Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Relating to the size of solids.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
Holmium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ho, atomic number 67, and atomic weight 164.93.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.

Mode of action of chitin deacetylase from Mucor rouxii on N-acetylchitooligosaccharides. (1/1030)

The mode of action of chitin deacetylase from the fungus Mucor rouxii on N-acetylchitooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization 1-7 has been elucidated. Identification of the sequence of chitin oligomers following enzymatic deacetylation was verified by the alternative use of two specific exo-glycosidases in conjunction with HPLC. The results were further verified by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. It was observed that the length of the oligomer is important for enzyme action. The enzyme cannot effectively deacetylate chitin oligomers with a degree of polymerization lower than three. Tetra-N-acetylchitotetraose and penta-N-acetylchitopentaose are fully deacetylated by the enzyme, while in the case of tri-N-acetylchitotriose, hexa-N-acetylchitohexaose and hepta-N-acetylchitoheptaose the reducing-end residue always remains intact. Furthermore, the enzyme initially removes an acetyl group from the nonreducing-end residue of all chitin oligomers with a degree of polymerization higher than 2, and further catalyses the hydrolysis of the following acetamido groups in a processive fashion. The results are in agreement with the mode of action that the same enzyme exhibits on partially deacetylated water soluble chitosan polymers.  (+info)

Chs7p, a new protein involved in the control of protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum that is specifically engaged in the regulation of chitin synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (2/1030)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHS7 gene encodes an integral membrane protein located in the ER which is directly involved in chitin synthesis through the regulation of chitin synthase III (CSIII) activity. In the absence of CHS7 product, Chs3p, but not other secreted proteins, is retained in the ER, leading to a severe defect in CSIII activity and consequently, to a reduced rate of chitin synthesis. In addition, chs7 null mutants show the yeast phenotypes associated with a lack of chitin: reduced mating efficiency and lack of the chitosan ascospore layer, clear indications of Chs7p function throughout the S. cerevisiae biological cycle. CHS3 overexpression does not lead to increased levels of CSIII because the Chs3p excess is retained in the ER. However, joint overexpression of CHS3 and CHS7 increases the export of Chs3p from the ER and this is accompanied by a concomitant increase in CSIII activity, indicating that the amount of Chs7p is a limiting factor for CSIII activity. Accordingly, CHS7 transcription is increased when elevated amounts of chitin synthesis are detected. These results show that Chs7p forms part of a new mechanism specifically involved in Chs3p export from the ER and consequently, in the regulation of CSIII activity.  (+info)

Modification of chitosan to improve its hypocholesterolemic capacity. (3/1030)

Cholestyramine is the most widely used bile acid sequestrant in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. However, cholestyramine has unpleasant side effects as a consequence of its hydrophobic backbone. Therefore, high-capacity bile acid sequestering biopolymers with cationic chitosan derivatives were developed, because electrostatic interactions are important for binding with bile acid anions. Dialkylaminoalkylation and reductive amination of chitosan were done to add dialkylaminoalkyl and an additional free amino group at a hydroxyl site in the chitosan backbone respectively and the amino-derivatized chitosan derivatives were quaternized with methyl iodide to produce a cationic polyelectrolyte. The in vitro bile acid binding capacity of the chitosan derivatives in aqueous NaCl was measured by reversed-phase HPLC. The binding capacities of sodium glycocholate (a major bile acid) to chitosan, DEAE-chitosan, quaternized DEAE-chitosan, and cholestyramine were 1.42, 3.12, 4.06, and 2.78 mmol/g resin, respectively. With quaternized DEAE-chitosan, the bile acid binding capacity increased approximately 50% over that of cholestyramine. The bile acid binding capacity of dialkylaminoalkyl chitosan derivatives increased with the number of carbons in the alkyl groups, indicating that hydrophobic interaction is a secondary factor for the sequestration of bile acids.  (+info)

Development of bacterial contamination during production of yeast extracts. (4/1030)

Baker's yeast suspensions having bacterial populations of 10(6) and 10(8) CFU/ml were subjected to autolysis processes designed to obtain yeast extracts (YE). The bacterial contaminants added to the yeast cell suspensions were produced with spent broths obtained from a commercial yeast production plant and contained 59% cocci (Leuconostoc, Aerococcus, Lactococcus) as well as 41% bacilli (Bacillus). Autolyses were conducted at four different pH levels (4.0, 5.5, 7.0, and 8.5) and with two autolysis-promoting agents (ethyl acetate and chitosan). Processing parameters were more important than the initial bacterial population in the development of contaminating bacteria during manufacture of YE. Drops in the viable bacterial population after a 24-h autolysis were observed when pH was adjusted to 4.0 or when ethyl acetate was added. A significant interaction was found between the effects of pH and autolysis promoters on the bacterial population in YE, indicating that the activity of ethyl acetate, as opposed to that of chitosan, was not influenced by pH.  (+info)

Oligogalacturonic acid and chitosan reduce stomatal aperture by inducing the evolution of reactive oxygen species from guard cells of tomato and Commelina communis. (5/1030)

Stomatal opening provides access to inner leaf tissues for many plant pathogens, so narrowing stomatal apertures may be advantageous for plant defense. We investigated how guard cells respond to elicitors that can be generated from cell walls of plants or pathogens during pathogen infection. The effect of oligogalacturonic acid (OGA), a degradation product of the plant cell wall, and chitosan (beta-1,4-linked glucosamine), a component of the fungal cell wall, on stomatal movements were examined in leaf epidermis of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and Commelina communis L. These elicitors reduced the size of the stomatal aperture. OGA not only inhibited light-induced stomatal opening, but also accelerated stomatal closing in both species; chitosan inhibited light-induced stomatal opening in tomato epidermis. The effects of OGA and chitosan were suppressed when EGTA, catalase, or ascorbic acid was present in the medium, suggesting that Ca(2+) and H(2)O(2) mediate the elicitor-induced decrease of stomatal apertures. We show that the H(2)O(2) that is involved in this process is produced by guard cells in response to elicitors. Our results suggest that guard cells infected by pathogens may close their stomata via a pathway involving H(2)O(2) production, thus interfering with the continuous invasion of pathogens through the stomatal pores.  (+info)

Maintenance of CD34 expression during proliferation of CD34+ cord blood cells on glycosaminoglycan surfaces. (6/1030)

Recent studies have indicated that glycosaminoglycan (GAG) interactions with hematopoietic progenitors play a significant role in the regulation of hematopoiesis. However, the details of these interactions are not clear. In this study, we examined the role of soluble and immobilized GAGs in the proliferation of CD34+ cells. Chitosan, a cationic polysaccharide, was used to immobilize GAGs in ionic complex membranes. The GAGs studied were heparin, hyaluronate, and chondroitin sulfates A, B, and C. CD34-enriched umbilical cord blood cells were seeded onto tissue culture plates coated with the GAG-chitosan complex membranes. Cultures were maintained in medium supplemented with stem cell factor and interleukin 3 for up to six weeks, during which total and CD34+ cell numbers were determined by flow cytometry. Total cell number expansion ranged from 25-fold to 40-fold after six weeks. However, only heparin and chondroitin sulfate B (CSB) surfaces retained a significant CD34+ fraction. All other surfaces exhibited declines in CD34 expression, with negligible CD34+ percentages remaining after four weeks. In contrast, heparin and CSB surfaces exhibited CD34+ fractions as high as 90% after four weeks. GAG desorption studies indicated that the observed effects were partly mediated by desorbed GAGs in a concentration dependent manner. Subsequent studies showed that sustained high (160 microg/ml) heparin levels had toxic effects, while the same concentration of CSB exhibited more rapid early proliferation of CD34+ cells. In conclusion, this culture system has demonstrated the ability to produce simultaneous proliferation and CD34+ cell enrichment of a partially purified cord blood population by controlling the nature and levels of GAG moieties to which the cells are exposed. The results indicate that specific GAGs can significantly influence the growth and differentiation characteristics of cultured CD34+ cells.  (+info)

Purification, characterization, and gene analysis of a chitosanase (ChoA) from Matsuebacter chitosanotabidus 3001. (7/1030)

