A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
An exocellulase with specificity for 1,3-beta-D-glucasidic linkages. It catalyzes hydrolysis of beta-D-glucose units from the non-reducing ends of 1,3-beta-D-glucans, releasing GLUCOSE.
A genus of fleshy shelf basidiomycetous fungi, family Schizophyllaceae, order POLYPORALES, growing on woody substrata. It is pathogenic in humans.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A plant genus best known for edible underground tubers. Yam may also refer to a moist variety of sweet potato, IPOMOEA BATATAS.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
The consumption of animal flesh.
A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. The species are diverse in appearance and habitat; most have swollen leaf and stem joints.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of six (6) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)
A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a short replication cycle. The genera include: SIMPLEXVIRUS; VARICELLOVIRUS; MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES; and ILTOVIRUS.
A METHYLXANTHINE derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A filarial nematode parasite of mammalian blood with the vector being a tick or small fly.
Infections with nematodes of the genus DIPETALONEMA.
A common genus of tropical filarial worms parasitic in humans and monkeys.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
A tropical infectious disease found mainly in Africa that is caused by the filarial parasite ACANTHOCHEILONEMA. Symptoms include skin rashes, abdominal, chest, muscle, and joint pains, neurologic disorders, skin lumps, and elevated levels of white blood cells. The parasite is transmitted through the bite of small flies.
A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella bacillispora.
Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria. This organism shows remarkable pathobiologic properties: it adheres to cell surfaces, deeply penetrates into the cell, and strongly adsorbs human red blood cells and human CD4+ lymphocytes and monocytes. M. penetrans was first isolated from the urogenital tract of patients with AIDS and high frequencies of antibodies to it are seen in HIV-infected patients.
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.

Role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase gene, ech42, in mycoparasitism. (1/876)

The role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase (Ech42) in mycoparasitism was studied by genetically manipulating the gene that encodes Ech42, ech42. We constructed several transgenic T. harzianum strains carrying multiple copies of ech42 and the corresponding gene disruptants. The level of extracellular endochitinase activity when T. harzianum was grown under inducing conditions increased up to 42-fold in multicopy strains as compared with the wild type, whereas gene disruptants exhibited practically no activity. The densities of chitin labeling of Rhizoctonia solani cell walls, after interactions with gene disruptants were not statistically significantly different than the density of chitin labeling after interactions with the wild type. Finally, no major differences in the efficacies of the strains generated as biocontrol agents against R. solani or Sclerotium rolfsii were observed in greenhouse experiments.  (+info)

Granulomatous inflammatory response to recombinant filarial proteins of Brugia species. (2/876)

The lymphatic inflammatory response in Brugia-infected jirds peaks early during primary infections and then decreases in severity as judged by the numbers of lymph thrombi present within these vessels. Antigen-specific hypersensitivity reactions in these animals was measured by a pulmonary granulomatous inflammatory response (PGRN) induced by somatic adult worm antigen (SAWA)-coated beads, and by cellular proliferative responses of renal lymph node cells. The kinetics of these responses temporally correspond to lymphatic lesion formation. The importance of any single antigen to the induction of this inflammatory response has not been elucidated. In this study, the PGRN was used to measure the cellular immune response to four recombinant filarial proteins during the course of a primary B. pahangi infection. These proteins were BpL4, glycoprotein (glutathione peroxidase) gp29, heat shock protein (hsp) 70, and filarial chitinase. All were fusion proteins of maltose-binding protein (MBP). Control beads included those coated with diethanolamine (DEA), SAWA, or MBP. The measurements of PRGN were made at 14, 28, 56, and > 150 days postinfection (PI) in infected jirds, in jirds sensitized with SAWA, and in uninfected jirds. The secretory homolog of glutathione peroxidase gp29 was the only recombinant protein tested that induced a significantly greater PGRN (P < 0.05) than controls. This was seen at 28 days PI. These observations indicate that gp29 may be part of the worm antigen complex that induces an early inflammatory response, a response similar to that observed with SAWA. These studies indicate that this approach is useful in investigating the functional ability of specific proteins in the induction and down-regulation of immune-mediated inflammatory responses elicited by filarial parasites. Absence of a granulomatous response to the other recombinant proteins used may be related to the nature and sensitivity of the assay used or the character of recombinant proteins tested.  (+info)

Stochastic and nonstochastic post-transcriptional silencing of chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase genes involves increased RNA turnover-possible role for ribosome-independent RNA degradation. (3/876)

Stochastic and nonstochastic post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in Nicotiana sylvestris plants carrying tobacco class I chitinase (CHN) and beta-1,3-glucanase transgenes differs in incidence, stability, and pattern of expression. Measurements with inhibitors of RNA synthesis (cordycepin, actinomycin D, and alpha-amanitin) showed that both forms of PTGS are associated with increased sequence-specific degradation of transcripts, suggesting that increased RNA turnover may be a general feature of PTGS. The protein synthesis inhibitors cycloheximide and verrucarin A did not inhibit degradation of CHN RNA targeted for PTGS, confirming that PTGS-related RNA degradation does not depend on ongoing protein synthesis. Because verrucarin A, unlike cycloheximide, dissociates mRNA from ribosomes, our results also suggest that ribosome-associated RNA degradation pathways may not be involved in CHN PTGS.  (+info)

Strong induction of members of the chitinase family of proteins in atherosclerosis: chitotriosidase and human cartilage gp-39 expressed in lesion macrophages. (4/876)

Atherosclerosis is initiated by the infiltration of monocytes into the subendothelial space of the vessel wall and subsequent lipid accumulation of the activated macrophages. The molecular mechanisms involved in the anomalous behavior of macrophages in atherogenesis have only partially been disclosed. Chitotriosidase and human cartilage gp-39 (HC gp-39) are members of the chitinase family of proteins and are expressed in lipid-laden macrophages accumulated in various organs during Gaucher disease. In addition, as shown in this study, chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 can be induced with distinct kinetics in cultured macrophages. We investigated the expression of these chitinase-like genes in the human atherosclerotic vessel wall by in situ hybridizations on atherosclerotic specimens derived from femoral artery (4 specimens), aorta (4 specimens), iliac artery (3 specimens), carotid artery (4 specimens), and coronary artery (1 specimen), as well as 5 specimens derived from apparently normal vascular tissue. We show for the first time that chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 expression was strongly upregulated in distinct subsets of macrophages in the atherosclerotic plaque. The expression patterns of chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 were compared and shown to be different from the patterns observed for the extracellular matrix protein osteopontin and the macrophage marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Our data emphasize the remarkable phenotypic variation among macrophages present in the atherosclerotic lesion. Furthermore, chitotriosidase enzyme activity was shown to be elevated up to 55-fold in extracts of atherosclerotic tissue. Although a function for chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 has not been identified, we hypothesize a role in cell migration and tissue remodeling during atherogenesis.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and ethylene-inducible expression of Chib1 chitinase from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). (5/876)

A soybean seed-specific PR-8 chitinase, named Chib2, has a markedly extended C-terminal segment compared to other plant Chib1 homologues of the PR-8 chitinase family known to date. To further characterize the molecular structure and the expression pattern of this chitinase family, we cloned two typical Chib1-similar cDNAs (Chib1-1 and Chib1-2) from soybeans by PCR-cloning techniques. The deduced primary sequence of Chib1-1 chitinase is composed of a signal peptide segment (26 amino acid residues) and a mature 273 amino acid sequence (calculated molecular mass 28,794, calculated pI 3.7). This Chib1-1 enzyme is more than 90% identical to Chib1-2 chitinase but is below 50% identical to Chib2 enzyme. Thus, we confirmed the occurrence of two distinct classes, Chib1 and Chib2 in the plant PR-8 chitinase family. The Chib1 genes, interrupted by one intron, were found to be up-regulated in response to ethylene in stems and leaves, but scarcely expressed in developing soybean seeds. Chib1 chitinases may be responsible for protecting the plant body from various pathogenic attacks.  (+info)

A gene encoding a hevein-like protein from elderberry fruits is homologous to PR-4 and class V chitinase genes. (6/876)

We isolated SN-HLPf (Sambucus nigra hevein-like fruit protein), a hevein-like chitin-binding protein, from mature elderberry fruits. Cloning of the corresponding gene demonstrated that SN-HLPf is synthesized as a chimeric precursor consisting of an N-terminal chitin-binding domain corresponding to the mature elderberry protein and an unrelated C-terminal domain. Sequence comparisons indicated that the N-terminal domain of this precursor has high sequence similarity with the N-terminal domain of class I PR-4 (pathogenesis-related) proteins, whereas the C terminus is most closely related to that of class V chitinases. On the basis of these sequence homologies the gene encoding SN-HLPf can be considered a hybrid between a PR-4 and a class V chitinase gene.  (+info)

Distribution of chitinase in guinea pig tissues and increases in levels of this enzyme after systemic infection with Aspergillus fumigatus. (7/876)

Intravenous infection of guinea pigs with the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus resulted in increased levels of chitinase in serum and tissues of the animals. The molecular properties of the enzyme were demonstrated to be different from those of the fungal chitinase, but also from guinea pig lysozyme and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase. Bio-Gel P-100 gel filtration showed that in liver, spleen, heart and lung tissue of control animals there were two molecular mass forms present with apparent molecular masses of 35 kDa and 15 kDa. In brain and serum, only the 35 kDa form was detectable. Kidney showed only the 15 kDa form. Upon infection the 35 kDa form appeared in kidney and increased in the other tissues. When a less pathogenic form of the fungus was used the 35 kDa form remained absent in kidney. In contrast to human serum chitinase, the enzyme from guinea pig serum and tissues did bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose. This was the case for both molecular mass forms. The mode of cleavage of the substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-tri-N-acetylchitotrioside (MU-[GlcNAc]3, where GlcNAc is N-acetylglucosamine) by the two forms of the enzyme was the same: both [GlcNAc]2 and [GlcNAc]3 were released. The chitinase activity levels in the control tissues showed a large variation in this order: spleen > lung, kidney > liver > heart > brain. The fact that spleen showed the highest chitinase level is in agreement with its major role as a lymphoid organ in cases of systemic infections. The relative increases upon infection were the highest for the tissues that showed low control values.  (+info)

Multiple genes involved in chitin degradation from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91. (8/876)

