A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
An insect growth regulator which interferes with the formation of the insect cuticle. It is effective in the control of mosquitoes and flies.
A normally saprophytic mitosporic Chaetothyriales fungal genus. Infections in humans include PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS; and PERITONITIS.. Exophiala jeanselmei (previously Phialophora jeanselmei) is an etiological agent of MYCETOMA.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
A genus of gram-negative, straight or curved rods which are motile by means of a single, polar flagellum. Members of this genus are found in coastal waters and the open ocean. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of flattened, elongated marine mollusks, commonly called chitons. They are unique in that they possess seven or eight separate shell plates.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-18 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.
In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)
A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.

Role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase gene, ech42, in mycoparasitism. (1/1097)

The role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase (Ech42) in mycoparasitism was studied by genetically manipulating the gene that encodes Ech42, ech42. We constructed several transgenic T. harzianum strains carrying multiple copies of ech42 and the corresponding gene disruptants. The level of extracellular endochitinase activity when T. harzianum was grown under inducing conditions increased up to 42-fold in multicopy strains as compared with the wild type, whereas gene disruptants exhibited practically no activity. The densities of chitin labeling of Rhizoctonia solani cell walls, after interactions with gene disruptants were not statistically significantly different than the density of chitin labeling after interactions with the wild type. Finally, no major differences in the efficacies of the strains generated as biocontrol agents against R. solani or Sclerotium rolfsii were observed in greenhouse experiments.  (+info)

Role of surface proteins in Vibrio cholerae attachment to chitin. (2/1097)

The role of surface proteins in Vibrio cholerae attachment to chitin particles in vitro was studied. Treatment of V. cholerae O1 ATCC 14034 and ATCC 14035 with pronase E reduced the attachment of bacteria to chitin particles by 57 to 77%. A statistically significant reduction was also observed when the attachment to chitin was evaluated in the presence of homologous Sarkosyl-insoluble membrane proteins (MPs) (67 to 84%), N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) (62%), the sugar that makes up chitin, and wheat germ agglutinin (40 to 56%), a lectin that binds GlcNAc. The soluble oligomers N,N'-diacetylchitobiose or N,N', N"-triacetylchitotriose caused an inhibition of 14 to 23%. Sarkosyl-insoluble MPs able to bind chitin particles were isolated and visualized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; two of these peptides (molecular sizes, 36 and 53 kDa) specifically bind GlcNAc.  (+info)

Proteolytic activation and inactivation of chitin synthetase from Mucor rouxii. (3/1097)

Crude chitin synthetase preparations from the mycelial and yeast forms of Mucor rouxii behaved differently. The mycelial preparations, incubated at 28 degrees C, lost virtually all chitin synthetase activity in a few hours; by contrast, the activity of enzyme preparations from yeast cells increased several fold during similar incubations. These spontaneous changes were probably caused by endogenous protease(s). Seemingly, the chitin synthetase in yeast preparations was present mainly in a latent, 'zymogenic', form that was activated by proteases. In the mycelial preparations, chitin synthetase was present mainly in an active state and was rapidly degraded by endogenous proteolysis. Exogenous proteases accelerated activation and destruction of chitin synthetase; an acid protease from Rhizopus chinensis was the most effective activator. The activation of chitin synthetase was inhibited by a soluble protein in the cell-free extract. Treatment with the detergent Brij 36T stabilized the chitin synthetase of crude preparations against spontaneous changes. Stabilized preparations were rapidly activated by exogenous proteases. The different behaviour of chitin synthetases in crude extracts of mycelium and yeast cells is consistent with, and perhaps partially responsible for, the differences in wall construction between mycelial and yeast forms of M. rouxii.  (+info)

KNR4, a suppressor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cwh mutants, is involved in the transcriptional control of chitin synthase genes. (4/1097)

The KNR4 gene, originally isolated by complementation of a K9 killer-toxin-resistant mutant displaying reduced levels of both 1,3-beta-glucan and 1,3-beta-glucan synthase activity, was recloned from a YCp50 genomic library as a suppressor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae calcofluor-white-hypersensitive (cwh) mutants. In these mutants, which were characterized by increased chitin levels, the suppressor effect of KNR4 resulted, for some of them, in a lowering of polymer content to close to wild-type level, with no effect on the contents of beta-glucan and mannan. In all cases, this effect was accompanied by a strong reduction in mRNA levels corresponding to CHS1, CHS2 and CHS3, encoding chitin synthases, without affecting expression of FKS1 and RHO1, two genes encoding the catalytic subunit and a regulatory component of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase, respectively. Overexpression of KNR4 also inhibited expression of CHS genes in wild-type strains and in two other cwh mutants, whose sensitivity to calcofluor white was not suppressed by this gene. The physiological relevance of the KNR4 transcriptional effect was addressed in two different ways. In a wild-type strain exposed to alpha-factor, overexpression of this gene inhibited CHS1 induction and delayed shmoo formation, two events which are triggered in response to the pheromone, whereas it did not affect bud formation and cell growth in a chs1 chs2 double mutant. A chimeric protein made by fusing green fluorescent protein to the C terminus of Knr4p which fully complemented a knr4delta mutation was found to localize in patches at presumptive bud sites in unbudded cells and at the incipient bud site during bud emergence. Taken together, these results demonstrate that KNR4 has a regulatory role in chitin deposition and in cell wall assembly. A mechanism by which this gene affects expression of CHS genes is proposed.  (+info)

Mode of action of chitin deacetylase from Mucor rouxii on N-acetylchitooligosaccharides. (5/1097)

The mode of action of chitin deacetylase from the fungus Mucor rouxii on N-acetylchitooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization 1-7 has been elucidated. Identification of the sequence of chitin oligomers following enzymatic deacetylation was verified by the alternative use of two specific exo-glycosidases in conjunction with HPLC. The results were further verified by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. It was observed that the length of the oligomer is important for enzyme action. The enzyme cannot effectively deacetylate chitin oligomers with a degree of polymerization lower than three. Tetra-N-acetylchitotetraose and penta-N-acetylchitopentaose are fully deacetylated by the enzyme, while in the case of tri-N-acetylchitotriose, hexa-N-acetylchitohexaose and hepta-N-acetylchitoheptaose the reducing-end residue always remains intact. Furthermore, the enzyme initially removes an acetyl group from the nonreducing-end residue of all chitin oligomers with a degree of polymerization higher than 2, and further catalyses the hydrolysis of the following acetamido groups in a processive fashion. The results are in agreement with the mode of action that the same enzyme exhibits on partially deacetylated water soluble chitosan polymers.  (+info)

Multiple genes involved in chitin degradation from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91. (6/1097)

A cluster of three closely linked chitinase genes organized in the order chiA, chiB and chiC, with the same transcriptional direction, and two unlinked genes, chiP and chiQ, involved in chitin degradation in Pseudoalteromnas sp. strain S91 were cloned, sequenced and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequences revealed that ChiA, ChiB and ChiC exhibited similarities to chitinases belonging to family 18 of the glycosyl hydrolases while ChiP and ChiQ belonged to family 20. ChiP and ChiQ showed different enzymic activities against fluorescent chitin analogues, but neither was able to degrade colloidal chitin. ChiA possessed chitinase activity but did not bind chitin; ChiB bound chitin but had no chitinase activity; ChiC possessed strong chitinase activity and also bound chitin. Production of ChiC in S91 appeared to be controlled by chiA expression, since insertion of a transposon into the ORF of chiA resulted in the loss of chitinase activity as well as loss of ChiC proteins in a chitinase-negative mutant. In Escherichia coli, ChiC appeared to be expressed from its own promoter.  (+info)

A nod factor binding lectin with apyrase activity from legume roots. (7/1097)

A lectin isolated from the roots of the legume, Dolichos biflorus, binds to Nod factors produced by rhizobial strains that nodulate this plant and has a deduced amino acid sequence with no significant homology to any lectin reported to date. This lectin also is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphoanhydride bonds of nucleoside di- and triphosphates; the enzyme activity is increased in the presence of carbohydrate ligands. This lectin-nucleotide phosphohydrolase (LNP) has a substrate specificity characteristic of the apyrase category of phosphohydrolases, and its sequence contains four motifs characteristic of this category of enzymes. LNP is present on the surface of the root hairs, and treatment of roots with antiserum to LNP inhibits their ability to undergo root hair deformation and to form nodules on exposure to rhizobia. These properties suggest that this protein may play a role in the rhizobium-legume symbiosis and/or in a related carbohydrate recognition event endogenous to the plant.  (+info)

Chitinases from uncultured marine microorganisms. (8/1097)

