An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
A normally saprophytic mitosporic Chaetothyriales fungal genus. Infections in humans include PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS; and PERITONITIS.. Exophiala jeanselmei (previously Phialophora jeanselmei) is an etiological agent of MYCETOMA.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE which should not be confused with other cedar and cypress trees of THUJA or CUPRESSUS genera.
Chitinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of chitin, a polysaccharide that makes up the exoskeleton of insects and the cell walls of fungi, into simpler sugars.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
An insect growth regulator which interferes with the formation of the insect cuticle. It is effective in the control of mosquitoes and flies.
A plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are trees and shrubs having an elongated conelike floral axis with fragrant flowers that have six tepals (sepals and petals that are not distinctly different) and many spirally arranged stamens.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A genus of marine mussels in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. The species MYTILUS EDULIS is the highly edible common mussel.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
Amphoteric macrolide antifungal antibiotic from Streptomyces natalensis or S. chattanoogensis. It is used for a variety of fungal infections, mainly topically.
A group of DITERPENES cyclized into 3-ring PHENANTHRENES.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.

Proteolytic activation and inactivation of chitin synthetase from Mucor rouxii. (1/299)

Crude chitin synthetase preparations from the mycelial and yeast forms of Mucor rouxii behaved differently. The mycelial preparations, incubated at 28 degrees C, lost virtually all chitin synthetase activity in a few hours; by contrast, the activity of enzyme preparations from yeast cells increased several fold during similar incubations. These spontaneous changes were probably caused by endogenous protease(s). Seemingly, the chitin synthetase in yeast preparations was present mainly in a latent, 'zymogenic', form that was activated by proteases. In the mycelial preparations, chitin synthetase was present mainly in an active state and was rapidly degraded by endogenous proteolysis. Exogenous proteases accelerated activation and destruction of chitin synthetase; an acid protease from Rhizopus chinensis was the most effective activator. The activation of chitin synthetase was inhibited by a soluble protein in the cell-free extract. Treatment with the detergent Brij 36T stabilized the chitin synthetase of crude preparations against spontaneous changes. Stabilized preparations were rapidly activated by exogenous proteases. The different behaviour of chitin synthetases in crude extracts of mycelium and yeast cells is consistent with, and perhaps partially responsible for, the differences in wall construction between mycelial and yeast forms of M. rouxii.  (+info)

KNR4, a suppressor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cwh mutants, is involved in the transcriptional control of chitin synthase genes. (2/299)

The KNR4 gene, originally isolated by complementation of a K9 killer-toxin-resistant mutant displaying reduced levels of both 1,3-beta-glucan and 1,3-beta-glucan synthase activity, was recloned from a YCp50 genomic library as a suppressor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae calcofluor-white-hypersensitive (cwh) mutants. In these mutants, which were characterized by increased chitin levels, the suppressor effect of KNR4 resulted, for some of them, in a lowering of polymer content to close to wild-type level, with no effect on the contents of beta-glucan and mannan. In all cases, this effect was accompanied by a strong reduction in mRNA levels corresponding to CHS1, CHS2 and CHS3, encoding chitin synthases, without affecting expression of FKS1 and RHO1, two genes encoding the catalytic subunit and a regulatory component of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase, respectively. Overexpression of KNR4 also inhibited expression of CHS genes in wild-type strains and in two other cwh mutants, whose sensitivity to calcofluor white was not suppressed by this gene. The physiological relevance of the KNR4 transcriptional effect was addressed in two different ways. In a wild-type strain exposed to alpha-factor, overexpression of this gene inhibited CHS1 induction and delayed shmoo formation, two events which are triggered in response to the pheromone, whereas it did not affect bud formation and cell growth in a chs1 chs2 double mutant. A chimeric protein made by fusing green fluorescent protein to the C terminus of Knr4p which fully complemented a knr4delta mutation was found to localize in patches at presumptive bud sites in unbudded cells and at the incipient bud site during bud emergence. Taken together, these results demonstrate that KNR4 has a regulatory role in chitin deposition and in cell wall assembly. A mechanism by which this gene affects expression of CHS genes is proposed.  (+info)

Chs7p, a new protein involved in the control of protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum that is specifically engaged in the regulation of chitin synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (3/299)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHS7 gene encodes an integral membrane protein located in the ER which is directly involved in chitin synthesis through the regulation of chitin synthase III (CSIII) activity. In the absence of CHS7 product, Chs3p, but not other secreted proteins, is retained in the ER, leading to a severe defect in CSIII activity and consequently, to a reduced rate of chitin synthesis. In addition, chs7 null mutants show the yeast phenotypes associated with a lack of chitin: reduced mating efficiency and lack of the chitosan ascospore layer, clear indications of Chs7p function throughout the S. cerevisiae biological cycle. CHS3 overexpression does not lead to increased levels of CSIII because the Chs3p excess is retained in the ER. However, joint overexpression of CHS3 and CHS7 increases the export of Chs3p from the ER and this is accompanied by a concomitant increase in CSIII activity, indicating that the amount of Chs7p is a limiting factor for CSIII activity. Accordingly, CHS7 transcription is increased when elevated amounts of chitin synthesis are detected. These results show that Chs7p forms part of a new mechanism specifically involved in Chs3p export from the ER and consequently, in the regulation of CSIII activity.  (+info)

Proliferation of intrahyphal hyphae caused by disruption of csmA, which encodes a class V chitin synthase with a myosin motor-like domain in Aspergillus nidulans. (4/299)

We have found that the Aspergillus nidulans csmA gene encodes a novel protein which consists of an N-terminal myosin motor-like domain and a C-terminal chitin synthase domain (M. Fujiwara, H. Horiuchi, A. Ohta, and M. Takagi, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 236:75-78, 1997). To clarify the roles of csmA in fungal morphogenesis, we constructed csmA null mutants. The growth rate of the mutant colonies was almost the same as that of the wild-type strain, but hyphal growth was severely inhibited when a chitin-binding reagent, Calcofluor white or Congo red, was added to the medium. Moreover, morphological abnormalities in tip growth and septum formation were identified microscopically. Proliferation of intracellular new hyphae, called intrahyphal hyphae, which behaved as intrinsic hyphae, was the most striking phenotypic feature among them. These phenotypes were not suppressed when the only chitin synthase domain of csmA was expressed under the control of the alcA promoter, whereas they were suppressed when the intact form of csmA was expressed. Therefore, it was concluded that the product of csmA (CsmA) has important roles in polarized cell wall synthesis and maintenance of cell wall integrity and that the myosin motor-like domain is indispensable for these functions.  (+info)

Differential inhibitory effects of protoberberines on sterol and chitin biosyntheses in Candida albicans. (5/299)

The anti-Candida potentials of 12 Korean medicinal plants were explored: methanol extracts from Coptis rhizoma and Phellodendron amurense caused significant inhibition of growth of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis. The predominant active components of the extracts were the protoberberines berberine and palmatine; the most potent inhibition of growth was exhibited by berberine on C. krusei (MIC <4 mg/L) and palmatine on C. parapsilosis (MIC 16 mg/L). Both berberine and palmatine inhibited the in-vivo rate of incorporation of L-[methyl-14C]methionine into C-24 of ergosterol in C. albicans (50% inhibition concentration (IC50 values), 25 microM and 300 microM, respectively); this result suggests that sterol 24-methyl transferase (24-SMT) is one of the cellular targets for the antifungal activity of the protoberberines. In-vitro 24-SMT activity in microsomes from the yeast growth form of C. albicans was inhibited by both berberine (inhibition constant (Ki) 232 microM) and palmatine (Ki 257 microM) in a non-competitive manner; inhibition of 24-SMT was more marked for the mycelial form than for the yeast growth form of this organism. Palmatine inhibited chitin synthase from both the yeast and mycelial growth phases of C. albicans in a non-competitive manner (Ki 780 microM). The effects of protoberberines, extracted from established medicinal plants, on both sterol and cell wall biosyntheses in pathogenic fungi indicate that the potential of these compounds, or their semi-synthetic derivatives, as a novel class of antifungal agents should be investigated more fully.  (+info)

