Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Transplantation Chimera: An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutant Chimeric Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have mutated by the fusing of protein coding regions of more than one gene. Such hybrid proteins are responsible for some instances of ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE and defective biological processes such as NEOPLASMS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Mice, Inbred C57BLStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Host vs Graft Reaction: The immune responses of a host to a graft. A specific response is GRAFT REJECTION.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA Shuffling: The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Chimerism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Receptors, Purinergic P2X1: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor found at sympathetically innervated SMOOTH MUSCLE. It may play a functional role regulating the juxtoglomerular apparatus of the KIDNEY.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Blastoderm: A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Fetal Tissue Transplantation: Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Mice, Inbred AKRMice, Inbred BALB CSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Parthenogenesis: A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Mice, Inbred CBACell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins: Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Gene Fusion: The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES resulting in a gene with different or additional regulatory regions, or a new chimeric gene product. ONCOGENE FUSION includes an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners and such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS. ARTIFICIAL GENE FUSION is carried out in vitro by RECOMBINANT DNA technology.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Cypriniformes: An order of fish with 26 families and over 3,000 species. This order includes the families CYPRINIDAE (minnows and CARPS), Cobitidae (loaches), and Catostomidae (suckers).Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Purinergic P2X Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (1/3469)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. (2/3469)

Csx/Nkx2.5 is a vertebrate homeobox gene with a sequence homology to the Drosophila tinman, which is required for the dorsal mesoderm specification. Recently, heterozygous mutations of this gene were found to cause human congenital heart disease (Schott, J.-J., Benson, D. W., Basson, C. T., Pease, W., Silberbach, G. M., Moak, J. P., Maron, B. J., Seidman, C. E. and Seidman, J. G. (1998) Science 281, 108-111). To investigate the functions of Csx/Nkx2.5 in cardiac and extracardiac development in the vertebrate, we have generated and analyzed mutant mice completely null for Csx/Nkx2.5. Homozygous null embryos showed arrest of cardiac development after looping and poor development of blood vessels. Moreover, there were severe defects in vascular formation and hematopoiesis in the mutant yolk sac. Interestingly, TUNEL staining and PCNA staining showed neither enhanced apoptosis nor reduced cell proliferation in the mutant myocardium. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that, among 20 candidate genes examined, expression of ANF, BNP, MLC2V, N-myc, MEF2C, HAND1 and Msx2 was disturbed in the mutant heart. Moreover, in the heart of adult chimeric mice generated from Csx/Nkx2.5 null ES cells, there were almost no ES cell-derived cardiac myocytes, while there were substantial contributions of Csx /Nkx2.5-deficient cells in other organs. Whole-mount &bgr;-gal staining of chimeric embryos showed that more than 20% contribution of Csx/Nkx2. 5-deficient cells in the heart arrested cardiac development. These results indicate that (1) the complete null mutation of Csx/Nkx2.5 did not abolish initial heart looping, (2) there was no enhanced apoptosis or defective cell cycle entry in Csx/Nkx2.5 null cardiac myocytes, (3) Csx/Nkx2.5 regulates expression of several essential transcription factors in the developing heart, (4) Csx/Nkx2.5 is required for later differentiation of cardiac myocytes, (5) Csx/Nkx2. 5 null cells exert dominant interfering effects on cardiac development, and (6) there were severe defects in yolk sac angiogenesis and hematopoiesis in the Csx/Nkx2.5 null embryos.  (+info)

Accelerated accumulation of somatic mutations in mice deficient in the nucleotide excision repair gene XPA. (3/3469)

Inheritable mutations in nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes cause cancer-prone human disorders, such as xeroderma pigmentosum, which are also characterized by symptoms of accelerated ageing. To study the impact of NER deficiency on mutation accumulation in vivo, mutant frequencies have been determined in liver and brain of 2-16 month old NER deficient XPA-/-, lacZ hybrid mice. While mutant frequencies in liver of 2-month old XPA-/-, lacZ mice were comparable to XPA+/-, lacZ and the lacZ parental strain animals, by 4 months of age mutant frequencies in the XPA-deficient mice were significantly increased by a factor of two and increased further until the age of 16 months. In brain, mutant frequencies were not found to increase with age. These results show that a deficiency in the NER gene XPA causes an accelerated accumulation of somatic mutations in liver but not in brain. This is in keeping with a higher incidence of spontaneous liver tumors reported earlier for XPA-/- mice after about 15 months of age.  (+info)

Ectopic expression of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor disrupts mesoderm organisation during mouse gastrulation. (4/3469)

Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) regulates the cell cycle and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition of many cells in vitro. We have analysed chimaeric mouse embryos generated from embryonic stem cells with abnormal receptor expression to study the effect of TGFbeta on these processes in vivo and the consequences for normal development. The binding receptor for TGFbeta, TbetaRII, is first detected in the embryo proper around day 8.5 in the heart. Ectopic expression of TbetaRII from the blastocyst stage onward resulted in an embryonic lethal around 9.5 dpc. Analysis of earlier stages revealed that the primitive streak of TbetaRII chimaeras failed to elongate. Furthermore, although cells passed through the streak and initially formed mesoderm, they tended to accumulate within the streak. These defects temporally and spatially paralleled the expression of the TGFbeta type I receptor, which is first expressed in the node and primitive streak. We present evidence that classical TGFbeta-induced growth inhibition was probably the cause of insufficient mesoderm being available for paraxial and axial structures. The results demonstrate that (1) TGFbeta mRNA and protein detected previously in early postimplantation embryos is present as a biologically active ligand; and (2) assuming that ectopic expression of TbetaRII results in no other changes in ES cells, the absence of TbetaRII is the principle reason why the embryo proper is unresponsive to TGFbeta ligand until after gastrulation.  (+info)

Comparative analysis of cell distribution in the pigment epithelium and the visual cell layer of chimaeric mice. (5/3469)

In chimaeras of both rdrdCC in equilibrium ++ cc and rdrdcc in equilibrium ++CC combinations two types of distribution were observed. In a majority of the chimaeras both retinal layers were chimaeric; whereas in a few cases the pigment epithelium was chimaeric but the visual cell layer was made of ++ cells only. No spatial relation was observed in the distribution of the cells in the two layers. The two eyes of the individuals were nearly always identical with regard to occurrence of chimaerism in the two layers. The findings are discussed in the light of the possible site and mode of expression of the rd gene.  (+info)

Marmoset species variation in the humoral antibody response: in vivo and in vitro studies. (6/3469)

A comparison of the in vivo and in vitro antibody response capabilities of two marmoset species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus oedipus oedipus, revealed the former to be superior in elaborating humoral antibody. In vivo challenges with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Salmonella typhi flagella consistently yielded higher antibody titres in S. fuscicollis; indeed, with LPS antigen, multiple inoculations of S.o. oedipus marmosets led ultimately to a decrease in antibody formation, in contrast to the anamnestic response of S. fuscicollis. This species differential in immune competence was also suggested in the in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and spleen cells with sheep red blood cells (RBC). None of 55 S.o. oedipus PBL cultures and 49 of 89 (55%) S. fuscicollis cultures responded to the test antigen. A similar differential in response to sheep RBC was noted with the spleen cells of each species, although this report contrasts the antibody-forming potential of two marmoset species, a comparison of the immunological response profile of marmosets to those of other laboratory animals challenged with similar antigens suggests these primates may be relatively incompetent. The possible relationship between the haemopoietic chimerism of marmosets and a diminished immune competence is discussed.  (+info)

Bmp4 is required for the generation of primordial germ cells in the mouse embryo. (7/3469)

In many organisms the allocation of primordial germ cells (PGCs) is determined by the inheritance of maternal factors deposited in the egg. However, in mammals, inductive cell interactions are required around gastrulation to establish the germ line. Here, we show that Bmp4 homozygous null embryos contain no PGCs. They also lack an allantois, an extraembryonic mesodermal tissue derived, like the PGCs, from precursors in the proximal epiblast. Heterozygotes have fewer PGCs than normal, due to a reduction in the size of the founding population and not to an effect on its subsequent expansion. Analysis of beta-galactosidase activity in Bmp4(lacZneo) embryos reveals that prior to gastrulation, Bmp4 is expressed in the extraembryonic ectoderm. Later, Bmp4 is expressed in the extraembryonic mesoderm, but not in PGCs. Chimera analysis indicates that it is the Bmp4 expression in the extraembryonic ectoderm that regulates the formation of allantois and primordial germ cell precursors, and the size of the founding population of PGCs. The initiation of the germ line in the mouse therefore depends on a secreted signal from the previously segregated, extraembryonic, trophectoderm lineage.  (+info)

Interaction of B cells with activated T cells reduces the threshold for CD40-mediated B cell activation. (8/3469)

CD154-CD40 interactions are of central importance for the induction of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens. Since most anti-CD40 mAb are only weak B cell mitogens, it is believed that under physiological conditions, signals through CD40 synergize with those from other receptors on B cells to induce B cell activation. We show here that the interaction of either normal B cells, or those from CBA/N (xid) mice, with CD3-activated primary T cells in whole spleen cell cultures markedly reduces the threshold for B cell activation via CD40. Hence, these pre-activated cells undergo vigorous proliferation when stimulated with either optimal or suboptimal concentrations of weakly mitogenic anti-CD40 mAb, or with soluble CD40 ligand. Blocking experiments indicate that the establishment of this priming effect requires stimulation via CD40 itself, plus T cell-derived IL-2. In support of this concept, only CD3/CD28-pre-activated, but not CD3-pre-activated T cells induce this effect, unless the co-cultures of B cells with the latter T cells are supplemented with IL-2. Although B cells activated in this fashion do express higher levels of CD40 than naive cells, we believe that this is insufficient to explain the observed dramatic effects on their proliferative capacity. Rather we propose that T cell-dependent B cell activation induces fundamental changes in the signalling machinery invoked by ligation of CD40. It is likely that this amplification loop could play an important role during the initiation of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens, when activated CD4 T cells only express low levels of CD154.  (+info)

*Chimera (EP)

"Chimera - Single". Retrieved 31 January 2015. "Music". Marie Digby Official Website. Retrieved 31 January 2015. "Chimera - New ... Chimera is an EP by Marié Digby. It was released on August 16, 2014. "Vanish in the Air" is the single of Marie Digby's EP ... Chimera. This EP was first featured at iTunes Store. The EP contains three new Marié Digby songs. This EP is a distinct ...