A cluster of three closely linked chitinase genes organized in the order chiA, chiB and chiC, with the same transcriptional direction, and two unlinked genes, chiP and chiQ, involved in chitin degradation in Pseudoalteromnas sp. strain S91 were cloned, sequenced and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequences revealed that ChiA, ChiB and ChiC exhibited similarities to chitinases belonging to family 18 of the glycosyl hydrolases while ChiP and ChiQ belonged to family 20. ChiP and ChiQ showed different enzymic activities against fluorescent chitin analogues, but neither was able to degrade colloidal chitin. ChiA possessed chitinase activity but did not bind chitin; ChiB bound chitin but had no chitinase activity; ChiC possessed strong chitinase activity and also bound chitin. Production of ChiC in S91 appeared to be controlled by chiA expression, since insertion of a transposon into the ORF of chiA resulted in the loss of chitinase activity as well as loss of ChiC proteins in a chitinase-negative mutant. In Escherichia coli, ChiC appeared to be expressed from its own promoter.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential enzymatic activity of common haplotypic versions of the human acidic mammalian chitinase protein. AU - Seibold, Max A.. AU - Reese, Tiffany A.. AU - Choudhry, Shweta. AU - Salam, Muhammad T.. AU - Beckman, Kenny. AU - Eng, Celeste. AU - Atakilit, Amha. AU - Meade, Kelley. AU - Lenoir, Michael. AU - Watson, H. Geoffrey. AU - Thyne, Shannon. AU - Kumar, Rajesh. AU - Weiss, Kevin B.. AU - Grammer, Leslie C.. AU - Avila, Pedro. AU - Schleimer, Robert P.. AU - Fahy, John V.. AU - Rodriguez-Santan, Jose. AU - Rodriguez-Cintron, William. AU - Boot, Rolf G.. AU - Sheppard, Dean. AU - Gilliland, Frank D.. AU - Locksley, Richard M.. AU - Burchard, Esteban G.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/7/17. Y1 - 2009/7/17. N2 - Mouse models have shown the importance of acidic mammalian chitinase activity in settings of chitin exposure and allergic inflammation. However, little is known regarding genetic regulation of AMCase enzymatic activity ...
The third chitinase gene (chiC) of Serratia marcescens 2170, specifying chitinases C1 and C2, was identified. Chitinase C1 lacks a signal sequence and consists of a catalytic domain belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 18, a fibronectin type III-like domain (Fn3 domain) and a C-terminal chitin-binding domain (ChBD). Chitinase C2 corresponds to the catalytic domain of C1 and is probably generated by proteolytic removal of the Fn3 and ChBDs. The loss of the C-terminal portion reduced the hydrolytic activity towards powdered chitin and regenerated chitin, but not towards colloidal chitin and glycol chitin, illustrating the importance of the ChBD for the efficient hydrolysis of crystalline chitin. Phylogenetic analysis showed that bacterial family 18 chitinases can be clustered in three subfamilies which have diverged at an early stage of bacterial chitinase evolution. Ser. marcescens chitinase C1 is found in one subfamily, whereas chitinases A and B of the same bacterium belong to another ...
in 30 min (Takahashi et al. 1993).. The Km values of the Enterobacter sp. NRG4 chitinase against different substrates were 1.43 mg ml-1, 1.41 mg ml-1, 1.8 mg ml-1 and 2.0 mg ml-1, respectively with swollen chitin, colloidal chitin, regenerated chitin and glycol chitin respectively, which are comparatively lower than the other reports in literature. The Km values of chitinase from different organisms were, 2.88 mg ml-1 for Enterobacter aerogenes (Tang et al. 2001), 1.4 mg ml-1 and 0.8 mg ml-1 for chitinase C1 and C3 from Vibrio alginolyticus H-8 against squid chitin (Ohishi et al. 1996), 3.0 mg ml-1 for Alcaligenes xylosoxydans chitinase (Vaidya et al. 2003) and Bacillus sp. WY22 chitinase (Woo and Park, 2003), 12 mg ml-1 for Bacillus sp. BG-11 chitinase (Bhushan and Hoondal, 1998).. Ethylene glycol chitin, glycol chitin and colloidal chitin are useful substrate for enzyme assays of endo-type chitinase (Park et al. 1997). The hydrolysis pattern of purified enzyme indicated that chitinase from ...
Abstract Prior studies indicate that a microfilarial stage-specific chitinase is a possible candidate antigen for a transmission-blocking vaccine against Brugian filariasis. The antigen is a functional enzyme that progressively appears as microfilariae mature and become able to infect and develop in a susceptible mosquito vector. It is recognized by a monoclonal antibody that reduces microfilaremia in infected animals and by a subset of sera from infected persons who remain amicrofilaremic. Immunization of jirds with recombinant chitinase induced partial protection against microfilaremia resulting from subsequent infection with Brugia malayi, but did not reduce adult worm burdens. Vaccination was much less effective when administered during the prepatent stage of infection and was ineffective when given to microfilaremic jirds. The protective epitope appears to be located close to the carboxy terminus of the chitinase molecule. Immunization of jirds with SXP1, an antigen present in multiple worm stages,
Plant chitinases are a group of enzymes that presumably hydrolyze chitin, a biopolymer of GlcNAc in a β-1,4 linkage. Only a few of them have been proven to possess chitinase activities. Most of the reported chitinases have been identified based on their sequence similarity to known chitinases. Plant chitinases are grouped into six different classes based on sequence similarity to tobacco chitinases (Meins et al., 1994). The two common classes of chitinases are class I and class II, which differ in the presence (class I) or absence (class II) of a conserved N-terminal cysteine-rich lectin domain. All classes of chitinases possess some conserved amino acid residues in the catalytic domains (Levorson and Chlan, 1997).. Because the chitinase substrate chitin is the main component of many fungal walls and expression of many chitinase genes is induced by pathogens, chitinases have long been proposed to play roles in defense. It has been shown that overexpression of some chitinases alone or together ...
Candida albicans chitinase isolated using the Dyno-Mill disruption technique was characterized using an improved radiometric assay procedure. The enzyme had apparent temperature and pH optima of 45°C and 6·5, respectively. The preparation yielded an apparent K m of 3·9 mg chitin ml-1 [17·6 mM-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) equivalents] and V of 2·3 nmol GlcNAc formed min-1 (mg protein)-1. The potential of the streptomycete antibiotic allosamidin as an antifungal agent is discussed in view of its dose-dependent inhibition of C. albicans chitinase activity (IC50 = 0·3 μM). Allosamidin was a potent competitive inhibitor of enzyme activity (K i = 0·23 μM).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification and characterization of three thermostable endochitinases of a noble Bacillus strain, MH-1, isolated from chitin-containing compost. AU - Sakai, Kenji. AU - Yokota, Akira. AU - Kurokawa, Hajime. AU - Wakayama, Mamoru. AU - Moriguchi, Mitsuaki. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - A thermophilic and actinic bacterium strain, MH-1, which produced three different endochitinases in its culture fluid was isolated from chitin- containing compost. The microorganism did not grow in any of the usual media for actinomyces but only in colloidal chitin supplemented with yeast extract and (2,6-O-dimethyl)-β-cyclodextrin. Compost extract enhanced its growth. In spite of the formation of branched mycelia, other properties of the strain, such as the formation of endospores, the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall, the percent G+C of DNA (55%), and the partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequence, indicated that strain MH-1 should belong to the genus Bacillus. Three isoforms of ...
Summary: In order to study the genetic control of chitinolytic activity in Streptomyces, chitinase genes were cloned from S. lividans TK64 into the multicopy plasmid pIJ702 and their expression monitored in their natural host by measuring increases in chitinase productivity. Four independent clones were obtained, and the plasmids named pEMJ1, pEMJ5, pEMJ7 and pEMJ8. Restriction endonuclease digestion showed that although two of the plasmids (pEMJ7 and pEMJ8) shared a common DNA fragment, there were no substantial similarities between the inserts of plasmids pEMJ1, pEMJ5 and pEMJ7. This was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization studies. Four chitinases (A, B, C, and D) were identified, with molecular masses of 36, 46, 65, and 41 kDa, respectively. Production of chitinases A and B was specified by the plasmids pEMJ1 and pEMJ5, respectively. Genes for the other two chitinases (C and D) were carried by plasmid pEMJ7. Although significant differences were observed between chitinases A, B, and C in terms of
Summary: A fraction which inhibited chitin synthesis was partially purified from Neurospora crassa by ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration. This preparation possessed chitinase activity and hydrolysed either nascent or preformed chitin. Utilization of UDP-N-acetylglucos-arnine by chitin synthase was not modified in the presence of the chitinase preparation, although the chitin being synthesized was degraded mainly to N-N'-diacetylchitobiose, other larger oligosaccharides and small amounts of N-acetylglucosamine. The enzyme exhibited endo- and exo-chitinase properties and was localized mainly in the cytosol fraction. Its pH optimum was 6.7 and its apparent molecular weight 20600 Dal.
Supplementary Figure 1. mrna expression of chitinase and chitinase-like protein in splenic immune cells. Each splenic immune cell population was sorted by FACS. Surface markers for sorting were CD11c +
Chitinase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the beta-1,4-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine linkages of the fungal cell wall polymer chitin, is involved in inducible defenses of plants. A basic chitinase genomic sequence was isolated from a rice (Oryza sativa L.) genomic library using a bean chitinase gene fragment as a probe. The complete nucleotide sequence of the rice chitinase RCH10 gene was determined, and shown to contain an open reading frame with no introns, encoding a polypeptide of 336 amino acids. This polypeptide consists of a 21 amino acid signal peptide, a hevein domain, and a chitinase catalytic domain. The RCH10 gene has 63% identity at the nucleotide level and 75% identity at the amino acid level with chitinase genes from dicotyledonous plants such as bean, potato, and tobacco. A gene fusion of trpE and the coding region of RCH10 expressed in Escherichia coli gave a product that reacted with antiserum to bean chitinase, confirming the identity of RCH10 as a rice chitinase gene. Primer ...
Genome-wide analysis of chitinase genes in the Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph: Trichoderma reesei) genome database revealed the presence of 18 ORFs encoding putative chitinases, all of them belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 18. Eleven of these encode yet undescribed chitinases. A systematic nomenclature for the H. jecorina chitinases is proposed, which designates the chitinases corresponding to their glycoside hydrolase family and numbers the isoenzymes according to their pI from Chi18-1 to Chi18-18. Phylogenetic analysis of H. jecorina chitinases, and those from other filamentous fungi, including hypothetical proteins of annotated fungal genome databases, showed that the fungal chitinases can be divided into three groups: groups A and B (corresponding to class V and III chitinases, respectively) also contained the so Trichoderma chitinases identified to date, whereas a novel group C comprises high molecular weight chitinases that have a domain structure similar to Kluyveromyces lactis killer toxins.
