An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
A normally saprophytic mitosporic Chaetothyriales fungal genus. Infections in humans include PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS; and PERITONITIS.. Exophiala jeanselmei (previously Phialophora jeanselmei) is an etiological agent of MYCETOMA.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE which should not be confused with other cedar and cypress trees of THUJA or CUPRESSUS genera.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
An insect growth regulator which interferes with the formation of the insect cuticle. It is effective in the control of mosquitoes and flies.
A plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are trees and shrubs having an elongated conelike floral axis with fragrant flowers that have six tepals (sepals and petals that are not distinctly different) and many spirally arranged stamens.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A genus of marine mussels in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. The species MYTILUS EDULIS is the highly edible common mussel.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
Amphoteric macrolide antifungal antibiotic from Streptomyces natalensis or S. chattanoogensis. It is used for a variety of fungal infections, mainly topically.
A group of DITERPENES cyclized into 3-ring PHENANTHRENES.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.
A species of fruit fly originating in sub-Saharan Africa but widely distributed worldwide. One of the most destructive fruit pests, its larvae feed and develop on many different fruits and some vegetables.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.
Neurological condition characterized by disturbances in VISUAL PERCEPTION, most often of BODY SCHEMA, TIME PERCEPTION and HALLUCINATIONS. It is associated with MIGRAINE, infections (e.g., INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS), FEVER, EPILEPSY, and other neurological and psychiatric disorders.
An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.

Proteolytic activation and inactivation of chitin synthetase from Mucor rouxii. (1/299)

Crude chitin synthetase preparations from the mycelial and yeast forms of Mucor rouxii behaved differently. The mycelial preparations, incubated at 28 degrees C, lost virtually all chitin synthetase activity in a few hours; by contrast, the activity of enzyme preparations from yeast cells increased several fold during similar incubations. These spontaneous changes were probably caused by endogenous protease(s). Seemingly, the chitin synthetase in yeast preparations was present mainly in a latent, 'zymogenic', form that was activated by proteases. In the mycelial preparations, chitin synthetase was present mainly in an active state and was rapidly degraded by endogenous proteolysis. Exogenous proteases accelerated activation and destruction of chitin synthetase; an acid protease from Rhizopus chinensis was the most effective activator. The activation of chitin synthetase was inhibited by a soluble protein in the cell-free extract. Treatment with the detergent Brij 36T stabilized the chitin synthetase of crude preparations against spontaneous changes. Stabilized preparations were rapidly activated by exogenous proteases. The different behaviour of chitin synthetases in crude extracts of mycelium and yeast cells is consistent with, and perhaps partially responsible for, the differences in wall construction between mycelial and yeast forms of M. rouxii.  (+info)

KNR4, a suppressor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cwh mutants, is involved in the transcriptional control of chitin synthase genes. (2/299)

The KNR4 gene, originally isolated by complementation of a K9 killer-toxin-resistant mutant displaying reduced levels of both 1,3-beta-glucan and 1,3-beta-glucan synthase activity, was recloned from a YCp50 genomic library as a suppressor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae calcofluor-white-hypersensitive (cwh) mutants. In these mutants, which were characterized by increased chitin levels, the suppressor effect of KNR4 resulted, for some of them, in a lowering of polymer content to close to wild-type level, with no effect on the contents of beta-glucan and mannan. In all cases, this effect was accompanied by a strong reduction in mRNA levels corresponding to CHS1, CHS2 and CHS3, encoding chitin synthases, without affecting expression of FKS1 and RHO1, two genes encoding the catalytic subunit and a regulatory component of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase, respectively. Overexpression of KNR4 also inhibited expression of CHS genes in wild-type strains and in two other cwh mutants, whose sensitivity to calcofluor white was not suppressed by this gene. The physiological relevance of the KNR4 transcriptional effect was addressed in two different ways. In a wild-type strain exposed to alpha-factor, overexpression of this gene inhibited CHS1 induction and delayed shmoo formation, two events which are triggered in response to the pheromone, whereas it did not affect bud formation and cell growth in a chs1 chs2 double mutant. A chimeric protein made by fusing green fluorescent protein to the C terminus of Knr4p which fully complemented a knr4delta mutation was found to localize in patches at presumptive bud sites in unbudded cells and at the incipient bud site during bud emergence. Taken together, these results demonstrate that KNR4 has a regulatory role in chitin deposition and in cell wall assembly. A mechanism by which this gene affects expression of CHS genes is proposed.  (+info)

Chs7p, a new protein involved in the control of protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum that is specifically engaged in the regulation of chitin synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (3/299)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHS7 gene encodes an integral membrane protein located in the ER which is directly involved in chitin synthesis through the regulation of chitin synthase III (CSIII) activity. In the absence of CHS7 product, Chs3p, but not other secreted proteins, is retained in the ER, leading to a severe defect in CSIII activity and consequently, to a reduced rate of chitin synthesis. In addition, chs7 null mutants show the yeast phenotypes associated with a lack of chitin: reduced mating efficiency and lack of the chitosan ascospore layer, clear indications of Chs7p function throughout the S. cerevisiae biological cycle. CHS3 overexpression does not lead to increased levels of CSIII because the Chs3p excess is retained in the ER. However, joint overexpression of CHS3 and CHS7 increases the export of Chs3p from the ER and this is accompanied by a concomitant increase in CSIII activity, indicating that the amount of Chs7p is a limiting factor for CSIII activity. Accordingly, CHS7 transcription is increased when elevated amounts of chitin synthesis are detected. These results show that Chs7p forms part of a new mechanism specifically involved in Chs3p export from the ER and consequently, in the regulation of CSIII activity.  (+info)

Proliferation of intrahyphal hyphae caused by disruption of csmA, which encodes a class V chitin synthase with a myosin motor-like domain in Aspergillus nidulans. (4/299)

We have found that the Aspergillus nidulans csmA gene encodes a novel protein which consists of an N-terminal myosin motor-like domain and a C-terminal chitin synthase domain (M. Fujiwara, H. Horiuchi, A. Ohta, and M. Takagi, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 236:75-78, 1997). To clarify the roles of csmA in fungal morphogenesis, we constructed csmA null mutants. The growth rate of the mutant colonies was almost the same as that of the wild-type strain, but hyphal growth was severely inhibited when a chitin-binding reagent, Calcofluor white or Congo red, was added to the medium. Moreover, morphological abnormalities in tip growth and septum formation were identified microscopically. Proliferation of intracellular new hyphae, called intrahyphal hyphae, which behaved as intrinsic hyphae, was the most striking phenotypic feature among them. These phenotypes were not suppressed when the only chitin synthase domain of csmA was expressed under the control of the alcA promoter, whereas they were suppressed when the intact form of csmA was expressed. Therefore, it was concluded that the product of csmA (CsmA) has important roles in polarized cell wall synthesis and maintenance of cell wall integrity and that the myosin motor-like domain is indispensable for these functions.  (+info)

Differential inhibitory effects of protoberberines on sterol and chitin biosyntheses in Candida albicans. (5/299)

The anti-Candida potentials of 12 Korean medicinal plants were explored: methanol extracts from Coptis rhizoma and Phellodendron amurense caused significant inhibition of growth of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis. The predominant active components of the extracts were the protoberberines berberine and palmatine; the most potent inhibition of growth was exhibited by berberine on C. krusei (MIC <4 mg/L) and palmatine on C. parapsilosis (MIC 16 mg/L). Both berberine and palmatine inhibited the in-vivo rate of incorporation of L-[methyl-14C]methionine into C-24 of ergosterol in C. albicans (50% inhibition concentration (IC50 values), 25 microM and 300 microM, respectively); this result suggests that sterol 24-methyl transferase (24-SMT) is one of the cellular targets for the antifungal activity of the protoberberines. In-vitro 24-SMT activity in microsomes from the yeast growth form of C. albicans was inhibited by both berberine (inhibition constant (Ki) 232 microM) and palmatine (Ki 257 microM) in a non-competitive manner; inhibition of 24-SMT was more marked for the mycelial form than for the yeast growth form of this organism. Palmatine inhibited chitin synthase from both the yeast and mycelial growth phases of C. albicans in a non-competitive manner (Ki 780 microM). The effects of protoberberines, extracted from established medicinal plants, on both sterol and cell wall biosyntheses in pathogenic fungi indicate that the potential of these compounds, or their semi-synthetic derivatives, as a novel class of antifungal agents should be investigated more fully.  (+info)

The Candida albicans CHS4 gene complements a Saccharomyces cerevisiae skt5/chs4 mutation and is involved in chitin biosynthesis. (6/299)

The Candida albicans CHS4 gene encoding chitin synthase 4 has been isolated using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHS4/SKT5 gene as a probe. The gene contains a 2061 bp open reading frame capable of encoding a protein of 687 amino acids (76053 Da). No intron was observed in the gene. Disruption of CHS4 in C. albicans yielded a Calcofluor-resistant phenotype, indicating that Chs4p contributes to chitin biosynthesis. Consistent with this, overexpression of Chs4p under the regulation of the ScGAL1 promoter enhanced chitin synthase 3 activity in S. cerevisiae 7- to 38-fold. In addition, chs3 and chs4 null mutants were significantly defective in Calcofluor white staining and their chitin content was 10% of that of the parental strain. Chs4p of C. albicans and S. cerevisiae showed 61% identity in the C-terminal half of the proteins and that region of C. albicans Chs4p complemented the Chs4p function of a mutant of S. cerevisiae resistant to Calcofluor white. Therefore, it appears that Chs4p is involved in chitin synthase 3 activity by combining with Chs3p to interact synergistically in chitin biosynthesis.  (+info)

Active site determination of yeast geranylgeranyl protein transferase type I expressed in Escherichia coli. (7/299)

