Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Germany, WestGlass Ionomer Cements: A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Silicate Cement: A relatively hard, translucent, restorative material used primarily in anterior teeth. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p50)Polycarboxylate Cement: Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Uncertainty: The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Coal MiningElectricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Coal Tar: A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Citrus paradisi: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that produces the familiar grapefruit. There is evidence that grapefruit inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A4, resulting in delayed metabolism and higher blood levels of a variety of drugs.Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Psoralens: Linear furanocoumarins which are found in many PLANTS, especially UMBELLIFERAE and RUTACEAE, as well as PSORALEA from which they were originally discovered. They can intercalate DNA and, in an UV-initiated reaction of the furan portion, alkylate PYRIMIDINES, resulting in PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS.Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.Flavanones: A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.Thermal Conductivity: The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)BooksBuilding Codes: Standards or regulations for construction which are designed to ensure safety against electrical hazards, fires, etc.Mythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Book SelectionDeductibles and Coinsurance: Cost-sharing mechanisms that provide for payment by the insured of some portion of covered expenses. Deductibles are the amounts paid by the insured under a health insurance contract before benefits become payable; coinsurance is the provision under which the insured pays part of the medical bill, usually according to a fixed percentage, when benefits become payable.Sorption Detoxification: Elimination of toxic or biologically active substances from body fluids by interaction with a sorbent medium. The types of media include absorbents, adsorbents, ion-exchange materials, and complexing agents. Detoxification can be extracorporeal (hemodialysis, hemofiltration, hemoperfusion, plasmapheresis), or occur inside the body (enterosorption, peritoneal dialysis).Child Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Exhibits as Topic: Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.Smoke-Free Policy: Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Denmark has a price system using a carbon tax (World Bank, 2010, p. 218),[71] while China uses the CO2 market price for funding ... A company could get allowance from the Act on a greater amount of emission when it paid another company to reduce the same ... Because there is high uncertainty in the compliance costs of firms, some argue that the optimum choice is the price mechanism. ... building materials, paper, power and aviation, but many of the companies involved lacked consistent data.[166] Therefore, by ...
Although London was accustomed to heavy fogs, this one was denser and longer-lasting than any previous fog.[13] Visibility was reduced to a few metres ("It's like you were blind"[14]) making driving difficult or impossible. Public transport ceased, apart from the London Underground, and the ambulance service stopped, forcing users to transport themselves to hospital. The smog was so dense that it even seeped indoors, resulting in cancellation or abandonment of concerts and film screenings as visibility decreased in large enclosed spaces, and stages and screens became harder to see from the seats.[15] Outdoor sports events were also cancelled.[citation needed] In the inner London suburbs and away from town centres, there was no disturbance by moving traffic to thin out the dense fog in the back streets. The result was that visibility could be down to a metre or so in the daytime. Walking out of doors became a matter of shuffling one's feet to feel for potential obstacles such ...
Steven Dale Ittel (born 1946 in Hamilton, Ohio) is an American chemist specializing in organometallic chemistry and homogeneous catalysis. His father was a superintendent of a rural school district and a YMCA camp director, so he spent the first 19 summers of his life at Camp Campbell Gard. He is married with two children. He attended Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, where he received a bachelor's degree in chemistry in 1968. He was then commissioned as an officer in the United States Public Health Service and studyed photochemical smog in the New York City metropolitan area from 1968-1970. He attended Northwestern University where he received his PhD in chemistry under the direction of James A. Ibers in 1974. Ittel worked on hydride activation of lanthanides for Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) at Monsanto's Mound Laboratories for a short time. Upon receiving his PhD from Northwestern, Ittel joined DuPont's Central Research Department at the Experimental Station in Wilmington, ...