Chitinases were also classified based on the amino acid sequences, as that would be more helpful in understanding the evolutionary relationships of these enzymes to each other.[9] Therefore, the chitinases were grouped into three families: 18, 19, and 20.[10] Both families 18 and 19 consists of endochitinases from a variety of different organisms, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, insect, and plants. However, family 19 mainly comprises plant chitinases. Family 20 includes N-acetylglucosaminidase and a similar enzyme, N-acetylhexosaminidase.[9]. And as the gene sequences of the chitinases were known, they were further classified into six classes based on their sequences. Characteristics that determined the classes of chitinases were the N-terminal sequence, localization of the enzyme, isoelectric pH, signal peptide, and inducers.[9]. Class I chitinases had a cysteine-rich N-terminal, leucine- or valine-rich signal peptide, and vacuolar localization. And then, Class I chitinases were further ...
Objective. To study the relationship between the human secreted protein stabilin-1-interacting chitinase-like protein (SI-CLP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).. Methods. The expression of SI-CLP in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and synovial fluid from patients with RA and the effects of cytokines on SI-CLP expression were examined by Western blotting. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was performed to investigate the binding between SI-CLP and cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophages were isolated from wild-type and SI-CLP-/- mice, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the levels of messenger RNA for cytokines or SI-CLP in SI-CLP- or cytokine-treated macrophages. Histologic studies were conducted to evaluate inflamma-tion and the expression of interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-13, and SI-CLP in lesions. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to detect the cytokine levels in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Rats or mice with ...
Complete information for CHIA gene (Protein Coding), Chitinase, Acidic, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Chitinase is an enzyme having the ability to degrade chitin to a low molecular weight chitooligomers which have a wide range of applications. In the present study, chitinase was produced from the entomopathogenic fungi such as Pochonia chlamydosporia, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Trichoderma harzianum using chitin as a carbon source. The enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and the activity was detected using colorimetric method. The enzyme showed the maximum activity in Trichoderma harzianum among the four fungal species at 40°C and pH 6.5. This enzyme could be used directly to control of pathogenic fungi and various pests in the egg stage itself. ...
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Chitinase inhibitors have chemotherapeutic potential as fungicides, pesticides, and antiasthmatics. Argifin, a natural product cyclopentapeptide, competitively inhibits family 18 chitinases in the nanomolar to micromolar range and shows extensive substrate mimicry
Chitinases cleave the beta-1-4-glycosidic bond between the N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units of which chitin is comprised. Chitinases are present in plants, bacteria and fungi. The first chitinase structures were solved in 1994, from a bacterium (1ctn) and a plant (2hvm). A mechanism for chitin cleavage was proposed based on several structures and was later confirmed. [1] ...
Chitinase domain-containing protein 1 (CHID1) is a highly conserved protein of unknown function located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 11 near the telomere. The protein has 27 introns, which allows for many isoforms of this gene. It has several aliases, the most common of which is Stabilin-1 interacting chitinase-like protein (SI-CLP). As indicated by the alias, CHID1 is known to interact with the protein STAB1. CHID1 is expressed ubiquitously at levels nearly 6 times the average gene, and is conserved very far back to organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans and possibly some prokaryotes. This protein is known to have carbohydrate binding sites, which could be involved in carbohydrate catabolysis. CHID1 is located on chromosome 11 at the location p15.5. It is just downstream of TSPAN4 and upstream of AP2A2. CHID1 is ubiquitously expressed at a high levels. Through microarray analysis, it has been shown that CHID1 is generally expressed at 5.7 times the average gene. CHID1 has many known ...
Nookaew, I; Thorell, K; Worah, K; Wang, S; Hibberd, ML; Sjövall, H; Pettersson, S; Nielsen, J; Lundin, SB; (2013) Transcriptome signatures in Helicobacter pylori-infected mucosa identifies acidic mammalian chitinase loss as a corpus atrophy marker. BMC Med Genomics, 6. p. 41. ISSN 1755-8794 DOI: 10.1186/1755-8794-6-41 ...
New approaches for treatment of invasive fungal infections are necessary to cope with emerging resistant fungal pathogens of humans. In this paper, three different strategies are presented and evaluated to find new-type antifungal drugs and their targets. While experimental data obtained with potent chitinase inhibitors, e.g. allosamidin, and small-size antifungal proteins of fungal origin are encouraging more efforts are needed to verify and exploit the possible involvement of intracellular thiols, e.g. glutathione, and their metabolic anzymes in the pathogenesis of mycoses caused by dimorphic fingi. Chitinase inhibitors seem to hinder the cell separation of yeasts and the fragmentation of filamentous fungi quite effectively and, hence, they may be implicated in future therapies of systemic mycoses. In addition, small-size antifungal proteins possessing a broad inhibition spectrum may also provide us with promising new agents for the treatment of different kinds of (e.g. cutaneous) fungal ...
Expression of AamAch-L and AamAch-S mRNA in multiple tick organs observed in this study signals the possibility that native AamAch-L and AamAch-S proteins could be important to tick physiology in general. Our quantitative RT-PCR analysis data are suggestive of the possibility that AamAch-L proteins could be associated with tick feeding physiology at the salivary gland level, and not at the mid-gut level. In tick research, genes that are up-regulated in response to feeding are thought to be associated with blood meal feeding (Mulenga et al., 2007; Aljamali et al., 2009; Mulenga and Khumthong, 2010; Konnai et al., 2011) and those that are down-regulated are believed to play other roles in tick biology, and are not associated with blood meal feeding (Umemiya et al., 2008; Aljamali et al., 2009). Given that AamAch-L mRNA abundance in the SG did not apparently change with feeding could signal the importance of this protein in unfed and during the parasitic stages of A. americanum. We were unable to ...
List of Publications. Articles in reviewed journals. 19. Zuker, A., Tzfira, T., Ben-Meir, H., Ovadis, A., Shklarman, E., Itzhaki, H., Forkmann, G., Martens, S., Neta-Sharir, I., Weiss, D. and Vainstein, A. (2002). Enhancement of flower fragrance by antisense suppression of the flavonoid gene fht.. Mol. Breed. 9:33-41.. 18. Zuker, A., Tzfira, T., Scovel, G., Ovadis, A., Shklarman, E., Itzhaki, H. and Vainstein, A. (2001). RolC-transgenic carnation with improved agronomic traits: quantitative and qualitative analyses of greenhouse-grown plants J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 126: 13-18.. 17. Halperin T., Zheng B., Itzhaki H., Clarke A.K., and Adam Z. (2000). Plant mitochondria contain proteolytic and regulatory subunits of the ATP-dependent Clp protease. Plant Mol. Biol. 45:461-168.. 16. David R., Itzhaki H., Ginzberg I., Gafni Y., Galili G. and Y. Kapulnik (1998). Suppression of tobacco basic chitinase gene expression in response to colonization by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus Intaradics. Mol. ...
Family 18 chitinases play key roles in a range of pathogenic organisms and are overexpressed in the asthmatic lung. By screening a library of marketed drug molecules, we have identified methylxanthine derivatives as possible inhibitor leads. These derivatives, theophylline, caffeine, and pentoxifyll …
Engineering chitinolytic activity into a cellulose-active lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase provides insights into substrate specificity. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2019 ;Volum 294.(50) s. 19349- ...
Enzymes have a very wide range of functions in living organisms. Both signal transduction and regulation of cellular activity rely on enzymes, especially kinases and phosphatases. Enzymes also involve in movement by catalyzing the hydrolysis of ATP on myosin to make muscle contractions and can act as part of the cytoskeleton involved in transporting intracellular substances. ATP enzyme in the cell membrane as the ion pump involves in active transport.. In this articles, there introduces several enzymes biological functions from Creative Enzymes which may greatly help your study researches.. Cellulase. Since the study of cellulase has entered the molecular level, people have gradually explored the structure and function, gene regulation and genetic modification of cellulase.. Chitinase. Chitinase plays a very important physiological role in various organisms. In recent years, a variety of chitinases and chitinase-like proteins have been found in mammals, which plays a very important role in the ...
It has been hypothesized that dysregulated host/microbial interactions play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the induction and perpetuation of the intestinal disorder are unclear. Recently, we unexpectedly discovered significa …
Fig. 3. Venn diagrams of DEGs in Vitis flexuosa responsive to spore suspension (spore) and culture filtrates (CF) of Elsinoe ampelina, and R. vitis. A, up-regulated genes; B, down-regulated genes. Among 15 up-regulated genes, LRR, LOX, TLP, and GST were particularly up-regulated by spore inoculation than CF treatment of E. ampelina. On the contrary, CHS and TIP were highly up-regulated by CF treatment than spore inocu-lation of E. ampelina. It was reported that chitinase, stilbene synthase, protein/sugar kinase and transcriptional factor genes were found uniquely expressed in anthracnose tolerant upon E. ampelina infection in Florida hybrid bunch grape cultivars(Vasanthiaiah et al., 2010). Chitinase and stilbene synthase genes were reported to be involved in regulation of fungal growth and development in grapevines (Hammerschmidt, 1999; Jayasankar et al., 2000). In this study, chitinase-like protein was induced slightly by spore inoculation, while down-regulated 48 h after by CF treatment of E. ...
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Shop a large selection of Western Blotting (WB) products and learn more about Chitinase 3-like 2 Sheep anti-Human, Polyclonal, R 25µg; Unlabeled:Life 25µg; Unlabeled.
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1FFQ: De novo purification scheme and crystallization conditions yield high-resolution structures of chitinase A and its complex with the inhibitor allosamidin.
Protein features are: Chitin binding domain; Chitinase II; Glycoside hydrolase, chitinase active site; Glycoside hydrolase, family 18, catalytic domain; Glycoside hydrolase, subgroup, catalytic core; Glycoside hydrolase, superfamily ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1k85.1. Solution structure of the fibronectin type III domain from Bacillus circulans WL-12 Chitinase A1.
