psychiatrist
Chlamydia is a super common sexually transmitted infection common during the teens, twenties and early thirties. Arthritis causes inflammation and pain at various joints and is not common until a little older in life. How are these two related?
Hello Doctor, If i have Chlamydia and I took the 4 tablets of Azithromycin 250mg but had sex later on with the same partner who also has it within 24 hours but correctly used a condom, should I repeat the regiment? Is it safe to say I di
If you are on a personal connection, why do I have to complete a CAPTCHA? Like at chlamydia symptoms in women, completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and
Chlamydia is an STD caused by bacteria. Its important to know the symptoms, as treatment can prevent the infection from leading to other health problems.
Chlamydia is an STD caused by bacteria. Its important to know the symptoms, as treatment can prevent the infection from leading to other health problems.
Chlamydia 28-kDa protein: shares modest homology with members of heat-shock protein family; amino acid sequence given in first source
Requires Diagnosis: Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. We bring you some important facts about the disease.
Chlamydia is a bacterial infection caused by sexual intercourse with multiple partners. It is considered to be one of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
Chlamydia doesnt always present itself with noticeable symptoms and roughly 70 percent of women affected dont have symptoms, making detection without testing difficult.
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Read about the possible symptoms of chlamydia that can be experienced by men and women, and find out when you should seek medical advice.
2017 The Author(s). The order Chlamydiales are biphasic intracellular bacterial pathogens infecting humans and domesticated animals. Wildlife infections have also been reported, with the most studied example being Chlamydia pecorum infections in the koala, an iconic Australian marsupial. In koalas, molecular evidence suggests that spill-over from C. pecorum infected livestock imported into Australia may have had a historical or contemporary role. Despite preliminary evidence that other native Australian marsupials also carry C. pecorum, their potential as reservoirs of this pathogen and other Chlamydia-related bacteria (CRBs) has been understudied. Mucosal epithelial samples collected from over 200 native Australian marsupials of different species and geographic regions across Australia were PCR screened for Chlamydiales. Previously described and genetically distinct C. pecorum genotypes and a range of 16S rRNA genotypes sharing similarity to different CRBs in the broader Chlamydiales order were ...
Chlamydiae is a unique bacterial evolutionary group that separated from other bacteria approximately a billion years ago.[9][10] The species from this group can be distinguished from all other bacteria by the presence of conserved indels in a number of proteins such as RNA polymerase alpha subunit, Gyrase B, Elongation factor-Tu and Elongation factor-P, and by large numbers of signature proteins that are uniquely present in different chlamydiae species.[11][12] Reports have varied as to whether Chlamydiae is related to Planctomycetales or Spirochaetes.[13][14] Genome sequencing, however, indicates that 11% of the genes in Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila UWE25 and 4% in Chlamydiaceae are most similar to chloroplast, plant, and cyanobacterial genes.[10] However, phylogeny and shared presence of conserved indels in proteins such as RNA polymerase Beta subunit and lysyl-tRNA synthetase indicate that Verrucomicrobia are the closest free-living relatives of these parasitic organisms.[15] ...
Chlamydia comprises a group of obligate intracellular bacterial parasites responsible for a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including several zoonoses. Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases such as trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Chlamydia psittaci, causing zoonotic pneumonia in humans, is usually hosted by birds, while Chlamydia abortus, causing abortion and fetal death in mammals, including humans, is mainly hosted by goats and sheep. We used multi-locus sequence typing to asses the population structure of Chlamydia. In total, 132 Chlamydia isolates were analyzed, including 60 C. trachomatis, 18 C. pneumoniae, 16 C. abortus, 34 C. psittaci and one of each of C. pecorum, C. caviae, C. muridarum and C. felis. Cluster analyses utilizing the Neighbour-Joining algorithm with the maximum composite likelihood model of concatenated sequences of 7 housekeeping
