The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.
An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
The immune responses of a host to a graft. A specific response is GRAFT REJECTION.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
The transfer of leukocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
The induction of prolonged survival and growth of allografts of either tumors or normal tissues which would ordinarily be rejected. It may be induced passively by introducing graft-specific antibodies from previously immunized donors, which bind to the graft's surface antigens, masking them from recognition by T-cells; or actively by prior immunization of the recipient with graft antigens which evoke specific antibodies and form antigen-antibody complexes which bind to the antigen receptor sites of the T-cells and block their cytotoxic activity.
Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
Agents that destroy bone marrow activity. They are used to prepare patients for BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION or STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
A condition occurring in the female offspring of dizygotic twins (TWIN, DIZYGOTIC) in a mixed-sex pregnancy, usually in CATTLE. Freemartinism can occur in other mammals. When placental fusion between the male and the female FETUSES permits the exchange of fetal cells and fetal hormones, TESTICULAR HORMONES from the male fetus can androgenize the female fetus producing a sterile XX/XY chimeric "female"(CHIMERISM).
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Immunological rejection of tumor tissue/cells following bone marrow transplantation.
Irradiation of one half or both halves of the body in the treatment of disseminated cancer or widespread metastases. It is used to treat diffuse metastases in one session as opposed to multiple fields over an extended period. The more frequent treatment modalities are upper hemibody irradiation (UHBI) or lower hemibody irradiation (LHBI). Less common is mid-body irradiation (MBI). In the treatment of both halves of the body sequentially, hemibody irradiation permits radiotherapy of the whole body with larger doses of radiation than could be accomplished with WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION. It is sometimes called "systemic" hemibody irradiation with reference to its use in widespread cancer or metastases. (P. Rubin et al. Cancer, Vol 55, p2210, 1985)
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.
Tissues, cells, or organs transplanted between genetically different individuals of the same species.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Prenatal interventions to correct fetal anomalies or treat FETAL DISEASES in utero. Fetal therapies include several major areas, such as open surgery; FETOSCOPY; pharmacological therapy; INTRAUTERINE TRANSFUSION; STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and GENETIC THERAPY.
Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)
External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A genus in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE consisting of 12 species and found in Panama as well as South America. Species seen most frequently in the literature are S. oedipus (cotton-top marmoset), S. nigricollis, and S. fusicollis.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).
The mechanism, in peripheral lymphoid organs (LYMPH NODES; SPLEEN; TONSILS; and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue), that prevents mature lymphocytes from reacting to SELF-ANTIGENS. This is accomplished through a variety of means including CLONAL ANERGY and CLONAL DELETION.
An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.
Removal, via CELL DEATH, of immature lymphocytes that interact with antigens during maturation. For T-lymphocytes this occurs in the thymus and ensures that mature T-lymphocytes are self tolerant. B-lymphocytes may also undergo clonal deletion.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.
In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for the treatment of FETAL DISEASES, such as fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL).
Immunological rejection of leukemia cells following bone marrow transplantation.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.
A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.
The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the TESTES from the embryonic GONADS.
A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
A defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by mutations in the CYBB gene, the condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, or NCF4 gene mutations, the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.
Transference of multiple tissues, such as muscle, bone, nerve, and skin, as a functional unit for reconstructive purposes. Blood supply to the transplanted tissues is maintained throughout the transplantation procedure with minimal ischemia. Maintenance of vascularity in the graft promotes its viability, function, and survival in the recipient.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
The experimental joining of two individuals for the purpose of studying the effects of one on the other.
A subfamily in the family CEBIDAE that consists of four genera: CALLITHRIX (marmosets), CALLIMICO (Goeldi's monkey), LEONTOPITHECUS (lion tamarins), and SAGUINUS (long-tusked tamarins). The members of this family inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.

Revisiting liver transplant immunology: from the concept of immune engagement to the dualistic pathway paradigm. (1/276)

Ever since the demonstration that allografts are rejected through immune reactions of the host, clinical therapies for organ allografts have relied on immune suppression to prevent these destructive events. A growing body of clinical and experimental data suggests that allografts elicit multiple, interactive immune responses. The result is not inevitably graft rejection, and "spontaneous" acceptance of fully allogeneic liver grafts occurs in rodents without immunosuppression. A spectrum of results range from spontaneous acceptance without immunosuppression to rejection with immunosuppression. The "dualistic pathway paradigm" aims to reconcile apparently conflicting observations in liver transplantation and proposes that: (1) immune engagement between the host and the allograft is instrumental in both rejection and acceptance; (2) there exist in all mammalian species congruent interactive pathways of immune activation whereby the fate of the allograft is determined by the quantitative results of these interactions; (3) the dualistic effect of immunosuppressive drugs on pathways of immune activation, conferring the capacity for favorable or unfavorable graft outcome should be investigated in experimental models in which organ allografts are spontaneously accepted. In conclusion the design of clinical strategies based on this research may contribute to protocols resulting in allograft acceptance without chronic immunosuppression.  (+info)

Living donor liver transplant with clinical tolerance, laboratory evidence of chimerism, and spontaneous clearance of HBV. (2/276)

We present a case of functional and histopathologic tolerance, chimerism, and spontaneous clearance of HBV in a patient four years after living donor liver transplant (LDLT). A 19-year-old male patient underwent a LDLT for HBV cirrhosis. He voluntarily ceased immunosuppression and antiviral therapy after 6 months. He is now four years status post transplant without any episodes of rejection or clinical manifestation of liver disease. PCR and VNTR were used to show donor-recipient chimerism and a large degree of genetic similarity between the pair. MLC and cytokine elaboration were used to show recipient hyporeactivity towards donor antigen. He also has clinical evidence of clearing his HBV without continued use of HBIG.  (+info)

Maternal and sibling microchimerism in twins and triplets discordant for neonatal lupus syndrome-congenital heart block. (3/276)

OBJECTIVE: Neonatal lupus syndrome-congenital heart block (NLS-CHB) is an acquired autoimmune disease in which maternal autoantibodies are necessary but not sufficient for disease. Maternal myocardial cells have been found in the hearts of patients with NLS-CHB, suggesting that maternal microchimerism may also play a role. In this study we asked whether levels of microchimerism in the blood are associated with NLS-CHB in discordant twins and triplets. METHODS: Human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-specific and Y-chromosome-specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to quantitatively assay maternal and sibling microchimerism in peripheral blood. Because of HLA allele sharing in families, it was not always possible to distinguish between multiple sources of microchimerism. RESULTS: In one family, maternal and/or sibling microchimerism was detected in two triplets who had CHB, but not in the triplet with transient hepatitis. Levels ranged from 4 to 948 genome-equivalents of foreign deoxyribonucleic acid per million host genome-equivalents (gEq/million). Over the first year levels of sibling microchimerism decreased in the triplet with complete CHB and increased in the triplet who progressed from first- to second-degree CHB. In a second family, maternal and/or sibling microchimerism was detected in the healthy twin (1223 gEq/million) but not in the twin with CHB. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal and/or sibling microchimerism was detectable in the blood of infant twins and triplets discordant for NLS. Microchimerism in the blood was not specific for NLS-CHB, although in one family levels correlated with disease. Thus, microchimerism in the blood and/or tissues may be involved in the pathogenesis or progression of NLS-CHB, but additional factors must also contribute. Further investigation is warranted.  (+info)

Male microchimerism in women with systemic sclerosis and healthy women who have never given birth to a son. (4/276)

BACKGROUND: Male DNA or cells are often used to measure microchimerism in a woman. In studies of autoimmune diseases male microchimerism is most often attributed to the previous birth of a son. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of male microchimerism in healthy women or women with systemic sclerosis who had never given birth to a son. METHODS: Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting the Y chromosome specific sequence DYS14 was employed to test DNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 26 women with systemic sclerosis and 23 healthy women who had never given birth to a son. RESULTS: are expressed as the genome equivalent number of male cells per million host cells (gEq/mil).Results: Male DNA was found in 15% of women with systemic sclerosis (range 0 to 23.7 gEq/mil) and in 13% of healthy women (range 0 to 5.1 gEq/mil). Although two women with male DNA had an induced abortion, most had no history of spontaneous or induced abortion (either systemic sclerosis or healthy). CONCLUSIONS: Microchimerism with male DNA can be found in the circulation of women who have never given birth to a son. Thus sources other than a male birth must be considered when male DNA is used to measure microchimerism. Although other studies are needed, there was no apparent difference in women with systemic sclerosis and healthy women. Possible sources of male DNA include unrecognised male pregnancy or unrecognised male twin, an older male sibling with transfer through the maternal circulation, or sexual intercourse alone.  (+info)

Emergent autoimmunity in graft-versus-host disease. (5/276)

Donor T-cell recognition of host alloantigens presented by host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is necessary for the induction of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), but whether direct alloreactivity is sufficient for the propagation of GVHD is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that GVHD cannot be effectively propagated through the direct pathway of allorecognition. Rather, donor T-cell recognition of antigens through the indirect pathway is necessary for the perpetuation of GVHD. Furthermore, GVHD results in the breaking of self tolerance, resulting in the emergence of donor T cells that can cause autoimmune disease in syngeneic recipients. Notably, GVHD-induced autoreactivity is donor APC dependent, transferable into secondary hosts, and involves cells of the innate immune system. These results indicate that donor T-cell--mediated pathologic damage during GVHD becomes donor APC dependent and provide a mechanistic explanation for the long-standing observation that GVHD is associated with autoimmune clinical manifestations.  (+info)