*Jason Chimera

Chimera was re-signed a two-year contract extension with the Capitals on September 29, 2011. Chimera was re-signed a two-year ... During the subsequent season, Chimera played in his 1,000th game. "Capitals Trade Clark, Jurcina to Blue Jackets for Chimera". ... "Caps agree to term on new contract with Jason Chimera". NHL. 2011-09-29. Retrieved 2011-09-29. "Capitals re-sign Jason Chimera ... Chimera was subsequently dealt to the Columbus Blue Jackets, without playing a game in Phoenix, as part of a trade for Geoff ...

*Chimera (EST)

CHIMERA program. However, in protein engineering, "chimeragenesis (forming chimeras between proteins that are encoded by ... is now considered an artefact based on a chimera of CYP2C18 and CYP2C19." Researchers have created receptor chimeras in their ... In genetics, a chimera is a single cDNA sequence originating from two transcripts. It is usually considered to be a contaminant ... ". "The first mRNA transcript isolated for..." the human gene C2orf3 "...was part of an artificial chimera..." CYP2C17 was ...

*Rocha Chimera

... is a Kenyan writer. He received the Noma Award in 2000 for Ufundishaji wa Fasihi: Nadharia na Mbinu. Chimera ...

*Chimera (paleontology)

In paleontology, a chimera is a fossil that was reconstructed with elements coming from more than a single species (or genus) ... A now classic example of chimera is Protoavis. Lametasaurus? Protoavis Ultrasauros Dravidosaurus Ornithopsis hulkei. ...

*Chimera (mythology)

The Chimera (/kɪˈmɪərə/ or /kaɪˈmɪərə/, also Chimaera (Chimæra); Greek: Χίμαιρα, Chímaira "she-goat") was, according to Greek ... The Chimera appears in Etruscan wall-paintings of the fourth century BC. In Medieval art, although the Chimera of antiquity was ... This outline of Chimera motifs follows Marilyn Low Schmitt, "Bellerophon and the Chimaera in Archaic Greek Art" American ... Hesiod's Theogony follows the Homeric description: he makes the Chimera the issue of Echidna: "She was the mother of Chimaera ...

*Chimera (genetics)

"2 ) In the chimera episode, the fact that the [subject] was a chimera was first established through a camera flash on the skin ... Most chimeras will go through life without realizing they are chimeras. The difference in phenotypes may be subtle (e.g., ... Animal chimeras are produced by the merger of multiple fertilized eggs. In plant chimeras, however, the distinct types of ... In 2017, a human-pig chimera was reported to have been created, the chimera was also reported to have 0.001% human cells, with ...

*UCSF Chimera

Chimera includes complete documentation and can be downloaded free of charge for noncommercial use. Chimera is developed by the ... UCSF Chimera (or simply Chimera) is an extensible program for interactive visualization and analysis of molecular structures ... for molecular mechanics modeling Official website Chimera Image Gallery and Animation Gallery publications about Chimera ... following UCSF Chimera. It is in early development. Prerelease daily builds with current (basic) capabilities are available for ...

*King Chimera

3) #31 (November 2009) JSA All-Stars #14 (March 2011) King Chimera at DC Wikia King Chimera at Comic Vine. ... King Chimera is a fictional superhero in the DC Comics Universe, a member of the superhero team the Justice Society of America ... King Chimera was first portrayed as an arrogant, egotistical, classy "know-it-all" during his run in Justice Society of America ... King Chimera first appeared in Justice Society of America (vol. 3) #24 (April 2009), and was created by Matthew Sturges and ...

*Chimera (virus)

In mythology, a chimera is a creature such as a hippogriff or a gryphon formed from parts of different animals, thus the name ... A chimera virus is defined by the Center for Veterinary Biologics (part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and ... The term chimera already referred to an individual organism whose body contained cell populations from different zygotes or an ...

*Chimera House

The Chimera House (also known as the "13 floor money back house") is an urban legend which consists of the usual young teens ... Although the Chimera House has never been proven to exist, some people still search fervently for it and several haunted ... The legend of the Chimera House has been fueled by both hoaxes and several haunted attractions have tried to cash in on the ... The anthology "Haunted Houses" edited by Robert D. San Souci contains a short story inspired by the legend called "Chimera ...

*Chimera (Barth novel)

Chimera is written in three loosely related sections, or novellas, similar to the way the mythical Chimera is a hybrid creature ... Chimera is a 1972 fantasy novel written by American writer John Barth, composed of three loosely connected novellas. The ... Chimera. New York: Random House, 1972. John Barth's Acceptance Speech for the 1973 National Book Award. ... Bellerophoniad Bellerophon: The Greek mythic hero who first tamed Pegasus and slayed the Chimera, becoming the King of Lycia. ...

*Chimera (Russian band)

Chimera repeatedly gave concerts in Germany. In February 1997, Starkov hanged himself in attic of a rehearsal point of Chimera ... Chimera". Chimera's music are influenced by Bauhaus, Nico, Butthole Surfers, Sonic Youth, Fugazi, Daniil Kharms, Jules Verne, ... Chimera (also known as Deputat Baltiki) was a Russian underground rock band that was formed by singer/guitarist Edward Starkov ... The Chimera stopped the existence. Their songs were covered by artists and bands, including: Psychea, Pilot, Iva Nova, Zakhar ...

*Chimera of Arezzo

... www.getty.edu/art/exhibitions/chimaera/chimaera_checklist.pdf Hesiod, Theogony 319-25 "The Chimaera of Arezzo: July 16, 2009- ... "The Chimaera of Arezzo (Getty Villa Exhibitions)". www.getty.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-27. Becker, Jeffery A. "Chimera of Arezzo ( ... "The Chimaera of Arezzo (Getty Villa Exhibitions)". www.getty.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-27. Ugo Bardi, 1997. "The Chimaera of ... "Chimera of Arezzo." Ancient History Encyclopedia, 13 Jan. 2017, www.ancient.eu/article/1006/chimera-of-arezzo/. Dobrzynski, ...

*Chimera (Dungeons & Dragons)

The chimera is based on the chimera of Greek mythology as found in the Iliad by Homer. The chimera was one of the first ... The chimera appears in the revised Monster Manual for this edition (2003). The maurid advanced chimera appeared in Dungeon #112 ... The chimera is fully detailed in Paizo Publishing's book Mythical Monsters Revisited (2012), on pages 4-9. The chimera appears ... In the Eberron campaign setting, the chimera is the heraldic beast of the dragonmarked House Deneith. The chimera appeared in ...

*The Chimera's Curse

The serpent-like Chimera is only a small part of his deadly army. As the dangerous fire of Kullervo's hatred bursts into life, ... The Chimera's Curse is a children's fantasy novel by British writer Julia Golding, first published in 2007. It is the fourth ... create the Chimera, a monster with three heads, one for each lion, goat and serpent. Colin (Col) Clamworthy:- about 14 years ...

*Chimera (short story)

Chimaera main activity was to spit flames and devours all living. The Chimera made great havoc in Lycia, so that the king, ... Chimera is a comical short story written by Korean author Lee Yeongdo, based on the world of the novel Dragon Raja written by ... Bellerophon mounted him, rose with him into the air, soon found the Chimaera, and killed it with a lump of lead on a spear that ... Chimaera - An accidental creation by Handrake, made out of rubbish such as broken broomsticks, old vase and rotten Mandragora. ...

*Chimera (Andromeda album)

Chimera is the third album by the progressive metal band Andromeda, released in 2006. "Periscope" - 6:11 "In the End" - 4:58 " ...