The ram2 and cal1 genes encode the alpha and beta subunits of yeast geranylgeranyl protein transferase type I (GGPT-I), respectively. Arginine 166 of the beta subunit was changed to isoleucine (betaR166I), histidine 216 to aspartic acid (betaH216D), and asparagine 282 to alanine (betaN282A) by sequential PCR using mutagenic primers. The mutants were expressed under the same conditions as the wild-type and were assayed for GGPT-I activity. Wild-type yeast GGPT-I, alphaH145D, alphaD140N, betaR166I, betaH216D and betaN282A mutant GGPT-Is were partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by a Q-Sepharose column. Characterization studies were performed using the active fraction of the Q-Sepharose column. In the chemical modification reactions, the catalytic activity of purified enzyme decreased in proportion to the concentration of modifying reagents, such as phenylglyoxal and diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC). Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) protected the enzyme activity from the modification with phenylglyoxal. The measurement of GGPP binding to wild-type and five mutant GGPT-Is was performed by a gel-filtration assay. The binding of GGPP to the betaR166I mutant was low and the Km value for GGPP in the betaR166I mutant increased about 29-fold. Therefore, the results suggest a role for this arginine residue that directly influences the GGPP binding. The activity of the DEPC-modified GGPT-I was inhibited by 80% at 5 mM DEPC. The differential absorption at 242 nm may suggest that at this concentration the modified histidine residues were 1.5 mol per GGPT-I. The protein substrate, glutathione S-transferase fused undecapeptide (GST-CAIL) protected the enzyme from inactivation by DEPC, and the Km value for GST-CAIL in the betaH216D mutant increased about 12-fold. The trypsin digestion of [14C]DEPC-modified enzyme yielded a single radioactive peptide. As a result of the sequence of this radioactive peptide, the histidine 216 residue was assumed to be an essential part of binding of peptide substrate.  (+info)

Chitin synthase III: synthetic lethal mutants and "stress related" chitin synthesis that bypasses the CSD3/CHS6 localization pathway. (8/299)

We screened Saccharomyces strains for mutants that are synthetically lethal with deletion of the major chitin synthase gene CHS3. In addition to finding, not surprisingly, that mutations in major cell wall-related genes such as FKS1 (glucan synthase) and mutations in any of the Golgi glycosylation complex genes (MNN9 family) are lethal in combination with chs3Delta, we found that a mutation in Srv2p, a bifunctional regulatory gene, is notably lethal in the chs3 deletion. In extending studies of fks1-chitin synthase 3 interactions, we made the surprising discovery that deletion of CSD3/CHS6, a gene normally required for Chs3p delivery and activity in vivo, was not lethal with fks1 and, in fact, that lack of Csd3p/Chs6p did not decrease the high level of stress-related chitin made in the fks1 mutant. This finding suggests that "stress response" chitin synthesis proceeds through an alternate Chs3p targeting pathway.  (+info)