Pkd1 regulates immortalized proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells through p53 induction and JNK activation. (6/276)

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common human monogenic genetic disorder and is characterized by progressive bilateral renal cysts and the development of renal insufficiency. The cystogenesis of ADPKD is believed to be a monoclonal proliferation of PKD-deficient (PKD(-/-)) renal tubular epithelial cells. To define the function of Pkd1, we generated chimeric mice by aggregation of Pkd1(-/-) ES cells and Pkd1(+/+) morulae from ROSA26 mice. As occurs in humans with ADPKD, these mice developed cysts in the kidney, liver, and pancreas. Surprisingly, the cyst epithelia of the kidney were composed of both Pkd1(-/-) and Pkd1(+/+) renal tubular epithelial cells in the early stages of cystogenesis. Pkd1(-/-) cyst epithelial cells changed in shape from cuboidal to flat and replaced Pkd1(+/+) cyst epithelial cells lost by JNK-mediated apoptosis in intermediate stages. In late-stage cysts, Pkd1(-/-) cells continued immortalized proliferation with downregulation of p53. These results provide a novel understanding of the cystogenesis of ADPKD patients. Furthermore, immortalized proliferation without induction of p53 was frequently observed in 3T3-type culture of mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Pkd1(-/-) mice. Thus, Pkd1 plays a role in preventing immortalized proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells through the induction of p53 and activation of JNK.  (+info)

Multi-lineage potential of fetal cells in maternal tissue: a legacy in reverse. (7/276)

Fetal cells circulate in pregnant women and persist in blood and tissue for decades post-partum. The mother thus becomes chimeric. Factors that may influence such fetal cell microchimerism include histocompatibility, fetal or placental abnormalities, or a reproductive history that includes miscarriage or elective termination. Fetal cell microchimerism is associated with some maternal autoimmune diseases, such as systemic sclerosis. Moreover, a novel population of fetal cells, the pregnancy-associated progenitor cells (PAPCs), appears to differentiate in diseased or injured maternal tissue. The cellular origin of these cells is at present unknown but could be a hematopoietic stem cell, a mesenchymal stem cell, or a novel cell type. Pregnancy therefore results in the acquisition of cells with stem-cell-like properties that may influence maternal health post-partum. Rather than triggering disease, these cells may instead combat it.  (+info)

Chimerism in kidneys, livers and hearts of normal women: implications for transplantation studies. (8/276)

Tissue chimerism was recently described in transplanted organs from female donors into male recipients, by demonstration of the Y-chromosome in tissue-derived cells. It was claimed that these Y-chromosome positive cells were recipient derived. To find out whether the chimeric cells, derived from pregnancies of sons or blood transfusions, could have been present in the solid organs before transplantation, we performed the following study. In situ hybridization for the Y-chromosome was performed on the normal organs (51 kidneys, 51 livers, 69 hearts) from 75 women of the normal population, whose child and blood transfusion status were known. Chimeric cells were found in 13 kidneys, 10 livers and 4 hearts, of 23 women. There was no relation between the child status or the blood transfusion history with the presence of Y-chromosome positive cells. We have for the first time demonstrated that male cells are present in normal kidneys, livers and hearts. Theoretically, these organs could have been used for the transplantation. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that the chimeric cells thus far described in transplantation studies, are not necessarily donor derived, and could have been present in the organs before the transplantation.  (+info)

