Cochlear Microphonic Potentials
Otitis Media with Effusion
Acoustic Impedance Tests
Middle ear fluid cytokine and inflammatory cell kinetics in the chinchilla otitis media model. (1/311)Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent microbe causing middle ear infection. The pathophysiology of pneumococcal otitis media has been characterized by measurement of local inflammatory mediators such as inflammatory cells, lysozyme, oxidative metabolic products, and inflammatory cytokines. The role of cytokines in bacterial infection has been elucidated with animal models, and interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) are recognized as being important local mediators in acute inflammation. We characterized middle ear inflammatory responses in the chinchilla otitis media model after injecting a very small number of viable pneumococci into the middle ear, similar to the natural course of infection. Middle ear fluid (MEF) concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha were measured by using anti-human cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reagents. IL-1beta showed the earliest peak, at 6 h after inoculation, whereas IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha concentrations were increasing 72 h after pneumococcal inoculation. IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha but not IL-1beta concentrations correlated significantly with total inflammatory cell numbers in MEF, and all four cytokines correlated significantly with MEF neutrophil concentration. Several intercytokine correlations were significant. Cytokines, therefore, participate in the early middle ear inflammatory response to S. pneumoniae. (+info)
Some observations on the ultrastructure of the adenohypophysis of the Plains viscacha (Lagostomus maximus). (2/311)The ultrastructural appearance of the pars distalis of the Plains viscacha is described. Of particular interest are the prolactin cells and stellate cells and the intercellular cysts or channels which may be part of a transport system for hormones. (+info)
Protection against development of otitis media induced by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae by both active and passive immunization in a chinchilla model of virus-bacterium superinfection. (3/311)Three separate studies, two involving active-immunization regimens and one involving a passive-transfer protocol, were conducted to initially screen and ultimately more fully assess several nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae outer membrane proteins or their derivatives for their relative protective efficacy in chinchilla models of otitis media. Initial screening of these antigens (P5-fimbrin, lipoprotein D, and P6), delivered singly or in combination with either Freund's adjuvant or alum, indicated that augmented bacterial clearance from the nasopharynx, the middle ears, or both anatomical sites could be induced by parenteral immunization with P5-fimbrin combined with lipoprotein D, lipoprotein D alone, or the synthetic chimeric peptide LB1 (derived from P5-fimbrin), respectively. Data from a second study, wherein chinchillas were immunized with LB1 or lipoprotein D, each delivered with alum, again indicated that clearance of nontypeable H. influenzae could be augmented by immunization with either of these immunogens; however, when this adjuvant was used, both antibody titers in serum and efficacy were reduced. A third study was performed to investigate passive delivery of antisera directed against either LB1, lipoprotein D, nonacylated lipoprotein D, or a unique recombinant peptide designated LPD-LB1(f)2,1,3. The last three antiserum pools were generated by using the combined adjuvant of alum plus monophosphoryl lipid A. Passive transfer of sera specific for LB1 or LPD-LB1(f)2,1,3 to adenovirus-compromised chinchillas, prior to intranasal challenge with nontypeable H. influenzae, significantly reduced the severity of signs and incidence of otitis media which developed (P +info)
Blood-borne, albumin-bound prostaglandin E2 may be involved in fever. (4/311)Although the involvement of blood-borne PGE2 in fever has been hypothesized by several authors and has substantial experimental support, the current literature often rejects this hypothesis because several attempts to induce fever by a peripheral PGE2 failed. However, it is usually ignored that the amphipathic molecules of PGE2 are readily self-associating and that such an aggregation could have prevented the peripherally administered PGE2 (free form) from expressing its pyrogenic activity, thus leading to false negative results. To ensure disaggregation of PGE2, we prepared its complex within a carrier protein, human serum albumin (HSA). HSA was purified with activated charcoal and polymixin B-polyacrylamide gel and incubated with PGE2 for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Adult Chinchilla rabbits were injected intravenously with PGE2-HSA complex in either the higher (75 micrograms/kg PGE2:30 mg/kg HSA) or the lower (15 micrograms/kg:6 mg/kg) dose, and the rectal temperature (Tr) was measured. In the controls, either the ligand alone or the carrier alone was administered. At the higher dose, neither free PGE2 nor albumin alone was pyrogenic, whereas the PGE2-HSA complex produced a fever characterized by a short latency (<10 min) and a maximal Tr rise of 0.