Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Holmium: Holmium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ho, atomic number 67, and atomic weight 164.93.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Flocculation: The aggregation of suspended solids into larger clumps.Flocculation Tests: Precipitin tests which occur over a narrow range of antigen-antibody ratio, due chiefly to peculiarities of the antibody (precipitin). (From Stedman, 26th ed)Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Azospirillum brasilense: A species of motile, free-living, gram-negative bacteria that occur in the soil. They are aerobic or microaerophilic and are sometimes capable of nitrogen fixation.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Sociometric Techniques: Methods for quantitatively assessing and measuring interpersonal and group relationships.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Friends: Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Chitin Synthase: An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Adolescent Medicine: A branch of medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases occurring during the period of ADOLESCENCE.Governing Board: The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of health-related institutions and organizations.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Kininogens: Endogenous peptides present in most body fluids. Certain enzymes convert them to active KININS which are involved in inflammation, blood clotting, complement reactions, etc. Kininogens belong to the cystatin superfamily. They are cysteine proteinase inhibitors. HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (HMWK); is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (LMWK); is split by tissue kallikrein to produce KALLIDIN.LacquerOnychomycosis: A fungal infection of the nail, usually caused by DERMATOPHYTES; YEASTS; or nondermatophyte MOLDS.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nail Diseases: Diseases of the nail plate and tissues surrounding it. The concept is limited to primates.Clobetasol: A derivative of PREDNISOLONE with high glucocorticoid activity and low mineralocorticoid activity. Absorbed through the skin faster than FLUOCINONIDE, it is used topically in treatment of PSORIASIS but may cause marked adrenocortical suppression.Nails: The thin, horny plates that cover the dorsal surfaces of the distal phalanges of the fingers and toes of primates.Trichophyton: A mitosporic fungal genus and an anamorphic form of Arthroderma. Various species attack the skin, nails, and hair.

Mode of action of chitin deacetylase from Mucor rouxii on N-acetylchitooligosaccharides. (1/1030)

The mode of action of chitin deacetylase from the fungus Mucor rouxii on N-acetylchitooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization 1-7 has been elucidated. Identification of the sequence of chitin oligomers following enzymatic deacetylation was verified by the alternative use of two specific exo-glycosidases in conjunction with HPLC. The results were further verified by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. It was observed that the length of the oligomer is important for enzyme action. The enzyme cannot effectively deacetylate chitin oligomers with a degree of polymerization lower than three. Tetra-N-acetylchitotetraose and penta-N-acetylchitopentaose are fully deacetylated by the enzyme, while in the case of tri-N-acetylchitotriose, hexa-N-acetylchitohexaose and hepta-N-acetylchitoheptaose the reducing-end residue always remains intact. Furthermore, the enzyme initially removes an acetyl group from the nonreducing-end residue of all chitin oligomers with a degree of polymerization higher than 2, and further catalyses the hydrolysis of the following acetamido groups in a processive fashion. The results are in agreement with the mode of action that the same enzyme exhibits on partially deacetylated water soluble chitosan polymers.  (+info)

Chs7p, a new protein involved in the control of protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum that is specifically engaged in the regulation of chitin synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (2/1030)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHS7 gene encodes an integral membrane protein located in the ER which is directly involved in chitin synthesis through the regulation of chitin synthase III (CSIII) activity. In the absence of CHS7 product, Chs3p, but not other secreted proteins, is retained in the ER, leading to a severe defect in CSIII activity and consequently, to a reduced rate of chitin synthesis. In addition, chs7 null mutants show the yeast phenotypes associated with a lack of chitin: reduced mating efficiency and lack of the chitosan ascospore layer, clear indications of Chs7p function throughout the S. cerevisiae biological cycle. CHS3 overexpression does not lead to increased levels of CSIII because the Chs3p excess is retained in the ER. However, joint overexpression of CHS3 and CHS7 increases the export of Chs3p from the ER and this is accompanied by a concomitant increase in CSIII activity, indicating that the amount of Chs7p is a limiting factor for CSIII activity. Accordingly, CHS7 transcription is increased when elevated amounts of chitin synthesis are detected. These results show that Chs7p forms part of a new mechanism specifically involved in Chs3p export from the ER and consequently, in the regulation of CSIII activity.  (+info)

Modification of chitosan to improve its hypocholesterolemic capacity. (3/1030)

Cholestyramine is the most widely used bile acid sequestrant in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. However, cholestyramine has unpleasant side effects as a consequence of its hydrophobic backbone. Therefore, high-capacity bile acid sequestering biopolymers with cationic chitosan derivatives were developed, because electrostatic interactions are important for binding with bile acid anions. Dialkylaminoalkylation and reductive amination of chitosan were done to add dialkylaminoalkyl and an additional free amino group at a hydroxyl site in the chitosan backbone respectively and the amino-derivatized chitosan derivatives were quaternized with methyl iodide to produce a cationic polyelectrolyte. The in vitro bile acid binding capacity of the chitosan derivatives in aqueous NaCl was measured by reversed-phase HPLC. The binding capacities of sodium glycocholate (a major bile acid) to chitosan, DEAE-chitosan, quaternized DEAE-chitosan, and cholestyramine were 1.42, 3.12, 4.06, and 2.78 mmol/g resin, respectively. With quaternized DEAE-chitosan, the bile acid binding capacity increased approximately 50% over that of cholestyramine. The bile acid binding capacity of dialkylaminoalkyl chitosan derivatives increased with the number of carbons in the alkyl groups, indicating that hydrophobic interaction is a secondary factor for the sequestration of bile acids.  (+info)

Development of bacterial contamination during production of yeast extracts. (4/1030)

Baker's yeast suspensions having bacterial populations of 10(6) and 10(8) CFU/ml were subjected to autolysis processes designed to obtain yeast extracts (YE). The bacterial contaminants added to the yeast cell suspensions were produced with spent broths obtained from a commercial yeast production plant and contained 59% cocci (Leuconostoc, Aerococcus, Lactococcus) as well as 41% bacilli (Bacillus). Autolyses were conducted at four different pH levels (4.0, 5.5, 7.0, and 8.5) and with two autolysis-promoting agents (ethyl acetate and chitosan). Processing parameters were more important than the initial bacterial population in the development of contaminating bacteria during manufacture of YE. Drops in the viable bacterial population after a 24-h autolysis were observed when pH was adjusted to 4.0 or when ethyl acetate was added. A significant interaction was found between the effects of pH and autolysis promoters on the bacterial population in YE, indicating that the activity of ethyl acetate, as opposed to that of chitosan, was not influenced by pH.  (+info)

Oligogalacturonic acid and chitosan reduce stomatal aperture by inducing the evolution of reactive oxygen species from guard cells of tomato and Commelina communis. (5/1030)

Stomatal opening provides access to inner leaf tissues for many plant pathogens, so narrowing stomatal apertures may be advantageous for plant defense. We investigated how guard cells respond to elicitors that can be generated from cell walls of plants or pathogens during pathogen infection. The effect of oligogalacturonic acid (OGA), a degradation product of the plant cell wall, and chitosan (beta-1,4-linked glucosamine), a component of the fungal cell wall, on stomatal movements were examined in leaf epidermis of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and Commelina communis L. These elicitors reduced the size of the stomatal aperture. OGA not only inhibited light-induced stomatal opening, but also accelerated stomatal closing in both species; chitosan inhibited light-induced stomatal opening in tomato epidermis. The effects of OGA and chitosan were suppressed when EGTA, catalase, or ascorbic acid was present in the medium, suggesting that Ca(2+) and H(2)O(2) mediate the elicitor-induced decrease of stomatal apertures. We show that the H(2)O(2) that is involved in this process is produced by guard cells in response to elicitors. Our results suggest that guard cells infected by pathogens may close their stomata via a pathway involving H(2)O(2) production, thus interfering with the continuous invasion of pathogens through the stomatal pores.  (+info)

Maintenance of CD34 expression during proliferation of CD34+ cord blood cells on glycosaminoglycan surfaces. (6/1030)

Recent studies have indicated that glycosaminoglycan (GAG) interactions with hematopoietic progenitors play a significant role in the regulation of hematopoiesis. However, the details of these interactions are not clear. In this study, we examined the role of soluble and immobilized GAGs in the proliferation of CD34+ cells. Chitosan, a cationic polysaccharide, was used to immobilize GAGs in ionic complex membranes. The GAGs studied were heparin, hyaluronate, and chondroitin sulfates A, B, and C. CD34-enriched umbilical cord blood cells were seeded onto tissue culture plates coated with the GAG-chitosan complex membranes. Cultures were maintained in medium supplemented with stem cell factor and interleukin 3 for up to six weeks, during which total and CD34+ cell numbers were determined by flow cytometry. Total cell number expansion ranged from 25-fold to 40-fold after six weeks. However, only heparin and chondroitin sulfate B (CSB) surfaces retained a significant CD34+ fraction. All other surfaces exhibited declines in CD34 expression, with negligible CD34+ percentages remaining after four weeks. In contrast, heparin and CSB surfaces exhibited CD34+ fractions as high as 90% after four weeks. GAG desorption studies indicated that the observed effects were partly mediated by desorbed GAGs in a concentration dependent manner. Subsequent studies showed that sustained high (160 microg/ml) heparin levels had toxic effects, while the same concentration of CSB exhibited more rapid early proliferation of CD34+ cells. In conclusion, this culture system has demonstrated the ability to produce simultaneous proliferation and CD34+ cell enrichment of a partially purified cord blood population by controlling the nature and levels of GAG moieties to which the cells are exposed. The results indicate that specific GAGs can significantly influence the growth and differentiation characteristics of cultured CD34+ cells.  (+info)

Purification, characterization, and gene analysis of a chitosanase (ChoA) from Matsuebacter chitosanotabidus 3001. (7/1030)

The extracellular chitosanase (34,000 M(r)) produced by a novel gram-negative bacterium Matsuebacter chitosanotabidus 3001 was purified. The optimal pH of this chitosanase was 4.0, and the optimal temperature was between 30 and 40 degrees C. The purified chitosanase was most active on 90% deacetylated colloidal chitosan and glycol chitosan, both of which were hydrolyzed in an endosplitting manner, but this did not hydrolyze chitin, cellulose, or their derivatives. Among potential inhibitors, the purified chitosanase was only inhibited by Ag(+). Internal amino acid sequences of the purified chitosanase were obtained. A PCR fragment corresponding to one of these amino acid sequences was then used to screen a genomic library for the entire choA gene encoding chitosanase. Sequencing of the choA gene revealed an open reading frame encoding a 391-amino-acid protein. The N-terminal amino acid sequence had an excretion signal, but the sequence did not show any significant homology to other proteins, including known chitosanases. The 80-amino-acid excretion signal of ChoA fused to green fluorescent protein was functional in Escherichia coli. Taken together, these results suggest that we have identified a novel, previously unreported chitosanase.  (+info)

Characterization of a novel, antifungal, chitin-binding protein from Streptomyces tendae Tu901 that interferes with growth polarity. (8/1030)

The afp1 gene, which encodes the antifungal protein AFP1, was cloned from nikkomycin-producing Streptomyces tendae Tu901, using a nikkomycin-negative mutant as a host and screening transformants for antifungal activity against Paecilomyces variotii in agar diffusion assays. The 384-bp afp1 gene has a low G+C content (63%) and a transcription termination structure with a poly(T) region, unusual attributes for Streptomyces genes. AFP1 was purified from culture filtrate of S. tendae carrying the afp1 gene on the multicopy plasmid pIJ699. The purified protein had a molecular mass of 9,862 Da and lacked a 42-residue N-terminal peptide deduced from the nucleotide sequence. AFP1 was stable at extreme pH values and high temperatures and toward commercial proteinases. AFP1 had limited similarity to cellulose-binding domains of microbial plant cell wall hydrolases and bound to crab shell chitin, chitosan, and cell walls of P. variotii but showed no enzyme activity. The biological activity of AFP1, which represents the first chitin-binding protein from bacteria exhibiting antifungal activity, was directed against specific ascomycetes, and synergistic interaction with the chitin synthetase inhibitor nikkomycin inhibited growth of Aspergillus species. Microscopy studies revealed that fluorescein-labeled AFP1 strongly bound to the surface of germinated conidia and to tips of growing hyphae, causing severe alterations in cell morphogenesis that gave rise to large spherical conidia and/or swollen hyphae and to atypical branching.  (+info)

*Mucoadhesion

Among non-covalent bonds likely ionic interactions such as interactions of mucoadhesive chitosans with the anionically charged ... doi:10.1016/S0939-6411(03)00061-4. Bernkop-Schnürch, A; Dünnhaupt, S (August 2012). "Chitosan-based drug delivery systems". Eur ...

*Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch

Jayakumer, R; Prabaharan, M; Muzzarelli, RAA (2011). Chitosan for Biomaterials I. Springer. ISBN 978-3-642-23114-8. Dumitriu, S ... chitosan-n-acetylcysteine&Search=Search https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=thiomer&Search=Search http://crstodayeurope ...

*Thiomer

"Chitosan and thiolated chitosan: Novel therapeutic approach for preventing corneal haze after chemical injuries". Carbohydr. ... "Chitosan and thiolated chitosan: Novel therapeutic approach for preventing corneal haze after chemical injuries". Carbohydr. ... Bae, IH; Jeong, BC; Kook, MS; Kim, SH; Koh, JT (2013). "Evaluation of a thiolated chitosan scaffold for local delivery of BMP-2 ... In case of thiolated chitosan, for instance, a more than 10,000-fold increase in viscosity within a few minutes was shown . ...

*Natural fiber

One difference between chitin and chitosan is that chitosan is soluble in acidic aqueous solutions. Chitosan is easier to ... Chitosan is a deacetylated derivative of chitin. When the acetylized composition of the copolymer is below 50% it is chitosan. ... Due to its ease of processing, chitosan is used in biomedical applications. Collagen is a structural protein, often referred to ... Chitosan is a semicrystalline "polymer of β-(1-4)-2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose". ...