Myosin II-dependent contraction of the cytokinetic ring and primary septum formation by chitin synthase II are interdependent processes during cytokinesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hence, null mutants of myosin II (myo1 Δ) and chitin synthase II (chs2 Δ) share multiple morphological and molecular phenotypes. To understand the nature of their interdependent functions, we will seek to identify genes undergoing transcriptional regulation in chs2 Δ strains and to establish a transcription signature profile for comparison with myo1 Δ strains. A total of 467 genes were commonly regulated between myo1Δ and chs2Δ mutant strains (p ≤ 0.01). Common regulated biological process categories identified by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) in both gene expression profiles were: protein biosynthesis, RNA processing, and stress response. Expression of 17/20 genes in the main transcriptional fingerprint for cell wall stress was confirmed in the chs2Δ strain versus 5/20 for the myo1Δ strain. One of these
Differential gene expression signatures for cell wall integrity found in chitin synthase II chs2 Δ and myosin II myo1 Δ deficient cytokinesis mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, genome contains at least five chitin synthase-encoding genes. chsB is essential for normal hyphal growth. chsA and chsC are likely to be cooperatively req
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis (IA), a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised humans. The echinocandin caspofungin, adopted as a second-line therapy in combating IA, is a β-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor, which, when used in high concentrations, reverts the anticipated A. fumigatus growth inhibition, a phenomenon called the caspofungin paradoxical effect (CPE). The CPE has been widely associated with increased chitin content in the cell wall due to a compensatory upregulation of chitin synthase-encoding genes. Here, we demonstrate that the CPE is dependent on the cell wall integrity (CWI) mitogen-activated protein kinase MpkAMPK1 and its associated transcription factor (TF) RlmARLM1, which regulate chitin synthase gene expression in response to different concentrations of caspofungin. Furthermore, the calcium- and calcineurin-dependent TF CrzA binds to and regulates the expression of specific chitin synthase genes during the ...
Fungi cause disease in plant and animal hosts. The extent to which virulence determinants are conserved between both classes of pathogens is unknown. We have developed a dual plant-animal infection model based on a single strain of Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of vascular wilt disease in plants and an emerging opportunistic pathogen of humans. Injection of microconidia of the well-characterized tomato pathogenic isolate 4287 in the lateral tail vein of immunodepressed mice resulted in disseminated infection of multiple organs and death of the animals. Knockout mutants in genes encoding a Pmk1-type mitogen-activated protein kinase, the pH response transcription factor PacC or a class V chitin synthase, all previously shown to be implicated in virulence on tomato plants, were tested in the disseminated mouse model. Our results indicate that some of these virulence factors play functionally distinct roles during infection of tomato and mice. Thus, a single F. oxysporum strain can be used to ...
Cytokinesis is a crucial event in the cell cycle of all living cells. In fungal cells, it requires co-ordinated contraction of an actomyosin ring and synthesis of both plasmatic membrane and a septum structure that will constitute the new cell wall end. Schizosaccharomyces pombe contains four essential putative (1,3)β-d-glucan synthase catalytic subunits, Bgs1p to Bgs4p. Here we examined the function of Bgs1p in septation by studying the lethal phenotypes of bgs1(+) shut-off and bgs1Delta cells and demonstrated that Bgs1p is responsible and essential for linear (1,3)β-d-glucan and primary septum formation. bgs1(+) shut-off generates a more than 300-fold Bgs1p reduction, but the septa still present large amounts of disorganized linear (1,3)β-d-glucan and partial primary septa. Conversely, both structures are absent in bgs1Delta cells, where there is no Bgs1p. The septum analysis of bgs1(+)-repressed cells indicates that linear (1,3)β-d-glucan is necessary but not sufficient for primary septum ...
Component Of The Exomer Complex; Exomer Also Contains Csh6p, Bch1p, Bch2p, And Bud7p And Is Involved In Export Of Selected Proteins, Such As Chitin Synthase Chs3p, From The Golgi To The Plasma Membrane; Chs5p Is The Only Protein With A BRCT Domain That Is Not Localized To The Nucleus
SH3-domain Protein Located In The Bud Neck And Cytokinetic Actin Ring; Relocalizes From Bud Neck To Nucleus Upon DNA Replication Stress; Activates The Chitin Synthase Activity Of Chs2p During Cytokinesis; Suppressor Of Growth And Cytokinesis Defects Of Chs2 Phospho-mutants
The chitin synthase genes chs-1 and chs-2 are essential for C. elegans development and responsible for chitin deposition in the eggshell and pharynx, respectively ...
First, the Chitin Synthase 3 (CHS3) gene was subcloned out of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (Bakers Yeast) cDNA (complementary DNA - contains no introns, thus can be used in prokaryotes) with biobrick restriction sites (EcoR1, Xbal1 on one end, and Spe1, Pst1 on the other). CHS3 was chosen as it was found to be the major enzyme (knockouts had 80% reduced Chitin) in its family and requires no co-enzyme or activating compounds. Upon running CHS3 through NEB Cutter V2.0, we found a PST1 restriction site which is incompatible with the biobrick standard (EcoR1, Xbal, Spe1, Pst1). To remove this Pst1 site, we inserted CHS3 into a biobrick vector plasmid, and performed site-directed mutagenesis (SDM). Research revealed that chitin synthase is a transmembrane enzyme, and in order to simulate similar conditions, we decided to use the pMAL vector by NEB which contains a periplasmic membrane signal sequence. CHS3 was subcloned in to the pMAL-p5x NEB vector by first PCRing it out of the biobrick vector plasmid ...
Martin, Helene and Dagkessamanskaia, Adilia and Satchanska, Galina and Dallies, Nathalie and Francois, Jean (1999) KNR4, a suppressor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cwh mutants, is involved in the transcriptional control of chitin synthase genes. Microbiology, 145 (1). pp. 249-258. ISSN 1350-0872 ...
GGP Systems partners with Strata Service Solutions Limited (Strata) to power a new shared service National Land and Property Gazetteer (NLPG) on behalf of East Devon, Exeter City and Teignbridge ...
Chitin synthase (CHS), a potential target for eco-friendly insecticides, plays an essential role in chitin formation in insects. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding chitin synthase 2 (BdCHS2) was cloned and characterized in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. The BdCHS2 cDNA had 4417 nucleotides, containing an open reading frame of 4122 nucleotides, which encoded 1373 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 158.5 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis with other insect CHSs suggested that BdCHS2 belongs to insect CHS2. The BdCHS2 transcript was predominately found in midgut but was detected at low levels in fat body, Malpighian tubules, integument, and trachea. Moreover, BdCHS2 was expressed in all developmental stages, and highly expressed in the feeding stages. There was a positive relationship between BdCHS2 expression and total chitin content during development. Furthermore, both the gene expression and chitin content in midgut decreased when the insect was fed for 24 h, then
Transcriptional regulation of chitin synthases by calcineurin controls paradoxical growth of Aspergillus fumigatus in response to caspofungin.
Though the silencing is not yet 100 percent effective in their study, Zhu said it does leave the mosquitos body with less ability to combat insecticides, which must penetrate the mosquitos exoskeleton. If the gene, called chitin synthase, could be completely silenced, the mosquitoes may die without the use of pesticides because the chitin biosynthesis pathway would be blocked, Zhu said.. Zhu theorized using nanoparticles to deliver dsRNA to mosquito larvae might work because of the low success of manually injecting larvae with dsRNA. Mosquito larvae live in water but because dsRNA quickly dissipates in water, it cant be directly added to the larvaes food source. Zhus group discovered that using nanoparticles assembled from dsRNA facilitates their ingestion by mosquito larvae because the nanoparticles dont dissolve in water. Zhu said the nanoparticles may also stabilize the dsRNA in water.. Now insects will have a much greater likelihood of getting these nanoparticles containing the dsRNA ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Chitin is abundant in nature due to its compact intractable and inert structure resulted from strong hydrogen bonding network. Chitin is known as one of the second most abundant polysaccharides in nature, after cellulose. In crustaceans, chitin is present in a complex structure with calcium carbonate, forming the rigid skeleton of carapace, shell and tail. In insects, chitin is the main building block of the back plate. This intractable characteristic of chitin is superior in the animal / plant kingdom as protective skeleton but is a major disadvantage for chemical / physical modification. Therefore more efficient methods of reacting or modifying chitin (especially alpha-chitin as it is the most abundant of the 3 types of naturally occurring chitin) is necessary, in order to utilize this biomass as a major renewable raw materials ...
Arakane Y, Specht CA, Kramer KJ, Muthukrishnan S, Beeman RW. Chitin synthases are required for survival, fecundity and egg hatch in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008 Oct; 38(10):959-62 ...
pfam08407 (PSSM ID: 400626): Conserved Protein Domain Family Chitin_synth_1N, This is the N-terminal domain of Chitin synthase (pfam01644)
The structure of chitin was determined by Albert Hofmann in 1929.[3]. Chitin is a modified polysaccharide that contains nitrogen; it is synthesized from units of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (to be precise, 2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-D-glucose). These units form covalent β-(1→4)-linkages (like the linkages between glucose units forming cellulose). Therefore, chitin may be described as cellulose with one hydroxyl group on each monomer replaced with an acetyl amine group. This allows for increased hydrogen bonding between adjacent polymers, giving the chitin-polymer matrix increased strength.. In its pure, unmodified form, chitin is translucent, pliable, resilient, and quite tough. In most arthropods, however, it is often modified, occurring largely as a component of composite materials, such as in sclerotin, a tanned proteinaceous matrix, which forms much of the exoskeleton of insects. Combined with calcium carbonate, as in the shells of crustaceans and molluscs, chitin produces a much stronger ...
Chitin can easily be digested by humans whereas cellulose cannot be digested by humans but a suitable source of fibers. Your body cant digest or absorb fiber. The content is provided for information purposes only. Can Humans Digest Chitin? According to Wikipedia, humans have some ability to digest Could COVID-19 have wiped out the Neandertals? The structure of chitin is most similar to that of cellulose. What they discovered is that while most living primates have only one copy of the CHIA gene, early primates, which tended to be very small, had at least three working copies. Exoskeletons: Exoskeletons are the hard, chitinous coverings on the bodies of arthropods. This dietary fiber is beneficial because it takes longer to digest and reaches further into your colon than most other fiber. Chitin is a structural component of arthropod exoskeletons, fungi cell walls, mollusk shells, and fish scales. Chitin is the second most abundant natural polymer after cellulose. You can be assured our editors ...
Chitin and its derivatives-as a potential resource as well as multiple functional substrates-have generated attractive interest in various fields such as biomedical, pharmaceutical, food and environmental industries, since the first isolation of chitin in 1811. Moreover, chitosan and its chitooligosaccharides (COS) are degraded products of chitin through enzymatic and acidic hydrolysis processes; and COS, in particular, is well suited for potential biological application, due to the biocompatibility and nontoxic nature of chitosan. In this review, we investigate the current bioactivities of chitin derivatives, which are all correlated with their biomedical properties. Several new and cutting edge insights here may provide a molecular basis for the mechanism of chitin, and hence may aid its use for medical and pharmaceutical applications.
cellulose synthase (EC 2.4.1.12); chitin synthase (EC 2.4.1.16); dolichyl-phosphate β-D-mannosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.83); dolichyl-phosphate β-glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.117); N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.-); N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.-); hyaluronan synthase (EC 2.4.1.212); chitin oligosaccharide synthase (EC 2.4.1.-); β-1,3-glucan synthase (EC 2.4.1.34); β-1,4-mannan synthase (EC 2.4.1.-); β-mannosylphosphodecaprenol-mannooligosaccharide α-1,6-mannosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.199); UDP-Galf: rhamnopyranosyl-N-acetylglucosaminyl-PP-decaprenol β-1,4/1,5-galactofuranosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.287); UDP-Galf: galactofuranosyl-galactofuranosyl-rhamnosyl-N-acetylglucosaminyl-PP-decaprenol β-1,5/1,6-galactofuranosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.288); dTDP-L-Rha: N-acetylglucosaminyl-PP-decaprenol α-1,3-L-rhamnosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.289 ...
