Schisandra: A plant genus of the family SCHISANDRACEAE. Members contain schisandrins (Russian) which are also called gomisins (Japanese) or wuweizins (Chinese). The compounds in this genus are very similar to those in the related KADSURA and medicinal usage is very similar. It is sometimes adulterated with KADSURA.Saururaceae: A plant family of the order Piperales, subclass Magnoliidae class Magnoliopsida. Members contain sauristolactam, and aristololactam BII.Actinidia: A plant species of the family ACTINIDIACEAE, order Theales.Wedelia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain wedelolactone and wedeloside.Litchi: A plant genus of the family SAPINDACEAE that bears sweet fruits. Unusual fatty acids such as cyclopropanoic fatty acids have been identified in the seeds.Cyclooctanes: A group of compounds with an 8-carbon ring. They may be saturated or unsaturated.Salacia: A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE. Members contain friedelane-type TRITERPENES and SESQUITERPENES, EUDESMANE.Iridaceae: A monocot plant family of the Liliopsida class. It is classified by some in the Liliales order and some in the Asparagales order.Lignans: A class of dibenzylbutane derivatives which occurs in higher plants and in fluids (bile, serum, urine, etc.) in man and other animals. These compounds, which have a potential anti-cancer role, can be synthesized in vitro by human fecal flora. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Calycanthaceae: A plant family of the order Laurales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida.Rhizopus: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, a common saprophyte and facultative parasite of mature fruits and vegetables. It may cause cerebral mycoses in diabetes and cutaneous infection in severely burned patients.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Taxus: Genus of coniferous yew trees or shrubs, several species of which have medicinal uses. Notable is the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, which is used to make the anti-neoplastic drug taxol (PACLITAXEL).Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Tupaia: A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Pistacia: A plant genus in the ANACARDIACEAE family known for the Pistachio nuts and for gum Mastic.Coptis: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain BERBERINE and other isoquinoline ALKALOIDS.Rosa: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.Nardostachys: A plant genus of the family VALERIANACEAE. Nardostachysin, nardostachin, nardosinone, valeranone, and patchoulene have been found in this genus. Nardostachys jatamansi is classified by some as Valeriana jatamansi.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Heteroptera: A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Cuscuta: A plant genus of the family Cuscutaceae. It is a threadlike climbing parasitic plant that is used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL.Lauraceae: A family of mainly aromatic evergreen plants in the order Laurales. The laurel family includes 2,200 species in 45 genera and from these are derived medicinal extracts, essential oils, camphor and other products.Atractylodes: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain hinesol and atractylon. Atractylodes rhizome is Byaku-jutsu. A. lancea rhizome is So-jutsu.Penaeidae: A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the penaeid shrimp. Species of the genus Penaeus are the most important commercial shrimp throughout the world.Hydrolyzable Tannins: Polymeric derivatives of GALLIC ACID that are esters of a sugar.Root Caries: Dental caries involving the tooth root, cementum, or cervical area of the tooth.Luteolin: 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.Cryptocarya: A plant genus of the family LAURACEAE. Members contain cryptofolione, caryachine, grandisin and other compounds. Some PEUMUS species have been reclassified as CRYPTOCARYA.Gallic Acid: A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.Salt-Tolerant Plants: Plants that can grow well in soils that have a high SALINITY.Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Dipsacaceae: A plant family of the order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes called the teasel family.Hippocrateaceae: A plant family of the order Celastrales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The Hippocratea genus contains friedelanes, triterpenoid quinone, and hippocrateine I.Taxaceae: A plant family of the order Taxales, class Pinopsida, division CONIFEROPHYTA.Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (NAD+)Ranunculaceae: The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.Rhus: A plant genus of the family Anacardiaceae, order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae. It is a source of gallotannin (TANNIC ACID) and of somewhat edible fruit. Do not confuse with TOXICODENDRON which used to be part of this genus.