... is quite a serious issue with the major sources being fuelwood and biomass burning, fuel adulteration, vehicle emission and traffic congestion. In autumn and winter months, large scale crop residue burning in agriculture fields - a low cost alternative to mechanical tilling - is a major source of smoke, smog and particulate pollution. India has a low per capita emissions of greenhouse gases but the country as a whole is the third largest after China and the United States. A 2013 study on non-smokers has found that Indians have 30% lower lung function compared to Europeans. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was passed in 1981 to regulate air pollution and there have been some measurable improvements. However, the 2016 Environmental Performance Index ranked India 141 out of 180 countries. In 2015, Government of India, together with IIT Kanpur launched the National Air Quality Index. Fuelwood and biomass burning is the primary reason for near-permanent haze ...
ஓசோன் (Ozone) என்பது மூன்று ஆக்சிசன் அணுக்கள் சேர்ந்திருக்கும் ஒரு மூலக்கூறு (சேர்மம்). இது வளிம நிலையில் உள்ளது. ஆக்சிசனின் பிறிதொரு மாற்றுரு (allotrope). இது ஈரணு ஆக்சிசன் மூலக்கூறு போல் நிலைத்தன்மை இல்லாதது. எளிதில் சிதைந்து விடும். தரைக்கு அருகே காணப்படும் ஓசோன் சூழல் மாசுத்தன்மை ஊட்டுவதாகக் கருதப்படுகின்றது. ஏனெனில் மாந்தர்கள் உட்பட, விலங்குகள் பலவற்றின் மூச்சு இயக்கத்திற்கு ...
Hangzhou Foreign Languages School had been the only school allowed to conduct entrance exams for elementary school graduates in Zhejiang Province. During the 1990s, the elementary schools in Hangzhou (capital of Zhejiang Province) were given a quota of one student for each class, normally the top student. Together with students recommended for their special talents in arts and music, around 1,000 students in the city sat the written exams of Mathematics and Chinese, after which around 100 students were qualified for second stage interviews and 80 students aged around 13 to 14 were finally admitted, forming 2 classes in entering the grade of Junior One. [5]. Due to the pressure from other secondary schools, the entrance exams of Hangzhou Foreign Language School evolved towards the form of pure interviews after 2000. The candidates pool was extended to all elementary schools in Zhejiang Province while both the candidates quota and number of admissions expanded, recruiting 11 to 12 classes each ...
China's huge and gradually aging population and strong biopharmaceutical sector have almost guaranteed a large but varied pharmaceutical market profile. Zhejiang, Guangdong, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Hebei provinces have always been among the top five most productive provinces in China. Each of these provinces has grown steadily by an average of 20 per cent per annum from 1998 to 2003 (with the exception of Jiangsu in 1998 and 1999) and reflects an increasingly healthy developing trend in the Chinese pharmaceutical industry. Most pharmaceutical firms are located in the southeastern zone that includes two well-developed areas and three under-developed areas. The two most popular areas of well-developed pharmaceutical industry, called the growth poles, are the Eastern China zone of which Zhejiang province is located in the centre and the South China zone represented by the Guangdong province. The ...
During the war with Japan, in the 1930s, China built many roads, the most famous of which is the Burma Road that leads southwest from Kunming to the city of Lashio. Since it came into power, the Communist government initiated a large effort into building highways that extend across China and beyond its borders.. Today, China is linked by an evolving network of highways (China National Highways) and expressways (Expressways of China). In the past few years, China has been rapidly developing its road network. Between 1990 and 2003, the total length of urban roads in China more than doubled; increasing from 95,000 to 208,000 kilometers of roads during that period. Similarly, during the same period of time, the total area allocated to roads more than tripled; from 892 million square meters in 1990, to 3,156.5 million square meters in 2003.[15] China National Highways stretch to ...
... is the dominant term used in English for the sea, and the name in most European languages is equivalent. This name is a result of early European interest in the sea as a route from Europe and South Asia to the trading opportunities of China. In the sixteenth century Portuguese sailors called it the China Sea (Mare da China); later needs to differentiate it from nearby bodies of water led to calling it the South China Sea.[8] The International Hydrographic Organization refers to the sea as "South China Sea (Nan Hai)".[3] The Yizhoushu, which was a chronicle of the Western Zhou dynasty (1046-771 BCE) gives the first Chinese name for the South China Sea as Nanfang Hai (Chinese: 南方海; pinyin: Nánfāng Hǎi; literally: 'Southern Sea'), claiming that barbarians from that sea gave tributes of hawksbill sea turtles to the Zhou rulers.[9] The Classic of Poetry, Zuo Zhuan, and Guoyu classics of the Spring and Autumn ...
