Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.ChitinaseChitin Synthase: An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.BooksDog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Receptor Cross-Talk: The simultaneous or sequential binding of multiple cell surface receptors to different ligands resulting in coordinated stimulation or suppression of signal transduction.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Yin-Yang: In Chinese philosophy and religion, two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine (yin) and one positive, bright, and masculine (yang), from whose interaction all things are produced and all things are dissolved. As a concept the two polar elements referred originally to the shady and sunny sides of a valley or a hill but it developed into the relationship of any contrasting pair: those specified above (female-male, etc.) as well as cold-hot, wet-dry, weak-strong, etc. It is not a distinct system of thought by itself but permeates Chinese life and thought. A balance of yin and yang is essential to health. A deficiency of either principle can manifest as disease. (Encyclopedia Americana)Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)EncyclopediasDictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Sepia: A genus of cuttlefish in the family Sepiidae. They live in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters in most oceans.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Rhizoctonia: A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Pythium: A genus of destructive root-parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Pythiaceae, order Peronosporales, commonly found in cultivated soils all over the world. Differentiation of zoospores takes place in a vesicle.

Role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase gene, ech42, in mycoparasitism. (1/1097)

The role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase (Ech42) in mycoparasitism was studied by genetically manipulating the gene that encodes Ech42, ech42. We constructed several transgenic T. harzianum strains carrying multiple copies of ech42 and the corresponding gene disruptants. The level of extracellular endochitinase activity when T. harzianum was grown under inducing conditions increased up to 42-fold in multicopy strains as compared with the wild type, whereas gene disruptants exhibited practically no activity. The densities of chitin labeling of Rhizoctonia solani cell walls, after interactions with gene disruptants were not statistically significantly different than the density of chitin labeling after interactions with the wild type. Finally, no major differences in the efficacies of the strains generated as biocontrol agents against R. solani or Sclerotium rolfsii were observed in greenhouse experiments.  (+info)

Role of surface proteins in Vibrio cholerae attachment to chitin. (2/1097)

The role of surface proteins in Vibrio cholerae attachment to chitin particles in vitro was studied. Treatment of V. cholerae O1 ATCC 14034 and ATCC 14035 with pronase E reduced the attachment of bacteria to chitin particles by 57 to 77%. A statistically significant reduction was also observed when the attachment to chitin was evaluated in the presence of homologous Sarkosyl-insoluble membrane proteins (MPs) (67 to 84%), N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) (62%), the sugar that makes up chitin, and wheat germ agglutinin (40 to 56%), a lectin that binds GlcNAc. The soluble oligomers N,N'-diacetylchitobiose or N,N', N"-triacetylchitotriose caused an inhibition of 14 to 23%. Sarkosyl-insoluble MPs able to bind chitin particles were isolated and visualized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; two of these peptides (molecular sizes, 36 and 53 kDa) specifically bind GlcNAc.  (+info)

Proteolytic activation and inactivation of chitin synthetase from Mucor rouxii. (3/1097)

Crude chitin synthetase preparations from the mycelial and yeast forms of Mucor rouxii behaved differently. The mycelial preparations, incubated at 28 degrees C, lost virtually all chitin synthetase activity in a few hours; by contrast, the activity of enzyme preparations from yeast cells increased several fold during similar incubations. These spontaneous changes were probably caused by endogenous protease(s). Seemingly, the chitin synthetase in yeast preparations was present mainly in a latent, 'zymogenic', form that was activated by proteases. In the mycelial preparations, chitin synthetase was present mainly in an active state and was rapidly degraded by endogenous proteolysis. Exogenous proteases accelerated activation and destruction of chitin synthetase; an acid protease from Rhizopus chinensis was the most effective activator. The activation of chitin synthetase was inhibited by a soluble protein in the cell-free extract. Treatment with the detergent Brij 36T stabilized the chitin synthetase of crude preparations against spontaneous changes. Stabilized preparations were rapidly activated by exogenous proteases. The different behaviour of chitin synthetases in crude extracts of mycelium and yeast cells is consistent with, and perhaps partially responsible for, the differences in wall construction between mycelial and yeast forms of M. rouxii.  (+info)

KNR4, a suppressor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cwh mutants, is involved in the transcriptional control of chitin synthase genes. (4/1097)

The KNR4 gene, originally isolated by complementation of a K9 killer-toxin-resistant mutant displaying reduced levels of both 1,3-beta-glucan and 1,3-beta-glucan synthase activity, was recloned from a YCp50 genomic library as a suppressor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae calcofluor-white-hypersensitive (cwh) mutants. In these mutants, which were characterized by increased chitin levels, the suppressor effect of KNR4 resulted, for some of them, in a lowering of polymer content to close to wild-type level, with no effect on the contents of beta-glucan and mannan. In all cases, this effect was accompanied by a strong reduction in mRNA levels corresponding to CHS1, CHS2 and CHS3, encoding chitin synthases, without affecting expression of FKS1 and RHO1, two genes encoding the catalytic subunit and a regulatory component of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase, respectively. Overexpression of KNR4 also inhibited expression of CHS genes in wild-type strains and in two other cwh mutants, whose sensitivity to calcofluor white was not suppressed by this gene. The physiological relevance of the KNR4 transcriptional effect was addressed in two different ways. In a wild-type strain exposed to alpha-factor, overexpression of this gene inhibited CHS1 induction and delayed shmoo formation, two events which are triggered in response to the pheromone, whereas it did not affect bud formation and cell growth in a chs1 chs2 double mutant. A chimeric protein made by fusing green fluorescent protein to the C terminus of Knr4p which fully complemented a knr4delta mutation was found to localize in patches at presumptive bud sites in unbudded cells and at the incipient bud site during bud emergence. Taken together, these results demonstrate that KNR4 has a regulatory role in chitin deposition and in cell wall assembly. A mechanism by which this gene affects expression of CHS genes is proposed.  (+info)

Mode of action of chitin deacetylase from Mucor rouxii on N-acetylchitooligosaccharides. (5/1097)

The mode of action of chitin deacetylase from the fungus Mucor rouxii on N-acetylchitooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization 1-7 has been elucidated. Identification of the sequence of chitin oligomers following enzymatic deacetylation was verified by the alternative use of two specific exo-glycosidases in conjunction with HPLC. The results were further verified by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. It was observed that the length of the oligomer is important for enzyme action. The enzyme cannot effectively deacetylate chitin oligomers with a degree of polymerization lower than three. Tetra-N-acetylchitotetraose and penta-N-acetylchitopentaose are fully deacetylated by the enzyme, while in the case of tri-N-acetylchitotriose, hexa-N-acetylchitohexaose and hepta-N-acetylchitoheptaose the reducing-end residue always remains intact. Furthermore, the enzyme initially removes an acetyl group from the nonreducing-end residue of all chitin oligomers with a degree of polymerization higher than 2, and further catalyses the hydrolysis of the following acetamido groups in a processive fashion. The results are in agreement with the mode of action that the same enzyme exhibits on partially deacetylated water soluble chitosan polymers.  (+info)

Multiple genes involved in chitin degradation from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91. (6/1097)

A cluster of three closely linked chitinase genes organized in the order chiA, chiB and chiC, with the same transcriptional direction, and two unlinked genes, chiP and chiQ, involved in chitin degradation in Pseudoalteromnas sp. strain S91 were cloned, sequenced and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequences revealed that ChiA, ChiB and ChiC exhibited similarities to chitinases belonging to family 18 of the glycosyl hydrolases while ChiP and ChiQ belonged to family 20. ChiP and ChiQ showed different enzymic activities against fluorescent chitin analogues, but neither was able to degrade colloidal chitin. ChiA possessed chitinase activity but did not bind chitin; ChiB bound chitin but had no chitinase activity; ChiC possessed strong chitinase activity and also bound chitin. Production of ChiC in S91 appeared to be controlled by chiA expression, since insertion of a transposon into the ORF of chiA resulted in the loss of chitinase activity as well as loss of ChiC proteins in a chitinase-negative mutant. In Escherichia coli, ChiC appeared to be expressed from its own promoter.  (+info)

A nod factor binding lectin with apyrase activity from legume roots. (7/1097)

A lectin isolated from the roots of the legume, Dolichos biflorus, binds to Nod factors produced by rhizobial strains that nodulate this plant and has a deduced amino acid sequence with no significant homology to any lectin reported to date. This lectin also is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphoanhydride bonds of nucleoside di- and triphosphates; the enzyme activity is increased in the presence of carbohydrate ligands. This lectin-nucleotide phosphohydrolase (LNP) has a substrate specificity characteristic of the apyrase category of phosphohydrolases, and its sequence contains four motifs characteristic of this category of enzymes. LNP is present on the surface of the root hairs, and treatment of roots with antiserum to LNP inhibits their ability to undergo root hair deformation and to form nodules on exposure to rhizobia. These properties suggest that this protein may play a role in the rhizobium-legume symbiosis and/or in a related carbohydrate recognition event endogenous to the plant.  (+info)

Chitinases from uncultured marine microorganisms. (8/1097)

Our understanding of the degradation of organic matter will benefit from a greater appreciation for the genes encoding enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of biopolymers such as chitin, one of the most abundant polymers in nature. To isolate representative and abundant chitinase genes from uncultivated marine bacteria, we constructed libraries of genomic DNA isolated from coastal and estuarine waters. The libraries were screened for genes encoding proteins that hydrolyze a fluorogenic analogue of chitin, 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-N,N'-diacetylchitobioside (MUF-diNAG). The abundance of clones capable of MUF-diNAG hydrolysis was higher in the library constructed with DNA from the estuary than in that constructed with DNA from coastal waters, although the abundance of positive clones was also dependent on the method used to screen the library. Plaque assays revealed nine MUF-diNAG-positive clones of 75,000 screened for the estuarine sample and two clones of 750,000 for the coastal sample. A microtiter plate assay revealed approximately 1 positive clone for every 500 clones screened in the coastal library. The number of clones detected with the plaque assay was consistent with estimates of the portion of culturable bacteria that degrade chitin. Our results suggest that culture-dependent methods do not greatly underestimate the portion of marine bacterial communities capable of chitin degradation.  (+info)

*Chitin deacetylase

In enzymology, a chitin deacetylase (EC 3.5.1.41) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction chitin + H2O ⇌ {\ ... Araki Y, Ito E (1974). "A pathway of chitosan formation in Mucor rouxii: enzymatic deacetylation of chitin". Biochem. Biophys. ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is chitin amidohydrolase. This enzyme participates in aminosugars metabolism. As of ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } chitosan + acetate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are chitin and H2O, whereas its ...

*Chitin: I

... is a 1977 board wargame published by Metagaming Concepts. Chitin: I is the second MicroGame from Metagaming after ... David James Ritchie reviewed Chitin: I in The Space Gamer No. 13, commenting that "For those who like their carnage in ... cardboard, Chitin: I is definitely an attractive brew." Ritchie also reviewed the game in Ares Magazine #1, rating it a 5 out ...

*Chitin synthase

Other names in common use include chitin-UDP N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, chitin-uridine diphosphate ... In enzymology, a chitin synthase (EC 2.4.1.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [ ... Chitin synthase is placed into the interior side of the cell membrane and then activated.[citation needed] GLASER L, BROWN DH ( ... Chitin Synthase is manufactured in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of fungi as the inactive form, zymogen. The zymogen is then ...

*Chitin-glucan complex

... consists of chitin, 1,3/1,6-ß-D-glucan, and melanin. Rather than being produced from animal parts, the ... Unlike chitin extracted from crustaceans, for example, this chitin contains no heavy metals. It possesses immunostimulant ... chitin used for this purpose is extracted from the cell walls of the fungus Fomes fomentarius. ...