*Electrophoretic light scattering

pKa values of chitosans can be calculated from the dependency of electrophoretic mobility values on pH and charge density. Like ... "Chitosan-graft-polyethylenimine as a gene carrier." Journal of Controlled Release 117.2 (2007): 273-280. Hartford, S. L., and W ... "Electrophoretic light scattering studies of chitosans with different degrees of N-acetylation." Biomacromolecules 2.4 (2001): ... proteins, the size and zeta potential of chitosans can be determined through ELS. ELS has also been applied to nucleic acids ...

*PH-sensitive polymers

Chitosan, a frequently used example, is cationic. Since DNA is negatively charged, DNA could be attached to chitosan as a way ... Examples include chitosan, hyaluronic acid, and dextran. ...

*Catalase

Akkuş Çetinus Ş, Nursevin Öztop H (June 2003). "Immobilization of catalase into chemically crosslinked chitosan beads". Enzyme ...

*Antimicrobial polymer

Although the antimicrobial effect is attributed to antifungal properties of chitosan, it may be possible that the chitosan acts ... Chitosan has been used as a coating and appears to protect fresh vegetables and fruits from fungal degradation. ... Currently, work has involved the introduction of alkyl groups to the amine groups to make quaternized N-alkyl chitosan ... Cationic polymers such as chitosan promote cell adhesion. This is because charged amines interact with negative charges on the ...

*Autologous patient-specific tumor antigen response

Song S, Zhou F, Nordquist RE, Carubelli R, Liu H, Chen WR (June 2009). "Glycated chitosan as a new non-toxic immunological ... Chen WR, Korbelik M, Bartels KE, Liu H, Sun J, Nordquist RE (2005). "Enhancement of laser cancer treatment by a chitosan- ...

*Chitosanase

... (EC 3.2.1.132) is an enzyme with systematic name chitosan N-acetylglucosaminohydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the ... 7-M chitosanase on partially N-acetylated chitosan". Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 56: 448-453. doi:10.1271/bbb.56.448. PMID ... linkages between D-glucosamine residues in a partly acetylated chitosan A whole spectrum of chitosanases are known. Fenton, D.M ...

*Nisin

Chandrasekar, Vaishnavi (2017). "Release Kinetics of Nisin from Chitosan-Alginate Complex Films". Journal of Food Science. 81 ...

*Tube-based nanostructures

"Nanostructured Hollow Tubes Based on Chitosan and Alginate Multilayers". Advanced Healthcare Materials. 3: 433-440. doi:10.1002 ...

*Zygomycota

After this the chitosan polymer chain forms micro fibrils. These fibers are embedded in an amorphous matrix consisting of ... Most fungi have chitin as structural polysaccharide, while zygomycetes synthesize chitosan, the deacetylated homopolymer of ... proteins, glucans (which putatively cross-link the chitosan fibers), mannoproteins, lipids and other compounds. Trisporic acid ...

*OBPgp279

"Structure and function of enzymes acting on chitin and chitosan". Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews. 27 (1): 331- ...

*Nanomedicine

"Application of chitosan-based nanocarriers in tumor-targeted drug delivery". Mol. Biotechnol. 57 (3): 201-18. doi:10.1007/ ...

*Cell encapsulation

This ability allows chitosan to control distribution of cells inside the polymeric system. Thus, Type-I collagen obtained from ... Chitosan is a polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1-4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D- ... Several groups have also investigated the use of chitosan which is a naturally derived polycation as a potential replacement ... Aiedeh K, Gianasi E, Orienti I, Zecchi V (1997). "chitosan microcapsules as controlled release systems for insulin". J ...

*Quaternary ammonium cation

"Synthesis and antibacterial activities of quaternary ammonium salt of chitosan". Carbohydrate Res. 333 (1): 1-6. doi:10.1016/ ...

*Mucor indicus

The cell wall of the fungus contains considerable amounts of chitosan. Moreover, the fungus is classified as an oil producing ... Hence, the biomass of the fungus is considered as a rich source for production of chitosan and polyunsaturated fatty acids ...

*Nanoparticles for drug delivery to the brain

PBCA, chitosan, and PLGA nanoparticles were used as delivery systems for these drugs. Overall, the results from each drug ... and chitosan are also materials of interest. PBCA undergoes degradation through enzymatic cleavage of its ester bond on the ...

*Streptomyces kurssanovii

Hydrolysis of chitosan sulfate by an enzyme complex from Streptomyces kurssanovii]". Prikladnaia biokhimiia i mikrobiologiia. ...

*Biomolecular engineering

Acetimide group is deacetylated the polymer chain is then called chitosan. Both of these cellulose derivatives are a major ...

*Cell wall

... chitosan) in the Zygomycota. Both chitin and chitosan are synthesized and extruded at the plasma membrane. glucans: glucose ... polymers that function to cross-link chitin or chitosan polymers. β-glucans are glucose molecules linked via β-(1,3)- or β-(1,6 ...

*Ashok M. Raichur

"Intracellular delivery of doxorubicin encapsulated in novel pH-responsive chitosan/heparin nanocapsules". International Journal ...

*Glycoside hydrolase family 75

Chitin, xylan, 6-O-sulphated chitosan and O-carboxymethyl chitin are indigestible by chitosanase. Henrissat B, Callebaut I, ... Cheng CY, Li YK (December 2000). "An Aspergillus chitosanase with potential for large-scale preparation of chitosan ...