Objective: To measure the coverage and uptake of systematic postal screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis and the prevalence of infection in the general population in the United Kingdom. To investigate factors associated with these measures. Design: Cross sectional survey of people randomly selected from general practice registers. Invitation to provide a specimen collected at home. Setting: England. Participants: 19 773 men and women aged 16-39 years invited to participate in screening. Main outcome measures: Coverage and uptake of screening; prevalence of chlamydia. Results: Coverage of chlamydia screening was 73% and was lower in areas with a higher proportion of non-white residents. Uptake in 16-24 year olds was 31.5% and was lower in men, younger adults, and practices in disadvantaged areas. Overall prevalence of chlamydia was 2.8% (95% confidence interval 2.2% to 3.4%) in men and 3.6% (3.1% to 4.9%) in women, but it was higher in people younger than 25 years (men 5.1%; 4.0% to 6.3%; women 6.2
The diagnosis of inclusion conjunctivitis cannot be made definitively without laboratory testing, but the signs of inclusion conjunctivitis can be seen by the eye care provider, even if a patient is not symptomatic. Follicles can seen on the inside inferior eyelids and occasionally under the superior eyelid of the patient with adult inclusion conjunctivitis, and if treatment has been delayed, scarring of the interior of the eyelids may be present as well as kerititis, an inflammation of the cornea, and neovascularization, or new blood vessel formation of the cornea. Upon questioning the individual may report a history of a genitourinary infection. The laboratory testing for inclusion conjunctivitis begins with swabbing a sample from the inside of the eyelids to test for the presence of the characteristic inclusion bodies made only by chlamydia. The Giemsa stain is used often to diagnose neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis. This technique has a high rate of false positives for the adult with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chlamydia pneumoniae serology. T2 - Interlaboratory variation in microimmunofluorescence assay results. AU - Peeling, Rosanna W.. AU - Wang, San Pin. AU - Grayston, J. Thomas. AU - Blasi, Francesco. AU - Boman, Jens. AU - Clad, Andreas. AU - Freidank, Heike. AU - Gaydos, Charlotte A.. AU - Gnarpe, Judy. AU - Hagiwara, Toshikatsu. AU - Jones, Robert B.. AU - Orfila, Jeanne. AU - Persson, Kenneth. AU - Puolakkainen, Mirja. AU - Saikku, Pekka. AU - Schachter, Julius. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The lack of standardization in chlamydia serology has made interpretation of published data difficult. This study was initiated to determine the extent of interlaboratory variation of microimmunofluorescence (MIF) test results for the serodiagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections. Identical panels of 22 sera were sent to 14 laboratories in eight countries for the determination of IgG and IgM antibodies by MIF. Although there was extensive variation in the numeric titer values, the overall ...
The order Chlamydiales contains at least four distinct family groups: Chlamydiaceae, Simkaniaceae, Waddliaceae and Parachlamydiaceae. Within the family Chlamydiaceae there are two distinct genera: Chlamydia and Chlamydophila. The Chlamydophila genus has seven recognised species, namely Chlamydophila pecorum, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydophila psittaci, Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila caviae (formerly Chlamydophila psittaci guinea pig conjunctivitis strain) and Chlamydophila felis[1, 2].. A unique developmental cycle distinguishes Chlamydophila from other intracellular bacteria [3]. The infectious elementary body (EB) and the vegetative reticulate body (RB) are two major developmental forms involved in the cycle. One of the predominant proteins found on the surface of both the EB and RB forms is the major outer membrane protein (MOMP, OmpA). MOMP makes up 60% of the total outer membrane protein [4], and published data have indicated that it is critical for chlamydial infection ...