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Tooth Remineralization: Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.DioxolesCucurbitacins: Triterpenes that derive from LANOSTEROL by a shift of the C19 methyl to the C9 position. They are found in seeds and roots of CUCURBITACEAE and other plants and are noted for intense bitterness.Skin Lightening Preparations: Substances used to obtain a lighter skin complexion or to treat HYPERPIGMENTATION disorders.Apigenin: 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.Lobelia: A plant genus of the family CAMPANULACEAE used medicinally and is a source of LOBELINE.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Trillium: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that is a short plant with a distinct whorl of 3 broad leaves.Visceral Pain: Pain originating from internal organs (VISCERA) associated with autonomic phenomena (PALLOR; SWEATING; NAUSEA; and VOMITING). It often becomes a REFERRED PAIN.Orthoptera: An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).Salvia: A genus in the mint family (LAMIACEAE).Diosgenin: A spirostan found in DIOSCOREA and other plants. The 25S isomer is called yamogenin. Solasodine is a natural derivative formed by replacing the spiro-ring with a nitrogen, which can rearrange to SOLANINE.Anxiety, Separation: Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.Tupaiidae: The only family of the order SCANDENTIA, variously included in the order Insectivora or in the order Primates, and often in the order Microscelidea, consisting of five genera. They are TUPAIA, Ananthana (Indian tree shrew), Dendrogale (small smooth-tailed tree shrew), Urogale (Mindanao tree shrew), and Ptilocercus (pen-tailed tree shrew). The tree shrews inhabit the forest areas of eastern Asia from India and southwestern China to Borneo and the Philippines.Glycyrrhiza uralensis: A plant species of the family FABACEAE.Pulsatilla: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain cernuosides and other oleanane and hederagenin saponins.Benzoin: A white crystalline compound prepared by condensation of benzaldehyde in potassium cyanide and used in organic syntheses. This should not be confused with benzoin gum from STYRAX.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Campanulaceae: A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class MagnoliopsidaPolygonatum: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain benzoquinones, steroidal saponin, and ribosome-inactivating proteins.Artemisia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE with strong-smelling foliage. It is a source of SANTONIN and other cytotoxic TERPENES.Juniperus: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. The species are slow growing coniferous evergreen trees or shrubs.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Saponins: A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Sesquiterpenes, Eudesmane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining cyclohexane rings but with a different configuration from the ARTEMISININS.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Aesculus: A plant genus of the family HIPPOCASTANACEAE (or SAPINDACEAE by some) that contains antimicrobial protein 1 and escin. A. hippocastanum is used in folk medicine for treating chronic venous insufficiency.Berberine: An alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis L., Berberidaceae. It is also found in many other plants. It is relatively toxic parenterally, but has been used orally for various parasitic and fungal infections and as antidiarrheal.Herb-Drug Interactions: The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Decapoda (Crustacea): The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.TriterpenesRandom Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Maternal Deprivation: Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Androgen Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and inhibit the activation of ANDROGEN RECEPTORS.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Mice, Inbred ICRChromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Isoflavones: 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.MADS Domain Proteins: A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.SesquiterpenesSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Mice, Inbred BALB CPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
chinensis or Chinese dogwood, native to China. The cultivar C. kousa 'Miss Satomi'. The validity of this variety, however, is ... chinensis". www.efloras.org. Retrieved 1 July 2011. "Cornus kousa Hance subsp. kousa". U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. ... chinensis". U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. Retrieved 9 July 2016. "Cornus kousa". UCONN. Retrieved 9 July 2016. "Eat The ...
chinensis). Artificial crosses between these two species and also molecular data strengthened this suggestion. Napa cabbage can ...
chinensis. Rhododendron and Azalea Garden - small trees and groundcovers, with a variety of shrubs focusing on rhododendrons. ...
chinensis)". Archives of Virology. 152 (2): 441-448. doi:10.1007/s00705-006-0841-9. PMID 16932980. Retrieved 9 December 2014. ...
chinensis. BioLib.cz - Nupserha minor. Retrieved on 8 September 2014.. ...