SCIN - Self-regenerating Chitin INduction Chitin, found in the exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans as well as the cell walls of fungi, is one of the most abundant organic polymers in nature. Like keratin in skin, it comprises the protective outer layer of these organisms. Our goal is to generate a layer of chitin from a lawn of bacteria (Escherichia coli) in response to an external molecular cue. This cue induces chitin synthesis (fast) and cell lysis (slow), allowing for a build-up of chitin followed by cell lysis and subsequent release into the top layer of the lawn. Abrasions expose cells to the external cue for self-repair. This would create a regenerative chitin biolayer with potential medical and industrial applications. ...
Organ and tissue formation requires a finely tuned temporal and spatial regulation of differentiation programmes. This is necessary to balance sufficient plasticity to undergo morphogenesis with the acquisition of the mature traits needed for physiological activity. Here we addressed this issue by a …
Im having troubles finding a description or picture of how chitin molecules bind together to form the exoskeletons of arthropods, crustaceans, etc. I have found a couple of cool pictures of the chitin molecule itself, but no images of how they link. My biology book has a long description of how glucose forms either cellulose or starch depending on if it is an alpha or beta configuration, and how they link up to form 3D structures. But it just shows a picture of the chitin molecule and completely blows of any 3D structure description. It is not really for any purpose, Im just very curious. Thanks for your help in advance. BK ...
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Previously, we showed that phagocytosable nonantigenic chitin, a seemingly inert molecule, induces endogenous Th1 cytokines (IL-12, IL-18, TNF-α, IFN-γ) (9, 10, 11). These are cytokines that are generally seen at early stages of infection (innate immunity) caused by intracellular bacteria such as M. bovis BCG (9, 10, 11). Innate immunity is important for protection against intracellular bacterial infections and to induce acquired immunity specific for bacteria (22). It is well established that Th1 cytokines, produced in innate immunity, down-regulate allergic immune (Th2) responses (18). The present study of recall responses clearly shows that allergen-stimulated IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 production is significantly inhibited by the presence of chitin in the spleen cell cultures (Fig. 1⇑). Our results suggest that IFN-γ produced by NK cells, at least in part, is responsible for the inhibition of the production of these Th2 cytokines.. The provocative findings are that chitin, given orally, ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary file 1: Number of embryos used for laser ablation. by the outer layer of cells of the embryo, known as the epidermis. In these cells, motor-like proteins called myosins pull against a mesh-like scaffold inside the actin was called from the cell cytoskeleton; this pulling can be thought to press the embryo ODM-201 throughout and lead it to develop longer. Six pieces of cells, operating through the comparative check out the tail, constitute the epidermis of the embryo. Myosin is mainly energetic in two pieces of cells that work along both sides from the embryo. In the pieces above and below these pieces (quite simply, those for the top and lower edges from the worm), the myosins are significantly less energetic. However, it ODM-201 isnt fully realized how this distribution of myosin causes worms to elongate just along the head-to-tail axis. Vuong-Brender et al. have finally mapped the potent makes exerted in the cells from the worms epidermis. The experiments ...
Silkworm pupae meal is a protein-rich feed ingredient with a high nutritional value. Its crude protein content ranges from 50% DM to more than 80% DM (for defatted meal). The lysine (6-7% of the protein) and methionine (2-3% of the protein) contents are particularly high. However, the true protein (calculated as the sum of amino acids) in silkworms was found to correspond to only 73% of the crude protein content (Finke, 2002), which was explained by the presence of chitin, since this component contains nitrogen. However, the chitin content of pupae meal is relatively low, about 3-4% DM (Finke, 2002; Suresh et al., 2012). The presence of chitin and insoluble protein may also explain the presence of fibre, and values of 6-12% DM of ADF have been reported (Finke, 2002; Ioselevich et al., 2004). Undefatted pupae meal is rich in fat, typically in the 20-40% DM range. Defatted meal contains less than 10% oil in the DM. Silkworm oil contains a high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, notably ...
chitin is a fascinating polysaccharide for a number of reasons. First, it is the second most abundant polycarbohydrate used by Mother Nature as a structural component both in the animal and in the plant kingdoms. Second, chitin has a chemical structure which is similar to that of cellulose
The breakdown of chitin within an acidic upland grassland was studied. The aim was to provide a molecular characterisation of microorganisms involved in chitin degradation in the soil using soil micro
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The Cleaning & Hygiene Suppliers Association (CHSA) is advising consumers of soft tissues products and plastic refuse sacks to seek, along with the CHSA logo itself, the Manufacturing Accreditation Schemes logos because the marques of quality. Our logos are important, every conveying a particular meaning and set of values to those who see them, stated CHSA chair and managing director of Harrison Wipes, Stephen Harrison. To keep their value and credibility its essential theyre used correctly by our members and understood totally by consumers.. The two logos of the Manufacturing Standards Accreditation Schemes are the only marques proving scheme membership and solely fully audited members have the authority to make use of them. Every member of a Manufacturing Standards Accreditation Scheme has successfully passed a detailed auditing course of designed to make sure consumers get precisely what they pay for. Scheme members are then re-audited yearly to keep up their membership, with a traffic ...
View mouse Bicdl1 Chr5:115648175-115731621 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Teleomorph: ascostromata perithecial, 0.1-0.25 mm diam., globose to oblate, often elongated parallel to the long axis of the substratum, without a papilla, subcuticular, becoming ± superficial, gregarious, frequently forming raised longitudinally elongate groups, and then with a well-developed dark clypeus that is continuous between ascomata. Peridium 16-20 µm thick, glabrous, composed of compressed to polygonal cells, inwardly thicker and sometimes with elongate cells around the ostiole. Interascal tissue of numerous narrow cellular pseudoparaphyses ca 1.5 µm diam. Asci 60-100 x 13-16 µm, clavate, thick-walled and fissitunicate, 8-spored. Ascospores 26-34 x 4-5 µm, cylindrical-fusiform, hyaline and sometimes later brownish when over-mature, 1- to 3-septate, with the segment immediately above the primary septum slightly swollen, with a broad gelatinous sheath visible in some collections.. ...
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Complete information for BICDL1 gene (Protein Coding), BICD Family Like Cargo Adaptor 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Chitin deacetylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetamido groups of N-acetylglucosamine in chitin, has been purified to homogeneity from mycelial extracts of the fungus Mucor rouxii and further characterized. The enzyme exhibits a low pI (approximately 3). Its apparent molecular mass was determined to be approximately 75 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and approximately 80 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography, suggesting that the enzyme exists as a monomer. Carbohydrate analysis of purified chitin deacetylase revealed that the enzyme is a high-mannose glycoprotein and that its carbohydrate content is approximately 30% by weight. Chitin deacetylase is active on several chitinous substrates and chitin derivatives. The enzyme requires at least four N-acetylglucosamine residues (chitotetraose) for catalysis, and it is inhibited by carboxylic acids, particularly acetic acid. When glycol chitin (a water-soluble chitin derivative) was used as substrate, ...
LEONARDO LIMA PEPINO DE MACEDO, Cenargen; J. D. ANTONINO DE SOUZA JUNIOR, UNB; R. R. COELHO, UNB; F. C. A. FONSECA, UNB; A. A. P. FIRMINO, UFRGS; MARIA CRISTINA MATTAR DA SILVA, Cenargen; RODRIGO DA ROCHA FRAGOSO, CPAC; ERIKA VALERIA SALIBA ALBUQUERQUE FR, Cenargen; MARILIA SANTOS SILVA, Cenargen; J. DE ALMEIDA ENGLER, INSTITUT NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE AGRONOMIQUE, FRANCE; W. R. TERRA, USP; MARIA FATIMA GROSSI DE SA, Cenargen ...
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n (/ˈkaɪtɪn/ KY-tin), a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose. It is a primary component of cell walls in fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods, such as crustaceans (e.g., crabs, lobsters and shrimps) and insects, the radulae of molluscs, cephalopod beaks, and the scales of fish and lissamphibians. The structure of chitin is comparable to another polysaccharide - cellulose, forming crystalline nanofibrils or whiskers. In terms of function, it may be compared to the protein keratin. Chitin has proved useful for several medicinal, industrial and biotechnological purposes. The English word chitin comes from the French word chitine, which was derived in 1821 from the Greek word χιτών (chiton), meaning covering. A similar word, chiton, refers to a marine animal with a protective shell. The structure of chitin was determined by Albert Hofmann in 1929. Chitin is a modified polysaccharide that contains nitrogen; it is synthesized from units of ...
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Bridelia monoica in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed on 07-Oct-06 ...
The normal considerations (chitin is heavy, so organisms with chitin armor wont get all that big) can be hand-waved away even without resorting to a fantasy setting. Creatures that live underwater can bear greater weight, for example, and in a high-oxygen biome insect-style respiration is easier and operative over larger distances. Even if we dont get organisms on a scale that would allow for breastplate-sized chitin sections, armorers could achieve a lot with chitin scale and layering.. I dont know how useful it would be as large, solid plates in the first place. Even though its a strong barrier, there are lots of practical issues. The biggest one I can think of offhand is that it isnt going to be repairable-- you cant melt it down and reforge it, nor weld on a patch, or anything else. You just have to replace the piece. Scale-style armor doesnt suffer that same drawback, as you can replace damaged sections.. Why bother? (alternatively, it has to be worth it). That isnt meant to be a ...
Chen J, Tang B, Chen H, Yao Q, et al. (2010). Different functions of the insect soluble and membrane-bound trehalase genes in chitin biosynthesis revealed by RNA interference. PLoS One 5: e10133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010133 PMid:20405036 PMCid:2853572 Crowe JH, Crowe LM and Chapman D (1984). Preservation of membranes in anhydrobiotic organisms: the role of trehalose. Science 223: 701-703. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.223.4637.701 PMid:17841031 Davidson P and Sun WQ (2001). Effect of sucrose/raffinose mass ratios on the stability of co-lyophilized protein during storage above the Tg. Pharm. Res. 18: 474-479. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1011002326825 PMid:11451034 de Almeida FM, Bonini BM, Beton D, Jorge JA, et al. (2009). Heterologous expression in Escherichia coli of Neurospora crassa neutral trehalase as an active enzyme. Protein Expr. Purif. 65: 185-189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2008.11.010 PMid:19073263 Elbein AD, Pan YT, Pastuszak I and Carroll D (2003). New ...
Biosynthesis of plant and fungal (Oomycete) cell wall polysaccharides: biochemical and biophysical approaches for the study of membrane-bound complexes with glycosyltransferase activity and characterization of the corresponding polysaccharides, with particular emphasis on cellulose, (1,3)-beta-D-glucan and chitin biosynthesis ...
Biosynthesis of plant and fungal (Oomycete) cell wall polysaccharides: biochemical and biophysical approaches for the study of membrane-bound complexes with glycosyltransferase activity and characterization of the corresponding polysaccharides, with particular emphasis on cellulose, (1,3)-beta-D-glucan and chitin biosynthesis ...
Acetylcholine Receptors. Acetylcholinesterase.. Aflatoxin.. Agricultural Hygiene.. Agrocin 84.. Analysis, Instrumentation and Techniques.. Animal Health Products.. Antibiotic Resistance.. Antibiotics.. Auxins, indole auxins.. Avian Repellants.. Avian Species.. Bactericide.. Bacteriocin.. Bioassays, Phytotoxicity to Succeeding Crops.. Biodegradability, Assessment.. Biodegradation in Soil.. Biological Control, Survey.. Biological Control of Plant Diseases.. Biological Control of Weeds.. Biomass, Soil Microbial Biomass.. Biopesticides.. Brassinosteroids.. Capillary Electrophoresis.. Chemical Activators of Disease Resistance.. Chemical Properties Estimation.. Chemotherapy.. Chirality and Chiral Pesticides.. Chitin Biosynthesis Inhibitors.. Chlorocarbons and Chlorohydrocarbons-Toxic Aromatics.. Chromatography, HPLC.. Chromatography, TLC.. CIPAC.. Controlled Release Formulations of Pesticides.. Dibenzo-p Dioxins: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p Dioxin, Reid Disinfection.. Disinfestation.. Economic Issues ...