Immunobiology of monocytes and macrophages during Chlamydia trachomatis infection
     - Aalborg Universitys Research PortalImmunobiology of monocytes and macrophages during Chlamydia trachomatis infection - Aalborg University's Research Portal

Nielsen, ML, Christiansen, G, Poulsen, TBG & Birkelund, S 2019, Immunobiology of monocytes and macrophages during Chlamydia ... keywords = "Chlamydia trachomatis, Macrophages, Monocytes",. author = "Nielsen, {Mads Lausen} and Gunna Christiansen and ... Immunobiology of monocytes and macrophages during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Mads Lausen Nielsen, Gunna Christiansen, ... Immunobiology of monocytes and macrophages during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Microbes and Infection. 2019 Mar 1;21(2):73- ...
more infohttps://vbn.aau.dk/en/publications/immunobiology-of-monocytes-and-macrophages-during-chlamydia-trach

Urology Care Foundation - What are Epididymitis and Orchitis?Urology Care Foundation - What are Epididymitis and Orchitis?

Mostly from chlamydia, mycoplasma or rarely gonorrhea. These infections start in the urethra. They can then move into the teste ...
more infohttp://www.urologyhealth.org/urologic-conditions/epididymitis-and-orchitis/printable-version

Inclusion Conjunctivitis - swollen, symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, DiagnosisInclusion Conjunctivitis - swollen, symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis

The life cycle of chlamydia is 72 hours. Chlamydiae are found in parts of the body with a mucosal membrane, which are the eye, ... Forty percent of neonatal conjunctivitis is due to chlamydia. Between 35 and 50 percent of newborns infected with chlamydia ... Ten to 20 percent of infants infected with chlamydia develop pneumonia during the first six months of life. In the infant, ... Chlamydia and Acanthamoeba Infections of the Eye. In Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2000. ...
more infohttp://www.healthofchildren.com/I-K/Inclusion-Conjunctivitis.html

Chlamydiaceae infections in pig | Veterinary Research | Full TextChlamydiaceae infections in pig | Veterinary Research | Full Text

Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated ... In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae ... Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia suis can infect pigs. ... Chlamydia suis. Before 1999, Chlamydia suis strains were referred to as C. trachomatis because of ompA DNA sequence homology [ ...
more infohttps://veterinaryresearch.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1297-9716-42-29

EpididymitisEpididymitis

E. Coli, Chlamydia, and Gonorrhea can lead to Epididymitis.. This condition is often painful, with the scrotum enduring redness ... Since Epididymitis can be caused by Chlamydia and Gonorrhea, procedures to test for these STDs are common. ...
more infohttp://www.womenscenter.com/epididymitis.html

U.S Bacterial Conjunctivitis Drugs Market to Reach USD 439.8 Million in 2024U.S Bacterial Conjunctivitis Drugs Market to Reach USD 439.8 Million in 2024

Chlamydia trachomatis, Proteus mirabilis, etc.). As reported by Healio (specialty medical news and journal publisher), ...
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STD Facts - ChlamydiaSTD Facts - Chlamydia

What is chlamydia? How common is chlamydia? How do people get chlamydia? And more... ... How is chlamydia spread?. You can get chlamydia by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has chlamydia. ... What is chlamydia?. Chlamydia is a common STD that can infect both men and women. It can cause serious, permanent damage to a ... How does chlamydia affect my baby?. If you are pregnant and have chlamydia, you can pass the infection to your baby during ...
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What is chlamydia? How common is chlamydia? How do people get chlamydia? And more... ... What is chlamydia?. Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. It ... What is the treatment for chlamydia?. Chlamydia can be easily cured with antibiotics. HIV-positive persons with chlamydia ... Chlamydia is most common among young people. Almost two-thirds of new chlamydia infections occur among youth aged 15-24 years.4 ...
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ChlamydiaChlamydia

... is an STD that often has no symptoms, so lots of people can have it and not know it. Read this article to learn how ...
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... but chlamydia is actually the most commonly reported bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the U.S. ... What exactly is chlamydia? Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Its ... In pregnant women who have chlamydia or acquire chlamydia while theyre pregnant, chlamydia can be passed to the infant during ... What are the best ways to avoid getting chlamydia? The best way to prevent getting chlamydia is either to not have sex, or for ...
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Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. The infection is transmitted via unprotected vaginal, oral ... The bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis is carried in the semen or vaginal fluid of an infected person. Long-term Chlamydia ... Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. The infection is transmitted via unprotected vaginal, oral ... The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends screening pregnant women who are at risk of having Chlamydia ...
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Read about the possible complications that can develop if chlamydia isnt treated, including fertility problems in women and ... If you have chlamydia thats not treated while youre pregnant, theres a chance you could pass the infection on to your baby. ... Chlamydia is the most common cause of sexually acquired reactive arthritis (SARA). This is where your joints, eyes or urethra ( ... In women, chlamydia can spread to the womb, ovaries or fallopian tubes. This can cause a condition called pelvic inflammatory ...
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Chlamydia is an STD that often has no symptoms, so lots of people can have it and not know it. Read this article to learn how ... What Causes Chlamydia?. A type of bacteria , Chlamydia trachomatis, causes chlamydia.. How Is Chlamydia Diagnosed?. To find out ... Can Chlamydia Be Prevented?. The only way to prevent chlamydia and other STDs is to not have sex (oral, vaginal, or anal). If ... How Is Chlamydia Treated?. Health care providers treat chlamydia with antibiotics . All sexual partners from the past 2 months ...
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Chlamydia is now the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease in the United States. It affects more men and women ... Symptoms of chlamydia in men include burning or discomfort when urinating, a whitish discharge from the tip of the penis and ... Chlamydia can also accelerate the appearance of AIDS symptoms for persons infected with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus).. ... If left untreated, chlamydia can cause a variety of serious problems including infection and inflammation of the prostate and ...
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3. Chlamydia testing for men has gotten way better. It used to be that the main way men were tested for chlamydia was by ... 4. Chlamydia is passed through sexual contact. That means that if your partner tells you she got chlamydia from a toilet seat, ... 2. Chlamydia can be cured with antibiotics. See? Not all STIs are terrifying. Some - such as chlamydia - can be successfully ... And if you need more information on chlamydia, talk to your healthcare provider and/or check out the CDCs chlamydia fact sheet ...
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It is caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. It is most often spread through sexual contact. ... Chlamydia is an infection. It is caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. It is most often spread through sexual contact. ... Call your provider if you have symptoms of chlamydia.. Many people with chlamydia may not have symptoms. Therefore, sexually ... If chlamydia spreads into your uterus, it can cause scarring. Scarring can make it harder for you to get pregnant. ...
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Catherine Satterwhite offers valuable hints to busy practitioners about how to manage chlamydia screening. ... Electronic Patient Records May Reduce Time to Treat for Chlamydia * Clinical Practice Intervention May Increase Chlamydia ... To reduce the burden of chlamydia in the United States, CDC recommends annual chlamydia screening for all sexually active women ... In partnership with the National Chlamydia Coalition and the Partnership for Prevention, CDC created the Chlamydia Screening ...
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Chlamydia - Symptoms
    

            
                