*Chitin disaccharide deacetylase

... (EC 3.5.1.105, chitobiose amidohydolase, COD, chitin oligosaccharide deacetylase, chitin ... Chitin disaccharide deacetylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ... extracellular chitinase and chitin oligosaccharide deacetylase involved in the production of heterodisaccharide from chitin". ... acetate Chitin oligosaccharide deacetylase is present in Vibrio strains. Kadokura, K.; Rokutani, A.; Yamamoto, M.; Ikegami, T ...

*Chitinase

Chitin Ligninase Jollès P, Muzzarelli RA (1999). Chitin and Chitinases. Basel: Birkhäuser. ISBN 3-7643-5815-7. Sámi L, ... It is typically not digested by animals, though certain fish are able to digest chitin. It is currently assumed that chitin ... are hydrolytic enzymes that break down glycosidic bonds in chitin. As chitin is a component of the cell walls of fungi and ... chitinases are generally found in organisms that either need to reshape their own chitin or dissolve and digest the chitin of ...

*Drosophila connectome

Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Lin, Chih-Yung; Chuang, Chao-Chun; Chang, Hsiu-Ming; Hsieh, Chang-Huain; Yeh, Chang-Wei; Shih, Chi-Tin; Wu, ...

*Exoskeleton

Chitin forms the exoskeleton in arthropods including insects, arachnids such as spiders, crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters ... Exoskeletons contain chitin; the addition of calcium carbonate makes them harder and stronger.[citation needed] Ingrowths of ... These structures are composed of chitin, and are approximately six times as strong and twice as stiff as vertebrate tendons. ... Alternatively, exceptional preservation may result in chitin being mineralized, as in the Burgess Shale, or transformed to the ...

*Polymer chemistry

Structural polysaccharides: cellulose, chitin. Reserve polysaccharides: starch, glycogen. Nucleic acids: DNA, RNA. Synthetic ... chitin… storage polysaccharides: starch, glycogen… nucleic acids: DNA, RNA Examples of Synthetic polymers are plastics, fibers ...

*Penicillium oxalicum

ISBN 0-08-085862-7. G.W. Gooday; C. Jeuniaux; R. Muzzarelli (2012). Chitin in Nature and Technology. Springer Science & ... A mutagenised strain for enhanced production of chitin deacetylase for bioconversion to chitosan". New Biotechnology. 28 (2): ...

*Glycoside hydrolase family 18

The chitinases hydrolyse chitin oligosaccharides. Another chitinase II member is the novel gene Chitinase domain-containing ...

*Aplacophora

ISBN 0-03-056747-5. Peters, W. (1972). "Occurrence of chitin in mollusca". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. 41 (3): ...

*Glycogen

Chitin Peptidoglycan William D. McArdle; Frank I. Katch; Victor L. Katch (2006). Exercise physiology: energy, nutrition, and ...

*Natural fiber

Chitin is notable in particular and has been incorporated into a variety of uses. Chitin based materials have also been used to ... This copolymer of chitin and chitosan is a random or block copolymer. Chitosan is a deacetylated derivative of chitin. When the ... In nature, pure chitin (100% acetylation) does not exist. It instead exists as a copolymer with chitin's deacetylated ... Chitin also has antibacterial properties. Chitin forms crystals that make fibrils that become surrounded by proteins. These ...

*Deefgea

2010, ; New Latin noun chitinum, chitin; New Latin feminine gender adjective lytica (from Greek feminine gender adjective ... lutikē), able to loosen, able to dissolve; New Latin feminine gender adjective chitinilytica, chitin-dissolving.) D. rivuli ( ...

*Isoptericola jiangsuensis

nov., a chitin-degrading bacterium". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 60 (4): 904-908. doi: ... Isoptericola jiangsuensis is a Gram-positive, chitin-degrading and non-motile bacterium from the genus of Isoptericola which ...

*Carl Schmidt (chemist)

Schmidt analyzed muscle fiber and chitin. He showed that animal and plant cell constituents are chemically similar and studied ...

*Exomer

Roncero C, Sanchex-Diaz A, Valdivieso M (2016). "Chitin Synthesis and Fungal Cell Morphogenesis". In Hoffmeister D. ...

*Fungus

The fungal cell wall is composed of glucans and chitin; while glucans are also found in plants and chitin in the exoskeleton of ... Unlike true fungi, the cell walls of oomycetes contain cellulose and lack chitin. Hyphochytrids have both chitin and cellulose ... A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell ... also contains the biopolymer chitin. Fungal mycelia can become visible to the naked eye, for example, on various surfaces and ...

*Butyrivibrio

... xylan or chitin (CBM family 2); and starch (CBM family 26). The Butyrivibrio genus encompasses over 60 strains that were ...

*Cellulin

β-glucan Cellulose Chitin Bacic, Antony; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Stone, Bruce A. (2009). Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Biology of ...

*Epicoccum nigrum

Mycelia contain both chitin and cellulose. Epicoccum nigrum forms blastoconidia that are darkly coloured, warted and spherical ...

*Amber

Other natural resins - cellulose or chitin, etc. Plastics, these are used as imitations: Stained glass (inorganic material) and ...

*Hyaline shield

The hyaline shield is constructed from chitin. The features is present in most radula-bearing molluscan groups, including the ...

