Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.
Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.
Physiological processes and properties of the DENTITION.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.
Physiology of the human and animal body, male or female, in the processes and characteristics of REPRODUCTION and the URINARY TRACT.
Properties, and processes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM or their parts.
Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.
Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.
The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.
Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.
The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.
Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
Members of spacecraft crew including those who travel in space, and those in training for space flight. (From Webster, 10th ed; Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
Condition under normal Earth gravity where the force of gravity itself is not actually altered but its influence or effect may be modified and studied. (From ASGSB Bull 1992;5(2):27)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Production or presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.
Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.

Caregiver behaviors and resources influence child height-for-age in rural Chad. (1/714)

The purpose of this study was to identify caregiver characteristics that influence child nutritional status in rural Chad, when controlling for socioeconomic factors. Variables were classified according to the categories of a UNICEF model of care: caregiving behaviors, household food security, food and economic resources and resources for care and health resources. Sixty-four households with 98 children from ages 12 to 71 mo were part of this study. Caregivers were interviewed to collect information on number of pregnancies, child feeding and health practices, influence on decisions regarding child health and feeding, overall satisfaction with life, social support, workload, income, use of income, and household food expenditures and consumption. Household heads were questioned about household food production and other economic resources. Caregiver and household variables were classified as two sets of variables, and separate regression models were run for each of the two sets. Significant predictors of height-for-age were then combined in the same regression model. Caregiver influence on child-feeding decisions, level of satisfaction with life, willingness to seek advice during child illnesses, and the number of individuals available to assist with domestic tasks were the caregiver factors associated with children's height-for-age. Socioeconomic factors associated with children's height-for-age were the amount of harvested cereals, the sources of household income and the household being monogamous. When the caregiver and household socioeconomic factors were combined in the same model, they explained 54% of the variance in children's height-for-age, and their regression coefficients did not change or only slightly increased, except for caregiver's propensity to seek advice during child illnesses, which was no longer significant. These results indicate that caregiver characteristics influence children's nutritional status, even while controlling for the socioeconomic status of the household.  (+info)

Enteropathogenic bacteria in faecal swabs of young children fed on lactic acid-fermented cereal gruels. (2/714)

The influence of consumption of a lactic acid-fermented cereal gruel togwa with pH < or = 4 on the presence of faecal enteric bacteria such as campylobacter, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC:O157), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), salmonella and shigella was evaluated. Under 5 years old healthy children listed in an ascending order of age were alternatively assigned and given either a lactic-acid fermented cereal gruel togwa (test diet) or an unfermented cereal gruel uji (control diet) once a day for 13 consecutive days. The presence of the enteropathogens was examined in rectal swabs collected from the children at baseline (before feeding session started), on days 7 and 13, and additionally 14 days (follow-up day) after the feeding session had stopped. The swabs were cultured on to different optimal media for respective enteropathogen and confirmed by standard microbiological and serological methods. Campylobacter spp. dominated among the enteropathogens (62% out of total) followed by Salmonella spp., ETEC and Shigella spp. Children with isolated enteropathogens in the togwa group was significantly reduced (P < 0.001) from 27.6% at baseline to 7.8, 8.2 and 12.7% on days 7, 13 and follow-up day, respectively. The effect was more pronounced in those children taking togwa > 6 times during the study period. In the control group, there was a slight decrease from 16.7% at baseline to 11.4% on day 7 and 8.1% on day 13. On the follow-up day, enteropathogens were found in 22.6% of the children, which was significantly higher than in those children taking togwa > 6 times. We conclude, that regular consumption of togwa with pH < or = 4, once a day, three times a week may help to control intestinal colonization with potential diarrhoea-causing pathogens in young children.  (+info)

Cost-effective treatment for severely malnourished children: what is the best approach? (3/714)

In urban Bangladesh, 437 children with severe malnutrition aged 12-60 months were sequentially allocated to treat either as i) inpatients, ii) day care, or iii) domiciliary care after one week of day care. Average institutional cost (US$) to achieve 80% weight-for-height were respectively $156, $59 and $29/child. As a proportion of the overall costs, staff salaries were the largest component, followed by laboratory tests. Parental costs were highest for domiciliary care, as no food supplements were provided. Nevertheless it was the option most preferred by parents and when the institutional and parental costs were combined, domiciliary care was 1.6 times more cost-effective than day care, and 4.1 times more cost-effective than inpatient care. CONCLUSION: With careful training and an efficient referral system, domiciliary care preceded by one week of day care is the most cost-effective treatment option for severe malnutrition in this setting.  (+info)

The Pathways study: a model for lowering the fat in school meals. (4/714)

We describe the development and implementation of the Pathways school food service intervention during the feasibility phase of the Pathways study. The purpose of the intervention was to lower the amount of fat in school meals to 30% of energy to promote obesity prevention in third- through fifth-grade students. The Pathways nutrition staff and the food service intervention staff worked together to develop 5 interrelated components to implement the intervention. These components were nutrient guidelines, 8 skill-building behavioral guidelines, hands-on materials, twice yearly trainings, and monthly visits to the kitchens by the Pathways nutrition staff. The components were developed and implemented over 18 mo in a pilot intervention in 4 schools. The results of an initial process evaluation showed that 3 of the 4 schools had implemented 6 of the 8 behavioral guidelines. In an analysis of 5 d of school menus from 3 control schools, the lunch menus averaged from 34% to 40% of energy from fat; when the menus were analyzed by using the food preparation and serving methods in the behavioral guidelines, they averaged 31% of energy from total fat. This unique approach of 5 interrelated food service intervention components was accepted in the schools and is now being implemented in the full-scale phase of the Pathways study in 40 schools for 5 y.  (+info)

The Narangwal Nutrition Study: a summary review. (5/714)

Between April 1968 and May 1973 the department of International Health of The Johns Hopkins University carried out investigations into the interactions of malnutrition and infection and their effects on preschool child growth, morbidity and mortality in 10 villages of Punjab, North India. Base line surveys before the introduction of services revealed a high prevalence of malnutrition and undernutrition and infectious disease morbidity, as well as lack of accessibility, underutilization and poor population coverage of governmental health services. Study villages were selected in separate clusters and allocated to a control group and three service groups in which nutrition care and medical care were provided singly and in combination by auxiliary health workers resident in each village. Outcome effects were measured through means of longitudinal and cross-sectional surveys. Service inputs and service costs were similarly monitored. Results showed significant improvement of growth (weight and height) and hemoglobin levels of children. Perinatal mortality was reduced by nutrition supplementation to pregnant women. Medical care significantly reduced postneonatal and 1 to 3 mortality, and decreased illness duration of all six conditions examined in this paper. The auxiliary health worker capably managed more than 90% of health needs on her own and referred the rest safely to the physician. Analysis of cost per child death averted showed that cost-effectiveness declined with increasing age of the child. Prenatal nutrition care to pregnant women was most cost-effective in preventing perinatal deaths followed by medical care for infants, and then medical care for the 1 to 3 year age group. The relevance of the field research to national or international endeavors to solve present health problems of developing nations and the timeliness of projects such as the Narangwal Nutrition Study is also evaluated.  (+info)

Feeding problems in merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy. (6/714)

Feeding difficulties were assessed in 14 children (age range 2-14 years) with merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy, a disease characterised by severe muscle weakness and inability to achieve independent ambulation. Twelve of the 14 children were below the 3rd centile for weight. On questioning, all parents thought their child had difficulty chewing, 12 families modified the diet, and 13 children took at least 30 minutes to complete a meal. On examination the mouth architecture was abnormal in 13 children. On videofluoroscopy only the youngest child (2 years old), had a normal study. The others all had an abnormal oral phase (breakdown and manipulation of food and transfer to oropharynx). Nine had an abnormal pharyngeal phase, with a delayed swallow reflex. Three of these also showed pooling of food in the larynx and three showed frank aspiration. These six cases all had a history of recurrent chest infections. Six of eight children who had pH monitoring also had gastro-oesophageal reflux. As a result of the study five children had a gastrostomy, which stopped the chest infections and improved weight gain. This study shows that children with merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy have difficulties at all stages of feeding that progress with age. Appropriate intervention can improve weight gain and reduce chest infections. The severity of the problem has not been previously appreciated in this disease, and the study shows the importance of considering the nutritional status in any child with a primary muscle disorder.  (+info)

Preparing for the next round: convalescent care after acute infection. (7/714)

Infections pose a nutritional stress on the growing child. No therapeutic goal is as important as the rapid recovery of preillness weight after acute infections. Successful convalescence, with supernormal growth rates, can be achieved with relatively brief periods of intensive refeeding, offsetting any tendency toward reduced immune defenses or other nutritionally determined susceptibilities to further infection. Since the mother is the only person who can effectively manage convalescent care, she must be given specific tasks with measurable targets in order to reliably oversee the child's rehabilitation. Not generally considered in the realm of preventive medicine, effective home-based convalencent care is the first crucial step in preventing the next round of illness. An approach to the widespread mobilization of mothers to monitor and sustain their children's growth is proposed in this paper. Rather than a passive recipient of health services, the mother becomes the basic health worker, providing diagnostic and therapeutic primary care for her child. Only the mother can break the malnutrition-infection cycle.  (+info)

Peritoneal transport properties and dialysis dose affect growth and nutritional status in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis. Mid-European Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group. (8/714)

To evaluate a possible effect of peritoneal transport properties and dialysis dose on the physical development of children on chronic peritoneal dialysis, a cohort of 51 children was prospectively followed for 18 mo. Peritoneal transport characteristics were assessed by serial peritoneal equilibration tests (PET), dialysis efficacy by dialysate and residual renal clearance measurements, and growth and nutritional status by the longitudinal changes (delta) of height SD score (SDS), body mass index (BMI) SDS, and serum albumin. delta height SDS was negatively correlated with the creatinine equilibration rate observed in the initial PET (r = -0.31, P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis confirmed the negative effect of the high transporter state (partial r2 = 0.07), and disclosed an additional positive effect of dialytic C(Cr) (partial r2 = 0.11) and a weak negative effect of daily dialysate volume (partial r2 = 0.04) on delta height SDS. delta BMI SDS was strongly age-dependent (r = -0.48, P < 0.001); while relative body mass gradually increased below 4 yr of age, it remained stable in older children. Positive changes in BMI SDS were associated with rapid PET creatinine equilibration rates (univariate r = 0.35, P < 0.05) and/or large dialysate volumes (multivariate partial r2 = 0.11), suggesting a role of dialytic glucose uptake in the development of obesity. The change in serum albumin concentrations was positively correlated with dialysate volume (partial r2 = 0.14), and negatively affected by dialytic protein losses (partial r2 = 0.06). In conclusion, the peritoneal transporter state is a weak but significant determinant of growth and body mass gain in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis. Rapid small solute equilibration contributes to impaired growth but enhanced acquisition of body mass. Dialytic small solute clearance has a weak positive effect on statural growth independent of the transporter state, but does not affect body mass gain.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems to be a broad concept that combines elements from sports nutrition, physiology, and potentially some biochemical phenomena.