Our understanding of the degradation of organic matter will benefit from a greater appreciation for the genes encoding enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of biopolymers such as chitin, one of the most abundant polymers in nature. To isolate representative and abundant chitinase genes from uncultivated marine bacteria, we constructed libraries of genomic DNA isolated from coastal and estuarine waters. The libraries were screened for genes encoding proteins that hydrolyze a fluorogenic analogue of chitin, 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-N,N'-diacetylchitobioside (MUF-diNAG). The abundance of clones capable of MUF-diNAG hydrolysis was higher in the library constructed with DNA from the estuary than in that constructed with DNA from coastal waters, although the abundance of positive clones was also dependent on the method used to screen the library. Plaque assays revealed nine MUF-diNAG-positive clones of 75,000 screened for the estuarine sample and two clones of 750,000 for the coastal sample. A microtiter plate assay revealed approximately 1 positive clone for every 500 clones screened in the coastal library. The number of clones detected with the plaque assay was consistent with estimates of the portion of culturable bacteria that degrade chitin. Our results suggest that culture-dependent methods do not greatly underestimate the portion of marine bacterial communities capable of chitin degradation.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression studies of Bacillus licheniformis chitin deacetylase in E. coli Rosetta cells. AU - Raval, Ritu. AU - Simsa, Robin. AU - Raval, Keyur. PY - 2017/11/1. Y1 - 2017/11/1. N2 - Chitin, the biopolymer of the N-acetylglucosamine, is the most abundant biopolymer on the planet after cellulose. However owing to its crystalline nature, its deacetylated derivative; chitosan is industrially more potent. This conversion on an enzymatic scale can be made using chitin deacetylase. The metagenomics library constructed from the soil exposed to chitin and chitosan yielded chitin modifying enzymes, one of them being chitin deacetylase (CDA) utilized for the present study. The gene was amplified and expressed using the pET 22b vector in E. coli Rosetta cells. The effect of two additives; chitin and glycerol on the CDA activity were studied. The inclusion of glycerol in the medium improved the biomass by 50% from the initial value of 1.25 g/l to 2.5 g/l. The activity of CDA increased from ...
This book contains comprehensive contributions on chitin biology and chitin metabolism related enzymes, aiming to provide with recent research progress about biology of chitin-containing organisms as well as cross-talks between chitin-containing and non-chitin-containing organisms.
The 1011 ton global annual turnover of chitin has generated extensive interest in the regulation of chitin processing enzyme production in bacteria. Some bacteria regulate chitinase production by N-Acyl-L-homoserine lactone (AHL) mediated quorum sensing. In this study, a description of bacterial community succession during chitin particle colonisation and depolymerisation in activated sludge is presented. It was discovered that Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes lineages dominate chitin colonisation in sludge and that AHLs bind to chitin at concentrations that upregulate AHL dependent transcription in bacterial cells associated with the chitin surface. There was no requirement for high cell density (a quorum) at the chitin surface. Further, N-Acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc), the monomer of the chitin polymer, is shown to inhibit AHL dependent gene transcription representing a previously unrecognised mechanism by which the chitinase reaction product negatively regulates chitinase production. ...
Chitin and its derivatives-as a potential resource as well as multiple functional substrates-have generated attractive interest in various fields such as biomedical, pharmaceutical, food and environmental industries, since the first isolation of chitin in 1811. Moreover, chitosan and its chitooligosaccharides (COS) are degraded products of chitin through enzymatic and acidic hydrolysis processes; and COS, in particular, is well suited for potential biological application, due to the biocompatibility and nontoxic nature of chitosan. In this review, we investigate the current bioactivities of chitin derivatives, which are all correlated with their biomedical properties. Several new and cutting edge insights here may provide a molecular basis for the mechanism of chitin, and hence may aid its use for medical and pharmaceutical applications.
Chitin is abundant in nature due to its compact intractable and inert structure resulted from strong hydrogen bonding network. Chitin is known as one of the second most abundant polysaccharides in nature, after cellulose. In crustaceans, chitin is present in a complex structure with calcium carbonate, forming the rigid skeleton of carapace, shell and tail. In insects, chitin is the main building block of the back plate. This intractable characteristic of chitin is superior in the animal / plant kingdom as protective skeleton but is a major disadvantage for chemical / physical modification. Therefore more efficient methods of reacting or modifying chitin (especially alpha-chitin as it is the most abundant of the 3 types of naturally occurring chitin) is necessary, in order to utilize this biomass as a major renewable raw materials ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 15:963-970...Bing Zhang , 1 Katrina Ramonell , 2 Shauna Somerville , 2 and Gary Stacey 1 , 3...© 2002 The American Phytopathological Society...Three genes (i.e., a zinc finger protein, a lectin-like protein, and AtMPK3), previously shown to respond to chitin elicitation in microarray experiments, were used to examine the response of Arabidopsis spp. to chitin addition. Maximum induction for all three genes was found upon addition of crab-...
The biodegradation of chitin is an important part of the carbon and nitrogen cycles in nature. Speeding up the biotransformation of chitin substrates can not only reduce pollution, but also produce high value-added products. However, this process is strictly regulated by the catalytic efficiency of the chitinolytic machinery. Therefore, it is necessary to study the mode of action and compound mechanisms of different chitin-degrading enzymes in depth to improve the catalytic efficiency of the chitinolytic machinery. The thermophilic bacterium Streptomyces sp. F-3 showed comparatively high chitin degradation activities. To elucidate the mechanism underlying chitin hydrolysis, six chitin degradation-related enzymes were identified in the extracellular proteome of Streptomyces sp. F-3, including three chitinases (SsChi18A, SsChi18B, and SsChi18C) from the GH18 family, one GH19 chitinase (SsChi19A), one GH20 β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (SsGH20A), and one lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (SsLPMO10A) from the
Vibrio cholera survival in an aquatic environment depends on chitin utilization pathway that requires two factors, chitin binding protein and chitinases. The chitinases and the chitin utilization pathway are regulated by a two-component sensor histidine kinase ChiS in V. cholerae. In recent studies these two factors are also shown to be involved in V. cholerae pathogenesis. However, the role played by their upstream regulator ChiS in pathogenesis is yet to be known. In this study, we investigated the activation of ChiS in presence of mucin and its functional role in pathogenesis. We found ChiS is activated in mucin supplemented media. The isogenic chiS mutant (ChiS-) showed less growth compared to the wild type strain (ChiS+) in the presence of mucin supplemented media. The ChiS- strain also showed highly retarded motility as well as mucin layer penetration in vitro. Our result also showed that ChiS was important for adherence and survival in HT-29 cell. These observations indicate that ChiS is ...
Vibrio cholera survival in an aquatic environment depends on chitin utilization pathway that requires two factors, chitin binding protein and chitinases. The chitinases and the chitin utilization pathway are regulated by a two-component sensor histidine kinase ChiS in V. cholerae. In recent studies these two factors are also shown to be involved in V. cholerae pathogenesis. However, the role played by their upstream regulator ChiS in pathogenesis is yet to be known. In this study, we investigated the activation of ChiS in presence of mucin and its functional role in pathogenesis. We found ChiS is activated in mucin supplemented media. The isogenic chiS mutant (ChiS-) showed less growth compared to the wild type strain (ChiS+) in the presence of mucin supplemented media. The ChiS- strain also showed highly retarded motility as well as mucin layer penetration in vitro. Our result also showed that ChiS was important for adherence and survival in HT-29 cell. These observations indicate that ChiS is ...
小菜蛾 (Plutella xylostella, diamondback),繁殖能力強,生長世代短,可適應各種惡劣的環境,為世界性的十字花科作物重要害蟲,然而其幾丁質相關構造及酵素目前仍未被詳細研究。幾丁質為構成昆蟲表皮及圍食膜 (peritrophic matrix: PM) 之重要物質;幾丁質通常會與幾丁質結合蛋白 (chitin binding proteins: CBPs) 結合,CBPs對於幾丁質重要構造的形成、結構維持以及功能的調控,扮演重要的角色。本研究解析小菜蛾體內幾丁質重要構造之蛋白與幾丁質相關酵素,特別針對圍食膜蛋白 (PM proteins: PMP)、CBPs以及幾丁質? (Chitinase: Chts) 等幾丁質相關蛋白,根據CBPs之基因表現情形、親緣關係分析及幾丁質?選殖與表現定性,期望獲得有助於研發新式鱗翅目害蟲防治之重要資訊。利用2-D電泳與質譜分析,可鑑定到四個 PM ...
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n (/ˈkaɪtɪn/ KY-tin), a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose. It is a primary component of cell walls in fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods, such as crustaceans (e.g., crabs, lobsters and shrimps) and insects, the radulae of molluscs, cephalopod beaks, and the scales of fish and lissamphibians. The structure of chitin is comparable to another polysaccharide - cellulose, forming crystalline nanofibrils or whiskers. In terms of function, it may be compared to the protein keratin. Chitin has proved useful for several medicinal, industrial and biotechnological purposes. The English word chitin comes from the French word chitine, which was derived in 1821 from the Greek word χιτών (chiton), meaning covering. A similar word, chiton, refers to a marine animal with a protective shell. The structure of chitin was determined by Albert Hofmann in 1929. Chitin is a modified polysaccharide that contains nitrogen; it is synthesized from units of ...
Cellulose nanofibers and chitin nanocrystals, two main components of agricultural and aquacultural by-products, were obtained from blue agave and yellow squat lobster industrial residues. Cellulose nanofibers were obtained using high pressure homogenization, while chitin nanocrystals were obtained by hydrolysis in acid medium. Cellulose nanofibers and chitin nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy and Infrared spectroscopy. Self-bonded composite films with different composition were fabricated by hot pressing and their properties were evaluated. Antifungal activity of chitin nanocrystals was studied using a Cellometer®cell count device, mechanical properties at tension were measured with a universal testing machine, water vapor permeability was evaluated with a thermohygrometer and surface tension with sessile drop contact angle method. The addition of chitin nanocrystals reduced slightly the mechanical properties of the composite. Presence of chitin ...
Chitin can easily be digested by humans whereas cellulose cannot be digested by humans but a suitable source of fibers. Your body cant digest or absorb fiber. The content is provided for information purposes only. Can Humans Digest Chitin? According to Wikipedia, humans have some ability to digest Could COVID-19 have wiped out the Neandertals? The structure of chitin is most similar to that of cellulose. What they discovered is that while most living primates have only one copy of the CHIA gene, early primates, which tended to be very small, had at least three working copies. Exoskeletons: Exoskeletons are the hard, chitinous coverings on the bodies of arthropods. This dietary fiber is beneficial because it takes longer to digest and reaches further into your colon than most other fiber. Chitin is a structural component of arthropod exoskeletons, fungi cell walls, mollusk shells, and fish scales. Chitin is the second most abundant natural polymer after cellulose. You can be assured our editors ...
The structure of chitin was determined by Albert Hofmann in 1929.[3]. Chitin is a modified polysaccharide that contains nitrogen; it is synthesized from units of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (to be precise, 2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-D-glucose). These units form covalent β-(1→4)-linkages (like the linkages between glucose units forming cellulose). Therefore, chitin may be described as cellulose with one hydroxyl group on each monomer replaced with an acetyl amine group. This allows for increased hydrogen bonding between adjacent polymers, giving the chitin-polymer matrix increased strength.. In its pure, unmodified form, chitin is translucent, pliable, resilient, and quite tough. In most arthropods, however, it is often modified, occurring largely as a component of composite materials, such as in sclerotin, a tanned proteinaceous matrix, which forms much of the exoskeleton of insects. Combined with calcium carbonate, as in the shells of crustaceans and molluscs, chitin produces a much stronger ...
The invention provides a biscuit containing abundant chitin which accounts for 5-8% of the total weight of the biscuit. The weight-losing effect of the chitin is as follows: carboniums in the chitin can be automatically attached to electronegative fat in food so as to block off the action of lipase so that the fat is not absorbed in intestine and is directly discharged out of body, wherein, the chitin is combined with the fat and then is discharged out of body but is not combined with protein in important nutrients, thus preventing harm on a human body. Therefore, the biscuit containing the abundant chitin can be eaten securely by a person who wants to reduce weight without affecting nutrient absorption; and in addition, the chitin is different from the common diet food which reaches the weight-losing effect by suppressing appetite or causing diarrhea of the person, and moreover, the chitin has the efficacy of improving a metabolism function of digestive tract.
Chitin concentrations greater than 0.04% (wt/wt) protected cholera vibrios against killing at low temperature. This protective effect was detected with both the soluble form of chitin, glycol chitin, and the insoluble particulate form of chitin. Some amino acids or peptides also showed the same protective effect. ...
Chitin concentrations greater than 0.04% (wt/wt) protected cholera vibrios against killing at low temperature. This protective effect was detected with both the soluble form of chitin, glycol chitin, and the insoluble particulate form of chitin. Some amino acids or peptides also showed the same protective effect. ...