The Candida albicans CHS4 gene complements a Saccharomyces cerevisiae skt5/chs4 mutation and is involved in chitin biosynthesis. (6/299)

The Candida albicans CHS4 gene encoding chitin synthase 4 has been isolated using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHS4/SKT5 gene as a probe. The gene contains a 2061 bp open reading frame capable of encoding a protein of 687 amino acids (76053 Da). No intron was observed in the gene. Disruption of CHS4 in C. albicans yielded a Calcofluor-resistant phenotype, indicating that Chs4p contributes to chitin biosynthesis. Consistent with this, overexpression of Chs4p under the regulation of the ScGAL1 promoter enhanced chitin synthase 3 activity in S. cerevisiae 7- to 38-fold. In addition, chs3 and chs4 null mutants were significantly defective in Calcofluor white staining and their chitin content was 10% of that of the parental strain. Chs4p of C. albicans and S. cerevisiae showed 61% identity in the C-terminal half of the proteins and that region of C. albicans Chs4p complemented the Chs4p function of a mutant of S. cerevisiae resistant to Calcofluor white. Therefore, it appears that Chs4p is involved in chitin synthase 3 activity by combining with Chs3p to interact synergistically in chitin biosynthesis.  (+info)

Active site determination of yeast geranylgeranyl protein transferase type I expressed in Escherichia coli. (7/299)

The ram2 and cal1 genes encode the alpha and beta subunits of yeast geranylgeranyl protein transferase type I (GGPT-I), respectively. Arginine 166 of the beta subunit was changed to isoleucine (betaR166I), histidine 216 to aspartic acid (betaH216D), and asparagine 282 to alanine (betaN282A) by sequential PCR using mutagenic primers. The mutants were expressed under the same conditions as the wild-type and were assayed for GGPT-I activity. Wild-type yeast GGPT-I, alphaH145D, alphaD140N, betaR166I, betaH216D and betaN282A mutant GGPT-Is were partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by a Q-Sepharose column. Characterization studies were performed using the active fraction of the Q-Sepharose column. In the chemical modification reactions, the catalytic activity of purified enzyme decreased in proportion to the concentration of modifying reagents, such as phenylglyoxal and diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC). Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) protected the enzyme activity from the modification with phenylglyoxal. The measurement of GGPP binding to wild-type and five mutant GGPT-Is was performed by a gel-filtration assay. The binding of GGPP to the betaR166I mutant was low and the Km value for GGPP in the betaR166I mutant increased about 29-fold. Therefore, the results suggest a role for this arginine residue that directly influences the GGPP binding. The activity of the DEPC-modified GGPT-I was inhibited by 80% at 5 mM DEPC. The differential absorption at 242 nm may suggest that at this concentration the modified histidine residues were 1.5 mol per GGPT-I. The protein substrate, glutathione S-transferase fused undecapeptide (GST-CAIL) protected the enzyme from inactivation by DEPC, and the Km value for GST-CAIL in the betaH216D mutant increased about 12-fold. The trypsin digestion of [14C]DEPC-modified enzyme yielded a single radioactive peptide. As a result of the sequence of this radioactive peptide, the histidine 216 residue was assumed to be an essential part of binding of peptide substrate.  (+info)

Chitin synthase III: synthetic lethal mutants and "stress related" chitin synthesis that bypasses the CSD3/CHS6 localization pathway. (8/299)

We screened Saccharomyces strains for mutants that are synthetically lethal with deletion of the major chitin synthase gene CHS3. In addition to finding, not surprisingly, that mutations in major cell wall-related genes such as FKS1 (glucan synthase) and mutations in any of the Golgi glycosylation complex genes (MNN9 family) are lethal in combination with chs3Delta, we found that a mutation in Srv2p, a bifunctional regulatory gene, is notably lethal in the chs3 deletion. In extending studies of fks1-chitin synthase 3 interactions, we made the surprising discovery that deletion of CSD3/CHS6, a gene normally required for Chs3p delivery and activity in vivo, was not lethal with fks1 and, in fact, that lack of Csd3p/Chs6p did not decrease the high level of stress-related chitin made in the fks1 mutant. This finding suggests that "stress response" chitin synthesis proceeds through an alternate Chs3p targeting pathway.  (+info)

Chitin synthase is an enzyme that is responsible for the biosynthesis of chitin, which is a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine. Chitin is a structural component in the exoskeletons of arthropods, such as insects and crustaceans, as well as in the cell walls of fungi.

Chitin synthase catalyzes the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to a growing chitin chain. There are several different isoforms of chitin synthase, which are classified based on their sequence similarity and biochemical properties. These isoforms play distinct roles in the biosynthesis of chitin in different organisms.

Inhibitors of chitin synthase have been developed as potential therapeutic agents for the control of insect pests and fungal pathogens.

Chitin is a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, which is a derivative of glucose. It is a structural component found in the exoskeletons of arthropods such as insects and crustaceans, as well as in the cell walls of fungi and certain algae. Chitin is similar to cellulose in structure and is one of the most abundant natural biopolymers on Earth. It has a variety of industrial and biomedical applications due to its unique properties, including biocompatibility, biodegradability, and adsorption capacity.

"Exophiala" is a genus of fungi that belongs to the family Herpotrichiellaceae. These fungi are also known as black yeasts because they can form pigmented, thick-walled cells that resemble yeast. They are widely distributed in the environment and have been found in various habitats such as soil, water, and air. Some species of Exophiala are known to cause human diseases, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. These infections can affect various organs, including the skin, lungs, and brain. It is important to note that while some species of Exophiala can be pathogenic, many others are not harmful to humans.

Chamaecyparis is a genus of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Cupressaceae. It includes several species commonly known as cypress or false cypress, which are native to eastern Asia and North America. These trees are characterized by their flattened sprays of scale-like leaves, small cones, and distinctive bark patterns. They are often grown as ornamental plants due to their attractive appearance and ability to thrive in a variety of climates.

There is no specific medical definition associated with Chamaecyparis, as it is not a term used in medicine. However, some compounds derived from these trees have been studied for their potential medicinal properties. For example, certain essential oils extracted from Chamaecyparis species have been found to have antimicrobial and insecticidal effects, although more research is needed to determine their safety and efficacy as treatments for human diseases.

Chitinase is an enzyme that breaks down chitin, a complex carbohydrate and a major component of the exoskeletons of arthropods, the cell walls of fungi, and the microfilamentous matrices of many invertebrates. Chitinases are found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. In humans, chitinases are involved in immune responses to certain pathogens and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

A cell wall is a rigid layer found surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and many types of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintains cell shape, and acts as a barrier against external factors such as chemicals and mechanical stress. The composition of the cell wall varies among different species; for example, in plants, it is primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, while in bacteria, it is composed of peptidoglycan.