1. Sports Nutrition: This involves the study of how diet can impact physical performance during sporting activities. It includes understanding the role of macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) in athletic performance and recovery.

2. Physiological Phenomena: This refers to the functions and activities of living organisms and their parts, including all physical and chemical processes. In the context of sports, this could include how the body responds to exercise, such as increased heart rate, respiratory rate, and metabolism.

If you're looking for a definition that encompasses these areas, it might be something like: "The study of how nutritional intake and physiological responses interact during sporting activities, including the impact on performance, recovery, and overall health." However, this is not a standard medical definition. If you could provide more context or clarify what specific aspects you're interested in, I might be able to give a more precise answer.

I cannot provide a medical definition for the term "Elder Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" as it is not a widely recognized or established term in the field of medicine or nutrition. It seems to be a very specific and narrow term that may refer to certain age-related changes in nutritional status and physiological functions among older adults. However, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or geriatric specialist for a more accurate and detailed explanation based on the context and specific phenomena being referred to.

"Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is a broad term that refers to various physical and biological processes related to nutrition in children. While I couldn't find a precise medical definition for this specific phrase, I can provide you with some key physiological phenomena associated with child nutrition. These include:

1. Growth and Development: Proper nutrition is crucial for normal growth and development in children. Adequate intake of essential nutrients, vitamins, and minerals supports physical growth, brain development, and overall well-being.
2. Digestion and Absorption: The gastrointestinal tract undergoes significant changes during childhood, affecting the ability to digest and absorb various nutrients. For example, lactase production decreases in some children after weaning, leading to lactose intolerance.
3. Energy Metabolism: Children have higher energy requirements per unit of body weight compared to adults due to their rapid growth and development. Proper nutrition ensures efficient energy metabolism and prevents issues like obesity or undernutrition.
4. Immune Function: Nutrition plays a vital role in supporting the immune system. Adequate intake of nutrients like vitamin C, vitamin D, iron, zinc, and protein helps maintain immune function and resistance to infections.
5. Micronutrient Deficiencies: Inadequate nutrition can lead to micronutrient deficiencies, which may impair children's growth, cognitive development, and overall health. Examples include iron deficiency anemia, vitamin A deficiency, and iodine deficiency disorders.
6. Overnutrition and Obesity: Excessive energy intake, coupled with reduced physical activity, can lead to overweight and obesity in children. This increases the risk of developing non-communicable diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer later in life.
7. Food Allergies and Intolerances: Children are more prone to food allergies and intolerances than adults. These can manifest as various symptoms, such as skin rashes, digestive issues, or respiratory problems, and may require dietary modifications.
8. Eating Behaviors and Preferences: Childhood is a critical period for shaping eating behaviors and food preferences. Exposure to a variety of healthy foods during this stage can help establish lifelong healthy eating habits.

Dental physiological phenomena refer to the various natural and normal functions, processes, and responses that occur in the oral cavity, particularly in the teeth and their supporting structures. These phenomena are essential for maintaining good oral health and overall well-being. Some of the key dental physiological phenomena include:

1. Tooth formation (odontogenesis): The process by which teeth develop from embryonic cells into fully formed adult teeth, including the growth and mineralization of tooth enamel, dentin, and cementum.
2. Eruption: The natural movement of a tooth from its developmental position within the jawbone to its final functional position in the oral cavity, allowing it to come into contact with the opposing tooth for biting and chewing.
3. Tooth mobility: The normal slight movement or displacement of teeth within their sockets due to the action of masticatory forces and the elasticity of the periodontal ligament that connects the tooth root to the alveolar bone.
4. Salivary flow: The continuous production and secretion of saliva by the major and minor salivary glands, which helps maintain a moist oral environment, neutralize acids, and aid in food digestion, speech, and swallowing.
5. pH balance: The regulation of acidity and alkalinity within the oral cavity, primarily through the buffering capacity of saliva and the action of dental plaque bacteria that metabolize sugars and produce acids as a byproduct.
6. Tooth sensitivity: The normal response of teeth to various stimuli such as temperature changes, touch, or pressure, which is mediated by the activation of nerve fibers within the dentin layer of the tooth.
7. Oral mucosal immune response: The natural defense mechanisms of the oral mucosa, including the production of antimicrobial proteins and peptides, the recruitment of immune cells, and the formation of a physical barrier against pathogens.
8. Tooth wear and attrition: The normal gradual loss of tooth structure due to natural processes such as chewing, grinding, and erosion by acidic substances, which can be influenced by factors such as diet, occlusion, and bruxism.
9. Tooth development and eruption: The growth and emergence of teeth from the dental follicle through the alveolar bone and gingival tissues, which is regulated by a complex interplay of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

The digestive system is a series of organs and glands that work together to break down food into nutrients, which the body can absorb and use for energy, growth, and cell repair. The process begins in the mouth, where food is chewed and mixed with saliva, which contains enzymes that begin breaking down carbohydrates.

The oral physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes that occur in the mouth during eating and digestion. These include:

1. Ingestion: The process of taking food into the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: The physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces by chewing, which increases the surface area for enzymes to act on.
3. Chemical digestion: The chemical breakdown of food molecules into simpler substances that can be absorbed and utilized by the body. In the mouth, this is initiated by salivary amylase, an enzyme found in saliva that breaks down starches into simple sugars.
4. Taste perception: The ability to detect different flavors through specialized taste buds located on the tongue and other areas of the oral cavity.
5. Olfaction: The sense of smell, which contributes to the overall flavor experience by interacting with taste perception in the brain.
6. Salivation: The production of saliva, which helps moisten food, making it easier to swallow, and contains enzymes that begin the digestion process.
7. Protective mechanisms: The mouth has several defense mechanisms to protect against harmful bacteria and other pathogens, such as the flow of saliva, which helps wash away food particles, and the presence of antibacterial compounds in saliva.

Reproductive physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes related to human reproduction, which include:

1. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis: The regulation of reproductive hormones through a feedback mechanism between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males).
2. Oogenesis/Spermatogenesis: The process of producing mature ova (eggs) or spermatozoa (sperm) capable of fertilization.
3. Menstrual Cycle: A series of events that occur in the female reproductive system over approximately 28 days, including follicular development, ovulation, and endometrial changes.
4. Pregnancy and Parturition: The process of carrying a developing fetus to term and giving birth.
5. Lactation: The production and secretion of milk by the mammary glands for nourishment of the newborn.

Urinary physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes related to the urinary system, which include:

1. Renal Filtration: The process of filtering blood in the kidneys to form urine.
2. Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion: The active transport of solutes and water between the tubular lumen and peritubular capillaries, resulting in the formation of urine with a different composition than plasma.
3. Urine Concentration and Dilution: The ability to regulate the concentration of urine by adjusting the amount of water reabsorbed or excreted.
4. Micturition: The process of storing and intermittently releasing urine from the bladder through a coordinated contraction of the detrusor muscle and relaxation of the urethral sphincter.

Musculoskeletal physiological phenomena refer to the mechanical, physical, and biochemical processes and functions that occur within the musculoskeletal system. This system includes the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilages, and other tissues that provide support, shape, and movement to the body. Examples of musculoskeletal physiological phenomena include muscle contraction and relaxation, bone growth and remodeling, joint range of motion, and the maintenance and repair of connective tissues.

Neural physiological phenomena, on the other hand, refer to the electrical and chemical processes and functions that occur within the nervous system. This system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and ganglia that are responsible for processing information, controlling body movements, and maintaining homeostasis. Examples of neural physiological phenomena include action potential generation and propagation, neurotransmitter release and reception, sensory perception, and cognitive processes such as learning and memory.

Musculoskeletal and neural physiological phenomena are closely interrelated, as the nervous system controls the musculoskeletal system through motor neurons that innervate muscles, and sensory neurons that provide feedback to the brain about body position, movement, and pain. Understanding these physiological phenomena is essential for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions that affect the musculoskeletal and nervous systems.

Circulatory and respiratory physiological phenomena refer to the functions, processes, and mechanisms that occur in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to maintain homeostasis and support life.

The circulatory system, which includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood, is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body. The respiratory system, which consists of the nose, throat, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm, enables the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment.

Physiological phenomena in the circulatory system include heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, blood flow, and vascular resistance. These phenomena are regulated by various factors such as the autonomic nervous system, hormones, and metabolic demands.

Physiological phenomena in the respiratory system include ventilation, gas exchange, lung compliance, airway resistance, and respiratory muscle function. These phenomena are influenced by factors such as lung volume, airway diameter, surface area, and diffusion capacity.

Understanding circulatory and respiratory physiological phenomena is essential for diagnosing and managing various medical conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, and metabolic disorders. It also provides a foundation for developing interventions to improve health outcomes and prevent disease.