*Extracellular polymeric substance

acetan (Acetobacter xylinum) alginate (Azotobacter vinelandii) cellulose (Acetobacter xylinum) chitosan (Mucorales spp.) ...
How is High Molecular Weight Chitosan abbreviated? HMWC stands for High Molecular Weight Chitosan. HMWC is defined as High Molecular Weight Chitosan somewhat frequently.
This research investigated the effect of enzymatically digested low molecular weight (MW) chitosan oligosaccharide on type 2 diabetes prevention. Three different chitosan oligosaccharide samples with varying MW were evaluated in vitro for inhibition of rat small intestinal α-glucosidase and porcine pancreatic α-amylase (GO2KA1; <1000 Da, GO2KA2; 1000-10,000 Da, GO2KA3; MW > 10,000 Da). The in vitro results showed that all tested samples had similar rat α-glucosidase inhibitory and porcine α-amylase inhibitory activity. Based on these observations, we decided to further investigate the effect of all three samples at a dose of 0.1 g/kg, on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model after sucrose loading test. In the animal trial, all tested samples had postprandial blood glucose reduction effect, when compared to control, however GO2KA1 supplementation had the strongest effect. The glucose peak (Cmax) for GO2KA1 and control was 152 mg/dL and 193 mg/dL,
Various biological effects have been reported for sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides, but the molecular mechanisms of action of their anti-inflammatory effects are still unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides and to elucidate the possible mechanisms of action. The results showed that pretreated low molecular weight sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells. The sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides also suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), phosphorylation of JNK and translocation of p65, a subunit of NF-κB, into the nucleus by inhibiting degradation of IκB-α. Our investigation suggests sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides inhibit IL-6/TNF-α in LPS-induced macrophages, regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways dependent on NF-κB activation.
Objective(s): This study considered the combination of chitosan nanoparticles with antioxidant-antibacterial fraction extracted from Lactobacillus casei and investigation of possible increasing of antibacterial activity of the fraction in hybrid nanoparticle and the effect of the fraction on the stability of chitosan nanoparticles. Methods: Extraction of Antioxidant antibacterial material from Lactobacillus casei supernatant was done by thin layer chromatography fractionation. For determination of antioxidant and antibacterial activity of fraction, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay and Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) by micro-well dilution method was used, respectively. For chitosan nanoparticles (Cs NPs) formation, the ionic gelation method was used and the ratio of Tripolyphosphate pentasodium (TPP): chitosan was optimized. For Antioxidant fraction loaded chitosan nanoparticles, the fraction is physically incorporated into the chitosan nanoparticles. Particle morphology was monitored
Papermaking. The Carboxymethyl Chitosan report does the thorough study of the key industry players to understand their business strategies, annual revenue, company profile and their contribution to the Carboxymethyl Chitosan market share in the United States. Diverse factors of the Carboxymethyl Chitosan industry like the supply chain scenario, industry standards, import/export details are also mentioned in this report.. Key Highlights of the United States Carboxymethyl Chitosan Market 2017 Report:. A Clear understanding of the Carboxymethyl Chitosan market based on growth, constraints, opportunities, feasibility study.. Concise Carboxymethyl Chitosan Market study based on major United States regions.. Analysis of evolving market segments as well as a complete study of existing Carboxymethyl Chitosan market segments.. Before Purchasing, Request Free Sample Copy of the Report Here: http://qyresearch.us/report/united-states-carboxymethyl-chitosan-market-2017/107070/#requestForSample. Furthermore, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preparation of cross-linked chitosan microspheres by spray drying. T2 - Effect of cross-linking agent on the properties of spray dried microspheres. AU - Desai, K. G H. AU - Park, Hyun Jin. PY - 2005/6/1. Y1 - 2005/6/1. N2 - Chitosan microspheres cross-linked with three different cross-linking agents viz, tripolyphosphate (TPP), formaldehyde (FA) and gluteraldehyde (GA) have been prepared by spray drying technique. The influence of these cross-linking agents on the properties of spray dried chitosan microspheres was extensively investigated. The particle size and encapsulation efficiencies of thus prepared chitosan microspheres ranged mainly between 4.1-4.7 μm and 95.12-99.17%, respectively. Surface morphology, % erosion, % water uptake and drug release properties of the spray dried chitosan microspheres was remarkably influenced by the type (chemical or ionic) and extent (1 or 2%w/w) of cross-linking agents. Spray dried chitosan microspheres cross-linked with TPP exhibited ...
The report studies Chitosan Derivatives in Global market Professional Survey 2016 : Size, Share, Trends, Industry Growth, Opportunity, Application, Production, Segmentation, Cost Structure, Company Profile, Product Picture and Specifications during the Forecast period by 2021. Global Chitosan Derivatives Industry 2016is a comprehensive, professional report delivering market research data that is relevant for new market entrants or established players. Key strategies of the companies operaChitosan Derivativesg in the market and their impact analysis have been included in the report. Furthermore, a business overview, revenue share, and SWOT analysis of the leading players in the Chitosan Derivatives market is available in the report.. Combining the data integration and analysis capabilities with the relevant findings, the report has predicted strong future growth of the Chitosan Derivatives market in all its geographical and product segments. In addition to this, several significant variables that ...
The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the effect of the high molecular weight chitosan (HMWC) and of sodium alginate (NaAL) on surface hydrophobicity of Candida albicans and on adhesion of the yeast to epithelial cells and fibroblasts of different proceeding. For this study, a collection strain and seven isolates of C. albicans from saliva (patients with denture stomatitis) were grown in Sabouraud glucose agar supplemented with HMWC or NaAL or in absence of them (control). Hydrophobicity was determined by adhesion to hydrocarbons method using two organic media (xylene and chloroform). For adhesion experiments, aqueous suspensions of yeasts were contacted with solutions of biopolymers and different cells (rat and human fibroblasts and epithelial cells Hep-2). The quantification of adhesion was made by optical microscopy. Results: a decrease in hydrophobicity was observed in the presence of HMWC (44%) and of NaAL (82%) when chloroform was employed as organic medium, meanwhile the decreases ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improvement of osteoblast functions by sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) from heparin-coated chitosan scaffold. AU - Yun, Young Pil. AU - Lee, Su Young. AU - Kim, Hak Jun. AU - Song, Jae-Jun. AU - Kim, Sung Eun. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - The aim of this study was to investigate the improvement in osteoblast functions by using bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) immobilized heparin-coated chitosan scaffolds and comparing it with that using chitosan scaffold or BMP-2/chitosan scaffold in vitro. BMP-2 was released from the heparin-coated chitosan scaffold in a sustained manner compared to that released from the chitosan scaffold. The osteoblast functions of MG-63 cells grown on the chitosan scaffold, the BMP-2/chitosan scaffold, the BMP-2/Hep/chitosan scaffold were investigated by assessing cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and gene expression. The results of the in vitro studies demonstrated that MG-63 ...
Title:Betaxolol Hydrochloride Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles for Ocular Delivery and their Anti-glaucoma Efficacy. VOLUME: 10 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Kunal Jain, R. Suresh Kumar, Sumeet Sood and G. Dhyanandhan. Affiliation:Department of Pharmaceutics, J.S.S College of Pharmacy, Udhagamandalam, India.. Keywords:Betaxolol, glaucoma, chitosan, nanoparticles, ocular delivery.. Abstract:Many effective anti-glaucoma drugs available for the treatment of ocular hypertension and open angle glaucoma are associated with rapid and extensive precorneal loss caused by the drainage and high tear fluid turnover. The present study involved design of mucoadhesive nanoparticulate carrier system containing betaxolol hydrochloride for ocular delivery to improve its corneal permeability and precorneal residence time. Nanoparticles were prepared by spontaneous emulsification method and had a particle size of 168-260nm with zeta potential of 25.2-26.4 mV. The in vitro release studies in simulated tear fluid exhibited ...
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Get Sample Copy of This Report: http://www.researchnreports.com/request_sample.php?id=43430. Market research reports for the Global Chitosan Derivatives Market included detailed segmentation of international, analysis of supply and demand trends, 5-year forecast of market growth, volumes of historic brand market, analysis of the production, importation and exportation, and transparent market methodology. In-depth studies regarding Global Chitosan Derivatives Market, with data from 2011 and projects of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) are also used as basis for research. Lastly, there are examinations of the Global demand for the market and profiles of the major players of the industry. With all the data gathered and analyzed using SWOT analysis, there was a clearer picture of the competitive landscape of the Global Chitosan Derivatives Market. Sources for the future market growth were uncovered and outlying competitive threats also surfaced. There was strategic direction eminent in the ...
2.1 Global Chitosan Market Competition by Players/Suppliers. 2.1.1 Global Chitosan Sales and Market Share of Key Players/Suppliers (2012-2017). 2.1.2 Global Chitosan Revenue and Share by Players/Suppliers (2012-2017). 2.2 Global Chitosan (Volume and Value) by Type. 2.2.1 Global Chitosan Sales and Market Share by Type (2012-2017). 2.2.2 Global Chitosan Revenue and Market Share by Type (2012-2017). 2.3 Global Chitosan (Volume and Value) by Region. 2.3.1 Global Chitosan Sales and Market Share by Region (2012-2017). 2.3.2 Global Chitosan Revenue and Market Share by Region (2012-2017). 2.4 Global Chitosan (Volume) by Application. 3 United States Chitosan (Volume, Value and Sales Price). 3.1 United States Chitosan Sales and Value (2012-2017). 3.1.1 United States Chitosan Sales and Growth Rate (2012-2017). 3.1.2 United States Chitosan Revenue and Growth Rate (2012-2017). 3.1.3 United States Chitosan Sales Price Trend (2012-2017). 3.2 United States Chitosan Sales Volume and Market Share by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adsorption of indomethacin onto chemically modified chitosan beads. AU - Mi, Fwu Long. AU - Shyu, Shin Shing. AU - Chen, Chin Ta. AU - Lai, Juin Yih. PY - 2001/11/23. Y1 - 2001/11/23. N2 - Macroporous chitosan beads used for the immobilization of an anti-inflammatory drug were prepared by the wet phase-inversion method. There are two stages of phase-inversion observed from the cast of chitosan droplet in tripolyphosphate (TPP) aqueous solution. The first stage of phase-inversion is dominated by liquid-liquid demixing and the morphology of the freeze-dried chitosan bead shows a bundle-like porous structure. The following stage of phase-inversion is attributed to the solid-liquid demixing and the morphology of the freeze-dried chitosan bead changes to an interconnected porous structure comprising particulates around the pores. The pore size and porosity of the bead can be varied by altering synthesis conditions, such as initial polymer concentration, and the pH value and ...
Read "Recovery of Lipids from Aqueous Dispersions with Chitosan Solutions, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
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Abstract. Development of biopolymer-based imaging agents which can access rapidly and provide detailed information about the diseases has received much attention as an alternative to conventional imaging agents. However, development of biopolymer-based nanomaterials for tumor imaging still remains challenging due to their low sensitivity and image resolution. To surmount of these limitations, multimodal imaging agents have been developed, and they were widely utilized for theranostic applications. Herein, iodine containing echogenic glycol chitosan nanoparticles are developed for x-ray computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) imaging of tumor diagnosis. X-ray CT/US dual-modal imaging probe was prepared by following below two steps. First, iodine-contained diatrizoic acid (DTA) was chemically conjugated to the glycol chitosan (GC) for the CT imaging. DTA conjugated GC (GC-DTA NPs) formed stable nanoparticles with an average diameter of 315 nm. Second, perfluoropentane (PFP), a US imaging ...
The predominant therapy for peripheral nerve transection is anastomosis by suture. However, sutures have been known to lead to tissue inflammation, granulomas, and poor functional outcomes. While adhesives offer a promising alternative, fibrin-the predominant bio-glue-can transmit disease. Here we examine a photocrosslinkable chitosan hydrogel for use in surgical therapies for peripheral nerve injury. Prepared by conjugating 4-azidobenzoic acid to amino groups of chitosan using carbodiimide chemistry, this formulation demonstrates a high potential of in-situ photocrosslinking. A 40 mg/mL solution gels under 40 s of UV illumination. This gel is demonstrated to be cytocompatible with neural cell populations and is not acutely toxic to nerve conduction ex vivo. Mechanical testing of nerves anastomosed by this hydrogel had tensile strengths comparable to conventional fibrin glues. These results show chitosan hydrogel to be biocompatible and mechanically suitable for use in nerve repair. Keywords-chitosan;
The effects of pH of medium and molecular weight of chitosan on polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) formation between pectin and chitosan was investigated using capillary viscometry. The intrinsic viscosity of the polymers was determined using Huggins plot. PECs were formed between pectin and chitosan in the pH range 2.9-5.6, but no PEC was formed at pH 1.5. The proportion of pectin in pectin-chitosan PEC varied with pH of the medium due to different levels of ionisation of the polymers and also probably due to the flexibility of pectin molecule. The amount of pectin in the PEC increased with a decrease in pH while that of chitosan increased with an increase in pH of medium. Linear relationships were established between the pH of media used and the weight fraction of pectin required for optimal PEC formation with molecular weight grades of chitosan. Molecular weight of chitosan appeared to have no effect (p,0.05) on the optimal ratio of pectin:chitosan required for PEC formation but intrinsic ...
A process for producing granular porous chitosan of extremely uniform particle size and having uniform fine pores on the spherical surface and cut cross sectional face. The process comprises dissolving a low molecular weight chitosan into an aqueous acidic solution, pouring the solution into a basic solution and thereby coagulating the product to precipitate porous chitosan.
Chitosan has been reported to be a non-toxic, biocompatible antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal agent. In this work the fungistatic efficacy of a set of low polydispersity chitosans varying in molecular weight from 1.2 to 90.0 kDa towards the filamentous palm parasitic fungus Penicillium vermoesenii has been studied in vitro. It has been shown for the first time that the activity of chitosan against the fungus has unusual bell-like dependence on chitosan molecular weight so that chitosans having the molecular weight between 5÷10 kDa possess the highest fungistatic activity while chitosans with both lower and higher molecular weights are significantly less active. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical). ...
Chitosan, a polyaminosaccharide obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin, possesses useful properties including biodegradability, biocompatibility, low toxicity, and good miscibility with other polymers. It is extensively used in many applications in biology, medicine, agriculture, environmental protection, and the food and pharmaceutical industries. The amino and hydroxyl groups present in the chitosan backbone provide positions for modifications that are influenced by factors such as the molecular weight, viscosity, and type of chitosan, as well as the reaction conditions. The modification of chitosan by chemical methods is of interest because the basic chitosan skeleton is not modified and the process results in new or improved properties of the material. Among the chitosan derivatives, cyclodextrin-grafted chitosan and poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted chitosan are excellent candidates for a range of biomedical, environmental decontamination, and industrial purposes. This work discusses
Chitosan has many benefits mainly in health and weight reduction. Chitosan is able to reduce triglycerides in the blood because of its ability to bind dietary lipids, thus reducing intestinal lipid absorption. Chitin also has the ability of soaking up fat found in the intestines and flushes this fat out of the body before the body absorbs it. In this way, Chitosan helps to lower levels of "bad" LDL cholesterol and at the same time increase the levels of "good" HDL cholesterol. Chitosan has also exhibited anti-tumor action with its inhibitory action on tumor cells.. Chitosan is sold in a tablet form at many health stores and online and is advertised as a fat attractor or fat blocker. Chitosan can be purchased either as Chitosan supplements or as an ingredient in herbal diet pills. Chitosan is commonly used in diet pills because it has the ability to absorb six to eight times of its total weight in liquids. For this reason, Chitosan expands in the stomach and helps to suppress appetite as well ...
Physicochemical features and transfection properties of chitosan/poloxamer 188/poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoplexes Donato Cosco,1,5,* Cinzia Federico,1,2,* Jessica Maiuolo,1 Stefania Bulotta,1 Roberto Molinaro,1,3 Donatella Paolino,1,5 Pierfrancesco Tassone,2,4 Massimo Fresta1Department of Health Sciences, 2Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University Magna Græcia of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 3Department of NanoMedicine, The Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX, USA; 4Medical Oncology, Tommaso Campanella Cancer Center, Viale S Venuta, Germaneto, 5Interregional Research Center for Food Safety and Health, University of Catanzaro “Magna Græcia”, Catanzaro, Italy*These authors contributed equally to this paperAbstract: The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effects of two emulsifiers on the physicochemical and technological properties of low molecular weight chitosan/poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoplexes and their transfection
In cancer theranostics, the main strategy of nanoparticle-based targeted delivery system has been understood by enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect of macromolecules. Studies on diverse nanoparticles provide a better understanding of different EPR effects depending on their structure, physicochemical properties, and chemical modifications. Recently the tumor microenvironment has been considered as another important factor for determining tumor-targeted delivery of nanoparticles, but the correlation between EPR effects and tumor microenvironment has not yet been fully elucidated. Herein, ectopic subcutaneous tumor models presenting different tumor microenvironments were established by inoculation of SCC7, U87, HT29, PC3, and A549 cancer cell lines into athymic nude mice, respectively. In the five different types of tumor-bearing mice, tumor-targeted delivery of self-assembled glycol chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) were comparatively evaluated to identify the correlation between the ...
Effects of chitosan and water-soluble chitosan micro- and nanoparticles in obese rats fed a high-fat diet Hong-liang Zhang,1,2 Xiao-bin Zhong,1 Yi Tao,3 Si-hui Wu,4 Zheng-quan Su21Department of Pharmacy, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 2Key Research Center of Liver Regulation for Hyperlipemia SATCM/Level 3 Laboratory of Lipid Metabolism, Guangdong TCM Key Laboratory for Metabolic Diseases, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, 3HEC Pharm Group, Dongguan, 4Department of Pharmacy, Guangdong Food and Drug Vocational Technical School, Guangzhou, ChinaPurpose: This study determined the effects of chitosan (CTS) and water-soluble chitosan (WSC) microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) in rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity.Methods: The rats were randomly separated into eight groups: a normal diet group (the blank control), a high-fat emulsion group (the negative control), CTS and WSC control groups, CTS-MP and WSC-MP groups, and CTS-NP and WSC-NP groups. All groups
Enhanced oral bioavailability of poorly aqueous soluble drugs encapsulated in a number of lipid-based formulations, including emulsions, micellar systems, self-emulsifying drug delivery systems, liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) via lymphatic delivery has been documented (1). In the present work, SLN were designed for the oral delivery of heparin in order to take advantage from the lymphatic intestinal transport pathway. In order to improve the incorporation of a high hydrophilic compound in a lipid matrix, heparin was "insolubilized" by the coupling with chitosan. In this aim we have developed chitosan/heparin Polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC). Such as systems are able to complex stably heparin (up to pH , 6.8) (2) and after pelletization by centrifugation were embedded in SLN obtaining a hybrid system lipid/chitosan nanoparticles (PEC-SLN). Since no in-vitro lymphoid tissue is currently available, CaCo-2 cell monolayer could be considered an alternative in vitro model to be used as a ...
As 95% of all prescriptions are for orally administered drugs, the issue of oral absorption is central to the development of pharmaceuticals. Oral absorption is limited by a high molecular weight (,500 Da), a high log P value (,2.0) and low gastrointestinal permeability. We have designed a triple action nanomedicine from a chitosan amphiphile: quaternary ammonium palmitoyl glycol chitosan (GCPQ), which significantly enhances the oral absorption of hydrophobic drugs (e.g., griseofulvin and cyclosporin A) and, to a lesser extent, the absorption of hydrophilic drugs (e.g., ranitidine). The griseofulvin and cyclosporin A C(max) was increased 6- and 5-fold respectively with this new nanomedicine. Hydrophobic drug absorption is facilitated by the nanomedicine: (a) increasing the dissolution rate of hydrophobic molecules, (b) adhering to and penetrating the mucus layer and thus enabling intimate contact between the drug and the gastrointestinal epithelium absorptive cells, and (c) enhancing the ...
Chitosan Oligosaccharide Appearance: Yellow and light brown Odor: Sightly smell as acetic acid Molecular weight: less than 1500,less than 3000,less than5000 Degree of polymerization (DP): 2-10 Particle size: ≥100 mesh Moisture: ≤10% Residue on ignition :
This study aimed to investigate the inhibitive effects of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced over-expression of vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that COS effectively inhibited TNF-alpha-induced expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 at the level of transcription and translation. Signal transduction studies suggested that COS blocked TNF-alpha-induced activation of NF-kappa B, degradation of I kappa B alpha, and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2. A further investigation showed that the NF-kappa B activation can be partly suppressed by p38 MAPK inhibitor (58203580) and ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059), which also ameliorated the mRNA expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in TNF-alpha-induced HUVECs. Additionally, COS decreased U937 monocyte adhesion to HUVECs induced by TNF-alpha. Our findings suggest that COS inhibit VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 production in activated ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Koen van der Maaden, Emine Sekerdag, Pim Schipper, Gideon Kersten, Wim Jiskoot, Joke Bouwstra].