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C. At the lower dose, none of the substances affected the Tr. This study demonstrates a marked pyrogenic activity of the intravenous PGE2-HSA, but not of the free PGE2. Administration of a preformed complex may be more physiologically relevant than administration of the free ligand because of the ligand's disaggregation, protection from enzymatic degradation, and facilitated delivery to targets. Our study supports the hypothesis that peripheral PGE2 is involved in fever genesis. (+info)
Responses of cochlear nucleus units in the chinchilla to iterated rippled noises: analysis of neural autocorrelograms. (5/311)Temporal encoding of stimulus features related to the pitch of iterated rippled noises was studied for single units in the chinchilla cochlear nucleus. Unlike other periodic complex sounds that produce pitch, iterated rippled noises have neither periodic waveforms nor highly modulated envelopes. Infinitely iterated rippled noise (IIRN) is generated when wideband noise (WBN) is delayed (tau), attenuated, and then added to (+) or subtracted from (-) the undelayed WBN through positive feedback. The pitch of IIRN[+, tau, -1 dB] is at 1/tau, whereas the pitch of IIRN[-, tau, -1 dB] is at 1/2tau. Temporal responses of cochlear nucleus units were measured using neural autocorrelograms. Synchronous responses as shown by peaks in neural autocorrelograms that occur at time lags corresponding to the IIRN tau can be observed for both primarylike and chopper unit types. Comparison of the neural autocorrelograms in response to IIRN[+, tau, -1 dB] and IIRN[-, tau, -1 dB] indicates that the temporal discharge of primarylike units reflects the stimulus waveform fine structure, whereas the temporal discharge patterns of chopper units reflect the stimulus envelope. The pitch of IIRN[+/-, tau, -1 dB] can be accounted for by the temporal discharge patterns of primarylike units but not by the temporal discharge of chopper units. To quantify the temporal responses, the height of the peak in the neural autocorrelogram at a given time lag was measured as normalized rate. Although it is well documented that chopper units give larger synchronous responses than primarylike units to the fundamental frequency of periodic complex stimuli, the largest normalized rates in response to IIRN[+, tau, -1 dB] were obtained for primarylike units, not chopper units. The results suggest that if temporal encoding is important in pitch processing, then primarylike units are likely to be an important cochlear nucleus subsystem that carries the pitch-related information to higher auditory centers. (+info)
Peripherin immunoreactivity labels small diameter vestibular 'bouton' afferents in rodents. (6/311)Recent morphophysiological studies have described three different subpopulations of vestibular afferents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether peripherin, a 56-kDa type III intermediate filament protein present in small sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglion and spiral ganglion cells, would also label thin vestibular afferents. Peripherin immunohistochemistry was done on vestibular sensory organs (cristae ampullares, utriculi and sacculi) of chinchillas, rats, and mice. In these sensory organs, immunoreactivity was confined to the extrastriolar region of the utriculus and the peripheral region of the crista. The labelled terminals were all boutons, except for an occasional calyx. In vestibular ganglia, immunoreactivity was restricted to small vestibular ganglion cells with thin axons. The immunoreactive central axons of vestibular ganglion cells form narrow bundles as they pass through the caudal spinal trigeminal tract. As they exit this tract, several bundles coalesce to form a single, narrow bundle passing caudally through the ventral part of the lateral vestibular nucleus. Finally, we conclude that all labelled axons and terminals were vestibular afferents rather than efferents, as no immunoreactivity in the vestibular efferent nucleus of the brainstem was observed. (+info)