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Has anyone used chitinases to soften chitin in crustaceans as am having problems with wax sectioning? Have decalcified samples but they are still too hard. Andrew Prior Biology Dept Leicester University UK [email protected] ...
Introduction: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) caused by prematurity is associated with more remodeling and fibrosis than asthma, yet symptoms and treatment of these two disorders are similar. The chitinase-like protein YKL-40, is a novel biomarker of asthma although the mechanisms involved are unknown. YKL-40 levels correlate with airway remodeling (Chupp et al. NEJM 2007) and YKL-40 increases smooth muscle proliferation (Bara et al. AJRCCM 2012). We aimed to compare serum YKL-40 in children with asthma and BPD.. Methods: Age- and sex-matched children with diagnosed asthma (n=27) or BPD (n=28) were included in the study at 10 yrs of age. Serum YKL-40 levels were measured by ELISA. ...
Singh S, Choudhary S, Anand V, et al. New insights into the catalytic inactivity of mammary gland protein-40, a chitinase-like protein expressed during mammary gland involution. Mol. Biol. Rep.. 2019;46(2):2243-2257. ...
3B9E: Crystal structures of Vibrio harveyi chitinase A complexed with chitooligosaccharides: implications for the catalytic mechanism
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Cerebrospinal fluid chitinase-3-like protein 1 level is not an independent predictive factor for the risk of clinical conversion in radiologically isolated ...
Complete information for CHIC2 gene (Protein Coding), Cysteine Rich Hydrophobic Domain 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Rat anti Human SI-CLP antibody, clone 1C11 detects human Stabilin-interacting chitinase like protein (SI-CLP), a novel member of the Glyco
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p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Chitinase enzyme. References[edit]. *^ Brown, Thomas A. "Rapid Review Physiology." Mosby Elsevier, 1st Ed. p. 235 ...
y[ _]9 Glycoside hydrolase family 19 CAZY GH_19 comprises enzymes with only one known activity; chitinase (EC ... Flach J, Pilet PE, Jollès P (August 1992). "What's new in chitinase research?". Experientia. 48 (8): 701-16. doi:10.1007/ ...
... produces chitinase. Parte, A.C. "Laceyella". LPSN. Retrieved 28 November 2016. "Laceyella putida Taxon ... "Highly thermostable and surfactant-activated chitinase from a subseafloor bacterium, Laceyella putida". Applied Microbiology ...
... produces chitinase and xylanase. BLAAK, Harald; SCHNELLMANN, Jurgen; WALTER, Stefan; HENRISSAT, ... Hassan, F; Meens, J; Jacobsen, HJ; Kiesecker, H (25 September 2009). "A family 19 chitinase (Chit30) from Streptomyces ...
... produces chitinase and peroxidase. Wang, W; Mai-Gisondi, G; Stogios, PJ; Kaur, A; Xu, X; Cui, H; ... Tsujibo, H (1 December 1999). "Synthesis of chitinase in Streptomyces thermoviolaceus is regulated by a two-component sensor- ... "Purification and properties of a thermostable chitinase from Streptomyces thermoviolaceus OPC-520". Applied and Environmental ...
... harzianum is used to produce chitinase. List of Trichoderma species Bisvertinolone Harman, G.E.; Howell, C.R.; ... "Self-directing optimization of parameters for extracellular chitinase production by Trichoderma harzianum in batch mode". ...
Staufenberger, Tim; Imhoff, Johannes F.; Labes, Antje (2012). "First crenarchaeal chitinase found in Sulfolobus tokodaii". ...
Humphreys, Anne M; Gooday, Graham W (1984). "Properties of Chitinase Activities from Mucor mucedo: Evidence for a Membrane- ... Humphreys, Anne M; Gooday, Graham W (1984). "Phospholipid Requirement of Microsomal Chitinase from Mucor mucedo". Current ... specifically with dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine shown to stimulate chitinase activity. Chitinases and chitin synthases are ...
Butler AR, O'Donnell RW, Martin VJ, Gooday GW, Stark MJ (July 1991). "Kluyveromyces lactis toxin has an essential chitinase ... Kuranda, M. J.; Robbins, P. W. (1991). "Chitinase is required for cell separation during growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae". ... "Identification of the Substrate Interaction Region of the Chitin-Binding Domain of Streptomyces griseus Chitinase C". Journal ... encodes both a lectin and a chitinase". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (16): 11085-91. PMID 1375935. ...
Okazaki, Katsuichiro; Tagawa, Kiyoshi (January 1991). "Purification and properties of chitinase from Streptomyces cinereoruber ...
"Adsorption and reactions of chitinase and lysozyme on chitin". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 2 (2): 221-8. doi:10.1007/ ...
Nagpure, Anand; Gupta, Rajinder K. (May 2013). "Purification and characterization of an extracellular chitinase from ...
Bruce, A.; Srinivasan, U.; Staines, H. J.; Highley, T. L. (1995-01-01). "Chitinase and laminarinase production in liquid ... and chitinase. β 1-3 exoglucanase, endoglucanase IV and β glucosidases are major lytic enzymes targeting the fungal cell wall ... "Chitinase Gene Expression during Mycoparasitic Interaction ofTrichoderma harzianumwith Its Host". Fungal Genetics and Biology. ...
Ilyina, AV; Varlamov, VP; Tikhonov, VE; Yamskov, IA; Davankov, VA (April 1994). "One-step isolation of a chitinase by affinity ... Streptomyces kurssanovii produces chitinase, N-(Phenylacetyl)-2-butenediamide and fumaramidmycin. Il'ina, AV; Tatarinova, NIu; ...
Chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1), also known as YKL-40, is a secreted glycoprotein that is approximately 40kDa in size that ... Ma B, Herzog EL, Moore M, Lee CM, Na SH, Lee CG, Elias JA (May 2016). "RIG-like Helicase Regulation of Chitinase 3-like 1 Axis ... "Entrez Gene: CHI3L1 chitinase 3-like 1 (cartilage glycoprotein-39)". Kazakova MH, Sarafian VS (2009-03-01). "YKL-40--a novel ... YKL-40 lacks chitinase activity due to mutations within the active site (conserved sequence: DXXDXDXE ; YKL-40 sequence: ...
Four putative chitinase encoding genes have been identified in T. lanuginosus. Chitinases are glycosyl hydrolases that break ... and chitinase. These enzymes have chemical, environmental, and industrial applications due to their hydrolytic properties. They ... and also have applications in medicine as chitinase has been found to have antifungal properties. T. lanuginosus also produced ...
Insectivorous bats may have certain digestive enzymes to better process insects, such as chitinase to break down chitin, which ... "Insectivorous Bats Digest Chitin in the Stomach Using Acidic Mammalian Chitinase". PLOS ONE. 8 (9): e72770. Bibcode:2013PLoSO ...
It produces a range of extracellular hydrolases including lipase, chitinase, and urease. It has been reported as a saprotroph ...
Mahadevan, Brinda; Crawford, Don L. (May 1997). "Properties of the chitinase of the antifungal biocontrol agent Streptomyces ...
Lim H, Choi HT (Oct 2010). "Growth inhibition of the yeast transformant by the expression of a chitinase from Coprinellus ... To quote one scientific article: "The purified cellulase was devoid of chitinase, pectinase and mannanase activities". Moreover ... This again suggests cellulases do not in general contain significant chitinase activity. Similarly, although many internet ... when a chitinase gene was bioengineered into the same yeast strain it resulted in complete growth inhibition. ...
It also produces an antifungal in the form of a chitinase protein. Tempeh, a popular Indonesian food, is created by fermenting ... Terakawa, T.; Takaya, N.; Horiuchi, H.; Koike, M.; Takagi, M. (April 1997). "A fungal chitinase gene fromRhizopus oligosporus ...
Enzymatic chitinase and local nutrient depletion reduce the risk of phytopathogenic infections. Delftia lacustris has been ... It has the ability to degrade peptidoglycan through chitinase and lysozyme activity. Delftia lacustris is a Gram-negative, ...
Another chitinase II member is the novel gene Chitinase domain-containing protein 1. The family also includes various ... Some members of this family, CAZY GH_18, belong to the chitinase class II group which includes chitinase, chitodextrinase and ...
"Roles of Grape Thaumatin-like Protein and Chitinase in White Wine Haze Formation". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. ...
Various stages of A. Viteae have two chitinase protein bands, one of 205 kDa and 68 Kda. Studies reveal that the 205 kDa band ... Chitin has been reported as a component of the eggshells of these nematodes Chitinase plays a vital role in the third larvae ... "Essential Role of Chitinase in the Development of the Filarial Nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae". 76 (1) 221-228; DOI: 10.1128 ... "Identification of chitinase as the immunodominant filarial antigen recognized by sera of vaccinated rodents". Journal of ...
Other examples include lactase, amylase, chitinase, sucrase, maltase, neuraminidase, invertase, hyaluronidase and lysozyme. ...
... is also known to interact with the protein chitinase domain-containing protein 1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 2006). "Novel stabilin-1 interacting chitinase-like protein (SI-CLP) is up-regulated in alternatively activated macrophages and ...
One example is the enzyme Chitinase which can breakdown the exoskeleton (shell) of arthropods. The symptoms of a bite are ...
Joo, Gil-Jae (October 2005). "Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Chitinase from the Antifungal Biocontrol ...
Chitinase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) The X-ray structure of a chitinase from the ... Phaseolus vulgaris chitinase - bean chitinase, BCH - has been transgenically inserted as a pest deterrent into entirely ... Stress, or environmental signals like ethylene gas, may stimulate increased production of chitinase. Some parts of chitinase ... and acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase), as well as chitinase-like proteins (such as YKL-40) that have high sequence similarity ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
chitinase (thing). See all of chitinase, no other writeups in this node. ...
In molecular biology, the chitinase A N-terminal domain is found at the N-terminus of a number of bacterial chitinases and ... "Crystal structure of a bacterial chitinase at 2.3 A resolution". Structure. 2 (12): 1169-80. doi:10.1016/s0969-2126(94)00119-7 ...
... as well as chitinase-like proteins (such as YKL-40) that have high sequence similarity but lack chitinase activity.[6] ... Chitinase activity can also be detected in human blood[16][17][17] and possibly cartilage.[18] As in plant chitinases this may ... In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the regulation of ScCts1p (S. cerevisiae chitinase 1), one of the chitinases involved in cell ... Some parts of chitinase molecules, almost identical in structure to hevein or other proteins in rubber latex due to their ...
Acetazolamide-based fungal chitinase inhibitors.. Schüttelkopf AW1, Gros L, Blair DE, Frearson JA, van Aalten DM, Gilbert IH. ... Here we explore acetazolamide as a chemical scaffold for the inhibition of an A. fumigatus plant-type chitinase. A co-crystal ... The fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus possesses two distinct multi-gene chitinase families. ...
Brugia malayi chitinase (BmCHT1) is expressed in the microfilarial stage, the first larval stage, of the organism and is ... Brugia malayi chitinase (BmCHT1) is expressed in the microfilarial stage, the first larval stage, of the organism and is ... Antisera to the chitinase temporarily cleared the microfilaria from the bloodstream of infected jirds (1,4). Product Source. ...