*Chimera (Marvel Comics)

Chimera at Marvel.com Chimera at Comic Vine Chimera at Uncannyxmen.net Chimera at the Appendix to the Handbook of the Marvel ... Chimera then captured Synch and fled along with M-Plate. Synch was later rescued by Generation X. Chimera is next seen in ... The Chimera encountered the Agents of Atlas. When it didn't see that they were Olympians, Chimera breathed fire at them, ... Dirtnap-one of the only Dark Riders to survive-teamed up with Chimera to get revenge on Wolverine. Chimera encountered ...

*Chimera (Aria album)

Chimera (Russian: Химера) is Aria's eighth studio album, and the last to feature vocalist Valery Kipelov. Valery Kipelov - ...

*Chimera (Irish band)

Chimera's U.S. debut was 1995's Day Star EP, released on Grass Records (now Wind-up). The release contained four songs, and ... Chimera were a Northern Irish alternative rock band that saw brief, but notable fame in the mid-nineties. They have been ... Chimera was formed in 1990 and included members Eileen Henry (vocals), Steven T. Emerson (bass), Ted Laverty (guitars), and ... Following the release of Earth Loop, Chimera spent most of 1996 in the U.S. touring. They performed with many popular ...

*Chimera (larp convention)

Chimera is a Live action role-playing (LARP) convention held annually every August in Auckland, New Zealand. The convention is ... "Having a larp", 20/20 report about Chimera 2009 "Playing the Larp Part", NZ Life & Leisure, November 2013. ...

*Chimera (Delerium album)

Chimera is an album by Canadian industrial/electronic music group Delerium in 2003 (see 2003 in music). The song "Above the ...

*Sheep-goat chimera

A sheep-goat chimera (sometimes called a geep in popular media) is a chimera produced by combining the embryos of a goat and a ... A sheep-goat chimera should not be confused with a sheep-goat hybrid, which can result when a goat mates with a sheep. The ... The successful chimeras were a mosaic of goat and sheep tissue. The parts that grew from the sheep embryo were woolly. Those ... In a chimera, each set of cells (germ line) keeps its own species' identity instead of being intermediate in type between the ...