The extracellular chitosanase (34,000 M(r)) produced by a novel gram-negative bacterium Matsuebacter chitosanotabidus 3001 was purified. The optimal pH of this chitosanase was 4.0, and the optimal temperature was between 30 and 40 degrees C. The purified chitosanase was most active on 90% deacetylated colloidal chitosan and glycol chitosan, both of which were hydrolyzed in an endosplitting manner, but this did not hydrolyze chitin, cellulose, or their derivatives. Among potential inhibitors, the purified chitosanase was only inhibited by Ag(+). Internal amino acid sequences of the purified chitosanase were obtained. A PCR fragment corresponding to one of these amino acid sequences was then used to screen a genomic library for the entire choA gene encoding chitosanase. Sequencing of the choA gene revealed an open reading frame encoding a 391-amino-acid protein. The N-terminal amino acid sequence had an excretion signal, but the sequence did not show any significant homology to other proteins, including known chitosanases. The 80-amino-acid excretion signal of ChoA fused to green fluorescent protein was functional in Escherichia coli. Taken together, these results suggest that we have identified a novel, previously unreported chitosanase.  (+info)

Characterization of a novel, antifungal, chitin-binding protein from Streptomyces tendae Tu901 that interferes with growth polarity. (8/1030)

The afp1 gene, which encodes the antifungal protein AFP1, was cloned from nikkomycin-producing Streptomyces tendae Tu901, using a nikkomycin-negative mutant as a host and screening transformants for antifungal activity against Paecilomyces variotii in agar diffusion assays. The 384-bp afp1 gene has a low G+C content (63%) and a transcription termination structure with a poly(T) region, unusual attributes for Streptomyces genes. AFP1 was purified from culture filtrate of S. tendae carrying the afp1 gene on the multicopy plasmid pIJ699. The purified protein had a molecular mass of 9,862 Da and lacked a 42-residue N-terminal peptide deduced from the nucleotide sequence. AFP1 was stable at extreme pH values and high temperatures and toward commercial proteinases. AFP1 had limited similarity to cellulose-binding domains of microbial plant cell wall hydrolases and bound to crab shell chitin, chitosan, and cell walls of P. variotii but showed no enzyme activity. The biological activity of AFP1, which represents the first chitin-binding protein from bacteria exhibiting antifungal activity, was directed against specific ascomycetes, and synergistic interaction with the chitin synthetase inhibitor nikkomycin inhibited growth of Aspergillus species. Microscopy studies revealed that fluorescein-labeled AFP1 strongly bound to the surface of germinated conidia and to tips of growing hyphae, causing severe alterations in cell morphogenesis that gave rise to large spherical conidia and/or swollen hyphae and to atypical branching.  (+info)

Chitosan is a complex carbohydrate that is derived from the exoskeletons of crustaceans, such as shrimp and crabs. It is made up of chains of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and d-glucosamine units. Chitosan has been studied for its potential medical and health benefits, including its ability to lower cholesterol levels, promote weight loss, and help control blood sugar levels. It is also used in wound care products due to its antibacterial and absorbent properties. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and establish recommended dosages and safety guidelines.

Chitin is a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, which is a derivative of glucose. It is a structural component found in the exoskeletons of arthropods such as insects and crustaceans, as well as in the cell walls of fungi and certain algae. Chitin is similar to cellulose in structure and is one of the most abundant natural biopolymers on Earth. It has a variety of industrial and biomedical applications due to its unique properties, including biocompatibility, biodegradability, and adsorption capacity.

A drug carrier, also known as a drug delivery system or vector, is a vehicle that transports a pharmaceutical compound to a specific site in the body. The main purpose of using drug carriers is to improve the efficacy and safety of drugs by enhancing their solubility, stability, bioavailability, and targeted delivery, while minimizing unwanted side effects.

Drug carriers can be made up of various materials, including natural or synthetic polymers, lipids, inorganic nanoparticles, or even cells and viruses. They can encapsulate, adsorb, or conjugate drugs through different mechanisms, such as physical entrapment, electrostatic interaction, or covalent bonding.

Some common types of drug carriers include:

1. Liposomes: spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.
2. Polymeric nanoparticles: tiny particles made of biodegradable polymers that can protect drugs from degradation and enhance their accumulation in target tissues.
3. Dendrimers: highly branched macromolecules with a well-defined structure and size that can carry multiple drug molecules and facilitate their release.
4. Micelles: self-assembled structures formed by amphiphilic block copolymers that can solubilize hydrophobic drugs in water.
5. Inorganic nanoparticles: such as gold, silver, or iron oxide nanoparticles, that can be functionalized with drugs and targeting ligands for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
6. Cell-based carriers: living cells, such as red blood cells, stem cells, or immune cells, that can be loaded with drugs and used to deliver them to specific sites in the body.
7. Viral vectors: modified viruses that can infect cells and introduce genetic material encoding therapeutic proteins or RNA interference molecules.

The choice of drug carrier depends on various factors, such as the physicochemical properties of the drug, the route of administration, the target site, and the desired pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Therefore, selecting an appropriate drug carrier is crucial for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes and minimizing side effects.

Nanoparticles are defined in the field of medicine as tiny particles that have at least one dimension between 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). They are increasingly being used in various medical applications such as drug delivery, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Due to their small size, nanoparticles can penetrate cells, tissues, and organs more efficiently than larger particles, making them ideal for targeted drug delivery and imaging.

Nanoparticles can be made from a variety of materials including metals, polymers, lipids, and dendrimers. The physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, such as size, shape, charge, and surface chemistry, can greatly affect their behavior in biological systems and their potential medical applications.

It is important to note that the use of nanoparticles in medicine is still a relatively new field, and there are ongoing studies to better understand their safety and efficacy.

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

Hexuronic acids are a type of uronic acid that contains six carbon atoms and is commonly found in various biological tissues and polysaccharides, such as pectins, heparin, and certain glycoproteins. The most common hexuronic acids are glucuronic acid and iduronic acid, which are formed from the oxidation of the corresponding hexoses, glucose and galactose, respectively. Hexuronic acids play important roles in various biological processes, including the detoxification and excretion of xenobiotics, the formation of proteoglycans, and the regulation of cell growth and differentiation.

Glucuronic acid is a physiological important organic acid, which is a derivative of glucose. It is formed by the oxidation of the primary alcohol group of glucose to form a carboxyl group at the sixth position. Glucuronic acid plays a crucial role in the detoxification process in the body as it conjugates with toxic substances, making them water-soluble and facilitating their excretion through urine or bile. This process is known as glucuronidation. It is also a component of various polysaccharides, such as heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, which are found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues.

Biocompatible materials are non-toxic and non-reacting substances that can be used in medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems without causing harm or adverse reactions to living tissues or organs. These materials are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissues and are able to integrate with biological systems without being rejected by the body's immune system.

Biocompatible materials can be made from a variety of substances, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The specific properties of these materials, such as their mechanical strength, flexibility, and biodegradability, are carefully selected to meet the requirements of their intended medical application.

Examples of biocompatible materials include titanium used in dental implants and joint replacements, polyethylene used in artificial hips, and hydrogels used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. The use of biocompatible materials has revolutionized modern medicine by enabling the development of advanced medical technologies that can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the design, synthesis, and development of chemical entities used as medications. It involves the study of drugs' physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as their interactions with living organisms. This field also encompasses understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs in the body, which are critical factors in drug design and development. Pharmaceutical chemists often work closely with biologists, medical professionals, and engineers to develop new medications and improve existing ones.

Alginates are a type of polysaccharide derived from brown algae or produced synthetically, which have gelling and thickening properties. In medical context, they are commonly used as a component in wound dressings, dental impressions, and bowel cleansing products. The gels formed by alginates can provide a protective barrier to wounds, help maintain a moist environment, and promote healing. They can also be used to create a mold of the mouth or other body parts in dental and medical applications. In bowel cleansing, sodium alginates are often combined with sodium bicarbonate and water to form a solution that expands and stimulates bowel movements, helping to prepare the colon for procedures such as colonoscopy.