In some studies, various subgroups of Q-M242 are observed in Mongolia. Q1a2-M346 (mostly Q-L330) occupies 1.4[25]~3.1%[46] of Mongols (1/2~2/3 among Q samples), followed by Q1a1a1-M120 (0.25[25]~1.25%[46]), Q1a1b-M25 (0.25[25]~0.63%[46]), Q1b-M378. In another study, Q is found in 4% of Mongols.[22] Based on these studies, the average frequency of Q-M242 in Mongols is estimated to be about 4~5%. However, most of Q-M242 people in East Asia belong to subclade Q-M120, which distributes most intensively across northern China (the provinces of which the capitals locate northern to Huai River-Qin Mountains line). Q-M242 ranged from 4~8% in northwest China (Xinjiang, Gansu, Shaanxi), north China (Shanxi, Hebei), central China (Henan), and upper east China (Shandong) to 3~4% in northeast China. The average frequency of Q-M242 in northern China is around 4.5%. However, it decreases to about 2% in ...
In some studies, various subgroups of Q-M242 are observed in Mongolia. Q1a2-M346 (mostly Q-L330) occupies 1.4[25]~3.1%[46] of Mongols (1/2~2/3 among Q samples), followed by Q1a1a1-M120 (0.25[25]~1.25%[46]), Q1a1b-M25 (0.25[25]~0.63%[46]), Q1b-M378. In another study, Q is found in 4% of Mongols.[22] Based on these studies, the average frequency of Q-M242 in Mongols is estimated to be about 4~5%. However, most of Q-M242 people in East Asia belong to subclade Q-M120, which distributes most intensively across northern China (the provinces of which the capitals locate northern to Huai River-Qin Mountains line). Q-M242 ranged from 4~8% in northwest China (Xinjiang, Gansu, Shaanxi), north China (Shanxi, Hebei), central China (Henan), and upper east China (Shandong) to 3~4% in northeast China. The average frequency of Q-M242 in northern China is around 4.5%. However, it decreases to about 2% in ...
Chongqing (also romanised Chungking) was the capital city of Ba State during Warring States period. Ming Yuzhen, the rebellion leader during the transition time between Yuan and Ming dynasties, established the Xia kingdom and set the capital city in Chongqing. Chongqing was also the provisional capital of the Nationalist government of the Republic of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), and briefly the seat of the Nationalist government in late 1949 towards the end of the Chinese Civil War ...
Northeastern was founded on April 26, 1923 in Shenyang (previously known as Mukden), the capital city of Liaoning province, which at the time was the historic political and economic center of Northeast China. The institution attracted top scholars and teachers from throughout the region and quickly developed into a comprehensive university, with six schools for science, engineering, humanities, law, agriculture, and education. In July 1928, the university was taken over by Marshall Peter Chang Hsüeh-liang (Zhang Xueliang), the military warlord known as the "Young Marshal" who controlled all of Northeast China at the time. Marshall Chang assumed the title of president and became the university's most important financial and political patron in its early history. Less than a decade after it was founded, the university was forced to evacuate its campus following the Mukden Incident on 18 September 1931. After the incident, the Japanese invaded and annexed all of Northeast ...
... is a major health concern according to the WHO, with overall rates of obesity below 5% in the country, but greater than 20% in some cities. This is a dramatic change from times when China experienced famine as a result from ineffective agriculturalization plans such as the Great Leap Forward. Currently, obesity in China is mostly confined to the cities where fast food culture and globalization have taken over, in comparison to poorer rural areas. Despite this concentration of obesity, the sheer size of China's population means that over one fifth of all one billion obese people in the world come from China. Statistics from the Chinese Health Ministry have revealed that urban Chinese boys age 6 are 2.5 inches taller and 6.6 pounds heavier on average than Chinese city boys 30 years ago. A leading child-health researcher, Ji Chengye, has stated that, "China has entered the era of obesity. The speed of growth is shocking." ...