Z. Hehn, A. Gawdzik, J. Sajewicz: Effects of butanetetracarboxylic acid and chitosan on the properties of formaldehyde free finish for cotton fabrics, Polimery, No 6/2005, 463. The effects of butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTK acid) in amount up to 40 kg/m3 and chitosan in amount up to 5 kg/m3 on application properties of finish baths were determined...
The vaginal route of administration is an alternative for several treatments for either local or systemic pharmacological effects. However, the permanence of a drug in this route represents a challenge for formulation development that can be overcome by using nanoencapsulation and chitosan gel. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the performance of chitosan hydrogels containing cationic and anionic acrylic-based nanocapsules (Eudragit® RS 100 and Eudragit® S 100, respectively) with Nile red as a model of lipophilic substance in the vaginal route of administration, as measured by increases in the residence time and the penetration of these formulations. Several formulations were prepared with increasing chitosan concentrations, and were analyzed in terms of pH and rheological behavior so that the most suitable formulation could be selected. The enhancement of the adhesion (tensile stress test and washability profile) and penetration (confocal laser scanning microscopy and extraction followed by ...
Abstract The present article describes the recent role of polymers as carriers for delivery of drug at target site to extending its release. These polymers are widely used in delivery due to their inherent characteristics such as biocompatibility, biodegradability. Chitosan and Eudragit are choice of drug in extended release matrix tablets. Chitosan is an amino polysaccharide polymer which is biodegradable, biocompatibility and nontoxic nature. Due to its cationic nature, Chitosan form complex with anions like Eudragit giving rise to polyelectrolyte complexes. Chitosan enhances the dissolution of poor soluble drugs. Similarly Eudragit polymers are also copolymers derived from esters of acrylic and methacrylic acid and have large number of applications in extending drug delivery. This article reviewed the role of Chitosan and Eudragit in controlled release drug formulations. Also, the article included role, property and uses of Chitosan and Eudragit and their use in different drug delivery system ...
Abstract: Nanocomposite chitosan-based films incorporated with drug-loaded methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) diblock copolymers (MPEG-b-PDLLG) nanoparticles were prepared by forming drug-loaded nanoparticles in chitosan solution before suspension-solution film casting. Salicylic acid was used as a poorly-water soluble model drug. The nanocomposite films with DLL/G ratios of 100/0 and 85/15 mol% and chitosan/diblock copolymer/drug ratios of 80/1/1, 80/2/2 and 80/4/4 (w/w) were prepared and investigated. The sizes of drug-loaded nanoparticles into the chitosan films were approximate or less than 100 nm. Nanopores were observed in the resulted chitosan films incorporated with drug-loaded nanoparticles when the diblock copolymer ratio was increased up to 2. Number and size of the nanopores increased as increasing the diblock copolymer ratio. Only the nanocomposite films with chitosan/diblock copolymer/drug ratio of 80/1/1 (w/w) showed slower drug release than the ...
An in situ gelled scaffold for bone tissue engineering to restore the function of bone tissues is developed. The gel is comprised of Pluronic F127 and chitosan. The gelation temperature (Tgel), and viscoelastic properties and mucoadhesive force of the systems were investigated by means of rheological analyses. At specific concentrations, the hydrogel exhibited a Tgel close to the body temperature due to the addition of chitosan. Mucoadhesion experiments showed a rheological synergism between F127/chitosan gels and mucin dispersion, and a change in the flow behavior. In vitro release results indicated that the optimized gel was able to prolong and control acyclovir release for more than 20 min. Based on cell proliferation assay, the gel exhibited biocompatibility for osteoblasts.
As more and more oral formulations of nanoparticles are used in clinical contexts, a comprehensive study on the mechanisms of interaction between polymer nanoparticles and live cells seems merited. Such a study was conducted and the results were compared to the polymer itself in order to demonstrate different kinds of effects that are brought into the cell by polymer and its nanoparticles, especially the effects on the biomembrane. Several techniques, including surface plasmon resonance (SPR), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence polarization spectroscopy (FP), flow cytometry (FCM) with quantitative analysis, and confocal images with antibody staining were employed toward this end. The cytotoxicity in vitro was also evaluated. Chitosan (CS), a polycationic polymer, was used to prepare the nanoparticles. We demonstrate that chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NP) induce strong alterations in the distribution of membrane proteins, fluidity of membrane lipids, ...
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The amine-containing polysaccharide chitosan was selectively deposited onto patterned gold surfaces in response to an applied voltage. Standard microfabrication techniques were used to pattern gold onto silicon wafers, and these gold patterns served as templates for the electric field directed deposition of chitosan. Experiments conducted with a fluorescently labeled chitosan derivative demonstrated the spatially selective deposition of chitosan onto gold surfaces that were polarized to serve as negative electrodes. Studies with unlabeled chitosan demonstrated that a "templated" chitosan, deposited by voltage programming of electrodes, can subsequently react with standard amine-selective functional groups. This indicates that common coupling chemistries can be exploited to assemble a variety of compounds onto the deposited chitosan pattern. Thus, chitosan appears to be a unique interface material that can be "templated" onto patterned inorganic surfaces and is reactive for the subsequent ...
Introduction. Chitin is a polysaccharide of animal origin found abundantly in nature and characterized by a fibrous structure. It forms the basis of the main constituent of the outer skeleton of insects and crustaceans like shrimp, crabs and lobster (Kumar et al., 2005). According to Chen (1998) the chitin structure can be modified by removing the acetyl groups, which are bond to amine radicals in the C2 position on the glucan ring, by means of a chemical hydrolysis in concentrated alkaline solution at elevated temperature to produce a deacetylated form known as chitosan.. No, H.K. et al., (2002) stated that antibacterial activity of chitosan is effective in inhibiting growth of bacteria. The antimicrobial properties of chitosan depend on its molecular weight and the type of bacterium. For gram-positive bacteria, chitosan with 470 KDa was the most effective, except for Lactbacillus sp., whereas for gram-negative bacteria, chitosan with 1,106 KDa was effective. Chitosan generally showed stronger ...
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Page contains details about copper nanoparticles supported on chitosan . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
The present study was aimed to formulate the solid dispersion incorporated microcapsule to improve the dissolution rate and half life of pioglitazone hydrochloride. The solvent evaporation method was used to formulate the solid dispersion resulted increased dissolution rate, bioavailability and stability. Finally increase the half life of the drug by employ the orifice ionic gelation method to formulate solid dispersion incorporated muco-adhesive microcapsule. The solubility of pioglitazone hydrochloride was increase by the preparation of its solid dispersion with polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 using solvent evaporation methods. The microcapsules of pioglitazone hydrochloride were prepared by (orifice ionic gelation method) employing sodium alginate as a cell forming polymer and using a different bio-adhesive polymers as carbopol, HPMC and sodium CMC in a various ratios of 1:1, 3:1, 6:1 & 9:1, by orifice ion gelation method. FT-IR spectra revealed no chemical incompatibility between drug and polymers. Drug
Studies on Guinea pigs, carried out by Nishimura et al. [19, 20] and by Rodgers and Mims [28] showed chitosan to have high immunoadjuvant properties and to activate peritoneal macrophages and increase the antibody production. Application of chitosan to combat parasitic and bacterial diseases in pigs and sheep [2, 24, 25, 26, 27] demonstrated chitosan to be capable of significantly altering organismic responses. Chitosan salts administered intramuscularly turned out to protect lambs from respiratory diseases, while intraperitoneal application stimulated macrophage and neutrophilous granulocyte activity in mice [26]. Taking those results into consideration, it was decided to check, in this work, whether chitosan may also affect the immunological response during experimental trichinosis in mice. Initial studies on the T lymphocyte behaviour in the course of trichinosis, carried out by Karma ska and Michalska [10], revealed a strong activation of those cells on about day 20 of the invasion, the ...
Page contains details about fluorescein isothiocyanate-loaded Eudragit S100-coated chitosan nanoparticles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
[150 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global and Chinese Chitosan Gel Industry, 2017 Market Research Report report by Prof Research. The Global and Chinese Chitosan Gel Industry, 2012-2022 Market...
نسخه قابل چاپ خلاصه مقاله Electrospun of PEO/Chitosan, PCL/Chitosan and PVA/Chitosan composite nanofibers - گواهی پذیرش مقاله در کنفرانس
Diet Chitosan Breakthrough Fiber 500 mg Chitosan, a fiber derived from chitin in shellfish, is a nondigestible aminopolysaccharide. Chitosan is produced by removing acetyl groups from chitin, through a process called deacetylation. This process enhances the activity of chitosan by improving its solubility in the acidic environment of the stomach. When taken in conjunction with the Maximum Metabolism Weight Loss Plan, body fat may be reduced. Supplement Facts for 500 mg picture label Capsule Serving Size: 2 capsule(s) Amount Per Serving - % Daily Value Calories 5 Dietary Fiber 1 g 4% Chitosan (minimum 90% deacetylated chitin) 1 g Other Ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, gelatin (capsule), magnesium stearate, and colloidal silicon dioxide. Warning: If you are pregnant, breastfeeding, allergic to shellfish or taking any medication, consult your health care professional before using this product. Fat soluble Vitamins (A, E, D, or K), essential fatty acids or medications
Diet Chitosan Breakthrough Fiber 500 mg Chitosan, a fiber derived from chitin in shellfish, is a nondigestible aminopolysaccharide. Chitosan is produced by removing acetyl groups from chitin, through a process called deacetylation. This process enhances the activity of chitosan by improving its solubility in the acidic environment of the stomach. When taken in conjunction with the Maximum Metabolism Weight Loss Plan, body fat may be reduced. Supplement Facts for 500 mg picture label Capsule Serving Size: 2 capsule(s) Amount Per Serving - % Daily Value Calories 5 Dietary Fiber 1 g 4% Chitosan (minimum 90% deacetylated chitin) 1 g Other Ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, gelatin (capsule), magnesium stearate, and colloidal silicon dioxide. Warning: If you are pregnant, breastfeeding, allergic to shellfish or taking any medication, consult your health care professional before using this product. Fat soluble Vitamins (A, E, D, or K), essential fatty acids or medications
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Chitosan Protasan UP G 210 (FA=0.17, weight-average molecular weight of 162,000) was obtained from Pronova Biomedical AS, Oslo, Norway. The low-molecular weight oligomer of N-glucosamine was obtained by chemical depolymerisation of chitosan using NaNO2 and subsequent reduction by NaBH as described by Tcmmeraas et al.t 2001, where the molecular weight was controlled by the amount of NaNO2 relative to the amount of chitosan. The fraction of acetylated units was controlled by heterogeneous deacetylation to obtain FA of less than 0.001 as determined by proton NMR-spectroscopy as described previously (Varum et al, 1991). Typically, 1.0 gram of chitosan was dissolved in 100 ml of 2.5% aqueous acetic acid, dissolved oxygen was removed by bubbling nitrogen gas through the solution for 5 minutes, and 5 ml of a freshly prepared solution of NaNO2 in distilled water (10 mg/ml) was added. The reaction was allowed to proceed for 4 hours in darkness, whereafter the depolymerized chitosan was conventionally ...
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Edible films based on chitosan were prepared, with and without basil or thyme essential oils, with the aim of assessing their protective ability against lipid oxidation and their antimicrobial activity. Chitosan films had good oxygen-barrier properties, which were worsened by essential oil addition, especially when the film equilibrium moisture content increased. Due to the oxygen-barrier effect, all the films effectively protected pork fat from oxidation, in comparison to unprotected samples. In spite of the worsening of the oxygen-barrier properties, the films with essential oils were more effective than those of pure chitosan, which points to the chemical action of specific antioxidant compounds of the oils. Films were effective to control microbial growth in minced pork meat, although the incorporation of essential oils did not improve their antimicrobial activity. Throughout the storage, the films led to colour changes in minced pork meat associated with the conversion of myoglobin into ...
Article Removal of aniline from aqueous solutions by activated carbon coated by chitosan. In this work, activated carbon (AC) coated by chitosan was synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer and scanning electron m...
To provoke an immune response, a transcutaneously administered vaccine has to diffuse into the skin, reach the lymph nodes and be taken up by dendritic cells (DCs). To study these three steps we immunised mice transcutaneously (with microneedles), intradermally and intranodally. The effect of the formulation was investigated by formulating ovalbumin (OVA) in three ways with N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC): TMC+OVA mixtures, TMC-OVA conjugates and TMC/OVA nanoparticles. Both the percentage OVA(+) DCs in the lymph node and the resultant immunogenicity (serum IgG titres) were studied. Transcutaneously, the TMC-OVA conjugates induced the highest IgG levels and resulted in more OVA(+) DCs in the lymph nodes after 24h than the other TMC formulations. Intradermally, all TMC-adjuvanted OVA formulations increased IgG titres compared to plain OVA. These formulations formed a depot in the skin, prolonging OVA delivery to the lymph nodes. The prolonged delivery of TMC-adjuvanted OVA to lymph node resident DCs ...
Etoposide is a potent anticancer drug commonly used in a variety of malignancies. High protein binding, requirement of fairly high doses of drugs to achieve sustained plasma levels and hypersensitivty issues are related to its use. One promising alternative for the efficient delivery of etoposide to tumoral tissue relies on the use of nanocarriers that could efficiently encapsulate and release hydrophobic drugs to the target site, while decreasing undesired collateral effects. The group has previously developed a variety of modified amphiphilic glycol chitosan (GPC) based polysoaps which can form nano size clusters that has the capability of efficiently encapsulating hydrophobic drugs molecules increasing bioavailability e.g. in the gut or across the blood-brain-barrier. In current study a etoposide-GPC formulation is prepared and well characterized using NMR, gel permeation chromatography, multi angle light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Stability of the formulation was checked for 3
N-palmitoyl-N-monomethyl-N,N-dimethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-6-O-glycolchitosan (GCPQ) is a self-assembling polymer, which enables the oral bioavailability of peptide and hydrophobic drugs. In preparation for clinical testing, here we examine GCPQs synthesis reproducibility, pKa, thermal, and rheological properties. GCPQ was synthesised by acid degradation of glycol chitosan (GC), reaction with palmitic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide (PNS) and methylation. A GC monomer, PNS molar feed ratio of 0.92 together with a gravimetric feed ratio for N-palmitoyl-6-O-glycolchitosan, methyl iodide of 3.3, reproducibly produces GCPQ48 (Mw = 19.9 ± 9.9 kDa, Mn = 13.1 ± 2.4 kDa, mol % palmitoylation = 23 ± 2.7, mol % quaternisation = 10 ± 0.23, n = 56). GCPQ48 decomposes at 218 ± 4.3 °C, is glassy at room temperature (Tg = 164.4 ± 8.5 °C), is a weak base (pKa = 5.99 ± 0.15), and produces micellar dispersions at neutral pH. Below a concentration of 0.07 g mL(-1) , GCPQ48 dispersions showed Newtonian rheological ...
Could they find a sugar that restored spinal cord activity as effectively as PEG? Borgens and his team publish their discovery that chitosan can repair damaged nerve cell membranes in The Journal of Experimental Biology on 16 April 2010 at http://jeb.biologists.org.. Having initially tested mannose and found that it did not repair spinal cord nerve membranes, Cho decided to test a modified form of chitin, one of the most common sugars that is found in crustacean shells. Converting chitin into chitosan, Cho isolated a segment of guinea pig spinal cord, compressed a section, applied the modified chitin and then added a fluorescent dye that could only enter the cells through damaged membranes. If the chitosan repaired the crushed membranes then the spinal cord tissue would be unstained, but if the chitosan had failed, the spinal cord neurons would be flooded with the fluorescent dye. Viewing a section of the spinal cord under the microscope, Cho was amazed to see that the spinal cord was completely ...
Chitlac is a biocompatible modified polysaccharide composed of a chitosan backbone to which lactitol moieties have been chemically inserted via a reductive N-alkylation reaction with lactose. The physical-chemical and biological properties of Chitlac that have been already reported in the literature suggest a high accessibility of terminal galactose in the lactitol side chain. This finding may account for its biocompatibility which makes it extremely interesting for the production of biomaterials. The average structure and the dynamics of the side chains of Chitlac have been studied by means of NMR (nuclear Overhauser effect and nuclear relaxation) and molecular dynamics to ascertain this hypothesis. A complete assignment of the 1H and 13C NMR signals of the modified polysaccharide has been accomplished together with the determination of the apparent pKa values of the primary and secondary amines (6.69 and 5.87, respectively). NMR and MD indicated a high mobility of Chitlac side chains with ...
MyJournals.org - Science - Viruses, Vol. 9, Pages 115: Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Chitosan Oligosaccharide-Treated Rice Infected with Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus (Viruses)
In this work we review results obtained using chitosan as a coating to protect aluminum alloy 2024. Different inhibitors were added to the matrix, interaction between inhibitor and functional groups from chitosan investigated and functionalization of chitosan performed in the bulk, as well as at the coating/solution interface to improve the barrier properties. The obtained systems were characterized by proton-nuclear magnetic resonance (H-1 NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The protective performance was monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). Overall, the obtained results support the possibility of using inhibitor-loaded chitosan systems to protect metallic substrates, either as components in multi-layer coatings systems, or as free-standing films. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ABSTRACT The sustained release capsules are pharmaceutical dosage form used for the treatment of chronic rather than acute diseases and are useful because of its convenience and less side effects. This work describes an attempt to formulate indomethacin sustained release capsule using indomethacin covalently linked to chitosan. Chitosan was prepared by alkaline -N-deacetylation of chitin, which was isolated from the shells of local shrimps. The yield of chitosan was found to be 80%. This polymer was found to be white crystal, odorless and the IR spectroscopy of it was similar to a standard reference. Chitosan has been covalently linked to indomethacin and the ratio of drug to polymer was found to be 5:1. The chemical interaction between the drug and the polymer was proved by IR studies. In vitro release at different pH were performed and the release of indomethacin in the prepared sustained release capsule were tested and compared with conventional indomethacin capsule INDOMIN-25mg, and a
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To evaluate the in vivo biodistibution of the GC-DTA-PFP NPs, 10 mg/kg of Cy5.5-labeled GC-DTA-PFP NPs (Cy5.5-GC-DTA-PFP NPs) were injected to SCC7 tumor bearing mice via I.V. injection and fluorescence signal in the body was monitored using the real-time near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging system (eXplore Optix, ART Advanced Research Technologies Inc., Montreal, Canada). Cy5.5-GC-DTA-PFP NPs were began to accumulate into tumor tissue within 1 h post-injection and NIRF signal of tumor tissue was distinguished from the surrounding normal tissue, indicating the rapid tumor accumulation of Cy5.5-GC-DTA-PFP NPs. The NIRF intensity of Cy5.5-GC-DTA-PFP NPs maximally increased at 24 h post-injection, and it was clearly observed up to 48 h post-injection, indicating the long-retention time of Cy5.5-GC-DTA-PFP NPs at targeted tumor tissues (Figure 5a). Organ distribution and tumor accumulation of Cy5.5-GC-DTA-PFP NPs were precisely analyzed using the ex vivo NIRF signals from dissected tumors and ...
Background: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) efficacy could be improved by formulations facilitating allergen contact with the oral mucosa and uptake by antigen-presenting cells (APCs).. Methods: Two types of chitosan microparticles, differing in size and surface charge, were tested in vitro for their capacity to improve antigen uptake and presentation by murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) or purified oral APCs. T-cell priming in cervical lymph nodes (LNs) was assessed by intravenous transfer of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester-labelled ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4+ T cells and flow cytometry analysis. Ovalbumin-sensitized BALB/c mice were treated sublingually with soluble or chitosan-formulated OVA twice a week for 2 months. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), lung inflammation and T-cell responses in cervical and mediastinal LNs were assessed by whole-body plethysmography, lung histology and Cytometric Bead Array technology, respectively.. Results: Only a ...
Abstract Chitosan, a deacetylated form of chitin, is a dietary fibre known for its hypolipidemic properties, which are mainly attributed to its uniqu...
TARTI MA ve SONU : B y k arteryel kanamalar n kontrol i in as l tedavi cerrahi kanama kontrol d r, fakat hastane d alanlarda Ankaferd ve chitosan i eren tamponlar kanama b lgesinde kullan labilir. Ara t rmam z n sonu lar daha geni al malarla desteklenmelidir. Ayr ca ara t rmam zda sa l kl fareler kullan lm t r. B y k arter kanamal hipotansif ve hipovolemik olgulardaki sonu lar de erlendirmek i in yeni al malara ihtiya vard r ...
Fatouros, Dimitrios G., Power, Kieron, Kadir, Omar, Dékány, Imre, Yannopoulos, Spyros N., Bouropoulos, Nikolaos, Bakandritsos, Aristides, Antonijevic, Milan D., Zouganelis, George D. and Roldo, Marta (2011) Stabilisation of SWNTs by alkyl-sulfate chitosan derivatives of different molecular weight: Towards the preparation of hybrids with anticoagulant properties. Nanoscale, 3 (3). pp. 1218-1224. ISSN 2040-3364 (Print), 2040-3372 (Online) (doi:10.1039/C0NR00952K) Green, S., Roldo, M., Douroumis, Dionysios, Bouropoulos, Nikolaos, Lamprou, D. and Fatouros, Dimitrios G. (2009) Chitosan derivatives alter release profiles of model compounds from calcium phosphate implants. Carbohydrate Research, 344 (7). pp. 901-907. ISSN 0008-6215 (doi:10.1016/j.carres.2009.02.022) Nochos, Argyrios, Douroumis, Dionysios and Bouropoulos, Nikolaos (2008) In vitro release of bovine serum albumin from alginate/HPMC hydrogel beads. Carbohydrate Polymers, 74 (3). pp. 451-457. ISSN 0144-8617 ...
Complex coacervation is a widely utilized technique for effecting phase separation, though predictive understanding of molecular-level details remains underdeveloped. Here, we couple coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulations with experimental efforts using a polypeptide-based model system to investigate how a c Peptide Materials