Tor2 is an activator of the Rom2/Rho1 pathway that regulates α-factor internalization. Since the recruitment of endocytic proteins such as actin binding proteins and the amphiphysins precedes the internalization of α-factor, I hypothesized that loss of Tor function leads to an alteration in the dynamics of the endocytic proteins. I report here that endocytic proteins, Abp1 and Rvs167, are less recruited to endocytic sites not only in tor2 but also tor1 mutants. Furthermore, I found that the endocytic proteins Rvs167 and Sjl2 are completely mistargeted to the cytoplasm in tor1∆tor2ts double mutant cells. I also demonstrate here that the efficiency of endocytic internalization or scission in all tor mutants was drastically decreased. In agreement with the Sjl2 mislocalization, I found that in tor1∆tor2ts double mutant cells, as well as other tor mutant cells, the overall PIP2 level was dramatically increased. Finally, the cell wall chitin content in tor2ts and tor1∆tor2ts mutant cells was also
Despite the economic importance of grasses as food, feed and energy crops, little is known about the genes that control their cell wall synthesis, assembly and remodelling. Here we provide a detailed transcriptome analysis that allowed the identification of genes involved in grass cell wall biogenesis. Differential gene-expression profiling, using maize oligonucleotide arrays, was used to identify genes differentially expressed between an elongating internode, containing cells exhibiting primary cell wall synthesis, and an internode that had just ceased elongation and in which many cells were depositing secondary cell wall material. This is one of only few studies specifically aimed at the identification of cell wall-related genes in grasses. Analysis identified new candidate genes for a role in primary and secondary cell wall-related processes in grasses. The results suggest that many proteins involved in cell wall-related processes during normal development are also recruited during defence-related
p,Biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low cost of chitin and chitosan have drawn immense attention in many fields including medicine, bioinspired material science, pharmaceuticals, and agriculture. Their handling and processing are difficult owing to its insolubility in neutral aqueous solution or organic solvents. One of the methods used to improve the solubility characteristics of chitin and chitosan is chemical modification. Introducing a carboxymethyl group is the most advantageous method of increasing the solubility of chitosan at neutral and alkaline pH. Carboxymethyl chitin (CMC) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) are water soluble derivatives formed by introducing CH2COOH function into the polymer which endows it with better biological properties. The functional group makes CMC/CMCS nanoparticles (NPs) efficient vehicles for the delivery of DNA, proteins, and drugs. This review provides an overview of the characteristics of CMC/CMCS NPs as well as fulfills the task of describing and ...
Chitin binding appeared to be specific and the authors presented some data that suggested that some of ChtVis-Tomato was stably bound to chitin while some seemed to be continually binding and releasing from chitin.. ChtVis-Tomato was useful for making long time lapse observations in vivo.. The ChtVis-Tomato reporter was construted in the pWALIUM10-moe vector and inserted into the Drosophila genome using phiC31 mediated integration. ChtVis-Tomato is under the regulatory control of a 5XUAS-containing promoter allowing it to be expressed in any Gal4 driver lines of D. melanogaster. The reporter is flanked by gypsy insulator sequences. pWALIUM10-moe contains a mini white gene that serves as a genetic marker in the appropriate mutant white background.. With a bit of modification and reconfiguring ChtVis-Tomato could easily be deployed in any insect and is expected to function as it has in D. melanogaster.. Lukasz F. Sobala, Ying Wang, Paul N. Adler (2015) ChtVis-Tomato, a genetic reporter for in vivo ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about chitin at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about chitin easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
The invention provides a biscuit containing abundant chitin which accounts for 5-8% of the total weight of the biscuit. The weight-losing effect of the chitin is as follows: carboniums in the chitin can be automatically attached to electronegative fat in food so as to block off the action of lipase so that the fat is not absorbed in intestine and is directly discharged out of body, wherein, the chitin is combined with the fat and then is discharged out of body but is not combined with protein in important nutrients, thus preventing harm on a human body. Therefore, the biscuit containing the abundant chitin can be eaten securely by a person who wants to reduce weight without affecting nutrient absorption; and in addition, the chitin is different from the common diet food which reaches the weight-losing effect by suppressing appetite or causing diarrhea of the person, and moreover, the chitin has the efficacy of improving a metabolism function of digestive tract.
Introduction. Chitin is a polysaccharide of animal origin found abundantly in nature and characterized by a fibrous structure. It forms the basis of the main constituent of the outer skeleton of insects and crustaceans like shrimp, crabs and lobster (Kumar et al., 2005). According to Chen (1998) the chitin structure can be modified by removing the acetyl groups, which are bond to amine radicals in the C2 position on the glucan ring, by means of a chemical hydrolysis in concentrated alkaline solution at elevated temperature to produce a deacetylated form known as chitosan.. No, H.K. et al., (2002) stated that antibacterial activity of chitosan is effective in inhibiting growth of bacteria. The antimicrobial properties of chitosan depend on its molecular weight and the type of bacterium. For gram-positive bacteria, chitosan with 470 KDa was the most effective, except for Lactbacillus sp., whereas for gram-negative bacteria, chitosan with 1,106 KDa was effective. Chitosan generally showed stronger ...
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Marshall Marine Products is expertise in manufacturing Chitin from extracted shellfish waste such as shrimps, crabs and crawfish through the deprotenization, demineralization process
A paint composition for controlling pests and allergens through inhibiting chitin synthesis, includes a mixture of 10 to 40% by weight of water, 5 to 50% by weight of resin, 0.001 to 40% by weight of a chitin inhibitor, 0.001 to 5% by weight of an organophosphate, 1 to 40% by weight of pigment, 1 to 60% by weight of a carrier material, and 1 to 20% by weight of a stabilizer, wherein the weight percentages are based on the total weight of the mixture.
Phenotype data for mouse gene Bicd1. Discover Bicd1s significant phenotypes, expression, images, histopathology and more. Data for gene Bicd1 is all freely available for download.
Read our submission to the House of Commons Permanent Committee on Finances (FINA) consultations in advance of budget 2019. 2018-08-04_Submission of the CSMB for Pre-Budget Consultations. ...
Chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is an important structural component in the cell walls of fungal pathogens. Plant chitinases are capable of degrading this component to directly inhib...
One has a pink/brown hue, the other a steely blue hue. Two full top shells, and four full bottom shell halves. Forged by Greycore there is a Chitin Shield and
Marshall Marine Products is an Indian Marine Biotechnology Company, focused on Chitin and its derivatives. We pioneered in the development of Chitin Science, working relentlessly on improving the production technologies, and exploring new opportunities for developing new and innovative applications, by exploiting the unique properties of Chitin and its Derivatives. We coordinate, communicate, and collaborate with Industrial, and Scientific Research & Development and with Academic Communities
Method for evaluating lipid-binding qualities of enterosorbent was described. Mathod takes into account peculiarities of food digestion. A number of lipid binding agents was tested. The researches showed that biologically active additive to food Chizitel extracted via electrochemical method has the highest sorption properties towards triglycerides and fatty acids in comparison with well-known enterosorbents such as chitosan and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in the investigated PH-range ...
This book contains comprehensive contributions on chitin biology and chitin metabolism related enzymes, aiming to provide with recent research progress about biology of chitin-containing organisms as well as cross-talks between chitin-containing and non-chitin-containing organisms.
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Chitinases cleave the beta-1-4-glycosidic bond between the N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units of which chitin is comprised. Chitinases are present in plants, bacteria and fungi. The first chitinase structures were solved in 1994, from a bacterium (1ctn) and a plant (2hvm). A mechanism for chitin cleavage was proposed based on several structures and was later confirmed. [1] ...
Modules of approx. 70 residues. The chitin-binding function has been demonstrated in several cases. These modules are found attached to a number of chitinase catalytic domains, but also in non-catalytic proteins either in isolation or as multiple repeats; chitin binding (EC IIa.chitin ...
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Radionuclides also termed as radioisotopes are elements that possess radioactivity. It means upon decay they emit radiations like alpha, beta or gamma particles and trans..
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The outer body is made up of segments, or rings. Muscles run all along the worm under the segments. Outside of each segment are bristles made of chitin (the same stuff that makes up the exoskeleton of insects). These bristles are like little appendages. Indeed, if you have ever tried to pull a worm out of the ground and found it hard to do, its because the worm was gripping the earth with those bristles. Sometimes worms get pulled apart during these battles. The worm can survive and regrow part of its body if not too much is lost ...
Today I would like to introduce my new Kill Team: The Zoats. Not much is known these days about this xenos race. I focused on the part of their lore regarding their supposed enslavement by the Tyranids. The question now is, how the Tyranids would be able to do so. Thus I came up with a whole new-made up unit, the Cephalotrophs. The Cephalotrophs are a small, floating breed of Tyranids who have quite a fragile body which mainly is a gland plus a little tail. While on the hunt their chitin scale is used to protect them but as soon as they find a possible host they try to hug them from behind. Flesh hooks are fired .... ...
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GO:0004100 chitin synthase activity GO:0016758 transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups ...
... chitin synthetase, and trans-N-acetylglucosaminosylase. This enzyme participates in aminosugars metabolism. Chitin Synthase is ... In enzymology, a chitin synthase (EC 2.4.1.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [ ... Chitin synthase is placed into the interior side of the cell membrane and then activated.[citation needed] GLASER L, BROWN DH ( ... Other names in common use include chitin-UDP N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, chitin-uridine diphosphate ...
chitin synthetase activity, chitin-UDP acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase activity, chitin-UDP N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase ... Gene Ontology Term: chitin synthase activity. GO ID. GO:0004100 Aspect. Molecular Function. Description. Catalysis of the ... chitin 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase activity View GO Annotations in other species in AmiGO ... activity, chitin-uridine diphosphate acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity, trans-N-acetylglucosaminosylase activity, UDP-N- ...
Three structural chitin synthase genes, chs1, chs2 and chs3, were identified in the genome of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ... Role of chitin synthase genes in Fusarium oxysporum Microbiology (Reading). 2004 Oct;150(Pt 10):3175-87. doi: 10.1099/mic. ... Three structural chitin synthase genes, chs1, chs2 and chs3, were identified in the genome of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ... The chitin synthase mutants will be useful for elucidating cell wall biogenesis in F. oxysporum and the relationship between ...
... strongly suggested that the lysis observed in daughter cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae defective in chitin synthase 1 (Chs1) ... Chitinase and chitin synthase 1: counterbalancing activities in cell separation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae J Gen Microbiol. ... strongly suggested that the lysis observed in daughter cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae defective in chitin synthase 1 (Chs1) ... Consequently, it was proposed that in wild-type cells, Chs1 acts as a repair enzyme by replenishing chitin during cytokinesis. ...
Cloning and characterization of chsD, a chitin synthase-like gene of Aspergillus fumigatus.. Mellado E1, Specht CA, Robbins PW ... A chitin synthase-like gene (chsD) was isolated from an Aspergillus fumigatus genomic DNA library. Comparisons with the ... chitin synthase activity or virulence in a neutropenic murine model of aspergillosis. The results show that the chsD product ... A chsD- mutant strain constructed by gene disruption has a 20% reduction in total mycelial chitin content; however, no ...
Protein target information for Chitin synthase 2 (Candida albicans). Find diseases associated with this biological target and ...
A) Domain structures of the seven chitin synthases in M. acridum. Chs, chitin synthase domain; MMD, myosin motor domain; Cyt-b5 ... Chitin is an important component of the fungal cell wall with a family of chitin synthases mediating its synthesis. Here, we ... Three of seven chitin synthase genes, MaChsIII, MaChsV, MaChsVII, were found to contribute to fungal virulence. Compared with ... Members of chitin synthase family in Metarhizium acridum differentially affect fungal growth, stress tolerances, cell wall ...