Edward Meng, the chief financial officer of China Gerui Advanced Materials, a steel-processing company in central Chinas Henan ... Since China deregulated its coal market in 1992, the government had set coal prices for power-plants at a much lower level than ... China has reported major progress in reducing deaths in coal mines last year (SAWS chief engineer reported a 29.9 percent drop ... Ranking Chinas Power Companies,", Greenpeace China, July 2009. *↑ "Yanzhou Coal Will Pay $682M For Stake In Mongolian Firm" ...
Denmark has a price system using a carbon tax (World Bank, 2010, p. 218),[71] while China uses the CO2 market price for funding ... A company could get allowance from the Act on a greater amount of emission when it paid another company to reduce the same ... Because there is high uncertainty in the compliance costs of firms, some argue that the optimum choice is the price mechanism. ... building materials, paper, power and aviation, but many of the companies involved lacked consistent data.[166] Therefore, by ...
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Coal supplies over 40 percent of global electricity needs, and that percentage is going up. The only real question is how to ... calculated that reducing PM2.5 to US levels would cut the total death rate in big Chinese cities between 2 and 5 percent. A ... One company, Vogmask, sells masks on which corporations can print their logos: smog as branding opportunity. A few days before ... and to baking limestone to make cement (China provides almost half the worlds cement). In its frantic quest to develop, China ...
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Consequently, U.S. companies are often priced out of this market.. U.S. suppliers face three challenges in selling water- ... EGCO was partially privatized in 1994 as EGAT reduced its share holding to 48 percent. In June 1996, the sale of the 774 MW gas ... The minimum length of firm purchase is five years, while nonfirm purchases cannot exceed five years. Firms with low tariffs, ... To enter the Chinese market, Union Energy, Saha Unions energy company, has begun 5 of 10 planned cogeneration projects in the ...
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This page is in Chinese; translation may be needed.). One of the countrys largest private companies: the Nanjing-based China ... After a decade of working as a high-school teacher and cement plant employee, he founded his construction firm in 1995 and ... In what is being billed as the largest "mountain-moving project" in Chinese history, one of Chinas biggest construction firms ... Noting that an extraordinary 90 percent of Chinas grasslands are degraded, the Chinese government has embarked on restoration ...
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Hurst Marketing Associates in the Detroit area. Prior to founding this firm, he has worked for several market research firms, ... The company provides financial services through Ford Motor Credit Company. In early 2008, we announced a goal to reduce C02 ... Since motor vehicles cause more than half of the smog and 40 percent of the global warming pollution in California, the vehicle ... cement and other construction materials and foods. www.bulktransporter.com ...
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China to reduce coal usage for power generation to battle smog and related health issues; could spell end for viable coal ... The firm said it is baffled by the government policy of not considering the companys eco co-combustion system, which cost only ... Bio-Nylon Is The New Green: How One Company Is Fermenting A $10 Billion Market ... it has pledged to cut its annual steel and cement production capacities by 60 million tonnes respectively by 2017 and to reduce ...
He said makers of LEDs and other items could easily reduce chemical concentrations or redesign them with truly safer materials ... President was aware of these contentions by the wood-producing companies before he signed EO 23 last Thursday but stood firm on ... Of the yearly national waste generation of 12,775,000 tons, some 40 percent to 70 percent are collected and thrown in 1,205 ... private and public flea markets and restaurants and food stores are prohibited from using plastic bags as packing materials for ...