If life didnt depend on these acts by cellular organelles and molecules, we would consider them death-defying performances in the greatest show on earth.. ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Inhibition of chitinase activity translates into a potential therapeutic benefit, as shown in a range of preclinical models. ... OATD-01 is a Phase 2-ready chitotriosidase/acidic mammalian chitinase (CHIT1/AMCase) inhibitor for the treatment of idiopathic ... Lung diseases like IPF are associated with an increased chitinase activity, which strongly correlates with disease stage, ... OncoArendi and Galapagos enter into exclusive collaboration on chitinase inhibitors in fibrosis. Read full article. *. ...
... Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 Feb;1844(2):374-83. doi: ... We expressed and purified recombinant VF chitinase-I and show that the enzyme exhibits the hallmark properties expected from an ... This study addresses the molecular nature, function, and regulation of the underlying enzyme, VF chitinase-I. Using mass ... Structural modeling revealed a relative compact globular form of VF chitinase-I, which might contribute to its overall ...
... acidic fish chitinase-1: AFCase-1, acidic fish chitinase-2: AFCase-2, fish chitinase-3: FCase-3) in Actinopterygii. In the ... Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Chondrichthyes chitinase forms a unique group (Chondrichthyes chitinase). These results ... Chitinase activity was measured using pNP-(GlcNAc)n (n = 2, 3) as a substrate and β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex) activity was ... Relatively high values of chitinase activity were observed in the stomach, spleen, and gonads of the Japanese bullhead shark, H ...
IPR011583 Chitinase_II. IPR029070 Chitinase_insertion_sf. IPR001223 Glyco_hydro18_cat. IPR001579 Glyco_hydro_18_chit_AS. ... IPR011583 Chitinase_II. IPR029070 Chitinase_insertion_sf. IPR001223 Glyco_hydro18_cat. IPR001579 Glyco_hydro_18_chit_AS. ... ChitinaseImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href="/ ... tr,Q54276,Q54276_SERMA Chitinase OS=Serratia marcescens OX=615 GN=chiB PE=1 SV=1 ...
Compare chitinase, acidic 1 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, ... chitinase, acidic 1 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used application for detecting and ... Your search returned 9 chitinase, acidic 1 ELISA ELISA Kit across 6 suppliers. ...
Y. Arakane and S. Muthukrishnan, "Insect chitinase and chitinase-like proteins," Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 67 ... J. Zhang, X. Zhang, Y. Arakane et al., "Comparative genomic analysis of chitinase and chitinase-like genes in the African ... Silencing Chitinase Genes Increases Susceptibility of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) to Scopoletin. Hong Zhou, Yong-qiang ... In the present study, 12 full-length cDNAs of chitinase (CHIT) genes from Tetranychus cinnabarinus (designated TcCHITs) were ...
... Chem Biol. 2005 Sep;12(9):973-80. ... Here it is shown that they are also competitive inhibitors against a fungal family 18 chitinase, with pentoxifylline being the ... most potent (K(i) of 37 microM). Crystallographic analysis of chitinase-inhibitor complexes revealed specific interactions with ...
Chitinase from Streptomyces griseus lyophilized powder (essentially salt free), ≥200 units/g solid * pricing ... Chitinase. EC# Synonyms: 1,4-ß-poly-N-acetylglucosaminidase. Chitinases are enzymes that catalyze the degradation of ...
Role of chitin and chitinase/chitinase-like proteins in inflammation, tissue remodeling, and injury. Annu Rev Physiol. 2011;73: ... The first chitinase structures were solved in 1994, from a bacterium (1ctn) and a plant (2hvm). A mechanism for chitin cleavage ... Ohnuma T, Umemoto N, Nagata T, Shinya S, Numata T, Taira T, Fukamizo T. Crystal structure of a "loopless" GH19 chitinase in ... Chitinase A complex with (GlcNac)4 and ethylene glycol (PDB entry 3wh1) ...
Bacterial chitinase Bacterial chitinolysis Endo-acting non-processive chitinase Processive chitinase This is a preview of ... Arakane Y, Muthukrishnan S (2010) Insect chitinase and chitinase-like proteins. Cell Mol Life Sci 67:201-216CrossRefGoogle ... Watanabe T, Oyanagi W, Suzuki K, Tanaka H (1990) Chitinase system of Bacillus circulans WL-12 and importance of chitinase A1 in ... Alam MM, Mizutani T, Isono M, Nikaidou N, Watanabe T (1996) Three chitinase genes (chiA, chiC, and chiD) comprise the chitinase ...
Chitinase purified from inclusion bodies was 13-fold less active compared to soluble chitinase. Synthetic peptides (P1 and P2) ... Vom aktiven Zentrum der Chitinase wurden Peptide synthetisiert und parallel mit Chitinase aus den Einschluss-Körpern für ... Die aus den Einschluss-Körpern aufgereinigte Chitinase zeigte im Vergleich zur löslichen Chitinase eine 13fach verminderte ... were designed from the active site of A. viteae chitinase, and used in parallel with chitinase from inclusion bodies in ...
Transmission-blocking activity of a chitinase inhibitor and activation of malarial parasite chitinase by mosquito protease. ... Plasmodium chitinase activities are demonstrated targets for human and avian malaria transmission blockade with the chitinase ... The chitinase PfCHT1 from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum lacks proenzyme and chitin-binding domains and ... Knockout of the rodent malaria parasite chitinase pbCHT1 reduces infectivity to mosquitoes. Dessens, J.T., Mendoza, J., ...
Buy Cloning Expression and Characterization of Chitinase from Bacillus by Mahmood Gillani Madiha from Waterstones today! Click ... Cloning Expression and Characterization of Chitinase from Bacillus (Paperback). Mahmood Gillani Madiha (author) Sign in to ...
Citations with the tag: CHITINASE. Results 1 - 50. *Purification and some properties of a chitinase isozyme from the liver of ... Optimum pH toward colloidal chitin was observed at pH 3.0 for the 38 kDa chitinase, and pH 3.0 and 9.0 for the 42 kDa chitinase ... Acidic mammalian chitinase is not a critical target for allergic airway disease in mice.. Fitz, L. J.; DeClercq, C.; Brooks, J ... Chitinase 42 kDa produced by Trichoderma harzianum has been proven as a prime compound to be excreted onto the hyphae of the ...
IPR011583. Chitinase_II. IPR029070. Chitinase_insertion_sf. IPR001223. Glyco_hydro18_cat. IPR001579. Glyco_hydro_18_chit_AS. ... IPR011583. Chitinase_II. IPR029070. Chitinase_insertion_sf. IPR001223. Glyco_hydro18_cat. IPR001579. Glyco_hydro_18_chit_AS. ... "A novel serum chitinase that is expressed in bovine liver.". Suzuki M., Morimatsu M., Yamashita T., Iwanaga T., Syuto B.. FEBS ... "A novel serum chitinase that is expressed in bovine liver.". Suzuki M., Morimatsu M., Yamashita T., Iwanaga T., Syuto B.. FEBS ...
Chitinase inhibitors have chemotherapeutic potential as fungicides, pesticides, and antiasthmatics. Argifin, a natural product ... The peptide fragments inhibit chitinase B1 from Aspergillus fumigatus (AfChiB1), the human chitotriosidase, and chitinase ... Structure-based dissection of the natural product cyclopentapeptide chitinase inhibitor argifin. Andersen OA, Nathubhai A, ... Chitinase inhibitors have chemotherapeutic potential as fungicides, pesticides, and antiasthmatics. Argifin, a natural product ...
... From:. Prior, A.E. Has anyone used chitinases to soften chitin in crustaceans as am having problems with wax ...
In recent years, more than 60 small RNAs (sRNAs) have been identified in the gram-positive human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, but their putative roles and mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. The sRNA LhrA was recently shown to be a post-transcriptional regulator of a single gene, lmo0850, which encodes a small protein of unknown function. LhrA controls the translation and degradation of the lmo0850 mRNA by an antisense mechanism, and it depends on the RNA chaperone Hfq for efficient binding to its target. In the present study, we sought to gain more insight into the functional role of LhrA in L. monocytogenes. To this end, we determined the effects of LhrA on global-wide gene expression. We observed that nearly 300 genes in L. monocytogenes are either positively or negatively affected by LhrA. Among these genes, we identified lmo0302 and chiA as direct targets of LhrA, thus establishing LhrA as a multiple target regulator. Lmo0302 encodes a hypothetical protein with no known function,
Chitinase Clostridium Paraputrificum Recombinant is a non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 582 amino acids and having ... Chitinase activity is identified systemically in humans, in the blood, and possibly cartilage. Chitinase has been related to ... Chitinase is a digestive enzyme which breaks down glycosidic bonds in chitin. Due to chitin being a component of the cell walls ... Chitinase expression is mediated by the NPR1 gene and the salicylic acid pathway, both of which are involved in resisting ...
The prototypic chitinase-like protein chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1) plays a protective role in the lung by ameliorating cell ... Chitinase 3-like-1 and its receptors in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome-associated lung disease. ... Chitinase 3-like-1 and its receptors in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome-associated lung disease. ...
RNAi of chitinase in adults led to the release of unhatched microfilariae confirming the essential catalytic role of chitinase ... Für die Chitinase von A. viteae konnte eine essentielle Rolle im Häutungsprozess nachgewiesen werden. Das Ausschalten des Gens ... This study also determined that chitinase of A. viteae plays an essential role in the moulting of the L3 larvae since knockdown ... Moreover, maximum expression of chitinase was observed by real-time PCR in the L3 stage supplementing that it is involved in ...
  • Although mammals do not produce chitin, they have two functional chitinases, Chitotriosidase (CHIT1) and acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase), as well as chitinase-like proteins (such as YKL-40) that have high sequence similarity but lack chitinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, the chitinase A N-terminal domain is found at the N-terminus of a number of bacterial chitinases and similar viral proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • OncoArendi is excited about the ability to tap into the scientific and clinical development expertise of Galapagos and we enthusiastically look forward to this long-term strategic collaboration in maximizing the potential of chitinase and chitinase-like proteins in treatment of severe human diseases involving organ fibrosis" said Marcin Szumowski, CEO of OncoArendi. (yahoo.com)
  • As anticipated for one of the most prominent proteins in the flytrap's "green stomach" during prey digestion, transcription of VF chitinase-I is restricted to glands and enhanced by secretion-inducing stimuli. (nih.gov)
  • Role of chitin and chitinase/chitinase-like proteins in inflammation, tissue remodeling, and injury. (proteopedia.org)
  • Arakane Y, Muthukrishnan S (2010) Insect chitinase and chitinase-like proteins. (springer.com)
  • An abstract of an article about mammalian cells that ectopically produced homologous chitinase-like proteins, CHI3L1 and CHI3L2, is presented and mentions topics including gliomas, cell proliferation, and cell growth. (ebscohost.com)
  • Erratum to: Quantification of chitinase and thaumatin-like proteins in grape juices and wines. (ebscohost.com)
  • YKL-40 (YKL for the first three N -terminal residues of a 40 kDa protein) belongs to a group of human chitinase-like proteins (CLPs), which are similar to chitinases but lack chitinolytic activity. (mdpi.com)
  • Among these proteins, cotton host cells secrete chitinase 28 (Chi28) and the Cys-rich repeat protein 1 (CRR1), while the pathogen releases the protease VdSSEP1. (plantcell.org)