The yeasts Rho1p and Pkc1p regulate the transport of chitin synthase III (Chs3p) from internal stores to the plasma membrane. ... The yeasts Rho1p and Pkc1p regulate the transport of chitin synthase III (Chs3p) from internal stores to the plasma membrane ... In this study, we show that under conditions of cell stress, the steady-state localization of chitin synthase III (Chs3p) ... The yeasts Rho1p and Pkc1p regulate the transport of chitin synthase III (Chs3p) from internal stores to the plasma membrane ...
Chitin metabolism in insects: structure, function and regulation of chitin synthases and chitinases ... Chitin metabolism in insects: structure, function and regulation of chitin synthases and chitinases ... Chitin metabolism in insects: structure, function and regulation of chitin synthases and chitinases ... Chitin metabolism in insects: structure, function and regulation of chitin synthases and chitinases ...
... plays an essential role in chitin formation in insects. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding chitin synthase 2 (BdCHS2) ... Furthermore, both the gene expression and chitin content in midgut decreased when the insect was fed for 24 h, then starved for ... There was a positive relationship between BdCHS2 expression and total chitin content during development. ... These results suggest that BdCHS2 may play an important role in regulating chitin content of the midgut, and subsequently ...
PubMed journal article Chitin synthase is involved in vegetative growth, asexual reproduction and pathogenesis of Phytophthora ... In Phytophthora spp., the presence of chitin has not been demonstrated so far, although putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes, ... In Phytophthora spp., the presence of chitin has not been demonstrated so far, although putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes, ... TY - JOUR T1 - Chitin synthase is involved in vegetative growth, asexual reproduction and pathogenesis of Phytophthora capsici ...
Polar Localizing Class V Myosin Chitin Synthases Are Essential during Early Plant Infection in the Plant Pathogenic Fungus ... Weber, I., Assman, D., Thines, E. and Steinberg, G. (2006) Polar Localizing Class V Myosin Chitin Synthases Are Essential ...
Differential Expression of Chitin Synthase (CHS) and Glucan Synthase (FKS) Genes Correlates with the Formation of a Modified, ... bassiana chitin synthase (CHS) and glucan synthase (FKS) genes are down regulated in vivo. These analyses indicate that in vivo ... Lee, JI, Choi, JH, Park, BC, Park, YH, Lee, MY, Park, HM, Maeng, PJ 2004Differential expression of the chitin synthase genes of ... Bowen, AR, Chen-Wu, JL, Momany, M, Young, R, Szaniszlo, PJ, Robbins, PW 1992Classification of fungal chitin synthasesProc Natl ...
Zellbiologische und biochemische Charakterisierung des Ustilago maydis Virulenzfaktors Mcs1(Myosin-Chitinsynthase 1) ... Myosin-chitin synthase Ustilago maydis Myosin Fungal cell wall Biowissenschaften, Biologie Pathogenität ...
Chitin synthesis in Candida requires the function of a number of transmembrane chitin synthesis enzymes. Short chitin fibrils ... Role of three chitin synthase genes in the growth of Candida albicans. J Bacteriol 178:2416-2419. doi:10.1128/jb.178.8.2416- ... AP-2-Dependent Endocytic Recycling of the Chitin Synthase Chs3 Regulates Polarized Growth in Candida albicans. H. C. Knafler, I ... Differential trafficking and timed localization of two chitin synthase proteins, Chs2p and Chs3p. J Cell Biol 135:597-610. doi: ...
Collectively, these data led us to assign a critical role to the BcCHS3a chitin synthase isoform, both in fungal virulence and ... Disruption of the Bcchs3a Chitin Synthase Gene in Botrytis cinerea Is Responsible for Altered Adhesion and Overstimulation of ... Previously, we reported the isolation and characterization of a mutant in class III chitin synthase, Bcchs3a, in the ...
... a chitin synthase inhibitor (53). In Aspergillus fumigatus, two genes encoding class III chitin synthases, chsC and chsG, have ... it is suggested that classes I and IV chitin synthases, Chs3p and Chs8p, synthesize short-chitin rodlets and long-chitin ... Although class III chitin synthases are only found in fungi with high chitin content and are thought to play a key role in ... and VII are only found in fungi with high chitin contents in their cell walls. We have identified six chitin synthase genes ...
CHS8-A fourth chitin synthase gene of Candida albicans contributes to in vitro chitin synthase activity, but is dispensable for ... The synthesis of chitin is mediated by membrane-bound chitin synthases (CHSs) that locate to specialized transport vesicles, ... Din, A.B., Specht, C.A., Robbins, P.W., and Yarden, O. (1996). Chs-4, a class IV chitin synthase gene from Neurospora crassa. ... Mio, T., Yabe, T., Sudoh, M., Satoh, Y., Nakajima, T., Arisawa, M., and Yamada-Okabe, H. (1996). Role of three chitin synthase ...
Accordingly, de novo chitin synthesis may involve coordinated regulation of members of the CHS chitin synthase and CHT ... the chitin synthase and chitinase activities of cell-free extracts were measured, as well as the chitin content of cell walls ... In C. albicans, the total specific activities of both chitin synthase and chitinase were higher in the hyphal form, which was ... However, deletion of chitinase genes did not markedly affect specific chitin synthase activity, and deletion of single CHS ...
Valdivieso, M. H., Mol, P. C., Shaw, J. A., Cabib, E., Duran, A. (1991). "CAL1, a gene required for activity of chitin synthase ... the CSD2 gene product is related to chitin synthases and to developmentally regulated proteins in Rhizobium species and Xenopus ... It is involved in the synthesis of the chitin ring that forms in the cell wall just before bud emergence. This ring remains at ... Appears to be responsible for the synthesis of the majority of the chitin found in the cell wall periphery. ...
RNA interference of chitin synthase genes inhibits chitin biosynthesis and affects larval performance in Leptinotarsa ... In the present paper, three complete chitin synthase cDNA sequences (LdChSAa, LdChSAb and LdChSB) were cloned. LdChSAa and ... RNAi of LdChSAa+LdChSAb and LdChSAa lowered chitin contents in whole body and integument samples, and thinned tracheal taenidia ... In contrast, silencing of LdChSB significantly reduced foliage consumption, decreased chitin content in midgut sample, damaged ...
Chitin synthase activity could be increased sixfold by digestion of enzyme preparations with trypsin for short periods. The ... Chitin synthase (EC 2.4.1.16) from membrane preparations of Aspergillus nidulans was characterized and the optimum conditions ... Chitin Synthase in Aspergillus nidulans: Properties and Proteolytic Activation * N. S. RYDER and J. F. PEBERDY ... SUMMARY: Chitin synthase (EC 2.4.1.16) from membrane preparations of Aspergillus nidulans was characterized and the optimum ...
Knocking down chitin synthase 2 by RNAi is lethal to the cotton boll weevil. ...
Implications for chitin synthase mechanism",. abstract = "Most fungi have multiple chitin synthases (CSs) that may make chitin ... Implications for chitin synthase mechanism. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Chitin Synthase Medicine & Life ... Orlean P, Funai D. Priming and elongation of chitin chains: Implications for chitin synthase mechanism. Cell Surface. 2019 Dec; ... Orlean, P & Funai, D 2019, Priming and elongation of chitin chains: Implications for chitin synthase mechanism, Cell Surface ...
The development of wing plays a key role in insect physiological activities and mainly involves chitin and hence, the ... of the AP and TSH genes involved in wing development and that the TRE inhibitor validamycin can co-regulate chitin metabolism ... The development of wing plays a key role in insect physiological activities and mainly involves chitin and hence, the ... Chitin Synthase Gene Expression in Wing Bud Tissue after Knocking Down Three TRE Genes. Chitin is the main component of the ...
... bassiana chitin synthase (CHS) and glucan synthase (FKS) genes are down regulated in vivo. These analyses indicate that in vivo ... The in vivo cell walls still contained both chitin and 1,3-beta-glucan, but they were significantly thinner than in vitro cell ... Differential expression of chitin synthase (CHS) and glucan synthase (FKS) genes correlates with the formation of a modified, ... "Differential expression of chitin synthase (CHS) and glucan synthase (FKS) genes correlates with the formation of a modified, ...
Potent Chitin Synthase Inhibitors from Plants. , 16(1): 58 - 63. Amrutha Vijayakumar, Ajith Madhavan*, Chinchu Bose, ...
In addition, the expression of chitin synthase genes was highly elevated in the ∆mas-1 strain, suggesting the gene product is ... The ∆mas-1 strain showed increased tolerance to sublethal concentrations of the chitin synthase inhibitor polyoxin D, when ... chitin synthase natural products; antifungal; Aspergillus tubingensis; Neurospora crassa; cell wall; chitin synthase ... In addition, the expression of chitin synthase genes was highly elevated in the ∆mas-1 strain, suggesting the gene product is ...
Transcriptional regulation of chitin synthases by calcineurin controls paradoxical growth of Aspergillus fumigatus in response ... Transcriptional regulation of chitin synthases by calcineurin controls paradoxical growth of Aspergillus fumigatus in response ... leading to a calcineurin-dependent increase in chitin synthase activity. Taken together, our data suggest a mechanistic role ... we found that caspofungin treatment resulted in increased chitin synthase gene expression, ...
  • Three structural chitin synthase genes, chs1, chs2 and chs3, were identified in the genome of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. (nih.gov)
  • No compensatory mechanism seems to exist between the CS genes studied, since chitin content determination and expression analysis of the chs genes showed no differences between the disruption mutants and the wild-type strain. (nih.gov)
  • This increase in cell wall polysaccharide is the result of both an increase in the Slt2p-dependent expression of genes encoding β1-3 glucan synthases (Fks1p and Fks2p) and, to a lesser extent, of chitin synthase III (Chs3p) ( 8 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Yu H-Z, Li N-Y, Xie Y-X, Zhang Q, Wang Y, Lu Z-J. Identification and Functional Analysis of Two Chitin Synthase Genes in the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura . (mdpi.com)
  • the presence of chitin has not been demonstrated so far, although putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes, which encode the enzymes that synthesize chitin, are present in their genomes. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The difference in cell wall thickness was correlated with transcriptional regulation of cell wall-related genes: quantitative RT-PCR reactions demonstrated that B. bassiana chitin synthase ( CHS ) and glucan synthase ( FKS ) genes are down regulated in vivo . (springer.com)
  • The genes encoding the synthases belonging to classes III, V, VI, and VII are only found in fungi with high chitin contents in their cell walls. (asm.org)
  • The deletion of class III chitin synthase-encoding genes leads to severe defects in most of the filamentous fungi thus far investigated. (asm.org)
  • In Aspergillus fumigatus , two genes encoding class III chitin synthases, chsC and chsG , have been identified. (asm.org)
  • However, deletion of chitinase genes did not markedly affect specific chitin synthase activity, and deletion of single CHS genes had little effect on in vitro specific chitinase activity in either fungus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • RNA interference of chitin synthase genes inhibits chitin biosynt. (umm.ac.id)
  • Additionally, the expression of six chitin synthesis-related genes, such as hexokinase 2 and glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase, was suppressed at 48 and 72 h post-dsTPS-1 and dsTPS-2 RNA injection, which were two dsTPS fragments that had been designed for two different locations in TcTPS open reading frame, and that trehalose content and trehalase 1 activity decreased significantly at 72 h post-dsRNA injection. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • These results demonstrate that silencing of TRE gene expression can lead to wing deformities due to the down-regulation of the AP and TSH genes involved in wing development and that the TRE inhibitor validamycin can co-regulate chitin metabolism and the expression of wing development-related genes in wing bud tissue. (frontiersin.org)
  • Increased these genes mRNA levels associated with reduced chitin biosynthesis may result from the inhibition of chitin synthase activity, and thereby leading to a higher mortality of S. furcifera. (kisti.re.kr)
  • The compositions comprise genetically modified organisms, including fungi, yeast, bacterial and plant organisms that have been engineered to express heterologous genes involved in chitin and chitosan synthesis. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Our biochemical data on the characterization of the chitin synthase activity of A. euteiches suggest the existence of two distinct enzymes responsible for the formation of water soluble and insoluble chitosaccharides, which is consistent with the existence of two putative CHS genes in the genome of this species. (diva-portal.org)
  • In C. albicans , three genes encoding different chitin synthases ( CHS1 , 2 , and 3 ) were identified. (hindawi.com)
  • This thesis includes the analyses of five new tracheal tube size genes, which mutational analyses have revealed a new biological principle to ensure uniform functional tubes: newly formed tracheal tubes deposit a broad luminal chitin filament around which the tubular epithelium can rearrange. (openthesis.org)