The integumentary system is the largest organ system in the human body, responsible for providing a protective barrier against the external environment. The physiological phenomena associated with the integumentary system encompass a range of functions and processes that occur within the skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands. These phenomena include:

1. Barrier Function: The skin forms a physical barrier that protects the body from external threats such as pathogens, chemicals, and radiation. It also helps prevent water loss and regulates electrolyte balance.
2. Temperature Regulation: The integumentary system plays a crucial role in maintaining core body temperature through vasodilation and vasoconstriction of blood vessels in the skin, as well as through sweat production by eccrine glands.
3. Sensory Perception: The skin contains various sensory receptors that detect touch, pressure, pain, heat, and cold. These receptors transmit information to the central nervous system for processing and response.
4. Vitamin D Synthesis: The skin is capable of synthesizing vitamin D when exposed to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from sunlight. This process involves the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin into previtamin D3, which then undergoes further transformation into vitamin D3.
5. Excretion: Sweat glands within the integumentary system help eliminate waste products and excess heat through the production and secretion of sweat. The two types of sweat glands are eccrine glands, which produce a watery, odorless sweat, and apocrine glands, which produce a milky, odorous sweat primarily in response to emotional stimuli.
6. Immunological Function: The skin serves as an essential component of the immune system by providing a physical barrier against pathogens and housing various immune cells such as Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, and T-cells. These cells help recognize and respond to potential threats, contributing to the body's overall defense mechanisms.
7. Wound Healing: The integumentary system has the remarkable ability to repair itself following injury through a complex process involving inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. This process involves the coordinated efforts of various cell types, including keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells, as well as the production and deposition of extracellular matrix components such as collagen and elastin.
8. Growth and Development: The integumentary system plays a crucial role in growth and development by producing hormones such as vitamin D and melatonin, which contribute to various physiological processes throughout the body. Additionally, the skin serves as an essential sensory organ, providing information about temperature, touch, pain, and pressure through specialized nerve endings called mechanoreceptors.
9. Social Communication: The integumentary system can convey important social signals through changes in coloration, texture, and odor. For example, blushing or sweating may indicate embarrassment or anxiety, while certain skin conditions such as psoriasis or eczema may signal underlying health issues. Additionally, the release of pheromones through sweat glands can influence social behavior and attraction.
10. Aesthetic Appeal: The integumentary system contributes significantly to an individual's appearance and self-esteem. Healthy skin, hair, and nails are often associated with youthfulness, attractiveness, and vitality, while skin conditions such as acne, wrinkles, or discoloration can negatively impact one's self-image and confidence. As a result, maintaining the health and appearance of the integumentary system is an essential aspect of overall well-being and quality of life.

Reproductive physiological phenomena refer to the various functional processes and changes that occur in the reproductive system, enabling the production, development, and reproduction of offspring in living organisms. These phenomena encompass a wide range of events, including:

1. Hormonal regulation: The release and circulation of hormones that control and coordinate reproductive functions, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and inhibin.
2. Ovarian and testicular function: The development and maturation of ova (eggs) in females and sperm in males, including folliculogenesis, ovulation, spermatogenesis, and the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics.
3. Menstrual cycle: The series of events that occur in the female reproductive system over a 28-day period, consisting of the follicular phase, ovulation, and luteal phase, resulting in the shedding of the uterine lining if fertilization does not occur.
4. Fertilization: The process by which a sperm penetrates and fuses with an egg to form a zygote, initiating embryonic development.
5. Implantation: The attachment and embedding of the developing blastocyst (early-stage embryo) into the uterine lining, leading to pregnancy.
6. Pregnancy: The physiological state of carrying a developing offspring within the female reproductive system, characterized by hormonal changes, growth and development of the fetus, and preparation for childbirth.
7. Lactation: The production and secretion of milk from the mammary glands to provide nutrition for newborn offspring.
8. Menopause: The permanent cessation of menstrual cycles and reproductive function in females, typically occurring in the fourth or fifth decade of life, characterized by a decline in hormone production and various physical and emotional symptoms.

These reproductive physiological phenomena are complex and highly regulated processes that ensure the continuation of species and the maintenance of genetic diversity.

Physiological phenomena refer to the functional and mechanical activities that occur within a living organism or in any of its parts. These phenomena are associated with the normal functioning of the body and its organs, including biological processes such as digestion, respiration, circulation, excretion, metabolism, and nerve impulse transmission. They can be studied at different levels, from molecular and cellular to organ system and whole-body levels, and are essential for maintaining homeostasis and promoting the survival and health of the organism.

I cannot provide a specific medical definition for the term "Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" as it is quite broad and can encompass various aspects related to nutrition and physiological changes that occur during adolescence. However, I can provide some insight into the nutritional and physiological changes that typically occur during adolescence.

Adolescence is a critical period of growth and development, and proper nutrition is essential to support these changes. During this time, adolescents experience significant increases in height, weight, and muscle mass, as well as sexual maturation and reproductive development. As a result, their nutrient needs are higher than those of children or adults.

Some key nutritional physiological phenomena that occur during adolescence include:

1. Increased energy needs: Adolescents require more calories to support their rapid growth and development. The estimated daily calorie needs for boys aged 14-18 years are 2,500-3,000 calories, while for girls aged 14-18 years, the estimated daily calorie needs are 2,200-2,400 calories.
2. Increased protein needs: Protein is essential for building and repairing tissues, including muscle mass. Adolescents require more protein to support their growth and development, with an estimated daily need of 46 grams for girls aged 14-18 years and 52 grams for boys aged 14-18 years.
3. Increased calcium needs: Calcium is essential for building and maintaining strong bones and teeth. Adolescents undergo significant bone growth during this time, making it crucial to meet their increased calcium needs. The recommended daily intake of calcium for adolescents is 1,300 milligrams.
4. Increased iron needs: Iron is essential for the production of red blood cells and the transport of oxygen throughout the body. Adolescent girls, in particular, have increased iron needs due to menstruation. The recommended daily intake of iron for adolescents is 8 mg for boys aged 14-18 years and 15 mg for girls aged 14-18 years.
5. Increased nutrient needs: Adolescents require a variety of vitamins and minerals to support their growth and development, including vitamin D, vitamin B12, folate, and magnesium. A balanced diet that includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and dairy products can help meet these needs.

In summary, adolescents have increased nutrient needs to support their growth and development. Meeting these needs requires a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods from all food groups. It is essential to ensure adequate intake of protein, calcium, iron, and other vitamins and minerals during this critical period of growth and development.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard or widely recognized medical term. It seems to be a rather broad and vague phrase that combines several concepts: prenatal (occurring before birth), nutritional (relating to nutrition), physiological (relating to the functioning of living organisms and their parts), and phenomena (observable events or occurrences).

If you're interested in a specific aspect of maternal and fetal nutrition, physiology, or related processes during pregnancy, I would be happy to help further if you could provide a more precise term or question. For example, prenatal nutritional physiological phenomena could refer to the process of how certain nutrients are transported across the placenta, how maternal nutrition affects fetal growth and development, or how various hormonal and metabolic changes occur during pregnancy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. However, I can provide information about the physiology of the urinary tract, which may be what you are looking for.

The urinary tract is a system responsible for producing, storing, and eliminating urine from the body. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. The physiological phenomena associated with the urinary tract include:

1. Glomerular filtration: In the kidneys, blood is filtered through structures called glomeruli, which remove waste products and excess fluids from the bloodstream to form urine.
2. Tubular reabsorption: As urine moves through the tubules of the nephron in the kidney, essential substances like water, glucose, amino acids, and electrolytes are actively reabsorbed back into the bloodstream.
3. Hormonal regulation: The urinary system plays a role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance through hormonal mechanisms, such as the release of erythropoietin (regulates red blood cell production), renin (activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to regulate blood pressure and fluid balance), and calcitriol (the active form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).
4. Urine storage: The bladder serves as a reservoir for urine, expanding as it fills and contracting during urination.
5. Micturition (urination): Once the bladder reaches a certain volume or pressure, nerve signals are sent to the brain, leading to the conscious decision to urinate. The sphincters of the urethra relax, allowing urine to flow out of the body through the urethral opening.

If you could provide more context about what specific information you're looking for, I would be happy to help further!

Maternal nutritional physiological phenomena refer to the various changes and processes that occur in a woman's body during pregnancy, lactation, and postpartum periods to meet the increased nutritional demands and support the growth and development of the fetus or infant. These phenomena involve complex interactions between maternal nutrition, hormonal regulation, metabolism, and physiological functions to ensure optimal pregnancy outcomes and offspring health.

Examples of maternal nutritional physiological phenomena include:

1. Adaptations in maternal nutrient metabolism: During pregnancy, the mother's body undergoes various adaptations to increase the availability of essential nutrients for fetal growth and development. For instance, there are increased absorption and utilization of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, as well as enhanced storage of glycogen and lipids in maternal tissues.
2. Placental transfer of nutrients: The placenta plays a crucial role in facilitating the exchange of nutrients between the mother and fetus. It selectively transports essential nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals from the maternal circulation to the fetal compartment while removing waste products.
3. Maternal weight gain: Pregnant women typically experience an increase in body weight due to the growth of the fetus, placenta, amniotic fluid, and maternal tissues such as the uterus and breasts. Adequate gestational weight gain is essential for ensuring optimal pregnancy outcomes and reducing the risk of adverse perinatal complications.
4. Changes in maternal hormonal regulation: Pregnancy is associated with significant changes in hormonal profiles, including increased levels of estrogen, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and other hormones that regulate various physiological functions such as glucose metabolism, appetite regulation, and maternal-fetal immune tolerance.
5. Lactation: Following childbirth, the mother's body undergoes further adaptations to support lactation and breastfeeding. This involves the production and secretion of milk, which contains essential nutrients and bioactive components that promote infant growth, development, and immunity.
6. Nutrient requirements: Pregnancy and lactation increase women's nutritional demands for various micronutrients such as iron, calcium, folate, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids. Meeting these increased nutritional needs is crucial for ensuring optimal pregnancy outcomes and supporting maternal health during the postpartum period.