Pyrimidine nucleosides are organic compounds that consist of a pyrimidine base (a heterocyclic aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms and four carbon atoms) linked to a sugar molecule, specifically ribose or deoxyribose, via a β-glycosidic bond. The pyrimidine bases found in nucleosides can be cytosine (C), thymine (T), or uracil (U). When the sugar component is ribose, it is called a pyrimidine nucleoside, and when it is linked to deoxyribose, it is referred to as a deoxy-pyrimidine nucleoside. These molecules play crucial roles in various biological processes, particularly in the structure and function of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.

"Mucor" is a genus of fungi that belongs to the order Mucorales. These fungi are commonly found in soil, decaying organic matter, and sometimes on fruits and vegetables. Some species of Mucor can cause mucormycosis, a rare but serious invasive fungal infection that primarily affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with uncontrolled diabetes, cancer, organ transplant recipients, and those using high-dose corticosteroids.

Mucormycosis can affect various parts of the body, including the sinuses, lungs, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. The infection can quickly spread through the bloodstream and cause severe damage to tissues and organs. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with antifungal medications and surgical debridement are crucial for managing mucormycosis and improving outcomes.

Glucosyltransferases (GTs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a glucose molecule from an activated donor to an acceptor molecule, resulting in the formation of a glycosidic bond. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, cell wall synthesis, and protein glycosylation. In some cases, GTs can also contribute to bacterial pathogenesis by facilitating the attachment of bacteria to host tissues through the formation of glucans, which are polymers of glucose molecules.

GTs can be classified into several families based on their sequence similarities and catalytic mechanisms. The donor substrates for GTs are typically activated sugars such as UDP-glucose, TDP-glucose, or GDP-glucose, which serve as the source of the glucose moiety that is transferred to the acceptor molecule. The acceptor can be a wide range of molecules, including other sugars, proteins, lipids, or small molecules.

In the context of human health and disease, GTs have been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, inflammation, and microbial infections. For example, some GTs can modify proteins on the surface of cancer cells, leading to increased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Additionally, GTs can contribute to bacterial resistance to antibiotics by modifying the structure of bacterial cell walls or by producing biofilms that protect bacteria from host immune responses and antimicrobial agents.

Overall, Glucosyltransferases are essential enzymes involved in various biological processes, and their dysregulation has been associated with several human diseases. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of GTs is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these enzymes and treat related pathological conditions.

Diflubenzuron is an insect growth regulator that belongs to the benzoylphenyl urea class. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of chitin, a crucial component of the exoskeleton of insects, which results in the prevention of their normal molting and growth. Diflubenzuron is used primarily for pest control in agriculture, forestry, and vector management (such as controlling mosquito populations). It's important to note that this compound is not typically used in human medicine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Magnoliaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, referring to the magnolia family of flowering plants. This family includes around 220 species of trees and shrubs, many of which are known for their large, fragrant flowers. The plants are primarily native to Asia and the Americas. If you have any questions about a medical term or concept, I'd be happy to help with that instead!

Hyphae (singular: hypha) are the long, branching filamentous structures of fungi that make up the mycelium. They are composed of an inner layer of cell wall materials and an outer layer of proteinaceous fibrils. Hyphae can be divided into several types based on their structure and function, including septate (with cross-walls) and coenocytic (without cross-walls) hyphae, as well as vegetative and reproductive hyphae. The ability of fungi to grow as hyphal networks allows them to explore and exploit their environment for resources, making hyphae critical to the ecology and survival of these organisms.

Fungal proteins are a type of protein that is specifically produced and present in fungi, which are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds. These proteins play various roles in the growth, development, and survival of fungi. They can be involved in the structure and function of fungal cells, metabolism, pathogenesis, and other cellular processes. Some fungal proteins can also have important implications for human health, both in terms of their potential use as therapeutic targets and as allergens or toxins that can cause disease.

Fungal proteins can be classified into different categories based on their functions, such as enzymes, structural proteins, signaling proteins, and toxins. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in fungal cells, while structural proteins provide support and protection for the cell. Signaling proteins are involved in communication between cells and regulation of various cellular processes, and toxins are proteins that can cause harm to other organisms, including humans.

Understanding the structure and function of fungal proteins is important for developing new treatments for fungal infections, as well as for understanding the basic biology of fungi. Research on fungal proteins has led to the development of several antifungal drugs that target specific fungal enzymes or other proteins, providing effective treatment options for a range of fungal diseases. Additionally, further study of fungal proteins may reveal new targets for drug development and help improve our ability to diagnose and treat fungal infections.

"Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a scientific name used in the field of microbiology. It refers to a species of yeast that is commonly used in various industrial processes, such as baking and brewing. It's also widely used in scientific research due to its genetic tractability and eukaryotic cellular organization.

However, it does have some relevance to medical fields like medicine and nutrition. For example, certain strains of S. cerevisiae are used as probiotics, which can provide health benefits when consumed. They may help support gut health, enhance the immune system, and even assist in the digestion of certain nutrients.

In summary, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is a species of yeast with various industrial and potential medical applications.

Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics that are derived from bacteria and are used to treat various types of infections caused by gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria. These antibiotics work by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, which inhibits protein synthesis and ultimately leads to bacterial cell death.

Some examples of aminoglycosides include gentamicin, tobramycin, neomycin, and streptomycin. These antibiotics are often used in combination with other antibiotics to treat severe infections, such as sepsis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections.

Aminoglycosides can have serious side effects, including kidney damage and hearing loss, so they are typically reserved for use in serious infections that cannot be treated with other antibiotics. They are also used topically to treat skin infections and prevent wound infections after surgery.

It's important to note that aminoglycosides should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as improper use can lead to antibiotic resistance and further health complications.

Organothiophosphorus compounds are a class of chemical compounds that contain carbon (organo-) and thiophosphorus bonds. Thiophosphorus refers to a phosphorus atom bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. These compounds have various applications, including use as plasticizers, flame retardants, insecticides (such as malathion and parathion), and nerve agents (such as sarin and VX). They can be synthesized through the reaction of organolithium or Grignard reagents with thiophosphoryl chloride. The general structure of these compounds is R-P(=S)Y, where R is an organic group, P is phosphorus, and Y is a group that determines the properties and reactivity of the compound.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Fungal genes refer to the genetic material present in fungi, which are eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as larger organisms like mushrooms. The genetic material of fungi is composed of DNA, just like in other eukaryotes, and is organized into chromosomes located in the nucleus of the cell.

Fungal genes are segments of DNA that contain the information necessary to produce proteins and RNA molecules required for various cellular functions. These genes are transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, which are then translated into proteins by ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

Fungal genomes have been sequenced for many species, revealing a diverse range of genes that encode proteins involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, signaling, and regulation. Comparative genomic analyses have also provided insights into the evolutionary relationships among different fungal lineages and have helped to identify unique genetic features that distinguish fungi from other eukaryotes.

Understanding fungal genes and their functions is essential for advancing our knowledge of fungal biology, as well as for developing new strategies to control fungal pathogens that can cause diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

"Mytilus" is not a medical term itself, but it is a genus of marine bivalve mollusks commonly known as mussels. While there are no direct medical applications or definitions associated with "Mytilus," it's worth noting that various species of mussels have been used in scientific research and can have implications for human health.

For instance, mussels can serve as bioindicators of environmental pollution and contamination since they filter water to feed and may accumulate pollutants such as heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) within their tissues. This information is valuable in monitoring the health of aquatic ecosystems and potential human exposure through seafood consumption.