High-frequency dynamics of regularly discharging canal afferents provide a linear signal for angular vestibuloocular reflexes. (7/311)Regularly discharging vestibular-nerve afferents innervating the semicircular canals were recorded extracellularly in anesthetized chinchillas undergoing high-frequency, high-velocity sinusoidal rotations. In the range from 2 to 20 Hz, with peak velocities of 151 degrees/s at 6 Hz and 52 degrees/s at 20 Hz, 67/70 (96%) maintained modulated discharge throughout the sinusoidal stimulus cycle without inhibitory cutoff or excitatory saturation. These afferents showed little harmonic distortion, no dependence of sensitivity on peak amplitude of stimulation, and no measurable half-cycle asymmetry. A transfer function fitting the data predicts no change in sensitivity (gain) of regularly discharging afferents over the frequencies tested but shows a phase lead with regard to head velocity increasing from 0 degrees at 2 Hz to 30 degrees at 20 Hz. These results indicate that regularly discharging afferents provide a plausible signal to drive the angular vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) even during high-frequency head motion but are not a likely source for nonlinearities present in the VOR. (+info)
Evaluation of the virulence of a Streptococcus pneumoniae neuraminidase-deficient mutant in nasopharyngeal colonization and development of otitis media in the chinchilla model. (8/311)Considerable evidence has implicated Streptococcus pneumoniae neuraminidase in the pathogenesis of otitis media (OM); however, its exact role has not been conclusively established. Recently, an S. pneumoniae neuraminidase-deficient mutant, DeltaNA1, has been constructed by insertion-duplication mutagenesis of the nanA gene of S. pneumoniae strain D39. The relative ability of DeltaNA1 and the D39 parent strain to colonize the nasopharynx and to induce OM subsequent to intranasal inoculation and to survive in the middle ear cleft after direct challenge of the middle ear were evaluated in the chinchilla model. Nasopharyngeal colonization data indicate a significant difference in the ability of the DeltaNA1 mutant to colonize as well as to persist in the nasopharynx. The neuraminidase-deficient mutant was eliminated from the nasopharynx 2 weeks earlier than the D39 parent strain. Both the parent and the mutant exhibited similar virulence levels and kinetics during the first week after direct inoculation of the middle ear. The DeltaNA1 neuraminidase-deficient mutant, however, was then completely eliminated from the middle ear by day 10 postchallenge, 11 days before the D39 parent strain. Data from this study indicate that products of the nanA gene have an impact on the ability of S. pneumoniae to colonize and persist in the nasopharynx as well as the middle ear. (+info)
* Earache (otalgia)
* Hearing loss or muffled hearing
* Discharge from the ear
* Redness and swelling around the ear drum
* Fussiness or irritability in infants
* Loss of appetite or difficulty eating
* Difficulty sleeping
Otitis media is caused by a virus or bacteria that enters the middle ear through the Eustachian tube, which connects the back of the throat to the middle ear. The infection can spread quickly and cause inflammation in the middle ear, leading to hearing loss and other symptoms.
There are several types of otitis media, including:
* Acute otitis media: This is a sudden and severe infection that can develop over a few days. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection and can be treated with antibiotics.
* Otitis media with effusion (OME): This is a condition where fluid accumulates in the middle ear without an infection present. It can cause hearing loss and other symptoms but does not respond to antibiotics.
* Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM): This is a long-term infection that can cause persistent discharge, hearing loss, and other symptoms. It may require ongoing treatment with antibiotics and other therapies.
Otitis media can be diagnosed through a physical examination of the ear and a review of the patient's medical history. A doctor may also use tests such as a tympanocentesis (insertion of a small tube into the ear to collect fluid) or an otoscopic exam to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment for otitis media depends on the type and severity of the infection, but may include:
* Antibiotics: To treat bacterial infections
* Pain relief medication: To help manage ear pain and fever
* Eardrops: To help clear fluid from the middle ear and reduce discharge
* Tympanocentesis: To collect fluid from the middle ear for testing or to relieve pressure
* Ventilation tubes: Small tubes that are inserted into the ear drum to allow air to enter the middle ear and help drain fluid.