*Proteolysis targeting chimera

A proteolysis targeting chimera (PROTAC) is a two-headed molecule capable of removing unwanted proteins by inducing selective ...
Results of our chimaera experiments revealed no evidence that BALB/c cells were preferentially allocated to the mTE but indicated they were at a selective disadvantage between E4.5 and E8.5. We confirmed previous reports that preimplantation BALB/c embryos lagged behind embryos of some other strains and showed that the relative stage of development attained by E2.5 embryos of different strains correlated with the contribution they made to chimaeras. This suggests that the poor contribution of BALB/c embryos to aggregation chimaeras is at least partly because they lag behind their partner embryos, due to delayed or slow development.. In principle, heterosis of non-inbred partner embryos might also have contributed to the poor contribution of BALB/c cells in BALB/c↔BF2, BALB/c↔(BF1×TGB) and BALB/c↔(BF1×TP6.3) chimaeras, if hybrid cells outgrow BALB/c cells. However, this does not explain the differences in compositions of (BALB/c×AF1)↔BF2 and (AF1×BALB/c)↔BF2 chimaeras (West et al., ...
In order to study the pattern of clonal myocyte distribution during mammalian heart development, we have exploited embryo aggregation chimeras using, as cellular markers, an enhanced jellyfish green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgene and a desmin-promoter-driven, nuclear-localized beta-galactosidase (nlacZ) knock-in. In neonatal, weanling, and adult chimeric atria and ventricles, irregularly formed patches of various sizes rather than highly dispersed cardiomyocytes were observed. Most of the smaller patches and single cardiomyocytes were found in spatial neighborhood of large patches. This indicated largely coherent clonal growth during myocardial histogenesis combined with tangential displacement or active migration of myocytes. The patterns of ventricular walls were simpler than those of the septum and the atria. In the adult heart, large myocardial volumes devoid of eGFP-positive cardiomyocytes indicated a lack of secondary immigration of blood-borne stem cells into the myocardium. The ...
Detecting chimeric (or recombinant) sequences from a sequence dataset is an important part of sequence analysis especially for reconstruction of deep phylogenies as well as for sequence similarity analyses. This article focuses on methods of chimera detection in high quality 16S rRNA sequences from Sanger sequencing with good read length (,750bp). With such large size they become potential candidates for chimera formation. With culture-independent approaches for analyses of microbial diversity picking up fast with high throughput sequencing methods, the amount of chimeric sequences being published in the databases are also increasing exponentially. This is the era of Metagenomics or simply put community DNA analyses where DNA from thousands of species gets pooled up and is then analysed. This further increases chances of chimera formation. Chimeras are usually formed during polymerase chain reaction (PCRs) but in some rare cases they are for real. Therefore, it becomes relevant to adopt methods ...
A pillar is "a firm upright support" (1) for something. A pillar may stand alone or it may support a superstructure. The article of Beatrice Mintz and Willys Silvers (2) discussed here on grafting using allophenic mice is appropriately called a pillar of immunology for which the superstructure is yet to be completed.. Mintz and Silvers posed a question long considered fundamental to immunology: What is the origin of "intrinsic" tolerance. Intrinsic tolerance refers to the natural condition of specific nonresponsiveness to self. More than 60 years before, Ehrlich and Morgenroth had reasoned that injury and atrophy of tissues might lead to the development of immune reactions against autologous cells, but the occurrence of such reactions would be "dysteleological in the highest degree" (3). To explain why autologous reactions usually do not arise, Ehrlich and Morgenroth proposed that organisms must have a horror autotoxicus mediated by some "regulating contrivances" and believed that studying these ...
Evans, R, "Host cell contribution to successful neoplastic cell proliferation, p. 9-17. In congress of italian immunology & pathology society. Milan" (1981). Subject Strain Bibliography 1981. 2343 ...
Hood, D.C., Frishman, L.J., Viswanathan, S., Robson, J.G., & Ahmed, J.(1999). Evidence for a ganglion cell contribution to the primate electroretinogram (ERG): Effects of TTX on the multifocal ERG in macaque. Visual Neuroscience, 16(3), 411-416.. ...
Allophenic:, Genes: a - Non-agouti, b - Brown, c*ch - Chinchilla, D, d - Dilute, D-Locus, p - Pink-eyed dilution, se - Short-ear, wa-2 - Waved-2, Strains: C3H, C57BL, Unknown:. ...
Treasure standard. Chimeras are monstrous creatures born of primordial evil. Hateful and hungry, they hunt on the ground or in the air. A chimeras dragon head may be of any evil dragon type, with the corresponding breath weapon, and its wings usually match the scales on its head. Chimeras speak with three overlapping voices, but rarely do so, typically only when playing toady to a more powerful creature. A chimera is 5 feet tall at the shoulder, nearly 10 feet long, and weighs 700 pounds.. Chimeras prefer meat but can subsist on vegetable matter if necessary (although being forced to do so generally leaves the beasts more ill-tempered than usual). Their flight means they can pick and choose their prey, and they usually hunt a large area in search of easy food. They are too stupid and belligerent to acquire followers, though sometimes a tribe of kobolds might give them offerings. Conversely, they are just intelligent and stubborn enough that they make poor pets, and only a significantly more ...
Using complementary targeting strategies, the IKMC centers design and create targeting vectors, mutant ES cell lines and, to some extent, mutant mice, embryos or sperm. Materials are distributed to the research community.. The KOMP Repository archives, maintains, and distributes IKMC products. Researchers can order products and get product information from the Repository. Researchers can also express interest in products that are still in the pipeline. They will then receive email notification as soon as KOMP generated products are available for distribution.. The process for ordering EUCOMM materials can be found here.. The process for ordering TIGM materials can be found here.. Information on NorCOMM products and services can be found here. Genes were mapped to the human genome by IKMC. ...
The IMSR is a searchable online database of mouse strains, stocks, and mutant ES cell lines available worldwide, including inbred, mutant, and genetically engineered strains.
The IMSR is a searchable online database of mouse strains, stocks, and mutant ES cell lines available worldwide, including inbred, mutant, and genetically engineered strains.
Each instance of Gene Cloud is centered around a specific gene. A list of the top most related genes is plotted as a branching structure from the center. A secondary branch can occur if a gene in the graph is more related a non-central gene than it is to the center gene. The font size of a branched gene indicates the relative strength of connection--always to the center gene. The distribution of genes in space is randomized each time Gene Cloud is run so a different picture will result for the same central gene. Color is used to indicate the availability of Knockout Mouse products at the KOMP Repository. If a gene is colored green in the graph there are products (mutant ES cells, sperm, embryos, or mice) ready to be ordered. Blue colored genes do not yet have products available, but you can follow the links back to the KOMP Repository and register interest to be alerted when products do become available. At this time the length of an edge connecting two genes does not contain any information, ...
Each instance of Gene Cloud is centered around a specific gene. A list of the top most related genes is plotted as a branching structure from the center. A secondary branch can occur if a gene in the graph is more related a non-central gene than it is to the center gene. The font size of a branched gene indicates the relative strength of connection--always to the center gene. The distribution of genes in space is randomized each time Gene Cloud is run so a different picture will result for the same central gene. Color is used to indicate the availability of Knockout Mouse products at the KOMP Repository. If a gene is colored green in the graph there are products (mutant ES cells, sperm, embryos, or mice) ready to be ordered. Blue colored genes do not yet have products available, but you can follow the links back to the KOMP Repository and register interest to be alerted when products do become available. At this time the length of an edge connecting two genes does not contain any information, ...
In mythological literature, we are shown that the chimera achieves its robustness through the incorporation of the most valued elements of other feared animals. Based upon an extensive literature compiled over more that a decade, the GPCR chimera can be viewed in a similar manner. Chimeras have been created successfully from the three major domains borrowed from most of the classes that compose the GPCR superfamily. Each of these chimera provided important insight into the functional roles of specific domains in ligand recognition, receptor activation, downstream signaling, and receptor trafficking. Perhaps the most remarkable feature to emerge from all of these chimeras is that they are functional, highlighting some nearly universal properties about how GPCRs function. The exofacial and 7TMS core of the β2AR seems to provide a "mechanosensing" device capable of converting the binding of agonist into some physical force on GPCR cytoplasmic domains or those borrowed from a distantly-related 7TMS ...
Chimeric genes play an integral role in molecular biological research. One such example is the GAL4-UAS system. By combining the upstream activation site (UAS) for the yeast gene GAL4 with your gene of interest, you can cause your gene to be activated in the presence of GAL4. These chimera arent structurally different (i.e., it is still the same protein), but instead of the normal regulatory elements associated with the gene, it now has the yeast UAS. A researcher can control where the GAL4 gene is expressed by creating a chimera made up of the GAL4 gene and a regulatory element for a certain tissue. Wherever GAL4 is expressed, your gene of interest will be expressed because it has been fused to the UAS ...
for example, one from the donkey and one from the horse. "Chimera" is a broad term and is often applied to many different types of mixing of cells from two different species.. Some chimeras can result in the eventual development of an adult animal composed of cells from both donors, which may be of different species - for example, in 1984 a chimeric geep was produced by combining embryos from a goat and a sheep.[8 ...
Side-by-side views of a potassium channel structure (Protein Data Bank entry 1bl8) showing different approaches to cavity detection. On the left are molecular surface patches in darker and lighter pink corresponding to the structures two largest pockets by MS volume in the Computed Atlas of Surface Topography of proteins (CASTp) database. CASTp pocket information can be fetched directly from within Chimera. On the right is a tunnel in blue identified by the MolAxis server. The downloaded result file 1bl8.graph_pathway_0_all was converted to a Chimera BILD file by simply inserting ".sphere" at the beginning of each line and adding the line ".color blue" at the top (format description). The orthographic projection is shown (perspective has been turned off), the background is tan, and the image includes silhouette edges and 2D labels. The subdivision quality is 5.0 and the molecular surface vertex density is 6.0. The entry Sliced Potassium Channel provides yet another view of the same structure. ...
1997 TVR Chimaera 500 HC 68k Tuscan lights For Sale, £9500 1997 TVR Chimaera 500 HC 68k Tuscan light conversion 5 Litre HC version, factory 340BHP 0-60 in 4
Chimera includes complete documentation and several tutorials, and can be downloaded free of charge for academic, government, non-profi. UCSF Chimera is a highly extensible program for interactive visualization.
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Note: Solar Monitors coronal hole segmentations are performed by CHIMERA, a copy of which is available at: github.com/solarmonitor/solarmonitoridl/idl. An extensive copy of coronal hole properties are available at: solarmonitor.org/data. The latest positions of the coronal holes are given in heliocentric co-ordinates. The region positions are valid on 12-Jun-2019 22:50 UT . ...
Note: Solar Monitors coronal hole segmentations are performed by CHIMERA, a copy of which is available at: github.com/solarmonitor/solarmonitoridl/idl. An extensive copy of coronal hole properties are available at: solarmonitor.org/data. The latest positions of the coronal holes are given in heliocentric co-ordinates. The region positions are valid on 16-May-2018 15:30 UT . ...
ashley.hunt60 Wrote:How about the interspecies chimera some are pushing for? Yes please. But in reality, its kind of strange to me. But strange doesnt mean bad. Quote:Souls - If life starts at conce
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hm ill try editing a theme.. ;D,br,,br,try this; paste it to your application support/ chimera / profiles/ .. / prefs.js :,br,,br,user_pref(network.http.pipelining, true);,br,user_pref(network.http.proxy.pipelining, true);,br,,br,it makes it faster:D,br,,br,,br,,br,Giaguara,br ...
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Chimera version numbers now have an extra level. The previous production release is now officially 1.0 build 2540. a.k.a. release number 1.0.2540, instead of 1.2540. If a bug fix version of 1.3 comes out, it will be 1.3.1 with the release numbers being 1.3.2 and 1.3.1.X ...
Has anyone tried StemCells new product for enriching for murine/human chimeras? If anyone has comments regarding how well it works, please contact: deborahwilkinson at sprynet.com Thank you ...
On Dec 5, 1:53pm, Raul Deluth Miller wrote: , Subject: Re: Chimera , Personally, I use w3.el under emacs as my www browser. What is emacs? -- Markus Illenseer ...
Homo sapiens neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 1 (NEDD1), mRNA. (H00121441-R01) - Products - Abnova
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This article is from Bioessays, volume 33.AbstractRecent technological advances have opened the door for the fast and cost-effective generation of genetically...
Its another eerily dark night. As are most environments Voletta finds herself in, this one is void of any sign of life as well. This time however, shes going through what used to be a rural area. Theres clean pavement and homes on either side of it. Both grass and trees are growing, and there…
By Dancho Danchev, ZDNet Earlier this month, the controversial BBC purchase of a botnet and modifying the infected hosts in the name of
neatly pressed, uniformed, looking for matron. the vestibule, signing in, taking out. small girl grown older, bolder now. these are the growing days. big school, and endless performances. not yet the final curtain. you made no difference whatsoever. small girl. sbm.
-Annabel Magiore, c. 1865 On this day, in 1865, Annabel Magiore was excommunicated by the Pope for the act of having seduced Bishop P- into raping her.
