An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
A normally saprophytic mitosporic Chaetothyriales fungal genus. Infections in humans include PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS; and PERITONITIS.. Exophiala jeanselmei (previously Phialophora jeanselmei) is an etiological agent of MYCETOMA.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE which should not be confused with other cedar and cypress trees of THUJA or CUPRESSUS genera.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
An insect growth regulator which interferes with the formation of the insect cuticle. It is effective in the control of mosquitoes and flies.
A plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are trees and shrubs having an elongated conelike floral axis with fragrant flowers that have six tepals (sepals and petals that are not distinctly different) and many spirally arranged stamens.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A genus of marine mussels in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. The species MYTILUS EDULIS is the highly edible common mussel.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
Amphoteric macrolide antifungal antibiotic from Streptomyces natalensis or S. chattanoogensis. It is used for a variety of fungal infections, mainly topically.
A group of DITERPENES cyclized into 3-ring PHENANTHRENES.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.
A species of fruit fly originating in sub-Saharan Africa but widely distributed worldwide. One of the most destructive fruit pests, its larvae feed and develop on many different fruits and some vegetables.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.
Neurological condition characterized by disturbances in VISUAL PERCEPTION, most often of BODY SCHEMA, TIME PERCEPTION and HALLUCINATIONS. It is associated with MIGRAINE, infections (e.g., INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS), FEVER, EPILEPSY, and other neurological and psychiatric disorders.
An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.

Proteolytic activation and inactivation of chitin synthetase from Mucor rouxii. (1/299)

Crude chitin synthetase preparations from the mycelial and yeast forms of Mucor rouxii behaved differently. The mycelial preparations, incubated at 28 degrees C, lost virtually all chitin synthetase activity in a few hours; by contrast, the activity of enzyme preparations from yeast cells increased several fold during similar incubations. These spontaneous changes were probably caused by endogenous protease(s). Seemingly, the chitin synthetase in yeast preparations was present mainly in a latent, 'zymogenic', form that was activated by proteases. In the mycelial preparations, chitin synthetase was present mainly in an active state and was rapidly degraded by endogenous proteolysis. Exogenous proteases accelerated activation and destruction of chitin synthetase; an acid protease from Rhizopus chinensis was the most effective activator. The activation of chitin synthetase was inhibited by a soluble protein in the cell-free extract. Treatment with the detergent Brij 36T stabilized the chitin synthetase of crude preparations against spontaneous changes. Stabilized preparations were rapidly activated by exogenous proteases. The different behaviour of chitin synthetases in crude extracts of mycelium and yeast cells is consistent with, and perhaps partially responsible for, the differences in wall construction between mycelial and yeast forms of M. rouxii.  (+info)

KNR4, a suppressor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cwh mutants, is involved in the transcriptional control of chitin synthase genes. (2/299)

The KNR4 gene, originally isolated by complementation of a K9 killer-toxin-resistant mutant displaying reduced levels of both 1,3-beta-glucan and 1,3-beta-glucan synthase activity, was recloned from a YCp50 genomic library as a suppressor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae calcofluor-white-hypersensitive (cwh) mutants. In these mutants, which were characterized by increased chitin levels, the suppressor effect of KNR4 resulted, for some of them, in a lowering of polymer content to close to wild-type level, with no effect on the contents of beta-glucan and mannan. In all cases, this effect was accompanied by a strong reduction in mRNA levels corresponding to CHS1, CHS2 and CHS3, encoding chitin synthases, without affecting expression of FKS1 and RHO1, two genes encoding the catalytic subunit and a regulatory component of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase, respectively. Overexpression of KNR4 also inhibited expression of CHS genes in wild-type strains and in two other cwh mutants, whose sensitivity to calcofluor white was not suppressed by this gene. The physiological relevance of the KNR4 transcriptional effect was addressed in two different ways. In a wild-type strain exposed to alpha-factor, overexpression of this gene inhibited CHS1 induction and delayed shmoo formation, two events which are triggered in response to the pheromone, whereas it did not affect bud formation and cell growth in a chs1 chs2 double mutant. A chimeric protein made by fusing green fluorescent protein to the C terminus of Knr4p which fully complemented a knr4delta mutation was found to localize in patches at presumptive bud sites in unbudded cells and at the incipient bud site during bud emergence. Taken together, these results demonstrate that KNR4 has a regulatory role in chitin deposition and in cell wall assembly. A mechanism by which this gene affects expression of CHS genes is proposed.  (+info)

Chs7p, a new protein involved in the control of protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum that is specifically engaged in the regulation of chitin synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (3/299)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHS7 gene encodes an integral membrane protein located in the ER which is directly involved in chitin synthesis through the regulation of chitin synthase III (CSIII) activity. In the absence of CHS7 product, Chs3p, but not other secreted proteins, is retained in the ER, leading to a severe defect in CSIII activity and consequently, to a reduced rate of chitin synthesis. In addition, chs7 null mutants show the yeast phenotypes associated with a lack of chitin: reduced mating efficiency and lack of the chitosan ascospore layer, clear indications of Chs7p function throughout the S. cerevisiae biological cycle. CHS3 overexpression does not lead to increased levels of CSIII because the Chs3p excess is retained in the ER. However, joint overexpression of CHS3 and CHS7 increases the export of Chs3p from the ER and this is accompanied by a concomitant increase in CSIII activity, indicating that the amount of Chs7p is a limiting factor for CSIII activity. Accordingly, CHS7 transcription is increased when elevated amounts of chitin synthesis are detected. These results show that Chs7p forms part of a new mechanism specifically involved in Chs3p export from the ER and consequently, in the regulation of CSIII activity.  (+info)

Proliferation of intrahyphal hyphae caused by disruption of csmA, which encodes a class V chitin synthase with a myosin motor-like domain in Aspergillus nidulans. (4/299)

We have found that the Aspergillus nidulans csmA gene encodes a novel protein which consists of an N-terminal myosin motor-like domain and a C-terminal chitin synthase domain (M. Fujiwara, H. Horiuchi, A. Ohta, and M. Takagi, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 236:75-78, 1997). To clarify the roles of csmA in fungal morphogenesis, we constructed csmA null mutants. The growth rate of the mutant colonies was almost the same as that of the wild-type strain, but hyphal growth was severely inhibited when a chitin-binding reagent, Calcofluor white or Congo red, was added to the medium. Moreover, morphological abnormalities in tip growth and septum formation were identified microscopically. Proliferation of intracellular new hyphae, called intrahyphal hyphae, which behaved as intrinsic hyphae, was the most striking phenotypic feature among them. These phenotypes were not suppressed when the only chitin synthase domain of csmA was expressed under the control of the alcA promoter, whereas they were suppressed when the intact form of csmA was expressed. Therefore, it was concluded that the product of csmA (CsmA) has important roles in polarized cell wall synthesis and maintenance of cell wall integrity and that the myosin motor-like domain is indispensable for these functions.  (+info)

Differential inhibitory effects of protoberberines on sterol and chitin biosyntheses in Candida albicans. (5/299)

The anti-Candida potentials of 12 Korean medicinal plants were explored: methanol extracts from Coptis rhizoma and Phellodendron amurense caused significant inhibition of growth of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis. The predominant active components of the extracts were the protoberberines berberine and palmatine; the most potent inhibition of growth was exhibited by berberine on C. krusei (MIC <4 mg/L) and palmatine on C. parapsilosis (MIC 16 mg/L). Both berberine and palmatine inhibited the in-vivo rate of incorporation of L-[methyl-14C]methionine into C-24 of ergosterol in C. albicans (50% inhibition concentration (IC50 values), 25 microM and 300 microM, respectively); this result suggests that sterol 24-methyl transferase (24-SMT) is one of the cellular targets for the antifungal activity of the protoberberines. In-vitro 24-SMT activity in microsomes from the yeast growth form of C. albicans was inhibited by both berberine (inhibition constant (Ki) 232 microM) and palmatine (Ki 257 microM) in a non-competitive manner; inhibition of 24-SMT was more marked for the mycelial form than for the yeast growth form of this organism. Palmatine inhibited chitin synthase from both the yeast and mycelial growth phases of C. albicans in a non-competitive manner (Ki 780 microM). The effects of protoberberines, extracted from established medicinal plants, on both sterol and cell wall biosyntheses in pathogenic fungi indicate that the potential of these compounds, or their semi-synthetic derivatives, as a novel class of antifungal agents should be investigated more fully.  (+info)

The Candida albicans CHS4 gene complements a Saccharomyces cerevisiae skt5/chs4 mutation and is involved in chitin biosynthesis. (6/299)

The Candida albicans CHS4 gene encoding chitin synthase 4 has been isolated using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHS4/SKT5 gene as a probe. The gene contains a 2061 bp open reading frame capable of encoding a protein of 687 amino acids (76053 Da). No intron was observed in the gene. Disruption of CHS4 in C. albicans yielded a Calcofluor-resistant phenotype, indicating that Chs4p contributes to chitin biosynthesis. Consistent with this, overexpression of Chs4p under the regulation of the ScGAL1 promoter enhanced chitin synthase 3 activity in S. cerevisiae 7- to 38-fold. In addition, chs3 and chs4 null mutants were significantly defective in Calcofluor white staining and their chitin content was 10% of that of the parental strain. Chs4p of C. albicans and S. cerevisiae showed 61% identity in the C-terminal half of the proteins and that region of C. albicans Chs4p complemented the Chs4p function of a mutant of S. cerevisiae resistant to Calcofluor white. Therefore, it appears that Chs4p is involved in chitin synthase 3 activity by combining with Chs3p to interact synergistically in chitin biosynthesis.  (+info)

Active site determination of yeast geranylgeranyl protein transferase type I expressed in Escherichia coli. (7/299)

The ram2 and cal1 genes encode the alpha and beta subunits of yeast geranylgeranyl protein transferase type I (GGPT-I), respectively. Arginine 166 of the beta subunit was changed to isoleucine (betaR166I), histidine 216 to aspartic acid (betaH216D), and asparagine 282 to alanine (betaN282A) by sequential PCR using mutagenic primers. The mutants were expressed under the same conditions as the wild-type and were assayed for GGPT-I activity. Wild-type yeast GGPT-I, alphaH145D, alphaD140N, betaR166I, betaH216D and betaN282A mutant GGPT-Is were partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by a Q-Sepharose column. Characterization studies were performed using the active fraction of the Q-Sepharose column. In the chemical modification reactions, the catalytic activity of purified enzyme decreased in proportion to the concentration of modifying reagents, such as phenylglyoxal and diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC). Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) protected the enzyme activity from the modification with phenylglyoxal. The measurement of GGPP binding to wild-type and five mutant GGPT-Is was performed by a gel-filtration assay. The binding of GGPP to the betaR166I mutant was low and the Km value for GGPP in the betaR166I mutant increased about 29-fold. Therefore, the results suggest a role for this arginine residue that directly influences the GGPP binding. The activity of the DEPC-modified GGPT-I was inhibited by 80% at 5 mM DEPC. The differential absorption at 242 nm may suggest that at this concentration the modified histidine residues were 1.5 mol per GGPT-I. The protein substrate, glutathione S-transferase fused undecapeptide (GST-CAIL) protected the enzyme from inactivation by DEPC, and the Km value for GST-CAIL in the betaH216D mutant increased about 12-fold. The trypsin digestion of [14C]DEPC-modified enzyme yielded a single radioactive peptide. As a result of the sequence of this radioactive peptide, the histidine 216 residue was assumed to be an essential part of binding of peptide substrate.  (+info)