Understanding these physiological adaptations and their implications for maternal and fetal health is essential for developing evidence-based interventions to promote positive pregnancy outcomes, reduce the risk of adverse perinatal complications, and support women's health throughout the reproductive lifespan.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard or widely recognized medical term. It seems to be a very specific phrase that may relate to various physiological processes and phenomena related to infant nutrition.

To try and provide some clarity, I can offer a brief explanation of the individual terms:

1. Infant: A young child, typically under one year of age.
2. Nutritional: Relating to food or nourishment, particularly in relation to energy and the balance of essential nutrients required for growth, repair, and maintenance of bodily functions.
3. Physiological: Describing processes and functions that occur within a living organism as part of normal bodily function, including biochemical reactions, organ function, and responses to environmental stimuli.
4. Phenomena: Observable events or occurrences.

So, "Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" could refer to observable events or processes related to an infant's nutrition and physiology. However, without further context, it is difficult to provide a more precise definition. Examples of such phenomena might include the development of feeding skills, growth patterns, or changes in metabolism related to dietary intake.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems to be a very specific phrase that may refer to the physiological processes and phenomena related to nutrition.

Nutrition, in a medical context, refers to the process of providing or obtaining food necessary for health and growth. Physiological phenomena, on the other hand, refer to the functional manifestations of living organisms and their parts.

So, "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" could hypothetically refer to the various physiological processes that occur in the body in relation to nutrition, such as digestion, absorption, metabolism, transportation, and storage of nutrients. However, I would recommend consulting the specific source or context where this term was used for a more accurate definition.

Musculoskeletal physiological phenomena refer to the various functions, processes, and responses that occur in the musculoskeletal system. This system includes the muscles, bones, joints, cartilages, tendons, ligaments, and other connective tissues that work together to support the body's structure, enable movement, and protect vital organs.

Musculoskeletal physiological phenomena can be categorized into several areas:

1. Muscle contraction and relaxation: This involves the conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy through the sliding of actin and myosin filaments in muscle fibers, leading to muscle shortening or lengthening.
2. Bone homeostasis: This includes the maintenance of bone mass, density, and strength through a balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts.
3. Joint movement and stability: The movement of joints is enabled by the interaction between muscles, tendons, ligaments, and articular cartilage, while stability is maintained through the passive tension provided by ligaments and the active contraction of muscles.
4. Connective tissue repair and regeneration: This involves the response of tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and muscles to injury or damage, including inflammation, cell proliferation, and matrix remodeling.
5. Neuromuscular control: The coordination of muscle activity through the integration of sensory information from proprioceptors (e.g., muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs) and motor commands from the central nervous system.
6. Skeletal development and growth: This includes the processes of bone formation, mineralization, and modeling during fetal development and childhood, as well as the maintenance of bone mass and strength throughout adulthood.
7. Aging and degeneration: The progressive decline in musculoskeletal function and structure with age, including sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass), osteoporosis (brittle bones), and joint degeneration (osteoarthritis).

Understanding these physiological phenomena is essential for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Virus Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term or concept. It seems to be a combination of two concepts: "virus" and "physiological phenomena."

1. A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses can cause many different types of illnesses, from the common cold to more serious diseases like HIV/AIDS or hepatitis.

2. Physiological phenomena refer to the functions and activities of living organisms and their parts, including cells, tissues, and organs.

If you're looking for information about how viruses affect physiological processes in the body, I would be happy to help provide some general information on that topic! However, it would be best to consult a specific medical text or expert for more detailed or specialized knowledge.

"Animal nutritional physiological phenomena" is not a standardized medical or scientific term. However, it seems to refer to the processes and functions related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Here's a breakdown of the possible components:

1. Animal: This term refers to non-human living organisms that are multicellular, heterotrophic, and have a distinct nervous system.
2. Nutritional: This term pertains to the nourishment and energy requirements of an animal, including the ingestion, digestion, absorption, transportation, metabolism, and excretion of nutrients.
3. Physiological: This term refers to the functions and processes that occur within a living organism, including the interactions between different organs and systems.
4. Phenomena: This term generally means an observable fact or event.

Therefore, "animal nutritional physiological phenomena" could refer to the observable events and processes related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Examples of such phenomena include digestion, absorption, metabolism, energy production, growth, reproduction, and waste elimination.

The digestive system is a complex network of organs and glands that work together to break down food into nutrients, which are then absorbed and utilized by the body for energy, growth, and cell repair. The physiological phenomena associated with the digestive system include:

1. Ingestion: This is the process of taking in food through the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: This involves the physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces through processes such as chewing, churning, and segmentation.
3. Chemical digestion: This involves the chemical breakdown of food molecules into simpler forms that can be absorbed by the body. This is achieved through the action of enzymes produced by the mouth, stomach, pancreas, and small intestine.
4. Motility: This refers to the movement of food through the digestive tract, which is achieved through a series of coordinated muscle contractions called peristalsis.
5. Secretion: This involves the production and release of various digestive juices and enzymes by glands such as the salivary glands, gastric glands, pancreas, and liver.
6. Absorption: This is the process of absorbing nutrients from the digested food into the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine.
7. Defecation: This is the final process of eliminating undigested food and waste products from the body through the rectum and anus.

Overall, the coordinated functioning of these physiological phenomena ensures the proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, maintaining the health and well-being of the individual.

Child welfare is a broad term that refers to the overall well-being and protection of children. It encompasses a range of services and interventions aimed at promoting the physical, emotional, social, and educational development of children, while also protecting them from harm, abuse, and neglect. The medical definition of child welfare may include:

1. Preventive Services: Programs and interventions designed to strengthen families and prevent child maltreatment, such as home visiting programs, parent education classes, and family support services.
2. Protective Services: Interventions that aim to protect children from harm, abuse, or neglect, including investigations of reports of maltreatment, removal of children from dangerous situations, and provision of alternative care arrangements.
3. Family Reunification Services: Efforts to reunite children with their families when it is safe and in the best interest of the child, such as family therapy, parent-child visitation, and case management services.
4. Permanency Planning: The development of long-term plans for children who cannot safely return to their families, including adoption, guardianship, or other permanent living arrangements.
5. Foster Care Services: Provision of temporary care for children who cannot safely remain in their own homes, including placement with foster families, group homes, or residential treatment facilities.
6. Child Health and Development Services: Programs that promote the physical, emotional, and developmental well-being of children, such as health screenings, immunizations, mental health services, and early intervention programs for children with special needs.
7. Advocacy and Policy Development: Efforts to promote policies and practices that support the well-being and protection of children, including advocating for laws and regulations that protect children's rights and ensure their safety and well-being.

"Blood physiological phenomena" is a broad term that refers to various functions, processes, and characteristics related to the blood in the body. Here are some definitions of specific blood-related physiological phenomena:

1. Hematopoiesis: The process of producing blood cells in the bone marrow. This includes the production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis), white blood cells (leukopoiesis), and platelets (thrombopoiesis).
2. Hemostasis: The body's response to stop bleeding or prevent excessive blood loss after injury. It involves a complex interplay between blood vessels, platelets, and clotting factors that work together to form a clot.
3. Osmoregulation: The regulation of water and electrolyte balance in the blood. This is achieved through various mechanisms such as thirst, urine concentration, and hormonal control.
4. Acid-base balance: The maintenance of a stable pH level in the blood. This involves the balance between acidic and basic components in the blood, which can be affected by factors such as respiration, metabolism, and kidney function.
5. Hemoglobin function: The ability of hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells to bind and transport oxygen from the lungs to tissues throughout the body.
6. Blood viscosity: The thickness or flowability of blood, which can affect its ability to circulate through the body. Factors that can influence blood viscosity include hematocrit (the percentage of red blood cells in the blood), plasma proteins, and temperature.
7. Immunological function: The role of white blood cells and other components of the immune system in protecting the body against infection and disease. This includes the production of antibodies, phagocytosis (the engulfing and destruction of foreign particles), and inflammation.

A disabled child is a child who has a physical, cognitive, or developmental condition that limits their ability to perform everyday tasks and activities. This limitation can be temporary or permanent and may range from mild to severe. According to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), a person with a disability is someone who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, has a record of such an impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment.

Disabled children may face challenges in various areas of their lives, including mobility, communication, self-care, learning, and socialization. Some common examples of disabilities that affect children include cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, hearing or vision loss, and spina bifida.

It is important to note that disabled children have the same rights and entitlements as other children, and they should be given equal opportunities to participate in all aspects of society. This includes access to education, healthcare, social services, and community activities. With appropriate support and accommodations, many disabled children can lead fulfilling lives and reach their full potential.

Child behavior refers to the actions, reactions, and interactions exhibited by children in response to their environment, experiences, and developmental stage. It is a broad term that encompasses various aspects, including emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development.

Child behavior can be categorized into two main types:

1. Desirable or positive behaviors - These are behaviors that promote healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include sharing toys, following rules, expressing emotions appropriately, and demonstrating empathy towards others.
2. Challenging or negative behaviors - These are behaviors that hinder healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include aggression, defiance, tantrums, anxiety, and withdrawal.

Understanding child behavior is crucial for parents, caregivers, educators, and healthcare professionals to provide appropriate support, guidance, and interventions to promote positive developmental outcomes in children. Factors influencing child behavior include genetics, temperament, environment, parenting style, and life experiences.