Chitin binding appeared to be specific and the authors presented some data that suggested that some of ChtVis-Tomato was stably bound to chitin while some seemed to be continually binding and releasing from chitin.. ChtVis-Tomato was useful for making long time lapse observations in vivo.. The ChtVis-Tomato reporter was construted in the pWALIUM10-moe vector and inserted into the Drosophila genome using phiC31 mediated integration. ChtVis-Tomato is under the regulatory control of a 5XUAS-containing promoter allowing it to be expressed in any Gal4 driver lines of D. melanogaster. The reporter is flanked by gypsy insulator sequences. pWALIUM10-moe contains a mini white gene that serves as a genetic marker in the appropriate mutant white background.. With a bit of modification and reconfiguring ChtVis-Tomato could easily be deployed in any insect and is expected to function as it has in D. melanogaster.. Lukasz F. Sobala, Ying Wang, Paul N. Adler (2015) ChtVis-Tomato, a genetic reporter for in vivo ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Journal of Chemistry is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles on all aspects of fundamental and applied chemistry.
The breakdown of chitin within an acidic upland grassland was studied. The aim was to provide a molecular characterisation of microorganisms involved in chitin degradation in the soil using soil micro
Im having troubles finding a description or picture of how chitin molecules bind together to form the exoskeletons of arthropods, crustaceans, etc. I have found a couple of cool pictures of the chitin molecule itself, but no images of how they link. My biology book has a long description of how glucose forms either cellulose or starch depending on if it is an alpha or beta configuration, and how they link up to form 3D structures. But it just shows a picture of the chitin molecule and completely blows of any 3D structure description. It is not really for any purpose, Im just very curious. Thanks for your help in advance. BK ...
Previously, we showed that phagocytosable nonantigenic chitin, a seemingly inert molecule, induces endogenous Th1 cytokines (IL-12, IL-18, TNF-α, IFN-γ) (9, 10, 11). These are cytokines that are generally seen at early stages of infection (innate immunity) caused by intracellular bacteria such as M. bovis BCG (9, 10, 11). Innate immunity is important for protection against intracellular bacterial infections and to induce acquired immunity specific for bacteria (22). It is well established that Th1 cytokines, produced in innate immunity, down-regulate allergic immune (Th2) responses (18). The present study of recall responses clearly shows that allergen-stimulated IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 production is significantly inhibited by the presence of chitin in the spleen cell cultures (Fig. 1⇑). Our results suggest that IFN-γ produced by NK cells, at least in part, is responsible for the inhibition of the production of these Th2 cytokines.. The provocative findings are that chitin, given orally, ...
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1. Slámová K, Bojarová P, Petrásková L. et al. β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase: Whats in a name…?. Biotechnol Adv. 2010;28:682-93 2. Merzendorfer H, Zimoch L. Chitin metabolism in insects: structure, function and regulation of chitin synthases and chitinases. J Exp Biol. 2003;206:4393-412 3. Nagamatsu Y, Yanagisawa I, Kimoto M. et al. Purification of a chitooligosaccharidolytic β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Bombyx mori larvae during metamorphosis and the nucleotide sequence of its cDNA. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1995;59:219-25 4. Yang Q, Liu T, Liu F. et al. A novel β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase from the insect Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). FEBS J. 2008;275:5690-702 5. Liu T, Zhang H, Liu F. et al. Structural determinants of an insect β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase specialized as a chitinolytic enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:4049-58 6. Zheng YP, Krell PJ, Doucet D. et al. Cloning, expression, and localization of a molt-related β-N-acetylglucosaminidase in the Spruce budworm, Choristoneura ...
Chitooligosaccharides (COS) with degrees of polymerization (DP) 6 to 8 are degraded from chitosan, which possess excellent bioactivities. However, technologies that could purify them from hydrolysis mixtures in the narrow DP range (984 to 1,306 Da) are absent. The objective of this research is to purify DP 6 to 8 COS by nanofiltration on the basis of appropriate adjustments of the feed condition. Syrup containing DP 6 to 8 COS at different concentrations (19.0 to 46.7 g/L) was prepared. A commercial membrane (QY-5-NF-1812) negatively charged was applied. Experiments were carried out in full recycle mode, so that the observed COS retentions were investigated at various transmembrane pressures (6.0 to 20.0 bar), temperatures (10°C to 50°C), and pHs (5.0 to 9.0). Then, the feasibility of separation of DP 6 to 8 COS was further studied by concentration ratio under optimum conditions. The results indicate that the purification of DP 6 to 8 COS by nanofiltration NF is feasible. It was found that the
SCIN - Self-regenerating Chitin INduction Chitin, found in the exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans as well as the cell walls of fungi, is one of the most abundant organic polymers in nature. Like keratin in skin, it comprises the protective outer layer of these organisms. Our goal is to generate a layer of chitin from a lawn of bacteria (Escherichia coli) in response to an external molecular cue. This cue induces chitin synthesis (fast) and cell lysis (slow), allowing for a build-up of chitin followed by cell lysis and subsequent release into the top layer of the lawn. Abrasions expose cells to the external cue for self-repair. This would create a regenerative chitin biolayer with potential medical and industrial applications. ...
SCIN - Self-regenerating Chitin INduction Chitin, found in the exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans as well as the cell walls of fungi, is one of the most abundant organic polymers in nature. Like keratin in skin, it comprises the protective outer layer of these organisms. Our goal is to generate a layer of chitin from a lawn of bacteria (Escherichia coli) in response to an external molecular cue. This cue induces chitin synthesis (fast) and cell lysis (slow), allowing for a build-up of chitin followed by cell lysis and subsequent release into the top layer of the lawn. Abrasions expose cells to the external cue for self-repair. This would create a regenerative chitin biolayer with potential medical and industrial applications. ...
Cuttlefish are mollusks that look somewhat like squid. They have an internal, hard, supportive structure with soft organs around and inside it. This resilient cuttlebone is made of cleverly woven strands of a biochemical material called chitin and mixed with a hard biomineral called aragonite.. A team of paleontologists found a supposedly 34 million-year-old fossil cuttlebone that still had both the original aragonite and chitin. This is significant, because one might expect the hard aragonite to persist in the fossil record, but not the organic chitin or protein. The chitin, which is made of sugars tightly bonded into molecular chains, would have spontaneously degraded and been long gone after only thousands of years.. The researchers compared the fossil cuttlebone, found in a Mississippi clay deposit, with modern cuttlebone chitin, and their results showed a shortening of the chitin strands,…the breakdown of chitosan [chemically altered chitin],… and loss of hydrogen bonds.1 Thus, the ...
The predominant characteristic feature of C. pinensis is the ability to degrade chitin, a β-1,4-glycosidic linked homopolymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and one of the most abundant polysaccharides in nature. It is a component of fungal cell walls and of arthropod exoskeletons. Chitin is degraded by chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14); endochitinases randomly cleave within the chitin molecule and exochitinases hydrolyze diacetylchitobiose from the end of a chitin chain. Diacetylchitobiose is further degraded to N-acetylglucosamine by the action of N-acetylglucosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52).. These glycosidic bond hydrolyzing enzymes were grouped in glycoside hydrolase (GH) families based on amino acid sequence similarities (Web Site) [22]. For the C. pinensis genome 169 glycoside hydrolases belonging to 49 different GH families are predicted; 18 of the predicted glycoside hydrolases belong to GH family 43 which contains xylosidases, xylanases, arabinanases, arabinofuranosidases and galactosidases. Because of ...
pfam08407 (PSSM ID: 400626): Conserved Protein Domain Family Chitin_synth_1N, This is the N-terminal domain of Chitin synthase (pfam01644)
chitin is a fascinating polysaccharide for a number of reasons. First, it is the second most abundant polycarbohydrate used by Mother Nature as a structural component both in the animal and in the plant kingdoms. Second, chitin has a chemical structure which is similar to that of cellulose
Chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is an important structural component in the cell walls of fungal pathogens. Plant chitinases are capable of degrading this component to directly inhib...
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What is chitin a homopolysaccharide or heteropolysaccharide Chitin is a homopolysaccharide. This just means that it is made up of repeating units of the same m
Organ and tissue formation requires a finely tuned temporal and spatial regulation of differentiation programmes. This is necessary to balance sufficient plasticity to undergo morphogenesis with the acquisition of the mature traits needed for physiological activity. Here we addressed this issue by a …
In this report we present data about the effect of the Rhizobium NodZ enzyme on zebrafish development. We injected zebrafish embryos with a plasmid expressing NodZ protein, and we confirmed that the enzyme is active and has chitin oligosaccharide fucosyltransferase (NodZ) activity in vitro. In addition, the embryos injected with the NodZ-expressing plasmid, but not with a control plasmid, showed malformations or bends in the tail, and in some cases shunted tail structures and fused somites. These results clearly indicate that the likely substrates for this enzyme, chitin oligosaccharides and free N-glycans, have essential functions during early vertebrate embryogenesis ...
Method for evaluating lipid-binding qualities of enterosorbent was described. Mathod takes into account peculiarities of food digestion. A number of lipid binding agents was tested. The researches showed that biologically active additive to food Chizitel extracted via electrochemical method has the highest sorption properties towards triglycerides and fatty acids in comparison with well-known enterosorbents such as chitosan and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in the investigated PH-range ...
New research in mice by UC San Francisco scientists shows that the lungs secrete a specialized enzyme capable of destroying chitin, without which chitin particles inhaled from the environment can accumulate in the airways and trigger inflammatory lung disease.
Microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity plays critical roles in the basal resistance defense response in plants. Chitin and peptidoglycan (PGN) are major molecular patterns for fungi and bacteria, respectively. Two rice (Oryza sativa) lysin motif-containing proteins, OsLYP4 an …
Modules of approx. 70 residues. The chitin-binding function has been demonstrated in several cases. These modules are found attached to a number of chitinase catalytic domains, but also in non-catalytic proteins either in isolation or as multiple repeats; chitin binding (EC IIa.chitin ...
Silkworm pupae meal is a protein-rich feed ingredient with a high nutritional value. Its crude protein content ranges from 50% DM to more than 80% DM (for defatted meal). The lysine (6-7% of the protein) and methionine (2-3% of the protein) contents are particularly high. However, the true protein (calculated as the sum of amino acids) in silkworms was found to correspond to only 73% of the crude protein content (Finke, 2002), which was explained by the presence of chitin, since this component contains nitrogen. However, the chitin content of pupae meal is relatively low, about 3-4% DM (Finke, 2002; Suresh et al., 2012). The presence of chitin and insoluble protein may also explain the presence of fibre, and values of 6-12% DM of ADF have been reported (Finke, 2002; Ioselevich et al., 2004). Undefatted pupae meal is rich in fat, typically in the 20-40% DM range. Defatted meal contains less than 10% oil in the DM. Silkworm oil contains a high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, notably ...
Literatura Citada. Barber, M. S., R. E. Bertram, and J. P. Ride. 1989. Chitin oligosaccharides elicit lignification in wounded wheat leaves. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 34: 3-12. [ Links ] Barros, J., H. Serk, I. Granlund, and E. Pesquet. 2015. The cell biology of lignification in higher plants. Ann. Bot. 115: 1053-1074. [ Links ] Brugnerotto, J., J. Lizardi, F. M. Goycoolea, W. Argüelles-Monal, J. Desbrieres, and M. Rinaudo. 2001. An infrared investigation in relation with chitin and chitosan characterization. Polymer. 42: 3569-3580. [ Links ] Cabrera, J. C., and P. Van Cutsem. 2005. Preparation of chitooligosaccharides with degree of polymerization higher than 6 by acid or enzymatic degradation of chitosan. Biochem. Eng. J. 25: 165-172. [ Links ] Catinot, J., A. Buchala, E. Abou-Mansour, and J. P. Metraux. 2008. Salicylic acid production in response to biotic and abiotic stress depends on isochorismate in Nicotiana benthamiana. FEBS Lett. 582: 473-478. [ Links ] Chen, Z., Z. Zheng, J. Huang, ...
The overall model can be seen in figures in the main page of Aliivibrio/Streptomyces. ChiP: Chitoporin is a specific channel that allows N-acetylglucosamine dimers to cross the outer membrane to the periplasmic space, ChiA: Chitinase is an hydrolase that cleaves the glycosidic bonds on the chitin polymer. ChiS: The histidine-kinase sensor is part of a two-component signalling system, that activates a promoter, in this case pChitin. CBP: Chitin-binding protein is able to bind the N-acetyl glucosamine dimers in the periplasmic space. The complex CBP+(GlcNAc)2 serves as an activator of the signalling from chiS to the promoter. pChitin: This 100bp region upstream of chiP is thought to be activated by the activation of chiS. ...
The overall model can be seen in figures in the main page of Aliivibrio/Streptomyces. ChiP: Chitoporin is a specific channel that allows N-acetylglucosamine dimers to cross the outer membrane to the periplasmic space, ChiA: Chitinase is an hydrolase that cleaves the glycosidic bonds on the chitin polymer. ChiS: The histidine-kinase sensor is part of a two-component signalling system, that activates a promoter, in this case pChitin. CBP: Chitin-binding protein is able to bind the N-acetyl glucosamine dimers in the periplasmic space. The complex CBP+(GlcNAc)2 serves as an activator of the signalling from chiS to the promoter. pChitin: This 100bp region upstream of chiP is thought to be activated by the activation of chiS. ...
Endo S is an endoglycosidase specific for cleaving the N-linked glycans from the chitobiose core of the heavy chain of native IgG