  • Chitinase-like proteins have long been proposed to play roles in normal plant growth and development, but no mutations in chitinase-like genes have been obtained previously to support this hypothesis. (plantcell.org)
  • All five chitinase-like proteins possess a catalytic domain with all of the conserved sequence motifs, but only AgCht5-1 has a chitin-binding domain. (k-state.edu)
  • The rice (Oryza sativa) genome encodes 37 putative chitinases and chitinase-like proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Most chitinase-family proteins are found or identified in relation to arthritis, allergies, or parasitic infections accompanied by eosinophilia, and because they have been found to be strongly related to various pathologies, they are gaining attention as excellent biomarkers for understanding pathology. (mblbio.com)
  • OATD-01 is a Phase 2-ready chitotriosidase/acidic mammalian chitinase (CHIT1/AMCase) inhibitor for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and other diseases with a fibrotic component. (yahoo.com)
  • At the sites of infection with N. brasiliensis, we also observed induction of other chitinase and Fizz family members (ChaFFs): acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) and Fizz2. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Molecular studies have isolated an acidic mammalian chitinase (CHIA) expressed in the mammalian GI tract ( 13 , 14 ) that is stable in the presence of GI proteases ( 15 ), suggesting a role in chitin digestion. (sciencemag.org)
  • One of these is chitotriosidase, which is produced by macrophages, and the other is acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase), which is primarily secreted in the stomach. (mblbio.com)
  • Acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) and chitotriosidase-1 are enzymatically active true chitinases in a member of the glycosyl hydrolase-18 family, identified by EC (mblbio.com)
  • Purpose: An acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) seems to be implicated in allergic asthma and allergic ocular pathologies. (uniss.it)
  • In the present research, we report the identification of the novel chitinase genes HjChi (ORF: 1380 bp) and DkChi (ORF: 1440 bp) from the stomach of Chondrichthyes, Japanese bullhead shark ( Heterodontus japonicas ) and Kwangtung skate ( Dipturus kwangtungensis ), respectively. (scirp.org)
  • In the present study, 12 full-length cDNAs of chitinase (CHIT) genes from Tetranychus cinnabarinus (designated TcCHITs ) were cloned and characterized. (hindawi.com)
  • Alam MM, Mizutani T, Isono M, Nikaidou N, Watanabe T (1996) Three chitinase genes (chiA, chiC, and chiD) comprise the chitinase system of Bacillus circulans WL-12. (springer.com)
  • Southern blots confirmed the existence of three chitinase genes in A. viteae. (hu-berlin.de)
  • For this end, methods for RNA extraction, followed by PCR, cloning, and chitinase activity testing were used.Complete enzymes were not expressed during the timeframe of the project, but one of the genes, and part of a second one, were cloned and may be used in further attempts to properly express the encoded enzymes. (diva-portal.org)
  • To date, it is known that there are rather large and diverse groups of chitinase genes identified in several insect species. (mdpi.com)
  • For instance, the model genetic organism, Drosophila melanogaster , has 22 chitinase and chitinase-like genes. (mdpi.com)
  • Effect of Chitinase Encoding Genes in Biocontrol Pseudomonas Spp. (springer.com)
  • Sundheim L. (1992) Effect of Chitinase Encoding Genes in Biocontrol Pseudomonas Spp. (springer.com)
  • Isolation and nucleotide sequence of cDNA clones encoding potato chitinase genes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Isolation and characterization of the genes encoding basic and acidic chitinase in Arabidopsis thaliana. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Because the chitinase substrate chitin is the main component of many fungal walls and expression of many chitinase genes is induced by pathogens, chitinases have long been proposed to play roles in defense. (plantcell.org)
  • By comparing the genomes of 107 placental mammals, we robustly infer that chitinase genes ( CHIA s), encoding enzymes capable of digesting insect exoskeletal chitin, were present as five functional copies in the ancestor of all placental mammals, and the number of functional CHIA s in the genomes of extant species positively correlates with the percentage of invertebrates in their diets. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the absence of dietary chitin, selection on chitinase genes may have been relaxed, allowing for the accumulation of formerly deleterious mutations (for example, frameshift and nonsense mutations), resulting in unitary pseudogenes and gene deletions. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this study, a Cht5 gene cluster consisting of five different chitinase-like genes (AgCht5-1, AgCht5-2, AgCht5-3, AgCht5-4 and AgCht5-5) was identified by a bioinformatics search of the genome of Anopheles gambiae. (k-state.edu)
  • However, deletion of chitinase genes did not markedly affect specific chitin synthase activity, and deletion of single CHS genes had little effect on in vitro specific chitinase activity in either fungus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The primary amino acid sequence of these chitinase genes, termed CHI2 and CHI3 , is composed of an N-terminal signal peptide directing the post-translational transport of the protein into the extracellular space, the catalytic GH18 domain, a proline-, serine-, and threonine-rich domain and a C-terminal cysteine-rich putative chitin-binding site. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It targets the same chitinase genes and allows quantification down to 25 target sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The roles of the C-terminal domain and type III domains of chitinase A1 from Bacillus circulans WL-12 in chitin degradation. (asm.org)
  • The aim of this study is to unravel the mechanisms underlying degradation of crystalline chitin by Bacillus circulans WL-12 chitinase A1. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] M. Hashimoto 他: 'Site-directed mutagenesis of ASP280 suggests substrate-assisted catalysis of Chitinase Al from Bacillus Circulans WL-12'J. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] T. Matsumoto 他: 'Three-dimensional structure of the catalytic domain of chitinase Al from Bacillus circulans WL-12 at a very high resolution'Proceeding of the Japan Academy. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] M. Hashimoto 他: 'Structure and function of the domains composing chitinase Al of Bacillus circulans WL-12'Cellulose Degradation (Proceeding of MIE BIOFORUM 98). (nii.ac.jp)
  • Here we describe the production, purification and characterization of Bacillus licheniformis chitinase A in the Pichia pastoris expression system. (iupui.edu)
  • In this study, we constructed mutants of a Bacillus thuringiensis chitinase with enhanced activity based on homology modeling, molecular docking, and the site-directed mutagenesis of target residues to modify spatial positions, steric hindrances, or hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity. (ijbs.com)
  • Ni H, Zeng S, Qin X, Sun X, Zhang S, Zhao X, Yu Z, Li L. Molecular Docking and Site-directed Mutagenesis of a Bacillus thuringiensis Chitinase to Improve Chitinolytic, Synergistic Lepidopteran-larvicidal and Nematicidal Activities. (ijbs.com)
  • Accordingly, chitinase enzyme activity assay was performed on 31 isolates that have an antifungal activity, and among them the isolate of Bacillus subtilis TV-125 was selected, which has demonstrated the highest activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ammonium sulphate precipitation of chitinase enzyme from Bacillus subtilis TV-125 isolate was performed at maximum range of 0-20%, and 28.4-fold purification was obtained with a 13.4% of yield. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the last phase of the study, chitinase enzyme purified from Bacillus subtilis TV-125A was tested on four fungal agents, although all the results were positive, it was particularly effective on F. culmorum according to the findings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The concerted action of two chitinolytic enzymes, chitinase (EC and β- N -acetylglucosaminidase (EC, is considered to be essential for the complete hydrolysis of chitin to GlcNAc. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This strain produces at least three chitinases (ChiA, ChiB, and ChiC), a chitinase-like enzyme (ChiD), three β- N -acetylglucosaminidases (GlcNAcases A, B, and C), a transglycosylative enzyme (Hex99), a chitin-binding protein (Cbp1), and a chitin-binding protease (AprIV) in the presence of chitin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CHIA (Chitinase, Acidic) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Fuchs RL, McPherson SA, Drahos DJ (1986) Cloning of a Serratia marcescens gene encoding chitinase. (springer.com)
  • The Clostridium paraputrificum chiB gene, encoding chitinase B (ChiB), consists of an open reading frame of 2,493 nucleotides and encodes 831 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 90,020. (asm.org)
  • The prototypic chitinase-like protein chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1) plays a protective role in the lung by ameliorating cell death and stimulating fibroproliferative repair. (jci.org)
  • Chitinase-3-like 1 (CHI3L1) is a glycoprotein elevated in paediatric severe malaria, and an emerging urinary biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI). (springer.com)
  • This sandwich kit is for the accurate quantitative detection of human Chitinase-3-like Protein 1 (also known as YKL-40/CHI3L1) in serum, plasma, cell culture supernates, cell lysates, tissue homogenates. (spintoband.com)
  • Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) is an inducible molecule on intestinal epithelial cells during the development of inflammatory bowel disease . (curehunter.com)
  • Increasing evidence demonstrated that Chitinase 3-like 1 (hereafter termed CHI3L1 or YKL-40) was highly expressed and tightly associated with human tumor development and progression. (springermedizin.de)
  • BACKGROUND: Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1), neurofilament light chain (NFL) and oligoclonal bands (OCB) in cerebrospinal fluid are associated with central nervous system demyelination in adults. (ku.dk)
  • 7. Rehli M, Krause SW, Andreesen R. (1997) Molecular characterization of the gene for human cartilage gp-39 (CHI3L1), a member of the chitinase protein family and marker for late stages of macrophage differentiation. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
  • The aforementioned points are a clear indication of the potential for the application of chitin in a wide range of fields and the research on chitinase enzymes was invaluable to their efficient use. (scirp.org)
  • Nishino, R. , Kakizaki, H. , Fukushima, H. and Matsumiya, M. (2017) Distribution of Chitinolytic Enzymes in the Organs and cDNA Cloning of Chitinase Isozymes from the Liver of Golden Cuttlefish Sepia esculenta . (scirp.org)
  • This so-called chitinolytic machinery includes three types of chitinase enzymes and a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase. (portlandpress.com)
  • Foliar application of these fungi is quite satisfactory as it invades its host by adhering to insect cuticles through the formation of penetration structures called appresoria, which produces various extracellular enzymes, including chitinase that causes the insect cuticle breaching. (ajol.info)