"Ocular physiological phenomena" is not a standardized medical term with a specific definition. However, I can provide some examples of ocular physiological phenomena, which refer to various normal functions and processes that occur in the eye. Here are a few examples:

1. Accommodation: The ability of the eye to change optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies. This is primarily achieved by changing the curvature of the lens through the action of the ciliary muscles.
2. Pupillary reflex: The automatic adjustment of the pupil's size in response to changes in light intensity. In bright light, the pupil constricts (miosis), while in dim light, it dilates (mydriasis). This reflex helps regulate the amount of light that enters the eye.
3. Tear production: The continuous secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands to keep the eyes moist and protected from dust, microorganisms, and other foreign particles.
4. Extraocular muscle function: The coordinated movement of the six extraocular muscles that control eyeball rotation and enable various gaze directions.
5. Color vision: The ability to perceive and distinguish different colors based on the sensitivity of photoreceptor cells (cones) in the retina to specific wavelengths of light.
6. Dark adaptation: The process by which the eyes adjust to low-light conditions, improving visual sensitivity primarily through changes in the rod photoreceptors' sensitivity and pupil dilation.
7. Light adaptation: The ability of the eye to adjust to different levels of illumination, mainly through alterations in pupil size and photoreceptor cell response.

These are just a few examples of ocular physiological phenomena. There are many more processes and functions that occur within the eye, contributing to our visual perception and overall eye health.

'Nervous system physiological phenomena' refer to the functions, activities, and processes that occur within the nervous system in a healthy or normal state. This includes:

1. Neuronal Activity: The transmission of electrical signals (action potentials) along neurons, which allows for communication between different cells and parts of the nervous system.

2. Neurotransmission: The release and binding of neurotransmitters to receptors on neighboring cells, enabling the transfer of information across the synapse or junction between two neurons.

3. Sensory Processing: The conversion of external stimuli into electrical signals by sensory receptors, followed by the transmission and interpretation of these signals within the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).

4. Motor Function: The generation and execution of motor commands, allowing for voluntary movement and control of muscles and glands.

5. Autonomic Function: The regulation of internal organs and glands through the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system, maintaining homeostasis within the body.

6. Cognitive Processes: Higher brain functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, learning, and emotion, which are supported by complex neural networks and interactions.

7. Sleep-Wake Cycle: The regulation of sleep and wakefulness through interactions between the brainstem, thalamus, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain, ensuring proper rest and recovery.

8. Development and Plasticity: The growth, maturation, and adaptation of the nervous system throughout life, including processes such as neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, and neural plasticity.

9. Endocrine Regulation: The interaction between the nervous system and endocrine system, with the hypothalamus playing a key role in controlling hormone release and maintaining homeostasis.

10. Immune Function: The communication between the nervous system and immune system, allowing for the coordination of responses to infection, injury, or stress.

Respiratory physiological phenomena refer to the various mechanical, chemical, and biological processes and functions that occur in the respiratory system during breathing and gas exchange. These phenomena include:

1. Ventilation: The movement of air into and out of the lungs, which is achieved through the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
2. Gas Exchange: The diffusion of oxygen (O2) from the alveoli into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the bloodstream into the alveoli.
3. Respiratory Mechanics: The physical properties and forces that affect the movement of air in and out of the lungs, such as lung compliance, airway resistance, and chest wall elasticity.
4. Control of Breathing: The regulation of ventilation by the central nervous system through the integration of sensory information from chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors in the respiratory system.
5. Acid-Base Balance: The maintenance of a stable pH level in the blood through the regulation of CO2 elimination and bicarbonate balance by the respiratory and renal systems.
6. Oxygen Transport: The binding of O2 to hemoglobin in the red blood cells and its delivery to the tissues for metabolic processes.
7. Defense Mechanisms: The various protective mechanisms that prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens and foreign particles into the respiratory system, such as mucociliary clearance, cough reflex, and immune responses.

Cell physiological phenomena refer to the functional activities and processes that occur within individual cells, which are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and normal physiology. These phenomena include various dynamic and interrelated processes such as:

1. Cell membrane transport: The movement of ions, molecules, and nutrients across the cell membrane through various mechanisms like diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport, and endocytosis/exocytosis.
2. Metabolism: The sum of all chemical reactions that occur within cells to maintain life, including catabolic (breaking down) and anabolic (building up) processes for energy production, biosynthesis, and waste elimination.
3. Signal transduction: The process by which cells receive, transmit, and respond to external or internal signals through complex signaling cascades involving various second messengers, enzymes, and transcription factors.
4. Gene expression: The conversion of genetic information encoded in DNA into functional proteins and RNA molecules, including transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications.
5. Cell cycle regulation: The intricate mechanisms that control the progression of cells through various stages of the cell cycle (G0, G1, S, G2, M) to ensure proper cell division and prevent uncontrolled growth or cancer development.
6. Apoptosis: Programmed cell death, a physiological process by which damaged, infected, or unwanted cells are eliminated in a controlled manner without causing inflammation or harm to surrounding tissues.
7. Cell motility: The ability of cells to move and change their position within tissues, which is critical for various biological processes like embryonic development, wound healing, and immune responses.
8. Cytoskeleton dynamics: The dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton (microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments) that provides structural support, enables cell shape changes, and facilitates intracellular transport and organelle positioning.
9. Ion homeostasis: The regulation of ion concentrations within cells to maintain proper membrane potentials and ensure normal physiological functions like neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and enzyme activity.
10. Cell-cell communication: The exchange of signals between neighboring or distant cells through various mechanisms like gap junctions, synapses, and paracrine/autocrine signaling to coordinate cellular responses and maintain tissue homeostasis.

"Skin physiological phenomena" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, I can provide some information about the general concepts that might be encompassed by this term.

Physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes that occur in living organisms. When it comes to the skin, there are many different physiological phenomena that take place, including:

1. Barrier function: The skin acts as a barrier to protect the body from external elements such as bacteria, viruses, chemicals, and UV radiation.
2. Temperature regulation: The skin helps regulate body temperature through sweat production and blood flow.
3. Sensation: The skin contains nerve endings that allow us to feel touch, pressure, pain, and temperature.
4. Vitamin D synthesis: The skin can produce vitamin D when exposed to sunlight.
5. Moisture regulation: The skin helps maintain the body's moisture balance by producing sweat and preventing water loss.
6. Immunological function: The skin plays a role in the immune system by providing a physical barrier and containing immune cells that help fight off infections.
7. Excretion: The skin eliminates waste products through sweat.
8. Wound healing: The skin has the ability to repair itself after injury, through a complex process involving inflammation, tissue regeneration, and remodeling.

Therefore, "skin physiological phenomena" could refer to any or all of these functions and processes that take place in the skin.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard medical term. It falls more within the domain of botany, which is a branch of biology focused on the study of plants.

However, I can provide a general explanation: Plant physiological phenomena refer to the functional processes and activities that occur within plants. This includes various aspects such as photosynthesis (the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy to fuel their growth), respiration, plant nutrition (the uptake and assimilation of nutrients from the soil), water relations (how plants absorb, transport, and use water), plant hormone functions, and many other processes.

If you have a term that is used in a medical context which you would like defined, I'd be happy to help with that!

Child health services refer to a range of medical and supportive services designed to promote the physical, mental, and social well-being of children from birth up to adolescence. These services aim to prevent or identify health problems early, provide treatment and management for existing conditions, and support healthy growth and development.

Examples of child health services include:

1. Well-child visits: Regular checkups with a pediatrician or other healthcare provider to monitor growth, development, and overall health.
2. Immunizations: Vaccinations to protect against infectious diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and hepatitis B.
3. Screening tests: Blood tests, hearing and vision screenings, and other diagnostic tests to identify potential health issues early.
4. Developmental assessments: Evaluations of a child's cognitive, emotional, social, and physical development to ensure they are meeting age-appropriate milestones.
5. Dental care: Preventive dental services such as cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants, as well as restorative care for cavities or other dental problems.
6. Mental health services: Counseling, therapy, and medication management for children experiencing emotional or behavioral challenges.
7. Nutrition counseling: Education and support to help families make healthy food choices and promote good nutrition.
8. Chronic disease management: Coordinated care for children with ongoing medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or cerebral palsy.
9. Injury prevention: Programs that teach parents and children about safety measures to reduce the risk of accidents and injuries.
10. Public health initiatives: Community-based programs that promote healthy lifestyles, provide access to healthcare services, and address social determinants of health such as poverty, housing, and education.

Child rearing, also known as child care or child raising, refers to the process of caring for and raising children from infancy through adolescence. This includes providing for their physical needs such as food, clothing, and shelter, as well as their emotional, social, and intellectual development. Child rearing involves a range of activities such as feeding, bathing, dressing, educating, disciplining, and providing love and support. It is typically the responsibility of parents or guardians, but may also involve other family members, teachers, caregivers, and community institutions. Effective child rearing requires knowledge, skills, patience, and a commitment to meeting the needs of the child in a loving and supportive environment.

Bacterial physiological phenomena refer to the various functional processes and activities that occur within bacteria, which are necessary for their survival, growth, and reproduction. These phenomena include:

1. Metabolism: This is the process by which bacteria convert nutrients into energy and cellular components. It involves a series of chemical reactions that break down organic compounds such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins to produce energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
2. Respiration: This is the process by which bacteria use oxygen to convert organic compounds into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy in the form of ATP. Some bacteria can also perform anaerobic respiration, using alternative electron acceptors such as nitrate or sulfate instead of oxygen.
3. Fermentation: This is a type of anaerobic metabolism in which bacteria convert organic compounds into simpler molecules, releasing energy in the form of ATP. Unlike respiration, fermentation does not require an external electron acceptor.
4. Motility: Many bacteria are capable of moving independently, using various mechanisms such as flagella or twitching motility. This allows them to move towards favorable environments and away from harmful ones.
5. Chemotaxis: Bacteria can sense and respond to chemical gradients in their environment, allowing them to move towards attractants and away from repellents.
6. Quorum sensing: Bacteria can communicate with each other using signaling molecules called autoinducers. When the concentration of autoinducers reaches a certain threshold, the bacteria can coordinate their behavior, such as initiating biofilm formation or producing virulence factors.
7. Sporulation: Some bacteria can form spores, which are highly resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals. Spores can remain dormant for long periods of time and germinate when conditions are favorable.
8. Biofilm formation: Bacteria can form complex communities called biofilms, which are composed of cells embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Biofilms can provide protection from environmental stressors and host immune responses.
9. Cell division: Bacteria reproduce by binary fission, where the cell divides into two identical daughter cells. This process is regulated by various cell cycle checkpoints and can be influenced by environmental factors such as nutrient availability.