Lysin motif (LysM) receptor kinases are unique to plants and serve important functions in plant-microbe interactions. These proteins recognize microbe-derived N-acetylglucosamine (NAG)-containing ligands, but the molecular mode of ligand perception and of receptor activation has remained unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the LysM receptor kinase CERK1 (chitin elicitor receptor kinase 1) from Arabidopsis thaliana has been reported. CERK1 binds NAG oligomers derived from chitin-the major constituent of fungal cell walls-and mediates immunity to fungal infection. The crystal structure of CERK1 complexed with a NAG pentamer revealed that three NAG moieties attach tightly to one of three lysin motifs within the CERK1 ectodomain. Receptor activation and immune signaling requires, however, ligand-induced CERK1 homodimerization. By acting as bivalent ligands, NAG octamers stabilize CERK1 dimers, providing a structural explanation for why the immunogenic activity of NAG oligomers is restricted ...
Marshall Marine Products is an Indian Marine Biotechnology Company, focused on Chitin and its derivatives. We pioneered in the development of Chitin Science, working relentlessly on improving the production technologies, and exploring new opportunities for developing new and innovative applications, by exploiting the unique properties of Chitin and its Derivatives. We coordinate, communicate, and collaborate with Industrial, and Scientific Research & Development and with Academic Communities
Lufenuron is much better known in the veterinary world as Program. It is used to treat parasite infections such as fleas. It works because it inhibits chitin production. Humans and, indeed, all mammals do not produce chitin and therefore the potential for side effects in humans is very small. Insects do need chitin to make a tough exoskeleton. Interestingly, so do yeasts and moulds - it is chitin in their cell wall that makes them so tough and difficult to kill. Therefore, potentially Lufenuron can be used to kill yeasts and moulds and, indeed, this has been well demonstrated in the veterinary world. It is not metabolised or eliminated by the liver or kidneys, but excreted through the faeces and again this makes it remarkably non-toxic. Lufenuron is very lipid soluble - this means it is taken over five days and loads up into fatty tissues from which it is slowly released over four to six weeks. This maintains tissue concentrations high enough to kill all yeast, including candida, for at least a ...
One has a pink/brown hue, the other a steely blue hue. Two full top shells, and four full bottom shell halves. Forged by Greycore there is a Chitin Shield and
Chitin[edit]. Chitin is one of many naturally occurring polymers. It forms a structural component of many animals, such as ... Chemically, chitin is closely related to chitosan (a more water-soluble derivative of chitin). It is also closely related to ... Some of these microorganisms have receptors to simple sugars from the decomposition of chitin. If chitin is detected, they then ... Cellulose and chitin are examples of structural polysaccharides. Cellulose is used in the cell walls of plants and other ...
It is typically not digested by animals, though certain fish are able to digest chitin. It is currently assumed that chitin ... Endochitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) randomly split chitin at internal sites of the chitin microfibril, forming soluble, low molecular ... are hydrolytic enzymes that break down glycosidic bonds in chitin. As chitin is a component of the cell walls of fungi and ... chitinases are generally found in organisms that either need to reshape their own chitin or dissolve and digest the chitin of ...
His research focused on the fungal cell wall, in particular to the biochemistry and physiology of chitin biosynthesis and ... "Obituary - Graham Gooday" (PDF). European Chitin Society. Retrieved 28 April 2020. Gow, Neil (2001). "Foreward". Medical ... Chitin in Nature and Technology (1975)[ISBN missing] Functions of Trisporic Acid (1978)[ISBN missing] Microbial Polysaccharides ...
Arthropod exoskeletons contain chitin; the addition of calcium carbonate makes them harder and stronger, at the price of ... These structures are composed of chitin and are approximately six times stronger and twice the stiffness of vertebrate tendons ... Alternatively, exceptional preservation may result in chitin being mineralized, as in the Burgess Shale, or transformed to the ...
ISBN 978-0-08-085862-3. G.W. Gooday; C. Jeuniaux; R. Muzzarelli (2012). Chitin in Nature and Technology. Springer Science & ... A mutagenised strain for enhanced production of chitin deacetylase for bioconversion to chitosan". New Biotechnology. 28 (2): ...
The chitinases hydrolyse chitin oligosaccharides. Another chitinase II member is the novel gene Chitinase domain-containing ...
ISBN 978-0-03-056747-6. Peters, W. (1972). "Occurrence of chitin in mollusca". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. 41 (3 ...
Chitin Peptidoglycan McArdle, William D.; Katch, Frank I.; Katch, Victor L. (2006). Exercise physiology: Energy, nutrition, and ...
Chitin is notable in particular and has been incorporated into a variety of uses. Chitin based materials have also been used to ... This copolymer of chitin and chitosan is a random or block copolymer. Chitosan is a deacetylated derivative of chitin. When the ... In nature, pure chitin (100% acetylation) does not exist. It instead exists as a copolymer with chitin's deacetylated ... Chitin also has antibacterial properties. Chitin forms crystals that make fibrils that become surrounded by proteins. These ...
2010, ; New Latin noun chitinum, chitin; New Latin feminine gender adjective lytica (from Greek feminine gender adjective ... lutikē), able to loosen, able to dissolve; New Latin feminine gender adjective chitinilytica, chitin-dissolving.) D. rivuli ( ...
"Chitin scaffolds in tissue engineering". Int J Mol Sci. 12 (3): 1876-87. doi:10.3390/ijms12031876. PMC 3111639. PMID 21673928. ... intestinal submucosa Bovine dermis Porcine dermis Human Demineralized Bone Matrix Equine pericardium Bovine pericardium Chitin ...
nov., a chitin-degrading bacterium". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 60 (4): 904-908. doi: ... Isoptericola jiangsuensis is a Gram-positive, chitin-degrading and non-motile bacterium from the genus of Isoptericola which ...
Chitin. -. in fungi, exoskeleton of insects and crustaceans Hemicellulose. cereals, bran, timber, legumes ...
Schmidt analyzed muscle fiber and chitin. He showed that animal and plant cell constituents are chemically similar and studied ...
This end product acts as a carrier of N-Acetylglucosamine, which is the monomeric unit of chitin, a structural polymer that ... For instance, it constitutes one of the main difference in the molecular structure of chitin and cellulose, and explains many ... Cui J, Yu Z, Lau D (January 2016). "Effect of Acetyl Group on Mechanical Properties of Chitin/Chitosan Nanocrystal: A Molecular ... In the case of chitin, for example, computational studies have found that the acylation contributes to the formation of ...
Roncero C, Sanchex-Diaz A, Valdivieso M (2016). "Chitin Synthesis and Fungal Cell Morphogenesis". In Hoffmeister D (ed.). ...
The fungal cell wall is composed of glucans and chitin; while glucans are also found in plants and chitin in the exoskeleton of ... Unlike true fungi, the cell walls of oomycetes contain cellulose and lack chitin. Hyphochytrids have both chitin and cellulose ... A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell ... also contains the biopolymer chitin. Fungal mycelia can become visible to the naked eye, for example, on various surfaces and ...
... xylan or chitin (CBM family 2); and starch (CBM family 26). The genus Butyrivibrio encompasses over 60 strains that were ...
Sorokin, D. Y.; Kolganova, T. V. (March 2014). "Bacterial chitin utilization at halophilic conditions". Extremophiles. 18 (2): ...
Mycelia contain both chitin and cellulose. Epicoccum nigrum forms blastoconidia that are darkly coloured, warted and spherical ...
Chitin is one of the major component which constitutes the exoskeleton of arthropods and cell walls of fungi. Without chitin, ... to prevent the synthesis of chitin during development. ...
α-chitin. α-chitin Molting Generally no;[20] but some polychaetes molt their jaws, and leeches molt their skins[28] no[29] no[ ... chitin,[7][21] and molt until the arthropods reach their full size.[22] Most annelids have closed circulatory systems, where ... chitin and are formed by follicles, each of which has a chetoblast ("hair-forming") cell at the bottom and muscles that can ... which are made of the more rigid α-chitin, have a single internal cavity, and are mounted on flexible joints in shallow pits in ...
Other natural resins - cellulose or chitin, etc. Plastics, these are used as imitations: Stained glass (inorganic material) and ...
The hyaline shield is constructed from chitin. The features is present in most radula-bearing molluscan groups, including the ...
The proteins and chitin are cross-linked. The rigidity is a function of the types of proteins and the quantity of chitin. It is ... The main structural component of arthropod cuticle is chitin, a polysaccharide composed of N-acetylglucosamine units, together ...
They bear chitin and often reproduce asexually. The Rhipidiales use rhizoids to attach their thallus to the bed of stagnant or ... For instance, the cell walls of oomycetes are composed of cellulose rather than chitin and generally do not have septations. ...
Zophobas morio, or superworm, is valued as a feed for captive reptiles; it contains less chitin than Tenebrio molitor. ...
V. cholerae can be induced to become competent for natural genetic transformation when grown on chitin, a biopolymer that is ... The bacteria naturally live in brackish or saltwater where they attach themselves easily to the chitin-containing shells of ... Meibom KL, Blokesch M, Dolganov NA, Wu CY, Schoolnik GK (2005). "Chitin induces natural competence in Vibrio cholerae". Science ...
The RNA element responds to chitin, which is an important regulator of competence in V. cholera. Deletion of tfoR removed all ... Yamamoto, S; Izumiya, H; Mitobe, J; Morita, M; Arakawa, E; Ohnishi, M; Watanabe, H (Apr 2011). "Identification of a Chitin- ... Meibom, KL; Blokesch, M; Dolganov, NA; Wu, CY; Schoolnik, GK (Dec 16, 2005). "Chitin induces natural competence in Vibrio ... Yamamoto, S; Morita, M; Izumiya, H; Watanabe, H (Jun 1, 2010). "Chitin disaccharide (GlcNAc)2 induces natural competence in ...
Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Lin, Chih-Yung; Chuang, Chao-Chun; Chang, Hsiu-Ming; Hsieh, Chang-Huain; Yeh, Chang-Wei; Shih, Chi-Tin; Wu, ...
chitin kīt´ən [key], main constituent of the shells of arthropods. Chitin, a polysaccharide (see carbohydrate) analogous in ... The chitin is rigid except between some body segments and joints where it is thin and allows movement of adjacent parts. Chitin ... Like cellulose, chitin contributes strength and protection to the organism. In arthropods the chitinous shell, or exoskeleton, ...
Media in category "Chitin". The following 22 files are in this category, out of 22 total. ... Micro-CT-Imaging-of-Denatured-Chitin-by-Silver-to-Explore-Honey-Bee-and-Insect-Pathologies-pone.0027448.s002.ogv 6.7 s, 1,392 ... Micro-CT-Imaging-of-Denatured-Chitin-by-Silver-to-Explore-Honey-Bee-and-Insect-Pathologies-pone.0027448.s003.ogv 6.7 s, 1,392 ... Micro-CT-Imaging-of-Denatured-Chitin-by-Silver-to-Explore-Honey-Bee-and-Insect-Pathologies-pone.0027448.s004.ogv 6.7 s, 1,392 ...
Keratinocytes in skin can also react to chitin or chitin fragments. According to in vitro studies, chitin is sensed by ... Plants also have receptors that can cause a response to chitin, namely chitin elicitor receptor kinase 1 and chitin elicitor- ... while chitin is not. Nanofibrils have been made using chitin and chitosan. Chitin-producing organisms like protozoa, fungi, ... Chitin and chitosan have been explored as a vaccine adjuvant due to its ability to stimulate an immune response. Chitin and ...
Two papers provide novel insights into how Vibrio cholerae colonizes chitin, revealing the role of a type IV pilus and ... Vibrio cholerae filamentation promotes chitin surface attachment at the expense of competition in biofilms. Proc. Natl Acad. ... DNA-uptake pili of Vibrio cholerae are required for chitin colonization and capable of kin recognition via sequence-specific ... In a second paper, Nadell and colleagues investigated the role of V. cholerae cell morphological variation in chitin ...
Chitin: I is a 1977 board wargame published by Metagaming Concepts. Chitin: I is the second MicroGame from Metagaming after ... David James Ritchie reviewed Chitin: I in The Space Gamer No. 13, commenting that "For those who like their carnage in ... cardboard, Chitin: I is definitely an attractive brew." Ritchie also reviewed the game in Ares Magazine #1, rating it a 5 out ...
Chitin definition, a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide, related chemically to cellulose, that forms a semitransparent horny ... chitin. in Science. chitin. [kīt′n]. *A tough, semitransparent substance that is the main component of the exoskeletons of ... chitin. in Medicine. chitin. (kīt′n). n.. *A tough, protective, semitransparent polysaccharide forming the principal component ... Chitinization: the process of depositing or filling with chitin.. Explanation of Terms Used in Entomology. John. B. Smith ...
GO:0004100 chitin synthase activity GO:0016758 transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups ...
Bioglycopolymers Chitin Hydrogels Chitosan-based Hydrogels Chitosan-based Scaffolds Modified Polysaccharides Polymer-based ... Chitin, Chitosan, and Silk Fibroin Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds: A Prospective Approach for Regenerative Medicine ... It also covers physical and chemical aspects of chitin and chitosan, structural modifications for biomedical applications, ... It will focus on the advancements of chitin and chitosan in regenerative medicine. ...
Chitin binding domain (IPR002557). Short name: Chitin-bd_dom Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Chitin binding domain ... Chitin-binding proteins in invertebrates and plants comprise a common chitin-binding structural motif.. J. Biol. Chem. 275 ... This entry represents a chitin binding domain [PMID: 10770921]. It is found in (amongst others) the Peritrophin-A chitin ... Chitin binding has been demonstrated for a protein containing only two of these domains [PMID: 9651363]. ...
... research progress about biology of chitin-containing organisms as well as cross-talks between chitin-containing and non-chitin- ... This book contains comprehensive contributions on chitin biology and chitin metabolism related enzymes, aiming to provide with ... This book provides a comprehensive overview of chitin biology and chitin metabolism related enzymes. Chitin, the second most ... Although some chitin-containing organisms are a threat to human health, food safety and agricultural production, non-chitin ...
... Alex Brands abbrands at artsci.wustl.edu Tue Apr 3 10:06:44 EST 2001 *Previous message: Anti-chitin ... On 3 Apr 2001, SL wrote: , Hi, , , Does anyone know where I could obtain antibodies to fungal chitin , (preferably monoclonal ...
Listen to Chitin Radio free online. Listen to free internet radio, sports, music, news, talk and podcasts. Stream live events, ...
