A family of nonbiting midges, in the order DIPTERA. Salivary glands of the genus Chironomus are used in studies of cellular genetics and biochemistry.
A plant genus of the family PONTEDERIACEAE that is used as a biological filter for treating wastewater.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain karatasin and balansain (ENDOPEPTIDASES) and BROMELAINS.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. Members contain SAPONINS.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
Animals that have no spinal column.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).

HMG1 proteins from evolutionary distant organisms distort B-DNA conformation in similar way. (1/233)

The abundant high-mobility group proteins 1/2 (HMG1/2) represent a group of potent architectural elements of chromatin. They are able to induce strong bends and untwist DNA. Here, we compared the abilities of diverse HMG1 proteins to distort the B-DNA conformation of 30-base pair DNA fragment. The DNA bending was measured in solution by monitoring fluorescence resonance energy transfer between fluorescence probes attached to opposite ends of the DNA fragment. Various insect and plant proteins which differ in size, in composition of their HMG1-box domains (HMG1-BD), and in composition of the N- and the C-terminally flanking regions were analyzed in these experiments. Despite these structural differences the extent of the induced changes in DNA conformation upon binding to various proteins was similar, as the estimated bend angle was 150+/-20 degrees for all the tested proteins. Our results suggest that a set of highly conserved residues stabilizing the tertiary structure of the HMG1-BD mainly determines the extent of DNA bending in the complex. Even extended positively charged regions flanking the HMG1-BD are apparently not able to influence this conformational distortion of DNA.  (+info)

Identification of Chironomus kiiensis allergens, a dominant species of non-biting midges in Korea. (2/233)

Non-biting midges are known to contain potent inhalant allergens. IgE antibody responses to the crude extract of Chironomus kiiensis adults, a dominant chironomid species in Korea, were examined. With the IgE-ELISA or passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions, increased levels of chironomid-specific IgE were detected in the skin test positive human sera, or immunized BALB/c mouse sera with the crude extract adsorbed to alum. IgE-immunoblot analysis showed major IgE-reacting protein band patterns, which reacted with more than 50% of the skin test positive human sera, at 110, 80, 73, 46, 40, 37, 34, and 31 kDa. The reactive band patterns were largely similar between skin test positive humans and immune BALB/c mice. However, the bands of 55, 31, 27, 26, 24, and 23 kDa were found only in sensitized humans, but not in immunized mice.  (+info)

Electron tomography reveals posttranscriptional binding of pre-mRNPs to specific fibers in the nucleoplasm. (3/233)

Using electron tomography, we have analyzed whether the Balbiani ring (BR) pre-mRNP particles in transit from the gene to the nuclear pore complex (NPC) are bound to any structure that could impair free diffusion through the nucleoplasm. We show that one-third of the BR particles are in contact with thin connecting fibers (CFs), which in some cases merge into large fibrogranular clusters. The CFs have a specific protein composition different from that of BR particles, as shown by immuno-EM. Moreover, we have identified hrp65 as one of the protein components of the CFs. The sequencing of hrp65 cDNA reveals similarities with hnRNP proteins and splicing factors. However, hrp65 is likely to have a different function because it does not bind to nascent pre-mRNA and is not part of the pre-mRNP itself. Taken together, our observations indicate that pre-mRNPs are not always freely diffusible in the nucleoplasm but interact with fibers of specific structure and composition, which implies that some of the posttranscriptional events that the pre-mRNPs undergo before reaching the NPC occur in a bound state.  (+info)

The Ct-RAE1 protein interacts with Balbiani ring RNP particles at the nuclear pore. (4/233)