Moreover, mussels produce byssal threads, which are strong, adhesive proteins used to attach themselves to surfaces. These proteins have been studied for their potential applications in biomaterials science, wound healing, and tissue engineering. However, these uses are still primarily within the realm of research and not yet widely adopted as medical treatments or interventions.

Gene expression regulation in fungi refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins and other functional gene products in response to various internal and external stimuli. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and adaptation of fungal cells to changing environmental conditions.

In fungi, gene expression is regulated at multiple levels, including transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational modifications. Key regulatory mechanisms include:

1. Transcription factors (TFs): These proteins bind to specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of target genes and either activate or repress their transcription. Fungi have a diverse array of TFs that respond to various signals, such as nutrient availability, stress, developmental cues, and quorum sensing.
2. Chromatin remodeling: The organization and compaction of DNA into chromatin can influence gene expression. Fungi utilize ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes and histone modifying enzymes to alter chromatin structure, thereby facilitating or inhibiting the access of transcriptional machinery to genes.
3. Non-coding RNAs: Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) play a role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in fungi. These sncRNAs can guide RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complexes to specific target loci, leading to the repression of gene expression through histone modifications and DNA methylation.
4. Alternative splicing: Fungi employ alternative splicing mechanisms to generate multiple mRNA isoforms from a single gene, thereby increasing proteome diversity. This process can be regulated by RNA-binding proteins that recognize specific sequence motifs in pre-mRNAs and promote or inhibit splicing events.
5. Protein stability and activity: Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, can influence their stability, localization, and activity. These PTMs play a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes, including signal transduction, stress response, and cell cycle progression.

Understanding the complex interplay between these regulatory mechanisms is essential for elucidating the molecular basis of fungal development, pathogenesis, and drug resistance. This knowledge can be harnessed to develop novel strategies for combating fungal infections and improving agricultural productivity.

Acetylglucosamine is a type of sugar that is commonly found in the body and plays a crucial role in various biological processes. It is a key component of glycoproteins and proteoglycans, which are complex molecules made up of protein and carbohydrate components.

More specifically, acetylglucosamine is an amino sugar that is formed by the addition of an acetyl group to glucosamine. It can be further modified in the body through a process called acetylation, which involves the addition of additional acetyl groups.

Acetylglucosamine is important for maintaining the structure and function of various tissues in the body, including cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. It also plays a role in the immune system and has been studied as a potential therapeutic target for various diseases, including cancer and inflammatory conditions.

In summary, acetylglucosamine is a type of sugar that is involved in many important biological processes in the body, and has potential therapeutic applications in various diseases.

Antifungal agents are a type of medication used to treat and prevent fungal infections. These agents work by targeting and disrupting the growth of fungi, which include yeasts, molds, and other types of fungi that can cause illness in humans.

There are several different classes of antifungal agents, including:

1. Azoles: These agents work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes. Examples of azole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole.
2. Echinocandins: These agents target the fungal cell wall, disrupting its synthesis and leading to fungal cell death. Examples of echinocandins include caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.
3. Polyenes: These agents bind to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to fungal cell death. Examples of polyene antifungals include amphotericin B and nystatin.
4. Allylamines: These agents inhibit squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme in ergosterol synthesis. Examples of allylamine antifungals include terbinafine and naftifine.
5. Griseofulvin: This agent disrupts fungal cell division by binding to tubulin, a protein involved in fungal cell mitosis.

Antifungal agents can be administered topically, orally, or intravenously, depending on the severity and location of the infection. It is important to use antifungal agents only as directed by a healthcare professional, as misuse or overuse can lead to resistance and make treatment more difficult.

Benzenesulfonates are organic compounds that contain a benzene ring substituted with a sulfonate group. In chemistry, a sulfonate group is a functional group consisting of a sulfur atom connected to three oxygen atoms (-SO3). Benzenesulfonates are often used as detergents, emulsifiers, and phase transfer catalysts in various chemical reactions. They can also be found in some pharmaceuticals and dyes.

'Aspergillus nidulans' is a species of filamentous fungi that belongs to the genus Aspergillus. It is commonly found in soil, decaying vegetation, and indoor environments such as air conditioning systems and damp buildings. This fungus can produce spores that become airborne and can be inhaled, which can cause respiratory infections in individuals with weakened immune systems.

'Aspergillus nidulans' is also a widely used model organism in scientific research, particularly in the fields of genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Its genetic tractability, short life cycle, and ability to grow at a wide range of temperatures make it an ideal system for studying fundamental biological processes such as DNA repair, cell division, and metabolism. Additionally, this fungus is known to produce a variety of secondary metabolites, including pigments, antibiotics, and mycotoxins, which have potential applications in medicine and industry.

Natamycin is an antifungal medication used to treat and prevent fungal infections. It is a polyene macrolide antibiotic produced by the bacterium Streptomyces natalensis. In medical contexts, it is often used as a topical treatment for eye, skin, and mucous membrane infections caused by susceptible fungi. Natamycin works by binding to ergosterol, a component of fungal cell membranes, which disrupts the membrane's structure and function, ultimately leading to fungal cell death.

In addition to its medical uses, natamycin is also used as a food preservative to prevent mold growth in certain dairy products, such as cheese, and in some countries, it is approved for use in the production of certain types of sausages and fermented meat products.

Abietanes are a subclass of diterpenes, which are a type of organic compound consisting of four isoprene units and having the chemical formula C20H32. Diterpenes are synthesized by a wide variety of plants and some animals, and they have diverse biological activities.

Abietanes are characterized by a distinctive carbon skeleton that contains three six-membered rings arranged in a linear fashion, with the fourth ring being a five-membered ring. This particular structure is derived from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), a precursor to many diterpenes.

Abietanes are found in various natural sources, including pine resin, where they exist as resin acids such as abietic acid, pimaric acid, and isopimaric acid. These compounds have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand the therapeutic potential of abietanes and to develop safe and effective treatments based on these compounds.

'Candida albicans' is a species of yeast that is commonly found in the human body, particularly in warm and moist areas such as the mouth, gut, and genital region. It is a part of the normal microbiota and usually does not cause any harm. However, under certain conditions like a weakened immune system, prolonged use of antibiotics or steroids, poor oral hygiene, or diabetes, it can overgrow and cause infections known as candidiasis. These infections can affect various parts of the body including the skin, nails, mouth (thrush), and genital area (yeast infection).

The medical definition of 'Candida albicans' is:

A species of yeast belonging to the genus Candida, which is commonly found as a commensal organism in humans. It can cause opportunistic infections when there is a disruption in the normal microbiota or when the immune system is compromised. The overgrowth of C. albicans can lead to various forms of candidiasis, such as oral thrush, vaginal yeast infection, and invasive candidiasis.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) is not a medical term per se, but rather a biochemical term. It is a form of nucleotide sugar that plays a crucial role in several biochemical processes in the human body.

To provide a more detailed definition: UDP-GlcNAc is a nucleotide sugar that serves as a donor substrate for various glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and glycolipids. It is a key component in the process of N-linked and O-linked glycosylation, which are important post-translational modifications of proteins that occur within the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. UDP-GlcNAc also plays a role in the biosynthesis of hyaluronic acid, a major component of the extracellular matrix.

Abnormal levels or functioning of UDP-GlcNAc have been implicated in various disease states, including cancer and diabetes. However, it is not typically used as a diagnostic marker or therapeutic target in clinical medicine.

Glycogen synthase is an enzyme (EC 2.4.1.11) that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of glycogen, a polysaccharide that serves as the primary storage form of glucose in animals, fungi, and bacteria. This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of glucosyl residues from uridine diphosphate glucose (UDP-glucose) to the non-reducing end of an growing glycogen chain, thereby elongating it.