Chitin synthase III: synthetic lethal mutants and "stress related" chitin synthesis that bypasses the CSD3/CHS6 localization pathway. (8/299)

We screened Saccharomyces strains for mutants that are synthetically lethal with deletion of the major chitin synthase gene CHS3. In addition to finding, not surprisingly, that mutations in major cell wall-related genes such as FKS1 (glucan synthase) and mutations in any of the Golgi glycosylation complex genes (MNN9 family) are lethal in combination with chs3Delta, we found that a mutation in Srv2p, a bifunctional regulatory gene, is notably lethal in the chs3 deletion. In extending studies of fks1-chitin synthase 3 interactions, we made the surprising discovery that deletion of CSD3/CHS6, a gene normally required for Chs3p delivery and activity in vivo, was not lethal with fks1 and, in fact, that lack of Csd3p/Chs6p did not decrease the high level of stress-related chitin made in the fks1 mutant. This finding suggests that "stress response" chitin synthesis proceeds through an alternate Chs3p targeting pathway.  (+info)

Myosin II-dependent contraction of the cytokinetic ring and primary septum formation by chitin synthase II are interdependent processes during cytokinesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hence, null mutants of myosin II (myo1 Δ) and chitin synthase II (chs2 Δ) share multiple morphological and molecular phenotypes. To understand the nature of their interdependent functions, we will seek to identify genes undergoing transcriptional regulation in chs2 Δ strains and to establish a transcription signature profile for comparison with myo1 Δ strains. A total of 467 genes were commonly regulated between myo1Δ and chs2Δ mutant strains (p ≤ 0.01). Common regulated biological process categories identified by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) in both gene expression profiles were: protein biosynthesis, RNA processing, and stress response. Expression of 17/20 genes in the main transcriptional fingerprint for cell wall stress was confirmed in the chs2Δ strain versus 5/20 for the myo1Δ strain. One of these
Differential gene expression signatures for cell wall integrity found in chitin synthase II chs2 Δ and myosin II myo1 Δ deficient cytokinesis mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, genome contains at least five chitin synthase-encoding genes. chsB is essential for normal hyphal growth. chsA and chsC are likely to be cooperatively req
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis (IA), a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised humans. The echinocandin caspofungin, adopted as a second-line therapy in combating IA, is a β-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor, which, when used in high concentrations, reverts the anticipated A. fumigatus growth inhibition, a phenomenon called the caspofungin paradoxical effect (CPE). The CPE has been widely associated with increased chitin content in the cell wall due to a compensatory upregulation of chitin synthase-encoding genes. Here, we demonstrate that the CPE is dependent on the cell wall integrity (CWI) mitogen-activated protein kinase MpkAMPK1 and its associated transcription factor (TF) RlmARLM1, which regulate chitin synthase gene expression in response to different concentrations of caspofungin. Furthermore, the calcium- and calcineurin-dependent TF CrzA binds to and regulates the expression of specific chitin synthase genes during the ...
Fungi cause disease in plant and animal hosts. The extent to which virulence determinants are conserved between both classes of pathogens is unknown. We have developed a dual plant-animal infection model based on a single strain of Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of vascular wilt disease in plants and an emerging opportunistic pathogen of humans. Injection of microconidia of the well-characterized tomato pathogenic isolate 4287 in the lateral tail vein of immunodepressed mice resulted in disseminated infection of multiple organs and death of the animals. Knockout mutants in genes encoding a Pmk1-type mitogen-activated protein kinase, the pH response transcription factor PacC or a class V chitin synthase, all previously shown to be implicated in virulence on tomato plants, were tested in the disseminated mouse model. Our results indicate that some of these virulence factors play functionally distinct roles during infection of tomato and mice. Thus, a single F. oxysporum strain can be used to ...
Cytokinesis is a crucial event in the cell cycle of all living cells. In fungal cells, it requires co-ordinated contraction of an actomyosin ring and synthesis of both plasmatic membrane and a septum structure that will constitute the new cell wall end. Schizosaccharomyces pombe contains four essential putative (1,3)β-d-glucan synthase catalytic subunits, Bgs1p to Bgs4p. Here we examined the function of Bgs1p in septation by studying the lethal phenotypes of bgs1(+) shut-off and bgs1Delta cells and demonstrated that Bgs1p is responsible and essential for linear (1,3)β-d-glucan and primary septum formation. bgs1(+) shut-off generates a more than 300-fold Bgs1p reduction, but the septa still present large amounts of disorganized linear (1,3)β-d-glucan and partial primary septa. Conversely, both structures are absent in bgs1Delta cells, where there is no Bgs1p. The septum analysis of bgs1(+)-repressed cells indicates that linear (1,3)β-d-glucan is necessary but not sufficient for primary septum ...
Component Of The Exomer Complex; Exomer Also Contains Csh6p, Bch1p, Bch2p, And Bud7p And Is Involved In Export Of Selected Proteins, Such As Chitin Synthase Chs3p, From The Golgi To The Plasma Membrane; Chs5p Is The Only Protein With A BRCT Domain That Is Not Localized To The Nucleus
SH3-domain Protein Located In The Bud Neck And Cytokinetic Actin Ring; Relocalizes From Bud Neck To Nucleus Upon DNA Replication Stress; Activates The Chitin Synthase Activity Of Chs2p During Cytokinesis; Suppressor Of Growth And Cytokinesis Defects Of Chs2 Phospho-mutants
First, the Chitin Synthase 3 (CHS3) gene was subcloned out of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (Bakers Yeast) cDNA (complementary DNA - contains no introns, thus can be used in prokaryotes) with biobrick restriction sites (EcoR1, Xbal1 on one end, and Spe1, Pst1 on the other). CHS3 was chosen as it was found to be the major enzyme (knockouts had 80% reduced Chitin) in its family and requires no co-enzyme or activating compounds. Upon running CHS3 through NEB Cutter V2.0, we found a PST1 restriction site which is incompatible with the biobrick standard (EcoR1, Xbal, Spe1, Pst1). To remove this Pst1 site, we inserted CHS3 into a biobrick vector plasmid, and performed site-directed mutagenesis (SDM). Research revealed that chitin synthase is a transmembrane enzyme, and in order to simulate similar conditions, we decided to use the pMAL vector by NEB which contains a periplasmic membrane signal sequence. CHS3 was subcloned in to the pMAL-p5x NEB vector by first PCRing it out of the biobrick vector plasmid ...
Chitin synthase (CHS), a potential target for eco-friendly insecticides, plays an essential role in chitin formation in insects. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding chitin synthase 2 (BdCHS2) was cloned and characterized in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. The BdCHS2 cDNA had 4417 nucleotides, containing an open reading frame of 4122 nucleotides, which encoded 1373 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 158.5 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis with other insect CHSs suggested that BdCHS2 belongs to insect CHS2. The BdCHS2 transcript was predominately found in midgut but was detected at low levels in fat body, Malpighian tubules, integument, and trachea. Moreover, BdCHS2 was expressed in all developmental stages, and highly expressed in the feeding stages. There was a positive relationship between BdCHS2 expression and total chitin content during development. Furthermore, both the gene expression and chitin content in midgut decreased when the insect was fed for 24 h, then
Though the silencing is not yet 100 percent effective in their study, Zhu said it does leave the mosquitos body with less ability to combat insecticides, which must penetrate the mosquitos exoskeleton. If the gene, called chitin synthase, could be completely silenced, the mosquitoes may die without the use of pesticides because the chitin biosynthesis pathway would be blocked, Zhu said.. Zhu theorized using nanoparticles to deliver dsRNA to mosquito larvae might work because of the low success of manually injecting larvae with dsRNA. Mosquito larvae live in water but because dsRNA quickly dissipates in water, it cant be directly added to the larvaes food source. Zhus group discovered that using nanoparticles assembled from dsRNA facilitates their ingestion by mosquito larvae because the nanoparticles dont dissolve in water. Zhu said the nanoparticles may also stabilize the dsRNA in water.. Now insects will have a much greater likelihood of getting these nanoparticles containing the dsRNA ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Chitin is abundant in nature due to its compact intractable and inert structure resulted from strong hydrogen bonding network. Chitin is known as one of the second most abundant polysaccharides in nature, after cellulose. In crustaceans, chitin is present in a complex structure with calcium carbonate, forming the rigid skeleton of carapace, shell and tail. In insects, chitin is the main building block of the back plate. This intractable characteristic of chitin is superior in the animal / plant kingdom as protective skeleton but is a major disadvantage for chemical / physical modification. Therefore more efficient methods of reacting or modifying chitin (especially alpha-chitin as it is the most abundant of the 3 types of naturally occurring chitin) is necessary, in order to utilize this biomass as a major renewable raw materials ...
Arakane Y, Specht CA, Kramer KJ, Muthukrishnan S, Beeman RW. Chitin synthases are required for survival, fecundity and egg hatch in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008 Oct; 38(10):959-62 ...
The structure of chitin was determined by Albert Hofmann in 1929.[3]. Chitin is a modified polysaccharide that contains nitrogen; it is synthesized from units of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (to be precise, 2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-D-glucose). These units form covalent β-(1→4)-linkages (like the linkages between glucose units forming cellulose). Therefore, chitin may be described as cellulose with one hydroxyl group on each monomer replaced with an acetyl amine group. This allows for increased hydrogen bonding between adjacent polymers, giving the chitin-polymer matrix increased strength.. In its pure, unmodified form, chitin is translucent, pliable, resilient, and quite tough. In most arthropods, however, it is often modified, occurring largely as a component of composite materials, such as in sclerotin, a tanned proteinaceous matrix, which forms much of the exoskeleton of insects. Combined with calcium carbonate, as in the shells of crustaceans and molluscs, chitin produces a much stronger ...
Chitin and its derivatives-as a potential resource as well as multiple functional substrates-have generated attractive interest in various fields such as biomedical, pharmaceutical, food and environmental industries, since the first isolation of chitin in 1811. Moreover, chitosan and its chitooligosaccharides (COS) are degraded products of chitin through enzymatic and acidic hydrolysis processes; and COS, in particular, is well suited for potential biological application, due to the biocompatibility and nontoxic nature of chitosan. In this review, we investigate the current bioactivities of chitin derivatives, which are all correlated with their biomedical properties. Several new and cutting edge insights here may provide a molecular basis for the mechanism of chitin, and hence may aid its use for medical and pharmaceutical applications.
cellulose synthase (EC 2.4.1.12); chitin synthase (EC 2.4.1.16); dolichyl-phosphate β-D-mannosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.83); dolichyl-phosphate β-glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.117); N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.-); N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.-); hyaluronan synthase (EC 2.4.1.212); chitin oligosaccharide synthase (EC 2.4.1.-); β-1,3-glucan synthase (EC 2.4.1.34); β-1,4-mannan synthase (EC 2.4.1.-); β-mannosylphosphodecaprenol-mannooligosaccharide α-1,6-mannosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.199); UDP-Galf: rhamnopyranosyl-N-acetylglucosaminyl-PP-decaprenol β-1,4/1,5-galactofuranosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.287); UDP-Galf: galactofuranosyl-galactofuranosyl-rhamnosyl-N-acetylglucosaminyl-PP-decaprenol β-1,5/1,6-galactofuranosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.288); dTDP-L-Rha: N-acetylglucosaminyl-PP-decaprenol α-1,3-L-rhamnosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.289 ...