Subject: How do Chitin molecules link together?. Date: Tue Nov 16 13:13:37 1999. Posted by Brad Kelley. Grade level: grad ( ... Re: How do Chitin molecules link together? Current Queue , Current Queue for Biochemistry , Biochemistry archives Try the links ... I have found a couple of cool pictures of the chitin molecule itself, but no images of how they link. My biology book has a ... But it just shows a picture of the chitin molecule and completely blows of any 3D structure description. It is not really for ...
... and industrial separation membranes are made from chitin. Processes to size and strengthen paper also employ chitin. Chitin may ... Chitin also has some unusual properties in that it accelerates healing in wounds in humans. Therefore, chitin is used as a ... If chitin is detected, they then produce enzymes to digest the chitin by reducing it to simple sugars and ammonia. ... Chitin is used industrially in many different processes. For example, chitin is used in water and wastewater purification. It ...
Make research projects and school reports about chitin easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Chitin Animal Sciences COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Chitin. Chitin is a major constituent of the exoskeleton, or ... Chitin. Chitin is a polymer, a repeating arrangement of a chemical structure. Chitin is found in the supporting structures of ... Chitin is a polysaccharide , a type of carbohydrate that has a basic structure of a repeating chain of sugar molecules. Chitin ...
Chitin synthesis is a process maintained across the fungal kingdom that, thanks to the power of genetic manipulation of yeast ... Chitin synthesis is based on the regulation of distinct chitin synthase isoenzymes whose number ranges from one in ... Chitin synthesis is a process maintained across the fungal kingdom that, thanks to the power of genetic manipulation of yeast ...
... Date: Wed Nov 24 09:04:34 1999. Posted By: Pamela Norton, faculty, Dept. of ... Browse Medline, keyword "chitin", using PubMed, or the access means of your choice to find other similar papers. In addition, a ... 25:200 (1997). Thus, it sounds as though chitin tends to be crosslinked to various other cell wall components. ... The terminal reducing residue of a chitin chain can be attached to the non-reducing end of a beta(1->3)-glucan chain by a beta( ...
Firstly, chitin derivatives were synthesized. For this purpose, chitin was modified via ring-opening reaction with cyclic ... Thermogravimetric analysis results showed that chitin modified with trimellitic anhydride is thermally more stable than chitin ... S cm−1) is higher than that of chitin modified with phthalic anhydride (. 9. .. 2. ×. 1. 0. −. 5. S cm−1). ... Then, chitin derivatives synthesized were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and U-Vis spectroscopies and scanning ...
reflecting the contribution of red and yellow in a samples color, were as follows: for chitin and ; for pure lignin and . ... M.-K. Jang, B.-G. Kong, Y.-I. Jeong, C. H. Lee, and J.-W. Nah, "Physicochemical characterization of α-chitin, β-chitin, and γ- ... This is similar to the value obtained for pure chitin. For chitin/lignin samples from 8 to 13, where the chitin fraction ... Pore volume in chitin is significantly higher than in lignin. The mean size of chitin pores is 25.9 nm, while that of lignin ...
Conserved Protein Domain Family Chitin_synth_1N, This is the N-terminal domain of Chitin synthase (pfam01644) ...
The pKLCF-series vectors offer the ability to secrete a target protein fused to a chitin binding domain (CBD) tag in the yeast ... The CBD tag permits rapid recovery of secreted fusion proteins using chitin resin or chitin magnetic beads. The CBD tag tightly ... Yeast Chitin Binding Domain Tag. Product Listing Application Overview Secretion of a target protein is a common expression ... The pKLCF-series vectors offer the ability to secrete a target protein fused to a chitin binding domain (CBD) tag in the yeast ...
The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) provides comprehensive integrated biological information for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
chitin synthetase activity, chitin-UDP acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase activity, chitin-UDP N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase ... Gene Ontology Term: chitin synthase activity. GO ID. GO:0004100 Aspect. Molecular Function. Description. Catalysis of the ... chitin 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase activity View GO Annotations in other species in AmiGO ... activity, chitin-uridine diphosphate acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity, trans-N-acetylglucosaminosylase activity, UDP-N- ...
Compositions and methods for producing chitin and chitosan are provided. The compositions comprise genetically modified ... Alternatively, a eukaryotic chitin synthase (such as the chitin synthase of Mucor rouxii or an Aspergillus niger chitin ... A high efficiency chitin deacetylase is needed to deacetylate chitin oligomers at a rate matching the synthesis of chitin. Thus ... Chitin synthase can also be referred to as chitin-UDP acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase. Chitin synthase from a variety of ...
... to 2025 - published on openPR.com ... Chitin Market Inveigling Hike in Demand 2025 Global Chitin Market: Overview Chitin and Chitosan are important adaptable regular ... Chitin Market- Scenario in Agribusiness 2025 Global Chitin Market: Overview Chitin and Chitosan are important adaptable regular ... Research Report and Overview on Chitin Market, 2015-2025 Chitin is a naturally found polymer of N-acetyl glucosamine. Chitin ...
Uncleaved chitin triggered large responses, but chopped-up chitin did not. Unlike the response to intact chitin, lung cells ... which is one of two chitin-chomping enzymes in the lungs. The mutant enzyme can bind chitin but not cleave it. The engineered ... Chopping Chitin Reduces Allergic Reactions Medicinal Chemistry: Lung enzyme prevents immune response by breaking up the dust ... the team found that the extent of the allergic reaction depended on the size of chitin chunks given to the mice: ...
Cell wall chitin was identified as promising target to combat fungal diseases. Here we uncovered the regulation of chitin and ... The systematic evaluation of the newly identified chitin-modifying enzymes confirmed their concerted interplay and their ... Chitin Is the Subject Area "Chitin" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Chitin Magnetic Beads ( NEB #E8036 ) Magnetic Separation Rack ( NEB #S1506 or NEB #S1509 ) Pipette 50 μl Chitin Magnetic Beads ... Home Protocols Endo D Removal Magnetic Chitin Bead Protocol (P0742) Endo D Removal Magnetic Chitin Bead Protocol (P0742). ... Chitin Magnetic Beads (NEB #E8036). Magnetic Separation Rack (NEB #S1506 or NEB #S1509). *Pipette 50 μl Chitin Magnetic Beads ... The ideal reaction volume for 50 μl of chitin resin is in the range of equal volume to no more than 5X bead bed volume. Links ...
The exochitinase activity is defined as the progressive action starting at the non-reducing end of chitin with the release of ... Chitinases are enzymes that catalyze the degradation of chitin. They have been detected in many organisms, including bacteria, ... The endochitinase activity is defined as the random cleavage at internal points in the chitin chain. ...
ar:كيتين be-x-old:Хіцін bg:Хитин ca:Quitina cs:Chitin da:Kitin de:Chitin el:Χιτίνη eo:Kitino gl:Quitina ko:키틴 hr:Hitin io: ... Chitin. Chitin is one of many naturally occurring polymers. It is one of the most abundant natural materials in the world. Over ... Chemically, chitin is closely related to chitosan (a more water-soluble derivative of chitin). It is also closely related to ... Chitin has also proven useful for several medical and industrial purposes. Chitin is a biological substance which may be ...
  • Abstract: Hydroxyapatite (HA) spherulites had been fabricated successfully through a novel approach including chitin emulsion and geletion processes. (scientific.net)
  • Both cellulose and chitin are long unbranched chains of glucose derivatives, and both materials contribute structure and strength, protecting the organisms ( plants in the case of cellulose). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Firstly, chitin derivatives were synthesized. (hindawi.com)
  • Then, chitin derivatives synthesized were characterized by FTIR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, and U-Vis spectroscopies and scanning electron microscopy. (hindawi.com)
  • Thermogravimetric analysis was performed to investigate the thermal stability of chitin derivatives. (hindawi.com)
  • Chitin can be segmented based on its derivatives such as glucosamine, chitosan and others. (openpr.com)
  • Chitin deacetylase is active on several chitinous substrates and chitin derivatives. (pnas.org)
  • Written by 40 international contributors who are leading experts in the field of natural biomaterials, this book provides an overview of the sources and production of chitin and chitosan derivatives. (routledge.com)
  • Carboxymethyl chitin (CMC) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) are water soluble derivatives formed by introducing CH2COOH function into the polymer which endows it with better biological properties. (amrita.edu)
  • The only commercial derivatives of chitin are chitosan (~2 ktons/year) and glucosamine (GlcN) (~20 ktons/year). (wur.nl)
  • Despite the fact that the functionality of chitin derivatives spans across various applications ranging from dietary supplements to health care, these biopolymers remain an underutilized resource. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • Segment-wise, Glucosamine represents the largest segment for chitin derivatives. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Chitin and Chitosan Derivatives in Metric Tons. (asdreports.com)
  • The market for Chitin is analyzed by the following Derivatives: Glucosamine, Chitosan, and Others. (asdreports.com)
  • In the healthcare industry chitin and chitin/chitosan derivatives are used in treatment of various diseases such as tuberculosis, in healing wounds, in obesity to control cholesterol level in the body, to break fat molecules, and also in tissue engineering. (sbwire.com)
  • In waste and water treatment, chitin/ chitosan derivatives find wide applications. (sbwire.com)
  • The present disclosure relates to chitin derivatives of Formula (I), its isomers, prodrugs and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. (patents.com)
  • Chitin synthesis is a process maintained across the fungal kingdom that, thanks to the power of genetic manipulation of yeast cells, is now beginning to be understood. (springer.com)
  • Chitin synthesis is based on the regulation of distinct chitin synthase isoenzymes whose number ranges from one in Schizosaccharomyces pombe to seven in some filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus fumigatus . (springer.com)
  • This is important for evaluating the utility of the materials and indirectly confirms the effectiveness of the proposed method of synthesis of chitin/lignin products. (hindawi.com)
  • The compositions comprise genetically modified organisms, including fungi, yeast, bacterial and plant organisms that have been engineered to express heterologous genes involved in chitin and chitosan synthesis. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The results show that the chsD product has an important but inessential role in the synthesis of chitin in A. fumigatus. (nih.gov)
  • Coordination of chitin synthesis and its degradation requires strict control of the participating enzymes during development. (biologists.org)
  • In this review, we will summarize recent advances in understanding chitin synthesis and its degradation in insects. (biologists.org)
  • Molecular and Biochemical Aspects of chitin Synthesis Inhibition. (gc.ca)
  • Inhibition of chitin synthesis as well as degradation can both result in deleterious effects that are often similar. (gc.ca)
  • Chitin synthesis can be blocked during the various steps by a variety of antibiotics, metabolic inhibitors, insect growth regulators, alkaloids and hormone analogs. (gc.ca)
  • When these hormones or their analogs are administered temporally out of sequence, it can result in the blocking of cuticle formation, including chitin synthesis. (gc.ca)
  • We tested the effect of inhibition of chitin synthesis also by a different approach. (asm.org)
  • The ggp1delta cells were treated with nikkomycin Z, a well-known inhibitor of chitin synthesis, and showed a hypersensitivity to this drug. (asm.org)
  • Whether CUR can affect chitin synthesis via the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway has not been investigated. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Chitin is also found in the cell walls of some fungi. (infoplease.com)
  • Chitin-producing organisms like protozoa, fungi, arthropods, and nematodes are often pathogens in other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chitin is a hard, semitransparent polysaccharide that is found in many places in the natural world, including serving as the main component of arthropod exoskeletons and the cell walls of some fungi . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In addition to being found in arthropod exoskeletons, chitin is also found in the cell walls of some species of fungi. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In fungi such as mushrooms, chitin confers stability and rigidity, yet allows some flexibility. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chitin forms a major constituent of fungi cell walls, arthropods exoskeletons and beaks and internal shells of marine animals. (openpr.com)
  • Chromogen I is a derivative of N -acetyl- d -glucosamine (GlcNAc), the chemical building block of the structural biopolymer chitin-Earth's most abundant type of nitrogen-containing biomass-that is found in fungi, insects, and shrimp. (acs.org)
  • Chitin belongs to the most abundant biopolymers on earth where it has an important role as a structural element in crustaceans, insects, fungi and some phytoplankton. (dissertations.se)
  • Chitin is a natural polysaccharide which exists in considerable amounts as the exoskeleton of arthropods and fungi. (scirp.org)
  • Chitin, is a beta-1,4-linked aminopolysacharide homopolymer of GlcNAc that occurs as a glycoprotein in the exoskeleton of arthropods, the cell wall of fungi and in various components of diverse invertebrates. (gc.ca)
  • The aim of the review is to present the common molecular characteristics of such pathogens as fungi and nematodes and other chitin bearing animals, which may both activate and downregulate the immune response of the host. (degruyter.com)
  • Chitin, found in the cell walls of true fungi and the exoskeleton of insects and nematodes, is a well-established elicitor of plant defense responses. (apsnet.org)
  • Fungi employ LysM effectors to prevent recognition of cell wall-derived chitin by host immune receptors, although the mechanism to compete for chitin binding remained unclear. (elifesciences.org)
  • Chitin, the main structural component of the cell wall in fungi, is one example of a PAMP. (elifesciences.org)
  • Chitin, the second most abundant biopolymer in nature after to cellulose, is a linear biopolymer composed of β-1,4-linked N -acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), and an essential component in the exoskeletons of insects, mites, ticks and crustaceans, the egg shells of parasitic nematodes, and fungal cell walls. (springer.com)