... chinensis. Fact Sheet FPS-94. University of Florida IFAS. 1999. Callistephus chinensis. Missouri Botanical Garden ... Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606-607 "Callistephus chinensis". Germplasm ... containing the single species Callistephus chinensis. Its common names include China aster and annual aster. It is native to ...
The large myotis (Myotis chinensis) is a species of vesper bat. It is found in central and southeast China, Hong Kong, Myanmar ... Csorba, G.; Bates, P. & Furey, N. (2008). "Myotis chinensis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e. ...
Shao, K.; Leis, J.L.; Hardy, G.; Jing, L.; Liu, M. & Pollard, D. (2014). "Takifugu chinensis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened ... the critically endangered Takifugu chinensis and the endangered Takifugu plagiocellatus. The pear-shaped Takifugu, like all ...
The grey-throated martin or Asian plain martin (Riparia chinensis) is a small passerine bird in the swallow family. The grey- ... BirdLife International (2016). "Riparia chinensis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T103815539A104326369 ...
"Enhydris chinensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. ...
The Chinese salamander (Hynobius chinensis) is a species of salamander in the Hynobiidae family endemic to China. Its natural ... Gu, H.; Baorong, G.; Xie, F. (2004). "Hynobius chinensis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e. ...
Viviparus chinensis malleatus, Bellamya chinensis and Bellamya chinensis malleatus. Though native to East Asia from the tropics ... Cipangopaludina chinensis, Cipangopaludina chinensis malleatus, Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata, Viviparus malleatus, ... Bellamya chinensis is an introduced species in the United States. It is found in "any or all of the tributaries on Grand Island ... Cipangopaludina chinensis has a width to height ratio of 0.74-0.82. The aperture is ovoid with a simple outer lip and inner lip ...
The common green magpie (Cissa chinensis) is a member of the crow family, roughly about the size of the Eurasian jay or ... BirdLife International (2012). "Cissa chinensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for ...
The Chinese kukri snake (Oligodon chinensis) is a species of snake of the family Colubridae. The snake is found in China and ... "Oligodon chinensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2012. 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2016. Species Oligodon ...
chinensis (Merr.) K.M.Matthew subsp. philippinensis (Wangerin) K.M.Matthew subsp. scortechinii (King) K.M.Matthew Mastixia ...
The king quail (Excalfactoria chinensis), also known as the blue-breasted quail, Asian blue quail, Chinese painted quail, or ... There are nine recognized subspecies: E. c. chinensis - nominate - (Linnaeus, 1766) - India to Sri Lanka, Malaya, Indochina, ... Hons) BirdLife Species Factsheet ITIS Standard Report Page: Coturnix chinensis taxonomic details (includes subspecies). ... BirdLife International (2013). "Synoicus chinensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union ...
Baka6 "trough shell" is a truncation of bakagai 馬鹿貝 "trough shell; Mactra chinensis". Baka7 "numbness (of limbs)" is used in ...
"Rosa chinensis". "China Roses. Rosegathering". "Brent Dickerson: The First Eighteen Chinas". Rdrop.com. Archived from the ... Examples: 'James Veitch', 'Rose de Rescht', 'Comte de Chambord'. The China roses, based on Rosa chinensis, have been cultivated ... chinensis with R. gigantea, a large Asian climbing rose with pale-yellow blossoms. Immediately upon their introduction in the ... and to show the influence of Rosa chinensis. Recent DNA analysis however has demonstrated that the original Portland Rose has ...
ISBN 978-0-415-88943-8. USDA Plants Profile for Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba) Calflora Database: Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba) ... Simmondsia chinensis, or Jojoba, typically grows to 1-2 meters (3.3-6.6 ft) tall, with a broad, dense crown, but there have ... Simmondsia chinensis is the sole species of the family Simmondsiaceae, placed in the order Caryophyllales. Jojoba is grown ... "Simmondsia chinensis". Jepson eFlora (TJM2). The Jepson Herbarium. Tobe, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Sachiko; Oginuma, Kazuo (December ...