Plasmid pAAV-Ef1a-DIO C1V1 (t/t)-TS-EYFP from Dr. Karl Deisseroths lab contains the insert ChR1-VChR1 Chimera and is published in Nature. 2011 Jul 27;477(7363):171-8. doi: 10.1038/nature10360. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Reciprocal hybrids showing different phenotypes have been well documented in previous studies, and many factors accounting for different phenotypes have been extensively investigated. However, less is known about whether the profiles of small RNAs differ between reciprocal hybrids and how these small RNAs affect gene expression and phenotypes. To better understand this mechanism, the role of small RNAs on phenotypes in reciprocal hybrids was analysed. Reciprocal hybrids between Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom and S. pimpinellifolium line WVa700 were generated. Significantly different phenotypes between the reciprocal hybrids were observed, including fruit shape index, single fruit weight and plant height. Then, through the high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs, we found that the expression levels of 76 known miRNAs were highly variable between the reciprocal hybrids. Subsequently, a total of 410 target genes were predicted to correspond with these differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, gene
Recurrent Double Donor Embryo Implantation Failure. Braverman IVF & Reproductive Immunology answers this question and more in this forum!
Murine fibroblasts expressing viral receptors and human cyclin T1 allow HIV-1 entry and viral gene expression but do not support efficient assembly. A chimeric HIV-1 carrying a non-homologous matrix (MA) from murine leukemia virus in place of HIV-1 MA can assemble efficiently in murine cells, yet has poor infectivity. Here, we assess the ability of a homologous MA from SIV MAC239 to complement assembly and infection in chimeric viruses designated SHIV(MA). The resulting SHIV(MA) chimeras produce more virus than native HIV-1 when transfected into murine cells. SHIV(MA) exhibits cell-type-specific replication in human T cell lines, replicating well in MT4 cells and poorly in Jurkat cells due to an incompatibility with the HIV-1 Env. The infectivity defects of SHIV(MA) are rescued by pseudotyping with VSV-G but not by truncation of the cytoplasmic tail of Env. Passage of SHIV(MA) in Jurkat cells produces variants with improved Env incorporation and improved replication in Jurkat but not in 3T3 TXC ...
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We evaluated the biological origin of host-virus (mosquito-DENV) recombination by comparing its rate to that of recombination between genomes (pillbug-DENV) that never were in contact in a cellular context. This control indicated that the DENV genome and the genome of its mosquito host did not recombine in vivo to a detectable extent, hence, that most, if not all, virus-host chimeras were artificially produced.. We also uncovered within-genome chimeras (e.g., DENV-DENV chimeras) in greater numbers. To assess their biological origin, chimeras involving the genomes of species that were not in contact prior to DNA processing (e.g., pillbug-DENV chimeras) cannot be used as a baseline expectation because they necessarily occurred between different molecules, contrary to within genome chimeras, which most frequently occurred within the same molecule (see below). Thus, they are not informative. However, it is notable that the various within-genome chimeras we detected in datasets obtained with the ...
You should use Ctrl+C (SIGINT) to stop chimera.. The -I on chimera tells Chimera where to look for instruments, this case to look in your $HOME directory (you can use any directory there, . for example). Then to -i we pass a valid Chimera Location. From the Location, Chimera knows that you want to create an instance of Example1 class and call this instance example.. You can also pass configuration parameters right on the Location given in the command line. Use:. ...
The Latin word chimaera means monster, so the name "chimaera" perfectly fits these strange-looking, scaleless ghost sharks. There are about 25 species of chimaera. Like sharks, all chimaera have a thick body and a cartilaginous (CAR-tuh-LÄ-juh-nus) skeleton. A cartilaginous skeleton is made of cartilage (firm, flexible tissue) instead of bone.. The chimaera is similar to a shark or ray in many ways, but is different from sharks because it lacks the sharp, replaceable teeth of sharks. Instead, the chimaera has rat-like teeth. Also, the chimaeras skin is different. It has only a single pair of gill slits, and its upper jaw is attached to its skull. Even though the chimaera is not a shark, we should still avoid it. Most chimaera have a venomous spine directly in front of their dorsal fin. This sharp spine can inflict painful wounds on humans or animal predators, which include larger fish and sharks. The largest chimaera reach a length of about six and a half feet.. Chimaera are called "deep-water ...
About PhoenixBio Co, Ltd.: A public company produces the PXB-Mouse®, the worlds most widely used humanized liver chimeric mouse model, for drug discovery and development. With very high replacement of human hepatocytes in the liver, the PXB-Mouse provides clinically relevant data in the fields of HBV/HCV, DMPKS/Safety, oligonucleotide therapeutics and non-viral liver diseases. The translatability of the PXB-Mouse model enables accelerated pre-clinical drug development and reduces the risk of failure at the clinical development stage. The PXB-Mouse is the reliable, cost-effective, next step for your pre-clinical drug development ...
What is the issue?. It has recently been recognised that a specific brand of medical device used in open-heart surgery, known as a heater-cooler unit, has the potential to be contaminated with an uncommon environmental bacterium called Mycobacterium chimaera (M. chimaera), which grows in the units water tank.. The water and the heater-cooler unit itself never comes into contact with the patients blood or body fluids. M. chimaera can become airborne from the heater-cooler device, and can make contact with a patients wound during open heart surgery, potentially resulting in infection. The risk of infection however is very low.. What are heater-cooler units?. Heater-cooler units are life-saving medical devices used during open-heart surgery. These units are used around the world, including in Australian hospitals.. Heater-cooler units enable doctors to regulate the temperature of the patients blood during the surgery. The machine uses water to warm or cool the blood as it is circulated outside ...
Activation of A2A adenosine receptors (A2ARs) protects kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). A2ARs are expressed on bone marrow-derived (BM-derived) cells and renal smooth muscle, epithelial, and endothelial cells. To measure the contribution of A2ARs on BM-derived cells in suppressing renal IRI, we examined the effects of a selective agonist of A2ARs, ATL146e, in chimeric mice in which BM was ablated by lethal radiation and reconstituted with donor BM cells derived from GFP, A2AR-KO, or WT mice to produce GFP→WT, A2A-KO→WT, or WT→WT mouse chimera. We found little or no repopulation of renal vascular endothelial cells by donor BM with or without renal IRI. ATL146e had no effect on IRI in A2A-KO mice or A2A-KO→WT chimera, but reduced the rise in plasma creatinine from IRI by 75% in WT mice and by 60% in WT→WT chimera. ATL146e reduced the induction of IL-6, IL-1β, IL-1ra, and TGF-α mRNA in WT→WT mice but not in A2A-KO→WT mice. Plasma creatinine was significantly greater ...
Chimera Lighting has been hand making quality products for the photographic, cinematic and broadcast markets for over 35 years. Chimera works closely with all the major brands through the product development cycle, ensuring that everyones product performs as efficiently and effectively as possible. Chimera Lighting takes pride in our ability to expand the range and versatility of our partners products.. Chimera products are designed and manufactured in Boulder Co. with pride and experience of 35 years. If you have a product or project that you think could benefit from our experience, please fill out the form, provide a brief overview of your project and we will get back to you shortly.. ...
http://chimeralighting.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/chimera-lighting-logo-copy.png 0 0 Chimera Lighting http://chimeralighting.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/chimera-lighting-logo-copy.png Chimera Lighting2017-02-21 07:53:102017-07-03 13:37:17How do you pronounce "Chimera?" ...
Hi, My husband, Michael, and I met 19 years ago and have been married for nearly 16 years. We began our journey to start our family over 12 years ago. After suffering from endometriosis, numerous surgeries, ovarian cysts and years of
Listen to Cursed Chimera Radio, free! Stream songs by Cursed Chimera & similar artists plus get the latest info on Cursed Chimera!
mutation in these p53+ epithelial cells from the kidney transplant. These findings provide evidence for a donor epithelial cell contribution to the malignant skin epithelium in the recipient in the setting of allogeneic kidney transplantation. This finding has theoretical implications for cancer initiation and progression and clinical implications in the context of prolonged immunosuppression and longer survival of kidney transplant patients. ...
Tajima Atsushi , Barbato Guy F. , Kuwana Takashi , HAMMERSTEDT Roy H. The journal of poultry science 40(1), 53-61, 2003-01-25 J-STAGE 参考文献20件 被引用文献7件 ...
When cells-but not DNA-from two or more genetically distinct individuals combine to form a new individual, the result is called a chimera. Though chimeras occasionally occur in nature, scientists have produced chimeras in a laboratory setting since the 1960s. During the creation of a chimera, the DNA molecules do not exchange genetic material (recombine), unlike in sexual reproduction or in hybrid organisms, which result from genetic material exchanged between two different species. A chimera instead contains discrete cell populations with two unique sets of parental genes.. Format: Articles Subject: Organisms, Processes ...
When cells-but not DNA-from two or more genetically distinct individuals combine to form a new individual, the result is called a chimera. Though chimeras occasionally occur in nature, scientists have produced chimeras in a laboratory setting since the 1960s. During the creation of a chimera, the DNA molecules do not exchange genetic material (recombine), unlike in sexual reproduction or in hybrid organisms, which result from genetic material exchanged between two different species. A chimera instead contains discrete cell populations with two unique sets of parental genes.. Format: Articles Subject: Organisms, Processes ...
Hi netters! I have a copy of mulfold for the Mac. A limitation of this version: one can only fold a 300 base sequence. I, however, have a sequence of ~4000 that I want to fold to see if the start codon or SD domain could potentially interact with bases more distant than the neighboring ~150 bases (and the effect of mutations in these more distant domains on this interaction). Is there anyway I could do this without constructing some chimeric sequence between the initiation region and the distant region of interest (I dont think the results I would get from this would be very realistic)? Do you thing it is reasonable (thermodynamically) for a such a distant region (say ~500 bases away) to base pair with the initiation region? (I cant, for certain, justify one or the other because I cant do the folding!). What are the limitations for the UNIX version?? Help! Thanks for your time! Yours truly, erik ...
Buy DDR1, Fc Chimera recombinant protein (MBS638129) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins. Application: ELISA (EL/EIA)
We take a look at iBUYPOWERs spectacular looking and high performance Chimera 4SE gaming desktop PC in our return to desktop reviews. (Page 2 of 11)
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Neuromi \ Recombinant Mouse Ret_Fc Chimera CF, 100 ug.. \ PR15049CF-100 for more molecular products just contact us
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Read more information about the character Hiko Saigaura from Croa Chimera? At MyAnimeList, you can find out about their voice actors, animeography, pictures and much more! MyAnimeList is the largest online anime and manga database in the world! Join the online community, create your anime and manga list, read reviews, explore the forums, follow news, and so much more!
1.1 hyatt 1: // 2: // CHGetURLCommand.mm 3: // Chimera 4: // 5: // Created by David Hyatt on Thu Apr 18 2002. 6: // Copyright (c) 2001 __MyCompanyName__. All rights reserved. 7: // 8: 9: #import CHGetURLCommand.h 10: #import ,AppKit/AppKit.h, 11: 12: @implementation CHGetURLCommand 13: 14: - (id)performDefaultImplementation { 1.2 ! hyatt 15: id controller = [[NSApp delegate] openBrowserWindowWithURLString: [self directParameter]]; ! 16: [[[controller getMyBrowserView] getBrowserView] setActive: YES]; 1.1 hyatt 17: return nil; 18: } 19: @end ...
At last months peer minister retreat my colleague Father Jim suggested a close look at the letter to the Ephesians as a reflection on call, baptism, and ministry. In look at this weekends Lectionary Psalm, I found an interesting chimera with a short passage from Pauls letter. Psalm 116:1-9 & Ephesians 1:18-20. Im using this…
At last months peer minister retreat my colleague Father Jim suggested a close look at the letter to the Ephesians as a reflection on call, baptism, and ministry. In look at this weekends Lectionary Psalm, I found an interesting chimera with a short passage from Pauls letter. Psalm 116:1-9 & Ephesians 1:18-20. Im using this…
Villa Chimera is a collection of two and three bedrooms types all of which offer an experience in style and luxury with a contemporary Balinese twist.
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The Chimera Macropack by Glitchmachines features 200 sound effects by Ivo Ivanov, inspired by demons, ghosts and creatures from the darkness.
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Order Fasigyn Brand Online Rating 4.7 stars, based on 294 comments Buy Cheap Fasigyn but he knew their in using the tool (CONSTEL) is the shift to break, or a
Radiation chimeras produced by crosswise transfers of bone-marrow cell among histocompatible mice susceptible, or genetically resistant, to lethal challenge by a number of myxoviruses were used to test whether macrophage resistance (as assessed in vitro) and resistance of the animal (as measured in vivo), both previously shown to be brought about by the gene Mx, were causally related. 49 chimeras were tested individually, both of resistance of their macrophages to in vitro challenge with M-TUR (a strain of avian influenza virus A/Turkey/England/63 adapted to grow in cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages), and for resistance of the animal in vivo upon challenge with pneumotropic, neurotropic, or hepatotropic influenza viruses. Cultivated Kupffer cells and peritoneal macrophages harvested from chimeric mice expressed the resistance phenotype of the bone-marrow donor irrespective of the host environment in which they had differentiated. However, susceptibility or resistance in vivo was according to ...
Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells have served as a model to study the relationship between cancer and cellular differentiation given their potential to produce tumors and, to varying degrees, participate in embryonic development. Here, nuclear transplantation was used to assess the extent to which the tumorigenic and developmental potential of EC cells is governed by epigenetic as opposed to genetic alterations. Nuclei from three independent mouse EC cell lines (F9, P19, and METT-1) with differing developmental and tumorigenic potentials all were able to direct early embryo development, producing morphologically normal blastocysts that gave rise to nuclear transfer (NT)-derived embryonic stem (ES) cell lines at a high efficiency. However, when tested for tumor or chimera formation, the resulting NT ES cells displayed an identical potential as their respective donor EC cells, in stark contrast to previously reported NT ES cells derived from transfer of untransformed cells. Consi stent with this ...