RAE1 is an evolutionarily conserved protein that associates with both mRNPs and nucleoporins, and may bridge the interaction between mRNP export cargoes and the nuclear pore complex (NPC). However, the mechanism by which RAE1 functions in mRNA export is still unknown and the time point at which RAE1 interacts with the exported RNP has not been directly investigated. Here we have addressed this question in the Balbiani ring (BR) system of Chironomus tentans using immunoelectron microscopy. The RAE1 protein of C. tentans, Ct-RAE1, is 70% identical to human RAE1/mrnp41 (hRAE1) and is recognized by antibodies raised against hRAE1. As in vertebrate cells, Ct-RAE1 is concentrated at the nuclear envelope and also dispersed throughout the nuclear interior. Here we show that Ct-RAE1 does not bind to the BR particle either cotranscriptionally or in the nucleoplasm. Instead, the interaction between Ct-RAE1 and the exported BR particle occurs at the NPC. Moreover, the localization of Ct-RAE1 at the NPC is correlated with the presence of an exported RNP in the NPC. Finally, the anti-RAE1 antibody does not label the cytoplasmic side of BR particles in transit through the central channel, which indicates that Ct-RAE1 either remains anchored at the nuclear side of the NPC during translocation of the RNP through the central channel or becomes transiently associated with the RNP but is rapidly released into the cytoplasm.  (+info)

Actin bound to the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein hrp36 is associated with Balbiani ring mRNA from the gene to polysomes. (5/233)

In the salivary glands of the dipteran Chironomus tentans, a specific messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle, the Balbiani ring (BR) granule, can be visualized during its assembly on the gene and during its nucleocytoplasmic transport. We now show with immunoelectron microscopy that actin becomes associated with the BR particle concomitantly with transcription and is present in the particle in the nucleoplasm. DNase I affinity chromatography experiments with extracts from tissue culture cells indicate that both nuclear and cytoplasmic actin are bound to the heterogeneous RNP (hnRNP) protein hrp36, but not to the hnRNP proteins hrp23 and hrp45. The interaction is likely to be direct as purified actin binds to recombinant hrp36 in vitro. Furthermore, it is demonstrated by cross linking that nuclear as well as cytoplasmic actin are bound to hrp36 in vivo. It is known that hrp36 is added cotranscriptionally along the BR mRNA molecule and accompanies the RNA through the nuclear pores and into polysomes. We conclude that actin is likely to be bound to the BR transcript via hrp36 during the transfer of the mRNA from the gene all the way into polysomes.  (+info)

Consecutive steps of phosphorylation affect conformation and DNA binding of the chironomus high mobility group A protein. (6/233)

The high mobility group (HMG) proteins of the AT-hook family (HMGA) lie downstream in regulatory networks with protein kinase C, Cdc2 kinase, MAP kinase, and casein kinase 2 (CK2) as final effectors. In the cells of the midge Chironomus, almost all of the HMGA protein (cHMGA) is phosphorylated by CK2 at two adjacent sites. 40% of the protein population is additionally modified by MAP kinase. Using spectroscopic and protein footprinting techniques, we analyzed how individual and consecutive steps of phosphorylation change the conformation of an HMGA protein and affect its contacts with poly(dA-dT).poly(dA-dT) and a fragment of the interferon-beta promoter. We demonstrate that phosphorylation of cHMGA by CK2 alters its conformation and modulates its DNA binding properties such that a subsequent phosphorylation by Cdc2 kinase changes the organization of the protein-DNA complex. In contrast, consecutive phosphorylation by MAP kinase, which results in a dramatic change in cHMGA conformation, has no direct effect on the complex. Because the phosphorylation of the HMGA proteins attenuates binding affinity and reduces the extent of contacts between the DNA and protein, it is likely that this process mirrors the dynamics and diversity of regulatory processes in chromatin.  (+info)

In situ transcription and splicing in the Balbiani ring 3 gene. (7/233)

The Balbiani ring 3 (BR3) gene contains 38 introns, and more than half of them are co-transcriptionally excised. We have determined the in situ structure of the active BR3 gene by electron tomography. Each of the 20-25 nascent transcripts on the gene is present together with splicing factors and the RNA polymerase II in a nascent transcript and splicing complex, here called the NTS complex. The results indicate that extensive changes in overall shape, substructure and molecular mass take place repeatedly within an NTS complex as it moves along the gene. The volume and calculated mass of the NTS complexes show that, maximally, one complete spliceosome is assembled on the multi-intron transcript at any given time point. The structural data show that the spliceosome is not a structurally well-defined unit in situ and that the C-terminal domain of the elongating RNA polymerase II cannot carry spliceosomal components for all introns in the BR3 transcript. Our data indicate that spliceosomal factors are continuously added to and released from the NTS complexes during transcription elongation.  (+info)

Assembly and transport of a premessenger RNP particle. (8/233)