Others like vacillans (=chinensis) and forresti (= tigrina) and edwardi (from Chabua = suratensis) have been considered invalid ... The spotted dove (Spilopelia chinensis) is a small and somewhat long-tailed pigeon that is a common resident breeding bird ... The original populations appear to be chinensis and tigrina in varying proportions. Spotted doves move around in pairs or small ... Ara, Jamal (1958). "Variation in the output of song of a Spotted Dove, Streptopelia chinensis (Scopoli)". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. ...
Enhydris chinensis or Myrrophis chinensis) is a species of mildly venomous, rear-fanged snake, endemic to Asia. M. chinensis is ... M. chinensis is considered common, although it has declined in Taiwan and is protected there. Myrrophis chinensis is a ... Myrrophis chinensis is used in folk medicine. It is commonly used in the production of Chinese snake oil. It is known for ... Hypsirhina chinensis, new species, p. 66). Günther, A. C. L. G. (1864). The Reptiles of British India. London: The Ray Society ...
Three species (A. chinensis, A. himalaica, A. japonica) have traditionally been accepted, but the recent Flora of China and the ... Aucuba chinensis. Southern China, Taiwan, Myanmar, northern Vietnam. Shrub to 3-6 m tall. Aucuba chlorascens. Southwest China ( ...
H. chinensis is a small frog, 25-33 mm (0.98-1.30 in) in snout-vent length, inhabiting trees and shrubs in forests, but also ... The common Chinese tree frog (Hyla chinensis, also known under common names common Chinese treetoad and Chinese tree toad) is a ... Lue Kuangyang; Chou Wenhao; Yuan Zhigang; Geng Baorong; Gu Huiqing (2004). "Hyla chinensis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened ... "Hyla chinensis". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. Retrieved 27 July 2012. ...
... chinensis. Mainland China. Hydrangea chungii. Mainland China. Hydrangea cinerea (Ashy hydrangea). Eastern United ...
Aulostomus chinensis. Paleobotany Myers, Norman; Mittermeier, Russell A. ; Mittermeier, Cristina G.; da Fonseca, Gustavo A. B ...
Belamcanda chinensis Gone with the Wind, buy Belamcanda chinensis Gone with the Wind for sale from Plant Delights Nursery, ... Belamcanda chinensis Gone with the Wind aka Gone with the Wind Blackberry Lily. Grows in Sun to Part Sun. Flower Color is ... Belamcanda chinensis Gone with the Wind. Gone with the Wind Blackberry Lily. Write a review ... and the taller orange form of Belamcanda chinensis. We were so impressed after growing it in our home gardens, we felt it ...
The antibacterial activity of the methanol extract of Wedelia chinensis leave was studied and tested against three pathogenic ... The antibacterial activity of the methanol extract of Wedelia chinensis leave was studied and tested against three pathogenic ... Effects of methanol extract of Wedelia chinensis osbeck (asteraceae) leaves against pathogenic bacteria with emphasise on ... The methanol extract of W. chinensis may be an effective antibacterial agent to treat bacterial infections. ...
2011). Two flavanone compounds from Litchi (Litchi chinensis sonn.) seeds, one previously unreported, and appraisal of their ... Litchi chinensis 2012. ,URL:http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=503504 ,. Accessed 15 ...
... schisandra chinensis standardized extract provide quality schisandra chinensis standardized extract from China. ... schisandra chinensis standardized extract and schisandra chinensis standardized extract manufaturers - 499 schisandra chinensis ... schisandra chinensis extract powder fructus schisandrae chinensis extract schisandrae chinensis extract schisandra chinensis ... schisandra chinensis standardized extract. All schisandra chinensis standardized extract wholesalers & schisandra chinensis ...
Seven 10-year-old litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cv. Huaizhi) trees were chosen for these experiments from a commercial orchard ... The key residues required for catalysis are numbered based on the Litchi chinensis AOX1 protein. Abbreviations on the left of ... Wang HC, Huang HB, Huang XM: Differential effects of abscisic acid and ethylene on the fruit maturation of Litchi chinensis ... Energy status of ripening and postharvest senescent fruit of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). ...