While much of the focus on this phenomenon in the past 15 years has been on the possible pathological role that these fetal cells play in contributing to autoimmune diseases in the mother, i.e. the bad microchimerism proposed by Nelson JL in 1996,[2] a more positive perspective is beginning to emerge, also known as the good microchimerism hypothesis, which …suggests that persistent fetal cells, instead of inducing a maternal immune response, provide a rejuvenating source of fetal progenitor cells that may have the capacity to participate in maternal tissue repair processes.[3]. Published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2004 and titled Transfer of fetal cells with multilineage potential to maternal tissue, researchers discussed the role that fetal microchimerism may play in responding to maternal injury by developing multilineage capacity in maternal organs. They found evidence that male fetal microchimeric cells had differentiated into maternal epithelial tissues ...
Chimerism analysis is one part of the monitoring process for bone marrow transplant patients. The pre-transplant chimerism analysis of both donor and recipient is necessary in order to evaluate for the presence of hematopoietic microchimerism in patients at various time points subsequent to allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Hematopoietic microchimerism will be determined by PCR analysis using a panel of highly-polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers. DNA will be extracted from the recipients peripheral blood cells or bone marrow. The number of alleles in the profile established by the STR panel at the time of the pre-transplant chimerism analysis will determine the complexity of the post-transplant chimerism analysis. Screen-informative STRs from post-transplant recipient samples will be quantified to determine the percent of hematopoietic microchimerism in the patient.. ...
The role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in thymic development is uncertain. Not surprisingly, IL-2 knockout (KO) mice have been used to address this question. However, as we report here, such mice are chimeric, containing both IL-2 KO cells and IL-2-expressing cells transferred in utero from their heterozygous mothers. These cells produce IL-2 in amounts detectable by conventional means, and their presence in lymphoid tissues confounds efforts to define the true IL-2 KO phenotype. To minimize the amount of IL-2 available to the thymus, we subjected recombinase activating gene-1 KO mice to bone marrow transplantation using IL-2 KO donors, and then followed the reconstitution of the thymus. The thymuses of these mice became increasingly aberrant over time, including abnormalities in both stromal cells and thymocytes. These results demonstrate that IL-2 is critical to several aspects of thymic function, a finding previously obscured by the presence of IL-2 in IL-2 KO mice.
The complement cascade is responsible for more than just the lysis of the foreign cell; the different subcomponents released at each stage are responsible for a number of other biological functions.. Opsonisation. Opsonisation is the process of making a foreign cell more appealing to a phagocytic cell. This is useful as it helps to remove the foreign cell by phagocytosis. The complement component responsible for the opsonisation of cells is C3b. It increases the efficiency of phagocytes as they have specific receptors for the C3b component (C3bR). When the C3b binds to its receptor on the phagocyte, the process of phagocytosis begins and the foreign cell is engulfed.. Anaphylatoxin Formation. The peptide subcomponents C3a and C5a are anaphylatoxins meaning they have a number of inflammation properties. They are able to increase vascular permeability at the site of infection and they are also chemotactic. This means they are able to attract phagocytes into the site of infected tissue.. Both C3a ...
Target cell isolation ideal for chimerism analysis. Positive selection with MACS® MicroBead Technology for multiple cell types from whole blood in 30 min. - 대한민국
Health, ...A pregnant womans blood stream contains not only her own cells but a...Three types of fetal cells have now been identified in the lungs of la...Researchers suspect that fetal cells in a mothers blood stream help h...Using this teams techniques of gene expression analysis researchers ...,3,types,of,fetal,cells,can,migrate,into,maternal,organs,during,pregnancy,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Chimerism genetic testing is used to monitor the success of haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) by evaluating the ratio of donor and recipient DNA in the recipients blood or bone marrow.. This guides treatment to help prevent engraftment failure, to maximise graft-versus-tumour effect and to minimise opportunistic infection and graft-versus-host disease.. Flow sorted chimerism analysis of peripheral blood can be used to monitor T-cell, B-cell and myeloid lineage specific engraftment upon request.. ...
Studies examine four mechanisms that could sustain the HIV reservoirs in children versus adults: (1) immune tolerance of HIV due to perinatal infection, and/or (2) cross immune tolerance to HIV generated by increased levels of maternal microchimerism (MMc); (3) modulation of gene expression by HIV integration in genes of Treg that promote survival of these cells impairing antiviral functions; and (4) by the persistent loss of gut T-helper (Th)17 cells due to bacterial translocation eliciting pro-inflammatory cytokines that favor the development and persistence of Tregs instead of effective antiviral CD4+ T-cell help. ...
MACSprep™ Chimerism CD3 MicroBeads have been developed for the positive selection of CD3+ cells directly from anticoagulated whole blood by using the autoMACS® Pro Separator, the MultiMACS Cell24 Separator Plus, or the Whole Blood Column Kit. No sample preparation is required, including density gradient centrifugation or erythrocyte lysis, as well as no washing step after labeling. | Belgique
Most of the organs of the immune system are concerned with the growth, development, and deployment of lymphocytes. These organs are called lymphoid organs.. Lymphocytes travel through the blood searching for foreign cells. B cells use antibodies to target bacteria. T cells actually do the fighting.. B cells work by using tiny antibodies. There are thousands of different B cells in the blood at any time, each armed with antibodies against a particular germ. But there are only a few of each until there is contact with any particular germ. Then, B cells multiply dramatically very quickly and release large amounts of the right antibodies.. The process works like this: when a germ bumps into a B cell, the B cell multiplies, forming versions of itself called plasma cells. Plasma cells make antibodies to attack the germ. The antibodies lock on to the target germ to make it easy for phagocytes to eat. Some of the B cells continue multiplying after the germ has been destroyed, so that if the germ ...
As for giving someone cancer in a vaccine. Flat out impossible. Cancer is a malfunction of the DNA in YOUR cells. Because its YOUR cells running amok your bodies immune system sits the fight out.....they dont attack your cells unless the immune system is fubard. Giving you a cancerous cell from someone else wont work. The immune system treats cells from other people lime an infection and kills them swiftly. That is why organ transplants can fail......rejection due to the immune system attacking foreign cells ...
Basics of the Immune System by Leonid G. Ber, MD Energy Times, September 1, 1998 In a world filled with pathogens and microbes, good health and resistance to disease is no accident. It requires a vigorous and vigilant immune system. The immune system should be viewed as an internal security force that is constantly checking the identity of everything entering and already existing in the body. A cell or substance may be recognized as non-self and a potential enemy if it does not have the right molecular make-up. A cell displaying molecules produced according to a different blueprint than the bodys own code may be recognized as foreign. To eliminate alien material that may harm the body, the immune system must take swift action. Recognizing entities that originate outside the self forms the key to overall immune system response. This key is carried in the body by cells called macrophages (ma-kro-fajs), a name derived from a Greek term meaning big eater. Macrophages eat or engulf foreign cells ...
Cells have an internal clock. This clock tells them how many times they can divide before they must exit the loop by committing cell suicide. This kind of cell death is called apoptosis (pronounced apohtosis).. Apoptosis is a natural cell process which affects many things. For example, when a human fetus is developing, many vestigial (ancient but no longer necessary) features begin to develop, but mysteriously stop dividing at some point during development. This is another form of apoptosis in action. External factors can also induce a cell to undergo apoptosis. One example is found in our immune system. Certain cells produce factors that are designed to induce apoptosis in the foreign cells they encounter. Other apoptosis inducers include glucocorticoids and radiation. There are many others. Cancer cells grow out of control. They do not know when to stop dividing. They are resistant to the normal factors which induce apoptosis in healthy cells. If you have a normal liver cell and a ...
Husband sperm cell killing wifeAt this time, Rachel in line to see a paper stresses that some humans have a killer cells of foreign cells to invade the body
PepsiCo has come under fire from pro-life advocates because it has been contracting with a research firm that uses fetal cells from babies victimized by
Before receiving a fetal cell transplant several years ago, Peter Sauers Parkinsons was so bad he could barely walk. Today, at 72, he is filled with life and energy.. ...
Paediatric cancer is a disease where the cells of the body grow in an uncontrolled way. Paediatric cancers are those that primarily occur in children. The most common of these are leukaemias, brain tumours and lymphoma. Almost all cancer cells show genetic changes that can be the cause of the cancer or can indicate disease progression.. Paediatric cancer genetic testing is a vital tool, used to identify the cause of the cancer, the type of cancer, help direct the best course of treatment, and to monitor disease progression and the efficacy of treatment.. Chimerism genetic testing is used to monitor the success of blood stem cell transplantation (like bone marrow transplantation). The test looks at the level of donor bone marrow versus the level of bone marrow from the patient (recipient). VCGS has developed an advanced chimerism test which can detect very small changes in the levels of donor and recipient bone marrow. This is used, with high levels of accuracy, to monitor the health of the ...
C3b is the larger of two elements formed by the cleavage of complement component 3, and is considered an important part of the innate immune system. C3b is potent in opsonization: tagging pathogens, immune complexes (antigen-antibody), and apoptotic cells for phagocytosis. Additionally, C3b plays a role in forming a C3 convertase when bound to Factor B (C3bBb complex), or a C5 convertase when bound to C4b and C2b (C4b2b3b complex) or when an additional C3b molecule binds to the C3bBb complex (C3bBb3b complex). C3bs ability to perform these important functions derives from its ability to covalently bind to the surface of invading pathogens within an organisms body. The cleavage of C3 leaves C3b with an exposed thioester bond, allowing C3b to effectively coat and tag foreign cells by covalently binding to hydroxyl (-OH) and amine (-NH2) groups on foreign cell surfaces. This cleavage can occur via three mechanisms (classical pathway, alternative pathway and lectin pathway) that ultimately lead to ...