SCIN - Self-regenerating Chitin INduction Chitin, found in the exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans as well as the cell walls of fungi, is one of the most abundant organic polymers in nature. Like keratin in skin, it comprises the protective outer layer of these organisms. Our goal is to generate a layer of chitin from a lawn of bacteria (Escherichia coli) in response to an external molecular cue. This cue induces chitin synthesis (fast) and cell lysis (slow), allowing for a build-up of chitin followed by cell lysis and subsequent release into the top layer of the lawn. Abrasions expose cells to the external cue for self-repair. This would create a regenerative chitin biolayer with potential medical and industrial applications. ...
Organ and tissue formation requires a finely tuned temporal and spatial regulation of differentiation programmes. This is necessary to balance sufficient plasticity to undergo morphogenesis with the acquisition of the mature traits needed for physiological activity. Here we addressed this issue by a …
Im having troubles finding a description or picture of how chitin molecules bind together to form the exoskeletons of arthropods, crustaceans, etc. I have found a couple of cool pictures of the chitin molecule itself, but no images of how they link. My biology book has a long description of how glucose forms either cellulose or starch depending on if it is an alpha or beta configuration, and how they link up to form 3D structures. But it just shows a picture of the chitin molecule and completely blows of any 3D structure description. It is not really for any purpose, Im just very curious. Thanks for your help in advance. BK ...
i'm selling all the following items for GBs only 1x Priest Chitin+8/hp (SET) *Gaunts+8 = shell 12gbs 1x Mage Chitin+8/hp (SET) *no helm but
Silkworm pupae meal is a protein-rich feed ingredient with a high nutritional value. Its crude protein content ranges from 50% DM to more than 80% DM (for defatted meal). The lysine (6-7% of the protein) and methionine (2-3% of the protein) contents are particularly high. However, the true protein (calculated as the sum of amino acids) in silkworms was found to correspond to only 73% of the crude protein content (Finke, 2002), which was explained by the presence of chitin, since this component contains nitrogen. However, the chitin content of pupae meal is relatively low, about 3-4% DM (Finke, 2002; Suresh et al., 2012). The presence of chitin and insoluble protein may also explain the presence of fibre, and values of 6-12% DM of ADF have been reported (Finke, 2002; Ioselevich et al., 2004). Undefatted pupae meal is rich in fat, typically in the 20-40% DM range. Defatted meal contains less than 10% oil in the DM. Silkworm oil contains a high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, notably ...
chitin is a fascinating polysaccharide for a number of reasons. First, it is the second most abundant polycarbohydrate used by Mother Nature as a structural component both in the animal and in the plant kingdoms. Second, chitin has a chemical structure which is similar to that of cellulose
The breakdown of chitin within an acidic upland grassland was studied. The aim was to provide a molecular characterisation of microorganisms involved in chitin degradation in the soil using soil micro
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The Cleaning & Hygiene Suppliers Association (CHSA) is advising consumers of soft tissues products and plastic refuse sacks to seek, along with the CHSA logo itself, the Manufacturing Accreditation Schemes logos because the marques of quality. Our logos are important, every conveying a particular meaning and set of values to those who see them, stated CHSA chair and managing director of Harrison Wipes, Stephen Harrison. To keep their value and credibility its essential theyre used correctly by our members and understood totally by consumers.. The two logos of the Manufacturing Standards Accreditation Schemes are the only marques proving scheme membership and solely fully audited members have the authority to make use of them. Every member of a Manufacturing Standards Accreditation Scheme has successfully passed a detailed auditing course of designed to make sure consumers get precisely what they pay for. Scheme members are then re-audited yearly to keep up their membership, with a traffic ...
View mouse Bicdl1 Chr5:115648175-115731621 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Complete information for BICDL1 gene (Protein Coding), BICD Family Like Cargo Adaptor 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Downloading a figure as powerpoint requires a browser with javascript support. Enable javascript and try again For help please contact [email protected] ...
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Chitin deacetylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetamido groups of N-acetylglucosamine in chitin, has been purified to homogeneity from mycelial extracts of the fungus Mucor rouxii and further characterized. The enzyme exhibits a low pI (approximately 3). Its apparent molecular mass was determined to be approximately 75 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and approximately 80 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography, suggesting that the enzyme exists as a monomer. Carbohydrate analysis of purified chitin deacetylase revealed that the enzyme is a high-mannose glycoprotein and that its carbohydrate content is approximately 30% by weight. Chitin deacetylase is active on several chitinous substrates and chitin derivatives. The enzyme requires at least four N-acetylglucosamine residues (chitotetraose) for catalysis, and it is inhibited by carboxylic acids, particularly acetic acid. When glycol chitin (a water-soluble chitin derivative) was used as substrate, ...
LEONARDO LIMA PEPINO DE MACEDO, Cenargen; J. D. ANTONINO DE SOUZA JUNIOR, UNB; R. R. COELHO, UNB; F. C. A. FONSECA, UNB; A. A. P. FIRMINO, UFRGS; MARIA CRISTINA MATTAR DA SILVA, Cenargen; RODRIGO DA ROCHA FRAGOSO, CPAC; ERIKA VALERIA SALIBA ALBUQUERQUE FR, Cenargen; MARILIA SANTOS SILVA, Cenargen; J. DE ALMEIDA ENGLER, INSTITUT NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE AGRONOMIQUE, FRANCE; W. R. TERRA, USP; MARIA FATIMA GROSSI DE SA, Cenargen ...
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n (/ˈkaɪtɪn/ KY-tin), a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose. It is a primary component of cell walls in fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods, such as crustaceans (e.g., crabs, lobsters and shrimps) and insects, the radulae of molluscs, cephalopod beaks, and the scales of fish and lissamphibians. The structure of chitin is comparable to another polysaccharide - cellulose, forming crystalline nanofibrils or whiskers. In terms of function, it may be compared to the protein keratin. Chitin has proved useful for several medicinal, industrial and biotechnological purposes. The English word chitin comes from the French word chitine, which was derived in 1821 from the Greek word χιτών (chiton), meaning covering. A similar word, chiton, refers to a marine animal with a protective shell. The structure of chitin was determined by Albert Hofmann in 1929. Chitin is a modified polysaccharide that contains nitrogen; it is synthesized from units of ...
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Bridelia monoica in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed on 07-Oct-06 ...
Biosynthesis of plant and fungal (Oomycete) cell wall polysaccharides: biochemical and biophysical approaches for the study of membrane-bound complexes with glycosyltransferase activity and characterization of the corresponding polysaccharides, with particular emphasis on cellulose, (1,3)-beta-D-glucan and chitin biosynthesis ...
Biosynthesis of plant and fungal (Oomycete) cell wall polysaccharides: biochemical and biophysical approaches for the study of membrane-bound complexes with glycosyltransferase activity and characterization of the corresponding polysaccharides, with particular emphasis on cellulose, (1,3)-beta-D-glucan and chitin biosynthesis ...
Acetylcholine Receptors. Acetylcholinesterase.. Aflatoxin.. Agricultural Hygiene.. Agrocin 84.. Analysis, Instrumentation and Techniques.. Animal Health Products.. Antibiotic Resistance.. Antibiotics.. Auxins, indole auxins.. Avian Repellants.. Avian Species.. Bactericide.. Bacteriocin.. Bioassays, Phytotoxicity to Succeeding Crops.. Biodegradability, Assessment.. Biodegradation in Soil.. Biological Control, Survey.. Biological Control of Plant Diseases.. Biological Control of Weeds.. Biomass, Soil Microbial Biomass.. Biopesticides.. Brassinosteroids.. Capillary Electrophoresis.. Chemical Activators of Disease Resistance.. Chemical Properties Estimation.. Chemotherapy.. Chirality and Chiral Pesticides.. Chitin Biosynthesis Inhibitors.. Chlorocarbons and Chlorohydrocarbons-Toxic Aromatics.. Chromatography, HPLC.. Chromatography, TLC.. CIPAC.. Controlled Release Formulations of Pesticides.. Dibenzo-p Dioxins: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p Dioxin, Reid Disinfection.. Disinfestation.. Economic Issues ...
Tor2 is an activator of the Rom2/Rho1 pathway that regulates α-factor internalization. Since the recruitment of endocytic proteins such as actin binding proteins and the amphiphysins precedes the internalization of α-factor, I hypothesized that loss of Tor function leads to an alteration in the dynamics of the endocytic proteins. I report here that endocytic proteins, Abp1 and Rvs167, are less recruited to endocytic sites not only in tor2 but also tor1 mutants. Furthermore, I found that the endocytic proteins Rvs167 and Sjl2 are completely mistargeted to the cytoplasm in tor1∆tor2ts double mutant cells. I also demonstrate here that the efficiency of endocytic internalization or scission in all tor mutants was drastically decreased. In agreement with the Sjl2 mislocalization, I found that in tor1∆tor2ts double mutant cells, as well as other tor mutant cells, the overall PIP2 level was dramatically increased. Finally, the cell wall chitin content in tor2ts and tor1∆tor2ts mutant cells was also
Despite the economic importance of grasses as food, feed and energy crops, little is known about the genes that control their cell wall synthesis, assembly and remodelling. Here we provide a detailed transcriptome analysis that allowed the identification of genes involved in grass cell wall biogenesis. Differential gene-expression profiling, using maize oligonucleotide arrays, was used to identify genes differentially expressed between an elongating internode, containing cells exhibiting primary cell wall synthesis, and an internode that had just ceased elongation and in which many cells were depositing secondary cell wall material. This is one of only few studies specifically aimed at the identification of cell wall-related genes in grasses. Analysis identified new candidate genes for a role in primary and secondary cell wall-related processes in grasses. The results suggest that many proteins involved in cell wall-related processes during normal development are also recruited during defence-related
p,Biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low cost of chitin and chitosan have drawn immense attention in many fields including medicine, bioinspired material science, pharmaceuticals, and agriculture. Their handling and processing are difficult owing to its insolubility in neutral aqueous solution or organic solvents. One of the methods used to improve the solubility characteristics of chitin and chitosan is chemical modification. Introducing a carboxymethyl group is the most advantageous method of increasing the solubility of chitosan at neutral and alkaline pH. Carboxymethyl chitin (CMC) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) are water soluble derivatives formed by introducing CH2COOH function into the polymer which endows it with better biological properties. The functional group makes CMC/CMCS nanoparticles (NPs) efficient vehicles for the delivery of DNA, proteins, and drugs. This review provides an overview of the characteristics of CMC/CMCS NPs as well as fulfills the task of describing and ...