Holmium is a chemical element with the symbol Ho and atomic number 67. It's a rare earth metal that belongs to the lanthanide series. In the field of medicine, holmium is used in the form of holmium oxide (HoO) as a component in some medical devices, particularly in laser surgery.

The Holmium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet (Ho:YAG) laser is commonly used in urology for the treatment of kidney stones and various urological conditions. The holmium laser emits light at a wavelength of 2100 nanometers, which is highly absorbed by water and tissue, making it an effective tool for cutting and coagulating tissues with minimal thermal damage to surrounding areas.

It's important to note that direct medical applications of holmium as an element are not common, but rather its use in the form of compounds or medical devices is more prevalent.

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a type of infrared spectroscopy that uses the Fourier transform mathematical technique to convert the raw data obtained from an interferometer into a more interpretable spectrum. This technique allows for the simultaneous collection of a wide range of wavelengths, resulting in increased sensitivity and speed compared to traditional dispersive infrared spectroscopy.

FTIR spectroscopy measures the absorption or transmission of infrared radiation by a sample as a function of frequency, providing information about the vibrational modes of the molecules present in the sample. This can be used for identification and quantification of chemical compounds, analysis of molecular structure, and investigation of chemical interactions and reactions.

In summary, FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique that uses infrared radiation to study the vibrational properties of molecules, with increased sensitivity and speed due to the use of Fourier transform mathematical techniques and an interferometer.

Drug delivery systems (DDS) refer to techniques or technologies that are designed to improve the administration of a pharmaceutical compound in terms of its efficiency, safety, and efficacy. A DDS can modify the drug release profile, target the drug to specific cells or tissues, protect the drug from degradation, and reduce side effects.

The goal of a DDS is to optimize the bioavailability of a drug, which is the amount of the drug that reaches the systemic circulation and is available at the site of action. This can be achieved through various approaches, such as encapsulating the drug in a nanoparticle or attaching it to a biomolecule that targets specific cells or tissues.

Some examples of DDS include:

1. Controlled release systems: These systems are designed to release the drug at a controlled rate over an extended period, reducing the frequency of dosing and improving patient compliance.
2. Targeted delivery systems: These systems use biomolecules such as antibodies or ligands to target the drug to specific cells or tissues, increasing its efficacy and reducing side effects.
3. Nanoparticle-based delivery systems: These systems use nanoparticles made of polymers, lipids, or inorganic materials to encapsulate the drug and protect it from degradation, improve its solubility, and target it to specific cells or tissues.
4. Biodegradable implants: These are small devices that can be implanted under the skin or into body cavities to deliver drugs over an extended period. They can be made of biodegradable materials that gradually break down and release the drug.
5. Inhalation delivery systems: These systems use inhalers or nebulizers to deliver drugs directly to the lungs, bypassing the digestive system and improving bioavailability.

Overall, DDS play a critical role in modern pharmaceutical research and development, enabling the creation of new drugs with improved efficacy, safety, and patient compliance.

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "delayed-action preparations." However, in the context of pharmacology, it may refer to medications or treatments that have a delayed onset of action. These are designed to release the active drug slowly over an extended period, which can help to maintain a consistent level of the medication in the body and reduce the frequency of dosing.

Examples of delayed-action preparations include:

1. Extended-release (ER) or controlled-release (CR) formulations: These are designed to release the drug slowly over several hours, reducing the need for frequent dosing. Examples include extended-release tablets and capsules.
2. Transdermal patches: These deliver medication through the skin and can provide a steady rate of drug delivery over several days. Examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation or fentanyl patches for pain management.
3. Injectable depots: These are long-acting injectable formulations that slowly release the drug into the body over weeks to months. An example is the use of long-acting antipsychotic injections for the treatment of schizophrenia.
4. Implantable devices: These are small, biocompatible devices placed under the skin or within a body cavity that release a steady dose of medication over an extended period. Examples include hormonal implants for birth control or drug-eluting stents used in cardiovascular procedures.

Delayed-action preparations can improve patient compliance and quality of life by reducing dosing frequency, minimizing side effects, and maintaining consistent therapeutic levels.

Drug compounding is the process of combining, mixing, or altering ingredients to create a customized medication to meet the specific needs of an individual patient. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as when a patient has an allergy to a certain ingredient in a mass-produced medication, or when a patient requires a different dosage or formulation than what is available commercially.

Compounding requires specialized training and equipment, and compounding pharmacists must follow strict guidelines to ensure the safety and efficacy of the medications they produce. Compounded medications are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but the FDA does regulate the ingredients used in compounding and has oversight over the practices of compounding pharmacies.

It's important to note that while compounding can provide benefits for some patients, it also carries risks, such as the potential for contamination or incorrect dosing. Patients should only receive compounded medications from reputable pharmacies that follow proper compounding standards and procedures.

A nanocapsule is a type of nanoparticle that is characterized by its hollow, spherical structure. It is composed of a polymeric membrane that encapsulates an inner core or "cargo" which can be made up of various substances such as drugs, proteins, or imaging agents. The small size of nanocapsules (typically ranging from 10 to 1000 nanometers in diameter) allows them to penetrate cells and tissue more efficiently than larger particles, making them useful for targeted drug delivery and diagnostic applications.

The polymeric membrane can be designed to be biodegradable or non-biodegradable, depending on the desired application. Additionally, the surface of nanocapsules can be functionalized with various moieties such as antibodies, peptides, or small molecules to enhance their targeting capabilities and improve their stability in biological environments.

Overall, nanocapsules have great potential for use in a variety of medical applications, including cancer therapy, gene delivery, and vaccine development.

Microspheres are tiny, spherical particles that range in size from 1 to 1000 micrometers in diameter. They are made of biocompatible and biodegradable materials such as polymers, glass, or ceramics. In medical terms, microspheres have various applications, including drug delivery systems, medical imaging, and tissue engineering.

In drug delivery, microspheres can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, improving the efficacy of the treatment while reducing side effects. They can also be used for targeted drug delivery, where the microspheres are designed to accumulate in specific tissues or organs.

In medical imaging, microspheres can be labeled with radioactive isotopes or magnetic materials and used as contrast agents to enhance the visibility of tissues or organs during imaging procedures such as X-ray, CT, MRI, or PET scans.

In tissue engineering, microspheres can serve as a scaffold for cell growth and differentiation, promoting the regeneration of damaged tissues or organs. Overall, microspheres have great potential in various medical applications due to their unique properties and versatility.

Medical technology, also known as health technology, refers to the use of medical devices, medicines, vaccines, procedures, and systems for the purpose of preventing, diagnosing, or treating disease and disability. This can include a wide range of products and services, from simple devices like tongue depressors and bandages, to complex technologies like MRI machines and artificial organs.

Pharmaceutical technology, on the other hand, specifically refers to the application of engineering and scientific principles to the development, production, and control of pharmaceutical drugs and medical devices. This can include the design and construction of manufacturing facilities, the development of new drug delivery systems, and the implementation of quality control measures to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products.

Both medical technology and pharmaceutical technology play crucial roles in modern healthcare, helping to improve patient outcomes, reduce healthcare costs, and enhance the overall quality of life for individuals around the world.