  • Bacterial chitinase enzymes have been implicated in protection against parasites in fungi, protozoa and invertebrates, and especially in breakdown of micelles of fungal pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Production of Chitinase and its Optimization from a Novel Isolate Serratia marcescens XJ-01. (ebscohost.com)
  • Serratia marcescens Chitinase A (SmChiA) is a molecular motor efficiently hydrolyzing recalcitrant crystalline chitin by moving on the surface processively. (titech.ac.jp)
  • Recently, however, Serratia marcescens chitinase A (SmChiA) has been rediscovered as a molecular motor working in extracellular environments without using ATP. (titech.ac.jp)
  • Serratia marcescens chitinase A is a linear molecular motor that hydrolyses crystalline chitin in a processive manner. (rsc.org)
  • The high expression of both Ym1 and AMCase in the lungs of infected mice suggests that abundant chitinase production is an important feature of Th2 immune responses in the lung. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • However, one example of a Class V chitinase showed two chitin binding domains in tandem, and based on the gene sequence, the cysteine-rich N-terminal seemed to have been lost during evolution, probably due to less selection pressure that caused the catalytic domain to lose its function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ohnuma T, Umemoto N, Nagata T, Shinya S, Numata T, Taira T, Fukamizo T. Crystal structure of a "loopless" GH19 chitinase in complex with chitin tetrasaccharide spanning the catalytic center. (proteopedia.org)
  • The deduced ChiB is a modular enzyme composed of a family 18 catalytic domain responsible for chitinase activity, two reiterated domains of unknown function, and a chitin-binding domain (CBD). (asm.org)
  • 1) Structure and catalytic mechanism of the catalytic domain (CatD) of chitinase A1. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In addition, from the structure of distorted GlcNAc residue at subsite -1, the experiments using affinity-label reagent, and site-directed mutagenesis of possible nucleophile residue, it was concluded that substrate-assisted catalysis is the catalytic mechanism of chitinase A1. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In that it possesses two chitin-binding domains, BjCHI1 resembles the precursor of Urtica dioica agglutinin but unlike that protein, BjCHI1 retains its chitinase catalytic domain after post-translational processing. (deepdyve.com)
  • unlike that protein, BjCHI1 retains its chitinase catalytic domain after post-translational processing. (deepdyve.com)
  • ChiB is a modular enzyme consisting of two reiterated domains and a catalytic domain belonging to chitinase family 18. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We first identified a gene from B. thuringiensis YBT-9602 that encodes a chitinase (Chi9602) belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 18 with conserved substrate-binding and substrate-catalytic motifs. (ijbs.com)
  • YKL-39, also known as chitinase 3-like 2, is secreted chitinase-like protein which contains Glyco_18 domain with no chitinase catalytic activity but with putative lectin properties. (mblbio.com)
  • Here it is shown that they are also competitive inhibitors against a fungal family 18 chitinase, with pentoxifylline being the most potent (K(i) of 37 microM). (nih.gov)
  • This enzyme is a human chitinase member of family 18 glycosyl hydrolases, and has the capability to hydrolyze chitin. (mblbio.com)
  • In this study, first it was aimed to determine antifungal activities of 100 different microorganisms against F. culmorum isolated from cucumber that cause root rot of vegetables as a pathogenic fungi, and also characterization of chitinase enzyme was intended by selecting the strains that have the highest chitinase production capability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PSCHI4, a putative extracellular class II chitinase, was secreted into liquid medium by pine cells and was also secreted by transgenic tobacco cells that ectopically expressed pschi4 . (apsnet.org)
  • Extracellular localization of chitinase in cucumber. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A 60 kDa extracellular chitinase was purified to homogeneity and characterized. (conicyt.cl)
  • Chitinase is an extracellular enzyme complex that degrades chitin. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Purification and some properties of a chitinase isozyme from the liver of Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus. (ebscohost.com)
  • Describes the purification and properties of chitinase isozyme from the liver of Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus. (ebscohost.com)
  • Purification, Characterization, and cDNA Cloning of Rice Class III Chitinase. (ebscohost.com)
  • Murao S, Kawada T, Itoh H, Oyana H, Shin T (1992) Purification and characterization of a novel type chitinase from Vibrio alginolyticus TK 22. (springer.com)
  • Immunization of jirds with recombinant chitinase induced partial protection against microfilaremia resulting from subsequent infection with Brugia malayi , but did not reduce adult worm burdens. (ajtmh.org)
  • Here we explore acetazolamide as a chemical scaffold for the inhibition of an A. fumigatus 'plant-type' chitinase. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of chitinase activity translates into a potential therapeutic benefit, as shown in a range of preclinical models. (yahoo.com)
  • The peptide fragments inhibit chitinase B1 from Aspergillus fumigatus (AfChiB1), the human chitotriosidase, and chitinase activity in lung homogenates from a murine model of chronic asthma, with potencies ranging from high nanomolar to high micromolar inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of fungal growth by combination of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The potential of the streptomycete antibiotic allosamidin as an antifungal agent is discussed in view of its dose-dependent inhibition of C. albicans chitinase activity (IC 50 = 0·3 μM). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In order to investigate molting-inhibition effect with the chitinase related gene in Spodoptera litura, RNA was extracted from the $5^{th}$ instars. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • So we considered that chitinase dsRNA induced molting inhibition effect. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Chitinase activity can also be detected in human blood and possibly cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lung diseases like IPF are associated with an increased chitinase activity, which strongly correlates with disease stage, progression and prognosis. (yahoo.com)
  • One of the first steps after the capture of animal prey, i.e. the enzymatic breakup of the insects' chitin-based shell, is reflected by considerable chitinase activity in the secreted digestive fluid in the carnivorous plant Venus flytrap. (nih.gov)
  • Chitinase activity was measured using p NP-(GlcNAc) n ( n = 2, 3) as a substrate and β-N -acetylhexosaminidase (Hex) activity was measured using p NPGlcNAc. (scirp.org)
  • Transmission-blocking activity of a chitinase inhibitor and activation of malarial parasite chitinase by mosquito protease. (wikigenes.org)
  • Chitinase activity is identified systemically in humans, in the blood, and possibly cartilage. (prospecbio.com)
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to assess chitinase activity systemically and in the airways of patients with CF and asthma compared with healthy subjects. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Additionally, we assessed factors that regulate chitinase activity within the lungs of patients with CF. Methods: Chitinase activities were quantified in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with CF, asthmatic patients, and healthy control subjects. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Results: Chitinase activity was systemically increased in patients with CF compared with that in healthy control subjects and asthmatic patients. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Further stratification showed that chitinase activity was enhanced in patients with CF colonized with Candida albicans compared with that in noncolonized patients. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Chitinase expressed by pYES2/ech42 was induced by galactose (maximal activity 0.50 units ml −1 ) and was produced in fermentation liquid cultured for 36 h. (springer.com)
  • Chitinase activity (activity of endo-type chitinolytic enzyme) was measured using p NP-(GlcNAc) n (n = 2, 3) as substrates, with high activity detected in the liver, posterior salivary gland, and stomach. (scirp.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is similar to bacterial chitinases but lacks chitinase activity. (creative-biogene.com)
  • B. polymyxa strains isolated from soil, rhizosphere and rhizoplane of spring wheat were screened for their chitinase activity and in vitro antagonism against Gaeumannomyces graminis var. (eurekamag.com)
  • Enzyme activity analysis showed that DkChi had both endo- and exo-chitinase activities. (deepdyve.com)
  • however, ChiD was found to be a chitinase-like enzyme with high activity only toward chitin oligosaccharides of sizes ranging from trimers to hexamers but not toward chitin ( 34 , 37 , 41 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The chitinase activity varied among the isolates and the different media studied. (ajol.info)
  • Exochitinase activity and the chitinase activity gel were also determined for the isolates showing high chitinase enzyme activity. (ajol.info)
  • An array of chitinase isozymes were observed on chitinase activity gel with a common 70 kDa enzyme for all the isolates. (ajol.info)
  • Mg 2+ , K + and Ca 2+ stimulated chitinase activity by 13, 16 and 18%, respectively whereas Cu 2+ , Co 2+ , Ag + and Hg 2+ inhibited chitinase activity by 9.7, 15, 22 and 72.2%, respectively at 1 mM concentration. (conicyt.cl)
  • This assay is designed to detect chitinase activity in macrophage cell lysates. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Hydrolysis of chitin releases 4-methylumbelliferone, and is measured fluorometrically to determine chitinase activity. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The protein lacks chitinase activity and is secreted by activated macrophages, chondrocytes, neutrophils and synovial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Has no chitinase activity. (nih.gov)
  • The functionality of the chimerical chitinase was demonstrated by an improvement of the relative chitinolytic activity of the recombinant strain BNS3/pF by 2.5 folds. (edu.qa)
  • CHITINASE (CAS 9001-6-3) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on chitinase market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc. (marketpublishers.com)
  • CHITINASE (CAS 9001-6-3) Market Research Report 2018 contents were worked out and placed on the website in March, 2018. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Please note that CHITINASE (CAS 9001-6-3) Market Research Report 2018 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to change. (marketpublishers.com)
  • 2018) Regulation of chitinase-3-like-1 in T cell elicits Th1 and cytotoxic responses to inhibit lung metastasis. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
  • For example, two or more kinds of chitinase isozymes have been discovered in the stomach of Actinopterygii, one of the most successful vertebrates on earth. (scirp.org)
  • Characterization of 38 kDa and 42 kDa chitinase isozymes from the liver of Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus. (ebscohost.com)