                    
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Read about the possible symptoms of chlamydia that can be experienced by men and women, and find out when you should seek ... Chlamydia in the rectum, throat or eyes. Chlamydia can also infect:. *the rectum (back passage) if you have unprotected anal ... Read more about the complications of chlamydia.. Symptoms in men. At least half of all men with chlamydia dont notice any ... If chlamydia is left untreated, it can spread to the womb and cause a serious condition called pelvic inflammatory disease (PID ...
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  • Population based screening for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection has been postulated since the introduction of nucleic amplification techniques that enable testing on non-invasive samples. (bmj.com)
  • The higher prevalence of chlamydia among young people also may reflect multiple barriers to accessing STD prevention services, such as lack of transportation, cost, and perceived stigma. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlamydia prevalence is high among teenage girls and young women of all races, and African-American women 15 to 19 years of age are the most heavily affected, with an infection rate that far exceeds that of young white women. (medscape.com)
  • Chlamydia is a common STD that can infect both men and women. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on limited evidence, Gram staining (Asbill et al 2000) and Pap smear (Spence et al 1986) had insufficient accuracy to detect chlamydia. (health.gov.au)
  • Men and women can also get infected with chlamydia in their rectum. (cdc.gov)
  • Women can get chlamydia in the cervix, rectum, or throat. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Men can get chlamydia in the urethra (inside the penis), rectum, or throat. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If the chlamydia infects the rectum (in men or women), it can cause rectal pain, discharge, and/or bleeding. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Usually in women, chlamydia infects the cervix , which is the opening to the uterus. (webmd.com)
  • 4 A large number of cases are not reported because most people with chlamydia are asymptomatic and do not seek testing. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlamydia is known as a 'silent' infection because most infected people are asymptomatic and lack abnormal physical examination findings. (cdc.gov)
  • Rates of diagnosis of chlamydia - Chlamydia is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in developed countries and the most frequently reported notifiable diagnosis in Australia, with over 62,000 diagnoses in 2009 (AIHW 2010). (health.gov.au)
  • The rate of diagnosis of chlamydia continues to rise in both the non-Indigenous and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations, with increases between 2005 and 2009 of 59% and 10%, respectively (NCHECR 2010). (health.gov.au)
  • The rate of diagnosis of chlamydia among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population resident in major cities in SA, Victoria and WA in 2009 was 3.5 times that among non-Indigenous people. (health.gov.au)
  • Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people resident in remote and very remote areas in the NT, SA, Tasmania, Victoria and WA, the rate of diagnosis of chlamydia was at least 7 times that among non-Indigenous people (NCHECR 2010). (health.gov.au)
  • If you are pregnant, you can give chlamydia to your baby during childbirth . (cdc.gov)
  • A woman can also pass chlamydia to her baby during childbirth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The task force also recommended chlamydia screening for pregnant women aged 25 and younger. (webmd.com)
  • While Chlamydia trachomatis has been known to cause sexually transmitted genital infection for a number of years, economical and practical diagnostic methods were not available to physicians until recently. (in.gov)
  • The NICE guidelines reviewed the evidence on diagnostic accuracy and effectiveness of screening methods in identifying genital chlamydia and found no good evidence to support routine antenatal screening. (health.gov.au)
  • Chlamydia is transmitted through sexual contact with the penis, vagina, mouth, or anus of an infected partner. (cdc.gov)
  • Figure Chl3 shows the incidence of Chlamydia by county in Indiana for 2000. (in.gov)
  • In 2000, the CDC had 379,078 reported cases of chlamydia infection. (webmd.com)
  • 2000 Chlamydia may be found in the form of an elementary body and a reticulate body. (wikipedia.org)
  • To help young women protect themselves against this highly preventable STD , WebMD asked Sami Gottlieb, MD, MSPH, medical officer in the CDC's Division of STD Prevention, to walk readers through the basics of Chlamydia. (webmd.com)
  • This is where your joints, eyes or urethra (the tube that passes urine out of the body) become inflamed, usually within the first few weeks after having chlamydia. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men are also at risk since chlamydia can spread through oral and anal sex. (cdc.gov)
  • 3 In 2018, 1,758,668 cases of chlamydia were reported to CDC from 50 states and the District of Columbia, 3 but an estimated 2.86 million infections occur annually. (cdc.gov)
  • Geographical distribution - Diagnoses of chlamydia in 2009 (NNDSS 2010) varied considerably by State/Territory, ranging from 210.5 per 100,000 population in NSW to 940.6 per 100,000 in the NT. (health.gov.au)
  • If you perform oral sex on partners, you might want to ask for an oral test for STIs on occasion (chlamydia isn't the only infection that can live in your throat and a urine STI test won't tell a doctor whether or not you have an STI in your throat). (menshealth.com)
  • In men, chlamydia can spread to the testicles and epididymis (tubes that carry sperm from the testicles), causing them to become painful and swollen. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Laboratory tests can diagnose chlamydia. (cdc.gov)
  • To help, CDC has developed tools for physicians to help diagnose, treat, and care for patients with chlamydia. (medscape.com)
  • There are lab tests to diagnose chlamydia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you are a sexually active woman younger than 25 years, you should get a test for chlamydia every year. (cdc.gov)
  • If you are an older woman with risk factors such as new or multiple sex partners, or a sex partner who has an STD, you should get a test for chlamydia every year. (cdc.gov)
  • Recent innovations in Chlamydia testing have made test results much more accurate than had been true previously. (in.gov)
  • As family planning clinics begin to see male patients and STD clinics begin to test males for Chlamydia , this reporting difference may begin to decrease. (in.gov)
  • You should be aware, though, that the most reliable test for chlamydia is a tissue culture that is expensive and not widely available. (healthy.net)
  • Encourage patients who test positive for chlamydia to talk with their sexual partners from the last 60 days, so they can seek testing and treatment. (medscape.com)
  • The main nonculture tests include fluorescent monoclonal antibody test, enzyme immunoassay, DNA probes, rapid Chlamydia tests and leukocyte esterase tests. (wikipedia.org)