... hemostatic agents are salts made from mixing chitosan with an organic acid (such as succinic or lactic acid). Chitosan ... Chitosan blends do not work against bark beetles when put on a tree's leaves or in its soil. Chitosan can be used in hydrology ... Chitosan has a long history for use as a fining agent in winemaking. Fungal source chitosan has shown an increase in settling ... Chitosan is marketed in a tablet form as a "fat binder". Although the effect of chitosan on lowering cholesterol and body ...
Moerschbacher, Bruno (26 March 2018). "13th International Conference on Chitin and Chitosan" (PDF). Chitosan. Retrieved 26 ...
"Biofabrication with Chitosan". Biomacromolecules. 6 (6): 2881-2894. doi:10.1021/bm050410l. ISSN 1525-7797. PMID 16283704. v t e ...
These properties allow for various biomedical applications of chitosan. Chitosan as drug delivery: Chitosan is used mainly with ... Chitosan as an anti-microbial agent: Chitosan is used to stop the growth of microorganisms. It performs antimicrobial functions ... Chitosan is another popular biopolymer in biomedical research.[according to whom?] Chitosan is derived from chitin, the main ... Chitosan composite for tissue engineering: Chitosan powder blended with alginate is used to form functional wound dressings. ...
Chitosan is produced commercially by deacetylation of chitin; chitosan is soluble in water, while chitin is not. Nanofibrils ... weight chitosan produced via enzymatic breakdown of chitosan". Polymer International. 68 (6): 1054-1063. doi:10.1002/pi.5795. ... "Review of the Structure of Chitosan in the Context of Other Sugar-Based Polymers", Chitosan for Biomaterials III, Cham: ... Über den enzymatischen Abbau des Chitins und Chitosans [On the enzymatic degradation of chitin and chitosan] (Thesis). Zurich, ...
The degree of this process determines the physical and chemical properties of the chitosan. Chitosan has antibacterial ... Chitosan is derived from chitin in a process known as alkaline deacetylation (substituting out certain amino acid groups). ... Chitosan's resemblance to glycosaminoglycans and internal interactions between glycoproteins and proteoglycans make it highly ... One potential disadvantage of chitosan is that it degrades in the presence of lysozymes (naturally occurring enzymes). But, ...
"Chitosan: Derivatives, Composites and Applications , Wiley". Wiley.com. "Biocomposites". Ahmed, Shakeel, ed. (September 16, ... Materials Applications of Advanced Green Materials Bionanocomposites in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Chitosan ...
Among non-covalent bonds likely ionic interactions such as interactions of mucoadhesive chitosans with the anionically charged ... Bernkop-Schnürch, A; Dünnhaupt, S (August 2012). "Chitosan-based drug delivery systems". Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 81 (3): 463-469 ...
Wang, Chung-Hao; Chang, Chia-Wei; Peng, Ching-An (2010-12-18). "Gold nanorod stabilized by thiolated chitosan as photothermal ... Polymers, such as Polyethylene glycol (PEG), Polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) coating; dietary fibers, such as chitosan; or ...
"Chitosan and thiolated chitosan: Novel therapeutic approach for preventing corneal haze after chemical injuries". Carbohydr. ... "Chitosan and thiolated chitosan: Novel therapeutic approach for preventing corneal haze after chemical injuries". Carbohydr. ... Bae, IH; Jeong, BC; Kook, MS; Kim, SH; Koh, JT (2013). "Evaluation of a thiolated chitosan scaffold for local delivery of BMP-2 ... In case of thiolated chitosan, for instance, a more than 10,000-fold increase in viscosity within a few minutes was shown. ...
Crab shell chitosan reduces postharvest Gray Mold in table grape in Fresno county. Romanazzi et al., 2009 tests table stock ... This review Pichyangkuraa, Rath; Chadchawanb, Supachitra (2015). "Biostimulant activity of chitosan in horticulture". Scientia ... "Effect of Chitosan Dissolved in Different Acids on Its Ability to Control Postharvest Gray Mold of Table Grape". Phytopathology ...
One difference between chitin and chitosan is that chitosan is soluble in acidic aqueous solutions. Chitosan is easier to ... Chitosan is a deacetylated derivative of chitin. When the acetylated composition of the copolymer is below 50% it is chitosan. ... Due to its ease of processing, chitosan is used in biomedical applications. Collagen is a structural protein, often referred to ... Chitosan is a semicrystalline "polymer of β-(1-4)-2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose". ...
pKa values of chitosans can be calculated from the dependency of electrophoretic mobility values on pH and charge density. Like ... "Chitosan-graft-polyethylenimine as a gene carrier". Journal of Controlled Release. Elsevier BV. 117 (2): 273-280. doi:10.1016/j ... "Electrophoretic Light Scattering Studies of Chitosans with Different Degrees ofN-acetylation". Biomacromolecules. American ... proteins, the size and zeta potential of chitosans can be determined through ELS. ELS has also been applied to nucleic acids ...
Chitosan hemostatic agents are salts formed when chitosan is combined with an organic acid (lactic acid, or Succinic acid). The ... Chitosan, a natural polymer that is biocompatible, non-allergenic, biodegradable, and non-toxic, was also looked at for its ... Chitosan may function as an inhibitor of bacterial and fungal development. In 2003, the United States Food and Drug ... Combat medics use Hemcon dressings, which is a dressing with Chitosan, to treat wounds because it stops the blood flow with its ...
In experiments with chitosan, it has been shown that the mucoadhesive properties of a molecule likely increase as the molecular ... Chitosan is thought to function as a permeability enhancer by binding to the mucin layer and negatively affecting tight ... Among mucoadhesive materials Chitosan often stands out due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and permeability ... Studies have also found that the modification of chitosan formulations with thiomers, which can form covalent bonds with mucus ...
Silvia Bautista-Baños; Gianfranco Romanazzi; Antonio Jiménez-Aparicio (2016). Chitosan in the Preservation of Agricultural ...
Chitosan, a frequently used example, is cationic. Since DNA is negatively charged, DNA could be attached to chitosan as a way ... Cao, Ye; Tan, Yang Fei; Wong, Yee Shan; Liew, Melvin Wen Jie; Venkatraman, Subbu (2019-06-25). "Recent Advances in Chitosan- ... Examples include chitosan, hyaluronic acid, alginic acid and dextran. ...
Lauto, A., Mawad, D., Barton, M., Gupta, A., Piller, S. C., & Hook3, J. (2010). Photochemical tissue bonding with chitosan ... Lauto, A., Mawad, D., Barton, M., Piller, S. C., & Longo, L. (2011). Chitosan Adhesive Films for Photochemical Tissue Bonding. ...
The active ingredients in the ODC cannabis line include the original chitosan ingredient at a concentration of 0.25%, as well ... "MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Colloidal Chitosan" (PDF). ODC™. "BEYOND Stoner 3x ODC™". www.aeroponics.com. Retrieved 2020-12-06. ...
Chitosan is a nontoxic polymer that has displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The mechanism of action for chitosan ... Growth inhibition and death of fungi, bacteria, and yeasts have been seen from chitosan. The antimicrobial effect of chitosan ... Although the antimicrobial effect is attributed to antifungal properties of chitosan, it may be possible that the chitosan acts ... Chitosan has been used as a coating and appears to protect fresh vegetables and fruits from fungal degradation. ...
Narayan Bhattarai; Jonathan Gunn; Miqin Zhang (30 September 2009). "Chitosan-based hydrogels for controlled, localized drug ... Bhattarai, Narayan; Gunn, Jonathan; Zhang, Miqin (January 2010). "Chitosan-based hydrogels for controlled, localized drug ... "Electrospun chitosan-based nanofibers and their cellular compatibility". Biomaterials. 26 (31): 6176-6184. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Çetinus ŞA, Öztop HN (June 2003). "Immobilization of catalase into chemically crosslinked chitosan beads". Enzyme and Microbial ...
Chitosan is not only biodegradable but also exhibits a unique ability to bind with a wide range of contaminants, including ... Among these, chitosan stands out for its exceptional properties, making it a top contender in this environmentally-conscious ... Pal, Preeti; Pal, Anjali; Nakashima, Kazunori; Yadav, Brijesh Kumar (2021-03-01). "Applications of chitosan in environmental ... "Oil-Water Emulsion Flocculation through Chitosan Desolubilization Driven by pH Variation". ACS Omega. 8 (23): 20708-20713. doi: ...
Implants composed of chitosan and hydroxyapatite take advantage of chitosan's biocompatibility and its ability to be molded ... The composite formed by carbon nanotubes and chitosan greatly improves the toughness of chitosan. Nanostructured artificial ... Chitosan can also be used with carbon nanotubes, which have a high Young's modulus (1.0-1.8 TPa), tensile strength (30-200 GPa ... Chitosan by itself can be easily modified into complex shapes that include porous structures, making it suitable for cell ...
Other natural biomaterials utilized include agarose and chitosan. Synthetic biomaterials include poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) ...