Chitin binding appeared to be specific and the authors presented some data that suggested that some of ChtVis-Tomato was stably bound to chitin while some seemed to be continually binding and releasing from chitin.. ChtVis-Tomato was useful for making long time lapse observations in vivo.. The ChtVis-Tomato reporter was construted in the pWALIUM10-moe vector and inserted into the Drosophila genome using phiC31 mediated integration. ChtVis-Tomato is under the regulatory control of a 5XUAS-containing promoter allowing it to be expressed in any Gal4 driver lines of D. melanogaster. The reporter is flanked by gypsy insulator sequences. pWALIUM10-moe contains a mini white gene that serves as a genetic marker in the appropriate mutant white background.. With a bit of modification and reconfiguring ChtVis-Tomato could easily be deployed in any insect and is expected to function as it has in D. melanogaster.. Lukasz F. Sobala, Ying Wang, Paul N. Adler (2015) ChtVis-Tomato, a genetic reporter for in vivo ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about chitin at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about chitin easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Introduction. Chitin is a polysaccharide of animal origin found abundantly in nature and characterized by a fibrous structure. It forms the basis of the main constituent of the outer skeleton of insects and crustaceans like shrimp, crabs and lobster (Kumar et al., 2005). According to Chen (1998) the chitin structure can be modified by removing the acetyl groups, which are bond to amine radicals in the C2 position on the glucan ring, by means of a chemical hydrolysis in concentrated alkaline solution at elevated temperature to produce a deacetylated form known as chitosan.. No, H.K. et al., (2002) stated that antibacterial activity of chitosan is effective in inhibiting growth of bacteria. The antimicrobial properties of chitosan depend on its molecular weight and the type of bacterium. For gram-positive bacteria, chitosan with 470 KDa was the most effective, except for Lactbacillus sp., whereas for gram-negative bacteria, chitosan with 1,106 KDa was effective. Chitosan generally showed stronger ...
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Marshall Marine Products is expertise in manufacturing Chitin from extracted shellfish waste such as shrimps, crabs and crawfish through the deprotenization, demineralization process
A paint composition for controlling pests and allergens through inhibiting chitin synthesis, includes a mixture of 10 to 40% by weight of water, 5 to 50% by weight of resin, 0.001 to 40% by weight of a chitin inhibitor, 0.001 to 5% by weight of an organophosphate, 1 to 40% by weight of pigment, 1 to 60% by weight of a carrier material, and 1 to 20% by weight of a stabilizer, wherein the weight percentages are based on the total weight of the mixture.
Phenotype data for mouse gene Bicd1. Discover Bicd1s significant phenotypes, expression, images, histopathology and more. Data for gene Bicd1 is all freely available for download.
Chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is an important structural component in the cell walls of fungal pathogens. Plant chitinases are capable of degrading this component to directly inhib...
One has a pink/brown hue, the other a steely blue hue. Two full top shells, and four full bottom shell halves. Forged by Greycore there is a Chitin Shield and
Marshall Marine Products is an Indian Marine Biotechnology Company, focused on Chitin and its derivatives. We pioneered in the development of Chitin Science, working relentlessly on improving the production technologies, and exploring new opportunities for developing new and innovative applications, by exploiting the unique properties of Chitin and its Derivatives. We coordinate, communicate, and collaborate with Industrial, and Scientific Research & Development and with Academic Communities
Method for evaluating lipid-binding qualities of enterosorbent was described. Mathod takes into account peculiarities of food digestion. A number of lipid binding agents was tested. The researches showed that biologically active additive to food Chizitel extracted via electrochemical method has the highest sorption properties towards triglycerides and fatty acids in comparison with well-known enterosorbents such as chitosan and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in the investigated PH-range ...
This book contains comprehensive contributions on chitin biology and chitin metabolism related enzymes, aiming to provide with recent research progress about biology of chitin-containing organisms as well as cross-talks between chitin-containing and non-chitin-containing organisms.
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Chitinases cleave the beta-1-4-glycosidic bond between the N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units of which chitin is comprised. Chitinases are present in plants, bacteria and fungi. The first chitinase structures were solved in 1994, from a bacterium (1ctn) and a plant (2hvm). A mechanism for chitin cleavage was proposed based on several structures and was later confirmed. [1] ...
Modules of approx. 70 residues. The chitin-binding function has been demonstrated in several cases. These modules are found attached to a number of chitinase catalytic domains, but also in non-catalytic proteins either in isolation or as multiple repeats; chitin binding (EC IIa.chitin ...
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Radionuclides also termed as radioisotopes are elements that possess radioactivity. It means upon decay they emit radiations like alpha, beta or gamma particles and trans..
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The outer body is made up of segments, or rings. Muscles run all along the worm under the segments. Outside of each segment are bristles made of chitin (the same stuff that makes up the exoskeleton of insects). These bristles are like little appendages. Indeed, if you have ever tried to pull a worm out of the ground and found it hard to do, its because the worm was gripping the earth with those bristles. Sometimes worms get pulled apart during these battles. The worm can survive and regrow part of its body if not too much is lost ...
Today I would like to introduce my new Kill Team: The Zoats. Not much is known these days about this xenos race. I focused on the part of their lore regarding their supposed enslavement by the Tyranids. The question now is, how the Tyranids would be able to do so. Thus I came up with a whole new-made up unit, the Cephalotrophs. The Cephalotrophs are a small, floating breed of Tyranids who have quite a fragile body which mainly is a gland plus a little tail. While on the hunt their chitin scale is used to protect them but as soon as they find a possible host they try to hug them from behind. Flesh hooks are fired .... ...
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Originally identified from Streptomyces tendae, the nikkomycins are chitin synthase inhibitors. Steinbach, WJ; Stevens, DA (1 ...
Inhibitors of chitin synthase enzymes seem to be effective against this pathogen. Fumagillin and albendazole treatments seem ...
This species has also been reported to produce chaetoatrosin A, a selective inhibitor of chitin synthase II. This enzyme is ... a Novel Chitin Synthase II Inhibitor Produced by Chaetomium atrobrunneum F449". The Journal of Antibiotics. 53 (3): 248-55. doi ...
June 2015). "The Plasmodiophora brassicae genome reveals insights in its life cycle and ancestry of chitin synthases". ...
... and chitin synthase (cs). These three genes were used because they are likely to be in varied levels during different times of ...
2015). "The Plasmodiophora brassicae genome reveals insights in its life cycle and ancestry of chitin synthases". Scientific ...
Chitinases and chitin synthases are regulated for the lysis and synthesis of the major cell wall component chitin, and have ... Both are inactivated when treated with phospholipases and growth is shunted Chitin synthase activity can also be inhibited by ... "Morphological Changes of the Filamentous Fungus Mucor Mucedo and Inhibition of Chitin Synthase Activity Induced by Anethole". ...
... which encodes a polypeptide homologous to chitin synthases, fbfB, a gene encoding a putative galactose oxidase, various genes ... aurantiaca Fruiting Body Formation Is Dependent on the fbfA Gene Encoding a Polypeptide Homologous to Chitin Synthases" (PDF). ...
Some chloroviruses contain chitin synthase (CHS) genes while some others contain hyaluronan synthase (HAS) genes, respectively ... triggering the formation of chitin sensitive fibres or hyaluronan sensitive fibres. Though the function of producing a fibrous ...
... which is reflected in the large number of acquired genes encoding class V chitin synthase and glucan synthase found in the C. ... The destruction of nascent chitin of pathogens generates oligosaccharides containing GlcNAC which elicits a general antifungal ... Chaetomium cupreum produces a range of antifungal metabolites including polyketide synthase, terpenes, chetomin, rotiorinols A- ... The cell wall of C. cupreum is largely composed of chitin and glucan, ...
... but however Chitin synthase is maintained in many lineages where it does not have an obvious macroscopic function. It is ... An example is chitin a very durable structural protein used in surgical sutures as well as durable varnishes but is common to ... But is also found in the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). Wagner et al., suggest that chitin might have a microscopic ... and the manufacture of insect cuticle for example might represent a recurrent change in the location of expression chitin ...
... as indicated with calcofluor-white stain as well as the presence of a fungal-specific chitin synthase gene. Rozellida were ... Without the chitin the cryptomycota can be phagotrophic parasites that feed by attaching to, engulfing, or living inside other ... Despite their unconventional feeding habits,[clarification needed] chitin has been observed in the inner layer of resting ...
... fatty acid synthase, chitin synthase, β-(1,3)-glucan synthase, etc. Chalcones are the promising candidates in inhibiting ... nitric oxide synthase (NOS), leukotriene D4 (LTD4), nuclear factor-κB (NFκB), intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), ...
... inhibitors of chitin synthase, and the echinocandins, inhibitors of fungal β-1,3-glucan synthases. Some glycosyltransferase ... Lufenuron is an inhibitor of insect chitin syntheses and is used to control fleas in animals. Imidazolium-based synthetic ... Carbohydrate chemistry Chemical glycosylation Glucuronosyltransferase Glycogen synthase Glycosyl acceptor Glycosyl donor ...
... chitin synthetase, and trans-N-acetylglucosaminosylase. This enzyme participates in aminosugars metabolism. Chitin Synthase is ... In enzymology, a chitin synthase (EC 2.4.1.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [ ... Chitin synthase is placed into the interior side of the cell membrane and then activated.[citation needed] GLASER L, BROWN DH ( ... Other names in common use include chitin-UDP N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, chitin-uridine diphosphate ...
A is produced in response to attack by a pathogen through the perception of elicitor signal molecules such as chitin ... Momilactone-A synthase (EC 1.1.1.295, momilactone A synthase, OsMAS) is an enzyme with systematic name 3beta-hydroxy-9beta- ... Momilactone-A+synthase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal v t e. ...
... from suspension-cultured rice cells treated with a chitin elicitor". The Plant Journal. 37 (1): 1-8. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313x. ... Ent-cassa-12,15-diene+synthase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal v t e. ... Ent-cassa-12,15-diene synthase (EC 4.2.3.28, OsDTC1, OsKS7) is an enzyme with systematic name ent-copalyl-diphosphate ... 15-diene synthase, a putative diterpenoid phytoalexin biosynthetic enzyme, ...
3-glucan synthase A gene responsible for remodeling cell walls and inhibiting the formation of chitin. AFP may also alter the ... First, AFP may inhibit cell growth by inhibiting chitin synthesis. In sensitive fungi, AFP activates the cell wall integrity ... Hagen S, Marx F, Ram AF, Meyer V (April 2007). "The antifungal protein AFP from Aspergillus giganteus inhibits chitin synthesis ...
... chitin synthase MeSH D08.811.913.400.450.460.350 - glycogen debranching enzyme system MeSH D08.811.913.400.450.460.375 - ... riboflavin synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.825 - spermidine synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.912 - spermine synthase MeSH D08.811. ... nitric oxide synthase type i MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772.500 - nitric oxide synthase type ii MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772.750 ... glycogen synthase kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.429.500 - glycogen synthase kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ...
... s noncompetitively inhibit beta-1,3-D-glucan synthase enzyme complex in susceptible fungi to disturb fungal cell ... strengthening of cell wall by increased chitin production, upregulation of stress-response pathways, and dysregulation of ... Resistance patterns include alterations in the glucan synthase (Fks1-Fks2 complex), overexpression of efflux pumps, ... 3-β glucan synthase. The class has been termed the "penicillin of antifungals," along with the related papulacandins, as their ...
Fungi use a chitin-glucan-protein cell wall. They share the 1,3-β-glucan synthesis pathway with plants, using homologous GT48 ... Cellulose microfibrils are produced at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex, which is proposed to be made of a ... Both chitin and chitosan are synthesized and extruded at the plasma membrane. glucans: glucose polymers that function to cross- ... An alternative scenario is that fungi started with a chitin-based cell wall and later acquired the GT-48 enzymes for the 1,3-β- ...