Glycogen synthase is regulated by several mechanisms, including allosteric regulation and covalent modification. The activity of this enzyme is inhibited by high levels of intracellular glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and activated by the binding of glycogen or proteins that bind to glycogen, such as glycogenin. Phosphorylation of glycogen synthase by protein kinases, like glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), also reduces its activity, while dephosphorylation by protein phosphatases enhances it.

The regulation of glycogen synthase is critical for maintaining glucose homeostasis and energy balance in the body. Dysregulation of this enzyme has been implicated in several metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

... chitin synthetase, and trans-N-acetylglucosaminosylase. This enzyme participates in aminosugars metabolism. Chitin Synthase is ... In enzymology, a chitin synthase (EC 2.4.1.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [ ... Chitin synthase is placed into the interior side of the cell membrane and then activated.[citation needed] GLASER L, BROWN DH ( ... Other names in common use include chitin-UDP N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, chitin-uridine diphosphate ...
Originally identified from Streptomyces tendae, the nikkomycins are chitin synthase inhibitors. Steinbach, WJ; Stevens, DA (1 ...
Inhibitors of chitin synthase enzymes seem to be effective against this pathogen. Fumagillin and albendazole treatments seem ...
This species has also been reported to produce chaetoatrosin A, a selective inhibitor of chitin synthase II. This enzyme is ... a Novel Chitin Synthase II Inhibitor Produced by Chaetomium atrobrunneum F449". The Journal of Antibiotics. 53 (3): 248-55. doi ...
"The Plasmodiophora brassicae genome reveals insights in its life cycle and ancestry of chitin synthases". Scientific Reports. 5 ...
... function and regulation of chitin synthases and chitinases". The Journal of Experimental Biology. 206 (Pt 24): 4393-4412. doi: ... Some of these microorganisms have receptors to simple sugars from the decomposition of chitin. If chitin is detected, they then ... chitin is closely related to chitosan (a more water-soluble derivative of chitin). It is also closely related to cellulose in ... Chitin is one of many naturally occurring polymers. It forms a structural component of many animals, such as exoskeletons. Over ...
Chitinases and chitin synthases are regulated for the lysis and synthesis of the major cell wall component chitin, and have ... Both are inactivated when treated with phospholipases and growth is shunted Chitin synthase activity can also be inhibited by ... "Morphological Changes of the Filamentous Fungus Mucor Mucedo and Inhibition of Chitin Synthase Activity Induced by Anethole". ...
June 2015). "The Plasmodiophora brassicae genome reveals insights in its life cycle and ancestry of chitin synthases". ...
Three genes were measured in an experiment with Drosophila melanogaster: bicoid (bcd), slalom (sll), and chitin synthase (cs). ...
2015). "The Plasmodiophora brassicae genome reveals insights in its life cycle and ancestry of chitin synthases". Scientific ...
chitosome A small spheroidal organelle in many fungi that synthesizes chitin using chitin synthase zymogen, to use for cell ... chitin A nitrogen-containing polysaccharide found in many fungal cell walls, generally as part of a chitin-glucan complex. From ... Contain cellulose in their cell walls rather than chitin, and coenocytic hypae rather than septate hyphae. oosphere Female ... cell walls are composed of a chitin-glucan complex, mitochondria have flattened cristae and perioxomes are nearly always ...
... which encodes a polypeptide homologous to chitin synthases, fbfB, a gene encoding a putative galactose oxidase, various genes ... aurantiaca Fruiting Body Formation Is Dependent on the fbfA Gene Encoding a Polypeptide Homologous to Chitin Synthases" (PDF). ...
Some chloroviruses contain chitin synthase (CHS) genes while some others contain hyaluronan synthase (HAS) genes, respectively ... triggering the formation of chitin sensitive fibres or hyaluronan sensitive fibres. Though the function of producing a fibrous ...
... which is reflected in the large number of acquired genes encoding class V chitin synthase and glucan synthase found in the C. ... The destruction of nascent chitin of pathogens generates oligosaccharides containing GlcNAC which elicits a general antifungal ... Chaetomium cupreum produces a range of antifungal metabolites including polyketide synthase, terpenes, chetomin, rotiorinols A- ... The cell wall of C. cupreum is largely composed of chitin and glucan, ...
... but however Chitin synthase is maintained in many lineages where it does not have an obvious macroscopic function. It is ... An example is chitin a very durable structural protein used in surgical sutures as well as durable varnishes but is common to ... But is also found in the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). Wagner et al., suggest that chitin might have a microscopic ... and the manufacture of insect cuticle for example might represent a recurrent change in the location of expression chitin ...
... as indicated with calcofluor-white stain as well as the presence of a fungal-specific chitin synthase gene. Rozellida were ... Without the chitin the cryptomycota can be phagotrophic parasites that feed by attaching to, engulfing, or living inside other ... Despite their unconventional feeding habits,[clarification needed] chitin has been observed in the inner layer of resting ...
... inhibitors of chitin synthase, and the echinocandins, inhibitors of fungal β-1,3-glucan synthases. Some glycosyltransferase ... Lufenuron is an inhibitor of insect chitin syntheses and is used to control fleas in animals. Imidazolium-based synthetic ... Carbohydrate chemistry Chemical glycosylation Glucuronosyltransferase Glycogen synthase Glycosyl acceptor Glycosyl donor ...
A is produced in response to attack by a pathogen through the perception of elicitor signal molecules such as chitin ... Momilactone-A synthase (EC 1.1.1.295, momilactone A synthase, OsMAS) is an enzyme with systematic name 3beta-hydroxy-9beta- ... Momilactone-A+synthase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology v t e (EC 1.1.1 ...
... from suspension-cultured rice cells treated with a chitin elicitor". The Plant Journal. 37 (1): 1-8. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313x. ... Ent-cassa-12,15-diene+synthase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology v t e ( ... ent-Cassa-12,15-diene synthase (EC 4.2.3.28, OsDTC1, OsKS7) is an enzyme with systematic name ent-copalyl-diphosphate ... 15-diene synthase, a putative diterpenoid phytoalexin biosynthetic enzyme, ...
... chitin synthase MeSH D08.811.913.400.450.460.350 - glycogen debranching enzyme system MeSH D08.811.913.400.450.460.375 - ... riboflavin synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.825 - spermidine synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.912 - spermine synthase MeSH D08.811. ... nitric oxide synthase type i MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772.500 - nitric oxide synthase type ii MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772.750 ... glycogen synthase kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.429.500 - glycogen synthase kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ...
3-glucan synthase A gene responsible for remodeling cell walls and inhibiting the formation of chitin. AFP may also alter the ... First, AFP may inhibit cell growth by inhibiting chitin synthesis. In sensitive fungi, AFP activates the cell wall integrity ... Hagen S, Marx F, Ram AF, Meyer V (April 2007). "The antifungal protein AFP from Aspergillus giganteus inhibits chitin synthesis ...
... s noncompetitively inhibit beta-1,3-D-glucan synthase enzyme complex in susceptible fungi to disturb fungal cell ... strengthening of cell wall by increased chitin production, upregulation of stress-response pathways, and dysregulation of ... Resistance patterns include alterations in the glucan synthase (Fks1-Fks2 complex), overexpression of efflux pumps, ... 3-β glucan synthase. The class has been termed the "penicillin of antifungals," along with the related papulacandins, as their ...