ISBN 978-81-315-0104-7.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Ifuku, S. (2014). "Chitin and chitosan ...
Song S, Zhou F, Nordquist RE, Carubelli R, Liu H, Chen WR (June 2009). "Glycated chitosan as a new non-toxic immunological ... Chen WR, Korbelik M, Bartels KE, Liu H, Sun J, Nordquist RE (2005). "Enhancement of laser cancer treatment by a chitosan- ...
"Novel hydrophilic chitosan-polyethylene oxide nanoparticles as protein carriers". Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 63 (1): ...
"Nanostructured Hollow Tubes Based on Chitosan and Alginate Multilayers". Advanced Healthcare Materials. 3 (3): 433-440. doi: ...
Common synthetic polymeric nanoparticles include polyacrylamide, polyacrylate, and chitosan. Drug molecules can be incorporated ...
Chitosan hemostatic agents are salts made from mixing chitosan with an organic acid (such as succinic or lactic acid). Chitosan ... Chitosan blends do not work against bark beetles when put on a trees leaves or in its soil. Chitosan can be used in hydrology ... Chitosan has a long history for use as a fining agent in winemaking. Fungal source chitosan has shown an increase in settling ... Chitosan is marketed in a tablet form as a "fat binder". Although the effect of chitosan on lowering cholesterol and body ...
PRNewswire/ -- Global Chitosan Market 2016 Research Report initially provides a basic overview of the industry that covers ... Table Global Chitosan Production Share by Type (2011-2021). Figure Production Market Share of Chitosan by Type (2011-2021). ... Figure Global Chitosan Production Growth Rate by Type (2011-2021). Table Global Chitosan Revenue by Type (2011-2021). Table ... Figure Southeast Asia Chitosan Production, Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021). Table Global Chitosan Production by Type (2011- ...
Serum HDL cholesterol increased from 51 to 56 mg/dL (p , 0.05) during chitosan treatment, and this was reversed when chitosan ... chitosan had no significant effect on fat excretion (1.36 ± 0.45 g/day versus 0.27 ± 1.02 g/day). The chitosan recipients noted ... in the chitosan group. No serious adverse effects were reported for either group. A poststudy analysis of the chitosan ... was designed to compare the effect of chitosan with the usual diet and chitosan with a hypocaloric diet on weight and ...
The first part of this review concerns the principal uses of chitosan as an excipient in oral formulations (particularly as a ... The aim of this review is to give an insight into the many potential applications of chitosan as a pharmaceutical drug carrier ... Chitosan: a unique polysaccharide for drug delivery Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 1998 Nov;24(11):979-93. doi: 10.3109/03639049809089942 ... The use of chitosan to manufacture sustained-release systems deliverable by other routes (nasal, ophthalmic, transdermal, and ...
Chitosan has an article 13.1 general function EU nutrition and health claims regulation (NHCR) authorisation stating: "Chitosan ... Norwegians enter chitosan space. By Will Chu 05-Apr-2016. - Last updated on 06-Apr-2016 at 10:23. GMT ... Norwegians set for chitosan market launch this year after securing 6000-tonne shrimp shell supply. © iStock. Related tags ... Its branded chitosan ingredient, Systolite, will be launched on the US market this year with plans to launch onto the European ...
Xu, H. and Simon Jr., C. (2005), Fast Setting Calcium Phosphate-Chitosan Scaffold: Mechanical Properties and Biocompatibility, ... https://www.nist.gov/publications/fast-setting-calcium-phosphate-chitosan-scaffold-mechanical-properties-and ...
Two types of mucoadhesive liposomes, namely the chitosan-coated liposomes and chitosan-containing liposomes, where chitosan is ... The proof of chitosan being both surface-available as well as embedded into the liposomes in the chitosan-containing liposomes ... However, intake of chitosan results in renal tissue accumulation of chitosan and promotes an increase in calcium excretion. On ... However, intake of chitosan results in renal tissue accumulation of chitosan and promotes an increase in calcium excretion. On ...
... novel carbohydrate-based nanoconjugates combining chemically modified chitosan with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) were ... a) Glycol chitosan as-supplied. (b) Glycol chitosan in solution (pH = 7.4 ± 0.2). (c) Chitosan in solution (pH = 6.0 ± 0.2). ... The FTIR spectra of glycol chitosan as supplied and of glycol chitosan (pH = 7.4 ± 0.2) and chitosan (pH = 6.0 ± 0.2) after ... FTIR spectra of CdS-glycol chitosan QDs. (a) Glycol chitosan and (b) CdS_G-CHI_7.4. Vibrational spectrum region: (A) 3,750 to ...
Shop for Natural Balance Chitosan (120 Capsules) at Kroger. Find quality health products to add to your Shopping List or order ... Unrefined chitosan has been used to soak up oil spills. More purified chitosan can be taken as a supplement. LipoSan Ultra ... LipoSan Ultra brand Chitosan is a special, denser form of chitosan that becomes soluble faster and has superior fat-binding ... Chitosan itself is a fiber derived from the chitin in shells of shrimp, lobster, and other shellfish. ...
Basic information on chitosans nutritional values, and its medical uses. ... In fact, chitosan is much like the plant fiber, which is not easily digested by the human body. If ingested orally, chitosan ... In addition, chitosan is also a brilliant antacid.. Uses. Studies have found that chitosan has exceptional properties that ... It is not advisable to use chitosan for over a fortnight at a stretch. The trouble with using chitosan us that while it cleanse ...
Global Medical Grade Chitosan Market Report 2022 comes with the extensive industry analysis by Introspective M ... Animal Origin Chitosan. Plant Based Chitosan. By Application, Medical Grade Chitosan market has been segmented into:. Wound ... Animal Origin Chitosan. Plant Based Chitosan. By Application, Medical Grade Chitosan market has been segmented into:. Wound ... Global Medical Grade Chitosan Market Research Report 2023. Abstract Global Medical Grade Chitosan Market Overview:. Global ...
... can be found online at Adventures in Homebrewing along with other wine making ingredients, additives, equipment ... Chitosan is technically a kind of sugar, related to a natural shell-like substance called chitin. Use after fermentation is ...
Obesity, defined as an increase in body weight at least 15% above what would be normal for the size of the pet, is a medical problem. Proper diet and exercise can help significantly. Any program must begin with a veterinary visit to make sure that other problems that contribute to weight gain, such as […]. ...
Triple-function chitosan-based film for pork and shrimp packaging. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... AnimalsAnthocyaninsAnti-Bacterial AgentsChitosanFood PackagingHydrogen-Ion ConcentrationPork MeatRed MeatSwineSeafood ... Triple-function chitosan-based film for pork and shrimp packaging.. Food Chem. 2023 Aug 15; 417:135903.FC ... Triple-function Chitosan-based Film for Pork and Shrimp Packaging. Food Chem. 2023 Aug 15;417:135903. PubMed PMID: 36924724. ...
The nanofibers from chitin and chitosan with appealing physical and biological features have attracted intense attention due to ... we have witnessed significant progress in chitosan and chitin based nanostructured materials. ... Emerging chitin and chitosan nanofibrous materials for biomedical applications Fuyuan Ding,a Hongbing Deng,a Yumin Du,a Xiaowen ... Emerging chitin and chitosan nanofibrous materials for biomedical applications F. Ding, H. Deng, Y. Du, X. Shi and Q. Wang, ...
The world chitin and chitosan market is projected to exceed 118,000 metric tons by 2018, according to a new report from Global ... Chitin and chitosan are natural biopolymers, wherein chitin is readily found in nature and chitosan is a deacetylated chitin ... The world chitin and chitosan market is projected to exceed 118,000 metric tons by 2018, according to a new report from Global ... Given the lack of awareness with respect to prospective applications of chitin and chitosan and absence of aggressive ...
US-4275194-A chemical patent summary.
Investigating Cu2+ ion adsorption using locally synthesized chitosan with different degrees of deacetylation. Equilibrium ... Chitosan synthesized locally with a degree of deacetylation 71% and chitosan with a degree of deacetylation 68% from Sigma ... Beppu, M.M., Arruda, E.J., Vieira, R.S. and Santos, N.N. (2004) Adsorption of Cu(II) on Porous Chitosan Membranes ... Sag, Y. and Aktay, Y. (2002) A Comparative Study for the Sorption of Cu(II) Ions by Chitin and Chitosan: Application of ...
... chitosan, Chitosan nanoparticles, Coagulation, Controlled drug delivery, cytokine, Cytokines, dielectric constant, Dispersing ... on the hemocompatibility of chitosan. Blood compatibility of chitosan nanoparticles prepared by ionotropic gelation with ... Thus, chitosan nanoparticles prepared in lactic acid and dispersed in saline may be an ideal nanocarrier for parenteral ... Abstract : The increasing interest in using chitosan nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery is hampered by its blood ...