The synthesis of linear β(1,3)-D-glucan for the primary septum is done by the enzyme β(1,3)-D-glucan synthase and regulated by ... In particular, chitinase 2 is required, an enzyme that synthesises chitin thereby building up the primary septum. A secondary ... septum of β-glucans and mannoproteins is then assembled using the enzyme 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase, and the primary septum ...
In the eukaryotes, this pathway is unique to the higher fungi (containing chitin in their cell walls) and the euglenids. It has ... Homocitrate is initially synthesised from acetyl-CoA and 2-oxoglutarate by homocitrate synthase. This is then converted to ...
In some cases beta, 1-3 glycan synthase is also released to penetrate the callose matrix. Once the fungus penetrates the wheat ... cell wall, the fungal cell wall materials (i.e. chitin) act as elicitors which interact with plant receptors and induce the ...
ATP synthase is used as photophosphorylation to convert chemicals into ATP. Archaea and bacteria are structurally similar even ... which means archaea do not produce cellulose or chitin. Archaea are most closely related to eukaryotes due to tRNA present in ...
... sucrose-phosphate synthase EC 2.4.1.15: a,a-trehalose-phosphate synthase (UDP-forming) EC 2.4.1.16: chitin synthase EC 2.4.1.17 ... 2-ethylmalate synthase EC 2.3.3.7: 3-ethylmalate synthase EC 2.3.3.8: ATP citrate synthase EC 2.3.3.9: malate synthase EC 2.3. ... synthase EC 2.3.3.2: decylcitrate synthase EC 2.3.3.3: citrate (Re)-synthase EC 2.3.3.4: decylhomocitrate synthase EC 2.3.3.5: ... squalene synthase EC 2.5.1.22: spermine synthase EC 2.5.1.23: sym-norspermidine synthase EC 2.5.1.24: discadenine synthase EC ...
Asparagine Aspartic acid Asymmetric dimethylarginine ATP synthase Atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP) Auxin Avidin Azadirachtin A ... C19H42BrN Chelerythrine Chromomycin A3 Chaparonin Chitin α-Chloralose Chlorophyll Cholecystokinin (CCK) Cholesterol Choline ... Glycine Glycogen Glycogenin Glycogen synthase Glycogen phosphorylase Glycolic acid Glycolipid Glycoprotein Gonadotropin- ...
The enzyme starch synthase then adds the ADP-glucose via a 1,4-alpha glycosidic bond to a growing chain of glucose residues, ... This is in contrast to many structural polysaccharides such as chitin, cellulose and peptidoglycan, which are bound by beta ...
These include cell membranes (e.g. phospholipids), cell walls (e.g. peptidoglycan, chitin), and cytoskeletons (proteins). ... are condensed by fatty acid synthase to produce fatty acids. Fatty acid are essential components of lipid bilayers that form ... Photosynthesis or gluconeogenesis → monosaccharides → polysaccharides (cellulose, chitin, glycogen etc.) Acetate pathway → ... structural biology of marine polyketide synthases". Natural Product Reports. 29 (10): 1038-49. doi:10.1039/c2np20016c. PMC ...
In general, β-1,3 linkages are created by 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase, and β-1,4 linkages are created by cellulose synthase. The ...
GlcNAc is the monomeric unit of the polymer chitin, which forms the exoskeletons of arthropods like insects and crustaceans. It ... N-Acetyllactosamine synthase. *Wheat germ agglutinin, a plant lectin that binds to this substrate ...
Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Lin, Chih-Yung; Chuang, Chao-Chun; Chang, Hsiu-Ming; Hsieh, Chang-Huain; Yeh, Chang-Wei; Shih, Chi-Tin; Wu, ... "Identification and characteristics of the structural gene for the Drosophila eye colour mutant sepia, encoding PDA synthase, a ...
... catalyzed by the enzyme sucrose-6-phosphate synthase. The energy for the reaction is gained by the cleavage of uridine ...
Terpene synthase enzymes (many), having in common a Terpene synthase N terminal domain (protein domain) ...
Terpene synthase enzymes (many), having in common a Terpene synthase N terminal domain (protein domain) ... Chitin. -. in fungi, exoskeleton of insects and crustaceans Hemicellulose. cereals, bran, timber, legumes ...
Terpene synthase enzymes (many), having in common a Terpene synthase N terminal domain (protein domain) ...
Terpene synthase enzymes (many), having in common a Terpene synthase N terminal domain (protein domain) ...
The fourth class of GAG, hyaluronic acid, is not synthesized by the Golgi, but rather by integral membrane synthases which ... The fourth class of GAG, hyaluronan (or hyaluronic acid), is not sulfated and is synthesized by three transmembrane synthase ... DeAngelis PL, Weigel PH (1994). "Immunochemical confirmation of the primary structure of streptococcal hyaluronan synthase and ... an enzyme which may or may not have distinct activity compared to the GalNAc transferase activity of chondroitin synthase.[5] ...
... characteristics include synthesis of extracellular chitin in exoskeleton, cyst/spore wall, or cell wall of ... and plants have a fusion of thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase not present in the opisthokonts. Animals and fungi ...
Most true fungi have a cell wall consisting largely of chitin and other polysaccharides.[26] True fungi do not have cellulose ... Cellulose microfibrils are produced at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex, which is proposed to be made of a ... chitin: polymers consisting mainly of unbranched chains of β-(1,4)-linked-N-Acetylglucosamine in the Ascomycota and ... Both chitin and chitosan are synthesized and extruded at the plasma membrane.[28] ...
Fatty acids are made by fatty acid synthases that polymerize and then reduce acetyl-CoA units. The acyl chains in the fatty ... chitin in animals). The basic carbohydrate units are called monosaccharides and include galactose, fructose, and most ... This force drives protons back into the mitochondrion through the base of an enzyme called ATP synthase. The flow of protons ... Dimroth P, von Ballmoos C, Meier T (March 2006). "Catalytic and mechanical cycles in F-ATP synthases. Fourth in the Cycles ...
Schlaman H, Gisel A, Quaedvlieg N, Bloemberg G, Lugtenberg B, Kijne J, Potrykus I, Spaink H, Sautter C (1997) Chitin ... phytoene synthase accumulates phytoene, a key intermediate of provitamin A biosynthesis. Plant J 11:1071-1078. Futterer J, ...
This end product acts as a carrier of N-Acetylglucosamine, which is the monomeric unit of chitin, a structural polymer that ... N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate synthase, phosphoglucosamine N-acetylase, glucosamine-phosphate N-acetyltransferase, and ... For instance, it constitutes one of the main difference in the molecular structure of chitin and cellulose, and explains many ... Cui J, Yu Z, Lau D (January 2016). "Effect of Acetyl Group on Mechanical Properties of Chitin/Chitosan Nanocrystal: A Molecular ...
Chitin Peptidoglycan McArdle, William D.; Katch, Frank I.; Katch, Victor L. (2006). Exercise physiology: Energy, nutrition, and ... After about eight glucose molecules have been added to a tyrosine residue, the enzyme glycogen synthase progressively lengthens ... including glycogen synthase. Glucose molecules are added to the chains of glycogen as long as both insulin and glucose remain ...
used a chitin binding domain (CBD) from Bacillus circulans as an affinity tag, and fused this tag with a modified Sce VMA ... "A dominant trifluoperazine resistance gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has homology with F0F1 ATP synthase and confers ... This novel technique eliminates the need for a proteolysis step, and modified Sce VMA stays in column attached to chitin ... After expressing the recombinant protein, the cell homogenate is passed through the column containing chitin. This allows the ...
ATP synthase - atrioventricular valve - atrium - autoimmune disease - autonomic nervous system - autosome - auxins - axillary ... chitin - chlamydospore - chlorophyll - chloroplast - cholera - cholesterol - chromatin - chromophore - chromosome - chytrid - ...
Instead of using an ATP synthase as in respiration, ATP in fermentative organisms is produced by substrate-level ... chitin or lignin which are generally indigestible to larger animals. Generally, the oxidative breakdown of large polymers to ...
GO:0004100 chitin synthase activity GO:0016758 transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups ...
chitin synthetase activity, chitin-UDP acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase activity, chitin-UDP N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase ... Gene Ontology Term: chitin synthase activity. GO ID. GO:0004100 Aspect. Molecular Function. Description. Catalysis of the ... chitin 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase activity View GO Annotations in other species in AmiGO ... activity, chitin-uridine diphosphate acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity, trans-N-acetylglucosaminosylase activity, UDP-N- ...
... strongly suggested that the lysis observed in daughter cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae defective in chitin synthase 1 (Chs1) ... Chitinase and chitin synthase 1: counterbalancing activities in cell separation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae J Gen Microbiol. ... strongly suggested that the lysis observed in daughter cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae defective in chitin synthase 1 (Chs1) ... Consequently, it was proposed that in wild-type cells, Chs1 acts as a repair enzyme by replenishing chitin during cytokinesis. ...
Cloning and characterization of chsD, a chitin synthase-like gene of Aspergillus fumigatus.. Mellado E1, Specht CA, Robbins PW ... A chitin synthase-like gene (chsD) was isolated from an Aspergillus fumigatus genomic DNA library. Comparisons with the ... chitin synthase activity or virulence in a neutropenic murine model of aspergillosis. The results show that the chsD product ... A chsD- mutant strain constructed by gene disruption has a 20% reduction in total mycelial chitin content; however, no ...
Phylogeny and genomic context of bacterial chitin synthases. a Phylogenetic relationships of bacterial chitin synthases. The ML ... The domains related to chitin synthase used for their detection, Chitin_synth_1 (PF01644) and Chitin_synth_2 (PF03142), ... Evolution of chitin synthases (CHS). A ML phylogeny based on 222 amino acid alignment positions of 157 sequences was ... Structural features of the chitin synthase proteins. The core of CHS proteins is always composed of conserved motifs named a-h ...
The yeasts Rho1p and Pkc1p regulate the transport of chitin synthase III (Chs3p) from internal stores to the plasma membrane. ... The yeasts Rho1p and Pkc1p regulate the transport of chitin synthase III (Chs3p) from internal stores to the plasma membrane ... In this study, we show that under conditions of cell stress, the steady-state localization of chitin synthase III (Chs3p) ... The yeasts Rho1p and Pkc1p regulate the transport of chitin synthase III (Chs3p) from internal stores to the plasma membrane ...
... and chitin synthase (CHS) is an important enzyme required for chitin formation. CHS has been characterized in various insect ... Chitin is one the main components of the insect cuticle, ... Identification and Functional Analysis of Two Chitin Synthase ... Chitin is one the main components of the insect cuticle, and chitin synthase (CHS) is an important enzyme required for chitin ... Keywords: chitin synthase; RNA interference; expression patterns; 20-hydroxyecdysone; Spodoptera litura chitin synthase; RNA ...
Chitin metabolism in insects: structure, function and regulation of chitin synthases and chitinases ... Chitin metabolism in insects: structure, function and regulation of chitin synthases and chitinases ... Chitin metabolism in insects: structure, function and regulation of chitin synthases and chitinases ... Chitin metabolism in insects: structure, function and regulation of chitin synthases and chitinases ...
... plays an essential role in chitin formation in insects. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding chitin synthase 2 (BdCHS2) ... Furthermore, both the gene expression and chitin content in midgut decreased when the insect was fed for 24 h, then starved for ... There was a positive relationship between BdCHS2 expression and total chitin content during development. ... These results suggest that BdCHS2 may play an important role in regulating chitin content of the midgut, and subsequently ...
PubMed journal article Chitin synthase is involved in vegetative growth, asexual reproduction and pathogenesis of Phytophthora ... In Phytophthora spp., the presence of chitin has not been demonstrated so far, although putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes, ... In Phytophthora spp., the presence of chitin has not been demonstrated so far, although putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes, ... TY - JOUR T1 - Chitin synthase is involved in vegetative growth, asexual reproduction and pathogenesis of Phytophthora capsici ...