  • Acetazolamide-based fungal chitinase inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • Walid Abi-Saab, Chief Medical Officer of Galapagos said: "Galapagos is very excited to gain access to OATD-01 and OncoArendi's innovative pipeline of novel chitinase inhibitors, further strengthening and complementing our existing fibrosis portfolio. (yahoo.com)
  • Chitinase inhibitors have chemotherapeutic potential as fungicides, pesticides, and antiasthmatics. (nih.gov)
  • The data provide useful information that could lead to the generation of drug-like, natural product-based chitinase inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • Complexed structures of CatD with inhibitors and (GlcNAc)ィイD26ィエD2 revealed that chitinase A1 has seven subsites, from (-5) to (+2), and degrades substrate from its reducing end. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the gene encoding Clostridium paraputrificum chitinase ChiB and analysis of the functions of novel cadherin-like domains and a chitin-binding domain. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, chitin degradation is hydrolyzed by the chitinase, which catalyzes the random hydrolysis of N -acetyl-β- d -glucosamine β-1,4-glycosidic linkages in chitin and chitodextrins. (mdpi.com)
  • The hydrolysis pattern of the purified enzyme indicated that the chitinase was an endochitinase. (conicyt.cl)
  • Here, three chitinase sequences (I, II and III) were obtained by characterising nine clones from a genomic library of Acanthocheilonema viteae. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Phylogeny comparison of long and short putative A. americanum acidic chitinase amino acid sequences with other tick GH-18 chitinase sequences. (biologists.org)
  • A guide phylogeny tree of Aam Ach-L and Aam Ach-S putative protein sequences and GH-18 chitinase sequences of other tick species was constructed using the maximum likelihood method. (biologists.org)
  • This protein might be grouped as a new member of class II chitinase based on the sequences available and hypothesis discussed. (ajol.info)
  • Additionally, we have identified a group of chitinase sequences containing several of the highly conserved motifs present in the C-terminal region of the olfactomedin domain-containing sequences. (mcponline.org)
  • Chitinase gene ech42 was obtained from Trichoderma aureoviride M and amplified by PCR. (springer.com)
  • Statistics based experimental design on chitinase production by Trichoderma harzianum was optimized in solid state fermentation using Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology. (tsijournals.com)
  • Central composite response surface methodology was performed to evaluate the effects of temperature, pH, inoculum size and substrate concentration on production of chitinase by Trichoderma harzianum using sugarcane bagasse under solid state fermentation. (tsijournals.com)
  • Chitinase expression is mediated by the NPR1 gene and the salicylic acid pathway, both of which are involved in resisting fungal and insect attack. (prospecbio.com)
  • Insect chitinase 5 (Cht5), a well-characterized enzyme found in the molting fluid and/or integument, is classified as a group I chitinase and is usually encoded by a single gene. (k-state.edu)
  • Chitinase enzyme is capable of degrading chitin, and this enzyme can be used as a biological fungicide against phytopathogenic fungi, as well as an insecticide against insect pests. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study addresses the molecular nature, function, and regulation of the underlying enzyme, VF chitinase-I. Using mass spectrometry based de novo sequencing, VF chitinase-I was identified in the secreted fluid. (nih.gov)
  • Chitinase Clostridium Paraputrificum Recombinant fused with a His tag at N-terminus produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 582 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 64.2kDa. (prospecbio.com)
  • To better understand the molecular regulation of defense responses in members of the genus Pinus , we tested the expression of various chitinase homologs in response to pathogen-associated signals. (apsnet.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that placental mammal genomes, including humans, retain a molecular record of the post-K/Pg placental adaptive radiation in the form of numerous chitinase pseudogenes. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this study, we have shown that the gene responsible for the elp1 mutation in Arabidopsis encodes a chitinase-like protein (AtCTL1). (plantcell.org)
  • cDNA was synthesized and then we obtained about 700 bp size chitinase. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus possesses two distinct multi-gene chitinase families. (nih.gov)
  • Local and systemic induction of chitinase in cucumber plants in response to viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Presents a correction to the article "Induced Expression of the Class II Chitinase Gene During Cold Acclimation and Dehydration of Bermudagrass," that was previously published in the periodical "Theory of Applied Genetics. (ebscohost.com)
  • Jasmonic acid induced class I and class IV but not class II chitinase, whereas salicylic acid induced all three classes of chitinase. (apsnet.org)
  • We have previously reported the presence of three types of chitinase (acidic fish chitinase-1: AFCase-1, acidic fish chitinase-2: AFCase-2, fish chitinase-3: FCase-3) in Actinopterygii. (scirp.org)
  • Moreover, maximum expression of chitinase was observed by real-time PCR in the L3 stage supplementing that it is involved in moulting. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Production of chitinase from bacteria has distinct advantages over fungi, due to the formation of mycelia of fungi in the later phase of fermentation. (ebscohost.com)
  • The chitinase PfCHT1 from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum lacks proenzyme and chitin-binding domains and displays unique substrate preferences. (wikigenes.org)
  • For each form of chitinase being tested there is a unique substrate. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Application of the Schales' procedure to detect the hydrolytic products of chitinase using colloid chitin as a substrate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Candida albicans chitinase isolated using the Dyno-Mill disruption technique was characterized using an improved radiometric assay procedure. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Plate set-up for chitinase assay. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Using the S. marcescens DB10/DB11 strain as a model [ 1 ], genetic experiments isolated many mutant strains that are compromised in chitinase secretion [ 11 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • Interestingly, the chitinase-secretion-defective phenotype of a chiW mutant can be rescued if the signal peptide from another protein is attached to ChiX [ 11 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • PCR validation of A. americanum long and short putative acidic chitinase transcripts. (biologists.org)
  • A complementary DNA encoding an ethylene-inducible acidic chitinase of azuki bean ( Vigna angularis) was isolated, and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The nucleotide and deduced amino-acid sequence were very similar to those of an acidic chitinase from cucumber leaves that had been infected with tobacco necrosis virus. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The mRNA for the acidic chitinase was not detected in leaves of azuki bean that had not been treated with ethylene, but it appeared 3 h after initiation of treatment with ethylene and its level gradually increased over a period of 19 h. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Accumulation of an acidic chitinase and a basic glycoprotein induced by ethylene in leaves of Azuki beans, Vigna angularis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These results show that multiple chitinase homologs are induced after challenge by a necrotrophic pathogen and by potential signaling molecules identified in angiosperms. (apsnet.org)
  • Aam Ach-L may apparently encode an inactive chitinase as indicated by Pichia pastoris -expressed recombinant Aam Ach-L failing to hydrolyse chitinase substrates. (biologists.org)
  • Hex99, belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 20, synthesized β-(1,6)-(GlcNAc) 2 from β-(1,4)-(GlcNAc) 2 , which is one of the smallest molecules that induce chitinase production in the microorganism ( 38 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Your search returned 9 chitinase, acidic 1 ELISA ELISA Kit across 6 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • 2) Molecul … More ar directionality of chitin degradation by chitinase A1. (nii.ac.jp)
  • On the other hand, microdiffraction electron micrography carried out on the β-chitin microfibrils treated with chitinase A1 strongly suggested that degradation of microfibril occurs from reducing ends. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Vom aktiven Zentrum der Chitinase wurden Peptide synthetisiert und parallel mit Chitinase aus den Einschluss-Körpern für Vakzinierungsexperimente im A. viteae / Meriones unguiculatus-Filarien-Modell genutzt. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Together, these results suggest that AtCTL1 , a chitinase-like gene, is essential for normal plant growth and development in Arabidopsis. (plantcell.org)
  • SDS-PAGE, zymogram, and Western blot analyses using antiserum raised against purified ChiB suggested that ChiB was one of the major chitinase species in the culture supernatant of C. paraputrificum. (asm.org)
  • NRG4 was shown to excrete chitinase into the culture supernatant when cultivated in medium containing chitin. (conicyt.cl)
  • CF proteases degraded chitinases in the airway microenvironment of patients with CF. Genetic chitinase deficiency was associated with C albicans colonization in patients with CF. Conclusion: Patients with CF have enhanced chitinase activation associated with C albicans colonization. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Chitin synthesis and chitinase production was, however, regulated in C. albicans during yeast-hypha morphogenesis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In C. albicans , the total specific activities of both chitin synthase and chitinase were higher in the hyphal form, which was attributable mainly to the activities of Chs2 and Cht3, respectively. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The optimal pH of chitinase in both the Japanese bullhead shark, H. japonicas , and the Kwangtung skate, D. kwangtungensis , were 3.5 - 5.5 and 3.5 - 4.0, respectively, and 4.0 for Hex in both species. (scirp.org)
  • Brugia malayi chitinase (BmCHT1) is expressed in the microfilarial stage, the first larval stage, of the organism and is thought to be important in the exsheathment process of the microfilaria (1). (neb.com)
  • Die Moleküle Cystatin und Chitinase wurden, auf Grund ihrer immunodulatorischen und katalytischen Eigenschaften, bei der Nager-Filarie Acanthocheilonema viteae als essentielle Proteine identifiziert. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Mittels RNAi bei adulten Parasiten konnte die katalytische Rolle der Chitinase beim Abbau des Chitins im Ei bestätigt werden, da hier nur ungeschlüpfte Mikrofilarien ausgeschieden wurden. (hu-berlin.de)
  • 2009) Role of breast regression protein 39 (BRP-39)/chitinase 3-like-1 in Th2 and IL-13-induced tissue responses and apoptosis. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Chondrichthyes chitinase forms a unique group (Chondrichthyes chitinase). (scirp.org)
  • These results suggested that the possibility of the formation of chitinase groups for each class in the phylogenetic analysis based on the observation of class-specific chitinase. (scirp.org)