Chitosan Based Products , Spokesperson for Organisan Corporation, Tom Wood Shares How They are Using Chitosan Products to Help ... Chitosan for Plants , Chitosan in Agriculture , Chitosan in Plants , Chitosan in Plant Protection , Chitosan in Crop Plants , ... Organisan Corporation , Tom Wood , Chitosan Agriculture Products , Chitosan Products in Agriculture , Chitosan Based Products ... Chitosan Plant Growth , Chitosan Crop Protection , Chitosan Crop Production , Organisan Corporation Press Releases, News ...
Biologically Active Chitosan Systems for Regenerative Engineering. Author(s): Tao Jiang, Sangamesh G. Kumbar, Lakshmi S. Nair ... Keywords: Advanced materials, bioactive, biocompatibility, biodegradability, biomaterials, biomolecules, chitosan, drug ... This review highlights some of the biologically active chitosan systems for regenerative engineering and the associated ... Biologically Active Chitosan Systems for Regenerative Engineering, Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry (2015) 7: 385. https://doi. ...
Chitosan is non-polluting food-based anionic and biodegradable biopolymer that are environmentally friendly useful in ... This chapter presents the study on pollutant removal in palm oil mill effluent using chitosan as natural coagulant. Up until ... 4.1 Performance of chitosan in POME treatment. The optimum condition for coagulation treatment with chitosan as a coagulant is ... Chitosan is a biopolymer coagulant which is non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable and environmental friendly [47]. Chitosan is a ...
Chitosan: the basis of a new generation of anti-fungal and natural sausage casings and cheese coatings.. ...
is a privately held Canadian company, founded at the end of the 19th century, specializing in the development, production, and marketing of yeasts and bacteria ...
Chitosan is a natural ingredient that can be found in many weight management supplements, but is especially popular in fat ... Chitosan is a Fat Binder. Chitosan is a marine extract that comes from the shells of crabs. Chitosans are usually used as an ... How Does Chitosan Help Weight Loss. While many people assume that chitosan is a miracle ingredient, the truth is that its not ... How Chitosan Works. Fat binding products that contain chitosan are usually consumed around half an hour before eating any meal ...
Dual amplification strategy of highly sensitive thrombin amperometric aptasensor based on chitosan-Au nanocomposites. Download ... Aptamers, NucleotideBiosensing TechniquesChitosanElectrochemical TechniquesGoldHorseradish PeroxidaseMetal Nanoparticles ... By introducing chitosan-gold nanoparticles and horseradish peroxidase (CS-AuNPs-HRP) conjugates to the sensitive union, the ... By introducing chitosan-gold nanoparticles and horseradish peroxidase (CS-AuNPs-HRP) conjugates to the sensitive union, the ...
Manufacturing Dried Anchovy Fish, Chitin Flakes, Chitosan Powder, and other products have progressed. We strive for great ...
SKU: 5-03911 Category: Other Functionalized Glycans Tag: 1 Synonym / Description : water soluble chitosan derivativeProperties ... Be the first to review "1-Deoxygalactit-1-yl chitosan" Cancel reply. Your rating *. Rate…. Perfect. Good. Average. Not that bad ...
... Journal of Applied Sciences, 10: 2705-2708. DOI: ... This study describes the use of carbon nanotubes with attached Chitosan for lead removal from aqueous solution. The CNTs were ... Immobilization of Chitosan onto Carbon Nanotubes for Lead Removal from Water table, th, td { border: 0px solid #ececec; border- ... functionalized with chitosan via covalent link. The immobilization was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy ...
  • Chitosan is produced commercially by deacetylation of chitin, which is the structural element in the exoskeleton of crustaceans (such as crabs and shrimp) and cell walls of fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • A common method for obtaining chitosan is the deacetylation of chitin using sodium hydroxide in excess as a reagent and water as a solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Nanofibrils have been made using chitin and chitosan. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Degraded molecules of chitin/chitosan exist in soil and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, current overviews in recent publications involving chitin and chitosan research advances appear lacking. (mdpi.com)
  • With the opening of this Special Issue, Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan in Marine Drugs , we plan to produce a strong, very exciting issue that will encompass breakthroughs in high value, scientific and industrial chitin and chitosan research. (mdpi.com)
  • Chitosan itself is a fiber derived from the chitin in shells of shrimp, lobster, and other shellfish. (kroger.com)
  • Chitosan is technically a kind of sugar, related to a natural shell-like substance called chitin. (homebrewing.org)
  • Over the past several decades, we have witnessed significant progress in chitosan and chitin based nanostructured materials. (rsc.org)
  • The nanofibers from chitin and chitosan with appealing physical and biological features have attracted intense attention due to their excellent biological properties related to biodegradability, biocompatibility, antibacterial activity, low immunogenicity and wound healing capacity. (rsc.org)
  • This review article discusses the most recent progress in the preparation and application of chitin and chitosan based nanofibrous materials in biomedical fields. (rsc.org)
  • The world chitin and chitosan market is projected to exceed 118,000 metric tons by 2018, according to a new report from Global Industry Analysts, Inc. (GIA), San Jose, CA. Penetration into new fields represents the key growth driver. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • Chitin and chitosan are natural biopolymers, wherein chitin is readily found in nature and chitosan is a deacetylated chitin derivative. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • Given the lack of awareness with respect to prospective applications of chitin and chitosan and absence of aggressive commercialization initiatives by industry participants, opportunities for the biopolymers remain significant in the long run. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • Majeti, N.V. and Kumar, R. (2000) A Review of Chitin and Chitosan Applications. (scirp.org)
  • Sag, Y. and Aktay, Y. (2002) A Comparative Study for the Sorption of Cu(II) Ions by Chitin and Chitosan: Application of Equilibrium and Mass Transfer Models. (scirp.org)
  • In this study, chitosan was synthesised from chitin and used to modify polyethersulphone (PES) membrane prepared by the phase inversion method. (scielo.org.za)
  • HMC + is an innovative developer and producer of pure biopolymers and nanoparticles based on chitin and chitosan. (htgf.de)
  • Heppe Medical Chitosan GmbH produces pure chitin, chitosan und derivates for the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry under GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) conditions. (htgf.de)
  • With this technology we are able to produce narrow specified and reproducible chitin und chitosan at the highest level. (htgf.de)
  • In addition, HMC + is an innovative partner for custom research and manufacturing as well as for development project based on chitin and chitosan. (htgf.de)
  • Marine-sourced chitosan is produced from chitin, which is part of the shells of crustaceans including shrimp, crabs, and lobsters. (naturalbalance.com)
  • In this context, chitosan is attracting more and more attention as a biodegradable natural polysaccharide derived from chitin through deacetylation. (sisef.it)
  • Chitosan is produced by deacetylation of chitin, which is the structural element in the exoskeleton of crustaceans (such as crabs and shrimp) and cell walls of fungi. (creativepegworks.com)
  • Heppe medical chitosan gmbh offers a wide range of products which includes chitin. (cphi-online.com)
  • Varma, J.A., Deshpande, S. and Kennedy, J. (2004) Metal Complexation by Chitosan and Its Derivatives: A Review. (scirp.org)
  • Heppe Medical Chitosan GmbH develops, produces and distributes a unique spectrum- both in quality and variety - of more than 100 different chitins, chitosans and its derivatives for the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry according to GMP guidelines. (htgf.de)
  • We are specialised in manufacturing of chitosan and chitosan derivatives for Med-Tech- and pharmaceutical industry. (cphi-online.com)
  • We offer GMP compliant chitosans and derivatives which are produced in our facility. (cphi-online.com)
  • Chitosan synthesized locally with a degree of deacetylation 71% and chitosan with a degree of deacetylation 68% from Sigma Aldrich were used to investigate adsorption of Cu 2+ ion in aqueous solution. (scirp.org)
  • The degree of deacetylation (%DD) can be determined by NMR spectroscopy from 60 to 100%.Chitosan products are characterized by either its MW or its viscosity. The amino group in chitosan has a p K a  value of ~6.5. (creativepegworks.com)
  • The latest investment will be used by Heppe Medical Chitosan GmbH (HMC + ) to enlarge the marketing and sales force worldwide. (htgf.de)
  • Heppe Medical Chitosan GmbH (HMC+) is an innovative business with proprietary know how in manufacturing, processing and applying chitosans. (cphi-online.com)