Salivary gland cells in the larvae of the dipteran Chironomus tentans offer unique possibilities to visualize the assembly and nucleocytoplasmic transport of a specific transcription product. Each nucleus harbors four giant polytene chromosomes, whose transcription sites are expanded, or puffed. On chromosome IV, there are two puffs of exceptional size, Balbiani ring (BR) 1 and BR 2. A BR gene is 35-40 kb, contains four short introns, and encodes a 1-MDa salivary polypeptide. The BR transcript is packed with proteins into a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) fibril that is folded into a compact ring-like structure. The completed RNP particle is released into the nucleoplasm and transported to the nuclear pore, where the RNP fibril is gradually unfolded and passes through the pore. On the cytoplasmic side, the exiting extended RNP fibril becomes engaged in protein synthesis and the ensuing polysome is anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum. Several of the BR particle proteins have been characterized, and their fate during the assembly and transport of the BR particle has been elucidated. The proteins studied are all added cotranscriptionally to the pre-mRNA molecule. The various proteins behave differently during RNA transport, and the flow pattern of each protein is related to the particular function of the protein. Because the cotranscriptional assembly of the pre-mRNP particle involves proteins functioning in the nucleus as well as proteins functioning in the cytoplasm, it is concluded that the fate of the mRNA molecule is determined to a considerable extent already at the gene level.  (+info)

Chironomidae is a family of nematoceran flies, also known as non-biting midges or lake flies. They are often mistaken for mosquitoes due to their similar appearance, but they do not bite and are not vectors for disease. Chironomidae species can be found in various aquatic habitats such as lakes, rivers, and wetlands. The larvae of these flies are an important food source for many fish and other aquatic organisms. Adult chironomids are also known to emerge in large numbers in a synchronized fashion, particularly near bodies of water, which can be a nuisance to nearby human populations.

'Eichhornia' is a genus of aquatic plants commonly known as water hyacinths. They are native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas but have become invasive species in many other parts of the world due to their ability to rapidly reproduce and choke waterways. Here is the medical definition:

Genus: Eichhornia

Common name: Water hyacinths

Family: Pontederiaceae

Characteristics: These plants are characterized by their thick, spongy stems, bright green, glossy leaves, and beautiful lavender or light blue flowers. They float on the surface of the water and can form dense mats that cover large areas.

Habitat: Water hyacinths thrive in slow-moving or still bodies of freshwater, such as ponds, lakes, and canals.

Reproduction: These plants reproduce primarily through vegetative means, with new plants growing from fragments of the parent plant that break off and float away. Each plant can produce thousands of seeds per year, which can remain viable for up to 15 years.

Invasive species: Water hyacinths are considered invasive species in many parts of the world due to their rapid growth and ability to outcompete native aquatic plants for resources. They can form dense mats that block sunlight and reduce oxygen levels in the water, killing fish and other aquatic life.

Medical relevance: While water hyacinths themselves are not directly harmful to human health, they can create environments that foster the growth of mosquitoes and other disease-carrying insects. Additionally, their dense mats can make it difficult for people to access waterways for recreation or transportation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rivers" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical term referring to large, flowing bodies of water that usually empty into a sea or an ocean. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

'Bromelia' is a term that refers to a genus of plants in the family Bromeliaceae, which includes over 3000 species. These plants are native to the Americas and are known for their rosette-shaped leaves that often form a water reservoir at the center of the plant. Some species of Bromelia are grown as ornamental plants, while others have commercial uses such as in the production of fiber or food (in the form of pineapple, which is the most well-known species of Bromelia).

It's worth noting that 'Bromelia' is not a medical term and does not have a specific definition within the field of medicine. However, certain compounds derived from Bromeliad plants have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory or antioxidant effects.

'Eryngium' is a genus name that refers to a group of plants commonly known as sea holly or eryngo. These plants belong to the family Apiaceae and are native to various parts of the world, including Europe, Asia, and North America. They are characterized by their distinctive prickly leaves and metallic blue or silver flowers.