To the Editor:. The article entitled Evidence for Cardiomyocyte Repopulation by Extracardiac Progenitors in Transplanted Human Hearts by Laflamme et al,1 published in Circulation Research, confirms our early observations2 that cardiac chimerism occurs after transplantation of a female heart in a male patient. These results are also in agreement with the detection of chimerism in multiple organs after bone marrow transplantation.3 The authors of the study in Circulation Research are perturbed by the low frequency of chimerism in their samples compared with ours2 (as well as in a subsequent recent report3). They attribute this discrepancy to …technical differences… (pages 637 and 638) between the two studies. We agree completely with their assessment.. Given the resolution of the histological sections included in the article in Circulation Research, 1 we are pleasantly surprised that they could identify even this relatively low level of chimerism. Laflamme et al place special emphasis on ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Some people possess a small number of cells in their bodies that are not genetically their own; this condition is known as microchimerism. It is difficult to determine potential health effects from this condition because of humans relatively long life-spans. Now, researchers at the University of Missouri have found that microchimerism can be found in dogs as well.
Unit 7: Failures of the Immune System **Even as the human immune system has evolved and developed complex defensive mechanisms against pathogens, pathogens themselves have evolved and developed new means of evading the immune system. In some cases, the adaptations of pathogens are such that they are extremely infectious, virulent, and sometimes even fatal. We are also threatened by health hazards posed by our own immune system. The immune system can, for example, respond inappropriately to its own cells (as in the case of autoimmune diseases) or to innocuous foreign cells (as in the case of allergies and other hypersensitivity diseases). This unit will cover some clinical and medical aspects of the immune system as it relates to immune-system dysfunction. **. Unit 7 Time Advisory ...
Cyclosporin is a major transplant drug and again is an immunosupressant The drug was introduced in 1984 and is used to neutralise the body s own defence system against infections and foreign cells.. As the recipients immune system is affected it can take longer to fight off common infections such as the common cold.. ...
The recent identification of the gammaretrovirus XMRV and a second gammaretrovirus of a different subtype in chronic fatigue syndrome has aroused much interest, not least among sufferers. However, it remains highly controversial whether the detection of these viruses represents true infection or laboratory artifacts.
Anyways, lets get back to the science part(super awesome cool part). From what I understand, this gene PD-1, more or less is in charge of preventing the body from attacking its self. In the case of cancer, the body needs to attack its own cells. This understanding has lead to many treatments including this one, revolving around blocking or getting rid of PD-1. CRISPR is the process of editing out that gene from the T cells, therefore allowing the cells to attack the cancer cells without hesitation. This process reminds me of the p-glo lab we did. Only we inserted a gene into the ecolis DNA ring thing. They focused on the extraction part. This all connects to the concepts we were learning about in genetics. we learned about how enzymes can cut off specific sections of a chromosome based on nucleotide order. That section of DNA could then be introduced into another foreign cells DNA. This having already been done, but mostly to plansts and animals to enhance their production capabilities. Now ...
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Vinnedge recalled that in August Pepsi inked a four-year, $30-million deal with Senomyx for the flavor company to develop artificial high-potency sweeteners for the beverage maker. The pro-life group contacted both companies, requesting them not to use fetal cells in the program, reminding them that there were other, non-objectionable, and fully viable alternatives. Senomyx ignored the letter altogether, while Pepsi officials replied with a blanket e-mail from Pepsi Consumer Relations, assuring those who contacted them with concerns that the company was committed to using only the highest ethical methods in all aspects of our research. This is something we take very seriously, and we hold ourselves and all of our research partners to the same high standards as the worlds leading research centers.. Regarding its relationship with Senomyx, PepsiCo explained that we utilize techniques that have been the gold standard for several decades by top universities, hospitals, U.S. government ...
Coriell Cell Repositories Related Information on MRC-5 Aborted Fetal Cell Line Cell Line Characteristics Repository Number: AG06814 Subcollection:
Obama agency rules Pepsis use of aborted fetal cells in soft drinks constitutes ordinary business operations Saturday, March 17, 2012 by: Ethan A.
If Im going to the trouble of cloning myself, I want the clone to be a copy of me! Im imagining what someone might say if they were told that their expensive and ethically dubious personal cloning efforts produced a […]. ...
Diverse mammals, including humans, have been found to carry distinct genomes in their cells. What does such genetic chimerism mean for health and disease?. 4 Comments. ...
Diverse mammals, including humans, have been found to carry distinct genomes in their cells. What does such genetic chimerism mean for health and disease?. 4 Comments. ...
Microtransplantation(MST) is an advanced technology to treat malignant hematological diseases and tumors by infusing patients with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilized human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells following a reduced-intensity chemotherapy or targeted therapy. The term microtransplantation comes from its mechanism of reaching donor cell microchimerism. Chemotherapy is used by lower doses only to destroy cancer and partially suppress patients immune system, which will be reinitiated by donors stem cells soon after transplantation, and will play a role as recipient-versus-tumor (RVT) effect combining donor cells graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect. Donors stem cells, which have been processed, will also accelerate functional recovery of recipients hematopoietic stem cells, greatly reducing infections and transplant-related mortality. Practices of microtransplantation has shown none graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) till ...
Recipient-derived cells integrate into renal allografts inducing organ-specific microchimerism. Circulating pluripotent progenitor cells with high plasticity for differentiation were suggested as a potential source of allograft chimerism. Whether or not these cells also contribute to tumor formation in renal transplants is unknown. We analyzed six histologically different tumors in renal allografts for the presence of recipient-derived cells. To circumvent dependency on gender mismatch, a polymerase chain reaction assay for highly polymorphic short tandem repeat marker (DNA fingerprinting) in combination with laser microdissection was applied. Pure tumor cell populations were harvested by laser microdissection after immunohistochemical (CD45/CD68) marking of contaminating leukocytes. In cases of gender mismatch (n = 2), results were confirmed by sex chromosome in situ hybridization. Two metanephric adenomas demonstrated microchimerism comprising both donor- and recipient-derived tumor cells. Two ...
The invention relates to the methods for producing hematopoietic chimerism and central tolerance by peripheral tolerance induction without myeloablative conditioning.
Chimerism is defined as the presence in a subject of more than one stable and genetically distinct cell line; cases reported so far include both patients with ambiguous genitalia and healthy subjects. The biological mechanisms, which may give origin to chimeras, are complex, and can be understood by analyzing DNA samples of the patients and their parents using molecular techniques. The objective of this study is to identify the mechanism of origin for the 2 cases we report. The first patient is a phenotipically normal girl with normal (external and internal) genitalia; the second patient had ambiguous genitalia and underwent surgery. DNA was purified from blood samples and, limited to Patient 1, from a sample of biliary cyst. Short tandem repeat polymorphisms were analyzed in order to identify the relative parental contribution to the patients. Molecular analyses carried out on the first patient are not fully informative because of two possible explanations (|i|i.e. |/i|parthenogenetic and andrognetic
BOSTON -- Six organ-transplant recipients have remained healthy for up to five years without anti-rejection drugs, said researchers in the U.S. and Australia whose strategy was chimerism.
From a naturopathic perspective the causes of all autoimmune diseases are the same. Where the autoimmunity manifests is down to genetics and lifestyle. The question is why are autoimmune diseases on the rise? What is it that causes your own immune system to zealously attack itself? Why can the immune system no longer recognise self cells from foreign cells (antigens)?
In experiments in mice, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers say they have developed a way to successfully transplant certain protective brain cells without the need for lifelong anti-rejection drugs. A report on the research, published Sept. 16 in the journal Brain, details the new approach, which selectively circumvents the immune response against foreign cells, allowing transplanted…
d3] It is important to realize that type-1 diabetes is NOT a conventional allergy to insulin. It is similar to allergies in that it is the bodys immune system overreacting to something that it should not react to, but other than that, is quite different. Allergies involve the immune system overproducing histamines. These histamines attempt to get physical irritants, like pollen, out of your body. You can counter this histamine reaction by taking antihistamines. Type-1 diabetes involves the immune system overproducing malfunctioning killer T-cells (or perhaps under producing regulatory T-cells). These malfunctioning killer T-cells mistakenly kill beta cells, thinking they are foreign cells (ie. living creatures like viruses, that have invaded the body). So the mechanism is different (histamines vs. T-cells), and the mistaken target is different (physical things, like pollen or wheat vs. living organisms, like viruses ...
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In the present condition of the technique of cultivation of tissues, the only possible way of studying leucocytic secretions was to grow colonies of leucocytes in a medium of known properties and to examine the modifications of these properties under the influence of the living cells. The method was far from perfect, because the secretions were mixed with serum and accumulated for 48 hours in a medium where they probably underwent partial destruction. But an approximate idea of certain of the qualities of the secretions, although not of their quantity, could be derived from the experiments. In the fluids extracted from the cultures, we attempted to detect the presence of the leucocytic secretions through their physiological effects on homologous and foreign cells. Two kinds of substances were sought, those which act on homologous cells, and those which destroy foreign erythrocytes.. The secretion by leucocytes of substances necessary to the nutrition of other cells was considered as probable ...
Ariffin, H.; Daud, S.S.; Mohamed, Z.; Ibrahim, K.; Lee, T.F.; Chong, L.A. (2007) Evaluation of two short tandem repeat multiplex systems for post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation chimerism analysis. Singapore Medical Journal, 48 (4). pp. 333-340. ISSN 0037-5675. ...