  • Heppe Medical Chitosan GmbH offers a wide range of products which includes carboxymethylchitosan. (cphi-online.com)
  • Chitosan /ˈkaɪtəsæn/ is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1→4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit). (wikipedia.org)
  • This makes chitosan water-soluble and a bioadhesive which readily binds to negatively charged surfaces such as mucosal membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, chitosan is reasonably water-soluble only under acidic conditions, and it is practically insoluble at neutral and alkaline pH (at pH higher than its pKa ∼ 6.5), which significantly restricts its applications in medicine and biology at physiological pH (approximately 7.4). (springer.com)
  • The free amine groups on chitosan chains can make crosslinked polymeric networks with dicarboxylic acids to improve chitosan's mechanical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FTIR studies revealed that the greater sorption of heavy metal was attributed to the large number of primary amine groups available on the surfaces of the chitosan and the abundant carboxyl groups on chitosan. (scirp.org)
  • As a result of this unique quality of chitosan, authorities in the USA have recently granted permission to use it in bandages and other homostatic agents. (herbs2000.com)
  • The quality of chitosan depends on the conditions of the chemical extraction process. (banglajol.info)
  • Crini, G. (2008) Application of Chitosan, a Natural Aminopolysaccharide, for Dye Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption Processes Using Batch Studies: A Review of Recent Literature. (scirp.org)
  • This study investigated the simultaneous application of chitosan and metal cations as dual-conditioners to improve sludge dewaterability. (iwaponline.com)
  • The agricultural and horticultural uses for chitosan, primarily for plant defense and yield increase, are based on how this glucosamine polymer influences the biochemistry and molecular biology of the plant cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present study aimed to investigate the biofilm inhibitory effect of methacrylated chitosan, an antimicrobial polymer, covalently incorporated into the polymeric network of an experimental dental adhesive. (niom.no)
  • The cationic polymer chitosan is most suitable for applications in the above mentioned fields. (htgf.de)
  • Metronidazole microcapsules with a coat consisting of alginate and the natural cationic polymer, chitosan were formulated by using tripolyphosphate cross-linking method and were investigated with a view to develop mucoadhesive microcapsules. (banglajol.info)
  • Glycol chitosan (G-CHI) was used as the capping ligand aiming to improve the water solubility of the nanoconjugates to produce stable and biocompatible colloidal systems. (springer.com)
  • The results clearly demonstrated that the glycol chitosan derivative was remarkably effective at nucleating and stabilising semiconductor CdS quantum dots in aqueous suspensions under acidic, neutral, and alkaline media with an average size of approximately 2.5 nm and a fluorescent activity in the visible range of the spectra. (springer.com)
  • Nevertheless, no study was found in the consulted literature addressing the direct synthesis of QDs using glycol chitosan as capping ligands by aqueous colloidal chemistry. (springer.com)
  • Thus, in this study, novel carbohydrate-based nanoconjugates combining glycol chitosan with CdS semiconductor QDs were designed and synthesised via a single-step aqueous process at room temperature. (springer.com)
  • Specifically, glycol-chitosan (GC) surface moieties were added to the Au NPs using a one-pot synthesis method where glycol-chitosan acts as both a stabilizer and a reducing agent. (confex.com)
  • Particle size distributions, stability, and structure of the 'as synthesized' Au NPs and glycol-chitosan modified Au NPs (GC-Au) were measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). (confex.com)
  • By introducing chitosan-gold nanoparticles and horseradish peroxidase (CS-AuNPs-HRP) conjugates to the sensitive union, the thrombin detection signal was dual amplified. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • [ 11 ] Participants received either three 500-mg capsules of rapidly dissolving chitosan (LipoSan Ultra, Vanson Inc.) or placebo twice daily. (medscape.com)
  • LipoSan Ultra brand Chitosan is a special, denser form of chitosan that becomes soluble faster and has superior fat-binding properties. (kroger.com)
  • LipoSan Ultra Chitosan has bee clinically researched. (kroger.com)
  • Chitosan has a number of commercial and possible biomedical uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purified quantities of chitosans are available for biomedical applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chitosan is non-polluting food-based anionic and biodegradable biopolymer that are environmentally friendly useful in wastewater treatment. (intechopen.com)
  • The rejection of cations and sulphate ions significantly improved for chitosan-modified membranes due to the creation of adsorptive and/or repulsive sites on the chitosan biopolymer as a result of amine group protonation. (scielo.org.za)
  • This study further investigates the potential of dual-conditioning of sludge using the non-toxic and biodegradable biopolymer chitosan to replace synthetic polymers, together with some cheaper metal cations as an economical and eco-friendly dewatering alternative. (iwaponline.com)
  • Wan, M.W., Kan, C.C., Rogel, B.D. and Dalida, M.L.P. (2010) Adsorption of Copper (II) and Lead (II) Ions from Aqueous Solution on Chitosan-Coated Sand. (scirp.org)
  • This study describes the use of carbon nanotubes with attached Chitosan for lead removal from aqueous solution. (scialert.net)
  • Krajewska, B. (2001) Diffusion of Metal Ions through Gel Chitosan Membranes. (scirp.org)
  • Zeng, X.F. and Ruckenstein, E. (1996) Supported Chitosan-Dye Affinity Membranes and Their Protein Adsorption. (scirp.org)
  • PES membrane was blended with various concentrations of chitosan to produce PES/0.5 wt% chitosan, PES/0.75 wt% chitosan and PES/1 wt% chitosan membranes. (scielo.org.za)
  • The results reveal that chitosan has potential to improve performance of PES membranes as a hydrophilic agent during AMD treatment. (scielo.org.za)
  • Marealis has access to 6000 tonnes of shrimp shells a year - enough raw material for more than 200 million daily doses of chitosan. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Chitosan that has been purified from shrimp shells is generally used in coarse homostatic products in Celox in England as well as chitosan dressings prepared by HemCon Medical Technologies Inc. of Portland in the USA. (herbs2000.com)
  • Chitosan is a marine extract that comes from the shells of crabs. (labmeeting.com)
  • Due to its excellent properties, such as biocompatibility and its film and fibre forming abilities, chitosan is extremely versatile. (htgf.de)
  • Although there is compromise in the mechanical property after the LBL assembly, it is anticipated its bioaffinity and biocompatibility will increase with the incoporation of chitosan and HA. (eurekamag.com)
  • Chitosan/collagen-based hydrogels were studied for their promising role in skin tissue engineering applications due to their unique biocompatibility and biodegradation properties. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Significantly, chitosan is hypo- allergenic in nature and possesses normal anti-bacterial features that further promote its use as field bandages. (herbs2000.com)
  • The global impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are already starting to be felt, and will significantly affect the Medical Grade Chitosan market in 2020. (bharatbook.com)
  • An experimental dental adhesive incorporated with methacrylated chitosan significantly reduced biofilm formation compared to control, and it may be useful in prevention of secondary caries development. (niom.no)
  • Biologically Active Chitosan Systems for Regenerative Engineering, Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry (2015) 7: 385. (benthamscience.com)
  • Thus, it is essential to understand the chemistry of self-assembled chitosan-DNA complexation and their structural and functional properties, enabling the formation of an effective non-viral gene delivery system. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Chitosan microcapsules displayed a limited amount of swelling which is supposed to be related to the degree of cross-linking with tripolyphosphate. (banglajol.info)
  • Chitosan oligosaccharide addition affects current-year shoot of post-transplant Buddhist pine (Podocarpus macrophyllus) seedlings under contrasting photoperiods. (sisef.it)
  • Chitosan Oligomer is high purity low molecular weight Chitosan oligosaccharide. (creativepegworks.com)
  • In agriculture, chitosan is typically used as a natural seed treatment and plant growth enhancer, and as an ecologically friendly biopesticide substance that boosts the innate ability of plants to defend themselves against fungal infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normally chitosan is used as an enhancer for plant growth and also as a material that enhances the ability of the plants to protect them against all kinds of fungal infections. (herbs2000.com)