While 'Eryngium' is a plant genus name and not a medical term, some species of Eryngium have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating digestive issues, skin conditions, and respiratory problems. However, it is important to note that the use of these plants as medicinal remedies should be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as they can also have potential side effects or interact with other medications.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

Diptera is an order of insects that includes flies, mosquitoes, and gnats. The name "Diptera" comes from the Greek words "di," meaning two, and "pteron," meaning wing. This refers to the fact that all members of this order have a single pair of functional wings for flying, while the other pair is reduced to small knob-like structures called halteres, which help with balance and maneuverability during flight.

Some common examples of Diptera include houseflies, fruit flies, horseflies, tsetse flies, and midges. Many species in this order are important pollinators, while others can be significant pests or disease vectors. The study of Diptera is called dipterology.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Invertebrates" is not a medical term. It is a term used in biology to describe a vast group of animals that do not have a vertebral column or spinal cord. This includes creatures such as insects, worms, starfish, and shellfish, among many others. They are classified as invertebrates because they lack a backbone, which is a characteristic of vertebrates, or animals that include humans and other mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "population density" is actually a term used in population geography and epidemiology, rather than medical terminology. It refers to the number of people living in a specific area or region, usually measured as the number of people per square mile or square kilometer.

However, understanding population density can be important in public health and medicine because it can influence various factors related to health outcomes and healthcare delivery, such as:

1. Disease transmission rates: Higher population densities can facilitate the spread of infectious diseases, particularly those that are transmitted through close contact between individuals.
2. Access to healthcare services: Areas with lower population density might have fewer healthcare resources and providers available, making it more challenging for residents to access necessary medical care.
3. Health disparities: Population density can contribute to health inequities, as urban areas often have better access to healthcare, education, and economic opportunities than rural areas, leading to differences in health outcomes between these populations.
4. Environmental factors: Higher population densities might lead to increased pollution, noise, and other environmental hazards that can negatively impact health.

Therefore, while "population density" is not a medical definition per se, it remains an essential concept for understanding various public health and healthcare issues.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

Biodiversity is the variety of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live in an ecosystem. It also includes the variety of genes within a species and the variety of ecosystems (such as forests, grasslands, deserts, and oceans) that exist in a region or on Earth as a whole. Biodiversity is important for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, providing resources and services such as food, clean water, and pollination, and contributing to the discovery of new medicines and other useful products. The loss of biodiversity can have negative impacts on the functioning of ecosystems and the services they provide, and can threaten the survival of species and the livelihoods of people who depend on them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fresh Water" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe water that contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other dissolved minerals. It is distinguished from saline water, which includes saltwater found in the ocean and brackish water found in estuaries. Fresh water is essential for many biological processes and is the primary source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industrial use.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

Environmental monitoring is the systematic and ongoing surveillance, measurement, and assessment of environmental parameters, pollutants, or other stressors in order to evaluate potential impacts on human health, ecological systems, or compliance with regulatory standards. This process typically involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as air, water, soil, and biota, and using this information to inform decisions related to public health, environmental protection, and resource management.

In medical terms, environmental monitoring may refer specifically to the assessment of environmental factors that can impact human health, such as air quality, water contamination, or exposure to hazardous substances. This type of monitoring is often conducted in occupational settings, where workers may be exposed to potential health hazards, as well as in community-based settings, where environmental factors may contribute to public health issues. The goal of environmental monitoring in a medical context is to identify and mitigate potential health risks associated with environmental exposures, and to promote healthy and safe environments for individuals and communities.

Population dynamics, in the context of public health and epidemiology, refers to the study of the changes in size and structure of a population over time, as well as the factors that contribute to those changes. This can include birth rates, death rates, migration patterns, aging, and other demographic characteristics. Understanding population dynamics is crucial for planning and implementing public health interventions, such as vaccination programs or disease prevention strategies, as they allow researchers and policymakers to identify vulnerable populations, predict future health trends, and evaluate the impact of public health initiatives.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

"Acacia" is a scientific name for a genus of shrubs and trees that belong to the pea family, Fabaceae. It includes over 1,350 species found primarily in Australia and Africa, but also in Asia, America, and Europe. Some acacia species are known for their hardwood, others for their phyllodes (flattened leaf stalks) or compound leaves, and yet others for their flowers, which are typically small and yellow or cream-colored.

It is important to note that "Acacia" is not a medical term or concept, but rather a botanical one. While some acacia species have medicinal uses, the name itself does not have a specific medical definition.

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