Polar Localizing Class V Myosin Chitin Synthases Are Essential during Early Plant Infection in the Plant Pathogenic Fungus ... Weber, I., Assman, D., Thines, E. and Steinberg, G. (2006) Polar Localizing Class V Myosin Chitin Synthases Are Essential ...
Differential Expression of Chitin Synthase (CHS) and Glucan Synthase (FKS) Genes Correlates with the Formation of a Modified, ... bassiana chitin synthase (CHS) and glucan synthase (FKS) genes are down regulated in vivo. These analyses indicate that in vivo ... Lee, JI, Choi, JH, Park, BC, Park, YH, Lee, MY, Park, HM, Maeng, PJ 2004Differential expression of the chitin synthase genes of ... Bowen, AR, Chen-Wu, JL, Momany, M, Young, R, Szaniszlo, PJ, Robbins, PW 1992Classification of fungal chitin synthasesProc Natl ...
Zellbiologische und biochemische Charakterisierung des Ustilago maydis Virulenzfaktors Mcs1(Myosin-Chitinsynthase 1) ... Myosin-chitin synthase Ustilago maydis Myosin Fungal cell wall Biowissenschaften, Biologie Pathogenität ...
Chitin synthesis in Candida requires the function of a number of transmembrane chitin synthesis enzymes. Short chitin fibrils ... Role of three chitin synthase genes in the growth of Candida albicans. J Bacteriol 178:2416-2419. doi:10.1128/jb.178.8.2416- ... AP-2-Dependent Endocytic Recycling of the Chitin Synthase Chs3 Regulates Polarized Growth in Candida albicans. H. C. Knafler, I ... Differential trafficking and timed localization of two chitin synthase proteins, Chs2p and Chs3p. J Cell Biol 135:597-610. doi: ...
Collectively, these data led us to assign a critical role to the BcCHS3a chitin synthase isoform, both in fungal virulence and ... Disruption of the Bcchs3a Chitin Synthase Gene in Botrytis cinerea Is Responsible for Altered Adhesion and Overstimulation of ... Previously, we reported the isolation and characterization of a mutant in class III chitin synthase, Bcchs3a, in the ...
... a chitin synthase inhibitor (53). In Aspergillus fumigatus, two genes encoding class III chitin synthases, chsC and chsG, have ... it is suggested that classes I and IV chitin synthases, Chs3p and Chs8p, synthesize short-chitin rodlets and long-chitin ... Although class III chitin synthases are only found in fungi with high chitin content and are thought to play a key role in ... and VII are only found in fungi with high chitin contents in their cell walls. We have identified six chitin synthase genes ...
CHS8-A fourth chitin synthase gene of Candida albicans contributes to in vitro chitin synthase activity, but is dispensable for ... The synthesis of chitin is mediated by membrane-bound chitin synthases (CHSs) that locate to specialized transport vesicles, ... Din, A.B., Specht, C.A., Robbins, P.W., and Yarden, O. (1996). Chs-4, a class IV chitin synthase gene from Neurospora crassa. ... Mio, T., Yabe, T., Sudoh, M., Satoh, Y., Nakajima, T., Arisawa, M., and Yamada-Okabe, H. (1996). Role of three chitin synthase ...
Chitin synthase III (Chs3p) synthesizes a ring of chitin at the onset of bud emergence, marking the base of the incipient bud. ... At the end of mitosis, chitin synthase II (Chs2p) deposits a disk of chitin in the mother-bud neck, forming the primary ... Differential trafficking and timed localization of two chitin synthase proteins, Chs2p and Chs3p. J S Chuang, J S Chuang ... J S Chuang, R W Schekman; Differential trafficking and timed localization of two chitin synthase proteins, Chs2p and Chs3p.. J ...
Accordingly, de novo chitin synthesis may involve coordinated regulation of members of the CHS chitin synthase and CHT ... the chitin synthase and chitinase activities of cell-free extracts were measured, as well as the chitin content of cell walls ... In C. albicans, the total specific activities of both chitin synthase and chitinase were higher in the hyphal form, which was ... However, deletion of chitinase genes did not markedly affect specific chitin synthase activity, and deletion of single CHS ...
Valdivieso, M. H., Mol, P. C., Shaw, J. A., Cabib, E., Duran, A. (1991). "CAL1, a gene required for activity of chitin synthase ... the CSD2 gene product is related to chitin synthases and to developmentally regulated proteins in Rhizobium species and Xenopus ... It is involved in the synthesis of the chitin ring that forms in the cell wall just before bud emergence. This ring remains at ... Appears to be responsible for the synthesis of the majority of the chitin found in the cell wall periphery. ...
Chitin synthase activity could be increased sixfold by digestion of enzyme preparations with trypsin for short periods. The ... Chitin synthase (EC 2.4.1.16) from membrane preparations of Aspergillus nidulans was characterized and the optimum conditions ... Chitin Synthase in Aspergillus nidulans: Properties and Proteolytic Activation * N. S. RYDER and J. F. PEBERDY ... SUMMARY: Chitin synthase (EC 2.4.1.16) from membrane preparations of Aspergillus nidulans was characterized and the optimum ...
Regulatory functions of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase in the chitin biosynthesis pathway in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: ... Regulatory functions of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase in the chitin biosynthesis pathway in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: ... DPM synthase,DPM1,Homo sapiens,Human,Mannose-P-dolichol synthase,MPD synthase. ... DPM synthase,Dpm1,Mannose-P-dolichol synthase,Mouse,MPD synthase,Mus musculus. ...
The development of wing plays a key role in insect physiological activities and mainly involves chitin and hence, the ... of the AP and TSH genes involved in wing development and that the TRE inhibitor validamycin can co-regulate chitin metabolism ... The development of wing plays a key role in insect physiological activities and mainly involves chitin and hence, the ... Chitin Synthase Gene Expression in Wing Bud Tissue after Knocking Down Three TRE Genes. Chitin is the main component of the ...
Knocking down chitin synthase 2 by RNAi is lethal to the cotton boll weevil. ...
Originally identified from Streptomyces tendae, the nikkomycins are chitin synthase inhibitors. Steinbach, WJ; Stevens, DA (1 ...
... bassiana chitin synthase (CHS) and glucan synthase (FKS) genes are down regulated in vivo. These analyses indicate that in vivo ... The in vivo cell walls still contained both chitin and 1,3-beta-glucan, but they were significantly thinner than in vitro cell ... Differential expression of chitin synthase (CHS) and glucan synthase (FKS) genes correlates with the formation of a modified, ... "Differential expression of chitin synthase (CHS) and glucan synthase (FKS) genes correlates with the formation of a modified, ...
Potent Chitin Synthase Inhibitors from Plants. , 16(1): 58 - 63. Amrutha Vijayakumar, Ajith Madhavan*, Chinchu Bose, ...
Chitin deposition requires the activity of the chitin synthase Krotzkopf verkehrt (Kkv). Our data demonstrate that this process ... Deciphering the genetic programme triggering timely and spatially-regulated chitin deposition PLoS Genet. 2015 Jan 24;11(1): ... Conversely, when Kkv and Exp/Reb are co-expressed in the ectoderm, they promote chitin deposition, even in tissues normally ... We show that this mechanism is highly regulated in time and space, ensuring chitin accumulation in the correct tissues and ...
Chitin synthesis is a process maintained across the fungal kingdom that, thanks to the power of genetic manipulation of yeast ... Chitin synthesis is based on the regulation of distinct chitin synthase isoenzymes whose number ranges from one in ... Chitin synthesis is a process maintained across the fungal kingdom that, thanks to the power of genetic manipulation of yeast ...
... and chitin synthase (cs). These three genes were used because they are likely to be in varied levels during different times of ...
  • This increase in cell wall polysaccharide is the result of both an increase in the Slt2p-dependent expression of genes encoding β1-3 glucan synthases (Fks1p and Fks2p) and, to a lesser extent, of chitin synthase III (Chs3p) ( 8 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Yu H-Z, Li N-Y, Xie Y-X, Zhang Q, Wang Y, Lu Z-J. Identification and Functional Analysis of Two Chitin Synthase Genes in the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura . (mdpi.com)
  • the presence of chitin has not been demonstrated so far, although putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes, which encode the enzymes that synthesize chitin, are present in their genomes. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The difference in cell wall thickness was correlated with transcriptional regulation of cell wall-related genes: quantitative RT-PCR reactions demonstrated that B. bassiana chitin synthase ( CHS ) and glucan synthase ( FKS ) genes are down regulated in vivo . (springer.com)
  • The genes encoding the synthases belonging to classes III, V, VI, and VII are only found in fungi with high chitin contents in their cell walls. (asm.org)
  • The deletion of class III chitin synthase-encoding genes leads to severe defects in most of the filamentous fungi thus far investigated. (asm.org)
  • In Aspergillus fumigatus , two genes encoding class III chitin synthases, chsC and chsG , have been identified. (asm.org)
  • However, deletion of chitinase genes did not markedly affect specific chitin synthase activity, and deletion of single CHS genes had little effect on in vitro specific chitinase activity in either fungus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Additionally, the expression of six chitin synthesis-related genes, such as hexokinase 2 and glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase, was suppressed at 48 and 72 h post-dsTPS-1 and dsTPS-2 RNA injection, which were two dsTPS fragments that had been designed for two different locations in TcTPS open reading frame, and that trehalose content and trehalase 1 activity decreased significantly at 72 h post-dsRNA injection. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • These results demonstrate that silencing of TRE gene expression can lead to wing deformities due to the down-regulation of the AP and TSH genes involved in wing development and that the TRE inhibitor validamycin can co-regulate chitin metabolism and the expression of wing development-related genes in wing bud tissue. (frontiersin.org)
  • The compositions comprise genetically modified organisms, including fungi, yeast, bacterial and plant organisms that have been engineered to express heterologous genes involved in chitin and chitosan synthesis. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Our biochemical data on the characterization of the chitin synthase activity of A. euteiches suggest the existence of two distinct enzymes responsible for the formation of water soluble and insoluble chitosaccharides, which is consistent with the existence of two putative CHS genes in the genome of this species. (diva-portal.org)
  • In C. albicans , three genes encoding different chitin synthases ( CHS1 , 2 , and 3 ) were identified. (hindawi.com)
  • This thesis includes the analyses of five new tracheal tube size genes, which mutational analyses have revealed a new biological principle to ensure uniform functional tubes: newly formed tracheal tubes deposit a broad luminal chitin filament around which the tubular epithelium can rearrange. (openthesis.org)
  • Four of the genes (krotzkopf verkehrt, knickkopf, retroactive and mummy) are required to build the luminal chitin filament, and their loss of function result in severe diameter constrictions and dilations in the expanding tubes. (openthesis.org)
  • Altering the expression of two chitin synthase genes differentially affects the growth and morphology of Aspergillus oryzae. (novozymes.com)
  • Northern analysis indicated no change in the transcription of the chitin synthase genes csmA and chsC when chsB expression was altered, and there was no change in the transcription of chsB and chsC when csmA was disrupted. (novozymes.com)
  • Cellulose synthase genes (CesA) were identified and their expression profile analysed at different developmental stages, thereby providing a map of the key genes involved in the overall biological life cycle of the pathogen. (europa.eu)
  • Chitin Synthase 3 (CHS3) was cloned out of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (S.C.) cDNA. (igem.org)
  • One enzyme in this pathway, chitin synthase 3 (CHS3), was previously found to be among the most active chitin sythases in the chitin synthase family of enzymes and does not require additional cofactors to function. (igem.org)
  • As a result, we use CHS3 as the chitin production mechanism in our inducible system ( BBa_K418007 ). (igem.org)
  • Member of the CHS5-ARF1P-binding proteins (CHAPS) which mediates export of specific cargo proteins, including chitin synthase CHS3. (rcsb.org)
  • In C. albicans , the total specific activities of both chitin synthase and chitinase were higher in the hyphal form, which was attributable mainly to the activities of Chs2 and Cht3, respectively. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Hence, null mutants of myosin II myo1 Δ and chitin synthase II chs2 Δ share multiple morphological and molecular phenotypes. (duhnnae.com)