Schisandra chinensis), Find details about China Schizandra Extract, Plant Extract from Schisantherina Schizandra Extract ( ... Botanical Source: Schisandra Chinensis Baill.. Plant Part Used: Berry. CAS No.: 7432-28-2 &sol ... Schisandra chinensis), Supply 100 Natural Thunder God Vine Extract Triptolide 98% HPLC, High Purity Astilbin 80% by HPLC and so ...
Schisandra chinensis Ingredients - Botanical Source Compound Types TCM Compounds Library Bulk Products CP Phytochemicals High ... Schisandra chinensis Ingredients. Displaying 1 to 7 (of 7 products). *Sorted By: Items starting with .... A. B. C. D. E. F. G. ...
RHUS chinensis ,RHUS glabra ,RHUS glabra Laciniata ,RHUS typhina ,RHUS typhina Dissecta ,RHUS ... ... RHUS chinensis , Commonly known as: Chinese gall, Chinese sumach, Nutgall tree. Large shrub or small tree. Panicles of creamy ...
Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) is a subtropical/tropical fruit of high commercial value with a white, transulent aril and ...
Juniperus chinensis var. pyramidalis - Juniperus chinensis var. pyramidalis * listy - leaves * zložky antihubové - antifungal ... Screening of Main Japanese Conifers for Antifungal Leaf Components, Sesquiterpenes of Juniperus chinensis var. pyramidalis. ... Screening of Main Japanese Conifers for Antifungal Leaf Components, Sesquiterpenes of Juniperus chinensis var. pyramidalis ... podnázvu : Rozbor hlavných japonských ihličňanov na protihubové zložky listov, seskviterpény z Juniperus chinensis var. ...
In addition, the leaf oils of J. chinensis L. and J. davurica Pall. are compared to J. sabina. In Juniperus sabina var. ... arenaria out of J. chinensis is therefore supported. Considerable differentiation was found in populations of J. sabina from ...
fruit, Rubus chingii Hu fruit, Schisandra chinensis fruit, Ligustrum lucidum W.T.Aiton fruit, Cuscuta chinensis Lam. seeds, ...
The four species were differentiated into two pairings, A. chinensis with A. deliciosa and A. eriantha with A. latifolia. The ... The repeat sequence was not found under low stringency hybridization conditions in the diploid A. chinensis, nor was it ... chinensis is a likely progenitor of A. deliciosa. It is unlikely that either of the other two diploid species is a possible ... results support the known close taxonomic relationship between diploid A. chinensis and hexaploid A. deliciosa and suggest A. ...
Chinensis, Chinese in Latin, may refer to: Chinensis (insect), a bush crickets genus in the family Tettigoniidae a cultivar of ... Passiflora caerulea, the blue passion flower All pages with a title containing Chinensis. ...
The nominal subspecies, L. chinensis chinensis Leech, 1889 (Type locality: Chang-Yang, Lu Shan Mts. [KiuKiang], central China) ... The life history of L. chinensis has been studied by Cui et al. (1992), Yuan et al. (1998), and Yao et al. (1999). There has ... Page: Tree of Life Luehdorfia chinensis Leech, 1893. Authored by Vazrick Nazari. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the ... Two species of Asarum have been recorded as food plants of Luehdorfia chinensis; these are Asarum forbesii (Makita et al., 2000 ...
Livistona chinensis can attain heights of about 9 to 15 m (30 to 50 ft) and a spread of 4 m (12 ft). The leaves are fan shaped ... Livistona chinensis, the Chinese fan palm or fountain palm, is a species of subtropical palm tree of east Asia. It is native to ... "Livistona chinensis". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 6 March 2017. " ... "Livistona chinensis". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 6 March 2017. "Chinese Fan Palm ...