Study 1: A study was conducted to determine the developmental toxicity of the read across substance, C18 TMAC (active: 98.8%), according to a method similar to OECD Guideline 414. Pregnants rats were exposed dermally to the test substance from Day 6 to Day 15 of gestation. Volumes of 0.5 mL were applied on shaved skin. The concentrations of the test substance ranged from 0.0 to 2.5% (i.e., corresponding to 0, 18, 30 and 50 mg/kg bw/day). Signs of systemic reaction and local reaction of the exposed area of skin were assessed on a daily basis. Body weights were recorded on Days 1, 3, 6, 10, 17, and 20 of pregnancy. Food and water consumption were measured at regular intervals throughout the study. On Day 20 of pregnancy, congenital abnormalities and macroscopic pathological changes in maternal organs as well as in ovaries and uteri (number of corpora lutea, number/distribution of live young and embryo/foetal deaths (early and late, stages of implantation)) and post implantation loss were ...
The focus of this project is to understand the role of maternal cells in infant immunity to malaria. Working in a malaria endemic setting, the goals of this project are to (1) define the phenotype and maintenance of maternal cells, and (2) define the contribution of maternal cells to anti-malarial immune responses in cord and infant peripheral blood. Funding is provided through a Burroughs Wellcome Fund Career Award for Medical Scientists through 2023.. ...
Fans know General Hospital loves wacky storylines, and medical chimerism quite easily explains how Charlotte could have DNA of Valentin, Lulu, and Dante but only be the biological child of Lulu and Dante. We know that Claudette was Valentins girlfriend and partner in crime even before she served as the embryo surrogate. Before embryo implantation, fertility treatments can increase odds of success.. With Claudette and Valentin in a sexual relationship, he could have fertilized an egg of Claudettes just as the doctor implanted Lulu and Dantes embryo in her womb. With two embryos, one can be absorbed by the other, resulting in just one baby being born but containing the DNA of the other embryo that didnt survive. In most cases of medical chimerism, it is one twin that absorbs the other, but it could happen with two unrelated embryos in the same uterus.. Valentin and Claudettes embryo could have been absorbed by Dante and Lulus resulting in multiple strains of DNA.. ...
Yes, but isnt it possible that given different selection pressures on human males and females, the autosomal genes of males and females will be found to differ in important respects? Given the very important differences in female and male development and physiology, arent autosomal differences likely to be very important too? How will we know unless we sample a large number of males and a large numbers of females? And if, as Leiden reports, this is the first time the DNA of a human female has been fully sequenced (whereas half a dozen or so males have been sequenced), isnt that a legitimate thing to do scientifically, regardless of the way in which the completion of the sequencing is announced? Doesnt if reflect a inappropriate (sex-linked) bias to sample only the DNA sequences of males ...
The point of the article is not that there is specifically male DNA that is within the female DNA of the mothers brain. Rather, the point of the article is to show that a fetus DNA can be found in a mothers brain. Because this DNA comes from a different individual (not because the DNA comes from a male), this DNA may act differently than the mothers own DNA (although its not yet clear from the research if the DNA is doing anything ...
None of us were surprised, said Flaherty, a 24-year veteran local prosecutor who was assistant chief of the Sex Crimes and Human Trafficking Division from 2016 to 2018.
Fetal stem cells can persist in maternal tissues for decades. In some instances, these cells are a benefit; other times, they can lead to adverse effects.
Id like to tell you a curious story. Jane was a 52 year old woman in need of a kidney transplant. Thankfully she had three loving sons who were all very happy to give her one of theirs. So Janes doctors performed tests to find out which of the three boys would be the best match, but the results surprised everyone. In the words of Jeremy Kyle, the DNA test showed that Jane was not the mother of two of the boys... Hang on, said Jane, child birth is not something you easily forget. Theyre definitely mine. And she was right. It turns out Jane was a chimera. Chimerism is the existence of two genetically different cell lines in one organism. This can arise for a number of reasons- it can be iatrogenic, like when someone has an organ transplant, or it can be naturally occurring. In Janes case, it began in her mums womb, with two eggs that had been fertilised by different sperm creating two embryos. Ordinarily, they would develop into two non-identical twins. However in Janes case the two balls of ...
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ChimerismEdit. Main article: Chimera (genetics). A chimera is an ordinary person or animal except that some of their parts ... "Postzygotic diploidization of triploids as a source of unusual cases of mosaicism, chimerism and twinning". Human Reproduction ...
In the course of this research, she also studied the phenomenon of chimerism, which sometimes created inconsistent results in ... doi:10.1016/S0737-0806(85)80096-4. Bowling, AT; Stott, ML; Bickel, L (August 1993). "Silent blood chimaerism in a mare ...
PMID 14688387.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Mosaicism and Chimerism at colostate.edu Picture at agric.gov.ab. ...
2017). "Interspecies Chimerism with Mammalian Pluripotent Stem Cells". Cell. 168: 473-486.e15. PMID 28129541. doi:10.1016/j. ...
What does such genetic chimerism mean for health and disease?". The Scientist. Archived from the original on 25 April 2017. ... Genetic mosaics may often be confused with chimerism, in which two or more genotypes arise in one individual similarly to ...
Inggris) Evolution of mixed chimerism after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation as determined on granulocytes and ... Inggris) Intentional induction of mixed chimerism and achievement of antitumor responses after nonmyeloablative conditioning ... "Chimerism and tolerance in transplantation". Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; Thomas E. ... "Mosaicism and Chimerism". Colorado State University; R. A. Bowen. Diakses tanggal 2010-08-07 ...
A proposed strategy to avoid cellular rejection is to induce donor non-responsiveness using hematopoietic chimerism. Donor stem ...
... and the host of allograft experiments and observations of twin chimerism they inspired, were seminal for the theories of immune ...
Chimerism monitoring is a method to monitor the balance between the patient's own stem cells and the new stem cells from a ... This leads to a state of mixed chimerism early after transplant where both recipient and donor HSC coexist in the bone marrow ...
2001). "Establishment of complete and mixed donor chimerism after allogeneic lymphohematopoietic transplantation: ...
However, these discoveries, and the host of allograft experiments and observations of twin chimerism they inspired, were ...
"Tandem chimerism as a means to increase protein complexity in the human genome". Genome Research 16 (1): 37-44. doi:10.1101/gr. ...
A fetus in fetu can be considered alive, but only in the sense that its component tissues have not yet died or been eliminated. Thus, the life of a fetus in fetu is akin to that of a tumor in that its cells remain viable by way of normal metabolic activity. However, without the gestational conditions in utero with the amnion and placenta, a fetus in fetu can develop into, at best, an especially well differentiated teratoma; or, at worst, a high-grade metastatic teratocarcinoma. In terms of physical maturation, its organs have a working blood supply from the host, but all cases of fetus in fetu present critical defects, such as no functional brain, heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, or urinary tract. Accordingly, while a fetus in fetu can share select morphological features with a normal fetus, it has no prospect of any life outside of the host twin. Moreover, it poses clear threats to the life of the host twin on whom its own life depends.[4] ...
A number of causes are responsible, including genetic, such as chimerism, Horner's syndrome and Waardenburg syndrome. ...
Mosaicism and chimerism, rare genetic conditions that can result in false negative results on DNA-based tests ...
... to identify chimerism and off-target errors. He says that during the pregnancy, cell-free fetal DNA was fully sequenced to ...
Chimerism analysis is one part of the monitoring process for bone marrow transplant patients. The pre-transplant chimerism ... Post-transplant chimerism complex: $839.30 / 81267. Please submit a completed Hematology/Oncology Specimens requisition for ... The number of alleles in the profile established by the STR panel at the time of the pre-transplant chimerism analysis will ... determine the complexity of the post-transplant chimerism analysis. Screen-informative STRs from post-transplant recipient ...
Chimerism Testing. Overview. Chimerism genetic testing is used to monitor the success of haemopoietic stem cell transplantation ... Flow sorted chimerism analysis of peripheral blood can be used to monitor T-cell, B-cell and myeloid lineage specific ... Flow Sorted Chimerism: 5-10ml. Notes. New referrals require a genotyping workup. This requires pre-transplant samples from both ... Flow sorted chimerism testing must be booked at least one week in advance. ...
The median donor chimerism in imatinib and DLI groups was seventy three% (selection 27%%) vs 74% (selection 47%nine%), eighty ... The median donor chimerism in imatinib and DLI groups was seventy three% (selection 27%%) vs 74% (selection 47%nine%), eighty ... Imatinib upkeep may not be needed for patients with relapse CML put up-transplants after they attained entire donor chimerism ... Dependent on these, we hypothesize that the reestablishment of donor total chimerism and restoration of complete GVL in the ...
The role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in thymic development is uncertain. Not surprisingly, IL-2 knockout (KO) mice have been used to address this question. However, as we report here, such mice are chimeric, containing both IL-2 KO cells and IL-2-expressing cells transferred in utero from their heterozygous mothers. These cells produce IL-2 in amounts detectable by conventional means, and their presence in lymphoid tissues confounds efforts to define the true IL-2 KO phenotype. To minimize the amount of IL-2 available to the thymus, we subjected recombinase activating gene-1 KO mice to bone marrow transplantation using IL-2 KO donors, and then followed the reconstitution of the thymus. The thymuses of these mice became increasingly aberrant over time, including abnormalities in both stromal cells and thymocytes. These results demonstrate that IL-2 is critical to several aspects of thymic function, a finding previously obscured by the presence of IL-2 in IL-2 KO ...
... state-of-the-art guides focused on the clinical aspects and consequences of chimerism ... Chimerism. Book Subtitle. A Clinical Guide. Editors. * Nicole L. Draper Copyright. 2018. Publisher. Springer International ... Written by experts in the field, Chimerism: A Clinical Guide is a valuable resource for clinicians and researchers that will ... This text provides a comprehensive, up-to-date review of chimerism. The first part of the volume presents the causes of ...
... and Australia whose strategy was chimerism. ... Kidney and Liver Transplant Rejection Purged by Chimerism. ... Sachs said this period of transient chimerism reflects a normal selection process in the thymus by which immune cells that ... But the new results show how chimerism and tolerance might be applied to a broad population of transplant recipients. ... Both U.S. groups sought to induce chimerism by infusing donor hematopoietic cells along with the organ transplant. ...