Fungi use a chitin-glucan-protein cell wall. They share the 1,3-β-glucan synthesis pathway with plants, using homologous GT48 ... Cellulose microfibrils are produced at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex, which is proposed to be made of a ... Both chitin and chitosan are synthesized and extruded at the plasma membrane. glucans: glucose polymers that function to cross- ... An alternative scenario is that fungi started with a chitin-based cell wall and later acquired the GT-48 enzymes for the 1,3-β- ...
The synthesis of linear β(1,3)-D-glucan for the primary septum is done by the enzyme β(1,3)-D-glucan synthase and regulated by ... In particular, chitinase 2 is required, an enzyme that synthesises chitin thereby building up the primary septum. A secondary ... septum of β-glucans and mannoproteins is then assembled using the enzyme 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase, and the primary septum ...
In the eukaryotes, this pathway is unique to the higher fungi (containing chitin in their cell walls) and the euglenids. It has ... Homocitrate is initially synthesised from acetyl-CoA and 2-oxoglutarate by homocitrate synthase. This is then converted to ...
In some cases beta, 1-3 glycan synthase is also released to penetrate the callose matrix. Once the fungus penetrates the wheat ... cell wall, the fungal cell wall materials (i.e. chitin) act as elicitors which interact with plant receptors and induce the ...
ATP synthase is used as photophosphorylation to convert chemicals into ATP. Archaea and bacteria are structurally similar even ... which means archaea do not produce cellulose or chitin. Archaea are most closely related to eukaryotes due to tRNA present in ...
... sucrose-phosphate synthase EC 2.4.1.15: α,α-trehalose-phosphate synthase (UDP-forming) EC 2.4.1.16: chitin synthase EC 2.4.1.17 ... 2-ethylmalate synthase EC 2.3.3.7: 3-ethylmalate synthase EC 2.3.3.8: ATP citrate synthase EC 2.3.3.9: malate synthase EC 2.3. ... synthase EC 2.3.3.2: decylcitrate synthase EC 2.3.3.3: citrate (Re)-synthase EC 2.3.3.4: decylhomocitrate synthase EC 2.3.3.5: ... squalene synthase EC 2.5.1.22: spermine synthase EC 2.5.1.23: sym-norspermidine synthase EC 2.5.1.24: discadenine synthase EC ...
Asparagine Aspartic acid Asymmetric dimethylarginine ATP synthase Atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP) Auxin Avidin Azadirachtin A ... C19H42BrN Chelerythrine Chromomycin A3 Chaparonin Chitin α-Chloralose Chlorophyll Cholecystokinin (CCK) Cholesterol Choline ... Glycine Glycogen Glycogenin Glycogen synthase Glycogen phosphorylase Glycolic acid Glycolipid Glycoprotein Gonadotropin- ...
The enzyme starch synthase then adds the ADP-glucose via a 1,4-alpha glycosidic bond to a growing chain of glucose residues, ... This is in contrast to many structural polysaccharides such as chitin, cellulose and peptidoglycan, which are bound by beta ...
... chitin synthetase, and trans-N-acetylglucosaminosylase. This enzyme participates in aminosugars metabolism. Chitin Synthase is ... In enzymology, a chitin synthase (EC 2.4.1.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [ ... Chitin synthase is placed into the interior side of the cell membrane and then activated.[citation needed] GLASER L, BROWN DH ( ... Other names in common use include chitin-UDP N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, chitin-uridine diphosphate ...
Single enzymes representing putative chitin synthases from various organisms (unpublished data) and cellulose synthases from S ... Identification and characterisation of chitin and cellulose synthases in oomycetes. New tools for biochemical studies and ... as illustrated by the oomycete-wide discovery and phylogenetic analysis of the chitin synthase gene family (paper I), and the ... parasitica (extended data for paper II), and P. capsici cellulose syn-thase 1 (paper III) were produced, and partly enriched or ...
Zellbiologische und biochemische Charakterisierung des Ustilago maydis Virulenzfaktors Mcs1(Myosin-Chitinsynthase 1) ... Myosin-chitin synthase Pathogenicity Fungal cell wall Chitinsynthase Ustilago maydis, Zellwand Myosin ...
Gene family expansion and functional diversification of chitinase and chitin synthase genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). ... Gene family expansion and functional diversification of chitinase and chitin synthase genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) ... Gene family expansion and functional diversification of chitinase and chitin synthase genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) ... Gene family expansion and functional diversification of chitinase and chitin synthase genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) ...
Diversity and evolution of chitin synthases in oomycetes. File S1 contains the full-length CHS sequences separated into clades ... Diversity and evolution of chitin synthases in oomycetes. Published:. 21 March 2018, Version 1 , DOI: 10.17632/x7s2ts5pv3.1 ... Supporting data for our paper on Diversity and evolution of chitin synthases in oomycetes. File S1 contains the full-length ...
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... View/. Open. 1_s2.0_S108718451530013X_main.pdf (2.359Mb) ... Cell wall protection by the Candida albicans class I chitin synthases , Fungal Genetics and Biology , vol. 82 , pp. 264-276 ...
Potent chitin Synthase inhibitors from Plant sources Cite this Research Publication : Vijayakumar Amrutha, Chinchu, B., Nanjan ... Sanjay Pal, G. Bipin, N., Ajith, M., and Salim Amrita, "Potent chitin Synthase inhibitors from Plant sources", Proceeding of ...
CryoEM structure of chitin synthase 1 from Phytophthora sojae complexed with the nascent chitooligosaccharide ... The key reactions of chitin biosynthesis are catalysed by chitin synthase 2-4 , a membrane-integrated glycosyltransferase that ... Chitin synthase. A, B. 913. Phytophthora sojae strain P6497. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: PHYSODRAFT_557500. EC: 2.4.1.16. ... nascent chitin oligomer-bound, UDP-bound (post-synthesis) and chitin synthase inhibitor nikkomycin Z-bound states of the enzyme ...
Many of the bacteria that have acquired a chitin synthase are plant pathogens (e.g. Dickeya spp; Pectobacterium spp; Brenneria ... A genome-wide analysis resulted in the detection of more than eight hundred putative chitin synthases in proteomes associated ... This polysaccharide is produced by type 2 glycosyltransferases, called chitin synthases (CHS). There are several contradictory ... Chitin, the second most abundant biopolymer on earth after cellulose, is found in probably all fungi, many animals (mainly ...
Pfefferle, W.; Anke, H.; Bross, M.; Steglich, W. Inhibition of Solubilized Chitin Synthase by Chlorinated Aromatic Compounds ...
Molecular analysis of internal transcriber spacer (ITS) and chitin synthase 4 (CHS4) genes validated their original proposal ( ... 2 partial chitin synthase 4 (CHS4) (A. Schaefer, P.J.... Table. * Table. Uncultivated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains ...
Three encoded chitin synthases with myosin motor-like domains at their N-termini, and we designated these CSM1 to CSM3, whereas ... Functional Differentiation of Chitin Synthases in Yarrowia lipolytica. Wei SHENG, Shuichi YAMASHITA, Akinori OHTA, Hiroyuki ... In this study, we identified seven chitin synthase-encoding genes in the genome of the dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. ... The chs4Δ mutant showed remarkably reduced chitin content in its cell wall. The chs2Δ, csm1Δ, and csm2Δ mutants were found to ...
In the future, agents such as nikkomycins, which inhibit chitin synthase of the cell wall, may be added to the antifungal ... and fungal chitin synthase (assessed with PCR). ...
Chitin synthase. * Chromium triiodide. *City dwellers in literature. *Citi Field (New York, N.Y.) ...
Analysis of chitin synthase function in a plant parasitic nematode, Meloidogyne artiellia, using RNAi. Gene. 349:87-95. ...