bestbooklibrary matches keywords, searched from 3rd-party sites, to affiliate-networks offering unlimited access to licensed entertainment content. bestbooklibrary allows visitors, otherwise looking for free-content to enjoy more for less. ...
Looking for online definition of Chimeras in the Medical Dictionary? Chimeras explanation free. What is Chimeras? Meaning of Chimeras medical term. What does Chimeras mean?
During a celebration, a mysterious organ grinder appears, selling fortune cards for a penny. When the first victim falls prey to a mysterious beast, you rush to discover who this organ grinder is and what he wants. He claims revenge for the death of an inno...Play Free Chimeras: Tune of Revenge Collectors Edition Game, Play Free Online Chimeras: Tune of Revenge Collectors Edition Game, Free Download Chimeras: Tune of Revenge Collectors Edition, Chimeras: Tune of Revenge Collectors Edition Cheats, Games Cheat
Chimeran Hybrids form the backbone of the Chimera army in the Resistance video game series. Apparently having been mutated in Russian experiments, the Chimera can be seen in the games attempting to take over planet Earth. A Hybrid makes a non-canonical appearance in the Uncharted series; it is available for use as a skin in the multiplayer component of Uncharted 2: Among Thieves when purchased as part of the PlayStation Heroes Downloadable Skin Pack ...
Tan S-S, Williams EA, Tam PPL: X-chromosome inactivation occurs at different times in different tissues of the post-implantation mouse embryo. Nat Genet 1993, 3:170-174. Roach SA. (1968). The theory of random clumping. London: Methuen. Collinson, J. M., Morris, L., Reid, A. I., Ramaesh, T., Keighren, M. A., Flockhart, J. H., Hill, R. E., Tan, S.-S., Ramaesh, K., Dhillon, B. and West, J. D. (2002). Clonal analysis of patterns of growth, stem cell activity and cell movement during the development and maintenance of the murine corneal epithelium. Dev. Dyn. 224: 432-440. Mort, R. L., Ramaesh, T. Kleinjan, D, A., Morley, S. D., and West. J. D. (2009). Mosaic analysis of stem cell function and wound healing in the mouse corneal epithelium. BMC Dev Bio 9:4. West, J. D. (1975). A theoretical approach to the relation between patch size and clone size in chimaeric tissue. J. Theor. Biol. 50, 153-160. West JD. (1976). Clonal development of the retinal epithelium in mouse chimaeras and X-inactivation ...
In previous versions of USEARCH the cluster_otus command command had an otu_radius_pct option for specifying a radius different from the default of 3%. However, please note that it is not recommended to use non-default values.. The main reason is that chimera detection degrades. Each input sequence is run through UPARSE-REF using the current set of OTUs as a reference database. If the optimal model is chimeric, the sequence is discarded. If an OTU radius , 3% is used, then chimera detection becomes more difficult because more true biological sequences will also be discarded when they dont create new OTUs. The set of OTU sequences becomes sparser, and the correct parents of a chimera will more often be missing from the OTU database. Chimeras can still be detected when there are OTUs which are sufficiently close to their parents, but the false negative rate will tend to increase ...
They created the chimeras by developing embryonic monkey stem-cell embryos, then injecting them into pig embryos five days after fertilization. The scientists implanted thousands of these embryos in sows to be carried to term.. The process produced 10 piglets: eight normal ones and two chimeras. They all died within a week, although the cause of death has not been determined.. Hai suggested they died due to complications with the in vitro fertilization process because the purebred pigs didnt survive, either.. The Chinese scientists arent the only ones pushing the boundaries of science and science fiction. A Japanese scientist is also trying to create a human-rat hybrid in order to grow a human pancreas.. ...
To the Editor:. The article entitled "Evidence for Cardiomyocyte Repopulation by Extracardiac Progenitors in Transplanted Human Hearts" by Laflamme et al,1 published in Circulation Research, confirms our early observations2 that cardiac chimerism occurs after transplantation of a female heart in a male patient. These results are also in agreement with the detection of chimerism in multiple organs after bone marrow transplantation.3 The authors of the study in Circulation Research are perturbed by the low frequency of chimerism in their samples compared with ours2 (as well as in a subsequent recent report3). They attribute this discrepancy to "…technical differences…" (pages 637 and 638) between the two studies. We agree completely with their assessment.. Given the resolution of the histological sections included in the article in Circulation Research, 1 we are pleasantly surprised that they could identify even this relatively low level of chimerism. Laflamme et al place special emphasis on ...
PAIR of Antique French Wood of oak door panel carved chimera of 19 th - $310.00. Pair of Antique French Wood of oak door panel carved chimera of 19 th Dimensions :See photosThe lock of the left door is broken.- When it is possible, we group the sendings to reduce the carriage costs. Please wait to pay for multiple purchases until combined into one invoice Please take a close look at the photos, they are an integral part of the description. the defects of Old Age are always photographed. these items come from french furniture of 252651336615
The Chimera Ensemble - the Universitys student-run contemporary music ensemble - presents its first concert of the year, celebrating the varied works of composers Lawrence Dunn, Kaija Saariaho and David Lumsdaine. Exploring just a few of the countless expressions of light, colour, and darkness, the Ensemble presents an unconventional use of the vibraphone, the metallic sound world of a piano trio, and the sounds of a polar night. The concert is dedicated to the memory of former Chair of Chimera and graduate of the music department, Ben Clark. ...
This species is distinguished from its congeners by the following set of characters: skin thin and deciduous; color uniformly dark brownish to black; preopercular and oral lateral line canals either sharing a common branch or not; long dorsal spine, longer than first dorsal fin; structure of the CO1 gene (Ref. 76965). ...
Sea Chimera Porter brewed by Nutmeg Brewhouse - English Porter 7.2% ABV - Where its available near you - Very rich malt character with roast, dark ...
1.1 hyatt 1: // 2: // ProgressDlgController.m 3: // Chimera 4: // 5: // Created by David Hyatt on Sat Feb 02 2002. 6: // Copyright (c) 2001 __MyCompanyName__. All rights reserved. 7: // 8: 9: #import ProgressDlgController.h 10: 1.2 ! hyatt 11: #include nsIWebBrowserPersist.h ! 12: #include nsIInputStream.h ! 13: #include nsIURL.h ! 14: #include nsIDOMDocument.h 1.1 hyatt 15: 16: @implementation ProgressDlgController 1.2 ! hyatt 17: ! 18: -(void) setWebPersist: (nsIWebBrowserPersist*)aPersist ! 19: source: (nsISupports*)aSource ! 20: destination: (NSString*)aDestination ! 21: contentType: (const char*)aContentType ! 22: postData: (nsIInputStream*)aInputStream ! 23: bypassCache: (BOOL)aBypassCache ! 24: { ! 25: ! 26: ! 27: } 1.1 hyatt 28: 29: @end ...
CHIMERA (26.09.2000) - Free trademark register information. Search, file and monitor trademarks in Germany, Europe and International.
Compare 87 hotels near Chimaera in Kemer using 277 real guest reviews. Earn free nights, get our Price Guarantee & make booking easier with Hotels.com!
I have a strange issue with the newest chimera 4.0 and Mavericks 10.9.4: iTunes just crashes with iTunes quit unexpectedly. message. I tried with...
Hardcore Chimera brewed by Finch Beer Company as an IPA - Imperial / Double style beer, which has 3.9 out of 5, with 35,642 ratings and reviews on Untappd.
I also noticed when I pulled the lower panel out today that 2 wires are not connected and I have 2 spare terminals on the centre dip beam switch is this normal or should I connect them up as everything works with the lights. One is blue/red and the other white/ ...
In 1638, Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) published what would be his final work, Discorsi e Dimostrazioni Matematiche Intorno a Due Nuove Scienze, (Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating…. Read More ...
Gibbs and the team investigate a mysterious death aboard a top-secret naval research ship, only to discover an abandoned ship and a deadly secret that could cost them their lives.
All price requests are done by email or phone.. France: par email seulement.. [email protected] Korea: 이메일을 보네주세요. [email protected] New York: 917-671-8499. ...
Yes, they have some controllers for 1/2 speed and electric water pump (EWP) controllers too, which I had considered moving from belt to EWP but its a PWM controller that I really wanted for the fans, rather than 1/2 stage, which is all DT offer. Did have a good look at DT and a few other motorsport suppliers, but except for flash displays their ranges have changed little in 20years since I build my V8 race cars! Well except Kenlowe and Pacet have stopped supplying fans (damn ...
Embryonic stem cells (ES) cells were injected into host blastocysts either in groups of 10-15 cells or as single cells in order to test their developmental potential in the developing embryo. The analysis of midgestation chimaeras, by electrophoretic separation of glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) isozymes, showed that ES cells were capable of colonizing trophectoderm and primitive endoderm derivatives at a low frequency, as well as producing a high rate of chimaerism in tissues of the fetus and extraembryonic mesoderm.. ...
During development, embryonic cells undergo a series of trans-differentiation programs collectively assembled under the name of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) [23]. Interestingly, carcinoma cells exploit the same principle to drive invasion and colonization to non-adjacent tissues. EMT is a process that allows a differentiated epithelial cell, entirely settled and patterned to establish stable contacts with neighbor cells, to assume amesenchymal cell phenotype, characterized by loss of cell-cell interactions [24], reduced cellular adhesion [25], active production of ECM proteases [26], increased cytoskeletal dynamics [27], and changes in transcription factor expression [28, 29]; all of these events eventually lead to increased migration and invasion ability. Moreover, the acquisition of mesenchymal traits by cancer cells undergoing EMT has been widely reported to be associated with the acquisition of a stem cell program [30]. Thus, the expression of both EMT factors and stem cell ...
Neurotransmitter transporters terminate synaptic neurotransmission by accumulating neurotransmitters once again after release in a sodium- and chloride-dependent fashion. The availability of the cloned neurotransmitter transporters has allowed investigation into the roles of these transporters in neuronal function. Molecular biological and protein engineering studies including in vitro site-directed mutagenesis, chimera formation of several transporter clones, or epitope-tagging various regions of transporter proteins, have revealed the topology and functionally mapped the transporter proteins. Monoamine neurotransmitter transporters such as those for dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin are of interest, since they are a target of drugs of abuse and are involved in neuronal disorders including Parkinsons disease and depression. Therefore, elucidating the molecular basis of these transporters may clarify these problems and help develop treatments with which to combat these disorders and drug ...
Zwijsen A., Goumans M.J., Lawson K.A., Van Rooijen M.A., Mummery C.L.. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) regulates the cell cycle and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition of many cells in vitro. We have analysed chimaeric mouse embryos generated from embryonic stem cells with abnormal receptor expression to study the effect of TGFbeta on these processes in vivo and the consequences for normal development. The binding receptor for TGFbeta, TbetaRII, is first detected in the embryo proper around day 8.5 in the heart. Ectopic expression of TbetaRII from the blastocyst stage onward resulted in an embryonic lethal around 9.5 dpc. Analysis of earlier stages revealed that the primitive streak of TbetaRII chimaeras failed to elongate. Furthermore, although cells passed through the streak and initially formed mesoderm, they tended to accumulate within the streak. These defects temporally and spatially paralleled the expression of the TGFbeta type I receptor, which is first expressed in the node ...
Since it was first demonstrated that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) could be derived from mature cells, significant progress has been made in the field of acquisition, characteristics, identification and application of iPS cells. Until now, diverse means have been proven to generate iPS cells successfully in many biological species and more cell types. Meanwhile, researchers continue to target the efficiency of induction. To identify the characteristics of induced pluripotent stem cells and attest to their pluripotency, one must verify the expression of new derived stem cell genes and proteins, doubling times, methylation patterns, teratoma formation, embryoid body formation, viable chimera formation and capacity to differentiate into all cell types. In other words, induced pluripotent stem cells are theoretically similar, or even same, to natural pluripotent stem cells, for instance embryonic stem (ES) cells. Furthermore, iPS cells have the potential to take the place of ES cells ...
Background Calmodulin (CaM) plays an important role in Ca2+-dependent signal transduction. Ca2+ binding to CaM triggers a conformational change, forming a hydrophobic patch that is important for target protein recognition. CaM regulates a Ca2+-dependent inactivation process in store-operated Ca2+entry, by interacting Orai1. To understand the relationship between Ca2+-induced hydrophobicity and CaM/Orai interaction, chimera proteins constructed by exchanging EF-hands of CaM with those of Troponin C (TnC) are used as an informative probe to better understand the functionality of each EF-hand. Results ANS was used to assess the context of the induced hydrophobic surface on CaM and chimeras upon Ca2+ binding. The exchanged EF-hands from TnC to CaM resulted in reduced hydrophobicity compared with wild-type CaM. ANS lifetime measurements indicated that there are two types of ANS molecules with rather distinct fluorescence lifetimes, each specifically corresponding to one lobe of CaM or chimeras.
purpose. To assess the structural and functional consequences of local ganglion cell (GC) loss in an experimental model of a retinal nerve fiber layer (NFL) bundle defect. To evaluate and compare three commonly used multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) stimuli, as well as the standard transient pattern-reversal ERG (pERG) and the photopic full-field ERG, for detection of local GC damage.. methods. Intraretinal axotomy was achieved by multiple treatments with a diode laser adapted to a slit lamp biomicroscope. Retinal laser burns were applied along an arc, subtending approximately 60°, about one disc diameter superotemporal to the optic nerve. Functional measures were acquired before laser application and at numerous time points thereafter. These included mfERGs for three different stimuli: a standard fast m-sequence flicker, a global-field flash paradigm (MOFO), and a slowed m-sequence (with seven dark frames inserted to each m-step [7F]). pERGs were measured for a 24° × 32° checkerboard ...