Rheumatoid Arthritis:Tolerance Induction by Mixed Chimerism. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... One patient was in complete remission, RF neg, no GVHD, stable mixed chimerism, died 4 years after treatment from leukemia ...
The invention relates to the methods for producing hematopoietic chimerism and central tolerance by peripheral tolerance ... Allogeneic Chimerism Established in Outbred CF1 Mice in the Absence of. Irradiation: Enhancement of Chimerism by Injection of ... Allogeneic Chimerism Established in Outbred CF1 Mice in the Absence of Irradiation: Enhancement of Chimerism by Injection of ... Although allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism was achieved, the levels of chimerism were relatively low, e.g., typically less ...
Rheumatoid Arthritis:Tolerance Induction by Mixed Chimerism. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ...
Chimerism testing for assessment of stem cell engraftment is performed on genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood or bone ... Chimerism Assessment by Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers (Post-Transplant), PCR. Pre-transplant Screening ... This unique marker will be used for subsequent Chimerism analysis by importing pre & donors profiles from archives for analysis ...
Donor T-cell chimerism [ Time Frame: Day 28 post-transplant ]. Secondary Outcome Measures : *Exposure to fludarabine and ... Blood Samples to Evaluate Biomarkers of Donor Chimerism. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility ...
Endothelial chimerism and vascular sequestration protect pancreatic islet grafts from antibody-mediated rejection. ... Endothelial chimerism and vascular sequestration protect pancreatic islet grafts from antibody-mediated rejection. ... Thus, we conclude that endothelial chimerism combined with vascular sequestration of DSAs protects islet grafts from humoral ...
... genome called transcription-induced chimerism (TIC), where two adjacent genes produce a single, fused RNA transcript. The work ...
1986) to confirm the chimerism (Padula 2005).. In mammals, the SRY gene is located on the short arm of the Y chromosome, and it ... with hematopoietic chimerism, evidencing the two cell lines (a and b) 2n = 46,XX[5]/46, XY[25]. [ ] Number of metaphases found ... Landes Bioscience Chimerism 3(2): 43-44. [ Links ] TAKABAYASHI S AND KATOH H. 2011. Sex Identification Using the ZFX and ZFY ... The hematopoietic chimerism 2n=46,XX/46,XY was detected in five of the 20 analyzed individuals of Callithrix sp., being three ...
... From:. Tony Henwood I believe this is known as Proteus syndrome. The following is from a paper I am ... Chimerism Hi Kemlo, >The only times I have come across chimerism has been associated with >blood transfusion. The patient ... and has chosen Chimerism (Genetic Mosaicism) about which >I know nowt. Does anyone out there know anything about this subject ...
HLA Chimerism Buffy Coat CD56 Positive Selection Kit II is designed to isolate CD56+ cells with an EasySep™ magnet from freshly ... EasySep™ HLA Chimerism Buffy Coat CD56 Positive Selection Kit (Catalog #17875). *EasySep™ HLA Chimerism Buffy Coat CD56 ... The EasySep™ HLA Chimerism Buffy Coat CD56 Positive Selection Kit II is designed to isolate CD56+ cells from freshly prepared ... RoboSep™ HLA Chimerism Buffy Coat CD56 Positive Selection Kit with Filter Tips (Catalog #17875RF) ...
HLA Chimerism Whole Blood CD8 Positive Selection Kit supports CD8+ cell isolation from fresh whole blood using positive ... EasySep™ HLA Chimerism Whole Blood CD8 Positive Selection Kit (Catalog #17889). *EasySep™ HLA Chimerism Whole Blood CD8 ... The EasySep™ HLA Chimerism Whole Blood CD8 Positive Selection Kit is designed to isolate CD8+ cells from fresh whole blood or ... RoboSep™ HLA Chimerism Whole Blood CD8 Positive Selection Kit with Filter Tips (Catalog #17889RF) ...
The chimerism was comprised of myeloid (neutrophil) chimerism with little or no T cell chimerism. A donorspecific renal ... Large Animal Chimerism and Tolerance Studies. The translation of mixed BM chimerism-induced tolerance from studies in mice has ... Fifteen of them developed multilineage chimerism without the occurrence of GVHD. In 8 patients with long term chimerism (,6 ... Investigators at Emory recently described compartmentalized chimerism or split chimerism [32]. A high-level of whole blood ...
Stable mixed hematopoietic chimerism after bone marrow transplantation for sickle cell anemia Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. ... Thus, allograft recipients with stable mixed chimerism had Rb S levels similar to donor levels, and only 1 patient required a ... Among patients who had donors with sickle trait, the Hb S fractions were 36% and 37%, corresponding to donor chimerism levels ... The level of donor chimerism, measured , or =6 months after transplantation in peripheral blood, varied between 90% and 99% in ...
J. Y. Lin, F. C. Tsai, C. G. Wallace, W. C. Huang, F. C. Wei, and S. K. Liao, "Optimizing chimerism level through bone marrow ... W. C. Huang, J. Y. Lin, F. C. Wei, and S. K. Liao, "Induction of tolerance through mixed chimerism for composite tissue ... H. Pan, K. Zhao, L. Wang et al., "Mesenchymal stem cells enhance the induction of mixed chimerism and tolerance to rat hind- ... K. A. Prabhune, V. S. Gorantla, C. Maldonado, G. Perez-Abadia, J. H. Barker, and S. T. Ildstad, "Mixed allogeneic chimerism and ...
Phase I/II Pilot Study of Mixed Chimerism to Treat Inherited Metabolic Disorders. This study is ongoing, but not recruiting ... The goal of this research study is to establish chimerism and avoid graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) in patients with inherited ... The objective for the study is to establish chimerism following reduced intensity conditioning with no grade III/IV GVHD. The ... Phase I/II Pilot Study of Mixed Chimerism to Treat Inherited Metabolic Disorders. ...
... , Interpretation. Resultable. N. For questions regarding the Interface Map, please contact [email protected] ... Chimerism, Donor, Informative Loci. * Component test codes cannot be used to order tests. The information provided here is not ... See CPT codes under (Chimerism, Recipient Pre-Transplant - test code 2002065) Are you an ARUP Client?. Click here for your ... Background Information for Chimerism, Donor:. Indication: Monitoring for bone marrow transplant patients; correlation with ...
Mixed Chimerism Prolong Mice Keratoplasty Allografts Survival You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, ... Results: : While pretreatment with SEB induced high levels of hematopoietic chimerism on day 14(4.89±0.71%) and(3.19±0.52%)on ... While pretreatment with CTX resulted in chimerism(3.10±0.20%), which decreased by day 28 (1.42±0.31%). Pretreatment with NS ... Purpose: : To explore the mixed chimerism and specific immune tolerance induced by superantigen SEB combined with the donor ...
Target cell isolation ideal for chimerism analysis. Positive selection with MACS® MicroBead Technology for multiple cell types ... MACSprep™ Chimerism MicroBeads allow the fast and easy isolation of target cells for chimerism analysis. Get B cells, NK cells ... Cell isolation for lineage-specific chimerism analysis. *Direct cell isolation for reliable lineage-specific chimerism analysis ... MACSprep™ Chimerism MicroBeads have been developed for the positive selection of cells directly from anticoagulated whole blood ...
In conclusion, purified CD4 DLI from HLA-identical sibling donors can induce conversion from mixed to full donor chimerism with ... We analyzed immune responses in four patients converting from mixed to full donor chimerism without developing GVHD upon ... We analyzed immune responses in four patients converting from mixed to full donor chimerism without developing GVHD upon ... In the control group, no conversion of chimerism was observed, although in patient G improvement of chimerism occurred (Table 1 ...
PubMed journal article Mixed T-cell chimerism at 3 months followed by donor lymphocyte infusion is independently associated ... Patterns and kinetics of T-cell chimerism after allo transplant with alemtuzumab-based conditioning: mixed chimerism protects ... Mixed T-cell chimerism at 3 months followed by donor lymphocyte infusion is independently associated with favorable outcomes in ... "Mixed T-cell Chimerism at 3 Months Followed By Donor Lymphocyte Infusion Is Independently Associated With Favorable Outcomes in ...
Since allograft tolerance was achieved in these recipients without durable chimerism, peripheral mechanisms are postulated to ... and humans via induction of transient hematopoietic chimerism. ... T cells in allograft tolerance via transient mixed chimerism. * ... specific induction of iTregs by donor antigens is key to long-term allograft tolerance induced by transient mixed chimerism. ...
bone marrow transplantation to induce mixed hematopoietic chimerism (establishment of 1-95% donor CD3+ cells). ... of Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation Plus Cyclosporine and Mycophenolate Mofetil to Induce Mixed Hematopoietic Chimerism ... of Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation Plus Cyclosporine and Mycophenolate Mofetil to Induce Mixed Hematopoietic Chimerism ... of Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation Plus Cyclosporine and Mycophenolate Mofetil to Induce Mixed Hematopoietic Chimerism ...
The proposed therapy is intended to achieve mixed chimerism and immune tolerance. Mixed chimerism is when a combination of ... Treatment of sickle cell disease by induction of mixed chimerism and immune tolerance using CD4+ T-depleted haploidentical ... Treatment of sickle cell disease by induction of mixed chimerism and immune tolerance using CD4+ T-depleted haploidentical ...
Home › Treatment of sickle cell disease by induction of mixed chimerism and immune tolerance using CD4+ T-depleted ... Treatment of sickle cell disease by induction of mixed chimerism and immune tolerance using CD4+ T-depleted haploidentical ...
T-cell (CD3+) full-donor (over 90%) chimerism was observed in 22 of the 30 patients, while the remaining eight had mixed-donor ... Thereafter, five subsequently converted to full-donor chimerism without donor lymphocyte infusion by day 120 ( n = 4) or Day ... Prospective phase II trial to evaluate the complications and kinetics of chimerism induction following allogeneic hematopoietic ... and this report focuses on a precise evaluation of the toxicity profile and chimerism kinetics. Sustained engraftment in all ...
Chimerism 3(1): 24-28. Abstract. We have previously reported that peri-transplant conditioning leads to successful induction of ... Tolerance Induction after Organ Transplantation, "Delayed Tolerance," Via the Mixed Chimerism Approach: Planting Flowers in a ... Tolerance induction after organ transplantation, "delayed tolerance," via the mixed chimerism approach: Planting flowers in a ... can be induced in NHP through the mixed chimerism approach, if specific modifications to overcome/avoid donor-specific memory T ...
human chimerism. Surprising reason why human cloning may produce someone else July 5, 2018 Paul Knoepfler 4 ...
  • Flow sorted chimerism analysis of peripheral blood can be used to monitor T-cell, B-cell and myeloid lineage specific engraftment upon request. (vcgs.org.au)
  • Flow sorted chimerism testing must be booked at least one week in advance. (vcgs.org.au)
  • Chimerism testing for assessment of stem cell engraftment is performed on genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood or bone marrow aspirate samples. (mdanderson.org)
  • this approach resulted in engraftment, durable chimerism, and tolerance induction in recipients with highly mismatched related and unrelated donors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mixed T-cell chimerism at engraftment and absence of chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) were associated with relapse (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively). (luriechildrens.org)