  • Four of the genes (krotzkopf verkehrt, knickkopf, retroactive and mummy) are required to build the luminal chitin filament, and their loss of function result in severe diameter constrictions and dilations in the expanding tubes. (openthesis.org)
  • Altering the expression of two chitin synthase genes differentially affects the growth and morphology of Aspergillus oryzae. (novozymes.com)
  • Northern analysis indicated no change in the transcription of the chitin synthase genes csmA and chsC when chsB expression was altered, and there was no change in the transcription of chsB and chsC when csmA was disrupted. (novozymes.com)
  • Cellulose synthase genes (CesA) were identified and their expression profile analysed at different developmental stages, thereby providing a map of the key genes involved in the overall biological life cycle of the pathogen. (europa.eu)
  • Based on amino acid identities with related fungal species, chs1, chs2 and chs3 encode structural chitin synthases (CSs) of class I, class II and class III, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • In C. albicans , the total specific activities of both chitin synthase and chitinase were higher in the hyphal form, which was attributable mainly to the activities of Chs2 and Cht3, respectively. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Hence, null mutants of myosin II myo1 Δ and chitin synthase II chs2 Δ share multiple morphological and molecular phenotypes. (duhnnae.com)
  • Mitotic exit kinase Dbf2 directly phosphorylates chitin synthase Chs2 to regulate cytokinesis in budding yeast. (upenn.edu)
  • Cells coexpressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled Spa2 (polarizome), Sec3 (exocyst) or Chs2 (chitin synthase II) and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-labeled septin Cdc3 were analyzed by three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy ( 17 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Chitin Synthase 3 (CHS3) was cloned out of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (S.C.) cDNA. (igem.org)
  • One enzyme in this pathway, chitin synthase 3 (CHS3), was previously found to be among the most active chitin sythases in the chitin synthase family of enzymes and does not require additional cofactors to function. (igem.org)
  • As a result, we use CHS3 as the chitin production mechanism in our inducible system ( BBa_K418007 ). (igem.org)
  • Member of the CHS5-ARF1P-binding proteins (CHAPS) which mediates export of specific cargo proteins, including chitin synthase CHS3. (rcsb.org)
  • Previous results [E. Cabib, A. Sburlati, B. Bowers & S. J. Silverman (1989) Journal of Cell Biology 108, 1665-1672] strongly suggested that the lysis observed in daughter cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae defective in chitin synthase 1 (Chs1) was caused by a chitinase that partially degrades the chitin septum in the process of cell separation. (nih.gov)
  • Consequently, it was proposed that in wild-type cells, Chs1 acts as a repair enzyme by replenishing chitin during cytokinesis. (nih.gov)
  • Deletion of a gene, chs1 , encoding a class III chitin synthase of the maize pathogenic dimorphic fungi Ustilago maydis caused minor defects in the growth of haploid yeastlike cells and conjugation tube formation ( 49 ). (asm.org)
  • Chitin Synthase is manufactured in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of fungi as the inactive form, zymogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome-wide analyses of chitin synthases identify horizontal gene transfers towards bacteria and allow a robust and unifying classification into fungi. (nih.gov)
  • Chitin, the second most abundant biopolymer on earth after cellulose, is found in probably all fungi, many animals (mainly invertebrates), several protists and a few algae, playing an essential role in the development of many of them. (nih.gov)
  • Class III chitin synthases play important roles in tip growth and conidiation in many filamentous fungi. (asm.org)
  • Chitin, the β-(1→4)-linked polymer of N -acetylglucosamine, provides strength to the fungal cell wall and is therefore essential for the morphogenesis and survival of fungi (Ruiz-Herrera et al. (plantcell.org)
  • Chitin is an essential structural polysaccharide in fungi that is required for cell shape and morphogenesis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Most fungi have multiple chitin synthases (CSs) that may make chitin at different sites on the cell surface, at different times during growth, and in response to cell wall stress. (illinois.edu)
  • Chitin synthesis is based on the regulation of distinct chitin synthase isoenzymes whose number ranges from one in Schizosaccharomyces pombe to seven in some filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus fumigatus . (springer.com)
  • Similarly, most fungi produce chitin in their cell walls for structural support. (igem.org)
  • The aim of the review is to present the common molecular characteristics of such pathogens as fungi and nematodes and other chitin bearing animals, which may both activate and downregulate the immune response of the host. (degruyter.com)
  • A hallmark of filamentous fungi is the class V chitin synthase, which carries a myosin-motor domain. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Chitin a linear homopolymer of GlcNAc residues, it is an important component of the cell wall of fungi and is synthesised on the cytoplasmic surface of the cell membrane by membrane bound chitin synthases. (inra.fr)
  • Chitin is found in fungi, nematodes and arthropods and plays key roles in maintaining morphology and protecting organisms against external attacks [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of cell wall components, such as cellulose and chitin synthases, represent ideal targets for disease control. (diva-portal.org)
  • In our work, we have used Saprolegnia monoica as a model species for oomycetes to characterize two types of domains that occur specifically in oomycete carbohydrate synthases: the Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain of a cellulose synthase and the so-called 'Microtubule Interacting and Trafficking' (MIT) domain of chitin synthases. (diva-portal.org)
  • The results from our in vitro investigations revealed that the PH domain of the oomycete cellulose synthase binds to phosphoinositides, microtubules and F-actin. (diva-portal.org)
  • Altogether our data support a role of the PH domain of cellulose synthase and MIT domains of CHS in membrane trafficking and cellular location. (diva-portal.org)
  • A 3D atomistic model of a plant cellulose synthase (CESA) has remained elusive despite over forty years of experimental effort. (pnas.org)
  • This deficiency arose due to experimental barriers in purification of active enzyme, recombinant expression, and crystallization of any plant cellulose synthase (CESA). (pnas.org)
  • Although CESA proteins typically arrange themselves into multimeric cellulose synthase complexes (CSC), which are required for the production of multichain cellulose microfibrils, the CSCs of land plants and related algae are uniquely organized as six-lobed circular "rosettes" containing a still-undefined number (e.g., 18-36 in number) of CESAs ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The number of cellulose synthase proteins in this large multisubunit transmembrane protein complex and the number of cellulose chains in a microfibril have been debated for many years. (plantphysiol.org)
  • This structural information was revealed by freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy, showing six lobes in a hexagonal arrangement at the point where the transmembrane helices of multiple cellulose synthase proteins (CESAs) cross the plasma membrane. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Cellulose synthases: Understanding the precise role of individual cellulose synthases is essential to our understanding of cell wall biology in the oomycetes. (europa.eu)
  • During cell stress, Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases the synthesis of chitin and glucans to strengthen and repair the cell wall. (pnas.org)
  • The deposition of the polysaccharide chitin in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall is temporally and spatially regulated. (rupress.org)
  • BackgroundMyosin II-dependent contraction of the cytokinetic ring and primary septum formation by chitin synthase II are interdependent processes during cytokinesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (duhnnae.com)
  • In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , myosin type II (Myo1p) and chitin synthase II (Chs2p) are essential proteins for the formation of the normal cytokinetic apparatus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chitin production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on a series of enzymatic steps (Figure 2). (igem.org)
  • GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Regulatory functions of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase in the chitin biosynthesis pathway in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) revealed by RNA interference. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • In the yeast C. albicans, upregulation of chitin biosynthesis via the protein kinase C (PKC), high-osmolarity glycerol response (HOG), and Ca(2+)/calcineurin signaling pathways is an important cell wall stress response that permits growth in the presence of high concentrations of echinocandins. (duke.edu)
  • The work performed in CBOP revealed that the only putative chitin synthase gene present in the pathogen is expressed during most developmental stages but that it is certainly not involved in chitin biosynthesis since the wall of the pathogen does not contain any amount of detectable chitin. (europa.eu)
  • Differential trafficking and timed localization of two chitin synthase proteins, Chs2p and Chs3p. (rupress.org)
  • One of these proteins is chitin deacetylase 2 (Cda2), an enzyme responsible for converting chitin to chitosan, a cell wall polymer recently established as a virulence factor for C. neoformans infection of mammalian hosts. (asm.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:chitin 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chitin is one the main components of the insect cuticle, and chitin synthase (CHS) is an important enzyme required for chitin formation. (mdpi.com)
  • SUMMARY: Chitin synthase (EC 2.4.1.16) from membrane preparations of Aspergillus nidulans was characterized and the optimum conditions for enzyme activity were determined. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Chitin synthase activity could be increased sixfold by digestion of enzyme preparations with trypsin for short periods. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In S. cerevisiae , Chs2p is the chitin synthase enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the primary septum (Shaw, 1991). (biologists.org)
  • For this purpose, insects repeatedly produce chitin synthases and chitinolytic enzymes in different tissues. (biologists.org)
  • Coordination of chitin synthesis and its degradation requires strict control of the participating enzymes during development. (biologists.org)
  • Insect chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes that are required for the degradation of glycosidic bonds of chitin. (mdpi.com)
  • Insect chitinases are crucial enzymes responsible for the degradation of the chitin in the cuticle and presumably in the PM during molting [ 7 , 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Chitin deacetylase enzymes have been identified in the cell wall, and our studies were undertaken to understand how the deacetylase is linked to the wall and where it has activity. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, both dyes inhibited chitin and beta (1,3)-glucan synthases in isolated cell-free systems. (asm.org)
  • At the end of mitosis, chitin synthase II (Chs2p) deposits a disk of chitin in the mother-bud neck, forming the primary division septum. (rupress.org)
  • Fission yeast Chs2p is a transmembrane protein structurally similar to chitin synthases that lacks such enzymatic activity. (biologists.org)
  • Cloning and characterization of chsD, a chitin synthase-like gene of Aspergillus fumigatus. (nih.gov)
  • A chitin synthase-like gene (chsD) was isolated from an Aspergillus fumigatus genomic DNA library. (nih.gov)
  • To address these issues, we characterized the deletion mutant of a class III chitin synthase-encoding gene of Aspergillus nidulans , chsB , and investigated ChsB localization in the hyphae and conidiophores. (asm.org)
  • Transcriptional regulation of chitin synthases by calcineurin controls paradoxical growth of Aspergillus fumigatus in response to caspofungin. (duke.edu)
  • A WDR gene is a conserved member of a chitin synthase gene cluster and influences the cell wall in Aspergillus nidulans. (diva-portal.org)
  • In Aspergillus oryzae, one full-length chitin synthase (chsB) and fragments of two other chitin synthases (csmA and chsC) were identified. (novozymes.com)
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of chsB was similar (87% identity) to chsB from Aspergillus nidulans, which encodes a class III chitin synthase. (novozymes.com)
  • We have studied these processes with quantitative superresolution localization microscopy of live Aspergillus nidulans cells expressing the photoconvertible protein mEosFP thermo fused to the chitin synthase ChsB. (sciencemag.org)
  • The chitin synthase mutants will be useful for elucidating cell wall biogenesis in F. oxysporum and the relationship between fungal cell wall integrity and pathogenicity. (nih.gov)
  • Putative chitin synthase: CBOP has established an essential role for a putative chitin synthase in the cell wall of Phytophthora infestans. (europa.eu)
  • however, no differences between the wild-type strain and the chsD- strain were found with respect to morphology, chitin synthase activity or virulence in a neutropenic murine model of aspergillosis. (nih.gov)