UCSF Chimera Home PageUCSF Chimera Home Page

Citing Chimera. Contact Us. Recent Citations. Cryo-EM structure of the αvβ8 integrin reveals a mechanism for stabilizing ... Chimera production release 1.12 is now available (64-bit builds for Windows, Mac, and Linux). See the release notes for details ... Chimera is developed by the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics (RBVI), supported in part by the National ... UCSF Chimera is a highly extensible program for interactive visualization and analysis of molecular structures and related data ...
more infohttp://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/chimera/

Chimera (EP) - WikipediaChimera (EP) - Wikipedia

"Chimera - Single". Retrieved 31 January 2015. "Music". Marie Digby Official Website. Retrieved 31 January 2015. "Chimera - New ... Chimera is an EP by Marié Digby. It was released on August 16, 2014. "Vanish in the Air" is the single of Marie Digbys EP ... Chimera. This EP was first featured at iTunes Store. The EP contains three new Marié Digby songs. This EP is a distinct ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chimera_(EP)

Jason Chimera - WikipediaJason Chimera - Wikipedia

Chimera was re-signed a two-year contract extension with the Capitals on September 29, 2011. Chimera was re-signed a two-year ... During the subsequent season, Chimera played in his 1,000th game. "Capitals Trade Clark, Jurcina to Blue Jackets for Chimera". ... "Caps agree to term on new contract with Jason Chimera". NHL. 2011-09-29. Retrieved 2011-09-29. "Capitals re-sign Jason Chimera ... Chimera was subsequently dealt to the Columbus Blue Jackets, without playing a game in Phoenix, as part of a trade for Geoff ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jason_Chimera

ChimeraChimera

Entry Description. black and white contrast in a fashion photo. Tried to deliver the feeling of mobility and style in terms of fashion. ...
more infohttp://photoawards.com/winner/zoom.php?eid=8-27364-11

Controversial Chimera - NOW MagazineControversial Chimera - NOW Magazine

CHIMERA by Wendy Lill, directed by Mary Vingoe, with Philippa Domville, David Fox and David Jansen. Presented by the Tarragon ( ... Chimera is not simply a thought-provoking orgy of ideas and character studies, Jansen notes. ... Politics and personal agendas collide in Chimera, Wendy Lills fast-paced political drama. The four-time Governor Generals ... the crusty journalist at the centre of the drama makes no apology for the fact that Chimera is an idea-driven play. ...
more infohttps://nowtoronto.com/culture/stage/controversial-chimera/