*Cuticle

The proteins and chitin are cross-linked. The rigidity is a function of the types of proteins and the quantity of chitin. It is ... The main structural component of arthropod cuticle is chitin, a polysaccharide composed of N-acetylglucosamine units, together ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression studies of Bacillus licheniformis chitin deacetylase in E. coli Rosetta cells. AU - Raval, Ritu. AU - Simsa, Robin. AU - Raval, Keyur. PY - 2017/11/1. Y1 - 2017/11/1. N2 - Chitin, the biopolymer of the N-acetylglucosamine, is the most abundant biopolymer on the planet after cellulose. However owing to its crystalline nature, its deacetylated derivative; chitosan is industrially more potent. This conversion on an enzymatic scale can be made using chitin deacetylase. The metagenomics library constructed from the soil exposed to chitin and chitosan yielded chitin modifying enzymes, one of them being chitin deacetylase (CDA) utilized for the present study. The gene was amplified and expressed using the pET 22b vector in E. coli Rosetta cells. The effect of two additives; chitin and glycerol on the CDA activity were studied. The inclusion of glycerol in the medium improved the biomass by 50% from the initial value of 1.25 g/l to 2.5 g/l. The activity of CDA increased from ...
This book contains comprehensive contributions on chitin biology and chitin metabolism related enzymes, aiming to provide with recent research progress about biology of chitin-containing organisms as well as cross-talks between chitin-containing and non-chitin-containing organisms.
The 1011 ton global annual turnover of chitin has generated extensive interest in the regulation of chitin processing enzyme production in bacteria. Some bacteria regulate chitinase production by N-Acyl-L-homoserine lactone (AHL) mediated quorum sensing. In this study, a description of bacterial community succession during chitin particle colonisation and depolymerisation in activated sludge is presented. It was discovered that Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes lineages dominate chitin colonisation in sludge and that AHLs bind to chitin at concentrations that upregulate AHL dependent transcription in bacterial cells associated with the chitin surface. There was no requirement for high cell density (a quorum) at the chitin surface. Further, N-Acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc), the monomer of the chitin polymer, is shown to inhibit AHL dependent gene transcription representing a previously unrecognised mechanism by which the chitinase reaction product negatively regulates chitinase production. ...
Chitin and its derivatives-as a potential resource as well as multiple functional substrates-have generated attractive interest in various fields such as biomedical, pharmaceutical, food and environmental industries, since the first isolation of chitin in 1811. Moreover, chitosan and its chitooligosaccharides (COS) are degraded products of chitin through enzymatic and acidic hydrolysis processes; and COS, in particular, is well suited for potential biological application, due to the biocompatibility and nontoxic nature of chitosan. In this review, we investigate the current bioactivities of chitin derivatives, which are all correlated with their biomedical properties. Several new and cutting edge insights here may provide a molecular basis for the mechanism of chitin, and hence may aid its use for medical and pharmaceutical applications.
Chitin is abundant in nature due to its compact intractable and inert structure resulted from strong hydrogen bonding network. Chitin is known as one of the second most abundant polysaccharides in nature, after cellulose. In crustaceans, chitin is present in a complex structure with calcium carbonate, forming the rigid skeleton of carapace, shell and tail. In insects, chitin is the main building block of the back plate. This intractable characteristic of chitin is superior in the animal / plant kingdom as protective skeleton but is a major disadvantage for chemical / physical modification. Therefore more efficient methods of reacting or modifying chitin (especially alpha-chitin as it is the most abundant of the 3 types of naturally occurring chitin) is necessary, in order to utilize this biomass as a major renewable raw materials ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 15:963-970...Bing Zhang , 1 Katrina Ramonell , 2 Shauna Somerville , 2 and Gary Stacey 1 , 3...© 2002 The American Phytopathological Society...Three genes (i.e., a zinc finger protein, a lectin-like protein, and AtMPK3), previously shown to respond to chitin elicitation in microarray experiments, were used to examine the response of Arabidopsis spp. to chitin addition. Maximum induction for all three genes was found upon addition of crab-...
小菜蛾 (Plutella xylostella, diamondback),繁殖能力強,生長世代短,可適應各種惡劣的環境,為世界性的十字花科作物重要害蟲,然而其幾丁質相關構造及酵素目前仍未被詳細研究。幾丁質為構成昆蟲表皮及圍食膜 (peritrophic matrix: PM) 之重要物質;幾丁質通常會與幾丁質結合蛋白 (chitin binding proteins: CBPs) 結合,CBPs對於幾丁質重要構造的形成、結構維持以及功能的調控,扮演重要的角色。本研究解析小菜蛾體內幾丁質重要構造之蛋白與幾丁質相關酵素,特別針對圍食膜蛋白 (PM proteins: PMP)、CBPs以及幾丁質? (Chitinase: Chts) 等幾丁質相關蛋白,根據CBPs之基因表現情形、親緣關係分析及幾丁質?選殖與表現定性,期望獲得有助於研發新式鱗翅目害蟲防治之重要資訊。利用2-D電泳與質譜分析,可鑑定到四個 PM ...
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n (/ˈkaɪtɪn/ KY-tin), a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose. It is a primary component of cell walls in fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods, such as crustaceans (e.g., crabs, lobsters and shrimps) and insects, the radulae of molluscs, cephalopod beaks, and the scales of fish and lissamphibians. The structure of chitin is comparable to another polysaccharide - cellulose, forming crystalline nanofibrils or whiskers. In terms of function, it may be compared to the protein keratin. Chitin has proved useful for several medicinal, industrial and biotechnological purposes. The English word "chitin" comes from the French word chitine, which was derived in 1821 from the Greek word χιτών (chiton), meaning covering. A similar word, "chiton", refers to a marine animal with a protective shell. The structure of chitin was determined by Albert Hofmann in 1929. Chitin is a modified polysaccharide that contains nitrogen; it is synthesized from units of ...
Cellulose nanofibers and chitin nanocrystals, two main components of agricultural and aquacultural by-products, were obtained from blue agave and yellow squat lobster industrial residues. Cellulose nanofibers were obtained using high pressure homogenization, while chitin nanocrystals were obtained by hydrolysis in acid medium. Cellulose nanofibers and chitin nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy and Infrared spectroscopy. Self-bonded composite films with different composition were fabricated by hot pressing and their properties were evaluated. Antifungal activity of chitin nanocrystals was studied using a Cellometer®cell count device, mechanical properties at tension were measured with a universal testing machine, water vapor permeability was evaluated with a thermohygrometer and surface tension with sessile drop contact angle method. The addition of chitin nanocrystals reduced slightly the mechanical properties of the composite. Presence of chitin ...
Chitin concentrations greater than 0.04% (wt/wt) protected cholera vibrios against killing at low temperature. This protective effect was detected with both the soluble form of chitin, glycol chitin, and the insoluble particulate form of chitin. Some amino acids or peptides also showed the same protective effect. ...
Chitin binding appeared to be specific and the authors presented some data that suggested that some of ChtVis-Tomato was stably bound to chitin while some seemed to be continually binding and releasing from chitin.. ChtVis-Tomato was useful for making long time lapse observations in vivo.. The ChtVis-Tomato reporter was construted in the pWALIUM10-moe vector and inserted into the Drosophila genome using phiC31 mediated integration. ChtVis-Tomato is under the regulatory control of a 5XUAS-containing promoter allowing it to be expressed in any Gal4 driver lines of D. melanogaster. The reporter is flanked by gypsy insulator sequences. pWALIUM10-moe contains a mini white gene that serves as a genetic marker in the appropriate mutant white background.. With a bit of modification and reconfiguring ChtVis-Tomato could easily be deployed in any insect and is expected to function as it has in D. melanogaster.. Lukasz F. Sobala, Ying Wang, Paul N. Adler (2015) ChtVis-Tomato, a genetic reporter for in vivo ...
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The breakdown of chitin within an acidic upland grassland was studied. The aim was to provide a molecular characterisation of microorganisms involved in chitin degradation in the soil using soil micro
Im having troubles finding a description or picture of how chitin molecules bind together to form the exoskeletons of arthropods, crustaceans, etc. I have found a couple of cool pictures of the chitin molecule itself, but no images of how they link. My biology book has a long description of how glucose forms either cellulose or starch depending on if it is an alpha or beta configuration, and how they link up to form 3D structures. But it just shows a picture of the chitin molecule and completely blows of any 3D structure description. It is not really for any purpose, Im just very curious. Thanks for your help in advance. BK ...
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1. Slámová K, Bojarová P, Petrásková L. et al. β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase: Whats in a name…?. Biotechnol Adv. 2010;28:682-93 2. Merzendorfer H, Zimoch L. Chitin metabolism in insects: structure, function and regulation of chitin synthases and chitinases. J Exp Biol. 2003;206:4393-412 3. Nagamatsu Y, Yanagisawa I, Kimoto M. et al. Purification of a chitooligosaccharidolytic β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Bombyx mori larvae during metamorphosis and the nucleotide sequence of its cDNA. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1995;59:219-25 4. Yang Q, Liu T, Liu F. et al. A novel β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase from the insect Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). FEBS J. 2008;275:5690-702 5. Liu T, Zhang H, Liu F. et al. Structural determinants of an insect β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase specialized as a chitinolytic enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:4049-58 6. Zheng YP, Krell PJ, Doucet D. et al. Cloning, expression, and localization of a molt-related β-N-acetylglucosaminidase in the Spruce budworm, Choristoneura ...
Chitooligosaccharides (COS) with degrees of polymerization (DP) 6 to 8 are degraded from chitosan, which possess excellent bioactivities. However, technologies that could purify them from hydrolysis mixtures in the narrow DP range (984 to 1,306 Da) are absent. The objective of this research is to purify DP 6 to 8 COS by nanofiltration on the basis of appropriate adjustments of the feed condition. Syrup containing DP 6 to 8 COS at different concentrations (19.0 to 46.7 g/L) was prepared. A commercial membrane (QY-5-NF-1812) negatively charged was applied. Experiments were carried out in full recycle mode, so that the observed COS retentions were investigated at various transmembrane pressures (6.0 to 20.0 bar), temperatures (10°C to 50°C), and pHs (5.0 to 9.0). Then, the feasibility of separation of DP 6 to 8 COS was further studied by concentration ratio under optimum conditions. The results indicate that the purification of DP 6 to 8 COS by nanofiltration NF is feasible. It was found that the
SCIN - Self-regenerating Chitin INduction Chitin, found in the exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans as well as the cell walls of fungi, is one of the most abundant organic polymers in nature. Like keratin in skin, it comprises the protective outer layer of these organisms. Our goal is to generate a layer of chitin from a lawn of bacteria (Escherichia coli) in response to an external molecular cue. This cue induces chitin synthesis (fast) and cell lysis (slow), allowing for a build-up of chitin followed by cell lysis and subsequent release into the top layer of the lawn. Abrasions expose cells to the external cue for self-repair. This would create a regenerative chitin biolayer with potential medical and industrial applications. ...
SCIN - Self-regenerating Chitin INduction Chitin, found in the exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans as well as the cell walls of fungi, is one of the most abundant organic polymers in nature. Like keratin in skin, it comprises the protective outer layer of these organisms. Our goal is to generate a layer of chitin from a lawn of bacteria (Escherichia coli) in response to an external molecular cue. This cue induces chitin synthesis (fast) and cell lysis (slow), allowing for a build-up of chitin followed by cell lysis and subsequent release into the top layer of the lawn. Abrasions expose cells to the external cue for self-repair. This would create a regenerative chitin biolayer with potential medical and industrial applications. ...
Cuttlefish are mollusks that look somewhat like squid. They have an internal, hard, supportive structure with soft organs around and inside it. This resilient cuttlebone is made of cleverly woven strands of a biochemical material called chitin and mixed with a hard biomineral called aragonite.. A team of paleontologists found a supposedly 34 million-year-old fossil cuttlebone that still had both the original aragonite and chitin. This is significant, because one might expect the hard aragonite to persist in the fossil record, but not the organic chitin or protein. The chitin, which is made of sugars tightly bonded into molecular chains, would have spontaneously degraded and been long gone after only thousands of years.. The researchers compared the fossil cuttlebone, found in a Mississippi clay deposit, with modern cuttlebone chitin, and their results showed a shortening of the chitin strands,…the breakdown of chitosan [chemically altered chitin],… and loss of hydrogen bonds.1 Thus, the ...
The predominant characteristic feature of C. pinensis is the ability to degrade chitin, a β-1,4-glycosidic linked homopolymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and one of the most abundant polysaccharides in nature. It is a component of fungal cell walls and of arthropod exoskeletons. Chitin is degraded by chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14); endochitinases randomly cleave within the chitin molecule and exochitinases hydrolyze diacetylchitobiose from the end of a chitin chain. Diacetylchitobiose is further degraded to N-acetylglucosamine by the action of N-acetylglucosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52).. These glycosidic bond hydrolyzing enzymes were grouped in glycoside hydrolase (GH) families based on amino acid sequence similarities (Web Site) [22]. For the C. pinensis genome 169 glycoside hydrolases belonging to 49 different GH families are predicted; 18 of the predicted glycoside hydrolases belong to GH family 43 which contains xylosidases, xylanases, arabinanases, arabinofuranosidases and galactosidases. Because of ...
chitin is a fascinating polysaccharide for a number of reasons. First, it is the second most abundant polycarbohydrate used by Mother Nature as a structural component both in the animal and in the plant kingdoms. Second, chitin has a chemical structure which is similar to that of cellulose
Chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is an important structural component in the cell walls of fungal pathogens. Plant chitinases are capable of degrading this component to directly inhib...
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New research in mice by UC San Francisco scientists shows that the lungs secrete a specialized enzyme capable of destroying chitin, without which chitin particles inhaled from the environment can accumulate in the airways and trigger inflammatory lung disease.
Modules of approx. 70 residues. The chitin-binding function has been demonstrated in several cases. These modules are found attached to a number of chitinase catalytic domains, but also in non-catalytic proteins either in isolation or as multiple repeats; chitin binding (EC IIa.chitin ...
Literatura Citada. Barber, M. S., R. E. Bertram, and J. P. Ride. 1989. Chitin oligosaccharides elicit lignification in wounded wheat leaves. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 34: 3-12. [ Links ] Barros, J., H. Serk, I. Granlund, and E. Pesquet. 2015. The cell biology of lignification in higher plants. Ann. Bot. 115: 1053-1074. [ Links ] Brugnerotto, J., J. Lizardi, F. M. Goycoolea, W. Argüelles-Monal, J. Desbrieres, and M. Rinaudo. 2001. An infrared investigation in relation with chitin and chitosan characterization. Polymer. 42: 3569-3580. [ Links ] Cabrera, J. C., and P. Van Cutsem. 2005. Preparation of chitooligosaccharides with degree of polymerization higher than 6 by acid or enzymatic degradation of chitosan. Biochem. Eng. J. 25: 165-172. [ Links ] Catinot, J., A. Buchala, E. Abou-Mansour, and J. P. Metraux. 2008. Salicylic acid production in response to biotic and abiotic stress depends on isochorismate in Nicotiana benthamiana. FEBS Lett. 582: 473-478. [ Links ] Chen, Z., Z. Zheng, J. Huang, ...
Endo S is an endoglycosidase specific for cleaving the N-linked glycans from the chitobiose core of the heavy chain of native IgG
Lysin motif (LysM) receptor kinases are unique to plants and serve important functions in plant-microbe interactions. These proteins recognize microbe-derived N-acetylglucosamine (NAG)-containing ligands, but the molecular mode of ligand perception and of receptor activation has remained unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the LysM receptor kinase CERK1 (chitin elicitor receptor kinase 1) from Arabidopsis thaliana has been reported. CERK1 binds NAG oligomers derived from chitin-the major constituent of fungal cell walls-and mediates immunity to fungal infection. The crystal structure of CERK1 complexed with a NAG pentamer revealed that three NAG moieties attach tightly to one of three lysin motifs within the CERK1 ectodomain. Receptor activation and immune signaling requires, however, ligand-induced CERK1 homodimerization. By acting as bivalent ligands, NAG octamers stabilize CERK1 dimers, providing a structural explanation for why the immunogenic activity of NAG oligomers is restricted ...
Marshall Marine Products is an Indian Marine Biotechnology Company, focused on Chitin and its derivatives. We pioneered in the development of Chitin Science, working relentlessly on improving the production technologies, and exploring new opportunities for developing new and innovative applications, by exploiting the unique properties of Chitin and its Derivatives. We coordinate, communicate, and collaborate with Industrial, and Scientific Research & Development and with Academic Communities
Lufenuron is much better known in the veterinary world as Program. It is used to treat parasite infections such as fleas. It works because it inhibits chitin production. Humans and, indeed, all mammals do not produce chitin and therefore the potential for side effects in humans is very small. Insects do need chitin to make a tough exoskeleton. Interestingly, so do yeasts and moulds - it is chitin in their cell wall that makes them so tough and difficult to kill. Therefore, potentially Lufenuron can be used to kill yeasts and moulds and, indeed, this has been well demonstrated in the veterinary world. It is not metabolised or eliminated by the liver or kidneys, but excreted through the faeces and again this makes it remarkably non-toxic. Lufenuron is very lipid soluble - this means it is taken over five days and loads up into fatty tissues from which it is slowly released over four to six weeks. This maintains tissue concentrations high enough to kill all yeast, including candida, for at least a ...
One has a pink/brown hue, the other a steely blue hue. Two full top shells, and four full bottom shell halves. Forged by Greycore there is a Chitin Shield and
My first wallpiece of the year was in our traditional style, assembled from folded boxes, but I wanted to make another with my newer design style and construction technique, which I refer to as chitin, like wallpiece RCB 11.04, which recently sold at our show at Manna Gallery. So I began this piece as soon as the previous one was well under way, and finished it yesterday. ...
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Complete information for FIBCD1 gene (Protein Coding), Fibrinogen C Domain Containing 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Today I would like to introduce my new Kill Team: The Zoats. Not much is known these days about this xenos race. I focused on the part of their lore regarding their supposed enslavement by the Tyranids. The question now is, how the Tyranids would be able to do so. Thus I came up with a whole new-made up unit, the Cephalotrophs. The Cephalotrophs are a small, floating breed of Tyranids who have quite a fragile body which mainly is a gland plus a little tail. While on the hunt their chitin scale is used to protect them but as soon as they find a possible host they try to hug them from behind. Flesh hooks are fired .... ...
These creatures have developed a chitin armor around its fangs, legs and abdomen. Source: Pet Battle: Suramar. Beast battle pet. This NPC is the criteria of Broken Isles Safari.
Modules of approx. 60 residues found in bacterial enzymes. Chitin-binding described in several cases. Distantly related to the CBM12 family ...
Chitin deacetylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetamido groups of N-acetylglucosamine in chitin, has been purified to homogeneity from mycelial extracts of the fungus Mucor rouxii and further characterized. The enzyme exhibits a low pI (approximately 3). Its apparent molecular mass was determined to be approximately 75 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and approximately 80 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography, suggesting that the enzyme exists as a monomer. Carbohydrate analysis of purified chitin deacetylase revealed that the enzyme is a high-mannose glycoprotein and that its carbohydrate content is approximately 30% by weight. Chitin deacetylase is active on several chitinous substrates and chitin derivatives. The enzyme requires at least four N-acetylglucosamine residues (chitotetraose) for catalysis, and it is inhibited by carboxylic acids, particularly acetic acid. When glycol chitin (a water-soluble chitin derivative) was used as substrate, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of chitin particle size on maximum power generation, power longevity, and Coulombic efficiency in solid-substrate microbial fuel cells. AU - Rezaei, Farzaneh. AU - Richard, Tom L.. AU - Logan, Bruce E.. PY - 2009/7/15. Y1 - 2009/7/15. N2 - Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) produce bioelectricity from a wide variety of organic and inorganic substrates. Chitin can be used as a slowly degrading substrate in MFCs and thus as a long-term fuel to sustain power by these devices in remote locations. However, little is known about the effects of particle size on power density and length of the power cycle (longevity). We therefore examined power generation from chitin particles sieved to produce three average particle sizes (0.28, 0.46 and 0.78 mm). The longevity increased from 9 to 33 days with an increase in the particle diameter from 0.28 to 0.78 mm. Coulombic efficiency also increased with particle size from 18% to 56%. The maximum power density was lower for the largest (0.78 mm) ...
Summary: A fraction which inhibited chitin synthesis was partially purified from Neurospora crassa by ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration. This preparation possessed chitinase activity and hydrolysed either nascent or preformed chitin. Utilization of UDP-N-acetylglucos-arnine by chitin synthase was not modified in the presence of the chitinase preparation, although the chitin being synthesized was degraded mainly to N-N'-diacetylchitobiose, other larger oligosaccharides and small amounts of N-acetylglucosamine. The enzyme exhibited endo- and exo-chitinase properties and was localized mainly in the cytosol fraction. Its pH optimum was 6.7 and its apparent molecular weight 20600 Dal.
A novel chitin-degrading aerobe, Chitinibacter tainanensis, was isolated from a soil sample from southern Taiwan, and was proved to produce N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG). Chitin degrading factors (CDFs) were proposed to be the critical factors to degrade chitin in this work. When C. tainanensis was incubated with chitin, CDFs were induced and chitin was converted to NAG. CDFs were found to be located on the surface of C. tainanensis. N-Acetylglucosaminidase (NAGase) and endochitinase activities were found in the debris, and the activity of NAGase was much higher than that of endochitinase. The optimum pH of the enzymatic activity was about 7.0, while that of NAG production by the debris was 5.3. These results suggested that some factors in the debris, in addition to NAGase and endochitinase, were crucial for chitin degradation.
Chitin Oligosaccharide COS Reduces Antibiotics Dose and Prevents Antibiotics-Caused Side Effects in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis AIS Patients with Spinal Fusion Surgery. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Cloning and expression of two chitin deacetylase genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.: Chitin deacetylase (EC 3.5.1.41), which hydrolyses the N-acetamido groups o
Plant chitinases are a group of enzymes that presumably hydrolyze chitin, a biopolymer of GlcNAc in a β-1,4 linkage. Only a few of them have been proven to possess chitinase activities. Most of the reported chitinases have been identified based on their sequence similarity to known chitinases. Plant chitinases are grouped into six different classes based on sequence similarity to tobacco chitinases (Meins et al., 1994). The two common classes of chitinases are class I and class II, which differ in the presence (class I) or absence (class II) of a conserved N-terminal cysteine-rich lectin domain. All classes of chitinases possess some conserved amino acid residues in the catalytic domains (Levorson and Chlan, 1997).. Because the chitinase substrate chitin is the main component of many fungal walls and expression of many chitinase genes is induced by pathogens, chitinases have long been proposed to play roles in defense. It has been shown that overexpression of some chitinases alone or together ...
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Author summary Fungal pathogens pose an emerging threat in crop production and thus human health. Trichoderma atroviride is considered a potential biocontrol agent against a broad spectrum of phytopathogens. Cell wall chitin was identified as promising target to combat fungal diseases. Here we uncovered the regulation of chitin and chitosan synthesis and their contribution to dynamic cell wall remodeling as protective components in self-defense reactions during the mycoparasitic attack of Trichoderma. The systematic evaluation of the newly identified chitin-modifying enzymes confirmed their concerted interplay and their essential contribution to a successful mycoparasitic invasion. These findings provide further valuable, more specific information on targeting critical factors in the fungal cell wall adaptation process for therapeutic purposes as well as improved biocontrol applications.
Chitin deacetylases (CDA) mostly occur in marine bacteria, few in insects, and several in fungi [1].. In fungi, for example, CDAs are involved in cell wall formation, sporulation, and catabolism of chitin oligosaccharides. Many plant fungal pathogens secrete CDAs during plant infection. Plants only detect fungal infections by registering chitin. Fungi "turn invisible" by deacetylating chitin into chitosan and thus, outwit the plant defence system [2].. The CDAs generate chitosan oligomers from chitin by deacetylating the N-acetylglucosamine units of the substrate [3]. During deacetylation, acetic acid is cleaved off from a glucosamine unit. Some CDAs may even deacetylate chitosan, creating a double deacetylated oligomer [2].. Chitin deacetylases belong to the carbohydrate esterase family 4. All family members, including NodB protein and chitin deacetylases, share the same primary structure called "NodB homology domain" or "polysaccharide deacetylase domain" [4].. In medical applications and ...
Chitin nanowhiskers are structured into mesoporous aerogels by using the same benign process used previously in our group to make cellulose nanowhisker aerogels. The nanowhiskers are sonicated in water to form a hydrogel before solvent-exchange with ethanol and drying under supercritical CO2 (scCO2 ). Aerogels are prepared with various densities and porosities, relating directly to the initial chitin nanowhisker content. scCO2 drying enables the mesoporous network structure to be retained as well as allowing the gel to retain its initial dimensions. The chitin aerogels have low densities (0.043-0.113 g cm(-3) ), high porosities (up to 97 %), surface areas of up to 261 m(2) g(-1) , and mechanical properties at the high end of other reported values (modulus between 7 and 9.3 MPa). The aerogels were further characterized by using X-ray diffraction, BET analysis, electron microscopy, FTIR, and thermogravimetric analysis. Characterization showed that the rod-like crystalline nature of the nanowhiskers was
When starting her own lab at James Cook University, Australia, Jodie Rummer applied for a Travelling Fellowship from JEB to gather data on oxygen consumption rates of coral reef fishes at the Northern Great Barrier Reef. A few years later, Björn Illing, from the Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, Germany, followed in Jodies footsteps and used a JEB Travelling Fellowship to visit Jodies lab. There, he studied the effects of temperature on the survival of larval cinnamon clownfish. Jodie and Björns collaboration was so successful that they have written a collaborative paper, and Björn has now returned to continue his research as a post-doc in Jodies Lab. Read their story here.. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