  • Mitotic exit kinase Dbf2 directly phosphorylates chitin synthase Chs2 to regulate cytokinesis in budding yeast. (upenn.edu)
  • Cells coexpressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled Spa2 (polarizome), Sec3 (exocyst) or Chs2 (chitin synthase II) and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-labeled septin Cdc3 were analyzed by three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy ( 17 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Chitin Synthase is manufactured in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of fungi as the inactive form, zymogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome-wide analyses of chitin synthases identify horizontal gene transfers towards bacteria and allow a robust and unifying classification into fungi. (nih.gov)
  • Chitin, the second most abundant biopolymer on earth after cellulose, is found in probably all fungi, many animals (mainly invertebrates), several protists and a few algae, playing an essential role in the development of many of them. (nih.gov)
  • Class III chitin synthases play important roles in tip growth and conidiation in many filamentous fungi. (asm.org)
  • Deletion of a gene, chs1 , encoding a class III chitin synthase of the maize pathogenic dimorphic fungi Ustilago maydis caused minor defects in the growth of haploid yeastlike cells and conjugation tube formation ( 49 ). (asm.org)
  • Chitin, the β-(1→4)-linked polymer of N -acetylglucosamine, provides strength to the fungal cell wall and is therefore essential for the morphogenesis and survival of fungi (Ruiz-Herrera et al. (plantcell.org)
  • Chitin is an essential structural polysaccharide in fungi that is required for cell shape and morphogenesis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Chitin synthesis is based on the regulation of distinct chitin synthase isoenzymes whose number ranges from one in Schizosaccharomyces pombe to seven in some filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus fumigatus . (springer.com)
  • Similarly, most fungi produce chitin in their cell walls for structural support. (igem.org)
  • The aim of the review is to present the common molecular characteristics of such pathogens as fungi and nematodes and other chitin bearing animals, which may both activate and downregulate the immune response of the host. (degruyter.com)
  • Chitin is found in fungi, nematodes and arthropods and plays key roles in maintaining morphology and protecting organisms against external attacks [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Analysis of the evolutionary history of chitin synthases revealed significant expansions in both animals and fungi, and also in the Ichthyosporea and C. limacisporum , a group of cell-walled animal relatives. (noaa.gov)
  • A 3D atomistic model of a plant cellulose synthase (CESA) has remained elusive despite over forty years of experimental effort. (pnas.org)
  • This deficiency arose due to experimental barriers in purification of active enzyme, recombinant expression, and crystallization of any plant cellulose synthase (CESA). (pnas.org)
  • Although CESA proteins typically arrange themselves into multimeric cellulose synthase complexes (CSC), which are required for the production of multichain cellulose microfibrils, the CSCs of land plants and related algae are uniquely organized as six-lobed circular "rosettes" containing a still-undefined number (e.g., 18-36 in number) of CESAs ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus, the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of cell wall components, such as cellulose and chitin synthases, represent ideal targets for disease control. (diva-portal.org)
  • In our work, we have used Saprolegnia monoica as a model species for oomycetes to characterize two types of domains that occur specifically in oomycete carbohydrate synthases: the Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain of a cellulose synthase and the so-called 'Microtubule Interacting and Trafficking' (MIT) domain of chitin synthases. (diva-portal.org)
  • The results from our in vitro investigations revealed that the PH domain of the oomycete cellulose synthase binds to phosphoinositides, microtubules and F-actin. (diva-portal.org)
  • Altogether our data support a role of the PH domain of cellulose synthase and MIT domains of CHS in membrane trafficking and cellular location. (diva-portal.org)
  • The number of cellulose synthase proteins in this large multisubunit transmembrane protein complex and the number of cellulose chains in a microfibril have been debated for many years. (plantphysiol.org)
  • This structural information was revealed by freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy, showing six lobes in a hexagonal arrangement at the point where the transmembrane helices of multiple cellulose synthase proteins (CESAs) cross the plasma membrane. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Cellulose synthases: Understanding the precise role of individual cellulose synthases is essential to our understanding of cell wall biology in the oomycetes. (europa.eu)
  • Consequently, it was proposed that in wild-type cells, Chs1 acts as a repair enzyme by replenishing chitin during cytokinesis. (nih.gov)
  • BackgroundMyosin II-dependent contraction of the cytokinetic ring and primary septum formation by chitin synthase II are interdependent processes during cytokinesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (duhnnae.com)
  • Previous results [E. Cabib, A. Sburlati, B. Bowers & S. J. Silverman (1989) Journal of Cell Biology 108, 1665-1672] strongly suggested that the lysis observed in daughter cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae defective in chitin synthase 1 (Chs1) was caused by a chitinase that partially degrades the chitin septum in the process of cell separation. (nih.gov)
  • Differential trafficking and timed localization of two chitin synthase proteins, Chs2p and Chs3p. (rupress.org)
  • In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , myosin type II (Myo1p) and chitin synthase II (Chs2p) are essential proteins for the formation of the normal cytokinetic apparatus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, both dyes inhibited chitin and beta (1,3)-glucan synthases in isolated cell-free systems. (asm.org)
  • GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Regulatory functions of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase in the chitin biosynthesis pathway in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) revealed by RNA interference. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The work performed in CBOP revealed that the only putative chitin synthase gene present in the pathogen is expressed during most developmental stages but that it is certainly not involved in chitin biosynthesis since the wall of the pathogen does not contain any amount of detectable chitin. (europa.eu)
  • During cell stress, Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases the synthesis of chitin and glucans to strengthen and repair the cell wall. (pnas.org)
  • The deposition of the polysaccharide chitin in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall is temporally and spatially regulated. (rupress.org)
  • Chitin production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on a series of enzymatic steps (Figure 2). (igem.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:chitin 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chitin is one the main components of the insect cuticle, and chitin synthase (CHS) is an important enzyme required for chitin formation. (mdpi.com)
  • SUMMARY: Chitin synthase (EC 2.4.1.16) from membrane preparations of Aspergillus nidulans was characterized and the optimum conditions for enzyme activity were determined. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Chitin synthase activity could be increased sixfold by digestion of enzyme preparations with trypsin for short periods. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In S. cerevisiae , Chs2p is the chitin synthase enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the primary septum (Shaw, 1991). (biologists.org)
  • Cloning and characterization of chsD, a chitin synthase-like gene of Aspergillus fumigatus. (nih.gov)
  • A chitin synthase-like gene (chsD) was isolated from an Aspergillus fumigatus genomic DNA library. (nih.gov)
  • To address these issues, we characterized the deletion mutant of a class III chitin synthase-encoding gene of Aspergillus nidulans , chsB , and investigated ChsB localization in the hyphae and conidiophores. (asm.org)
  • A WDR gene is a conserved member of a chitin synthase gene cluster and influences the cell wall in Aspergillus nidulans. (diva-portal.org)
  • In Aspergillus oryzae, one full-length chitin synthase (chsB) and fragments of two other chitin synthases (csmA and chsC) were identified. (novozymes.com)
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of chsB was similar (87% identity) to chsB from Aspergillus nidulans, which encodes a class III chitin synthase. (novozymes.com)
  • We have studied these processes with quantitative superresolution localization microscopy of live Aspergillus nidulans cells expressing the photoconvertible protein mEosFP thermo fused to the chitin synthase ChsB. (sciencemag.org)
  • At the end of mitosis, chitin synthase II (Chs2p) deposits a disk of chitin in the mother-bud neck, forming the primary division septum. (rupress.org)
  • Fission yeast Chs2p is a transmembrane protein structurally similar to chitin synthases that lacks such enzymatic activity. (biologists.org)
  • Putative chitin synthase: CBOP has established an essential role for a putative chitin synthase in the cell wall of Phytophthora infestans. (europa.eu)
  • In this study, we show that under conditions of cell stress, the steady-state localization of chitin synthase III (Chs3p) shifts from internal stores (chitosomes) to the plasma membrane (PM). This redistribution occurs rapidly and requires the activators of the cell wall stress response signaling pathway, the G protein Rho1p, and the protein kinase Pkc1p, but not the cell integrity response mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. (pnas.org)
  • Mazur, P, Baginsky, W 1996 In vitro activity of 1,3-β- d -glucan synthase requires the GTP-binding protein Rho1 J. Biol. (springer.com)
  • Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions to all CHSs localize to septa, whereas Chs5-GFP, Chs6-GFP, Chs7-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), and Myosin chitin synthase1 (Mcs1)-YFP were found at growth regions of yeast-like cells and hyphae, indicating that they participate in tip growth. (plantcell.org)
  • and chitin synthase II, a transmembrane protein required for primary septum formation ( 16 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The chitinase-like protein YKL-40, which binds chitin but lacks chitinase activity, has been found to be either the cause or a biomarker for asthma. (ersjournals.com)
  • The chitinase-like protein YKL-40, also called human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HCgp-39) and chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1), binds chitin but is deficient in chitinase activity. (ersjournals.com)
  • Deletion strains and fluorescent protein fusions demonstrated that CDA1 is necessary for chitin deacetylation in the septa and lateral cell walls of mature hyphae in colony interiors, whereas CDA4 deacetylates chitin in the hyphae at colony margins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For this purpose, insects repeatedly produce chitin synthases and chitinolytic enzymes in different tissues. (biologists.org)
  • Coordination of chitin synthesis and its degradation requires strict control of the participating enzymes during development. (biologists.org)
  • Insect chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes that are required for the degradation of glycosidic bonds of chitin. (mdpi.com)
  • Insect chitinases are crucial enzymes responsible for the degradation of the chitin in the cuticle and presumably in the PM during molting [ 7 , 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Chitin deacetylation is catalyzed by a family of carbohydrate esterase enzymes known as chitin deacetylases (CDAs), belonging to the Carbohydrate Esterase 4 family, according to Carbohydrate‐Active EnZymes database (CAZy) classification. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chitin synthase III (Chs3p) synthesizes a ring of chitin at the onset of bud emergence, marking the base of the incipient bud. (rupress.org)
  • The mutant of chs-1 became sensitive to Nikkomycin Z, a chitin synthase inhibitor ( 53 ). (asm.org)
  • Most surprisingly, the chitin synthase inhibitor Nikkomycin Z efficiently leads to abnormalities at low concentrations and cell death at slightly higher concentrations, as illustrated in the attached Figure. (europa.eu)