Interestingly, PDA-incorporated NPs showed reduced apoptosis and necrosis reaction in HaCaT cells.39. A possible explanation for the chitosan NPs high biocompatibilty could be that chitosan is much more cytotoxic in a free soluble form than when it is incorporated into NPs, due to the fact that in the case of NPs, a significant portion of the positive amino groups of chitosan are engaged in electrostatic interractions.38, 40. To confirm PLGAChi NPs efficiency in intracellular penetration, the cellular internalization of PLGAChi NPs conjugated with fluorescein was investigated by fluorescence microscopy. The results indicated significant differences in NPs uptake between the different cell lines used in this study.. Fluorescence microscopy experiments conducted after 12h and 24h of incubation revealed a rate of inglobation influenced by the cell type. DPCs did not internalize PLGAChi NPs, even at the highest concentration (200 μg/mL PLGAChi NPs) and the longest incubation time (24h) (Fig. 3). ...
Chitosan (C), alginate-crosslinked chitosan (CA), and pectin-crosslinked chitosan (CP) were covalently bonded to Ti-6Al-4V surfaces and tested for their biocompatibility. Compared to the clinically treated Ti-6Al-4V surface (Ti64), C, CA, and CP, had higher contact angles and promoted higher cell proliferation, type I collagen deposition, and mineralization after two weeks (all p|0.05). Cells on C, CA, and CP expressed more alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity compared to those on Ti64 (p|0.05). The swelling ratios and drug release efficacies of CA and CP were significantly higher and lower, respectively, than those of C (both p|0.05). Only cells on CA expressed ALP activity after three weeks of culture. Generally speaking, crosslinking with alginate and pectin changed surface wettability as well as the swelling and drug release properties of the chitosan coatings. Cells on the coatings had higher proliferation, type I collagen deposition, and degree of mineralization compared to those on Ti64.
RNA interference (RNAi) using small interfering RNA (siRNA) might provide a way to silence disease-associated genes. Although potent sequence-selective gene silencing by siRNA promises the ultimate level of specificity, naked siRNA therapeutics is hindered by low blood stability, non-specific immune stimulation, and poor intracellular uptake. To address these problems, nano-sized carriers, especially those ligand-targeted, sterically stabilized nanoparticles should be an ideal candidate for the effective protection and delivery of siRNA. In our study, biocompatible and biodegradable chitosan (CTS) has been chosen as carrier material for siRNA. Cell adhesive peptide GRGDY has been grafted to CTS by photosensitive crosslinker to target integrin receptor over-expressed on the surface of tumor cells. FTIR、MALDI-MS and 1H-NMR spectrum have proven the successful synthesis of ligand modified chitosan (mCTS). Moreover, CTS (mCTS)/siRNA nanoparticles was formulated with the size of 200-300 nm and the ...
The use of chitosan fibers as a matrix for immobilizing hybridoma cells was investigated. Optimal cell entrapment within fibrous chitosan occurred at pH values below 7.2. Chitosan fibers were found...
Chitosan is a dietary fiber derived from the shells of crustaceans that has been shown in non-clinical studies to bind to fat and cholesterol in the digestive tract. NOW Chitosan contains LipoSan Ultra, a patented high-density form of Chitosan that binds
Nominated Substances: Chitosan. Nomination Date: 10/25/1999 Nominator: NCI Rationale: Chitosan is a popular dietary supplement used for weight loss. Although several subacute studies in animals show that chitosan has hypercholesterolemic properties and may influence weight gain, it may also cause vitamin and mineral deficiencies. NTP Principles: 2. Status: Selected ...
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Two grades of chitosan [chitosan 30000 g mol−1 (N-chitosan 30) and 250000 g mol−1 (N-chitosan 250)] were functionalized by the Kabachnik-Fields reaction. To obtain the highest phosphonic ester grafting rate (55% and 40% for the N-chitosan 30 and N-chitosan 250, respectively), the pH must be kept constant during the reaction (pH=5). Then, a partial hydrolysis of the ester functions was carried out in HCl medium to generate phosphonic acid functions up to 25% and 20% for the N-chitosan 30 and N-chitosan 250, respectively. It was shown that the grafting of phosphonic acids on chitosan significantly reduced the dynamic viscosity. Afterwards, electrochemical impedance measurements were performed in an aqueous solution (pH=5) in the presence of either N-chitosans or P-chitosans (3 wt.%). The two native N-chitosans were little adsorbed onto the carbon steel surface and the corrosion protection was low. In contrast, the impedance results in the presence of the 30000 g mol−1 phosphorylated chitosan ...
Enzymatic removal of ,I,p,/I,-alkylphenols from aqueous solutions was investigated through the two-step approach, the quinone conversion of ,I,p,/I,-alkylphenols with mushroom tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1) and the subsequent adsorption of quinone derivatives enzymatically generated on chitosan beads at pH 7.0 and 45 °C as the optimum conditions. This technique is quite effective for removal of various ,I,p,/I,-alkylphenols from an aqueous solution. The % removal values of 97-100% were obtained for ,I,p,/I,-,I,n,/I,-alkylphenols with carbon chain lengths of 5 to 9. In addition, removal of other ,I,p,/I,-alkylphenols was enhanced by increasing either the tyrosinase concentration or the amount of added chitosan beads, and their % removal values reached ,93 except for 4-,I,tert,/I,-pentylphenol. This technique was also applicable to remove 4-,I,n,/I,-octylphenol (4NOP) and 4-,I,n,/I,-nonylphenol (4NNP) as suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals. The reaction of quinone derivatives enzymatically ...
Learn more about Chitosan at TriStar Health Related Terms Chitin (Chitosan is the deacetylated form.) Uses Principal Proposed Uses None Other...
The design and production of structures with nanometer-sized polymer fi lms based on layer-by-layer (LbL) are of particular interest for tissue engineering since they allow the precise control of physical and biochemical cues of implantable devices. In this work, a method is developed for the preparation of nanostructured hollow multilayers tubes combining LbL and template leaching. The aim is to produce hollow tubes based on polyelectrolyte multilayer fi lms with tuned physical-chemical properties and study their effects on cell behavior. The final tubular structures are characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), microscopy, swelling, and mechanical tests, including dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) in physiological simulated conditions. It is found that more robust films could be produced upon chemical cross-linking with genipin. In particular, the mechanical properties confi rms the viscoelastic properties and a storage and ...
EN] The influence of essential oil type (basil and thyme), its content and the homogenization treatment on the physical properties of chitosan-based film-forming dispersions and edible films was studied. Two homogenization treatments were applied, without (H1) and with (H2) microfluidization (MF) at 165 MPa. H2 emulsions showed the smallest particle size with the highest zeta-potential and the lowest viscosity. Composite films with essential oils were softer, less rigid and more stretchable than pure CH films. MF intensified these changes. H2 films showed micro-cracks due to the weakening of the polymer chain interaction forces when oils are present, which affected their mechanical behaviour. MF increased WVP of pure CH films while oil incorporation was only effective to reduce WVP when they were incorporated at the lowest ratio and when high pressure was used in the homogenization of the film-forming dispersion. Gloss was reduced by the essential oil addition, whereas MF tended to yield ...
In this study, an easy synthesized method for preparation of chitosan/iron oxide nanocomposite as a bio-sorbent has been applied. Analytical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction; Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to survey of morphological structure and the functional groups characterization. The histogram of frequency of particle size confirmed that medium size of the synthesized nanoparticles was 50 nm. Beside the obtained nanocomposite, application of chitosan as the precursor and shrimp shell as natural chitin and a natural polymer were assessed as adsorbents for decontamination of Ni2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ as examples of heavy metals from drinking water. Batch studies were performed for adsorption experiments by changing variables such as pH, contact time and adsorbent dose. Based on the experimental sorption capacities, 58, 202 and 12 mg of Ni, Cd and Pb per g of Chitosan-Fe2O3 nanocomposite as
This study was aimed to develop thiolated chitosan/alginate nanoparticles for curcumin delivery. The nanoparticles were prepared from thiolated chitosan and sodium alginate using a..
The field of drug delivery has provided a solution to the limited efficacy and high toxicity of many drugs. Nano-sized drug carriers are popular because their size allows for selective accumulation in the diseased area. Polysaccharides are non-toxic and biodegradable natural polymers that can serve as the basis for these nano-sized carriers. Polysialic acid (PSA) is such a polysaccharide with strong hydrophilicity that may reduce uptake by the reticuloendothelial system and prolong drug circulation. In this study, we developed PSA-based nanocarriers, specifically micelles and nanoparticles, for improved drug delivery with improved efficacy and minimized toxicity. PSA-based micelle systems were developed via conjugation with two hydrophobic groups, decylamine (DA) and polycaprolactone (PCL). Nanoparticles were fabricated via ionic complexation of the negatively charged PSA with positively charged N, N, N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC). All three nanocarriers possessed sizes close to 100 nm with low
The transition to bioeconomy will reduce our dependency on fossil fuels as well as contribute to a more sustainable society. Within this framework, exploitation and development of renewable substitutes to petroleum-based products provides feasible roadmap for the material design. Here a perspective is provided to how the natural polysaccharides chitosan (CS) and/or cellulose (CL) could be elaborated and transformed to high-performance materials with the explicit aim of removing trace pharmaceutical contaminants from the wastewater, thus facilitating the sustainable development. In the first part of the thesis, chitosan and cellulose were converted to the carbon spheres (C-sphere) through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal carbonization process, and C-sphere was further broken down to the nanographene oxide (nGO) via a simple oxidation route. On this foundation, a green pathway was developed for fabrication of biobased materials for wastewater purification. First, macroporous chitosan-based ...
The transition to bioeconomy will reduce our dependency on fossil fuels as well as contribute to a more sustainable society. Within this framework, exploitation and development of renewable substitutes to petroleum-based products provides feasible roadmap for the material design. Here a perspective is provided to how the natural polysaccharides chitosan (CS) and/or cellulose (CL) could be elaborated and transformed to high-performance materials with the explicit aim of removing trace pharmaceutical contaminants from the wastewater, thus facilitating the sustainable development. In the first part of the thesis, chitosan and cellulose were converted to the carbon spheres (C-sphere) through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal carbonization process, and C-sphere was further broken down to the nanographene oxide (nGO) via a simple oxidation route. On this foundation, a green pathway was developed for fabrication of biobased materials for wastewater purification. First, macroporous chitosan-based ...
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Cancer has the highest mortality rate in the world as compared to the other disorders mainly due to non availabity of proper treatment at advance stage. Current cancer treatment involves the radiation therapy and chemotherapy both of which exerts side effects in the cancer individual that lead to death of the majority of patients. Extensive research work is being carried out in order to reduce the side effects of anticancer drugs. These side effects are mainly due to the non-specificity of drugs to the target tissues. Therefore there is a need to find out the drug delivery system which can efficiently kill the cancer cells without harming normal healthy cells.. Nanotechnology in Medicine offers several advantages over present methods of treatment for several diseases. One of the major applications of nanotechnology use in medicine is the use of nanoparticles to deliver drugs or other substances to target specific types of cells, mainly the cancer cells or cancer stem cells. Nanoparticles are ...
Journal of Nanomaterials is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that aims to bring science and applications together on nanoscale and nanostructured materials with emphasis on synthesis, processing, characterization, and applications of materials containing true nanosize dimensions or nanostructures that enable novel/enhanced properties or functions. It is directed at both academic researchers and practicing engineers. Journal of Nanomaterials will highlight the continued growth and new challenges in nanomaterials science, engineering, and nanotechnology, both for application development and for basic research. All papers should emphasize original results relating to experimental, theoretical, computational, and/or applications of nanomaterials ranging from hard (inorganic) materials, through soft (polymeric and biological) materials, to hybrid materials or nanocomposites.
Feeding chromium in this form to fattening pigs had positive effects on growth, carcass characteristics and pork quality, and had benefits for lipid metabolism, according to this new Chinese work.
1. Ingle PV, Samsudin SZ, Chan P. et al. Development and novel therapeutics in hepatocellular carcinoma: a review. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2016;12:445-55 2. Liu D, Staveley-OCarroll KF, Li G. Immune-based Therapy Clinical Trials in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. J Clin Cell Immunol. 2015;6:376 3. Bachy E, Coiffier B. Time has come for immunotherapy in PTCL. Blood. 2014;123:3059-60 4. Hutchings M. Targeted immunotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood. 2015;125:3967-8 5. Anguille S, Van Acker HH, Van den Bergh J. et al. Interleukin-15 Dendritic Cells Harness NK Cell Cytotoxic Effector Function in a Contact- and IL-15-Dependent Manner. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0123340 6. Dong MB, Rahman MJ, Tarbell KV. Flow cytometric gating for spleen monocyte and DC subsets: differences in autoimmune NOD mice and with acute inflammation. J Immunol Methods. 2016;432:4-12 7. Vandenberk L, Garg AD, Verschuere T. et al. Irradiation of necrotic cancer cells, employed for pulsing dendritic cells (DCs), potentiates DC vaccine-induced ...
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Chitosan slimming pill on a plate. Chitosan is derived from chitin, a polysaccharide found in the exoskeleton of shellfish. It is claimed that Chitosin binds to fat in the gut, preventing its digestion and absorption and therefore aiding weight loss. - Stock Image M625/1216
Source Naturals Diet Chitosan 500mg Picture Label 60 capsule hitosan, a fiber derived from chitin in shellfish, is a nondigestible aminopolysaccharide. Chitosan ...
[93 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Chitosan Market 2017-2021 report by Technavio. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide extracted from shells of crustacean...
... - Universal Naturals Chitosan Plus 120 Capsules, 1300 mg est une fibre naturelle extraite de la carapace de certains crustacées. il attire les graisses que vous avez mangées au cours du repas avant même quelles ne soient digérées et assimilées. - Acheter, vente, achat,commander, prix plus bas, prix discount ,avis ,test , commentaires, nouveaute,
Chitosan sponges were developed for adjunctive local antibiotic delivery to reduce bacteria in wounds. There is a need to increase sponge degradation for rapid clearance from the wound site during initial wound care. This work examined the effect of using 0.25 M sodium acetate buffers, at pH 4.6 or 5.6, to fabricate sponges with an amorphous chitosan polymer structure. Sponges were evaluated for their crystallinity, thermal, spectroscopic, and morphological properties, in addition to in vitro degradation, and cytocompatibility analysis using normal human dermal fibroblasts. In vivo degradation and biocompatibility were also examined after 4 and 10 days in rat intramuscular tissues. Both buffered chitosan sponge variations exhibited decreases in crystallinity and thermal decomposition temperatures, and increases in surface roughness, which resulted in over 40% increases in degradation over 10 days in vitro compared to the neutral sponges. There were no significant differences between sponges ...
Nutrient loss, caused by lipid oxidation and hydrolysis, occurs in the scallop adductor muscle during refrigerated storage. To retard this process, chitosan coating with inclusion of antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) and potassium sorbate (PS) were used. Results indicated the coatings employed could significantly inhibit the increases in total number of colonies, total volatile basic nitrogen, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, lipase activity and free fatty acid content as well as the decrease in contents of triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the scallop adductor muscle during refrigerated storage. After 8 days, the contents of PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexenoic acid in the control adductor muscle decreased by 46.91, 47.46 and 45.50%, respectively, while the corresponding values were 35.93-36.68, 34.01-36.45 and 32.73-37.50%, respectively, for AOB- and PS-coated adductor muscles. Therefore, ...
Elicitation with middle-viscous chitosan (30 mg/50 mL) significantly stimulated silymarin synthesis in Silybum marianum hairy root cultures. The root cultures established by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes AR15834 showed a potential for production of silymarin. Elicitation with medium molecular weight of chitosan (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg/50 mL) was used in order to improve silymarin production. Total silymarin increased about 5.26-fold after 96 h of treatment with 30 mg/50 mL chitosan. Dry weight of the hairy roots reached the highest point (0.530 and 0.535 g) after 96 h in presence of 20 and 30 mg/50 mL chitosan, respectively. Five different flavonolignans were isolated; taxifolin, silychristin, silydianin, silybin and isosilybin) 0.133, 0.200, 0.120, 0.041 and 0.056 mg/g dry weight, respectively). 30 days old hairy roots were treated by 30 mg/50 mL chitosan in different times (12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h). The amount of silymarin accumulation significantly increased (0.705 mg/gDW) in hairy
Bond Performance and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide Wood Adhesive Made from Konjac Glucomannan/Chitosan/Polyvinyl Alcohol. Rong Gu,a Baoning Mu,b and Yanpu Yang a. The bond performance and bonding mechanism were evaluated for a Konjac glucomannan (KGM), Chitosan (CS), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) blended wood adhesive. An optimized experimental strategy was used to investigate the effects of the formula parameters of adhesives on the bonding strength of plywood using a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM). The microstructure of the blended adhesives was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An optimum bonding strength (3.42 ± 0.31 MPa) was achieved with concentrations of KGM, CS, and 10% PVOH of 2.3%, 2.3%, and 5.0%, respectively. There was strong hydrogen bonding between the KGM, CS, and 10% PVOH adhesives and the interface. SEM observations indicated that the blended adhesive exhibited a net-like ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression studies of Bacillus licheniformis chitin deacetylase in E. coli Rosetta cells. AU - Raval, Ritu. AU - Simsa, Robin. AU - Raval, Keyur. PY - 2017/11/1. Y1 - 2017/11/1. N2 - Chitin, the biopolymer of the N-acetylglucosamine, is the most abundant biopolymer on the planet after cellulose. However owing to its crystalline nature, its deacetylated derivative; chitosan is industrially more potent. This conversion on an enzymatic scale can be made using chitin deacetylase. The metagenomics library constructed from the soil exposed to chitin and chitosan yielded chitin modifying enzymes, one of them being chitin deacetylase (CDA) utilized for the present study. The gene was amplified and expressed using the pET 22b vector in E. coli Rosetta cells. The effect of two additives; chitin and glycerol on the CDA activity were studied. The inclusion of glycerol in the medium improved the biomass by 50% from the initial value of 1.25 g/l to 2.5 g/l. The activity of CDA increased from ...
The objective of my research work is to synthesize, characterize, design, and apply nanocrystals for biomedical use.; Gold nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of chitosan via reduction of HAuCl4 with sodium borohydride. The average particle size of gold nanoparticles was significantly affected with the concentration of chitosan added and was ranged between 5 and 30 nm. The gold-chitosan nanocomposites were formed by adsorbing chitosan molecules on the gold nanoparticles.; CdSe/ZnS quantum dots were prepared by a solution phase synthetic method. A new route for the phase transfer of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots from non-polar solvents into aqueous solution was developed using hydrophobically modified polysaccharides, both chitosan and alginate. In addition, it was shown that CdSe/ZnS based polysaccharide nanoparticles effectively inhibited the proliferation of human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3 in vitro. The findings suggest that CdSe/ZnS quantum dot based polysaccharide nanoparticles not ...
article{196222, abstract = {By in vitro and in vivo studies with Escherichia coil expressing different combinations of the nodABCS genes of Azorhizobium caulinodans, Nod factor intermediates were identified and their structures determined using mass spectrometry. Substrate-product relationships were studied by time course experiments, and the Nod factor biosynthetic pathway was partially resolved. E. coil strains, harboring nodA and/or nocB, did not produce Nod metabolites, whereas the strain expressing nodC produced chitooligosaccharides. Thus, the first committed step was the production of the carbohydrate backbone. Bacitracin and tunicamycin did not affect this step, suggesting that undecaprenyl pyrophosphate-linked intermediates were not involved. The second step was the deacetylation of chitooligosaccharides by NodB since the E. coil strain expressing nodBC produced chitooligosaccharides, deacetylated at the non-reducing end and since the NodC products were precursors of the NodBC products. ...
1. A pharmaceutical intermediate containing a microencapsulated desfesoterodine tartaric acid salt. Reference is hereby made to all of the foregoing discussions regarding preferred embodiments (for example the crystalline R form) of the desfesoterodine tartaric acid salt of the invention. 2. A pharmaceutical intermediate constructed from a core (a) and a shell (b), wherein: [0146] (a) the core contains a desfesoterodine tartaric acid salt as the active ingredient; and [0147] (b) the shell contains one or more pharmaceutical excipients which modify release of the active ingredient; wherein preferably, the weight ratio of core (a) to shell (b) is 15:1 to 1:5. 3. An intermediate in accordance with point 2, wherein the shell comprises the components: (b1), a substance which is not soluble in water, preferably a polymer which is not soluble in water; and (b2) a pore-forming agent. 4. An intermediate according to point 3, wherein the shell additionally comprises the components: (b3), a polymer with a ...
In this paper, an electrochemical application of bismuth film modified glassy carbon electrode for azo-colorants determination was investigated. Bismuth-film electrode (BiFE) was prepared by ex-situ depositing of bismuth onto glassy carbon electrode. The plating potential was −0.78 V (vs. SCE) in a solution of 0.15 mg mL−1 Bi(III) and 0.05 mg mL−1 KBr for 180 s. In the next step, a thin film of chitosan was deposited on the surface of bismuth modified glassy carbon electrode, thus the bismuth-chitosan thin film modified glassy carbon electrode (Bi-CHIT/GCE) was fabricated and compared with bare GCE and bismuth modified GCE.Azo-colorants such as Sunset Yellow and Carmoisine were determined on these electrodes by differential pulse voltammetry. Due to overlapping peaks of Sunset Yellow and Carmoisine, simultaneous determination of them is not possible, so net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM) was used for this determination. The results showed that coated chitosan can enhance ...