Introduction. Chitin is a polysaccharide of animal origin found abundantly in nature and characterized by a fibrous structure. It forms the basis of the main constituent of the outer skeleton of insects and crustaceans like shrimp, crabs and lobster (Kumar et al., 2005). According to Chen (1998) the chitin structure can be modified by removing the acetyl groups, which are bond to amine radicals in the C2 position on the glucan ring, by means of a chemical hydrolysis in concentrated alkaline solution at elevated temperature to produce a deacetylated form known as chitosan.. No, H.K. et al., (2002) stated that antibacterial activity of chitosan is effective in inhibiting growth of bacteria. The antimicrobial properties of chitosan depend on its molecular weight and the type of bacterium. For gram-positive bacteria, chitosan with 470 KDa was the most effective, except for Lactbacillus sp., whereas for gram-negative bacteria, chitosan with 1,106 KDa was effective. Chitosan generally showed stronger ...
The filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, genome contains at least five chitin synthase-encoding genes. chsB is essential for normal hyphal growth. chsA and chsC are likely to be cooperatively req
In vivo inorganic-organic structure of the cuttlebone, in combination with physical and geochemical conditions within the depositional environment and favorable taphonomic factors likely contributed to preservation of organics in M. mississippiensis. Available clays within the Yazoo Clay in conjunction with suboxic depositional environment may have facilitated preservation of original organics by forming a physical and geochemical barrier to degradation. One key to the preservation of organic tissues, in particular chitin and chitosan, is cessation of bacterial degradation within environments of deposition. Bacterial breakdown of polymeric molecules is accomplished through activities of both free extracellular enzymes (those in the water column) and ektoenzymes (those on the surface of the microbial cell) such as chitinases. Chitinases function either by cleaving glycosidic bonds that bind repeating N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units within chitin molecules or by cleaving terminal ...
Differential gene expression signatures for cell wall integrity found in chitin synthase II chs2 Δ and myosin II myo1 Δ deficient cytokinesis mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Tor2 is an activator of the Rom2/Rho1 pathway that regulates α-factor internalization. Since the recruitment of endocytic proteins such as actin binding proteins and the amphiphysins precedes the internalization of α-factor, I hypothesized that loss of Tor function leads to an alteration in the dynamics of the endocytic proteins. I report here that endocytic proteins, Abp1 and Rvs167, are less recruited to endocytic sites not only in tor2 but also tor1 mutants. Furthermore, I found that the endocytic proteins Rvs167 and Sjl2 are completely mistargeted to the cytoplasm in tor1∆tor2ts double mutant cells. I also demonstrate here that the efficiency of endocytic internalization or scission in all tor mutants was drastically decreased. In agreement with the Sjl2 mislocalization, I found that in tor1∆tor2ts double mutant cells, as well as other tor mutant cells, the overall PIP2 level was dramatically increased. Finally, the cell wall chitin content in tor2ts and tor1∆tor2ts mutant cells was also
Biosynthesis of plant and "fungal" (Oomycete) cell wall polysaccharides: biochemical and biophysical approaches for the study of membrane-bound complexes with glycosyltransferase activity and characterization of the corresponding polysaccharides, with particular emphasis on cellulose, (1,3)-beta-D-glucan and chitin biosynthesis ...
Biosynthesis of plant and "fungal" (Oomycete) cell wall polysaccharides: biochemical and biophysical approaches for the study of membrane-bound complexes with glycosyltransferase activity and characterization of the corresponding polysaccharides, with particular emphasis on cellulose, (1,3)-beta-D-glucan and chitin biosynthesis ...
Acetylcholine Receptors. Acetylcholinesterase.. Aflatoxin.. Agricultural Hygiene.. Agrocin 84.. Analysis, Instrumentation and Techniques.. Animal Health Products.. Antibiotic Resistance.. Antibiotics.. Auxins, indole auxins.. Avian Repellants.. Avian Species.. Bactericide.. Bacteriocin.. Bioassays, Phytotoxicity to Succeeding Crops.. Biodegradability, Assessment.. Biodegradation in Soil.. Biological Control, Survey.. Biological Control of Plant Diseases.. Biological Control of Weeds.. Biomass, Soil Microbial Biomass.. Biopesticides.. Brassinosteroids.. Capillary Electrophoresis.. Chemical Activators of Disease Resistance.. Chemical Properties Estimation.. Chemotherapy.. Chirality and Chiral Pesticides.. Chitin Biosynthesis Inhibitors.. Chlorocarbons and Chlorohydrocarbons-Toxic Aromatics.. Chromatography, HPLC.. Chromatography, TLC.. CIPAC.. Controlled Release Formulations of Pesticides.. Dibenzo-p Dioxins: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p Dioxin, Reid Disinfection.. Disinfestation.. Economic Issues ...
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The human genome expresses 6 proteins of the family 18 chitinases, whereof YKL-40 (CHI3L1) is the most extensively studied. This protein binds chitin-derived oligosaccharides (ChOS) with micromolar affinity, but lacks the ability to degrade chitin. Besides possessing a chitin binding site, YKL-40 is also known to bind to heparin and collagen. Knowledge on the biological role of YKL-40 is still superficial but its function has mostly been related to immune signaling, embryonic development and remodeling of tissues and extracellular matrixes. This is particularly relevant in pathological conditions involving inflammation and connective tissue remodeling; such as in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, liver fibrosis and many cancer diseases. Severity of the disease is usually directly linked to increased serum concentration of YKL-40. Currently, the focus in YKL-40 research is gradually shifting from diagnostic marker to a putative therapeutic target in various diseases. For a better understanding of the
The human genome expresses 6 proteins of the family 18 chitinases, whereof YKL-40 (CHI3L1) is the most extensively studied. This protein binds chitin-derived oligosaccharides (ChOS) with micromolar affinity, but lacks the ability to degrade chitin. Besides possessing a chitin binding site, YKL-40 is also known to bind to heparin and collagen. Knowledge on the biological role of YKL-40 is still superficial but its function has mostly been related to immune signaling, embryonic development and remodeling of tissues and extracellular matrixes. This is particularly relevant in pathological conditions involving inflammation and connective tissue remodeling; such as in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, liver fibrosis and many cancer diseases. Severity of the disease is usually directly linked to increased serum concentration of YKL-40. Currently, the focus in YKL-40 research is gradually shifting from diagnostic marker to a putative therapeutic target in various diseases. For a better understanding of the
Abstract Chitosan, a deacetylated form of chitin, is a dietary fibre known for its hypolipidemic properties, which are mainly attributed to its uniqu...
A new material made from the biomolecule chitin and a copper metal-organic framework can inhibit the formation of bacterial biofilms.
References Biagini G., Zizzi A., Giantomassi F., Orlando F., Lucarini G., Mattioli Belmonte M., TucciM.G. and Morganti P., 2008, Cutaneous Absorption of Nanostructured Chitin Associated with Natural Synergistic Molecules (Lutein) Journal of Applied Cosmetology 26:69-80 MAVI SUD International Patent, 2005, PCT/IB2005/053576 Mezzana P., 2008, Clinical efficacy of a new chitin-nanofibrils based gel in wound healing . In print on: Acta Chirurgiae Plasticae Morganti P, Lee Yuanhong, Morganti G., 2007, Nano-structured products: technology and future, J. Appl. Cosmetol., 25:161-178 . Morganti P., 2007, Where nutriceuticals meet cosmecuticals, J. Appl. Cosmetol., 25:111-120 Morganti P., Fabrizi G., Palombo P., Palombo M., Ruocco E. Cardillo A and Morganti G., 2008, a. Chitin-nanofibrils: a new active cosmetic carrier. Journal of Applied Cosmetology 26: 105-120 Morganti P, 2008, Unpublished data Morganti P., Morganti G., Fabrizi G. and Cardillo A, 2008, b. A new sun to rejuvenate the skin. In print on: ...
Chitinases cleave the beta-1-4-glycosidic bond between the N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units of which chitin is comprised. Chitinases are present in plants, bacteria and fungi. The first chitinase structures were solved in 1994, from a bacterium (1ctn) and a plant (2hvm). A mechanism for chitin cleavage was proposed based on several structures and was later confirmed. [1] ...
SH3-domain Protein Located In The Bud Neck And Cytokinetic Actin Ring; Relocalizes From Bud Neck To Nucleus Upon DNA Replication Stress; Activates The Chitin Synthase Activity Of Chs2p During Cytokinesis; Suppressor Of Growth And Cytokinesis Defects Of Chs2 Phospho-mutants
Nookaew, I; Thorell, K; Worah, K; Wang, S; Hibberd, ML; Sjövall, H; Pettersson, S; Nielsen, J; Lundin, SB; (2013) Transcriptome signatures in Helicobacter pylori-infected mucosa identifies acidic mammalian chitinase loss as a corpus atrophy marker. BMC Med Genomics, 6. p. 41. ISSN 1755-8794 DOI: 10.1186/1755-8794-6-41 ...
Article Removal of aniline from aqueous solutions by activated carbon coated by chitosan. In this work, activated carbon (AC) coated by chitosan was synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer and scanning electron m...
TARTI MA ve SONU : B y k arteryel kanamalar n kontrol i in as l tedavi cerrahi kanama kontrol d r, fakat hastane d alanlarda Ankaferd ve chitosan i eren tamponlar kanama b lgesinde kullan labilir. Ara t rmam z n sonu lar daha geni al malarla desteklenmelidir. Ayr ca ara t rmam zda sa l kl fareler kullan lm t r. B y k arter kanamal hipotansif ve hipovolemik olgulardaki sonu lar de erlendirmek i in yeni al malara ihtiya vard r ...
A paint composition for controlling pests and allergens through inhibiting chitin synthesis, includes a mixture of 10 to 40% by weight of water, 5 to 50% by weight of resin, 0.001 to 40% by weight of a chitin inhibitor, 0.001 to 5% by weight of an organophosphate, 1 to 40% by weight of pigment, 1 to 60% by weight of a carrier material, and 1 to 20% by weight of a stabilizer, wherein the weight percentages are based on the total weight of the mixture.
According to the Paleontology report, Minerals have not replicated any part of the soft tissue and the carbonaceous material of the wall is primary [not replaced], preserving the original layering of the wall, its texture, and fabrics. The paper included electron micrographs of some of those fabrics fossilized fibers.2. The study authors described the worm wall as still flexible, as shown by its soft deformation. And just to be clear, they wrote, The body wall of S. cambriensis [fossil worm] comprises a chitin-structural protein composite.2. Fresh-looking material like this soft chitin and its associated proteins should not cause researchers to merely doubt the worm fossils 551 million year-old age assignment, but to utterly reject it. However, unless secularists pay homage to the Geologic Time Scales age designations for characteristic rock layers, their work would almost certainly fail to be accepted as scientific.. The idea that chitin or any unaltered biological material-soft ...
At the beginning of February I asked for recommendations when processing insects with a chitin skeleton. Result and many thanks, it worked a treat, chloral hydrate and phenol. The chitin just slipped over the knife producing lovely ribbons. When asked how it was done, ah, this is for the cognoscenti, a skill that takes years to develop. Again, many thanks. The original e-mails are on my laptop, youll get full recognition in my techniques book and formulary. Ian. Dr. Ian Montgomery, Histotechnology, IBLS Support Unit, Graham Kerr Building, Tel: 4652, 6644. [email protected] _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet ...
Fiber-shaped cellular architectures have drawn attention due to their structural similarity of the extracellular matrix. For such application, fibers that are both mechanically robust and biocompatible in the targeted biological environment are required. In this work, a facile method has been developed to pr
The provin-cial govern-ment has or-dered that apro-posed-chitin/chi-tosan pro-duc-tion fa-cil-ity and lab-o-ra-tory in Bay de Verde un-dergo some ex-tra scrutiny.. The Depart-ment of Environment an-nounced re-leased that project byQuin-lan Broth-ers Limit-e-dun-dergo an en-vi-ron-men-tal pre-view re-port (EPR).. Min-is-ter Ross Wise-man made the an-nounce-ment in an en-vi-ron-men-tal as-sess-ment bul-letin is-sued late last month.. The un-der-tak-ing was reg-is-tered with the prov-ince on April 20, and the dead-line for pub-lic com-ments was May 25.. Wise-man was ex-pected to make a de-ci-sion on the project by June 4.. Lit-tle to com-ment on. Com-pany man-ager Robin Quin-lan ad-mit-ted in a tele-phone in-ter-view with The Com-pass late last week: " Theres not re-ally much to com-ment on ... the govern-ment re-quires additional in-for-ma-tion.". Quin-lan also said his com-pany is ob-li-gated to com-ply with govern-ments re-quest.. "Hope-fully, at the end of the day when its ap-proved - if it ...
The Nids dont have that. I like a number of the models and the monster designs are very cool, but without a core personality to hook it on, this is more of an exercise in tactical curiosity. The codex hit and, as is my way, I bought a copy and had a read. It seemed good. An improvement on the last one. However, many existing Nid players on the Internet seemed to think differently. A number of existing units had been removed, which is something of an unusual move and something to be annoyed about, certainly. I felt though that a number of the reactions to the codex were knee-jerk, unjustified and, frankly, embarrassing in a number of cases. Im just fortunate that the smart part of my brai9n asserted its dominance just enough to stop me looking at Dakka or Warseer. I just restricted myself to the Overlords Facebook Group (Join today for a free gift of bupkis and bonus pocket lint!). There was a fair bit of negativity there, some anti-hate backlash and so on. But there was also discussion and ...
Chitin Deacetylase; Together With Cda2p Involved In The Biosynthesis Ascospore Wall Component, Chitosan; Required For Proper Rigidity Of The Ascospore Wall
Learn more about Chitosan at TriStar Health Related Terms Chitin (Chitosan is the deacetylated form.) Uses Principal Proposed Uses None Other...
Has anyone used chitinases to soften chitin in crustaceans as am having problems with wax sectioning? Have decalcified samples but they are still too hard. Andrew Prior Biology Dept Leicester University UK [email protected] ...
The outer body is made up of segments, or rings. Muscles run all along the worm under the segments. Outside of each segment are bristles made of chitin (the same stuff that makes up the exoskeleton of insects). These bristles are like little appendages. Indeed, if you have ever tried to pull a worm out of the ground and found it hard to do, its because the worm was gripping the earth with those bristles. Sometimes worms get pulled apart during these battles. The worm can survive and regrow part of its body if not too much is lost ...