It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms of otitis media persist or worsen over time, as untreated infections can lead to complications such as mastoiditis (an infection of the bones behind the ear) or meningitis (an infection of the lining around the brain and spinal cord). With prompt and appropriate treatment, however, most cases of otitis media can be effectively managed and hearing loss can be prevented.
Ear Anatomy: The middle ear consists of three small bones called ossicles (the malleus, incus, and stapes) that transmit sound waves to the inner ear. The eardrum, a thin membrane, separates the outer ear canal from the middle ear. In OME, fluid accumulates in the middle ear, causing the eardrum to become congested and reducing its ability to vibrate properly.
Causes: There are several factors that can contribute to the development of OME, including:
1. Viral upper respiratory infections (such as the common cold)
3. Enlarged adenoids or tonsils
4. Cystic fibrosis
5. Sinus infections
6. Meniere's disease
7. Head injury
Symptoms: The symptoms of OME can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
1. Hearing loss or muffled hearing
2. Discharge or fluid leaking from the ear
3. Pain or discomfort in the ear
4. Difficulty responding to sounds or understanding speech
7. Vertigo or dizziness
8. Loss of balance or coordination
Diagnosis: OME is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and ear examinations using an otoscope or tympanometry. A tympanogram may also be performed to measure the movement of the eardrum.
Treatment: The treatment of OME depends on the severity of the condition and may include:
1. Watchful waiting: In mild cases, OME may resolve on its own within a few weeks without any treatment.
2. Antibiotics: If there is a concurrent infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the underlying infection.
3. Pain relief medication: Over-the-counter pain relief medication such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen may be recommended to relieve any discomfort or pain.
4. Eardrops: Eardrops containing antibiotics or steroids may be prescribed to treat the infection and reduce inflammation.
5. Tubes in the ear: In more severe cases, tubes may be placed in the ear drum to help drain fluid and relieve pressure.
6. Surgery: In rare cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the membrane or repair any damage to the middle ear bones.
Prognosis: The prognosis for OME is generally good, with most cases resolving within a few weeks without any long-term complications. However, in some cases, the condition can persist for longer periods of time and may lead to more serious complications such as hearing loss or mastoiditis.
Prevention: There is no specific way to prevent OME, but good ear hygiene and avoiding exposure to loud noises can help reduce the risk of developing the condition. Regular check-ups with an audiologist or otolaryngologist can also help identify any early signs of OME and prevent complications.
Conclusion: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a common condition that affects children and adults, causing fluid buildup in the middle ear. While it is generally not a serious condition, it can cause discomfort and affect hearing. Treatment options range from watchful waiting to antibiotics and surgery, depending on the severity of the case. Good ear hygiene and regular check-ups with an audiologist or otolaryngologist can help prevent complications and ensure proper management of the condition.
Some common types of mycotoxicosis include:
1. Aflatoxicosis: caused by the ingestion of aflatoxins, which are produced by certain types of Aspergillus mold that grow on nuts, grains, and other crops. Aflatoxins can cause liver damage, growth retardation, and cancer in animals and humans.
2. Ochratoxicosis: caused by the ingestion of ochratoxin A, which is produced by certain types of Aspergillus and Penicillium mold that grow on grapes, wheat, and other crops. Ochratoxin A can cause kidney damage and cancer in animals and humans.
3. Fusarium toxicosis: caused by the ingestion of fusarin C, which is produced by certain types of Fusarium mold that grow on grains, corn, and other crops. Fusarin C can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and death in animals and humans.
4. Zearalenone toxicosis: caused by the ingestion of zearalenone, which is produced by certain types of Fusarium mold that grow on wheat, oats, and other grains. Zearalenone can cause reproductive problems and estrogen-like effects in animals and humans.