HMWC - High Molecular Weight Chitosan | AcronymFinderHMWC - High Molecular Weight Chitosan | AcronymFinder

HMWC stands for High Molecular Weight Chitosan. HMWC is defined as High Molecular Weight Chitosan somewhat frequently. ... 2019 https://www.acronymfinder.com/High-Molecular-Weight-Chitosan-(HMWC).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "HMWC." ... n.d.) Acronym Finder. (2019). Retrieved December 9 2019 from https://www.acronymfinder.com/High-Molecular-Weight-Chitosan-(HMWC ... a href=https://www.acronymfinder.com/High-Molecular-Weight-Chitosan-(HMWC).html,HMWC,/a,. ...
more infohttps://www.acronymfinder.com/High-Molecular-Weight-Chitosan-

United States Carboxymethyl Chitosan Market 2017- DOW, CP Kelco, AKZO Nobel, UGUR Seluloz Kimya, Quimica Amtex - Herald AnalystUnited States Carboxymethyl Chitosan Market 2017- DOW, CP Kelco, AKZO Nobel, UGUR Seluloz Kimya, Quimica Amtex - Herald Analyst

The Carboxymethyl Chitosan research report specifically targets the Carboxymethyl Chitosan industry in the United States market ... The report Carboxymethyl Chitosan Market 2017 presents a widespread and fundamental study of Carboxymethyl Chitosan industry ... United States Carboxymethyl Chitosan Market 2017- DOW, CP Kelco, AKZO Nobel, UGUR Seluloz Kimya, Quimica Amtex. By Ajinkya ... Concise Carboxymethyl Chitosan Market study based on major United States regions.. Analysis of evolving market segments as well ...
more infohttp://heraldanalyst.com/united-states-carboxymethyl-chitosan-market-2017/

Investigation of chitosan nanoparticles durability in combination with antioxidant-antibacterial fraction extracted from...Investigation of chitosan nanoparticles durability in combination with antioxidant-antibacterial fraction extracted from...