  • Collectively, these data led us to assign a critical role to the BcCHS3a chitin synthase isoform, both in fungal virulence and plant defense response. (apsnet.org)
  • Class III chitin synthases have been reported to be involved in the virulence of some pathogens. (asm.org)
  • Deletion of Bcchs3a in the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea and double deletion of WdCHS3 and class I chitin synthase WdCHS2 in the human pathogen Wangiella dermatitidis both caused a reduction of virulence ( 40 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • It converts most of its chitin, a cell wall polysaccharide, to chitosan, which is necessary for virulence. (asm.org)
  • This polysaccharide is produced by type 2 glycosyltransferases, called chitin synthases (CHS). (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, yeast cells regulate the content of cellular chitin. (pnas.org)
  • Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions to all CHSs localize to septa, whereas Chs5-GFP, Chs6-GFP, Chs7-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), and Myosin chitin synthase1 (Mcs1)-YFP were found at growth regions of yeast-like cells and hyphae, indicating that they participate in tip growth. (plantcell.org)
  • Chitin synthesis and chitinase production was, however, regulated in C. albicans during yeast-hypha morphogenesis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Chitin synthesis is a process maintained across the fungal kingdom that, thanks to the power of genetic manipulation of yeast cells, is now beginning to be understood. (springer.com)
  • Here, we show that a COOH-terminal region in yeast Sac1p is crucial for ER targeting by directly interacting with dolicholphosphate mannose synthase Dpm1p. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we show that under conditions of cell stress, the steady-state localization of chitin synthase III (Chs3p) shifts from internal stores (chitosomes) to the plasma membrane (PM). This redistribution occurs rapidly and requires the activators of the cell wall stress response signaling pathway, the G protein Rho1p, and the protein kinase Pkc1p, but not the cell integrity response mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. (pnas.org)
  • Mazur, P, Baginsky, W 1996 In vitro activity of 1,3-β- d -glucan synthase requires the GTP-binding protein Rho1 J. Biol. (springer.com)
  • and chitin synthase II, a transmembrane protein required for primary septum formation ( 16 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The chitinase-like protein YKL-40, which binds chitin but lacks chitinase activity, has been found to be either the cause or a biomarker for asthma. (ersjournals.com)
  • The chitinase-like protein YKL-40, also called human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HCgp-39) and chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1), binds chitin but is deficient in chitinase activity. (ersjournals.com)
  • In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding chitin synthase 2 ( BdCHS2 ) was cloned and characterized in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis . (mdpi.com)
  • In the present paper, three complete chitin synthase cDNA sequences (LdChSAa, LdChSAb and LdChSB) were cloned. (umm.ac.id)
  • Chitin synthase III (Chs3p) synthesizes a ring of chitin at the onset of bud emergence, marking the base of the incipient bud. (rupress.org)
  • The mutant of chs-1 became sensitive to Nikkomycin Z, a chitin synthase inhibitor ( 53 ). (asm.org)
  • Most surprisingly, the chitin synthase inhibitor Nikkomycin Z efficiently leads to abnormalities at low concentrations and cell death at slightly higher concentrations, as illustrated in the attached Figure. (europa.eu)
  • TcCHITs were downregulated 24 h after treatment with scopoletin and upregulated 24 h after treatment with diflubenzuron (DFB, a chitin synthesis inhibitor). (hindawi.com)
  • The structure-based model for CS function is for transfer of GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc at the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane to the non-reducing end of a growing chitin chain, which is concomitantly translocated through a transmembrane channel formed by the synthase. (illinois.edu)
  • Chen L, Yang W-J, Cong L, Xu K-K, Wang J-J. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and mRNA Expression of a Chitin Synthase 2 Gene from the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae). (mdpi.com)
  • Previously, we reported the isolation and characterization of a mutant in class III chitin synthase, Bcchs3a , in the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea . (apsnet.org)
  • Characterization of a spruce budworm chitin deacetylase gene: stage-and tissue-specific expression, and inhibition using RNA interference. (gc.ca)
  • These results provide new insights into the biological significance of chitin and CHSs in Phytophthora and help with the identification of potential targets for disease control. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Fungal chitin synthases (CHSs) form fibers of the cell wall and are crucial for substrate invasion and pathogenicity. (plantcell.org)
  • Here, we report the identification of two additional CHSs, chs7 , a second class IV CHS gene, and myosin chitin synthase1 ( mcs1 ), another class V CHS with an N-terminal myosin motor domain in U. maydis . (plantcell.org)
  • Incomplete killing was observed for caspofungin against Candida glabrata , which was associated with increased SLT2 expression and elevated chitin content. (asm.org)
  • Up-regulation of the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway in Candida albicans upon damage to the cell wall and increases in chitin have correlated with the paradoxical attenuation of caspofungin activity at clinically relevant supra-MIC concentrations ( 21 , 22 ). (asm.org)
  • In Neurospora crassa , inactivation of the gene encoding Chs-1, a class III chitin synthase with 63% identity to A. nidulans ChsB, leads to slow growth, aberrant hyphal morphology, and a decrease in chitin synthase activity. (asm.org)
  • Chitin synthase is placed into the interior side of the cell membrane and then activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polysaccharides of the fungal wall include 1,3-β-glucan and chitin, which are synthesized by membrane-bound synthases at the growing cell tip. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • In the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis, the myosin-chitin synthase Mcs1 moves to the plasma membrane in secretory vesicles, being delivered by kinesin-1 and myosin-5. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • In cells individually lacking one of these components only their cognate substrates, hexose transporters, phosphate transporters, and chitin synthase-III, respectively, aggregate and consequently fail to exit the ER membrane. (rupress.org)
  • Chitin is a structural and functional component of the fungal cell wall and also serves as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that triggers the innate immune responses of host plants. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Chitin, a polymer of β-1,4-linked N- acetylglucosmine, is one of the major structural components of the fungal cell wall. (asm.org)
  • 3) The length of chitin chains made by a given CS will impact that CS's contribution to construction of the fungal cell wall. (illinois.edu)
  • Effect of Calcofluor white and Congo red on fungal cell wall morphogenesis: in vivo activation of chitin polymerization. (asm.org)
  • Originally identified from Streptomyces tendae, the nikkomycins are chitin synthase inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results suggest that BdCHS2 may play an important role in regulating chitin content of the midgut, and subsequently affect the growth and development of B. dorsalis . (mdpi.com)
  • Accordingly, de novo chitin synthesis may involve coordinated regulation of members of the CHS chitin synthase and CHT chitinase gene families. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In contrast, chitin degradation is hydrolyzed by the chitinase, which catalyzes the random hydrolysis of N -acetyl-β- d -glucosamine β-1,4-glycosidic linkages in chitin and chitodextrins. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we show that the dolichol phosphate mannose (Dol-P-Man) synthase Dpm1p is responsible for ER localization of Sac1p during times of rapid cell proliferation. (rupress.org)
  • For gene expression and chitin assays, strains were adjusted to a starting inoculum of ∼1 × 10 4 cells/ml and incubated at 37°C with shaking to ∼1 × 10 6 cells/ml. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, both the gene expression and chitin content in midgut decreased when the insect was fed for 24 h, then starved for 24 h, while they increased dramatically and rapidly under the condition of starvation for 24 h then feeding for 24 h. (mdpi.com)
  • In contrast, silencing of LdChSB significantly reduced foliage consumption, decreased chitin content in midgut sample, damaged midgut peritrophic matrix, and retarded larval growth. (umm.ac.id)
  • There was a positive relationship between BdCHS2 expression and total chitin content during development. (mdpi.com)
  • These results demonstrate that silencing TPS gene leads to molting deformities and high mortality rates via regulation of gene expression in the chitin biosynthetic pathway, and may be a promising approach for pest control in the future. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Differential expression of chitin synthase (CHS) and glucan synthase (" by Aurelien Tartar, A. M. Shapiro et al. (nova.edu)
  • Exploring a molecular role for CnaA in the compensatory chitin biosynthetic response, we found that caspofungin treatment resulted in increased chitin synthase gene expression, leading to a calcineurin-dependent increase in chitin synthase activity. (duke.edu)
  • Each study was conducted in triplicate, and differences in fungal viability, CFU, chitin content, and gene expression were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey's posttest for multiple comparisons. (asm.org)
  • 5. The fungus of claim 2, wherein said polynucleotide of (b) encodes a polypeptide with a lower K m for a substrate compared to a native fungal chitin synthase. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • WdCHS3, a gene that encodes a class III chitin synthase in Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis, is expressed differentially under stress conditions. (atcc.org)
  • During the molting process, some chitin in the old cuticle and PM are degraded and replaced by the newly synthesized chitin [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The S. cerevisiae structural gene for chitin synthase is not required for chitin synthesis in vivo. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • RNAi of LdChSAa+LdChSAb and LdChSAa lowered chitin contents in whole body and integument samples, and thinned tracheal taenidia. (umm.ac.id)
  • Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS), which plays a key role in the synthesis of trehalose and insect development, was cloned in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (TcTPS) and the putative functions were studied using RNAi via the injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) corresponding to conserved TPS and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase domains. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Alice: Knocking down chitin synthase 2 by RNAi is lethal to the cotton boll weevil. (embrapa.br)
  • Nikkomycins are peptide-nucleoside compounds with fungicidal, acaricidal, and insecticidal properties because of their strong inhibition of chitin synthase. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Taken together, our data suggest a mechanistic role for A. fumigatus calcineurin signaling in the chitin biosynthetic response observed during paradoxical growth in the presence of high-dose caspofungin treatment. (duke.edu)
  • CSC-pretreated C. albicans expressed high levels of chitin, with 2- to 8-fold recorded under hyphal conditions. (hindawi.com)
  • ChsB is mainly located at the Spitzenkörper near the hyphal tip and produces chitin, a key component of the cell wall. (sciencemag.org)
  • Appears to be responsible for the synthesis of the majority of the chitin found in the cell wall periphery. (ymdb.ca)
  • This work was confirmed by a completely different approach, based on the silencing of chitin synthase by RNA interference. (europa.eu)
  • In addition, the chitin synthase activity of the oomycete phytopathogen Aphanomyces euteiches was characterized in vitro using biochemical approaches. (diva-portal.org)
  • In contrast, fungicidal activity and no chitin increase were observed in an isogenic Δ slt2 strain, suggesting a role for SLT2 and chitin production in the response of C. glabrata to caspofungin. (asm.org)
  • Our objective was to evaluate the potential role of SLT2 and increases in chitin content in the escape of C. glabrata from the fungicidal activity of caspofungin. (asm.org)
  • Inhibits chitin synthase. (nih.gov)
  • Weber, I., Assman, D., Thines, E. and Steinberg, G. (2006) Polar Localizing Class V Myosin Chitin Synthases Are Essential during Early Plant Infection in the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Ustilago maydis. (scirp.org)
  • Other names in common use include chitin-UDP N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, chitin-uridine diphosphate acetylglucosaminyltransferase, chitin synthetase, and trans-N-acetylglucosaminosylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, it is shown that CSs incorporate free GlcNAc into di-N-acetylchitobiose and into insoluble chitin in a UDP-GlcNAc-dependent manner, and therefore that GlcNAc primes chitin synthesis. (illinois.edu)
  • Second, average lengths of insoluble chitin chains were measured by determining the molar ratio of priming GlcNAc to chain-extending, UDP-GlcNAc-derived GlcNAc, and showed dependence on UDP-GlcNAc concentration, approaching a maximum at higher concentrations of substrate. (illinois.edu)

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