Vernacular names [edit wikidata Category:Litchi chinensis linked to current category] [edit wikidata Litchi chinensis main ... Starr-091120-0026-Litchi chinensis subsp chinensis-aerial view-Awalau Haiku-Maui (24872337862).jpg 3,648 × 2,736; 2.4 MB. ... Starr 050516-1405 Litchi chinensis subsp. chinensis.jpg 2,592 × 1,944; 1.83 MB. ... Starr 061108-9610 Litchi chinensis subsp. chinensis.jpg 1,944 × 2,592; 1.6 MB. ...
Sambucus chinensis in Wuyishan Chengcun 2012.08.24 08-29-31.jpg 4,752 × 3,168; 3.36 MB. ... Sambucus chinensis in Wuyishan Chengcun 2012.08.24 08-29-43.jpg 3,168 × 4,752; 3.1 MB. ... Sambucus chinensis in Wuyishan Chengcun 2012.08.24 08-29-56.jpg 4,752 × 3,168; 3.02 MB. ... Sambucus chinensis in Wuyishan Chengcun 2012.08.24 08-30-08.jpg 3,168 × 4,752; 2.94 MB. ...
Chinensis. Most likely from China. Or Chinese.. Similar species include: Location and Movement. Origin/ Native Range Native to ... Chinese Mystery Snail, Cipangopaludina chinensis malleatus Identification Taxonomy. Location. Habitat. Nutrition. Impact. ... Scientific Name: Cipangopaludina Chinensis Malleatus. Common Names: Chinese Mystery Snail, Japanese Mystery Snail, Black ... "Chinese mysterysnail (Cipangopaludina chinensis) - FactSheet." Nonindigenous Aquatic Species. United States Geological Survey, ...
Discover Nature at JCU Plants Plants on Townsville Campus A-L Livistona chinensis ...
J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). United States, CA, San Diego Co., Quail Botanical Garden. April 23, 2003. Usage Requirements.. ...
Synonym(s): ACTINIDIA CHINENSIS (KIWI) FRUIT JUICE, ACTINIDIA CHINENSIS JUICE; JUICE, ACTINIDIA CHINENSIS; JUICE, KIWI; KIWI ... About ACTINIDIA CHINENSIS FRUIT JUICE: Actinidia Chinensis (Kiwi) Fruit Juice is a liquid expressed from the fruit of the kiwi ...
Livistona chinensis is a palm tree that has been widely introduced into tropical and warm temperate regions of the world to be ... chinensis has thorns on the leaf stem, while S. bermudana never has thorns; and L. chinensis has a uniformly green leaf, hard ... L. chinensis spreads by seeds. Fruits fall to the ground and sprout below the parent tree. Fruits can also be spread by birds ... L. chinensis grows in coastal and secondary moist forests at elevations between 1 and 600 m (Starr et al., 2003; Dowe, 2009; ...
Desmos chinensis var. brevifolius (Teijsm. & Binn. ex Boerl.) Bân. *Desmos chinensis var. laevigatus (Hook. f. & Thomson) ... Desmos chinensis var. pubescens (Hook. f. & Thomson) Deb. *Desmos chinensis var. pubiflorus (Hook. f. & Thomson) Karthik. & ... Desmos chinensis var. latifolius (Hook. f. & Thomson) Karthik. & Moorthy. *Desmos chinensis var. macropetalus (Teijsm. & Binn. ... Species: Desmos chinensis Varietas: D. c. var. lawii - D. c. var. siamensis ...
Species: Actinidia chinensis Varietas: A. chinensis var. chinensis - A. chinensis var. jinggangshanensis - A. chinensis var. ... Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Actinidia_chinensis&oldid=3569409" ...