For Antioxidant fraction loaded chitosan nanoparticles, the fraction is physically incorporated into the chitosan nanoparticles ... For chitosan nanoparticles (Cs NPs) formation, the ionic gelation method was used and the ratio of Tripolyphosphate pentasodium ... Chitosan nanoparticle loaded antioxidant-antibacterial material has longer life span while compare to Cs-NPs alone. The ... This study considered the combination of chitosan nanoparticles with antioxidant-antibacterial fraction extracted from ...
more infohttp://nanomedicine-rj.com/article_25576.html

ionic polymer flocculantionic polymer flocculant

Chitin and chitosan: Properties and sciencedirect science article pii S0079670006000530. Chitin is the second most important ...
more infohttp://www.stagelightsgroup.org/ionic-polymer-flocculant/

chitosanchitosan

... : Where did it come from? Regardless of chitosans miraculous overview, it is a very simple substance which has been ... Administering Chitosan The instructions in which to properly administer the supplementation of chitosan are quite simple. The ... Your Health Store - Chitosan) Thus, many of the products on the market today which contain chitosan as a chief substance, also ... Chitosan is a 100% natural and acts as a super fiber. Thus, supplementing the diet with chitosan, is part of creating a ...
more infohttp://healthpsych.psy.vanderbilt.edu/HealthPsych/chitosan.htm

Fat absorber chitosan, muscle mass protein gncFat absorber chitosan, muscle mass protein gnc

... fat absorber chitosan, best diet to lose weight fast 2013, how can you lose weight fast after giving birth, high fat diet meal ... Fat absorber chitosan,how can i lose weight fast,recommended weight loss pills,amino acids benefits muscle building - Plans ... Distinguish one protein shake fat absorber chitosan from people will go to to try to shed some pounds utilized by pagans. ... Comments to "Fat absorber chitosan". * ADRENALINE. writes: My solely cheat was jalapenos and tablespoon of honey. ...
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Chitin and Chitosan for Regenerative Medicine | SpringerLinkChitin and Chitosan for Regenerative Medicine | SpringerLink

Bioglycopolymers Chitin Hydrogels Chitosan-based Hydrogels Chitosan-based Scaffolds Modified Polysaccharides Polymer-based ... Chitosan-Based Scaffolds for Cartilage Regeneration Xuezhou Li, Jianxun Ding, Xiuli Zhuang, Fei Chang, Jincheng Wang, Xuesi ... Chitosan: A Promising Substrate for Regenerative Medicine in Drug Formulation Madhu Kashyap, D. Archana, Alok Semwal, Joydeep ... Chitin, Chitosan, and Silk Fibroin Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds: A Prospective Approach for Regenerative Medicine ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-81-322-2511-9

Chitosan for Tissue Engineering | SpringerLinkChitosan for Tissue Engineering | SpringerLink

Chitosan, a deacetylated chitin, is one of the few natural polymers similar to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) widely distributed ... beta 1 from chitosan microspheres on chondrocytes cultured in a collagen/chitosan/glycosaminoglycan scaffold. Biomaterials 25( ... Chitosan Tissue engineering Scaffold Regeneration Skin Bone Cartilage This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... Kim CH, Park H-S, Gin YJ, Son Y, Lim S-H, Choi YJ, Park K-S, Park CW (2004) Improvement of the biocompatibility of chitosan ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-981-13-0947-2_25

Flocculation ChitosanFlocculation Chitosan

Browse fuzing.com to find Flocculation chitosan sellers, suppliers, wholesalers, companies, manufacturers, exporters, factories ... Flocculation chitosan. You May Also Be Interested In: chitosan close up flocculation macromolecule This kind of chitosan is ... Flocculation Chitosan have above characteristics, and is a product of natural, nonpoisonous, safe and harmless etc. ...
more infohttps://www.fuzing.com/Flocculation-chitosan/l/129049ee-6b95-81c5-4c7a-0096695ed9e5

Bacterial Growth on Chitosan-Coated Polypropylene TextileBacterial Growth on Chitosan-Coated Polypropylene Textile

... D. Erben,1 V. Hola,2 J. Jaros,3,4 and J. Rahel1,5 ... F. L. Mi, Y. B. Wu, S. S. Shyu, A. C. Chao, J. Y. Lai, and C. C. Su, "Asymmetric chitosan membranes prepared by dry/wet phase ... M. Kong, X. G. Chen, K. Xing, and H. J. Park, "Antimicrobial properties of chitosan and mode of action: a state of the art ... S. Roller and N. Covill, "The antifungal properties of chitosan in laboratory media and apple juice," International Journal of ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2012/749694/ref/

Preparation and Characterization of Magnetic Chitosan MicrocapsulesPreparation and Characterization of Magnetic Chitosan Microcapsules

19] prepared uniform-sized hollow chitosan microspheres by sacrificial template method. In that case, chitosan molecules were ... Preparation and Characterization of Magnetic Chitosan Microcapsules. Xiaopeng Xiong,1,2,3 Yong Wang,1 Weiwei Zou,1 Jiangjiang ... Chitosan (CS), with a degree of deacetylation of 90%, was purchased from Jinan Haidebei Marine Bioengineering Co., Ltd ( ... S. R. Bhattarai, R. Bahadur, S. Aryal, M. S. Khil, and H. Y. Kim, "N-Acylated chitosan stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles as a ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2013/585613/

Polycationic chitosan-conjugated photosen... & related info | MendeleyPolycationic chitosan-conjugated photosen... & related info | Mendeley

This study was aimed to synthesize a polycationic chitosan-... ... This study was aimed to synthesize a polycationic chitosan- ... The present study highlighted the importance of inherent cell membrane permeabilizing effect of chitosan and increased cell/ ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/polycationic-chitosanconjugated-photosensitizer-antibacterial-photodynamic-therapy/

Nomination Summary for Chitosan (N20001)Nomination Summary for Chitosan (N20001)

Rationale: Chitosan is a popular dietary supplement used for weight loss. Although several subacute studies in animals show ... that chitosan has hypercholesterolemic properties and may influence weight gain, it may also cause vitamin and mineral ...
more infohttps://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/testing/noms/search/summary/nm-n20001.html

Chitosan - RxMed.comChitosan - RxMed.com

Do not give Chitosan to children. Do not use Chitosan during pregnancy and lactation. ... Chitosan is a powerful sorbent of natural origin, sorbent base of which is chitine. Chitine is a nitrogen-containing ... Studies have shown that prolonged intake of Chitosan in large doses can lead to impaired absorption of certain vitamins and ... Additives with Chitosan can also increase risk of calcium, magnesium and selenium deficiency. ...
more infohttps://www.rxmed.com/herbal/chitosan

What is ChitosanWhat is Chitosan

Origins of Chitosan Chitosan has long been considered as the potent substance that binds fat and stop it from accumulating in ... What is Chitosan. Chitosan: Origins of Chitosan. Chitosan has long been considered as the potent substance that binds fat and ... Chitosan research Is Chitosan a good fat blocker? Chitosan is a natural nutritional fiber which is made from the shell of ... Liquid Chitosan. Chitosan is made in two main types, namely the dry and flakey product, and the liquid chitosan. ...
more infohttps://www.fitnesstipsforlife.com/what-is-chitosan.html

Chitosan | TriStar HealthChitosan | TriStar Health

Chitosan is the deacetylated form.) Uses Principal Proposed Uses None Other... ... Learn more about Chitosan at TriStar Health Related Terms Chitin ( ... Chitosan can deplete the body of certain minerals (see Safety Issues below). For this reason, when using chitosan, it may be ... Chitosan is a form of fiber chemically processed from crustacean shells. Like other forms of fiber, such as oat bran, chitosan ...
more infohttp://tristarhealth.com/hl/?/21656/&com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=1

Chitosan, help for IBS? - HealthBoards Message BoardsChitosan, help for IBS? - HealthBoards Message Boards

Chitosan, help for IBS?. [ Back to Messages ] Message. Posted by sara on August 22, 2000 at 00:05:32:. Has anyone tried any ... Chitosan products out there? I recently read that some research is going on in regards to it maybe helping IBS sufferers. I ...
more infohttps://www.healthboards.com/irritable-bowel-syndrome/2780.html

GNC Total Lean® Chitosan With Glucomannan | GNCGNC Total Lean® Chitosan With Glucomannan | GNC

Shop now for GNC Total Lean® Chitosan with Glucomannan, a dietary supplement that promotes a sense of fullness and supports ... Give me plain Chitosan dont go muck it up with so called good extras Chitosan by itself does the job just fine for me. I have ... can I take GNC Chitosan with glucomannan with GNC CLA? Ive been taking Chitosan for a few days now & wondered if it is ok to ... Chitosan is a fat blocker that is supposed to be taken before a fatty meal. The fiber binds up to 6x its weight in fat and ...
more infohttps://www.gnc.com/fiber/485712.html

Chitosan related health claims | European Food Safety AuthorityChitosan related health claims | European Food Safety Authority

Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to chitosan and reduction in body weight (ID 679, 1499), ... Chitosan, fibre, body weight, LDL-cholesterol, intestinal transit time, inflammation, health claims ...
more infohttp://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/2214

Chitosan: A Critical Look | QuackwatchChitosan: A Critical Look | Quackwatch

Is this true? Answer Chitosan is derived from chitin, a polysaccharide found in the exoskeleton of shellfish such as shrimp, ... Question Ads for chitosan claim it can lower cholesterol and produce rapid weight loss by blocking the absorption of fat. ... Chitosan: A Critical Look. Stephen Barrett, M.D.. May 13, 2003 Question. Ads for chitosan claim it can lower cholesterol and ... Although chitosan can decrease fat absorption, the amount contained in the capsules is too small to have much of an effect on ...
more infohttps://quackwatch.org/consumer-education/qa/chitosan/

Efficient hydrolysis of chitosan in ionic... & related info | MendeleyEfficient hydrolysis of chitosan in ionic... & related info | Mendeley

Effective hydrolysis of chitosan, the N-deacetylated product of chitin, remains challenging. Here, we report acid-promoted ... hydrolysis of chitosan in imidazolium based ionic liquids with good total ... ... Effective hydrolysis of chitosan, the N-deacetylated product of chitin, remains challenging. Here, we report acid-promoted ... hydrolysis of chitosan in imidazolium based ionic liquids with good total reducing sugars (TRS) yield under mild conditions. ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/efficient-hydrolysis-chitosan-ionic-liquids/

Terbinafine Tablets and Hydroxypropyl-Chitosan Nail Lacquer - Drugs.comTerbinafine Tablets and Hydroxypropyl-Chitosan Nail Lacquer - Drugs.com

Easy-to-read patient leaflet for Terbinafine Tablets and Hydroxypropyl-Chitosan Nail Lacquer. Includes indications, proper use ... Terbinafine Tablets and Hydroxypropyl-Chitosan Nail Lacquer. Generic Name: Terbinafine Tablets and Hydroxypropyl-Chitosan Nail ... What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Terbinafine Tablets and Hydroxypropyl-Chitosan Nail Lacquer?. *If you have an ... What are some things I need to know or do while I take Terbinafine Tablets and Hydroxypropyl-Chitosan Nail Lacquer?. *Tell all ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/cdi/terbinafine-tablets-and-hydroxypropyl-chitosan-nail-lacquer.html

Chitosan Enhanced Water Treatment  Articles  on Environmental XPRTChitosan Enhanced Water Treatment Articles on Environmental XPRT

Find chitosan enhanced water treatment articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace ... chitosan enhanced water treatment Articles. Related terms for "chitosan enhanced water treatment ": water treatment articles ... Zirconium and chitosan coagulants for drinking water treatment - a pilot study Scientists continuously search for alternative ... On the other hand, eco-friendly non-metal solutions, such as chitosan, can provide non-toxic sludge and water with no metal ...
more infohttps://www.environmental-expert.com/articles/keyword-chitosan-enhanced-water-treatment-26621

9780128027356 - Chitosan in the Preservation of | eCampus.com9780128027356 - Chitosan in the Preservation of | eCampus.com

9780128027356 Our cheapest price for Chitosan in the Preservation of Agricultural Commodities is $157.50. Free shipping on all ... Chitosan in the Preservation of Agricultural Commodities. by Bautista-Banos, Silvia; Romanazzi, Gianfranco; Jim nez-aparicio, ...
more infohttps://www.ecampus.com/chitosan-preservation-agricultural/bk/9780128027356

Polymers | Free Full-Text | pH Dependence of Chitosan EnzymolysisPolymers | Free Full-Text | pH Dependence of Chitosan Enzymolysis