The term "institutionalized child" is used to describe a minor (a person who has not yet reached the age of legal majority) who resides in an institution such as a group home, foster care facility, residential treatment center, or other similar setting on a long-term basis. Institutionalization may occur for various reasons, including but not limited to:

1. Abuse or neglect in their biological family
2. Parental absence or inability to provide care
3. Behavioral or emotional challenges that require specialized treatment and support
4. Disabilities that necessitate around-the-clock care
5. Legal reasons, such as being a ward of the state

Institutionalized children typically receive care, supervision, education, and other services from trained staff members in these facilities. The goal of institutionalization is often to provide a safe, structured environment where the child can receive the necessary support and resources to help them thrive and eventually transition back into a family or community setting when possible.

Childhood behavior disorders are a group of disruptive behaviors that are more frequent or severe than is typical for the child's age and development. These behaviors can cause significant impairment in the child's life, including their relationships with family, friends, and at school. Common examples of childhood behavior disorders include:

1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A chronic condition characterized by difficulty paying attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity.
2. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): A pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures.
3. Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules.
4. Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED): A disorder characterized by recurrent impulsive aggressive behavior disproportionate to the situation.
5. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors.
6. Tourette Syndrome: A neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics.

It's important to note that children with behavior disorders often have other conditions such as learning disabilities, mood disorders, or anxiety disorders. Early identification and treatment of these disorders can significantly improve the child's outcome.

Child psychology is a branch of psychology that deals with the mental, emotional, and social development of children from birth to adolescence. It involves the study of children's behavior, thoughts, feelings, and relationships with others, including their families, peers, and teachers. Child psychologists use various research methods, such as observation, interviews, and testing, to understand how children develop and learn. They also work with children who have emotional, social, or behavioral problems, providing assessments, therapy, and counseling services to help them overcome these challenges. Additionally, child psychologists may provide consultation and training to parents, teachers, and other professionals who work with children.

Cardiovascular physiological phenomena refer to the various functions and processes that occur within the cardiovascular system, which includes the heart and blood vessels. These phenomena are responsible for the transport of oxygen, nutrients, and other essential molecules to tissues throughout the body, as well as the removal of waste products and carbon dioxide.

Some examples of cardiovascular physiological phenomena include:

1. Heart rate and rhythm: The heart's ability to contract regularly and coordinate its contractions with the body's needs for oxygen and nutrients.
2. Blood pressure: The force exerted by blood on the walls of blood vessels, which is determined by the amount of blood pumped by the heart and the resistance of the blood vessels.
3. Cardiac output: The volume of blood that the heart pumps in one minute, calculated as the product of stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped per beat) and heart rate.
4. Blood flow: The movement of blood through the circulatory system, which is influenced by factors such as blood pressure, vessel diameter, and blood viscosity.
5. Vasoconstriction and vasodilation: The narrowing or widening of blood vessels in response to various stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and changes in temperature or oxygen levels.
6. Autoregulation: The ability of blood vessels to maintain a constant blood flow to tissues despite changes in perfusion pressure.
7. Blood clotting: The process by which the body forms a clot to stop bleeding after an injury, which involves the activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade.
8. Endothelial function: The ability of the endothelium (the lining of blood vessels) to regulate vascular tone, inflammation, and thrombosis.
9. Myocardial contractility: The strength of heart muscle contractions, which is influenced by factors such as calcium levels, neurotransmitters, and hormones.
10. Electrophysiology: The study of the electrical properties of the heart, including the conduction system that allows for the coordinated contraction of heart muscle.

There is no formal medical definition for "child of impaired parents." However, it generally refers to a child who has at least one parent with physical, mental, or psychological challenges that impact their ability to care for themselves and/or their children. These impairments may include substance abuse disorders, mental illnesses, chronic medical conditions, or developmental disabilities.

Children of impaired parents often face unique challenges and stressors in their lives, which can affect their emotional, social, and cognitive development. They may have to take on additional responsibilities at home, experience neglect or abuse, or witness disturbing behaviors related to their parent's impairment. As a result, these children are at higher risk for developing mental health issues, behavioral problems, and academic difficulties.

Support services and interventions, such as family therapy, counseling, and community resources, can help mitigate the negative effects of growing up with impaired parents and improve outcomes for these children.

Dental care for children, also known as pediatric dentistry, is a branch of dentistry that focuses on the oral health of children from infancy through adolescence. The medical definition of dental care for children includes:

1. Preventive Dentistry: This involves regular dental check-ups, professional cleaning, fluoride treatments, and sealants to prevent tooth decay and other dental diseases. Parents are also educated on proper oral hygiene practices for their children, including brushing, flossing, and dietary habits.
2. Restorative Dentistry: If a child develops cavities or other dental problems, restorative treatments such as fillings, crowns, or pulpotomies (baby root canals) may be necessary to restore the health and function of their teeth.
3. Orthodontic Treatment: Many children require orthodontic treatment to correct misaligned teeth or jaws. Early intervention can help guide proper jaw development and prevent more severe issues from developing later on.
4. Habit Counseling: Dental care for children may also involve habit counseling, such as helping a child stop thumb sucking or pacifier use, which can negatively impact their oral health.
5. Sedation and Anesthesia: For children who are anxious about dental procedures or have special needs, sedation or anesthesia may be used to ensure their comfort and safety during treatment.
6. Emergency Care: Dental care for children also includes emergency care for injuries such as knocked-out teeth, broken teeth, or severe toothaches. Prompt attention is necessary to prevent further damage and alleviate pain.
7. Education and Prevention: Finally, dental care for children involves educating parents and children about the importance of good oral hygiene practices and regular dental check-ups to maintain optimal oral health throughout their lives.

A child who has lost one or both parents due to death is considered an orphan. According to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, a child who has lost only one parent and is not receiving care from the surviving parent is also considered an orphan. This type of orphan is sometimes referred to as a "single orphan."

The term "double orphan" is used to describe a child who has lost both parents. The death of a parent can have significant emotional, social, and economic impacts on a child, making it important for societies to provide support and resources to help them cope and thrive.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parents" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general usage, parents are the two people (typically) who bring up and care for a child, or who have given birth to or adopted a child. They are responsible for the child's housing, food, clothing, education, and medical care. Is there a specific medical or healthcare-related context you had in mind? I would be happy to help further if I can.

Child nutrition disorders refer to a range of conditions that are caused by an improper or imbalanced diet during childhood. These disorders can have long-term effects on a child's growth, development, and overall health. Some common examples of child nutrition disorders include:

1. Malnutrition: This occurs when a child does not get enough nutrients for proper growth and development. It can result from inadequate food intake, digestive problems, or certain medical conditions that affect nutrient absorption.
2. Obesity: This is a condition characterized by excessive body fat accumulation to the point where it negatively affects a child's health. Obesity can lead to a range of health problems, including diabetes, heart disease, and orthopedic issues.
3. Vitamin deficiencies: Children who do not get enough vitamins in their diet may develop deficiencies that can lead to a range of health problems. For example, a lack of vitamin D can lead to rickets, while a lack of vitamin C can cause scurvy.
4. Food allergies and intolerances: Some children have allergic reactions or intolerances to certain foods, which can cause a range of symptoms, including digestive problems, skin rashes, and respiratory difficulties.
5. Eating disorders: Children may develop eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder, which can have serious consequences for their physical and mental health.

Preventing child nutrition disorders involves providing children with a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods from all the major food groups, encouraging regular exercise, and promoting healthy eating habits. Regular medical check-ups can also help identify any nutritional deficiencies or other health problems early on, allowing for prompt treatment.

Child language refers to the development of linguistic abilities in children, including both receptive and expressive communication. This includes the acquisition of various components of language such as phonology (sound system), morphology (word structure), syntax (sentence structure), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (social use of language).

Child language development typically follows a predictable sequence, beginning with cooing and babbling in infancy, followed by the use of single words and simple phrases in early childhood. Over time, children acquire more complex linguistic structures and expand their vocabulary to communicate more effectively. However, individual differences in the rate and pace of language development are common.

Clinical professionals such as speech-language pathologists may assess and diagnose children with language disorders or delays in order to provide appropriate interventions and support for typical language development.

Child mortality refers to the death of children under a specific age, typically under 5 years old. It is usually expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 live births in a given population during a specified period. High child mortality rates are often indicative of underlying issues related to health care access, nutrition, sanitation, and socioeconomic factors. The United Nations Millennium Development Goals set a target to reduce under-five child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, and this goal has been continued in the Sustainable Development Goals with a new target of ending preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age by 2030.

"Space flight" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general, it refers to the act of traveling through space, outside of Earth's atmosphere, aboard a spacecraft. This can include trips to the International Space Station (ISS), lunar missions, or travel to other planets and moons within our solar system.

From a medical perspective, space flight presents unique challenges to the human body, including exposure to microgravity, radiation, and isolation from Earth's biosphere. These factors can have significant impacts on various physiological systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, sensory, and immune systems. As a result, space medicine has emerged as a distinct field of study focused on understanding and mitigating these risks to ensure the health and safety of astronauts during space flight.

Weightlessness, also known as zero gravity or microgravity, is a condition in which people or objects appear to be weightless. The effects of weightlessness on the human body are similar to those experienced during freefall.

This state can be achieved in various ways:

1. Freefall: This is the natural weightless state that occurs when an object is in free fall and accelerating towards the center of a celestial body such as Earth, but is not being affected by any other forces (like air resistance). During this state, the only force acting upon the object is gravity, which pulls everything towards the center of the planet. This is why astronauts experience weightlessness during space travel.