Symptoms of mycotoxicosis can vary depending on the type and amount of mycotoxin consumed, but may include:
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Loss of appetite
* Skin rashes or lesions
* Respiratory problems
* Liver damage
* Kidney damage
Mycotoxicosis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests or urine tests. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as fluids and medication to manage symptoms, and in severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Prevention of mycotoxicosis is key, and this can be achieved through a combination of proper food storage, handling, and preparation practices, as well as regular testing for the presence of mycotoxins. Some ways to prevent mycotoxicosis include:
1. Store food properly: Keep food in a cool, dry place, and avoid storing it in damp or humid environments.
2. Check for mold: Regularly check food for visible signs of mold, and discard any food that is past its expiration date or has an off smell.
3. Clean and sanitize: Keep cooking surfaces and utensils clean and sanitized to prevent the growth of mold and other microorganisms.
4. Use proper cooking methods: Cook food thoroughly, especially grains and legumes, to reduce the risk of mycotoxin contamination.
5. Avoid consuming moldy foods: Do not consume foods that have visible signs of mold or have an off smell.
6. Use airtight storage containers: Store food in airtight containers to prevent moisture and other microorganisms from entering the food.
7. Regularly test for mycotoxins: Test foods regularly for the presence of mycotoxins, especially in areas where mycotoxin-producing molds are common.
8. Improve ventilation: Improve ventilation in storage and processing facilities to reduce the risk of mycotoxin production.
9. Use mycotoxin-detecting tools: Use tools such as mycotoxin test kits to detect the presence of mycotoxins in foods.
10. Educate consumers: Educate consumers about the risks of mycotoxicosis and the proper handling and preparation of food to prevent the condition.
Overall, prevention of mycotoxicosis is a multi-faceted approach that involves proper food storage, handling, and preparation practices, as well as regular testing for the presence of mycotoxins. By taking these steps, consumers can reduce their risk of exposure to mycotoxins and protect their health.
Epidemiology of Haemophilus Infections:
* Incidence: Hib disease was once a major cause of childhood meningitis and sepsis, but the introduction of Hib vaccines in the 1980s has significantly reduced the incidence of invasive Hib disease. Non-invasive Hib disease, such as otitis media, is still common.
* Prevalence: Hib is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children under the age of 5 worldwide. In developed countries, the prevalence of invasive Hib disease has decreased significantly since the introduction of vaccines, but it remains a significant public health problem in developing countries.
* Risk factors: young age, poverty, lack of access to healthcare, and poor sanitation and hygiene are risk factors for Hib disease. Children under the age of 5, especially those under the age of 2, are at highest risk for invasive Hib disease.
Pathophysiology of Haemophilus Infections:
* Mechanisms of infection: H. influenzae can cause both respiratory and non-respiratory infections by colonizing the nasopharynx and other mucosal surfaces. The bacteria can then disseminate to other parts of the body, causing invasive disease.
* Immune response: the immune response to Hib infection involves both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Antibodies play a crucial role in protecting against reinfection, while T cells and macrophages help to clear the bacteria from the body.
Clinical Presentation of Haemophilus Infections:
* Respiratory infections: H. influenzae can cause various respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis, pneumonia, and sinusitis. Symptoms may include fever, cough, sore throat, and difficulty breathing.
* Non-respiratory infections: Hib can cause a range of non-respiratory infections, including meningitis, epiglottitis, and septic arthritis. These infections can have more severe symptoms and may require prompt medical attention.
Diagnosis of Haemophilus Infections:
* Diagnostic tests: diagnosis of Hib disease is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and radiologic studies. Blood cultures, lumbar puncture, and chest x-rays may be used to confirm the presence of the bacteria and assess the extent of infection.
* Laboratory testing: identification of Hib is based on its distinctive gram stain appearance and biochemical characteristics. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing are also used to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment and Prevention of Haemophilus Infections:
* Antibiotics: Hib infections are treated with antibiotics, such as amoxicillin or ceftriaxone. The choice of antibiotic depends on the severity and location of the infection.