Variation of the rate constants of the enzymatic hydrolysis of chitosan with temperature follows the Arrhenius equation. ... of these enzymes was further systematically studied for its effectiveness in the production of low-molecular-weight chitosans ( ... As a means of making chitosan more useful in biotechnological applications, it was hydrolyzed using pepsin, chitosanase and α- ... Keywords: chitosan enzymolysis; parameters; kinetic; pH dependence; activation energy; inhibition chitosan enzymolysis; ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2073-4360/9/5/174
  • Chun HJ, Kim G-W, Kim C-H (2008) Fabrication of porous chitosan scaffold in order to improve biocompatibility. (springer.com)
  • A process for producing granular porous chitosan of extremely uniform particle size and having uniform fine pores on the spherical surface and cut cross sectional face. (google.com)
  • and pouring said intermediate solution into a basic solution to precipitate porous chitosan having a specific surface area of 15 to 98 m 2 /g. (google.com)
  • 9. A granular porous chitosan according to claim 8, wherein the basic solution is selected from the group consisting of NaOH-water system, NaOH-alcohol-water system, ethylenediamine-alcohol system, ammonia-water system and ammonia-alcohol-water system. (google.com)
  • 11. A granular porous chitosan according to claim 10, wherein the organic diisocyanate is hexamethylene diisocyanate, xylylene diisocyanate or 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate. (google.com)
  • This invention concerns a process for producing granular porous chitosan which is extremely suitable as filler for chromatography, carrier for immobilized enzymes or the like. (google.com)
  • Production of chitosan also comprises culturing organisms that are genetically modified to produce chitosan without the need for chemical modification. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Mycodev Group, a company producing pharmaceutical-grade fungalderived chitosan, uses a proprietary species of filamentous fungus to produce chitosan using submerged fermentation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This chapter introduces the basic contents of chitosan and discusses its applications to artificial skin, artificial bone, and artificial cartilage in tissue engineering purpose. (springer.com)
  • Altman AM, Yan Y, Matthias N, Bai X, Rios C, Mathur AB, Song YH, Alt EU (2009) IFATS collection: human adipose-derived stem cells seeded on a silk fibroin-chitosan scaffold enhance wound repair in a murine soft tissue injury model. (springer.com)
  • If the chitosan repaired the crushed membranes then the spinal cord tissue would be unstained, but if the chitosan had failed, the spinal cord neurons would be flooded with the fluorescent dye. (innovations-report.com)
  • And when the duo tested for the presence of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS), released when ATP generating mitochondria are damaged, they found that ROS levels also fell after applying chitosan to the damaged tissue: chitosan probably repairs mitochondrial membranes as well as the nerve cell membranes. (innovations-report.com)
  • Borgens is extremely excited by this discovery that chitosan is able to locate and repair damaged spinal cord tissue and is even more enthusiastic by the prospect that nanoparticles of chitosan could also target delivery of neuroprotective drugs directly to the site of injury 'giving us a dual bang for our buck,' says Borgens. (innovations-report.com)
  • Chitosan and its modifications find applications in several biomedical fields, including Tissue Engineering and Controlled Drug Delivery Systems. (scirp.org)
  • Alemdaroğlu C, Değim Z, Celebi N, Zor F, Oztürk S, Erdoğan D (2006) An investigation on burn wound healing in rats with chitosan gel formulation containing epidermal growth factor. (springer.com)
  • In addition, chitosan has been tried as a treatment for kidney failure and as an aid in wound healing. (tristarhealth.com)
  • in addition, topical chitosan appears to kill bacteria such as Streptococcus , which may also contribute to wound healing. (tristarhealth.com)
  • Distinguish one protein shake fat absorber chitosan from people will go to to try to shed some pounds utilized by pagans. (amazonaws.com)
  • Shellfish allergen protein, such as tropomysin, and high levels of heavy metals, such as mercury and arsenic, may be present in crustacean chitosans, particularly those sourced from regions with high levels of pollution. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 4 The aforementioned concerns with shellfish allergen protein and high levels of heavy metals are not applicable to fungal chitosan. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Pharmaceutical-grade chitosan can be produced from fungi using a submerged fermentation process in a highly controlled and standardized production method using good manufacturing processes (GMP), to produce material acceptable for medical use in drug delivery and other life science applications. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Chitin and its derivative chitosan are naturally produced in fungi as the principal component of the cell walls. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Another stated advantage of chitosan comes from the idea that the chitosan-bound fat leaves the intestinal tract without ever entering the bloodstream. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • 5 In addition, although chitosan-included alterations in intestinal flora are believed to be beneficial, the possibility that these changes may have negative long-term consequences has not been ruled out. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • People with intestinal malabsorption syndromes should not use chitosan. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • Hansson A, Hashom N, Falson F, Rousselle P, Jordan O, Borchard G (2012) In vitro evaluation of an RGD-functionalized chitosan derivative for enhanced cell adhesion. (springer.com)
  • Cui YL, Qi AD, Liu WG, Wang XH, Wang H, Ma DM, Yao KD (2003) Biomimetic surface modification of poly(L-lactic acid) with chitosan and its effects on articular chondrocytes in vitro. (springer.com)
  • The advertisers provided a technical report of the product's contents (which included Chitosan) and copies of nearly 30 trials carried out on animals, in vitro, and on humans. (quackwatch.org)
  • Methods for in vitro chitosan production are also encompassed. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Chitosan is derived from chitin, a polysaccharide found in the exoskeleton of shellfish such as shrimp, lobster, and or crabs. (quackwatch.org)
  • Borgens and his team publish their discovery that chitosan can repair damaged nerve cell membranes in The Journal of Experimental Biology on 16 April 2010 at http://jeb.biologists.org. (innovations-report.com)
  • Converting chitin into chitosan, Cho isolated a segment of guinea pig spinal cord, compressed a section, applied the modified chitin and then added a fluorescent dye that could only enter the cells through damaged membranes. (innovations-report.com)
  • Chitosan had repaired the damaged cell membranes. (innovations-report.com)
  • Chitosan membranes were prepared by solvent evaporation and the crosslinks were introduced by reaction with sulfuric acid solution. (scirp.org)
  • The biological assays of the membranes were performed with NIH 3T3 cells in two steps: evaluation of cytotoxicity by indirect contact of the cells with the extracts of the chitosan membranes and finally with the direct contact of the cells on the filaments of chitosan to obtain adhesion and cell proliferation information. (scirp.org)
  • Non-crosslinked membranes of chitosan were used as controls for all assays. (scirp.org)
  • Besides, chitosan could be produced in various forms, such as films, membranes and porous structures, and allows applications in the most diverse areas. (scirp.org)
  • Chitosan, a partially deacetylated polymer obtained from the alkaline deacetylation of chitin, extracted from shellfish has been reviewed for its application in water and wastewater. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Chitosan is predominantly extracted from shellfish waste in developing countries with limited oversight. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Another production-related issue in the use of chitosan produced from shellfish is the seasonality of the industrial harvest. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • (Revolutionary Discovery: Chitosan) The producers of chitosan-based products also try to claim that since a person taking chitosan continues to eat some sort of fats and is able to continue eating these types of food, the body does not crave such fattening foods nor is it starving or feeling any added sense of hunger. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Many sellers claim that chitosan causes weight loss by binding fats in the stomach and preventing them from being digested and absorbed. (quackwatch.org)
  • Basically stated, chitosan is a special fiber which is able to 'soak up' or absorb anywhere from six to ten times its weight in fat and oils. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • However, chitosan is able to significantly bind with fat molecules and convert them into a form which the human body does not absorb. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Therein, polystyrene sulfonate templates were used to absorb polycations of CS molecules, which then absorb polyanions of carboxymethyl chitosan. (hindawi.com)
  • The standard dosage of chitosan is 3 to 6 g per day, to be taken with food. (tristarhealth.com)
  • This probable solution is called chitosan and is simply a fat inhibitor which appears to work miracles for those in search of a safe way to lose that body fat. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Chitosan is effectively a fantastic fat inhibitor which work wonders for those in search of a safe way to lose that body fat. (fitnesstipsforlife.com)
  • GNC Total Lean® Chitosan with Glucomannan is scientifically formulated to help promote a feeling of fullness* and encourage colon health. (gnc.com)
  • Evidence for the presence of random and block copolymer structures in partially N-acetylated chitosans. (springer.com)
  • 2,3 However, despite some mildly positive results, the current balance of evidence suggests chitosan does not in fact significantly aid weight loss. (tristarhealth.com)
  • Weak evidence hints that chitosan may be helpful in kidney failure. (tristarhealth.com)
  • It has been suggested that chitosan can stimulate the immune system and prevent cancer , 16 but there is no reliable evidence as yet that it offers these benefits. (tristarhealth.com)
  • What Is the Scientific Evidence for Chitosan? (tristarhealth.com)
  • There is no evidence that chitosan is effective for weight control. (quackwatch.org)
  • Also, according to a preliminary study in rats, taking vitamin C along with chitosan might provide additional benefit in lowering cholesterol. (tristarhealth.com)
  • Chitosan has long been considered as the potent substance that binds fat and stop it from accumulating in our bodies. (fitnesstipsforlife.com)
  • Chitosan produces potent neuroprotection and physiological recovery following traumatic spinal cord injury. (innovations-report.com)
  • In that case, chitosan molecules were adsorbed onto the surface of sulfonated polystyrene templates through electrostatic interaction between the sulfonic acid groups on the templates and the amino groups of chitosan. (hindawi.com)
  • Next Cho tested whether a dose of chitosan could prevent large molecules from leaking from damaged spinal cord cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • For these reasons, chitosan has found a tremendous variety of biomedical applications in recent years. (springer.com)
  • The chitosan group had slightly (but not significantly) greater cholesterol reduction than the placebo group, but no difference in weight occurred between the two groups . (quackwatch.org)
  • A double-blind Polish study found that people taking 1,500 mg of chitosan three times daily during a weight loss program lost significantly more weight than people taking a placebo with the same program. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • The first book on chitosan was published 140 years after the initial observation of Braconnot, and that was in 1951. (fitnesstipsforlife.com)
  • (Revolutionary Discovery: Chitosan) It claims to affect the fat prior to it reaching the stomach and thus the fat never has a chance to be metabolized. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • An 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 51 women found that use of chitosan at a dose of 1,200 mg twice daily slightly reduced LDL ("bad") cholesterol as compared to placebo, but did not affect total or HDL ("good") cholesterol levels. (tristarhealth.com)
  • 43 Furthermore, in a 10-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 130 men and women, use of a special microcrystalline form of chitosan at a dose of 1,200 mg twice daily again failed to improve cholesterol profile. (epnet.com)
  • 41 In this 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 250 overweight people, use of chitosan at a dose of 3 g daily failed to enhance weight loss to any meaningful extent as compared to placebo. (epnet.com)
  • 3 The submerged fermentation of the fungus allows for tightly controlled production of chitosan and limits exposure to foreign material and other organisms. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Chitosan is a popular dietary supplement used for weight loss. (nih.gov)
  • Nowadays, Chitosan it is known as a dietary supplement that is good for loss. (fitnesstipsforlife.com)
  • Because of these applications, chitosan is now marketed as a dietary supplement and is used to thicken foods, paints and makeup. (fitnesstipsforlife.com)
  • Chitosan is a 100% natural and acts as a super fiber. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Like other forms of fiber, such as oat bran, chitosan is not well digested by the human body. (tristarhealth.com)
  • These contradictory results suggest that if chitosan actually improves cholesterol profile at all, it does so to only a minimal extent. (epnet.com)
  • As a means of making chitosan more useful in biotechnological applications, it was hydrolyzed using pepsin, chitosanase and α-amylase. (mdpi.com)
  • Fermentation is a preferred method for production of many clinical compounds due to the ease in which biochemically controlled and standardized engineering conditions can be met, offering an optimal method for the production of chitosan for medical applications. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Custódio CA, Alves CM, Reis RL, Mano JF (2010) Immobilization of fibronectin in chitosan substrates improves cell adhesion and proliferation. (springer.com)
  • The present study highlighted the importance of inherent cell membrane permeabilizing effect of chitosan and increased cell/biofilm uptake of conjugated photosensitizer to produce significant antibiofilm efficacy during photodynamic therapy. (mendeley.com)
  • Low white blood cell counts have rarely happened with terbinafine tablets and hydroxypropyl-chitosan nail lacquer. (drugs.com)
  • Microorganisms and plants that have been modified for production of chitin and/or chitosan within the vacuole of a cell are encompassed. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Take note that these are again the simple declarations made by the producers of chitosan and are supported with no background studies or thus medical proof of any sort. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Aiba S-I (1991) Studies on chitosan: 3. (springer.com)
  • Although several subacute studies in animals show that chitosan has hypercholesterolemic properties and may influence weight gain, it may also cause vitamin and mineral deficiencies. (nih.gov)
  • Three studies have found no significant differences in weight or serum cholesterol levels between subjects who took chitosan and those who received a placebo. (quackwatch.org)
  • Chitosan is a powerful sorbent of natural origin, sorbent base of which is chitine. (rxmed.com)
  • The origin of chitosan can be traced back to 1811 when "chitin", from which it is derived, was first discovered by Braconnot, a then professor of the natural history in France. (fitnesstipsforlife.com)
  • Has anyone tried any Chitosan products out there? (healthboards.com)
  • Moreover, with better, more predictable cholesterol-lowering products available, it doesn't make much sense to use chitosan for that purpose. (quackwatch.org)
  • The British Advertising Standards Authority has upheld complaints about chitosan products advertised by eight companies. (quackwatch.org)
  • Do not use Chitosan during pregnancy and lactation. (rxmed.com)
  • The enzymolysis behavior of these enzymes was further systematically studied for its effectiveness in the production of low-molecular-weight chitosans (LMWCs) and other derivatives. (mdpi.com)
  • Read user comments about the side effects, benefits, and effectiveness of CHITOSAN. (webmd.com)
  • By dispersing aqueous precipitant in liquid paraffin to prepare a W/O emulsion then adding chitosan (CS) solution, CS microcapsules have been successfully prepared. (hindawi.com)
  • 6 Chitosan with higher %DDA possesses more positively charged amine groups when dissolved in solution. (sigmaaldrich.com)