The Chimera WindowThe Chimera Window

... Molecular structures and other 3D data are displayed in the graphics window. Initially, the Rapid Access ... Chimera commands are entered at the Command Line. There are several ways to start the Command Line, a tool in the General ... In fullscreen mode (available in Windows, Linux, and Mac-X11 versions of Chimera), the graphics window without borders occupies ... The Chimera window may also include a toolbar for icons, a command line, and a status line. The initial appearance of the ...
more infohttps://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/chimera/docs/UsersGuide/chimerawindow.html

141407 - Need Chimera product141407 - Need Chimera product

For bugs in Chimera bookmark handling General For issues in Chimera that dont fit into other Chimera Components History For ... Product For issues in Chimera, the Mac OS X browser. Chimera uses Cocoazilla, a variant of Fizzilla that consists of a UNIX ... Page Layout For issues in Chimeras page layout. Preferences For issues in Chimera preferences. Toolbars & Menus For issues in ... I need a Chimera product created. I would be the default assignee for all components. Chris Petersen at Netscape can be the QA ...
more infohttps://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=141407

Chimera by Sulup on NewgroundsChimera by Sulup on Newgrounds

You are not logged in. If you sign up for an account, you can gain additional voting power over time, allowing your vote to have an even greater impact on submission scores! ...
more infohttps://www.newgrounds.com/art/view/sulup/chimera

Long-nosed chimera | fish | Britannica.comLong-nosed chimera | fish | Britannica.com

... chimaera: …unusual, hoe-shaped, flexible snout; and Rhinochimaeridae (long-nosed chimaeras), with an extended, pointed snout. ... Other articles where Long-nosed chimera is discussed: ... Long-nosed chimera. fish. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. Britannica ... In chimaera. …unusual, hoe-shaped, flexible snout; and Rhinochimaeridae (long-nosed chimaeras), with an extended, pointed snout ... ": { "url": "/animal/long-nosed-chimera", "shareUrl": "https://www.britannica.com/animal/long-nosed-chimera", "title": "Long- ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/animal/long-nosed-chimera

Chimera Investment Corporation - The New York TimesChimera Investment Corporation - The New York Times

Chimera Investment Corporation financial and business news, updates, and information from The New York Times and other leading ... Chimera Investment Corporation financial and business news, updates, and information from The New York Times and other leading ... News about Chimera Investment Corporation, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. ...
more infohttps://www.nytimes.com/topic/company/chimera-investment-corporation

JPG: People: Alessandro ChimeraJPG: People: Alessandro Chimera

Alessandro Chimera. has been a member since Aug 2008 and goes by akimera. ...
more infohttp://jpgmag.com/people/akimera

Chimera Artist ProfileChimera Artist Profile

... Online Christian radio, Christian music articles, reviews, news and artist profiles. Christian life ...
more infohttp://www.crossrhythms.co.uk/artists/Chimera/4546/?ref=news

The Chimera | work by Vassalli | Britannica.comThe Chimera | work by Vassalli | Britannica.com

Strega Prize-winning La chimera (1990; The Chimera), perhaps taking a cue from historian Carlo Ginzburg as well as from ... Strega Prize-winning La chimera (1990; The Chimera), perhaps taking a cue from historian Carlo Ginzburg as well as from ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/topic/The-Chimera

Chimera - Fishboy by Havegum on NewgroundsChimera - Fishboy by Havegum on Newgrounds

Good job. I like your attention to detail by showing the fishs reflection in the puddle of water. The strewn out dead figure adds some nice effect to the obviously already suffering fish. It could use more of a background than just white but maybe fishboy is just resting on a white table.. ...
more infohttps://www.newgrounds.com/art/view/havegum/chimera-fishboy

CHIMERA SegmentationCHIMERA Segmentation

Note: Solar Monitors coronal hole segmentations are performed by CHIMERA, a copy of which is available at: github.com/ ...
more infohttps://www.solarmonitor.org/chimera.php?date=20190308

CHIMERA SegmentationCHIMERA Segmentation

Note: Solar Monitors coronal hole segmentations are performed by CHIMERA, a copy of which is available at: github.com/ ...
more infohttps://www.solarmonitor.org/chimera.php?date=20190910

CHIMERA SegmentationCHIMERA Segmentation

Note: Solar Monitors coronal hole segmentations are performed by CHIMERA, a copy of which is available at: github.com/ ...
more infohttps://solarmonitor.org/chimera.php?date=20181127

CHIMERA SegmentationCHIMERA Segmentation

Note: Solar Monitors coronal hole segmentations are performed by CHIMERA, a copy of which is available at: github.com/ ...
more infohttps://solarmonitor.org/chimera.php?date=20180909&type=saia_chimr®ion=&indexnum=1

UK set to greenlight chimera research • The RegisterUK set to greenlight chimera research • The Register

It prohibits "true" human-animal hybrids, but allows for so-called chimeras and cytoplasmic hybrid embryos. Any hybrid embryos ... Chimera bill: consultation begins (24 May 2007) https://www.theregister.co.uk/2007/05/24/chimera_consults/ ... Original URL: https://www.theregister.co.uk/2007/09/04/chimera_research/ ...
more infohttp://www.theregister.co.uk/Print/2007/09/04/chimera_research/

Nuclear dynamics in a fungal chimera | PNASNuclear dynamics in a fungal chimera | PNAS

Nuclear dynamics in a fungal chimera. Marcus Roper, Anna Simonin, Patrick C. Hickey, Abby Leeder, and N. Louise Glass ... Moreover, chimera formation may be a driver for diversification at the species level by allowing lateral gene transfer between ... Dynamics of hH1-GFP and hH1-DsRed nuclear populations in a Neurospora crassa chimera. (A) Two homokaryotic mycelia, one with ... A fungal chimera must maintain its genetic richness during growth. Maintenance of richness is challenging because fungal ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/110/32/12875

Chimera Mobile Vet | petMDChimera Mobile Vet | petMD

If you cant keep your cat from exploring the outdoors, its useful to be aware of the dangers. Weve compiled a list of common cat tail injuries so you can best prevent and treat them, and keep that expressive appendage in optimal health. ...
more infohttps://www.petmd.com/services/chimera-mobile-vet

StemCell-murine/human chimera enrichmentStemCell-murine/human chimera enrichment

... Deborah Wilkinson deborahwilkinson at sprynet.com Sun Dec 6 19:26:49 EST 1998 * ... Has anyone tried StemCells new product for enriching for murine/human chimeras? If anyone has comments regarding how well it ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1998-December/072200.html

StemCell- murine/human chimera enrichmentStemCell- murine/human chimera enrichment

... Deborah Wilkinson deborahwilkinson at sprynet.com Fri Dec 4 20:13:07 EST 1998 * ... Has anyone tried StemCells new product for enriching for murine/human chimeras? If anyone has comments regarding how well it ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/immuno/1998-December/013604.html

amiga-x: Re: Chimeraamiga-x: Re: Chimera

Subject: Re: Chimera. To: Raul Deluth Miller ,[email protected],. From: Markus Illenseer ,[email protected], ... On Dec 5, 1:53pm, Raul Deluth Miller wrote: , Subject: Re: Chimera , Personally, I use w3.el under emacs as my www browser. ...
more infohttp://mail-index.netbsd.org/amiga-x/1994/12/06/0002.html

Chimera Digital Comics - Comics by comiXologyChimera Digital Comics - Comics by comiXology

Chimera. When a covert mission goes horribly wrong, a crew of thieves find themselves caught in the middle of a vicious, ...
more infohttps://www.comixology.com/Chimera/comics-series/81275
  • Chimera production release 1.13 is now available . (ucsf.edu)
  • Nonetheless, lingering in the back of even the most cynical individuals' minds is the knowledge that whatever the chimera is, it must be a truly horrifying beast to garner such extravagant fables. (d20pfsrd.com)
  • Yes, but actor David Jansen who plays Roy Ruggles, the crusty journalist at the centre of the drama makes no apology for the fact that Chimera is an idea-driven play. (nowtoronto.com)
  • Skeptics are correct in thinking that the tales of the chimera do in fact outstrip the reality. (d20pfsrd.com)
  • However, there are three things that make Chimera stand out. (trendmicro.com)
  • Its name has become a byword among doubters, skeptics, and naysayers, who refer to anything that seems impossible, fanciful, or overly embellished as chimerical, for surely nothing in the world could possibly be all the dubious things perpetuators of the chimera myth claim the monster to be. (d20pfsrd.com)
  • Chimera includes complete documentation and several tutorials, and can be downloaded free of charge for academic, government, nonprofit, and personal use. (ucsf.edu)
  • Politics and personal agendas collide in Chimera, Wendy Lill's fast-paced political drama. (nowtoronto.com)
  • Hi, I am trying to install Chimera on phpbb 3.1.x the support team has told me before I bought it that it works on 3.1.x but I cannot see it in the install part of styles after I uplaoded the style. (rockettheme.com)
  • It's for this reason that mortgage real estate investment trusts have become widely popular over the past few years, as mREITs Annaly Capital Management and Chimera Investment yield 12% and 13%, respectively. (fool.com)