2. Neutral Buoyancy: In a fluid medium like water, an object can achieve neutral buoyancy when its weight equals the weight of the fluid it displaces. This creates a state where the object neither sinks nor floats, appearing to be weightless.

3. Specialized Equipment: Devices such as aircraft that fly in parabolic arcs can create short periods of weightlessness for training purposes or research. These flights involve climbing steeply, then diving towards the earth, creating a state of freefall and thus weightlessness.

Prolonged exposure to weightlessness can have significant effects on the human body, including muscle atrophy, bone loss, balance disorders, and changes in cardiovascular function.

An astronaut is a professional who is trained and competent to travel in space outside of the Earth's atmosphere. The term "astronaut" is commonly used to refer to individuals from the United States, while the terms "cosmonaut" and "taikonaut" are used for those from Russia and China, respectively.

Astronauts undergo rigorous training and physical examinations to ensure they are in good health and can handle the demanding conditions of space travel. They may perform various tasks during their missions, including scientific research, operating equipment, maintaining the spacecraft, and communicating with mission control on Earth.

The first human astronaut was Yuri Gagarin, a Russian cosmonaut who became the first person to orbit the Earth in 1961. Since then, thousands of people from various countries have become astronauts and have contributed to our understanding of space and the universe.

Weightlessness simulation, also known as "zero-gravity" or "microgravity" simulation, is the reproduction of the condition in which people or objects appear to be weightless. This state can be achieved through various methods, including neutral buoyancy, which is simulating the feeling of weightlessness by immersing individuals in a fluid (usually water) with a density equal to their body, or reduced-gravity environments created using specialized equipment such as aircraft that fly in parabolic arcs to generate brief periods of weightlessness.

Another method for weightlessness simulation is through the use of virtual reality and other technology to create an illusion of weightlessness. This can be done by manipulating visual and auditory cues, as well as providing a haptic feedback system that simulates the sensation of movement in zero-gravity environments. These simulations are often used for training astronauts, researching the effects of weightlessness on the human body, and developing technologies for use in space.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Flatulence is the medical term for the release of intestinal gas from the rectum, commonly known as passing gas or farting. It is a normal bodily function that occurs when the body digests food in the stomach and intestines.

During digestion, the body breaks down food into nutrients that can be absorbed into the bloodstream. However, not all food particles can be fully broken down, and some of them reach the large intestine, where they are fermented by bacteria. This fermentation process produces gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and methane.

The buildup of these gases in the digestive tract can cause discomfort, bloating, and the urge to pass gas. The average person passes gas about 10-20 times a day, although this can vary widely from person to person.

While flatulence is a normal bodily function, excessive or frequent passing of gas can be a sign of an underlying digestive issue such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), lactose intolerance, or gastrointestinal infections. If you are experiencing persistent or severe symptoms, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

Hindlimb suspension is a commonly used animal model in biomedical research, particularly in the study of muscle atrophy and disuse osteoporosis. In this model, the hindlimbs of rodents (such as rats or mice) are suspended using a tape or a harness system, which elevates their limbs off the ground and prevents them from bearing weight. This state of disuse leads to significant changes in the musculoskeletal system, including muscle atrophy, bone loss, and alterations in muscle fiber type composition and architecture.

The hindlimb suspension model is often used to investigate the mechanisms underlying muscle wasting and bone loss in conditions such as spinal cord injury, bed rest, and spaceflight-induced disuse. By understanding these mechanisms, researchers can develop potential therapeutic interventions to prevent or mitigate the negative effects of disuse on the musculoskeletal system.