Dear Sr. I am studing Chemistry here, in Santa Cruz-Bolivia and I need some information about INTERATION OF HEAVY METALS WITH CHITIN and CHITOSAN / JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCES. If you dont know it, then please let me other addresses where I can ask for it. Especially addresses (e-mail) for journal of Chemical or Bio-Chemical in your country or other country. Yours sincerelly, Osvaldo Montaño. Please answer if my message was received. I need your help please. Pd. Excuse my English ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Internet: osvaldo.montano at scruz.uucp.netcom.com (Osvaldo Montano ...
When scientists try to understand the diversity of any big group of species-animals, plants, or fungi to name three-they try to reconstruct its evolutionary tree. The pattern of its branches offers clues to the ancestry of the group, and to the transformations that took place as the major lineages split. Unfortunately for mycologists, the big fungal picture has long been blurry. Mycologists could recognize a few features that all fungi had, such as cell walls made of a tough substance called chitin. They could also recognize that certain kinds of fungi were united by some other traits, such as having a stage in their life cycle when their cells carried two nuclei instead of one. But it was very difficult to determine which group evolved from which based on cells and body shapes alone.. Analyzing DNA helped, but only a little at first. Scientists found that when they compared a single gene from a range of fungi, they couldnt get enough information to say how they are related with much ...
Fungus-Like Protists. Biology 112. General Characteristics. Similar to fungi in that they are heterotrophs that absorb food from dead or decaying organic matter Unlike true fungi, they contain centrioles Lack chitin cell walls that are found in fungi. Slime Moulds. Slideshow 2668897 by malory
CERK兔多克隆抗体(ab38011)可与小鼠, 仓鼠, 人, 中国仓鼠样本反应并经WB, ELISA, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被4篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。
The production of streptomycin using Streptomyces griseus using two types of chitin as a substrate was studied using a variety of fermentation techniques. Commercial chitin was obtained (Sigma) and comprised chemically purified crab shell. Pre-fermented chitin was the solid product from the lactic acid fermentation of shrimp waste using Lactobacillus paracasei A3. Bioassay, HPLC and FTIR methods were developed during this project for the quantification of streptomycin both in liquid phase and adsorbed on solid chitin surfaces. Shake flask experiments were carried out to determine basic production kinetics, as well as to establish if commercial and pre-fermented chitins produced different quantities of streptomycin. Shake flasks were also used to evaluate any effect of chitin concentration on streptomycin production. A range of submerged fermentations were undertaken in a standard 2 L bioreactor fitted with Rushton Turbines, at chitin concentrations from 0.4 %w/v to 10 %w/v, to study the effect ...
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Though the silencing is not yet 100 percent effective in their study, Zhu said it does leave the mosquitos body with less ability to combat insecticides, which must penetrate the mosquitos exoskeleton. If the gene, called chitin synthase, could be completely silenced, the mosquitoes may die without the use of pesticides because the chitin biosynthesis pathway would be blocked, Zhu said.. Zhu theorized using nanoparticles to deliver dsRNA to mosquito larvae might work because of the low success of manually injecting larvae with dsRNA. Mosquito larvae live in water but because dsRNA quickly dissipates in water, it cant be directly added to the larvaes food source. Zhus group discovered that using nanoparticles assembled from dsRNA facilitates their ingestion by mosquito larvae because the nanoparticles dont dissolve in water. Zhu said the nanoparticles may also stabilize the dsRNA in water.. "Now insects will have a much greater likelihood of getting these nanoparticles containing the dsRNA ...
1. Amano, Y., and Ozeki, S. 1981. Winter wheat breeding for resistance to snow mold and cold hardiness. I. Development of testing methods and application for the classification of resistant varieties. Bull. Hokkaido Pref. Agric. Exp. Stn. 46:12-21.. 2. Bazzingher, G. 1976. Der schwarze Schneeschimmel der Koniferen [Herpotrichia juniperi (Duby) Petrak und Herpotrichia coulteri (Peck) Bose]. Eu. J. For. Pathol. 6:109-122.. 3. Bruehl, G. W. 1982. Developing wheat resistant to snow mold in Washington state. Plant Dis. 66:1091-1095.. 4. Burpee, L. L., Kaye, L. M., Goulty, L. G., and Lawton, M. B. 1987. Suppression of gray snow mold on creeping bentgrass by an isolate of Typhula phacorrhiza. Plant Dis. 71:97-100.. 5. Cheng, M., Gay, P. A., and McBeath, J. H. 2001. Determination of chitinolytic activity in under differing environmental conditions. P. 57-62. IN: Proceeings of Biocontrol in a New Millenium: Building for the Future on Past Experience. D. M. Huber, ed.. 6. Conn, J., and Cameron, J. 1988. ...
Z. Hehn, A. Gawdzik, J. Sajewicz: Effects of butanetetracarboxylic acid and chitosan on the properties of formaldehyde free finish for cotton fabrics, Polimery, No 6/2005, 463. The effects of butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTK acid) in amount up to 40 kg/m3 and chitosan in amount up to 5 kg/m3 on application properties of finish baths were determined...
Glucosamine hydrochloride (GAH) and N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) are chitin derivatives. Owing to their excellent biological activity, they have long been used as pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. However, both of them exist simultaneously in chitin hydrolyzate or fermentation production. The aim of this study is to identify the feasibility of separating GAH and NAG by nanofiltration on the basis of appropriate adjustments of physical conditions. One commercial spiral nanofiltration membrane (QY-5-NF-1812) was used. Experiments were carried out in full recycle mode and the membrane separation performance was investigated at various mass ratios (mass ratios of GAH to NAG were from 1:14 to 1:2), pressures (4-22 bar), temperatures (15-35 °C), and electrolytes (NaCl, MgSO4, and MgCl2). The influence of temperature on molecular characteristics that play an important role in the separation process was also studied. Owing to the steric-hindrance effect, electrostatic effect, and different solute permeability,
Shrivastava A., R.G. Rhodes, S. Pochiraju, D. Nakane and M.J. McBride. 2012. Flavobacterium johnsoniae RemA is a mobile cell surface lectin involved in gliding. J Bacteriol. 194(14):3678-3688.. Rhodes, R.G., M.N. Samarasam, E.J. van Groll* and M.J. McBride. 2011. Mutations in Flavobacterium johnsoniae sprE result in defects in gliding motility and protein secretion. J. Bacteriol. 193(19):5322-5327.. Rhodes, R.G., H.G. Pucker* and M.J McBride. 2011. Development and use of a gene deletion strategy for Flavobacterium johnsoniae to identify the redundant gliding motility genes remF, remG, remH and remI. J. Bacteriol. 193(10):2418-2428.. Rhodes, R.G., S.S. Nelson, S. Pochiraju and M.J. McBride. 2011. Flavobacterium johnsoniae sprB is part of an operon spanning the additional gliding motility genes sprC, sprD and sprF. J. Bacteriol. 193(3):599-610.. Rhodes, R.G., J.A. Atoyan and D.R. Nelson. 2010. The chitobiose transporter, chbC, is required for chitin utilization in Borrelia burgdorferi. BMC ...
Chitosan Oligosaccharide Appearance: Yellow and light brown Odor: Sightly smell as acetic acid Molecular weight: less than 1500,less than 3000,less than5000 Degree of polymerization (DP): 2-10 Particle size: ≥100 mesh Moisture: ≤10% Residue on ignition :
A polyclonal antiserum was prepared against a purified microsomal chitinase isolated from the fungus Choanephora cucurbitarum. Indirect immunofluorescence was used to localize chitinase at various developmental stages of five zygomycetous fungi and during abiotrophic mycoparasite interaction with a susceptible and resistant host. This was compared to localization of oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine with the lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). Dotimmunoblot and Western blot techniques revealed that the anti-serum reacted strongly with the antigen from which it was derived. Cross reactivity of the antiserum was found with WGA and another chitin binding lectin, Phyto/acca americana agglutinin (PAA). Immuno-fluorescence results showed the direct involvement of chitinase in spore swelling, germination, sporangium development and response during mechanical injury. There appeared to be no involvement of chitinase during apical hyphal growth or new branch initiation in any of the fungi tested despite ...
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) suspension cultures respond to yeast elicitors with a strong alkalinization of the culture medium, a transient synthesis of activated oxygen species, and typical late defence reactions such as phytoalexin accumulation and increased peroxidase activity. The alkalinization reaction as well as the oxidative burst were also observed when tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cell-suspension cultures were treated with yeast elicitors. Depending on the degree of polymerization, N-acetyl chitin oligomers induced the alkalinization response in both plant cell-suspension cultures, while only tobacco cell cultures developed an oxidative burst. Suspension-cultured tobacco cells responded to Sinorhizobium meliloti nodulation factors with a maximal alkalinization of 0.25 pH units and a remarkable oxidative burst. In contrast, addition of Sinorhizobium meliloti nodulation factors to suspension-cultured alfalfa cells induced a slight acidificatiton of the culture medium, instead of an ...
Khomich, M., Kauserud, H., Logares, R., Rasconi, S., Andersen, T. 2016. Planktonic protistan communities in lakes along a large-scale environmental gradient. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 93 (4): 1-13. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiw231. Khomich, M., Davey, M.L., Kauserud, H., Rasconi, S., Andersen, T. 2017. Fungal communities in Scandinavian lakes along a longitudinal gradient. Fungal Ecology 27: 36-46. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2017.01.008. Mikhailova, RV, Lobanok, AG, Tsirkunova, ZhF, Khomich, MB, Ngo Kim Chi, Fam Hong Hai, Tran Dinh Toai. 2010. Application of chitinolytic enzymes from Paecilomyces marquandii and bromeline for hydrolysis of high-molecular-weight chitosan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Biological sciences 4: 80-84.. Tsyrkunova, ZhF, Khomich, MB, Mikhailova, RV, Lobanok, AG. 2010. Screening of filamentous fungi - the producers of chitinolytic enzymes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Biological ...
Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most problematic soil-borne pathogenic fungi for several crop cultures worldwide. This study highlights the effectiveness of high-antagonistic Streptomyces rochei strain PTL2, isolated from root tissues of Panicum turgidum, in controlling the R. solani damping-off and growth promotion of tomato (cv. Marmande) seedlings. The isolate PTL2 was characterised for in vitro biocontrol and plant growth-promoting traits. It exhibited remarkable positive results in all trials, including production of hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase and phytohormones, chitinolytic activity and inorganic phosphate solubilisation ...
A new animal model of invasive aspergillosis is described in which female New Zealand White rabbits were immunosuppressed with corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide and were given an intratracheal inoculation of 4 × 104 conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus. Thirteen of 15 animals survived during a 10-day-period of observation. Most had clinical signs of a respiratory infection (dyspnoea) and at autopsy there was macroscopic and microscopic evidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Six control animals (infected but not immunosuppressed) showed no such signs. The extent of hyphal invasion was assessed histologically and quantified by calculating the number of colony forming units (c.f.u.) g-1 of tissue: in the experimental group the mean c.f.u. value for the lungs was 1·25 × 103compared to 73·3 c.f.u. g-1 of lung for the control group (P=0·003). The infection was also quantified by a whole lung chitin assay: in the experimental group the mean chitin content (expressed as a glucosamine equivalent) was
Ym1 and Fizz1 are secreted proteins that have been identified in a variety of Th2-mediated inflammatory settings. We originally found Ym1 and Fizz1 as highly expressed macrophage genes in a Brugia malayi infection model. Here, we show that their expression is a generalized feature of nematode infection and that they are induced at the site of infection with both the tissue nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis and the gastrointestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. At the sites of infection with N. brasiliensis, we also observed induction of other chitinase and Fizz family members (ChaFFs): acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) and Fizz2. The high expression of both Ym1 and AMCase in the lungs of infected mice suggests that abundant chitinase production is an important feature of Th2 immune responses in the lung. In addition to expression of ChaFFs in the tissues, Ym1 and Fizz1 expression was observed in the lymph nodes. Expression both in vitro and in vivo was restricted to antigen-presenting ...
Microglia is thought to be important in Alzheimers disease. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the usefulness of the microglial marker chitotriosidase in clinical trials. Chitotriosidase was analyzed in cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimers disease patients on acetylcholine esterase inhibitors (AChEI) and in cerebrospinal fluid from multiple sclerosis patients before and after natalizumab treatment. Chitotriosidase activity was extremely stable during treatment with the non-inflammatory drug AChEI. However, the immunomodulatory treatment with natalizumab led to lower chitotriosidase activity. Thus, chitotriosidase may be useful in clinical trials where microglia is targeted or as a safety biomarker in other trials where the brain is a bystander organ.. ...
Helminth infections and allergic diseases are associated with IgE hyperresponsiveness but the genetics of this phenotype remain to be defined. Susceptibility to Ascaris lumbricoides infection and antibody levels to this helminth are associated with polymorphisms in locus 13q33-34. We aimed to explore this and other genomic regions to identify genetic variants associated with the IgE responsiveness in humans. Forty-eight subjects from Cartagena, Colombia, with extreme values of specific IgE to Ascaris and ABA-1, a resistance marker of this nematode, were selected for targeted resequencing. Burden analyses were done comparing extreme groups for IgE values. One-hundred one SNPs were genotyped in 1258 individuals of two well-characterized populations from Colombia and Sweden. Two low-frequency coding variants in the gene encoding the Acidic Mammalian Chitinase (CHIA rs79500525, rs139812869, tagged by rs10494133) were found enriched in high IgE responders to ABA-1 and confirmed by genetic association ...