* Vaccination: the Hib vaccine is recommended for children under 5 years old to prevent Hib disease. The vaccine is given in a series of 3-4 doses, with the first dose given at 2 months of age.
* Good hygiene practices: good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing and proper cleaning and disinfection, can help prevent the spread of Hib bacteria.
Complications of Haemophilus Infections:
* Meningitis: Hib meningitis can have serious complications, including hearing loss, learning disabilities, and seizures.
* Permanent brain damage: Hib infections can cause permanent brain damage, including cognitive and behavioral impairments.
* Respiratory failure: severe Hib pneumonia can lead to respiratory failure, which may require mechanical ventilation.
* Death: Hib infections can be life-threatening, especially in young children and those with underlying medical conditions.
In conclusion, Haemophilus infections are a serious public health concern, particularly for young children and those with underlying medical conditions. Prevention through vaccination and good hygiene practices is essential to reduce the risk of infection. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
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- Costa Rican President Laura Chinchilla on Monday met with Peru's Ollanta Humala at the Government Palace in Lima. (ticotimes.net)
- Experimental studies have been reported where humans or various species of animals (rats, mice, guinea pigs, chinchillas) have been exposed to infrasound in the laboratory. (nih.gov)
- The present study suggests that chinchillas are markedly less susceptible to the ototoxic effect of toluene than mice and rats. (cdc.gov)
- Hepatic microsomes from chinchillas, rats and humans were tested for their ability to convert toluene to the more water-soluble compound - benzyl alcohol. (cdc.gov)
- Chinchilla livers were found to contain more of the P450 enzymes CYP2E1 and CYP2B than rats or humans. (cdc.gov)
- In addition, the data show that the P450 enzymes are more active in chinchillas than in rats and humans. (cdc.gov)
- Each and every animal who is raised and killed for clothing, be it a chinchilla, mink, cow, lamb, or duck, is an aware, feeling individual with a desire to live free from harm. (animalsaustralia.org)
- Twenty-three strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from diseased chinchillas and mink were tested in mice for their immunogenic properties. (nih.gov)
- Other - Ingestion of feces is also a normal chinchilla behavior. (bestfriendsvethosp.com)
- By the 1960's there were thousands of chinchilla ranches across the country. (exoticnutrition.com)
- It was found that the protection afforded by the polyvalent bacterin extended beyond the strains included in the vaccine.A field survey on 34 ranches which included over 7,700 chinchillas showed very promising and encouraging results. (nih.gov)
- Chinchillas make charming pets, but they are naturally skittish. (bestfriendsvethosp.com)
- A large multi-level cage is recommended since chinchillas like to climb and jump in both horizontal and vertical directions. (bestfriendsvethosp.com)
- In the wild, chinchillas are solitary creatures, so it is not recommended to have multiple chinchillas in the same cage. (bestfriendsvethosp.com)
- Socialization - Any chinchilla let out of its cage for play and exercise should be fairly tame and used to being handled. (bestfriendsvethosp.com)
- Whether it's inspecting an aquarium full of Australian cone snails or a cage of chinchillas, this can lead to some interesting exchanges. (cdc.gov)
- There are many types of commercial chinchilla dust available. (seavs.com)
- Chinchillas must regularly dust bathe to remove oil and moisture from their thick fur. (bestfriendsvethosp.com)
- Dust baths must be large enough and deep enough to allow the chinchilla to roll around in the pan. (bestfriendsvethosp.com)
- If handled frequently at a young age, chinchillas adapt well to humans. (bestfriendsvethosp.com)
- Native to South America, short-tailed and long-tailed chinchillas are considered endangered according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. (animalsaustralia.org)
- Following the victory, as another fur farm finally shut down, 34 gentle, inquisitive chinchillas were destined for life - and death - inside a fur farm, but rescued by advocates at Eco Veg Animals just in time. (animalsaustralia.org)