  • The antibacterial activity of the methanol extract of Wedelia chinensis leave was studied and tested against three pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and Stapylococcus aureus) and three pathogenic Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus rettgeri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by the disk diffusion assay and broth dilution methods. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The methanol extract of W. chinensis may be an effective antibacterial agent to treat bacterial infections. (ijpsonline.com)
  • In the assessment of methanolic extracts from Lobelia chinensis (LC) and its effect on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) found that animals infected with HSV-1, developed progressive zoster lesions starting 2 days postinfection (p.i.) and appeared the most serious syndromes at 4-5 days p.i. (blogspot.ca)
  • Over 80% of diploid A. chinensis Planch seedlings in the collection have shown severe symptoms of infection and many have died. (ishs.org)
  • Does the Genetic Feature of the Chinese Tree Shrew (Tupaia Belangeri Chinensis) Support Its Potential as a Viable Model for Alzheimer's Disease Research? (nih.gov)
  • The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has a closer genetic affinity to primates relative to rodents, and can attain ages of 8 years or older, which represents another advantage for the study of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD compared to primates. (nih.gov)
  • Our aim in this study was to identify and discriminate between C . chinensis samples which were collected from different hosts, by using the pattern recognition aided fingerprint analysis and comparison of the content of four major flavonoids (hyperoside, rutin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol). (scirp.org)
  • Results: Beside chromatographic fingerprint using similarity index, we compared the content of 4 major flavonoids (hyperoside, rutin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol) of C . chinensis samples on different hosts. (scirp.org)
  • Coclusion: The results showed that there were significant differences between the content of four major flavonoids of nine C . chinensis samples, but chromatographic fingerprint by similarity index of more than 0.88, showed that the sample consistency was similar. (scirp.org)
  • So, it was suggested that combination of chromatographic fingerprint and the content determination of major flavonoids could be used to evaluate the quality control of C . chinensis from different hosts. (scirp.org)
  • Adib, N., Rastegar, H. and Shekarchi, M. (2012) Development of a Validated HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (scirp.org)
  • MELEK, F. R. and ABDELWAHED, Nayera A. M. . Flavonoids from Albizia chinensis of Egypt . (scielo.org.mx)
  • 2018. "Quality Evaluation of Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex by Fingerprint-Chemical Pattern Recognition. (mdpi.com)
  • Taxonomic review of the geckos allied to Gekko chinensis Gray 1942 (Gekkonidae Reptilia) from China and Vietnam. (reptarium.cz)
  • Batch experimental studies were carried out for the ultrasound-assisted extraction of paclitaxel from Taxus chinensis while varying parameters such as ultrasound power, extraction temperature and contact time. (springer.com)
  • Lee, C. G. and J. H. Kim (2017) A kinetic and thermodynamic study of fractional precipitation of paclitaxel from Taxus chinensis. (springer.com)
  • Wedelia chinensis inhibits nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-1 cell growth. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Schizandra (Schizandra chinensis) is a climbing vine that belongs to the magnolia family. (tasmanhealth.co.nz)
  • S. M. Lai, D. Sudhahar, and K. Anandarajagopal, "Evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activities of Persicaria chinensis leaves," International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research , vol. 3, p. 8, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • In June 2010, 30 samples of C. chinense with severe leaf spot were collected from a field in the city of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. (apsnet.org)
  • Desmos chinensis in The Plant List Version 1.1. (wikimedia.org)
  • Rosa chinensis 'Old Blush' is a unique plant that can flower continuously year-round. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In folk medicine, the dried whole plant of Potentilla chinensis Ser. (alliedacademies.org)
  • crude drug was purchased from Tianshiqi TCM Decoction Pieces Plant, which was identified by Tian Guangqi, a researcher of Chengdu Institute of Phytochemistry, as Potentilla chinensis Ser. (alliedacademies.org)
  • TCLDV was also detected in symptomatic C. chinense plants growing near the T217L-infected plant. (deepdyve.com)
  • Despite the positive findings, there is no way to know how much Coptic chinensis may have contributed to this effect given that many other herbs (including Chinese skullcap , Chinese rhubarb, and bupleurum) were included in the formulation. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Rediscovery and redescription of Ateuchosaurus chinensis Gray, 1845 (Squamata: Sauria: Scincidae) from northeastern Vietnam. (reptarium.cz)
  • Comparison of main biological characteristics between Hangzhu and Nanjing population of Luehdorfia chinensis Leech. (tolweb.org)