Elimination of Sac1p leads to excessive forward transport of chitin synthases and thus causes specific cell wall defects. ... The phosphoinositide phosphatase Sac1p controls trafficking of the yeast Chs3p chitin synthase. ...
High resolution genetic mapping uncovers chitin synthase-1 as the target-site of the structurally diverse mite growth ... Population bulk segregant mapping uncovers resistance mutations and the mode of action of a chitin synthesis inhibitor in ...
The syntaxin Tlg1p mediates trafficking of chitin synthase III to polarized growth sites in yeast. ...
Customized chitooligosaccharide production-controlling their length via engineering of rhizobial chitin synthases and the ... Chondroitin synthase gene and methods for producing and using the same US6951743B2 (en) 2005-10-04. Hyaluronan synthase genes ... Dna encoding hyaluronate synthase Otto et al. 2012. Structure/function analysis of Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthases: ... Hyaluronan synthase genes and expression thereof US20210115484A1 (en) 2021-04-22. Method for Enzymatic Sulfurylation of ...
Sequences encoding adenylate cyclase ([8]) and chitin synthase ([48]), cloned from O. novo-ulmi, were not studied further. ... Hintz WE (1999). Sequence analysis of the chitin synthase A gene of the Dutch elm pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi indicates a ...
... growth of saccharomyces cerevisiae cak1P212Sand cla4 mutants weakens cell walls and renders cells dependent of chitin synthase ... Chitin ‚ œ A band aid for yeast cells. Des Moines University Friday Seminar Series, Des Moines, IA. 2007. ... The many functions of chitin in budding yeast. Coloquium of the Microbiological Institute of the University of Frankfurt, ... Phosphorylation regulates the subcellular localization of glycogen synthase inSaccharomyces cerevisaie. American Society for ...
CandElim helps stop the synthesis of chitin (candida cell wall) by inhibiting production of the chitin synthase enzymes. ...
... and Chitin Synthase) were identified from an in-house assembled transcriptome of D. saccharalis and cloned. A dose-response ... Juvenile Hormone Epoxide Hydrolase and Chitin Synthaseexhibited a significant reduction in the accumulation of transcripts, ...
Fungal cell walls contain chitin, synthesized by chitin synthase, and deacetylases operating on chitin are known. Furthermore, ... chitin, a chain of molecules of the sugar N-acetylglucosamine. Chemical treatment of chitin results in conversion of the N- ... In the case of fungi, the cell wall is largely made of chitin, but this is not currently an economical source of material for ... It is currently prepared by deacetylation of chitin extracted from crustacean shells. The aim of this project is to develop a ...
a) Chitin synthase inhibitors: polyoxins, polyoxorim; (b) Cellulose synthase inhibitors: dimethomorph, flumorph, pyrimorph, ... chitin biosynthesis inhibitor type 0, (16) chitin biosynthesis inhibitor type 1, (17) diptera insect molting inhibitor, (18) ... chitin biosynthesis inhibitor type 0, (16) chitin biosynthesis inhibitor type 1, (17) diptera insect molting inhibitor, (18) ... chitin biosynthesis inhibitor type 0, (16) chitin biosynthesis inhibitor type 1, (17) diptera insect molting inhibitor, (18) ...
A Study on Inhibitors of Chitin Synthase in Marine OrganismsPrincipal Investigator. *. Principal Investigator. YAMAGUCHI ... chitin synthase / fish and shellfish / スクリーニング / コラゲナーゼ阻害 / エラスターゼ阻害 / キチン合成酵素阻害 / 魚介類 / Carotenoprotein /
  • Molecular analysis of internal transcriber spacer (ITS) and chitin synthase 4 ( CHS4 ) genes validated their original proposal ( 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • There were a number of transcripts with significant sequence homology to genes potentially involved in the synthesis, breakdown and resorption of chitin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The available genome sequence allowed the identification of six putative chitin ( Chs ) and cellulose ( CesA ) synthase genes. (kth.se)
  • The chitin synthase genes chsA and chsC are not required for cell wall stress responses in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. (uams.edu)
  • In budding yeast or in budding yeast does not lead to cell death, yeast cells lacking both genes cannot survive [18], which supports the idea that simultaneous reduction in -1,3-glucan and chitin synthesis cause cell death. (bakingandbakingscience.com)
  • Altogether, our data provide key information on the fundamental mechanisms of chitin and cellulose biosynthesis in oomycetes and the biochemical properties of the enzymes involved. (kth.se)
  • They also demonstrate that the enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis represent promising targets for anti-oomycete drugs, even when the corresponding polysaccharides, such as chitin, occur in small amounts in the cell wall. (kth.se)
  • The members include cellulose synthase catalytic subunit, chitin synthase, glucan biosynthesis protein and other families of CESA-like proteins. (unl.edu)
  • Chitin synthase catalyzes the incorporation of GlcNAc from substrate UDP-GlcNAc into chitin, which is a linear homopolymer of beta-(1,4)-linked GlcNAc residues and Glucan Biosynthesis protein catalyzes the elongation of beta-1,2 polyglucose chains of Glucan. (unl.edu)
  • Mannosyltransferase 1, a member of the glycosyltransferase family of enzymes that includes chitin synthase was also up regulated during early premoult. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CandElim helps stop the synthesis of chitin (candida cell wall) by inhibiting production of the chitin synthase enzymes. (gethealthyagain.com)
  • Chitin synthase enzymes are synthesized in the cytoplasm and transported towards the cell membrane for chitin synthesis then. (bakingandbakingscience.com)
  • The cellulose synthase (CESA) superfamily includes a wide variety of glycosyltransferase family 2 enzymes that share the common characteristic of catalyzing the elongation of polysaccharide chains. (unl.edu)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:chitin 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. (nih.gov)
  • The recombinant enzyme was biochemically characterized and demonstrated to form chitin crystallites in vitro . (kth.se)
  • Ellagic acid inhibits Chitin-Synthase, the enzyme which fungi use to build their cell walls. (postfalls-naturopathic.com)
  • Chs3 enzyme plays a part in the formation of most chitin in the cell wall structure during bud development and introduction, mating, and spore development [13]. (bakingandbakingscience.com)
  • To display screen antifungal cell wall realtors, previous studies utilized purified chitin and glucan synthases to isolate substances that inhibit their enzyme activity in vitro [22,23], however the total outcomes may not reveal the antifungal activity in vivo. (bakingandbakingscience.com)
  • Chs3 enzyme contributes to the synthesis of most chitin in the cell wall during bud emergence and growth, mating, and spore formation [13]. (bakingandbakingscience.com)
  • Chitin formation is controlled by an enzyme known as chitin synthase that actively binds monomers of N-acetyl-glucosamine to form chitin polymers [ 1 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Other names in common use include chitin-UDP N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, chitin-uridine diphosphate acetylglucosaminyltransferase, chitin synthetase, and trans-N-acetylglucosaminosylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • During early premoult glutamine synthetase, a gene involved in generating an amino acid used in the synthesis of glucosamine, a constituent of chitin, was up regulated more than twofold. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To place it in the evolutionary tree of life, as has been done for the other enigmatic human pathogens Pneumocystis carinii and Rhinosporidium seeberi, we amplified its 18S small-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) and 600 bp of its chitin synthase-2 gene. (nih.gov)
  • They are putative catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase, which is a glycosyltransferase using UDP-glucose as the substrate. (unl.edu)