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  • In theory, polluters who can reduce emissions most cheaply will do so, achieving the emission reduction at the lowest cost to society. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cap and trade is meant to provide the private sector with the flexibility required to reduce emissions while stimulating technological innovation and economic growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to environmental justice issues, historically cap and trade policy is not as effective as performance standards for reducing air pollutant emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions and acidic sulfate deposition decreased to a larger extent more rapidly in Europe than in the United States over similar time periods with Europe employing traditional control approaches compared to the U.S.' subsidized market approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • In effect, the buyer pays a charge for polluting, while the seller gains a reward for having reduced emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the past few decades, China has lifted several hundred million people out of destitution-arguably history's biggest, fastest rise in human well-being. (wired.com)
  • China relies on coal power for approximately 70-80% of its energy, with 45% used for the industrial sector and the remainder used to generate electricity. (sourcewatch.org)
  • By 2010, China comprised 48% of world coal consumption. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Coal production in China was estimated at almost 3.4 billion short tons (i.e. 3.084 billion tonnes) in 2009. (sourcewatch.org)
  • In March 2012, China reported that it expected to consume 270 million tonnes per year less standard coal equivalent for electricity generation by 2015, compared with 2011 levels. (sourcewatch.org)
  • In November 2010, Chinese media reported that Beijing is considering capping domestic coal output in the 2011-2015 period, partly because officials worry miners are running down reserves too quickly to meet the needs of a rapidly expanding economy, which the Wall Street Journal said raises issues around China and peak coal . (sourcewatch.org)
  • The top coal producing province in China, Shanxi, said it plans to reduce its production of raw coal to 650 million tonnes in 2009, a 2 percent decline from the previous year's 660 million tonnes. (sourcewatch.org)
  • China's raw coal output rose to 2.63 billion tons in 2008, a 12.8 percent increase over 2007. (sourcewatch.org)
  • China's top power distributor said power deficits in areas serviced by the State Grid Corp of China (SGCC) would amount to 30 gigawatts in summer even if coal supplies are steady, water levels are normal and there are no persisting high temperatures, with the shortfalls increasing to around 40 GW if coal supplies tighten up, water stocks are less than normal and unusually high temperatures persist. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Nowhere is the preeminence of coal more apparent than in the planet's fastest-growing, most populous region: Asia, especially China. (wired.com)
  • In its frantic quest to develop, China burns almost as much coal as the rest of the world put together-a fact that makes climatologists shudder. (wired.com)
  • Coal is too low-cost, too plentiful, and too available from reliable sources to be replaced,' says fuel analyst John Dean, president of the JD Energy consulting firm. (wired.com)
  • China is putting in solar and wind power at a tremendous pace, but it will have to use more and more coal just to keep up with rising demand. (wired.com)
  • In neighboring Poland, 86 percent of the electricity is generated from coal. (wired.com)
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  • High volume (25,000 to 300,000 bbl) contractual agreements between oil companies dictating delivery of petroleum products or crude oil in the near future for an established sales price. (opisnet.com)
  • The US is a partial exception: Coal's share of American electricity fell from 49 percent in 2007 to 39 percent in 2013, largely because fracking has cut the price of natural gas, a competing fuel. (wired.com)
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  • Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago filed Senate Resolution No. 376, which calls for a "robust and coherent national policy framework, strategy, and program for chemicals in order to reduce, if not totally eradicate, the adverse health, environmental, and social impacts of toxic chemicals to humans and the ecosystems. (motherearthphil.org)
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  • For the study, published in Economic & Political Weekly , the authors borrowed from their previous work in China, where they determined life expectancy dropped by three years for every 100 migrograms of fine particulate matter, called PM2.5, above safe levels. (cleartheair.org.hk)
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  • This time for price changes differs from the standard 12:00 a.m. to 12:00 a.m. time change that most suppliers had used until the beginning of 2002. (opisnet.com)
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  • by Andrew Maloney (Chicago Daily Law Bulletin) A federal judge will allow price-manipulation claims against food processing giant Archer Daniels Midland to go forward in a central Illinois courtroom. (advancedbiofuelsusa.info)
  • Lawyer Richard Gutierrez (not Roberto as earlier reported), executive director of Basel Action Network (BAN Toxic), said a trace of how small-scale miners in different parts of the country discovered mercury for gold extraction led back to miners or employees of mining companies that operated in Benguet. (motherearthphil.org)
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  • This section reviews the opportunities in the major sectoral areas, including analysis of upcoming project opportunities as well as more overview information on the sectors offering the best opportunities for U.S. companies. (doc.gov)