  • Chitin is a biopolymer and its fat trapping property makes it indispensable to use in healthcare sector. (openpr.com)
  • Chitin is also used to treat bowel syndrome, as this biopolymer has cleansing activities to facilitate better digestion, hence it is also used in dietary supplements and in blood pressure management. (openpr.com)
  • Chitin is an abundant biopolymer found primarily in the exoskeletons of arthropods, including many insects and crustaceans. (igem.org)
  • Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of the common structural biopolymer chitin are a potential recorder of ecological and environmental information, but our understanding of the mechanisms of incorporation of H and O from environmental substrates into chitin is limited. (purdue.edu)
  • Current processes produce GlcN by acid-catalysed depolymerisation and deacetylation of chitin using concentrated HCl at high temperature. (wur.nl)
  • Chitin deacetylation results in the formation of chitosan, a polymer of β1,4‐linked glucosamine. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this study, we have characterized the role of chitin deacetylation during vegetative hyphal growth in the filamentous phytopathogen Magnaporthe oryzae . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Deletion strains and fluorescent protein fusions demonstrated that CDA1 is necessary for chitin deacetylation in the septa and lateral cell walls of mature hyphae in colony interiors, whereas CDA4 deacetylates chitin in the hyphae at colony margins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chitin, a polymer of β‐1,4‐linked N ‐acetylglucosamine, is unique amongst the major polysaccharide components of the fungal cell wall in that it is able to be chemically modified by deacetylation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chitin deacetylation is catalyzed by a family of carbohydrate esterase enzymes known as chitin deacetylases (CDAs), belonging to the Carbohydrate Esterase 4 family, according to Carbohydrate‐Active EnZymes database (CAZy) classification. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Considering the relative chemical and physical properties of chitin and chitosan, we hypothesized that chitin deacetylation could also have key roles in fungal development. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chitin forms highly crystalline, rigid microfibrils in the cell wall (Rinaudo, 2006 ), but its deacetylation results in the creation of primary amine groups, with a pKa of ~6.5 (Wang, Chen, et al. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2009 ). Determining whether chitin deacetylation has analogous roles in fungal cell walls could therefore be a valuable line of investigation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 41) catalyzes the deacetylation of chitin. (scirp.org)
  • Chitosan was obtained by deacetylation of chitin with NaOH 40% (m [v.sup. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This strongly suggests that strain KC04ΔtM1 has acquired the ability to convert chitin to fructose 6-phosphate via deacetylation and deamination and further convert fructose 6-phosphate to acetate via glycolysis coupled to hydrogen generation. (asm.org)
  • β-chitin was more susceptible to alkali deacetylation than α-chitin, and required lower concentration of NaOH and shorter reaction time. (oregonstate.edu)
  • This book provides a comprehensive overview of chitin biology and chitin metabolism related enzymes. (springer.com)
  • Highlighting chitin remodeling enzymes and inhibitors, it also offers drug developers essential insights into designing specific molecules for the control of hazardous chitin-containing organisms. (springer.com)
  • Focusing on insect molting, she has identified the structural and biochemical characteristics of a series of enzymes that are directly involved in chitin degradation, modification and biosynthesis. (springer.com)
  • He has been working on chitin and chitosan degrading enzymes for more than twenty years and has published more than 120 research articles in this field. (springer.com)
  • If chitin is detected, they then produce enzymes to digest the chitin by reducing it to simple sugars and ammonia. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Richard A. Flavell of Yale University School of Medicine and colleagues genetically engineered mice to express a defective version of acidic mammalian chitinase, which is one of two chitin-chomping enzymes in the lungs. (acs.org)
  • Chitinases are enzymes that catalyze the degradation of chitin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A technological hurdle that has to be surpassed is the development of effective technology for disrupting the crystalline structure of α-chitin (the main component of chitin) to enhance the interaction with the chitinolytic enzymes and promote hydrolysis. (wur.nl)
  • For this purpose, insects repeatedly produce chitin synthases and chitinolytic enzymes in different tissues. (biologists.org)
  • Fungal infection induces the expression of chitinases in plant cells, and these chitin-degrading enzymes accumulate at the site of invasion. (plantcell.org)
  • the presence of chitin has not been demonstrated so far, although putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes, which encode the enzymes that synthesize chitin, are present in their genomes. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • however, no differences between the wild-type strain and the chsD- strain were found with respect to morphology, chitin synthase activity or virulence in a neutropenic murine model of aspergillosis. (nih.gov)
  • When the receptors are activated by chitin, genes related to plant defense are expressed, and jasmonate hormones are activated, which in turn activate systematic defenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three structural chitin synthase genes, chs1, chs2 and chs3, were identified in the genome of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. (nih.gov)
  • No compensatory mechanism seems to exist between the CS genes studied, since chitin content determination and expression analysis of the chs genes showed no differences between the disruption mutants and the wild-type strain. (nih.gov)
  • The chitin receptors bind chitin in biochemical assays, and inactivation of the corresponding genes impairs defense responses toward pathogens. (pnas.org)
  • Three genes (i.e., a zinc finger protein, a lectin-like protein, and AtMPK3 ), previously shown to respond to chitin elicitation in microarray experiments, were used to examine the response of Arabidopsis spp. (apsnet.org)
  • Maximum induction for all three genes was found upon addition of crab-shell chitin at 100 mg per liter. (apsnet.org)
  • The larger chitin oligomers (hexamer to octamer), were most effective in inducing expression of the three genes assayed. (apsnet.org)
  • In addition to the direct effect of limiting fungal invasion by degrading the fungal cell wall, the resulting chitin fragments (chitooligosaccharides) also appear to function as elicitors of numerous downstream defense response genes. (plantcell.org)
  • obtained homozygous T-DNA insertion mutants of all five of these genes to study their potential role in chitin perception and signaling. (plantcell.org)
  • The LysM RLK1 insertional mutant lacked any chitin induction of all tested genes, whereas the mutations in the other four RLK genes had no effect, suggesting a specific role for LysM RLK1 in chitin signaling. (plantcell.org)
  • Whole-genome expression analysis using microarrays showed that of hundreds of genes regulated by chitooctaose (nearly 900 genes showing significant induction or repression in wild-type Arabidopsis ), only a handful (33) were weakly induced or repressed in the LysM RLK1 mutant, demonstrating that the chitin-responsive pathway in this mutant was almost completely blocked. (plantcell.org)
  • The majority of isolates grew on et (crab shell) and 0 (squid pen) chitin and contained chitinase A (chiA) genes. (ugent.be)
  • A total of 118 TF genes and 30 ubiquitin-ligase genes were responsive to the chitin treatment. (apsnet.org)
  • Transcript variants from a few of these genes were found to respond differentially to chitin, suggesting transcript-specific regulation of these TF genes. (apsnet.org)
  • Thermococcus kodakarensis is a hyperthermophilic archaeon that harbors a complete set of genes for chitin degradation to fructose 6-phosphate. (asm.org)
  • The commercial fishing industry already sells shrimp and crab shells to processors that depolymerize chitin by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis to make GlcNAc, which is used in cosmetics and dietary supplements. (acs.org)
  • Chitin is degraded by three different chitinases, the endochitinase that degrades chitin into oligosaccharides of differing chain lengths, the exochitinase that degrades oligosaccharides into diacetylchitobiose and chitobiase, which degrades diacetylchitobiose into GlcNAc monomers. (gc.ca)
  • Chitin is polymer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) found in the exoskeleton of arthropods and the fungal cell wall. (bio-protocol.org)
  • A statistically significant reduction was also observed when the attachment to chitin was evaluated in the presence of homologous Sarkosyl-insoluble membrane proteins (MPs) (67 to 84%), N -acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) (62%), the sugar that makes up chitin, and wheat germ agglutinin (40 to 56%), a lectin that binds GlcNAc. (asm.org)
  • All strains grew on N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), the monomer of chitin. (ugent.be)
  • Chitin is a β-1,4-linked linear polysaccharide of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). (scirp.org)
  • It is found in (amongst others) the Peritrophin-A chitin binding proteins, particularly the peritrophic matrix proteins of insects and animal chitinases [ PMID: 9651363 , PMID: 8621536 , PMID: 9256413 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • book Chitin and Chitinases is also a master of the lat probably, but of the use through the phrase. (roadhaus.com)
  • As Red Pine is: The Diamond Sutra may include like a book Chitin and Chitinases 1999, but it is now the j of the Buddha. (roadhaus.com)
  • The Lotus Sutra has found as one of the book Chitin and Chitinases 1999's particular regular results and most crucial proteomics. (roadhaus.com)
  • E. histolytica also has numerous predicted Jessie lectins and chitinases, which contain a single, N-terminal eight-Cys chitin-binding domain. (asm.org)
  • We concluded that the major protein components of the E. invadens cyst wall all contain chitin-binding domains (chitinases, Jessie lectins, and Jacob lectins) and that the Jacob lectins are differentially modified by site-specific Cys proteases and O -phosphodiester-linked glycans. (asm.org)
  • Plants also have receptors that can cause a response to chitin, namely chitin elicitor receptor kinase 1 and chitin elicitor-binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein which binds chitin, a linear polysaccharide consisting of (1->4)-beta-linked D-glucosamine residues, most of which are N-acetylated. (uniprot.org)
  • Chitin binding has been demonstrated for a protein containing only two of these domains [ PMID: 9651363 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A type I peritrophic matrix protein from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae binds to chitin. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The pKLCF-series vectors offer the ability to secrete a target protein fused to a chitin binding domain (CBD) tag in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis . (neb.com)
  • Chitin is a biological substance which may be compared to the polysaccharide cellulose and to the protein keratin . (wikidoc.org)
  • Although keratin is a protein, and not a carbohydrate like chitin, both keratin and chitin have similar structural functions. (wikidoc.org)
  • The protein kinase inhibitors staurosporine and K252a effectively suppressed chitin-induced gene expression, while the protein phosphatase inhibitors calyculin A and okadaic acid induced the accumulation of mRNA in the absence of chitin. (apsnet.org)
  • The level of chitin-induced gene expression of the lectin-like protein and AtMPK3 was not significantly changed in mutants blocked in the jasmonic acid (JA, jar1 )-, ethylene ( ein2 )-, or salicylic acid (SA, pad4, npr1 , and eds5 )-dependent pathway. (apsnet.org)
  • Alpha-chitin consists of microfibers that contain nanofibrils embedded in a protein matrix. (mdpi.com)
  • CHS3 from S.C. was chosen because the the protein does not require cofactors or activation factors and also because it was determined to be the most active of the Chitin Synthase family. (igem.org)
  • Overexpression of AtCPK5 could increase AtCERK1 protein level after chitin treatment. (frontiersin.org)
  • In vitro chitin binding assay is performed to determine the affinity of a purified protein to the chitin molecule. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Note: We used histidine-tagged chitin binding protein CbpD. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Prepare a 200 µl solution of chitin-binding buffer containing the purified CbpD protein at 60 µg/ml (total fraction). (bio-protocol.org)
  • Add 100 µl of pre-washed chitin beads in chitin-binding buffer to the purified protein solution. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The chitin binding buffer and the protein solution in chitin binding buffer must be freshly prepared. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Txc, a new type II secretion system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA7, is regulated by the TtsS/TtsR two-component system and directs specific secretion of the CbpE chitin-binding protein. (bio-protocol.org)
  • previously identified a LysM domain-containing receptor protein, called CEBiP, that is important for chitin perception in rice. (plantcell.org)
  • The most abundant protein in the cyst wall of E. invadens is the Jacob lectin (EiJacob1), a secreted glycoprotein that contains five tandemly arranged chitin-binding domains (CBDs) ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Structural analysis of the LysM effector Ecp6 of the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum reveals a novel mechanism for chitin binding, mediated by intrachain LysM dimerization, leading to a chitin-binding groove that is deeply buried in the effector protein. (elifesciences.org)
  • In the presence of chitin, two lysin binding motifs within the Ecp6 protein combine to produce a binding site with ultrahigh affinity for chitin. (elifesciences.org)
  • It is a valuable model for the development of biomimetic materials because its moduli can vary by six orders of magnitude or more despite being comprised of little other than protein, chitin and catechol-derived pigments organized into a hierarchically ordered composite. (confex.com)
  • The exceptional properties of insect cuticle are hypothesized to arise from a combination of covalent and non-covalent interactions among proteins, catechols, chitosan and chitin nanofibers, including protein-catechol crosslinking, generation of catechol-derived microparticles and protein-Ni 2+ interactions. (confex.com)