- Thanks to the generosity of our donors, Animals Australia was able to help Eco Veg Animals with the rescue, veterinary care, and rehoming of the chinchillas through our emergency grants program. (animalsaustralia.org)
- While helping to raise awareness of fur farm cruelty in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and across the globe, the chinchillas are also spreading a message of hope - showing caring consumers that opting for animal-friendly clothing can change the world for these animals . (animalsaustralia.org)
- The problem with raising chinchillas for fur was that the animals were so cute many would-be entrepreneurs couldn't bring themselves to "harvest" them. (exoticnutrition.com)
- Since chinchillas are shy animals, they also require a hiding place. (bestfriendsvethosp.com)
- However, chinchillas may provide a valuable model for investigating how ototoxic agents can be detoxified to less damaging compounds. (cdc.gov)
- Genomic sequence of the chinchilla has advanced proteomic and metabolomic studies in this animal model. (nih.gov)
- Energy-independent factors influencing noise -induced hearing loss in the chinchilla model. (cdc.gov)
- The chinchilla (n=58) was used as the animal model. (cdc.gov)
- Immunization with outer membrane protein P6 from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae induces bactericidal antibody and affords protection in the chinchilla model of otitis media. (who.int)
- Find the best Digital TV service in Chinchilla with a simple click of the button. (bandwidthplace.com)
- Most people today care for their chinchillas as pets. (exoticnutrition.com)
- All 34 rescued chinchillas have been placed in safe forever homes - where they will be properly cared for and seen for who they are, not what they produce . (animalsaustralia.org)
- While one animal being killed for their skin is one too many, shockingly as many as 150 chinchillas may be killed to produce a single full-length coat. (animalsaustralia.org)
- Chinchillas produce cecotropes or "night feces" which are loaded with plenty of vitamins and other nutrients. (bestfriendsvethosp.com)
- Diet - Chinchillas are herbivores and they require a diet high in fib er. (bestfriendsvethosp.com)
- Spared from confinement in barren cages and horrific, early deaths, these lucky little chinchillas are now free to express their natural behaviours - like dustbathing to clean their coats - and live out their lives. (animalsaustralia.org)
- Chinchilla's announced trip sparked controversy over the weekend and into Tuesday, when the daily La Nación reported that Chinchilla and her entourage traveled to Peru in a private jet owned by Canadian firm THX Energy, an oil and natural gas company. (ticotimes.net)
- Chinchilla also said the recent ratification of a free trade agreement between Costa Rica and Peru "allows the country to take advantage of the economic dynamism of the South American country. (ticotimes.net)
- Chinchillas do not tolerate heat or humidity well. (seavs.com)
- Chinchillas are easily restrained and rarely bite. (seavs.com)
- Costa Rica will request to be accepted into the Pacific Alliance on May 22, when Chinchilla is set to sign a free trade agreement with Colombia during the TPP summit in Cali. (ticotimes.net)
- Chinchillas are widely used for studying noise effects on the cochlea. (cdc.gov)
- The present study was initiated to study toluene and noise interaction in chinchillas. (cdc.gov)
- Thirty-three chinchillas were exposed to a 95 dBA 500 Hz octave band noise plus 2000 ppm toluene , 8 or 12 h per day for 10 days. (cdc.gov)
- I had a chinchilla and me and my mom used to make these out of the chinchilla's droppings and like, paper towel rolls. (pedestrian.tv)
- Chinchilla said her trip was of a private nature, as she initially planned to attend the wedding of Vice President Luis Liberman's son on Saturday. (ticotimes.net)
- We compare the offers of car rental companies in Chinchilla on your behalf. (easyterra.com)
- Basically what Bella is saying is that she and her mother would connect hard, dried nuggets of chinchilla poop and seal them up in a paper towel roll, then shake them around to simulate the sound of rain. (pedestrian.tv)
- EasyTerra Car Rental Chinchilla is an independent car rental comparison site. (easyterra.com)