  • Cellulose synthase catalytic subunit A2 (CESA2) is a catalytic subunit or a catalytic subunit substitute of the cellulose synthase complex. (unl.edu)
  • The inner layer of the cell wall is composed of a β-1,3-glucan network (80 - 90% of the total β-glucan) branched with chitin (1-2% of the cell wall). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS. (lookformedical.com)
  • Differential effects of inhibiting chitin and 1,3-{beta}-D-glucan synthesis in ras and calcineurin mutants of Aspergillus fumigatus. (uams.edu)
  • 1,3-glucan is normally synthesized with a membrane-associated glucan synthase complicated, which uses UDP-glucose being a substrate. (bakingandbakingscience.com)
  • This notion is due to the artificial lethality between fungus mutants missing the glucan synthase gene (mutant cells. (bakingandbakingscience.com)
  • The substances also exhibited development inhibition of budding fungus and individual pathogen and demonstrated the apparent synergistic impact with glucan synthase inhibitors caspofungin, an echinocandin derivative. (bakingandbakingscience.com)
  • To Display screen Realtors that Are Even more Toxic to Fungus Glucan Synthase Mutants Glucan and chitin are the two major components of the fungal cell wall. (bakingandbakingscience.com)
  • If that is the case, yeast mutants with impaired chitin synthesis should be more sensitive to the antifungal drugs targeting -1,3-glucan synthesis than.Then, the cells were resuspended in cold 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5) buffer containing protease inhibitors, and broken by 10 cycles of vortexing with acid-washed glass beads (1 min each). (bakingandbakingscience.com)
  • Yeast chitin synthase 2 activity is modulated by proteolysis and phosphorylation. (mpg.de)
  • CESA_like is the cellulose synthase superfamily. (unl.edu)
  • Cellulose synthase (CESA) catalyzes the polymerization reaction of cellulose using UDP-glucose as the substrate. (unl.edu)
  • Regulation of expression, activity and localization of fungal chitin synthases. (uams.edu)
  • The localization of Chs3 adjustments through the cell routine, which is controlled by extra chitin synthesis-related proteins, Chs4-7. (bakingandbakingscience.com)
  • Entamoeba ivadens (Ei), which infects reptiles and is a model for amebic encystation, produces chitin synthase and chitinase during encystation. (url.edu)
  • Recombinant Entamoeba chitinases are precipitated by chitin and show chitinase activity with chitooligosacharide substrates. (url.edu)
  • Also, the genome-wide mass-spectrometry evaluation showed decreased proteins degree of chitin synthases in cells treated basic medications, but this lower was not due to the alternation of gene transcription. (bakingandbakingscience.com)
  • Chs2 is essential for chitin synthesis at the principal septum, and deletion of gene leads to unusual bud morphology [10]. (bakingandbakingscience.com)
  • Chs2 is necessary for chitin synthesis at the primary septum, and deletion of gene results in abnormal Moxalactam Sodium bud morphology [10]. (bakingandbakingscience.com)
  • Nikkomycin Z is a specific inhibitor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chitin synthase isozyme Chs3 in vitro and in vivo. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Sengupta Ghatak, Anindita Koch, Marcus Guth, Christina Weiss, Ingrid M. . Peptide induced crystallization of calcium carbonate on wrinkle patterned substrate: Implications for chitin formation in molluscs. (leibniz-inm.de)
  • Zygomycetes are the group belonging to the chitin-chitosan category classified by cell wall composi- tion. (ijser.org)
  • Chitosan is a distinctive component of the cell wall of zygomycetes fungi and its content can reach up to 3-fold of that of chitin (Aghdam, 2010). (ijser.org)
  • Therefore, fungal chitosan pos- sibly boasts an important function in the defence system of zygomycetes by protecting the chitin against hydrolytic attack by chitinases (Synowiecki and Al-Khateeb 2003). (ijser.org)
  • The production of chitin/chitosan from microbial sources appears promising because the process can be manipulated to obtain a pure, rather uniform product with specific character- istics. (ijser.org)
  • In addition, the fermentative production of fungi on cheap industrial by-products and wastes is an unlimited and, in principle, a very economic source of chitin/chitosan. (ijser.org)
  • Furthermore, in the absence of Bni4p, a scaffold protein involved in the targeting of the chitin synthase III complex to the bud neck, Crh2p was not longer found at the neck in large-budded cells undergoing cytokinesis. (silverchair.com)
  • Chs1 is normally thought to be responsible for mending the chitin septum during cytokinesis [9]. (bakingandbakingscience.com)
  • All drugs strongly reduced the growth of S. parasitica and inhibited the in vitro formation of chitin or cellulose, demonstrated by the use of a radiometric assay. (kth.se)
  • Phospholipase C, immune inhibitor A, chitin-binding protein and a single peptide match to chain A crystal structure of selenomethionine were observed in the secretions of L. infantum promastigotes. (who.int)
  • Cellulose synthase catalyzes the polymerization reaction of cellulose, an aggregate of unbranched polymers of beta-1,4-linked glucose residues in plants, most algae, some bacteria and fungi, and even some animals. (unl.edu)
  • Chitin Synthase is manufactured in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of fungi as the inactive form, zymogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In bacteria, algae and lower eukaryotes, there is a second unrelated type of cellulose synthase (Type II), which produces acylated cellulose, a derivative of cellulose. (unl.edu)
  • The cell wall of S. parasitica consists mainly of cellulose, β-1,3 and β-1,6-glucans, whereas chitin is present in minute amounts only. (kth.se)
  • Concomitantly, the cell wall stiffness determined by the Young's Modulus of heat stressed cells increased two fold with a concurrent increase of chitin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The up regulation of a predicted oligopeptide transporter during premoult may allow the transport of chitin breakdown products across the newly synthesised epi- and exocuticle layers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2023. Characterization of a marine diatom chitin synthase using a combination of meta-omics, genomics and heterologous expression approaches. (www27666.com)
  • A schematic representation of N-acetyl-glucosamine formation into the chitin polymers has been shown in Figure 1 . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • In the colonic lumen, amebae form chitin-walled cysts, the infectious stage of the parasite. (url.edu)
  • Furthermore, chitin can increase the natural defense mechanisms in plants by upregulating plant growth regulators, growth stimulants, anti-stress agents, and elicitors for the production of secondary metabolites. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • These data reveal that loss of BgI2p does have a phenotype in C. albicans, and indicate that (1) loss of BgI2p function renders cells more dependent on chitin for wall integrity, and attenuates virulence (probably due to subtle changes in wall structure), and (2) that additional 1,3-β-glucosyltransferases are present in the C. albicans BGL2 disruptant. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In this scholarly study, we utilized a chemical-genetic solution to isolate antifungal realtors that impair chitin synthesis in fungus cells. (bakingandbakingscience.com)
  • Both of these substances inhibited chitin synthesis and decrease chitin level in fungus cells. (bakingandbakingscience.com)
  • Structure of the mycobacterial ATP synthase F o rotor ring in complex with the anti-TB drug bedaquiline. (mpg.de)
  • On the function of chitin synthase extracellular domains in biomineralization. (leibniz-inm.de)
  • Applications of Chitin in Agricultural Industries" Encyclopedia , https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/17534 (accessed December 01, 2023). (encyclopedia.pub)
  • The different applications of chitin in the agricultural industry have been well documented with even more novel processes still in development. (encyclopedia.pub)