  • Chitin (C8H13O5N)n (/ˈkaɪtɪn/ KY-tin) is a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows for increased hydrogen bonding between adjacent polymers, giving the chitin-polymer matrix increased strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chitin is an unusual substance as it is a naturally occurring polymer . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chitin is a polymer, a repeating arrangement of a chemical structure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is expected that chitin/lignin materials will find a wide range of applications (biosorbents, polymer fillers, and electrochemical sensors), as they combine the unique properties of chitin with the specific structural features of lignin to provide a multifunctional material. (hindawi.com)
  • Chitin is a naturally found polymer of N-acetyl glucosamine. (openpr.com)
  • Chitin ( C 8 H 13 O 5 N ) n ( Template:PronEng ) is a long-chain polymer of a N-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and is found in many places throughout the natural world. (wikidoc.org)
  • The role of chitin in these phenomena will be reviewed, highlighting the immune reactions that may be induced in mammals by this natural polymer. (degruyter.com)
  • Chitin is a polymer of N -acetyl- d -glucosamine that is a major component of fungal cell walls and has been recognized as a general elicitor of plant defense responses for many years ( Boller, 1995 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Some ILs showed to be able to disrupt the structure of chitin, and dissolve it at concentrations up to 10 wt%, expanding the use of this polymer into a broader range of fields. (frontiersin.org)
  • To dissect the mechanisms of the cytokine production in this study, spleen cells from BALB/c mice were cultured with 1 to 10 microm chitin particles, heat-killed Corynebacterium parvum vaccine, zymosan, and mannan (a mannose polymer)-coated latex beads (1 microm) at 1, 10, or 100 microg/ml. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, these cytokines were not produced when spleen cells were cultured with soluble chitin, mannan, or laminarin (a polymer of beta-glucan), 1 to 10 microm beta-glucan particles, laminarin-coated latex beads, 1 microm latex beads, 50 to 100 microm chitin particles, or 50 to 100 microm mannan-coated beads. (jimmunol.org)
  • Numbers of scientific reports prove that chitin is one of the key polymers of the 21st century [ 16 , 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Chitin is one of many naturally occurring polymers . (wikidoc.org)
  • Chitin and chitosan are known to be natural polymers and they are non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible. (amrita.edu)
  • Increase in chitin as an essential response to defects in assembly of cell wall polymers in the ggp1delta mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (asm.org)
  • Previous studies showed that local macrophages phagocytose nonantigenic chitin particles (1-10 μm polymers of N -acetyl- d -glucosamine) through mannose receptors and produce IL-12, IL-18, and TNF-α. (jimmunol.org)
  • To imitate this response, we have created nonantigenic mimetic microbes consisting of 1-10 μm chitin (polymers of N -acetyl- d -glucosamine) particles, which are recognized and ingested by Mφ through the mannose receptor ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Previous studies showed that mouse spleen cells produced IL-12, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma when stimulated with phagocytosable-size chitin particles (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine polymers). (jimmunol.org)
  • They found that filamentous V. cholerae colonized chitin particles more rapidly than short cells. (nature.com)
  • However, when the authors periodically introduced new chitin particles that can be colonized, they found that filamentous biofilms remained in the majority against competing non-filamentous cells. (nature.com)
  • In order to encompass the advantages of submerged and solid state fermentations, a vertical basket reactor was designed and manufactured, which used gentle fluidisation for the agitation of chitin particles contained inside the basket.Shake flask experimentation showed that pre-fermented chitin produced approximately 3 times the streptomycin yield than that of commercial chitin. (bl.uk)
  • Particle size analysis and mathematical modelling suggest that this is due to increasing specific surface of chitin particles during the course of fermentation. (bl.uk)
  • This study also confirmed that immunostimulatory effects can occur from chitin and chitosan particles at orparticles, which would have long residence times in air, might be implicated in initiating allergic or asthmatic processes. (umass.edu)
  • Bacterial attachment to chitin particles was evaluated as described previously ( 17 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Soluble mannan, but not soluble laminarin, inhibited cytokine production following stimulation with 1 to 10 microm chitin particles, zymosan, or heat-killed C. parvum. (jimmunol.org)
  • Finally, spleen cells from C3H/HeJ mice also showed comparable levels of IL-12/TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma production when induced by 1 to 10 microm chitin particles. (jimmunol.org)
  • The chitin sol containing nano-HA particles was dropped into oil and emulsified making use of liquids immiscibility effect between oil and chitin sol by stirring. (scientific.net)
  • Some pathogens produce chitin-binding proteins that mask the chitin they shed from these receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chitin-binding domains have been found in plant, fungal and bacterial proteins. (uniprot.org)
  • Chitin-binding proteins in invertebrates and plants comprise a common chitin-binding structural motif. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The CBD tag permits rapid recovery of secreted fusion proteins using chitin resin or chitin magnetic beads. (neb.com)
  • To further enhance the purity of purified CBD-tagged proteins, an engineered K. lactis strain that lacks endogenous chitin-binding proteins may be used as a host. (neb.com)
  • The principle is based on the co-sedimentation of chitin-binding proteins together with chitin-coated beads. (bio-protocol.org)
  • the existence of chitin-binding proteins (CBPs) in Vibrio alginolyticus ( 3 , 21 ) has recently been shown. (asm.org)
  • We hypothesized that E. invadens cyst walls are composed entirely of proteins with six-Cys or eight-Cys chitin-binding domains and that some of these proteins contain sugars. (asm.org)
  • Here we examine the interactions between novel structural proteins that we have identified in T. castaneum and expressed in E. coli and their interactions with chitin, chitosan and multivalent metal ions. (confex.com)
  • Commercial chitin was obtained (Sigma) and comprised chemically purified crab shell. (bl.uk)
  • We are Viet Delta Industrial Corp. We export dried shrimp shell, dried crab shell, chitin with high quality and large quantity. (worldbid.com)
  • Minami, S. Protective Effect of Chitin Urocanate Nanofibers against Ultraviolet Radiation. (mdpi.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to use chitin nanofibers, as a valuable natural material, to remove bromocresol green dye. (magiran.com)
  • The results showed that chitin nanofibers have significant influence on the removal and reduction of bromocresol green from aqueous solutions, and thus wastewaters containing other colors. (magiran.com)
  • Ifuku S, Morooka S, Morimoto M, Saimoto H (2010) Acetylation of chitin Nanofibers and their transparent nanocomposite films. (springer.com)
  • We show that legumes possess very similar receptors enabling root cells to separate perception of chitin, which triggers responses to pathogens, from perception of lipochitin oligosaccharides (Nod factors), which trigger endosymbiosis with rhizobial bacteria. (pnas.org)
  • V. cholerae , as other Vibrio species, produces a chitinase(s) responsible for the degradation of chitin to soluble oligosaccharides ( 2 , 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Rhizobia synthesize a class of lipo-chitin oligosaccharides that induce root hair deformation and induce the initiation of nodule structures on legume roots. (plantphysiol.org)
  • These lipo-chitin oligosaccharides are tetra- and penta-lipo-oligosaccharides of N-acetylglucosamine with an acyl substitution on the nonreducing end and are commonly known as Nod factors. (plantphysiol.org)
  • To determine structure-activity relationships, a collection of synthetic and natural product lipo-chitin oligosaccharides was assayed on Glycine soja. (plantphysiol.org)
  • All biologically active lipo-chitin oligosaccharides induced both root hair deformation and nodule initiations on G. soja. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The most active lipo-chitin oligosaccharides deformed root hairs at 10-15 M and induced nodules at 1 ng of lipo-chitin oligosaccharide per spot inoculation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Lipo-chitin oligosaccharides containing four N-acetylglucosamine residues were active only without a reducing end modification, whereas lipo-chitin oligosaccharides containing five N-acetylglucosamine residues were active only with reducing end modification. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The plant thus recognizes lipo-chitin oligosaccharides without reducing end substitutions despite the importance of these modifications for host range. (plantphysiol.org)
  • and many insects , such as ants and beetles , have a covering made from chitin. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Dust mites have exoskeletons made from chitin. (acs.org)
  • Industrial separation membranes and ion-exchange resins can be made from chitin. (wikidoc.org)
  • The unique properties of chitin are due to the presence of (acetyl)amino groups in the polysaccharide backbone [ 26 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We summarize the physicochemical and drug delivery properties of chitin and chitosan composites. (springer.com)
  • Based on amino acid identities with related fungal species, chs1, chs2 and chs3 encode structural chitin synthases (CSs) of class I, class II and class III, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Comparisons with the predicted amino acid sequence from chsD reveals low but significant similarity to chitin synthases, to other N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases (NodC from Rhizopus spp. (nih.gov)
  • Weber, I., Assman, D., Thines, E. and Steinberg, G. (2006) Polar Localizing Class V Myosin Chitin Synthases Are Essential during Early Plant Infection in the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Ustilago maydis. (scirp.org)
  • Chitin deacetylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetamido groups of N-acetylglucosamine in chitin, has been purified to homogeneity from mycelial extracts of the fungus Mucor rouxii and further characterized. (pnas.org)
  • Carbohydrate analysis of purified chitin deacetylase revealed that the enzyme is a high-mannose glycoprotein and that its carbohydrate content is approximately 30% by weight. (pnas.org)
  • Schomburg D., Salzmann M. (1991) Chitin deacetylase. (springer.com)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the cDNA cloning of a chitin deacetylase from a crab. (scirp.org)
  • Fujimori, K. , Fukushima, H. and Matsumiya, M. (2018) Molecular Cloning and Phylogenetic Analysis of a Chitin Deacetylase Isolated from the Epidermis of the Red Snow Crab Chionoecetes japonicas . (scirp.org)
  • Given the lack of awareness with respect to prospective applications of chitin and chitosan and absence of aggressive commercialization initiatives by industry participants, opportunities for the biopolymers remain significant in the long run. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • We typically obtain NFs by hydrolyzing chitin with acetic acid. (mdpi.com)
  • Although the difference was not as significant as UNFs, the number of sunburn cells in mice treated with acetic acid chitin nanofibrils (ANFs) tended to be lower than in control mice. (mdpi.com)
  • chitosan is soluble in water, while chitin is not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chitin is closely related to chitosan (a more water-soluble derivative of chitin). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • When glycol chitin (a water-soluble chitin derivative) was used as substrate, the optimum temperature for enzyme activity was determined to be approximately 50 degrees C and the optimum pH was approximately 4.5. (pnas.org)
  • As a result, chitosan is polycationic at physiological pH and therefore soluble and potentially more flexible than chitin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chitin particle-induced cell-mediated immunity is inhibited by soluble mannan: mannose receptor-mediated phagocytosis initiates IL-12 production. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cellulose is by far the most abundant organic (carbon-containing) compound on Earth, and chitin is among the top three most abundant such compounds, along with starch . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chitin is a suitable and abundant natural resource for production of important carbohydrate based chemicals and materials. (wur.nl)
  • IMPORTANCE Chitin is a linear homopolymer of β-1,4-linked N -acetylglucosamine and is the second most abundant biomass next to cellulose. (asm.org)
  • Chitin, a major component of the fungal cell wall, triggers plant innate immunity in Arabidopsis via a receptor complex including two major lysin motif receptor-like kinases, AtLYK5, and AtCERK1. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chitin-induced immune responses are inhibited in both Arabidopsis atcpk5 and atcpk5/6 mutant plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing either AtLYK5-S323A or AtLYK5-S542A in the atlyk5-2 mutant only partially rescue the defects in chitin-triggered MPK3/MPK6 phosphorylation. (frontiersin.org)
  • These data proposed a model in which AtCPK5 directly phosphorylates AtLYK5 and regulates chitin-induced defense responses in Arabidopsis . (frontiersin.org)
  • In Arabidopsis , AtLYK5 is proposed to play a major role in mediating chitin perception. (frontiersin.org)
  • show that LysM RLK1 is required for chitin signaling in Arabidopsis . (plantcell.org)
  • who also showed that LysM RLK1 (called CERK1 by these authors) is essential for the chitin response in Arabidopsis . (plantcell.org)
  • We also suggest that chitin in the zoospores of P. capsici can act as a PAMP that is recognized by the chitin receptors AtLYK5 or AtCERK1 of Arabidopsis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Previous work in the model plant Arabidopsis has shown that chitin binds to a single lysin motif within each plant receptor. (elifesciences.org)
  • Acid hydrolysis is a common method used to prepare chitin nanofibrils (NFs). (mdpi.com)
  • I have found a couple of cool pictures of the chitin molecule itself, but no images of how they link. (madsci.org)
  • But it just shows a picture of the chitin molecule and completely blows of any 3D structure description. (madsci.org)
  • Structure of chitin molecule. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Structure of the chitin molecule , showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage. (wikidoc.org)