  • Mixed T-cell chimerism at engraftment was predictive in patients without cGVHD (P = 0.03). (luriechildrens.org)
  • Patients with engraftment mixed T-cell chimerism may warrant closer disease monitoring and consideration for early intervention. (luriechildrens.org)
  • Regular monitoring of donor DNA chimerism is useful in the management of patients at high risk of poor engraftment. (hku.hk)
  • Twin chimerism results from mixing of blood between two twin fetuses through placental blood vessel anastomoses, leading to engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells from one twin within the marrow of the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flow sorted chimerism analysis of peripheral blood can be used to monitor T-cell, B-cell and myeloid lineage specific engraftment upon request. (vcgs.org.au)
  • Chimerism analysis is used after blood stem cell transplant to monitor the success of engraftment or to detect early graft failure, rejection and relapse. (vcgs.org.au)
  • Test offerings include Tuberculosis testing and Bone Marrow Engraftment (chimerism) monitoring. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in contrast to the 100% donor hematopoietic engraftment typical of myeloablative transplantation, such nonmyeloablative transplants typically resulted in a state of mixed hematopoietic chimerism. (wiley.com)
  • Monitoring of donor chimerism levels is required in the post allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) setting to assess engraftment status. (ehaweb.org)
  • As lymphoid and myeloid engraftment is asynchronous, lineage-specific chimerism analysis is necessary. (liamsjourney.com)
  • The rapid development of complete chimerism in NK and T cells seems to play an important role in achieving sustained engraftment especially in patients who were treated with a dose reduced conditioning regimen. (liamsjourney.com)
  • Analysis of chimerism was performed through amplification of 9 specific short tandem repeats by polymerase chain reaction at engraftment and 1, 6, and 12 months after HSCT. (elsevier.com)
  • The curative potential of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic granulomatous disease depends on availability of a suitable donor, successful donor engraftment, and maintenance of long-term donor chimerism. (duke.edu)
  • Agena Bioscience, a global provider of molecular testing solutions, today announced the release of the Chimeric ID Panel designed to reduce the time and cost of performing chimerism analysis for bone marrow engraftment monitoring studies. (gdc4gpat.com)
  • This panel simplifies bone marrow engraftment studies that monitor chimerism and gives labs access to other MassARRAY applications such as cancer profiling for liquid biopsies and pharmacogenetics to name a few. (gdc4gpat.com)
  • Quantification of chimerism after bone marrow transplantation is essential for evaluation the successful of engraftment after allogenic stem cells transplantation. (edu.iq)
  • The enriched cells are well-suited for lineage-specific chimerism analysis, PCR, STR analysis, flow cytometric analysis, and functional studies. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • In an interview, Dr. Sachs said this period of transient chimerism reflects a normal selection process in the thymus by which immune cells that target self-proteins are eliminated. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Pretreatment with NS resulted in only transient chimerism (3.06±0.71%) which almost disappeared by day 28(0.49±0.25). (arvojournals.org)
  • Two subjects exhibited transient chimerism and were maintained on low-dose tacrolimus monotherapy. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the majority of patients undergoing double umbilical cord blood transplantation, transient chimerism, due to the presence of cells from both donor units early post transplant, is replaced by sustained dominance of one unit from which long-term hematopoiesis is derived. (haematologica.org)
  • BOSTON, Jan. 23 -- Six organ-transplant recipients have remained healthy for up to five years without anti-rejection drugs, said researchers in the U.S. and Australia whose strategy was chimerism. (medpagetoday.com)
  • But the new results show how chimerism and tolerance might be applied to a broad population of transplant recipients. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In this review, we discuss the important historic experimental data leading up to translation of chimerism to the clinic and summarize the recent clinical protocols that have achieved tolerance in renal transplant recipients. (omicsonline.org)
  • Thus, allograft recipients with stable mixed chimerism had Rb S levels similar to donor levels, and only 1 patient required a red blood cell transfusion beyond 90 days posttransplantation. (nih.gov)
  • Since allograft tolerance was achieved in these recipients without durable chimerism, peripheral mechanisms are postulated to play a major role. (jci.org)
  • The hallmark of this protocol is establishment of chimerism and preferentially mixed chimerism using non-meyloablative condition which reduces the risk of GVHD, as well as its feasibility and safety for tolerance induction even in HLA-mismatched kidney graft recipients. (eurekaselect.com)
  • These results suggest that manipulation of a mobilized stem cell graft and nonmyeloablative conditioning represents a safe, practical, and reproducible means of inducing durable chimerism and donor-specific tolerance in solid organ transplant recipients. (sciencemag.org)
  • Ingraft chimerism was studied by using male recipients with female donors, whereas donor cell migration to recipient organs was studied using female recipients with male donors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In utero transplantation of highly enriched allogeneic B-cells generated low-level B-cell chimerism in the recipients. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent success with 'mini bone marrow transplants' using non-myeloablative conditioning in elderly patients with hematologic malignancy [ 1 ] have opened a new avenue for the application of chimerism in solid organ transplantation. (omicsonline.org)
  • Chimerism and clinical outcome data from 244 hematopoietic stem cell transplants in 218 children were retrospectively analyzed to assess their relevance for the detection of graft rejection and malignant relapse. (diva-portal.org)
  • 1. To validate the use of the MALDI-TOF MS SNP assay for clinical post-SCT chimerism analysis across a range of transplant types (sibling, matched unrelated and double cord transplants). (ehaweb.org)
  • In conclusion, early analysis of lineage-specific chimerism in peripheral blood can be used to identify patients who are at high risk of graft rejection. (diva-portal.org)
  • Peripheral blood is equally sensitive in detection of chimerism than bone marrow. (grcpk.com)
  • Since it is the basis for providing early treatment decisions, chimerism analysis requires sensitive and reliable techniques to detect the presence of donor leukocytes in the hosts' peripheral blood or bone marrow. (liamsjourney.com)
  • All animals showed stable full donor chimerism in the peripheral blood and microscopic analysis at 4-6 weeks and 3 months after transplantation, indicating that the GFP + and Y chromosome−positive donor bone marrow contributed substantially to blood, lymphatic, and interstitial cells in the pancreas. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The invention relates to the methods for producing hematopoietic chimerism and central tolerance by peripheral tolerance induction without myeloablative conditioning. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This review summarizes the role of chimerism in tolerance induction, presenting an historic perspective and ending on clinical protocols actively underway. (omicsonline.org)
  • We conclude that depletion of mononuclear phagocytes by M-L has the potential to lower the barrier to the establishment of mixed chimerism and tolerance induction in xenotransplantation. (elsevier.com)
  • These results argued against the theory of actively acquired tolerance, and implicated that in utero exposure to marrow cells in previous studies was a unique model of allo-tolerance induction that involved the establishment of significant hematopoietic chimerism. (frontiersin.org)
  • We used the EuroChimerism approach to investigate the potential impact of lineage-specific chimerism testing for relapse-risk analysis in 162 pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in a multicenter study based on standardized transplantation protocols. (uzh.ch)
  • The appearance of recipient cells after a period of pure donor chimerism in the CD34(+) and CD8(+) leukocyte subsets revealed dynamics indicative of a significantly elevated risk of relapse or imminent disease recurrence. (uzh.ch)
  • Assessment of chimerism within these lineages can therefore provide complementary information for further diagnostic and, potentially, therapeutic purposes aiming at the prevention of overt relapse. (uzh.ch)
  • Multilineage chimerism data in 87 children with leukemia at one, three, and sixmonths after transplantation were not correlated with subsequent relapse of malignant disease. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, the efficacy of early chimerism analysis for predicting leukemia relapse was limited. (diva-portal.org)
  • Request PDF on ResearchGate Detection of Impending Graft Rejection and Relapse by LineageSpecific Chimerism Analysis Molecular surveillance of hematopoietic chimerism has become part of the Chimerism analysis in lineagespecific cells permits detection of relapse and facilitates the monitoring of therapeutic interventions. (eldieswriter.com)
  • Information about the relative Chimerism analysis within 6 months of allogeneic stem cell transplantation predicts relapse in acute myeloid leukemia lineagespecific chimerism analysis is a sensitive predictor of relapse in Failure to achieve complete donor Tcell chimerism in the early posttransplant period may impair the graftversus malignancy effect and contribute to a higher risk of disease relapse. (eldieswriter.com)
  • Paul Bradbury Kamloops, BC, Canada Kemlo Rogerson wrote: >I have a student that wants to follow a NVQ (National Vocational >Qualification) and has chosen Chimerism (Genetic Mosaicism) about which >I know nowt. (histosearch.com)
  • On rare occasions, a coat colouring can grab the attention of the gerbil community and usually these coats with their unusual markings involve mosaicism or chimerism. (egerbil.com)
  • Somatic mosaicism occurs when there is a spontaneous reversion mutation that can lead to a mixed chimerism of corrected and uncorrected bone marrow cells leading to stabilisation or correction of an FA patient's blood counts in the absence of any administered therapy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • abstract = "Mixed chimerism (MC) and/or secondary graft failure (SGF) with recipient- or donor-type chimerism is a major obstacle in allogeneic transplantation for aplastic anemia (AA). (elsevier.com)
  • Additionally, evidence on the role of chimerism in autoimmune disease and cancer is presented. (springer.com)
  • Another type of chimerism called split chimerism may also exist in which one or more whole lineage is of recipient and the other of donor in origin. (grcpk.com)
  • For the type of chimerism mentioned in this blogpost (also known as 'tetragametic' chimerism ), the most common cause is a twin pregnancy that naturally reduces to a single baby. (vibrantgene.com)
  • The type of chimerism test they do is not accurate. (blogspot.com)
  • Although cytogenetics is the main tool to identify the two cell lineages present in cases of chimerism, the amplification of the SRY gene by PCR has proved to be more efficient to identify the Y chromosome in cases of chimeric female marmoset. (scielo.br)