Chitin deacetylase - WikipediaChitin deacetylase - Wikipedia

In enzymology, a chitin deacetylase (EC 3.5.1.41) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction chitin + H2O ⇌ {\ ... Araki Y, Ito E (1974). "A pathway of chitosan formation in Mucor rouxii: enzymatic deacetylation of chitin". Biochem. Biophys. ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is chitin amidohydrolase. This enzyme participates in aminosugars metabolism. As of ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } chitosan + acetate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are chitin and H2O, whereas its ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitin_deacetylase

Chitin: I - WikipediaChitin: I - Wikipedia

Chitin: I is a 1977 board wargame published by Metagaming Concepts. Chitin: I is the second MicroGame from Metagaming after ... David James Ritchie reviewed Chitin: I in The Space Gamer No. 13, commenting that "For those who like their carnage in ... cardboard, Chitin: I is definitely an attractive brew." Ritchie also reviewed the game in Ares Magazine #1, rating it a 5 out ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitin:_I

Category:Chitin - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Chitin - Wikimedia Commons

Media in category "Chitin". The following 22 files are in this category, out of 22 total. ... Micro-CT-Imaging-of-Denatured-Chitin-by-Silver-to-Explore-Honey-Bee-and-Insect-Pathologies-pone.0027448.s002.ogv 6.7 s, 1,392 ... Micro-CT-Imaging-of-Denatured-Chitin-by-Silver-to-Explore-Honey-Bee-and-Insect-Pathologies-pone.0027448.s003.ogv 6.7 s, 1,392 ... Micro-CT-Imaging-of-Denatured-Chitin-by-Silver-to-Explore-Honey-Bee-and-Insect-Pathologies-pone.0027448.s004.ogv 6.7 s, 1,392 ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Chitin

Anti-chitin antibodiesAnti-chitin antibodies

... Alex Brands abbrands at artsci.wustl.edu Tue Apr 3 10:06:44 EST 2001 *Previous message: Anti-chitin ... On 3 Apr 2001, SL wrote: , Hi, , , Does anyone know where I could obtain antibodies to fungal chitin , (preferably monoclonal ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/yeast/2001-April/009843.html

Chitin | Define Chitin at Dictionary.comChitin | Define Chitin at Dictionary.com

Chitin definition, a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide, related chemically to cellulose, that forms a semitransparent horny ... chitin. in Science. chitin. [kīt′n]. *A tough, semitransparent substance that is the main component of the exoskeletons of ... chitin. in Medicine. chitin. (kīt′n). n.. *A tough, protective, semitransparent polysaccharide forming the principal component ... Chitinization: the process of depositing or filling with chitin.. Explanation of Terms Used in Entomology. John. B. Smith ...
more infohttps://www.dictionary.com/browse/chitin

Chitin - New World EncyclopediaChitin - New World Encyclopedia

... and industrial separation membranes are made from chitin. Processes to size and strengthen paper also employ chitin. Chitin may ... Chitin also has some unusual properties in that it accelerates healing in wounds in humans. Therefore, chitin is used as a ... If chitin is detected, they then produce enzymes to digest the chitin by reducing it to simple sugars and ammonia. ... Chitin is used industrially in many different processes. For example, chitin is used in water and wastewater purification. It ...
more infohttps://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Chitin

Targeting Chitin-containing Organisms | Qing Yang | SpringerTargeting Chitin-containing Organisms | Qing Yang | Springer

... research progress about biology of chitin-containing organisms as well as cross-talks between chitin-containing and non-chitin- ... This book contains comprehensive contributions on chitin biology and chitin metabolism related enzymes, aiming to provide with ... This book provides a comprehensive overview of chitin biology and chitin metabolism related enzymes. Chitin, the second most ... Although some chitin-containing organisms are a threat to human health, food safety and agricultural production, non-chitin ...
more infohttps://www.springer.com/us/book/9789811373176

Chitin synthase 1 (P30597) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIChitin synthase 1 (P30597) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

GO:0004100 chitin synthase activity GO:0016758 transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/P30597

Chitin binding domain (IPR002557) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIChitin binding domain (IPR002557) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Chitin binding domain (IPR002557). Short name: Chitin-bd_dom Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Chitin binding domain ... Chitin-binding proteins in invertebrates and plants comprise a common chitin-binding structural motif.. J. Biol. Chem. 275 ... This entry represents a chitin binding domain [PMID: 10770921]. It is found in (amongst others) the Peritrophin-A chitin ... Chitin binding has been demonstrated for a protein containing only two of these domains [PMID: 9651363]. ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR002557

Chitin and Chitosan for Regenerative Medicine | SpringerLinkChitin and Chitosan for Regenerative Medicine | SpringerLink

Bioglycopolymers Chitin Hydrogels Chitosan-based Hydrogels Chitosan-based Scaffolds Modified Polysaccharides Polymer-based ... Chitin, Chitosan, and Silk Fibroin Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds: A Prospective Approach for Regenerative Medicine ... It also covers physical and chemical aspects of chitin and chitosan, structural modifications for biomedical applications, ... It will focus on the advancements of chitin and chitosan in regenerative medicine. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-81-322-2511-9

How do Chitin molecules link together?How do Chitin molecules link together?

Subject: How do Chitin molecules link together?. Date: Tue Nov 16 13:13:37 1999. Posted by Brad Kelley. Grade level: grad ( ... Re: How do Chitin molecules link together? Current Queue , Current Queue for Biochemistry , Biochemistry archives Try the links ... I have found a couple of cool pictures of the chitin molecule itself, but no images of how they link. My biology book has a ... But it just shows a picture of the chitin molecule and completely blows of any 3D structure description. It is not really for ...
more infohttp://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/1999-11/943470345.Bc.q.html

chitin deposition: normal | SGDchitin deposition: normal | SGD

The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) provides comprehensive integrated biological information for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
more infohttps://www.yeastgenome.org/phenotype/normal_chitin_deposition

chitin synthase activity | SGDchitin synthase activity | SGD

chitin synthetase activity, chitin-UDP acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase activity, chitin-UDP N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase ... Gene Ontology Term: chitin synthase activity. GO ID. GO:0004100 Aspect. Molecular Function. Description. Catalysis of the ... chitin 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase activity View GO Annotations in other species in AmiGO ... activity, chitin-uridine diphosphate acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity, trans-N-acetylglucosaminosylase activity, UDP-N- ...
more infohttps://www.yeastgenome.org/go/GO:0004100

Re: How do Chitin molecules link together?Re: How do Chitin molecules link together?

... Date: Wed Nov 24 09:04:34 1999. Posted By: Pamela Norton, faculty, Dept. of ... Browse Medline, keyword "chitin", using PubMed, or the access means of your choice to find other similar papers. In addition, a ... 25:200 (1997). Thus, it sounds as though chitin tends to be crosslinked to various other cell wall components. ... The terminal reducing residue of a chitin chain can be attached to the non-reducing end of a beta(1->3)-glucan chain by a beta( ...
more infohttp://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/1999-11/943470345.Bc.r.html

Synthesis and Physicochemical Characterization of Chitin DerivativesSynthesis and Physicochemical Characterization of Chitin Derivatives

Firstly, chitin derivatives were synthesized. For this purpose, chitin was modified via ring-opening reaction with cyclic ... Thermogravimetric analysis results showed that chitin modified with trimellitic anhydride is thermally more stable than chitin ... S cm−1) is higher than that of chitin modified with phthalic anhydride (. 9. .. 2. ×. 1. 0. −. 5. S cm−1). ... Then, chitin derivatives synthesized were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and U-Vis spectroscopies and scanning ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2013/982638/abs/

Yeast Chitin Binding Domain Tag | NEBYeast Chitin Binding Domain Tag | NEB

The pKLCF-series vectors offer the ability to secrete a target protein fused to a chitin binding domain (CBD) tag in the yeast ... The CBD tag permits rapid recovery of secreted fusion proteins using chitin resin or chitin magnetic beads. The CBD tag tightly ... Yeast Chitin Binding Domain Tag. Product Listing Application Overview Secretion of a target protein is a common expression ... The pKLCF-series vectors offer the ability to secrete a target protein fused to a chitin binding domain (CBD) tag in the yeast ...
more infohttps://www.neb.com/applications/protein-expression-and-purification/coupled-protein-expression-and-purification/yeast-chitin-binding-domain-tag

chitin facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chitinchitin facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chitin

Make research projects and school reports about chitin easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Chitin Animal Sciences COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Chitin. Chitin is a major constituent of the exoskeleton, or ... Chitin. Chitin is a polymer, a repeating arrangement of a chemical structure. Chitin is found in the supporting structures of ... Chitin is a polysaccharide , a type of carbohydrate that has a basic structure of a repeating chain of sugar molecules. Chitin ...
more infohttp://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biochemistry/biochemistry/chitin

The genetic complexity of chitin synthesis in fungi | SpringerLinkThe genetic complexity of chitin synthesis in fungi | SpringerLink

Chitin synthesis is a process maintained across the fungal kingdom that, thanks to the power of genetic manipulation of yeast ... Chitin synthesis is based on the regulation of distinct chitin synthase isoenzymes whose number ranges from one in ... Chitin synthesis is a process maintained across the fungal kingdom that, thanks to the power of genetic manipulation of yeast ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00294-002-0318-7

Preparation and Characterization of Multifunctional Chitin/Lignin MaterialsPreparation and Characterization of Multifunctional Chitin/Lignin Materials

reflecting the contribution of red and yellow in a samples color, were as follows: for chitin and ; for pure lignin and . ... M.-K. Jang, B.-G. Kong, Y.-I. Jeong, C. H. Lee, and J.-W. Nah, "Physicochemical characterization of α-chitin, β-chitin, and γ- ... This is similar to the value obtained for pure chitin. For chitin/lignin samples from 8 to 13, where the chitin fraction ... Pore volume in chitin is significantly higher than in lignin. The mean size of chitin pores is 25.9 nm, while that of lignin ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2013/425726/