  • TcCHITs were downregulated 24 h after treatment with scopoletin and upregulated 24 h after treatment with diflubenzuron (DFB, a chitin synthesis inhibitor). (hindawi.com)
  • Chen L, Yang W-J, Cong L, Xu K-K, Wang J-J. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and mRNA Expression of a Chitin Synthase 2 Gene from the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae). (mdpi.com)
  • Previously, we reported the isolation and characterization of a mutant in class III chitin synthase, Bcchs3a , in the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea . (apsnet.org)
  • Characterization of a spruce budworm chitin deacetylase gene: stage-and tissue-specific expression, and inhibition using RNA interference. (gc.ca)
  • These results provide new insights into the biological significance of chitin and CHSs in Phytophthora and help with the identification of potential targets for disease control. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Fungal chitin synthases (CHSs) form fibers of the cell wall and are crucial for substrate invasion and pathogenicity. (plantcell.org)
  • Here, we report the identification of two additional CHSs, chs7 , a second class IV CHS gene, and myosin chitin synthase1 ( mcs1 ), another class V CHS with an N-terminal myosin motor domain in U. maydis . (plantcell.org)
  • however, no differences between the wild-type strain and the chsD- strain were found with respect to morphology, chitin synthase activity or virulence in a neutropenic murine model of aspergillosis. (nih.gov)
  • Collectively, these data led us to assign a critical role to the BcCHS3a chitin synthase isoform, both in fungal virulence and plant defense response. (apsnet.org)
  • Class III chitin synthases have been reported to be involved in the virulence of some pathogens. (asm.org)
  • Deletion of Bcchs3a in the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea and double deletion of WdCHS3 and class I chitin synthase WdCHS2 in the human pathogen Wangiella dermatitidis both caused a reduction of virulence ( 40 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • In Neurospora crassa , inactivation of the gene encoding Chs-1, a class III chitin synthase with 63% identity to A. nidulans ChsB, leads to slow growth, aberrant hyphal morphology, and a decrease in chitin synthase activity. (asm.org)
  • Chitin is a structural and functional component of the fungal cell wall and also serves as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that triggers the innate immune responses of host plants. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Chitin, a polymer of β-1,4-linked N- acetylglucosmine, is one of the major structural components of the fungal cell wall. (asm.org)
  • Effect of Calcofluor white and Congo red on fungal cell wall morphogenesis: in vivo activation of chitin polymerization. (asm.org)
  • Chitin, a polymer of β‐1,4‐linked N ‐acetylglucosamine, is unique amongst the major polysaccharide components of the fungal cell wall in that it is able to be chemically modified by deacetylation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CSC-pretreated C. albicans expressed high levels of chitin, with 2- to 8-fold recorded under hyphal conditions. (hindawi.com)
  • ChsB is mainly located at the Spitzenkörper near the hyphal tip and produces chitin, a key component of the cell wall. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this study, we have characterized the role of chitin deacetylation during vegetative hyphal growth in the filamentous phytopathogen Magnaporthe oryzae . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • During the molting process, some chitin in the old cuticle and PM are degraded and replaced by the newly synthesized chitin [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Originally identified from Streptomyces tendae, the nikkomycins are chitin synthase inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding chitin synthase 2 ( BdCHS2 ) was cloned and characterized in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis . (mdpi.com)
  • WdCHS3, a gene that encodes a class III chitin synthase in Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis, is expressed differentially under stress conditions. (atcc.org)
  • This indicates that the last opisthokont common ancestor (LOCA) had a complex toolkit of chitin synthases that was differentially retained in extant lineages. (noaa.gov)
  • Accordingly, de novo chitin synthesis may involve coordinated regulation of members of the CHS chitin synthase and CHT chitinase gene families. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Chitin synthesis and chitinase production was, however, regulated in C. albicans during yeast-hypha morphogenesis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In contrast, chitin degradation is hydrolyzed by the chitinase, which catalyzes the random hydrolysis of N -acetyl-β- d -glucosamine β-1,4-glycosidic linkages in chitin and chitodextrins. (mdpi.com)
  • Insect growth and morphogenesis are strictly dependent on the capability to remodel chitin-containing structures. (biologists.org)
  • Accordingly, we observed that unregulated chitin deposition disturbs morphogenesis, thus highlighting the need for tight regulation of this process. (nih.gov)
  • In summary, here we identify the genetic programme that triggers the timely and spatially regulated deposition of chitin and thus provide new insights into the extracellular matrix maturation required for physiological activity. (nih.gov)
  • For gene expression and chitin assays, strains were adjusted to a starting inoculum of ∼1 × 10 4 cells/ml and incubated at 37°C with shaking to ∼1 × 10 6 cells/ml. (asm.org)
  • 5. The fungus of claim 2, wherein said polynucleotide of (b) encodes a polypeptide with a lower K m for a substrate compared to a native fungal chitin synthase. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Appears to be responsible for the synthesis of the majority of the chitin found in the cell wall periphery. (ymdb.ca)
  • Here, we show that the dolichol phosphate mannose (Dol-P-Man) synthase Dpm1p is responsible for ER localization of Sac1p during times of rapid cell proliferation. (rupress.org)
  • On the other hand, the deletion mutant of a class III chitin synthase-encoding gene, CgChsIII , of the maize pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola did not exhibit the significant phenotypic difference from the wild-type strain ( 50 ). (asm.org)
  • There was a positive relationship between BdCHS2 expression and total chitin content during development. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, both the gene expression and chitin content in midgut decreased when the insect was fed for 24 h, then starved for 24 h, while they increased dramatically and rapidly under the condition of starvation for 24 h then feeding for 24 h. (mdpi.com)
  • These results demonstrate that silencing TPS gene leads to molting deformities and high mortality rates via regulation of gene expression in the chitin biosynthetic pathway, and may be a promising approach for pest control in the future. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Differential expression of chitin synthase (CHS) and glucan synthase (" by Aurelien Tartar, A. M. Shapiro et al. (nova.edu)
  • Incomplete killing was observed for caspofungin against Candida glabrata , which was associated with increased SLT2 expression and elevated chitin content. (asm.org)
  • Each study was conducted in triplicate, and differences in fungal viability, CFU, chitin content, and gene expression were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey's posttest for multiple comparisons. (asm.org)
  • The S. cerevisiae structural gene for chitin synthase is not required for chitin synthesis in vivo. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Chitin deposition requires the activity of the chitin synthase Krotzkopf verkehrt (Kkv). (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the chitin synthase activity of the oomycete phytopathogen Aphanomyces euteiches was characterized in vitro using biochemical approaches. (diva-portal.org)
  • In contrast, fungicidal activity and no chitin increase were observed in an isogenic Δ slt2 strain, suggesting a role for SLT2 and chitin production in the response of C. glabrata to caspofungin. (asm.org)
  • Up-regulation of the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway in Candida albicans upon damage to the cell wall and increases in chitin have correlated with the paradoxical attenuation of caspofungin activity at clinically relevant supra-MIC concentrations ( 21 , 22 ). (asm.org)
  • Our objective was to evaluate the potential role of SLT2 and increases in chitin content in the escape of C. glabrata from the fungicidal activity of caspofungin. (asm.org)
  • Compositions and methods for producing chitin and chitosan are provided. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Microorganisms and plants that have been modified for production of chitin and/or chitosan within the vacuole of a cell are encompassed. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Further methods include converting the chitin to chitosan by a chemical process. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Innate Sensing of Chitin and Chitosan. (degruyter.com)
  • Chitin deacetylation results in the formation of chitosan, a polymer of β1,4‐linked glucosamine. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We found that chitosan localizes to the septa and lateral cell walls of vegetative hyphae and identified 2 chitin deacetylases expressed during vegetative growth- CDA1 and CDA4 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Considering the relative chemical and physical properties of chitin and chitosan, we hypothesized that chitin deacetylation could also have key roles in fungal development. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As a result, chitosan is polycationic at physiological pH and therefore soluble and potentially more flexible than chitin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Weber, I., Assman, D., Thines, E. and Steinberg, G. (2006) Polar Localizing Class V Myosin Chitin Synthases Are Essential during Early Plant Infection in the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Ustilago maydis. (scirp.org)
  • Other names in common use include chitin-UDP N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, chitin-uridine diphosphate acetylglucosaminyltransferase, chitin synthetase, and trans-N-acetylglucosaminosylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The in vivo cell walls still contained both chitin and 1,3-β-glucan, but they were significantly thinner than in vitro cell walls (50-60 nm versus 100-160 nm, respectively). (springer.com)
  • 2009 ). Determining whether chitin deacetylation has analogous roles in fungal cell walls could therefore be a valuable line of investigation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This polysaccharide is produced by type 2 glycosyltransferases, called chitin synthases (CHS). (nih.gov)
  • Conversely, when Kkv and Exp/Reb are co-expressed in the ectoderm, they promote chitin deposition, even in tissues normally devoid of this polysaccharide. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, yeast cells regulate the content of cellular chitin. (pnas.org)
  • Comparisons with the predicted amino acid sequence from chsD reveals low but significant similarity to chitin synthases, to other N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases (NodC from Rhizopus spp. (nih.gov)
  • Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS), which plays a key role in the synthesis of trehalose and insect development, was cloned in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (TcTPS) and the putative functions were studied using RNAi via the injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) corresponding to conserved TPS and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase domains. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The development of wing plays a key role in insect physiological activities and mainly involves chitin. (frontiersin.org)
  • A particularly strong food avoider is defective in the chitin synthase that makes the pharyngeal lining. (biologists.org)
  • Alice: Knocking down chitin synthase 2 by RNAi is lethal to the cotton boll weevil. (embrapa.br)
  • These results suggest that BdCHS2 may play an important role in regulating chitin content of the midgut, and subsequently affect the growth and development of B. dorsalis . (mdpi.com)
  • In this review, we will summarize recent advances in understanding chitin synthesis and its degradation in insects. (biologists.org)
  • Chitin synthase (CHS), a potential target for eco-friendly insecticides, plays an essential role in chitin formation in insects. (mdpi.com)
  • We find that intact SJs are essential for correct assembly of the chitin filament, thus reinforcing the central role of the luminal chitin filament in tube size regulation. (openthesis.org)