  • Examined by a semi-quantitative analysis of polymorphic microsatellite markers, donor DNA chimerism on day 28 was found to be predictive of treatment outcome. (hku.hk)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells facilitate the induction of mixed hematopoietic chimerism and islet allograft tolerance without GVHD in the rat," American Journal of Transplantation , vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 336-346, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Ghasem Solgi*, Sanaz Jourghasemi, Allaleh Rezalotfi and Mehrdad Hajilooi, "Stem Cells in Kidney Transplantation: A Review of Chimerism-Based Protocols to Induce Transplantation Tolerance", Current Regenerative Medicine (Discontinued) (2016) 6: 16. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Chimerism genetic testing is used to monitor the success of haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) by evaluating the ratio of donor and recipient DNA in the recipient's blood or bone marrow. (vcgs.org.au)
  • Chimerism genetic testing is used to monitor the success of blood stem cell transplantation (like bone marrow transplantation). (vcgs.org.au)
  • Key Words Lineagespecific chimerism, Myeloablative stem cell transplantation, T This study has confirmed that lineagespecific chimerism analysis represents a valuable adjunct to our whole blood studies. (eldieswriter.com)
  • The outcome of a stem cell transplant can be complete donor chimerism (100% donor cells) or mixed donor chimerism of varying proportions of donor and recipient cells. (grcpk.com)
  • DNA dilutions of the synthetic 2% recipient chimera were prepared in order to define the minimum acceptable DNA template concentration for detection of mixed chimerism in both assays. (ehaweb.org)
  • Analysis of synthetic chimera samples also showed good concordance, with greatest variation seen at the expected 50% chimerism level. (ehaweb.org)
  • Definition of chimera in US English by Oxford Dictionaries (https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/us/chimera, obtained Jun. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We now report on transient multilineage hematopoietic chimerism and lymphocyte recovery in five patients receiving a modified CKBMT protocol, and evidence for early donor-specific unresponsiveness in one of these patients. (harvard.edu)
  • Polychromatic flow cytometry (FCM) was used to assess multilineage chimerism where evaluable and lymphocyte recovery post-transplant. (harvard.edu)
  • Transient multilineage mixed chimerism was observed in all patients but chimerism became undetectable by 2 weeks post-CKBMT. (harvard.edu)
  • These results characterize the transient multilineage mixed hematopoietic chimerism and recovery of lymphocyte subsets in patients receiving a modified CKBMT protocol. (harvard.edu)
  • Thus, we conclude that endothelial chimerism combined with vascular sequestration of DSAs protects islet grafts from humoral rejection. (jci.org)
  • Endothelial chimerism in chronic sclerotic-type chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and GVHD-associated angiomatosis. (osu.edu)
  • B. Tetragametic chimerism. (cdc.gov)
  • MC that did not require either granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) or transfusion support (group 1), MC (not SGF) that required G-CSF and/or transfusion support (group 2), SGF with MC or complete recipient-type chimerism (group 3), and SGF with complete donor-type chimerism (group 4) developed in 26, 16, 19, and 17 patients, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • In multivariate analyses, the use of fludarabine (Flu) and the absence of irradiation in conditioning were associated with the development of SGF with MC or complete recipient-type chimerism, and the use of Flu in conditioning was associated with SGF with complete donor-type chimerism. (elsevier.com)
  • Consistent with these findings, a large proportion of recipient dermal DCs remained in patients' skin after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, despite complete donor BM chimerism. (rupress.org)
  • We have previously reported that peri-transplant conditioning leads to successful induction of renal allograft tolerance via the mixed chimerism approach in nonhuman primates (NHP) and humans. (harvard.edu)
  • Transient mixed chimerism leads to renal allograft tolerance in about 70% of cynomolgus macaques (CM) when a donor kidney (but not other less tolerogenic organs) is co-transplanted with MHC-mismatched bone marrow (BMT). (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • The number of alleles in the profile established by the STR panel at the time of the pre-transplant chimerism analysis will determine the complexity of the post-transplant chimerism analysis. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Due to the reduced antitumor effect of TCD grafts, pre-emptive post-transplant donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) may be needed for treatment of mixed chimerism or persistent disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • To perform chimerism analysis, pre-transplant recipient and donor samples are collected and used for comparison with recipient samples post-transplant. (vcgs.org.au)
  • Chimerism analysis is important for monitoring post-transplant outcome and for determining appropriate therapy after transplantation. (liamsjourney.com)
  • The objective for the study is to establish chimerism following reduced intensity conditioning with no grade III/IV GVHD. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We analyzed immune responses in four patients converting from mixed to full donor chimerism without developing GVHD upon purified CD4 donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) from their HLA-identical sibling donor after T-cell depleted alloSCT. (frontiersin.org)
  • In conclusion, purified CD4 DLI from HLA-identical sibling donors can induce conversion from mixed to full donor chimerism with graft-vs.-malignancy reactivity, but without GVHD, by targeting HLA class II restricted MiHA. (frontiersin.org)
  • Durable chimerism and donor-specific tolerance can be safely achieved without GVHD in HLA-mismatched donor/recipient pairs. (sciencemag.org)
  • If there is mixed chimerism then which lineages are mixed and which are fully donor? (grcpk.com)
  • The second part of the volume outlines clinical identification and consequences of chimerism. (springer.com)
  • Written by experts in the field, Chimerism: A Clinical Guide is a valuable resource for clinicians and researchers that will help guide patient management and stimulate investigative efforts. (springer.com)
  • The focus of this review is to discuss the last findings of clinical trials mainly from three medical centers as pioneers for designing and implementing tolerance protocols using chimerism-based approaches. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Eleven of 11 posttransplant clinical specimens from patients with hematological malignancies testing positive for residual cancer by conventional methods had detectable chimeric populations by smMIP, whereas 11 of 11 specimens testing negative by conventional methods were low-positive for chimerism by smMIP. (aaccjnls.org)
  • smMIPs are scalable to high sensitivity and large numbers of informative markers, enabling ultrasensitive chimerism detection for many clinical purposes. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Good concordance between methodologies was seen across all clinical samples tested, with greatest variation seen between 40-60% chimerism levels. (ehaweb.org)
  • We aim to extend this approach in the pre-clinical CM model to achieve permanent chimerism and tolerance to any co-transplanted organ. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • Five subjects experienced durable chimerism, demonstrated immunocompetence and donor-specific tolerance by in vitro proliferative assays, and were successfully weaned off all immunosuppression 1 year after transplant. (sciencemag.org)
  • Induction of Durable Mixed Hematopoietic Chimerism and Immune Tolerance in Non-Human Primates. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • The addition of regulatory T cells (Tregs) to BMT promoted durable chimerism and skin graft tolerance in mice. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • Whether there is chimerism in the lymphoid and the myeloid compartments? (grcpk.com)
  • Chapters in this section focus on the effects of chimerism on testing in relationship determination and forensics, prenatal genetic testing and screening, and blood and HLA typing. (springer.com)
  • After confirming a match between Keegan and her youngest son, her doctors sought further advice and were informed that Keegan might have a very rare genetic condition know as chimerism. (amicuscuria.com)
  • High-dose sirolimus therapy inhibited multiple T-Rapa DLI, as evidenced by stable mixed donor/host chimerism. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This resulted in a stable mixed chimerism between donor and recipient AMFs throughout the 2-year period. (bmj.com)
  • bone marrow transplantation to induce mixed hematopoietic chimerism (establishment of 1-95% donor CD3+ cells). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Successful induction of allograft tolerance has been achieved in nonhuman primates (NHPs) and humans via induction of transient hematopoietic chimerism. (jci.org)
  • In patients who had donors with a normal hemoglobin genotype (Hb), the Hb S fractions were 0%, 0%, and 7%, corresponding to donor chimerism levels of 67%, 74%, and 11%, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Among patients who had donors with sickle trait, the Hb S fractions were 36% and 37%, corresponding to donor chimerism levels of 25% and 60%, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Unlike traditional chimerism tests, VCGS' chimerism test is also suitable where multiple donors have been used. (vcgs.org.au)
  • Thus, to reduce toxic side effects, most conditioning regimens are less myeloablative and thereby mixed chimerism is more likely. (liamsjourney.com)
  • Myeloablative transplantation using either cord blood or bone marrow leads to immune recovery, high long-term donor chimerism and excellent survival in chronic granulomatous disease. (duke.edu)
  • Both U.S. groups sought to induce chimerism by infusing donor hematopoietic cells along with the organ transplant. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In an accompanying editorial, Thomas Starzl, M.D., the University of Pittsburgh liver transplant pioneer, questioned the disappearance of chimerism in these patients. (medpagetoday.com)
  • SEB pretreatment combined with donor bone marrow transplant could efficiently induce the chimerism, which inhibit the allogenic cornea transplant rejection and prolong the cornea graft survival time. (arvojournals.org)
  • The aim of this work is to use STR typing test for identification and quantification the chimerism in bone marrow transplant patients. (edu.iq)
  • Synthetic chimeras representing known % levels of donor and recipient DNA (1, 2, 5, 10, 30 and 50% recipient) were prepared and analyzed by both methods to assess accuracy and reproducibility across a range of recipient percentages and also to determine the limit of sensitivity for detection of mixed chimerism. (ehaweb.org)
  • To explore the mixed chimerism and specific immune tolerance induced by superantigen SEB combined with the donor bone marrow transplantation and determine inhibiting mice corneal keratoplasty rejection reaction. (arvojournals.org)
  • If two oozooids settle next to each other or two adult colonies meet as they spread over a marine surface, one of two things occurs: vascular fusion leading to blood chimerism (Fig. 1 ), or an inflammatory rejection reaction, which maintains the physical boundaries of the contacting individuals ( 5 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • 3. To define the limits of sensitivity for detection of mixed chimerism. (ehaweb.org)
  • 4. To define the lowest DNA input concentration which permits detection of mixed chimerism. (ehaweb.org)
  • Locus specific multiplex PCR is followed by single base extension into the SNP site and detection with MALDI-TOF MS. Mixed chimerism is assessed by analyzing the cumulative skew in genotyping data across informative SNPs. (ehaweb.org)