Creationist abuse of cuttlefish chitinCreationist abuse of cuttlefish chitin

Detection of chitin in fossils is not frequent. There are reports of fossil chitin in pogonophora, and in insect wings from ... Creationist abuse of cuttlefish chitin. A few weeks ago, PLoS One published a paper on the observation of preserved chitin in ... Chitin has also been reported from beetles preserved in an Oligocene lacustrine deposit of Enspel, Germany and chitin-protein ... β-chitin is characterized by parallel chains of chitin molecules held together with inter-chain hydrogen bonding. The OH ...
more infohttps://freethoughtblogs.com/pharyngula/2011/12/15/creationist-abuse-of-cuttlefish-chitin/?wpmp_switcher=mobile

Chitin Nanofibrils for Improved PhotoprotectionChitin Nanofibrils for Improved Photoprotection

Chitin nanofibrils (CN) are capable of interacting with cosmetic actives by binding to the stratum corneum, thus influencing ... Keywords: Photoprotection , sunscreen booster , chitin nanofibrils , protection factor of UVA (PFA) Abstract: Chitin ... 14. P Morganti, G Fabrizi, P Palombo, M Palombo, E Ruocco, A Cardillo and G Morganti, Chitin-nanofibrils: A new active cosmetic ... Chitin Nanofibrils for Improved Photoprotection. July 23, 2013 , Contact Author , By: Pierfrancesco Morganti, University of ...
more infohttp://www.cosmeticsandtoiletries.com/formulating/function/uvfilter/premium-chitin-nanofibrils-for-improved-photoprotection-216584491.html

Methods for production of chitin and chitosan - Athenix CorporationMethods for production of chitin and chitosan - Athenix Corporation

Compositions and methods for producing chitin and chitosan are provided. The compositions comprise genetically modified ... Alternatively, a eukaryotic chitin synthase (such as the chitin synthase of Mucor rouxii or an Aspergillus niger chitin ... A high efficiency chitin deacetylase is needed to deacetylate chitin oligomers at a rate matching the synthesis of chitin. Thus ... Chitin synthase can also be referred to as chitin-UDP acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase. Chitin synthase from a variety of ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2006/0277632.html

Chitinase for Chitin Hydrolysis - Complex Carbohydrate Analysis | Sigma-AldrichChitinase for Chitin Hydrolysis - Complex Carbohydrate Analysis | Sigma-Aldrich

The exochitinase activity is defined as the progressive action starting at the non-reducing end of chitin with the release of ... Chitinases are enzymes that catalyze the degradation of chitin. They have been detected in many organisms, including bacteria, ... The endochitinase activity is defined as the random cleavage at internal points in the chitin chain. ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/biochemicals/biochemical-products.html?TablePage=111642814

Chitin and chitosan remodeling defines vegetative development and Trichoderma biocontrolChitin and chitosan remodeling defines vegetative development and Trichoderma biocontrol

Cell wall chitin was identified as promising target to combat fungal diseases. Here we uncovered the regulation of chitin and ... The systematic evaluation of the newly identified chitin-modifying enzymes confirmed their concerted interplay and their ... Chitin Is the Subject Area "Chitin" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1008320

Chitin deacetylase | Springer for Research & DevelopmentChitin deacetylase | Springer for Research & Development

Schomburg D., Salzmann M. (1991) Chitin deacetylase. In: Schomburg D., Salzmann M. (eds) Enzyme Handbook 4. Springer, Berlin, ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-84437-9_157
  • Chitin is also found in the cell walls of certain fungi and algae. (dictionary.com)
  • Chitin is a hard, semitransparent polysaccharide that is found in many places in the natural world, including serving as the main component of arthropod exoskeletons and the cell walls of some fungi . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In addition to being found in arthropod exoskeletons, chitin is also found in the cell walls of some species of fungi. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In fungi such as mushrooms, chitin confers stability and rigidity, yet allows some flexibility. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chromogen I is a derivative of N -acetyl- d -glucosamine (GlcNAc), the chemical building block of the structural biopolymer chitin-Earth's most abundant type of nitrogen-containing biomass-that is found in fungi, insects, and shrimp. (acs.org)
  • Chitin, the second most abundant biopolymer in nature after to cellulose, is a linear biopolymer composed of β-1,4-linked N -acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), and an essential component in the exoskeletons of insects, mites, ticks and crustaceans, the egg shells of parasitic nematodes, and fungal cell walls. (springer.com)
  • Of relevance to microbiology, chitin is present in fungal species such as mushrooms, where it can comprise from 5% to 20% of the weight of the organism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 5. The fungus of claim 2, wherein said polynucleotide of (b) encodes a polypeptide with a lower K m for a substrate compared to a native fungal chitin synthase. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Focusing on insect molting, she has identified the structural and biochemical characteristics of a series of enzymes that are directly involved in chitin degradation, modification and biosynthesis. (springer.com)
  • Chitin-binding proteins in invertebrates and plants comprise a common chitin-binding structural motif. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Chitin is analogous in structure to cellulose, the compound that provides structural support to plant tissues. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is expected that chitin/lignin materials will find a wide range of applications (biosorbents, polymer fillers, and electrochemical sensors), as they combine the unique properties of chitin with the specific structural features of lignin to provide a multifunctional material. (hindawi.com)
  • Threefold induction was found with a chitin concentration as low as 10 -4 mg per liter. (apsnet.org)
  • Shake flasks were also used to evaluate any effect of chitin concentration on streptomycin production. (bl.uk)
  • Maximum streptomycin yields were obtained at a chitin concentration of 10 %w/v. The total streptomycin yields from submerged fermentation were fairly consistent over the range of chitin concentrations used. (bl.uk)
  • The amount of streptomycin adsorbed on the chitin surface, however, increased with increasing chitin concentration. (bl.uk)
  • In both cases (at approximately 7.5 %w/v and 10 %w/v chitin) the lag phase and time to reach maximum biomass concentration decreased. (bl.uk)
  • The commercial fishing industry already sells shrimp and crab shells to processors that depolymerize chitin by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis to make GlcNAc, which is used in cosmetics and dietary supplements. (acs.org)
  • Three genes (i.e., a zinc finger protein, a lectin-like protein, and AtMPK3 ), previously shown to respond to chitin elicitation in microarray experiments, were used to examine the response of Arabidopsis spp. (apsnet.org)
  • Maximum induction for all three genes was found upon addition of crab-shell chitin at 100 mg per liter. (apsnet.org)
  • The larger chitin oligomers (hexamer to octamer), were most effective in inducing expression of the three genes assayed. (apsnet.org)
  • A type I peritrophic matrix protein from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae binds to chitin. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The CBD tag tightly and selectively binds chitin without the need for concentrating or buffer exchanging the growth medium. (neb.com)
  • This entry represents a chitin binding domain [ PMID: 10770921 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • It is found in (amongst others) the Peritrophin-A chitin binding proteins, particularly the peritrophic matrix proteins of insects and animal chitinases [ PMID: 9651363 , PMID: 8621536 , PMID: 9256413 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Chitin binding has been demonstrated for a protein containing only two of these domains [ PMID: 9651363 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Chitin Synthase polymerizes N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine, also known as Chitin, with substrate as UDP-N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine. (igem.org)
  • The production of streptomycin using Streptomyces griseus using two types of chitin as a substrate was studied using a variety of fermentation techniques. (bl.uk)
  • Commercial chitin was obtained (Sigma) and comprised chemically purified crab shell. (bl.uk)
  • Spurred by funding of the U.S. Federal Government, research began to develop numerous ways to use the chitin in the shells. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chitin also associates with nonprotein compounds, such as the calcium carbonate that is part of the shells of crustaceans such as crabs, lobsters, and shrimp. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chitin is a biological material found in the cuttlebones, or internal shells, of cuttlefish. (freethoughtblogs.com)
  • Its breakdown is conducted by bacteria that are characterized by special chemical receptors to the sugars produced by the decomposition of chitin. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chitin is a polymer, a repeating arrangement of a chemical structure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • From a chemical point of view chitin is a linear aminopolysaccharide, composed of N -acetylglucosamine units linked by β -1,4-glycosidic bonds [ 25 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Unlike the use of acidic and basic reagents for the industrial preparation of chitin-silica particles, coprecipitation of metal silicates is dependent upon a simple replacement reaction between sodium silicate and metal chlorides. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In order to encompass the advantages of submerged and solid state fermentations, a vertical basket reactor was designed and manufactured, which used gentle fluidisation for the agitation of chitin particles contained inside the basket.Shake flask experimentation showed that pre-fermented chitin produced approximately 3 times the streptomycin yield than that of commercial chitin. (bl.uk)
  • Particle size analysis and mathematical modelling suggest that this is due to increasing specific surface of chitin particles during the course of fermentation. (bl.uk)
  • Chitin is found in the cell walls of some molds , yeast , and algae . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The pKLCF-series vectors offer the ability to secrete a target protein fused to a chitin binding domain (CBD) tag in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis . (neb.com)
  • Chitin does not work alone in forming exoskeletons. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chitin confers a number of protective benefits to animals with exoskeletons. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Exoskeletons would be impractical for larger animals because chitin is not strong enough to protect and support them. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The protein kinase inhibitors staurosporine and K252a effectively suppressed chitin-induced gene expression, while the protein phosphatase inhibitors calyculin A and okadaic acid induced the accumulation of mRNA in the absence of chitin. (apsnet.org)
  • The level of chitin-induced gene expression of the lectin-like protein and AtMPK3 was not significantly changed in mutants blocked in the jasmonic acid (JA, jar1 )-, ethylene ( ein2 )-, or salicylic acid (SA, pad4, npr1 , and eds5 )-dependent pathway. (apsnet.org)
  • CHS3 from S.C. was chosen because the the protein does not require cofactors or activation factors and also because it was determined to be the most active of the Chitin Synthase family. (igem.org)
  • If chitin is detected, they then produce enzymes to digest the chitin by reducing it to simple sugars and ammonia. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This book provides a comprehensive overview of chitin biology and chitin metabolism related enzymes. (springer.com)
  • The English word "chitin" comes from the French word "chitine," which first appeared in 1836. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Numbers of scientific reports prove that chitin is one of the key polymers of the 21st century [ 16 , 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The CBD tag permits rapid recovery of secreted fusion proteins using chitin resin or chitin magnetic beads. (neb.com)
  • To further enhance the purity of purified CBD-tagged proteins, an engineered K. lactis strain that lacks endogenous chitin-binding proteins may be used as a host. (neb.com)
  • Gene induction was observed after the addition of 1 nM chitin octamer. (apsnet.org)
  • Disintegration and hardness parameters for coprocessed chitin compacts were investigated and found to be independent of the particle size. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The good compaction and compression properties shown by the chitin-metal silicates were found to be strongly dependent upon the type of metal silicate coprecipitated onto chitin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The re-use of chitin remaining post-fermentation was found to be possible in two series of three experiments. (bl.uk)
  • Chitin , kī′tin, n. the substance which forms most of the hard parts of jointed footed animals. (dictionary.com)
  • Chitin is an unusual substance as it is a naturally occurring polymer . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • For instance, biodegradability, nontoxicity, and bioactivity contribute to applications of chitin in various areas of biomedicine [ 27 - 30 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, the inherent binding and disintegration abilities of chitin-metal silicates are useful in pharmaceutical applications when poorly compressible and/or highly nonpolar drugs need to be formulated. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Figure 1 Chitin molecular structure. (igem.org)
  • The endochitinase activity is defined as the random cleavage at internal points in the chitin chain. (sigmaaldrich.com)