  • By varying pH, complexation time, concentration, and temperature, the stability of the mucin-chitosan Au nanoparticle complexes was evaluated. (confex.com)
  • citation needed] The amino group in chitosan has a pKb value of ~6.5, which leads to significant protonation in neutral solution, increasing with increased acidity (decreased pH) and the %DA-value. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three structurally closed amino acids (AA) (arginine, alanine and phenylalanine) were loaded into chitosan/collagen hydrogels (ACC hydrogels) to study their effect on angiogenesis. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Chitosan is comprised of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-glucose (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) and 2-amino-2-deoxy-β-D-glucan (D-glucosamine) attached via β-(1, 4) linkages. (sisef.it)
  • Global Medical Grade Chitosan Market Report 2022 comes with the extensive industry analysis by Introspective Market Research with development components, patterns, flows and sizes. (bharatbook.com)
  • The report also calculates present and past market values to forecast potential market management through the forecast period between 2022-2028.This research study of Medical Grade Chitosan involved the extensive usage of both primary and secondary data sources. (bharatbook.com)
  • Magnetic amidoximated nanocomposites based on a combination of chitosan and magnetic laponite RD were prepared and examined for the removal of Cu$^{2+}$ from aqueous solutions. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • In order to prepare magnetic amidoximated nanocomposites, acrylonitrile was grafted to chitosan in the presence of magnetic laponite RD. Then the nitrile pendants on magnetic chitosan-g-polyacrylonitrile/laponite RD (mChtioPANLap) were converted to amidoxime groups. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • On average, the molecular weight of commercially produced chitosan is 3800-20,000 daltons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methacrylated chitosan was synthesized by reacting low molecular weight chitosan with methacryloyl chloride under acidic conditions. (niom.no)
  • This study proposed a layer-by-layer technique on the hard CNCs/hydroxyapatite (HAP) matrix using biodegradable and biocompatible chitosan and hyaluronic acid (HA). (eurekamag.com)
  • Studies have found that chitosan has exceptional properties that permit to clot blood fast. (herbs2000.com)
  • The effect of incorporating methacrylated chitosan on the adhesive's bonding properties was investigated using the notched-edge shear bond strength test (ISO 29022:2013). (niom.no)
  • A film simultaneously with colorimetric, fluorescent and active functions was engineered using chitosan (CS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the film matrix and curcumin-β-cyclodextrin complex (Cur-β-CD) as the indicator for freshness monitoring and maintaining of pork and shrimp. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Triple-function chitosan-based film for pork and shrimp packaging. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Chitosan has been produced from shrimp waste by chemical method involving demineralization, deproteinization and deacetylation. (banglajol.info)
  • Chitosans include a wide group of molecules with a specific reactive amine group able to bind negatively charged molecules, e.g. , proteins ( [6] ). (sisef.it)
  • The qualitative analysis for blood vessels showed the significant difference between control, chitosan/collagen alanine loaded hydrogel (CH-Ala), chitosan/collagen phenylalanine loaded hydrogel (CH-Phe) and chitosan/collagen arginine loaded hydrogel (CH-Arg) materials. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Here, we describe the methods to produce a dual biomaterial , oral DNA delivery system composed of chitosan (CS) and zein (ZN). (bvsalud.org)
  • Chitosan applications for plants and crops are regulated in the USA by the EPA, and the USDA National Organic Program regulates its use on organic certified farms and crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Global Chitosan Market 2016 Research Report initially provides a basic overview of the industry that covers definition, applications and manufacturing technology, post which the report explores into the international players in the market. (prnewswire.com)
  • The aim of this review is to give an insight into the many potential applications of chitosan as a pharmaceutical drug carrier. (nih.gov)
  • Apart from the more traditional applications such as cosmetics and water treatment, applications such as agrochemicals are poised to drive future consumption of chitosan. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • IMPROVE your medical applications with CHITOSAN! (cphi-online.com)
  • The trouble with using chitosan us that while it cleanse the fat out of our body, it can also divest the system of vitamins that are soluble in fats. (herbs2000.com)
  • If you take chitosan, it is necessary that you complement your diet with fat-soluble vitamins and the essential fatty acids . (herbs2000.com)
  • Other studies conducted on the substance have established that chitosan can remarkably lower total blood cholesterol levels , while increasing the levels of HDL, which is considered to be 'good' cholesterol as it helps in protecting against heart disease . (herbs2000.com)
  • EPA-approved, biodegradable chitosan products are allowed for use outdoors and indoors on plants and crops grown commercially and by consumers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chitosan is approved for both outdoor and indoor use on numerous plants that are grown commercially as well as by those cultivated by the consumers. (herbs2000.com)
  • [ 14 ] Patients received two tablets of chitosan (amount unspecified) or placebo twice daily for four weeks. (medscape.com)
  • A poststudy analysis of the chitosan preparation used showed that the capsules contained only 42% of the labeled amount of chitosan. (medscape.com)
  • A fixed bed column packed with chitosan-sodium tripolyphosphate (CTPP) beads was used to remove aqueous Fe (III) ions. (iwaponline.com)
  • The natural biocontrol ability of chitosan should not be confused with the effects of fertilizers or pesticides upon plants or the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biocontrol mode of action of chitosan elicits natural innate defense responses within plant to resist insects, pathogens, and soil-borne diseases when applied to foliage or the soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • This chapter presents the study on pollutant removal in palm oil mill effluent using chitosan as natural coagulant. (intechopen.com)
  • Chitosan: the basis of a new generation of anti-fungal and natural sausage casings and cheese coatings. (europa.eu)
  • Chitosan is a natural ingredient that can be found in many weight management supplements, but is especially popular in fat binding products and is usually deemed to be powerful enough to use as a standalone ingredient. (labmeeting.com)
  • This study aimed to develop chitosan films incorporating natural antioxidants from peanut skin (EPS) and pink pepper residue (EPP) extracts, as well as to evaluate their effects on lipid oxidation, pH, color, and microbial counts of a restructured chicken product. (edu.pe)
  • Twelve healthy volunteers (within 20% of their ideal body weight) participated in this 14-day open-label crossover study consisting of a one-week run-in period, one week of treatment with orlistat 120 mg three times daily, and one week of treatment with chitosan 445 mg three times daily. (medscape.com)
  • In this study, novel carbohydrate-based nanoconjugates combining chemically modified chitosan with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) were designed and synthesised via single-step aqueous route at room temperature. (springer.com)
  • For instance, a study conducted recently demonstrated that when a group of mice were fed on an identified carcinogen, the mice ingesting a chitosan accompanying diet had lesser pre-cancerous laceration of the colon than the mice that were not provided with chitosan. (herbs2000.com)
  • Value chain analysis offers in depth information about value addition at each stage.The study includes drivers and restraints for Medical Grade Chitosan Market along with their impact on demand during the forecast period. (bharatbook.com)
  • Our study Medical Grade Chitosan Market helps user to make precise decision in order to expand their market presence and increase market share. (bharatbook.com)
  • Competitive analysis is the study of strength and weakness, market investment, market share, market sales volume, market trends of major players in the market.The Medical Grade Chitosan market study focused on including all the primary level, secondary level and tertiary level competitors in the report. (bharatbook.com)
  • The results of this study represent a further step towards the characterisation of chitosan-DNA PECs by the use of multi-detection AF4 as an important tool to fractionate and infer aspects of their morphology. (whiterose.ac.uk)