  • These results suggest oxygen in chitin may be a valuable proxy for the oxygen isotopic composition of environmental water, whereas hydrogen isotope values from the same molecule may reveal ecological and biogeochemical changes within lakes. (purdue.edu)
  • The CBD tag tightly and selectively binds chitin without the need for concentrating or buffer exchanging the growth medium. (neb.com)
  • Intriguingly, the remaining singular LysM domain of Ecp6 binds chitin with low micromolar affinity but can nevertheless still perturb chitin-triggered immunity. (elifesciences.org)
  • secDF mutants of Flavobacterium johnsoniae were deficient in gliding motility and chitin utilization. (asm.org)
  • Compared to the wealth of research focused on the microbial degradation and conversion of cellulose, studies addressing microbial chitin utilization are still limited. (asm.org)
  • Chitin is found in the cell walls of some molds , yeast , and algae . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • We found that chitosan localizes to the septa and lateral cell walls of vegetative hyphae and identified 2 chitin deacetylases expressed during vegetative growth- CDA1 and CDA4 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Combined with calcium carbonate, as in the shells of crustaceans and molluscs, chitin produces a much stronger composite. (wikipedia.org)
  • I'm having troubles finding a description or picture of how chitin molecules bind together to form the exoskeletons of arthropods, crustaceans, etc. (madsci.org)
  • Chitin is a major constituent of the exoskeleton, or external skeleton, of many arthropods such as insects, spiders, and crustaceans. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chitin also associates with nonprotein compounds, such as the calcium carbonate that is part of the shells of crustaceans such as crabs, lobsters, and shrimp. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chitosan comes from chitin, which is part of the outer shell-like structure of insects, spiders, and crustaceans. (davidsnaturalmarket.com)
  • Two papers now provide novel insights into how bacteria colonize chitin, revealing the role of a type IV pilus and filamentation. (nature.com)
  • Its breakdown is conducted by bacteria that are characterized by special chemical receptors to the sugars produced by the decomposition of chitin. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Interestingly, Nod factors, which are produced by rhizobia (symbiotic N 2 -fixing bacteria) and are essential for the induction of the nodulation process in legumes, are chitin-related molecules (lipochitooligosaccacharides). (plantcell.org)
  • Few examples of specific interactions between bacteria and chitin-containing surfaces are known. (asm.org)
  • they also possess several immune receptors that can recognize chitin and its degradation products in a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, initiating an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these microorganisms have receptors to simple sugars from the decomposition of chitin. (wikidoc.org)
  • Many species of plants are able to detect chitin using receptors that contain sequences of amino acids called lysin motifs. (elifesciences.org)
  • present the high resolution crystal structure of Ecp6 and reveal the mechanism by which it outcompetes the plant's own chitin receptors. (elifesciences.org)
  • chitin kīt´ən [ key ] , main constituent of the shells of arthropods. (infoplease.com)
  • Microorganisms and plants that have been modified for production of chitin and/or chitosan within the vacuole of a cell are encompassed. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Methods for production of chitin also comprise culturing the genetically engineered organisms in conditions that allow for chitin production. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Having established that filamentation provides an advantage during initial attachment to chitin, the authors carried out longer-term competition experiments and found that non-filamentous biofilms eventually outcompeted and displaced filamentous biofilms, which might be owing to the protective effect that the biofilm matrix provides. (nature.com)
  • Although some chitin-containing organisms are a threat to human health, food safety and agricultural production, non-chitin containing organisms like humans, mammals and plants have an innate immune response to these hazardous organisms. (springer.com)
  • The book provides researchers and students with information on the recent research advances concerning the biology of chitin-containing organisms as well as cross-talks between chitin-containing and non-chitin-containing organisms. (springer.com)
  • Chitin is found in the supporting structures of many organisms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chitin, a polysaccharide (see carbohydrate ) analogous in chemical structure to cellulose , consists of units of a glucose derivative ( N -acetyl- d -glucosamine) joined to form a long, unbranched chain. (infoplease.com)
  • Chitin is a polysaccharide , a type of carbohydrate that has a basic structure of a repeating chain of sugar molecules. (encyclopedia.com)
  • TEMPO-oxidized chitin nanocrystals (TCNs) were labeled with a fluorescent imidazoisoquinolinone dye, and simultaneously conjugated with carbohydrate ligands, resulting in dually functionalized TCNs. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition, they found that DNA-uptake pili can bind directly to chitin surfaces. (nature.com)
  • The mutant enzyme can bind chitin but not cleave it. (acs.org)
  • CPR27 has a conserved sequence of amino acids first hypothesized by Rebers and Riddiford to bind chitin. (confex.com)
  • The structure of chitin is comparable to another polysaccharide, cellulose, forming crystalline nanofibrils or whiskers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanofibrils have been made using chitin and chitosan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chitin nanofibrils (CN) are capable of interacting with cosmetic actives by binding to the stratum corneum, thus influencing their thermodynamic activity. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • The aim of the present work was thus to control the photoprotective activity of different sunscreen emulsions using a specialized carrier based on chitin nanofibrils (CN). (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • The report then estimates 2016-2021 market development trends of Chitin and Chitosan industry. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Chitin does not work alone in forming exoskeletons. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chitin confers a number of protective benefits to animals with exoskeletons. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Exoskeletons would be impractical for larger animals because chitin is not strong enough to protect and support them. (encyclopedia.com)
  • They embedded this copper MOF within a matrix of chitosan, a material derived from the polysaccharide chitin, which makes up insect wings and shrimp shells. (materialstoday.com)
  • Only chitin directly extracted from shrimp shells using the ionic liquid (rather than commercially available chitin) could be used to cast films strong enough to be handled and dried. (rsc.org)
  • Alkali or acid-induced structural modifications in β-chitin from squid (Dosidicus gigas, d'Orbigny, 1835) pens and its moisture absorption ability (MAA) and deacetylating reaction were investigated and compared with α-chitin from shrimp shells. (oregonstate.edu)
  • These mutants are also unable to utilize the polysaccharide chitin and are resistant to infection by bacteriophages that infect wild-type cells. (asm.org)
  • 3. The results are discussed, and a tentative scheme is presented for the biosynthesis of chitin in the wing of Schistocerca gregaria . (biologists.org)
  • We propose that these observations reflect the position-specific, partial exchange of H and O atoms with brine shrimp body water during the processes of digestion and chitin biosynthesis. (purdue.edu)
  • The world chitin and chitosan market is projected to exceed 118 thousand metric tons by 2018, according to a new report from GIA. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • chiA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis suggest that this gene is a good indicator of chitin metabolism but appears subject to horizontal gene transfer and duplication. (ugent.be)
  • Overall, chitin metabolism appears to be a core function of Vibrionaceae, but individual pathway components exhibit dynamic evolutionary histories. (ugent.be)
  • yet, the degree of chitin pathway conservation in Vibrionaceae is unknown. (ugent.be)
  • Here, a core chitin degradation pathway is proposed based on comparison of 19 Vibrio and Photobacterium genomes with a detailed metabolic map assembled for V. cholerae from published biochemical, genomic, and transcriptomic results. (ugent.be)
  • Part two demonstrates dually modified cellulose and chitin nanocrystals. (diva-portal.org)
  • The research study properties of the starch-based foam from mixed between tapioca starch and octenyl succinate starch (OSA starch), have addition alpha-chitin prepared by hot compression molding method. (scirp.org)
  • For composite foam tapioca starch mixed by adding alpha-chitin at 5% - 30% of starch weight, it was found that water absorption was reduced. (scirp.org)
  • In this study, morphology, chemical structure, density, flexural and thermal properties of tapioca starch/octenyl succinate starch blended starch/chitin composite foams were investigated. (scirp.org)
  • Density of blended starch/chitin composite foams was examined at room temperature by using Density Determination Kit by using chloroform as liquid media. (scirp.org)
  • Morphology of fractured surface of blended starch/chitin composite foams was examined using SEM. (scirp.org)
  • The apparent hydrogen yield per unit of sugar consumed was slightly higher with swollen chitin than with starch. (asm.org)
  • 5. The fungus of claim 2, wherein said polynucleotide of (b) encodes a polypeptide with a lower K m for a substrate compared to a native fungal chitin synthase. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The production of streptomycin using Streptomyces griseus using two types of chitin as a substrate was studied using a variety of fermentation techniques. (bl.uk)
  • Chitin Synthase polymerizes N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine, also known as Chitin, with substrate as UDP-N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine. (igem.org)
  • Analysis of Ru/chitin by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy indicates the presence of ruthenium nanoparticles on the chitin support. (rsc.org)
  • This thesis consists of three parts, which revolve around the fabrication of multifunctional glyconanomaterials (cellulose nanocrystals, chitin nanocrystals, mesoporous silica nanoparticles) and the development of their applications in biorecognition and nanomedicine. (diva-portal.org)
  • Part one presents a detailed introduction to glyconanomaterials, focusing on cellulose nanocrystals, chitin nanocrystals and mesoporous silica nanoparticles, including their general preparations, properties and applications. (diva-portal.org)
  • This chapter enhances the understanding of biological uses of chitin and chitosan with their improved properties in presence of nanoparticles. (springer.com)
  • Threefold induction was found with a chitin concentration as low as 10 -4 mg per liter. (apsnet.org)
  • Shake flasks were also used to evaluate any effect of chitin concentration on streptomycin production. (bl.uk)
  • Maximum streptomycin yields were obtained at a chitin concentration of 10 %w/v. The total streptomycin yields from submerged fermentation were fairly consistent over the range of chitin concentrations used. (bl.uk)
  • The amount of streptomycin adsorbed on the chitin surface, however, increased with increasing chitin concentration. (bl.uk)
  • In both cases (at approximately 7.5 %w/v and 10 %w/v chitin) the lag phase and time to reach maximum biomass concentration decreased. (bl.uk)
  • The size and porosity of HA spherulites were controlled by the rate of nano-HA to chitin, the chitin concentration in the starting slurry, the stirring rate and the temperature of oil etc. (scientific.net)
  • Chitin and chitosan are the most widely used biodegradable and biocompatible materials subsequent to cellulose. (springer.com)
  • Chitosan, a deacetylated biodegradable cationic polyelectrolyte derived from chitin ([beta]-(1[right arrow]4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine), has been investigated in the treatment of industrial effluents. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Lebedeva, M. 2007-06-29 00:00:00 Data on preparation of chitin threads for the fabrication of absorbable suture materials, dressings, and biodegradable substrates for the growth of human skin cells (keratinocytes and fibroblasts) are analyzed. (deepdyve.com)
  • Chitin is a noteworthy biological feature because it is constructed solely from materials that are naturally available. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chitin is a biological material found in the cuttlebones, or internal shells, of cuttlefish. (freethoughtblogs.com)
  • These results provide new insights into the biological significance of chitin and CHSs in Phytophthora and help with the identification of potential targets for disease control. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • These results demonstrated that alkali or acid treated β-chitin remained high susceptibility toward solvents, which in turn resulted in good biological activity of β-chitosan for being used as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial substance or employed to make edible coatings and films for various food applications. (oregonstate.edu)
  • [4] The EPA regulates chitin for agricultural use. (wikidoc.org)
  • The Ru/chitin catalyst is easily prepared from commercially available chitin, ruthenium( III ) chloride and sodium borohydride. (rsc.org)
  • It also covers physical and chemical aspects of chitin and chitosan, structural modifications for biomedical applications, chitosan based scaffolds and biomodelling in tissue engineering, nanomedicines and therapeutic applications. (springer.com)
  • From the studies reviewed, we concluded that sulfated chitin and chitosan are promising materials for biomedical applications. (amrita.edu)
  • On the basis of these results, the authors hypothesize that a major role of DNA-uptake pili in natural environments is to promote inter-bacterial interactions and facilitate chitin colonization. (nature.com)
  • Chitin is used as a food preservative to protect cooked food from oxidation and bacterial growth. (openpr.com)
  • In MW microcosm, the aqueous phase became clear as the non-culturable cells settled, whereas the aqueous phase of the MW-CC microcosm became turbid from bacterial growth stimulated by chitin. (umd.edu)
  • Bacterial chitin degradation and biofilm formation proceeded from an initial steady state to a gradually declining bacterial culturable count. (umd.edu)
  • Thermogravimetric analysis results showed that chitin modified with trimellitic anhydride is thermally more stable than chitin modified with phthalic anhydride. (hindawi.com)