Factors such as nutritional requirements and physical environments which have so far not been examined will become important. ... The majority of current data comes from missions of short duration and so some of the long-term physiological effects of living ... Another effect is known as cosmic ray visual phenomena. [a] NASA survey of 300 male and female astronauts, about 23 percent of ... and when Michael Fincke was forced to miss the birth of his second child.[citation needed] The amount and quality of sleep ...
... is a physiological phenomenon in which psychosocial stress experienced by a mother during her ... Therefore, environmental factors such as parental care and nutritional availability, alongside help given to the child such as ... "Antenatal maternal stress and long-term effects on child neurodevelopment: how and why?". Journal of Child Psychology and ... This biological phenomena is problematic due to the impact that an increased level of cortisol has on the foetal HPA axis. The ...
In 1877, Felix Hoppe-Seyler used the term (biochemie in German) as a synonym for physiological chemistry in the foreword to the ... ISBN 978-1-4496-0091-4. UNICEF (2010). Facts for life (PDF) (4th ed.). New York: United Nations Children's Fund. ISBN 978-92- ... Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, which is the study of the molecular mechanisms of biological phenomena. ... Nutrition studies how to maintain health and wellness and also the effects of nutritional deficiencies. In agriculture, ...
"NFHS-3 Nutritional Status of Adults". Retrieved 26 November 2009. Kanjilal, B; et al. (2010). "Nutritional Status of Children ... Additionally, physiological or chronic stress is strongly correlated in women being underweight. India has one of the worst ... This phenomenon is most prevalent in the rural areas of India where more malnutrition exists on an absolute level. Whether ... "NFHS-3 Nutritional Status of Children". Retrieved 26 November 2009. "Nutrition and Anaemia" (PDF). Retrieved 26 November 2009. ...
"USANA opens food-packing facility in Utah to help combat child hunger". 19 December 2019. "USANA Named Official Nutritional ... as the belief he was more vigorous led to his making poorer dietary decisions-a phenomenon referred to as the "licensing effect ... experienced a placebo response where that act of taking the supplements made him feel more vigorous despite no physiological ... Usana has partnered with HealthCorps on health education for children and, in 2019, the Usana Foundation's Kids Eat program ...
In Tsimane children, a 49% reduction in growth was observed in children with mild immune activation. Body size affects the ... This phenomenon has been observed in several species, with the most prominent examples including the ingestion of whole leaves ... Physiological and behavioral changes during reproduction are known to influence the immune system. Trade-offs occur between ... The availability of nutritional resources The intensity of pathogen exposure Signals of extrinsic mortality risk Among ...
A child psychiatrist's assessment can provide information on the psychological impact of abuse or neglect on a child. A child ... Although there are no physiological tests that confirm any mental illness, medical tests may be employed to exclude any co- ... observation for pallor and nutritional deficiencies, palpation for lymph nodes, palpation of the abdomen for organ enlargement ... and sees diagnosis as a socially constructed phenomenon. From a solution focused perspective, the assessment deliberately ...
The pain usually lasts 4 to 72 hours in adults; however, in young children frequently lasts less than 1 hour. The frequency of ... Biofeedback helps people be conscious of some physiological parameters so as to control them and try to relax and may be ... Aura is a transient focal neurological phenomenon that occurs before or during the headache. Aura appears gradually over a ... Preventive treatments of migraine include medications, nutritional supplements, lifestyle alterations, and surgery. Prevention ...
... and Young Child Nutrition Integration in Bondo Sub-County, Kenya". Maternal and Child Health Journal. 21 (10): 1880-1889. doi: ... Supplementing nutritional intake can lead to an earlier return of menses and ovulation than exclusive breastfeeding. Nursing ... Beyond the physiological factors that influence lactational amenorrhea, cross cultural differences can help account for many of ... An additional study that references this phenomenon cross-culturally was completed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and has ...
Maternal nutrition can affect the development of the unborn child in poor nutritional environments such that it will be ... An example of this phenomenon is a study published in 2018 by the Royal Society, which found that hypoxic stress from differing ... the molecular mechanisms are broadly caused by a suboptimal environment in the reproductive tract or maternal physiological ... The role of major nutritional elements in fetal growth. The role of abnormal amino acid supply in growth limited neonates. The ...
For example, Early morning cortisol levels have been found to be elevated in shy children and late night levels elevated in ... In more specific studies looking at the link between cortisol levels and psychological phenomena, it has been found that ... Kapil V, Haydar SM, Pearl V, Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E, Ahluwalia A (2013). "Physiological role for nitrate-reducing oral ... and markers of nutritional status. According to Wong, scientists are now viewing saliva as "a valuable biofluid…with the ...
His studies of the nutritional status of school children in Cambridge showed that supplementation of the diet with vitamins had ... His PhD thesis was on "adaptive enzymes" (subsequently termed "induced enzyme synthesis"). His account of the phenomenon ... following years the Department won an international reputation not only for the strength of its research in the physiological ... Yudkin, John (16 September 1944). "The Nutritional Status of Children and Mothers of Industrial Towns". The Medical Officer. ...
... nutritional status, breastfeeding status, sex of last child, economic status, and polygyny on the waiting time to conception. ... This phenomenon is known as the premature ovarian failure (POF) and it is used as the model for the study of the genetics of ... Lactation is one of the costliest forms of parental investment because it is taxing at a metabolic and physiological level, but ... child survival is negatively associated with the number of children in the family due to the child competition for parental ...
females are especially sensitive to nutritional regulation because they must contribute all of the nutritional support to a ... results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children & Youth". BMC Public Health. 10 (1): 736. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10- ... Scientists believe the phenomenon could be linked to obesity or exposure to chemicals in the food chain, and is putting females ... Mechanisms of these social effects are unknown, though a variety of physiological processes, including pheromones, have been ...
Children at this age can express themselves using language with basic grammar. As children grow older, they develop emotional ... Physiological behavior accounts for actions to maintain the body. It is concerned with basic bodily functions as well as ... These foods may be chosen for their nutritional value, but they may also be eaten for pleasure. Eating often follows a food ... knowledge in a particular scientific field can use trial and error to develop theories that more accurately explain phenomena. ...
Children not diagnosed with hyperactivity show no change in retention rates due to use of stimulants such as methylphenidate or ... The phenomenon continued to be studied more than thirty years later. In 2004, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast and Ameneh Rezayof ... For these grasshoppers, their low nutritional state sparked cognitive connections to similar states of duress and primed the ... Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 57(1), 3-12. Varieties of memory and consciousness : essays in honour of ...
"True and False Memories in Maltreated Children". Child Development. 75 (5): 1402-17. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00748.x. PMID ... If there is no known physiological cause, more general cognitive techniques may be used to treat confabulation. A case study ... While still an area of ongoing research, the basal forebrain is implicated in the phenomenon of confabulation. People who ... typically characterized by years of alcohol use disorder characterized by excessive alcohol consumption and a nutritional ...
... results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children & Youth". BMC Public Health. 10: 736. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-736. ... Then, and to an extent now, menstruation was a private matter and a girl's menarche was not a community phenomenon. The Ulithi ... The timing of menarche is influenced by female biology, as well as genetic and environmental factors, especially nutritional ... Menarche is the culmination of a series of physiological and anatomic processes of puberty: Attainment of a sufficient body ...
Yet, nutritional quality of middle class diets closely mirrors those of the upper classes. More importantly, the nutritional ... "Food choices made by low-income households when feeding their pre-school children: a qualitative study". Maternal & Child ... One clear illustration of this phenomenon is the introduction of spices in European diet. In medieval Western Europe, the ... "Relationship of subjective and objective social status with psychological and physiological functioning: Preliminary data in ...
... as well as a control group of children (not exposed to cocaine in utero). Overall, those children who were exposed to cocaine ... Upon hearing the tune, these newborns showed physiological changes, such as a decrease in heart rate. This observed change did ... Further research in this area is needed.[citation needed] Similarly to nutritional intake, drugs consumed by the mother during ... Thompson, Richard F.; Spencer, William A. (1966). "Habituation: A model phenomenon for the study of neuronal substrates of ...
George Selden's 1960 children's book The Cricket in Times Square tells the story of Chester the cricket from Connecticut who ... Yong, Ed (9 May 2014). "The Silence of the Crickets, The Silence of the Crickets". Phenomena: A Science Salon. National ... probably providing a nutritional boost. Gryllus firmus exhibits wing polymorphism; some individuals have fully functional, long ... Physiological Entomology. 8 (2): 151-166. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3032.1983.tb00344.x. S2CID 85962428. Cade W. H. (1975). " ...
Children with non-IgE-mediated cows milk intolerance have a good prognosis, whereas children with IgE-mediated cows milk ... Nutritional treatment]". Rev Enferm (in Spanish). 31 (9): 51-8. ISSN 0210-5020. PMID 19007035. Høst A, Halken S, Jacobsen HP, ... This is a normal phenomenon, common to everyone. The resultant production of gas potentially results in bloating and flatulence ... A non-allergic food hypersensitivity is an abnormal physiological response. It can be difficult to determine the poorly ...
... infant and children of different nutritional and socio-economic groups". Indian Pediatr. 7 (6): 347-58. PMID 5471836. ... With an increase in gestational time, the fetal organs also grow in progression to the body weight, the phenomenon which is ... under physiological and pathological conditions: immunocytochemical, electron microscopic and in vitro observations". In Vivo. ... Public health aspect of low birth weight, third report of the expert committee on maternal and child health (WHO)" (PDF). World ...
"Mammalian Milk & Nutritional Profile of the Milk of Various Mammals". Earth Life. Retrieved 2013-05-09. Grabb & Smith's Plastic ... Dewar, Gwen (October 2012). "The sexualization of girls: Is the popular culture harming our kids?". Parenting Science. Ramel, ... The physiological purpose of nipples is to deliver milk, produced in the female mammary glands during lactation, to an infant. ... Inverted nipple Staphylococcus infection of the nipple Edematous areola Herpes infection of the nipple Reynaud phenomenon of ...
A similar phenomenon occurs in the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Urchin mothers in nutrient rich environments ... A comparison was done with children conceived prior to the famine so that their mothers were nutrient deprived during the later ... This displayed that birth weight may not be an adequate way to determine nutritional status during gestation. This study ... During an inflammatory response, a series of physiological reactions, such as increased blood flow, increased cellular ...
... of foods and beverages containing nutrients and substances with a nutritional or physiological effect". Although there isn't a ... This phenomenon is dubbed "pester power", which means that little children pester their parents to buy things for them that ... Advertisements in schools Child development Comic book advertisement Food marketing toward children Toy advertising Kid Food " ... MRS Kids and Youth Research Conference. "Advertising and Children". Retrieved 19 February 2020. Gunter, Barrie; Oates ...
Young children tend to associate a face showing disgust with anger instead of being able to identify the difference. Adults can ... This may be due to a trade-off between the nutritional value of the food items and the risk of infection from the biological ... Jones & Fitness (2008) coined the term "moral hypervigilance" to describe the phenomenon that individuals who are prone to ... physiological, and clinical correlates". Journal of Research in Personality. 42 (5): 1243-1259. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2008.03.009. ...
... as in children associated with a home environment involving serious marital discord, alcoholism, or child abuse. Chronic stress ... The second major physiological stress-response center, the HPA axis, regulates the release of cortisol, which influences many ... The ambiguity in defining this phenomenon was first recognized by Hans Selye (1907-1982) in 1926. In 1951 a commentator loosely ... regardless of the nutritional values of the food. Some studies have observed increased risk of upper respiratory tract ...
... but some natural phenomena allow similar analysis to be performed. In particular, radiometric dating uses a closely related ... they may serve as a basis for estimations of the human physiological and dietary requirements of the mineral. When tracer is ... Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 6 (6): 292-301. doi:10.1016/0955-2863(95)00043-Y. DRI : dietary reference intakes for ... pregnant and lactating women and children. Other advantages offered by stable isotopes include the ability to study elements ...
Providing lambs for youth programs such as 4-H and competition at agricultural shows is often a dependable avenue for the sale ... Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. 2nd ed. Cornell Univ. Press. 476 pp. Wright, A.-D. G.; et al. (2004). "Molecular diversity ... N.Z. Farmer, 98(6): 29-31 Parrott, R.F., (1990). Physiological responses to isolation in sheep. Social Stress in Domestic ... Details of that phenomenon, which I have argued elsewhere was a local process at least for sheep and cattle (Meadow 1984b, 1992 ...
Pediatrics, Child Health, Child Health Services, Child Nutrition, Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Prenatal Care, ... Child Health Services, Pediatrics, Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Infant Nutrition, Child Care, Thoracic Surgery, ... Child Care, Child Welfare, Child Health Services, Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, Hyperkinesis, Child ... Public Health, Child Health, Health Services, Delivery of Health Care, Comprehensive Health Care, Child Health Services, ...
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Prenatal Nutritional Physiological ... Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Child Nutrition, Prenatal Nutrition, Child ... Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Nutrition Therapy, Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Diagnosis of Health ... Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Nutrition Therapy, Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Prenatal Nutrition, ...
Africa, Africa, Northern, Birth Intervals, Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Contraception, Contraception Behavior, ... Maternal-Child Health Centers, Medicine, Middle East, Midwifery, Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Organization and ... women with vaccinated children were found to be twice as likely to contracept as those with nonvaccinated children and women ... As the youth were considered to be the most vulnerable target group, a major part of the educational efforts was concentrated ...
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena 100% * Milk 64% * infant 57% * Food 48% * food 47% ... Childrens erythrocyte fatty acids are associated with the risk of islet autoimmunity. Aronsson, C. A., Parikh, H. M., Lernmark ... Early probiotic supplementation and the risk of celiac disease in children at genetic risk. Uusitalo, U., Aronsson, C. A., Liu ... Vitamin D and probiotics supplement use in young children with genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Yang, J., Tamura, R. N., ...
Child Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena Female Food Habits Health services needs and demand Humans Male Odds Ratio ...
The descriptors Diet and Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, along with their child descriptors, were moved there. In ... Child Health. DeCS descriptor (inn MeSH was entry term in Child Welfare). SP. descriptor. Child Health. N and SP. ... Child Health. DeCS descriptor (in MeSH was entry term in Child Welfare). SP. descriptor. Child Health. N and SP. ... PHENOMENA AND PROCESSES [G]. Biological Phenomena [G16]. Ecological and Environmental Phenomena [G16.500]. Environment [G16.500 ...
The descriptors Diet and Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, along with their child descriptors, were moved there. In ... Child Health. DeCS descriptor (inn MeSH was entry term in Child Welfare). SP. descriptor. Child Health. N and SP. ... Child Health. DeCS descriptor (in MeSH was entry term in Child Welfare). SP. descriptor. Child Health. N and SP. ... PHENOMENA AND PROCESSES [G]. Biological Phenomena [G16]. Ecological and Environmental Phenomena [G16.500]. Environment [G16.500 ...
METHODS: Women were participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, and provided details of alcohol ... Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Parents, Pregnancy, Prospective Studies, Surveys and Questionnaires, Vegetables, ... METHODS: Women were participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, and provided details of alcohol ... ALSPAC , Gestation, Heavy Episodic Drinking, Maternal Health, Nutrition, Adult, Alcohol Drinking, Child, Cohort Studies, Energy ...
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. * Edible Grain. * Food Analysis. * Humans. * Nutrition Policy. * Nutritional ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena KW - Health Promotion KW - Guidelines as Topic KW - Nutrition Policy KW - World ... Homeless mothers and their children : two generations at nutritional risk / Anne Marie Coufopoulos and Allan Frederick Hackett ... Infant and young child feeding: challenges to implementing a global strategy SN - 9781405187213 (pbk.) PY - 2009/// CY - ... Complex challenges to implementing the global strategy for infant and young child feeding / Victoria Hall Moran and Fiona Dykes ...
Factors such as nutritional requirements and physical environments which have so far not been examined will become important. ... The majority of current data comes from missions of short duration and so some of the long-term physiological effects of living ... Another effect is known as cosmic ray visual phenomena. [a] NASA survey of 300 male and female astronauts, about 23 percent of ... and when Michael Fincke was forced to miss the birth of his second child.[citation needed] The amount and quality of sleep ...
Child nutritional physiological phenomena ; Adolescent nutritional physiological phenomena ; Feeding behavior ; Posture ; ... Tytu angielski: Exercise test in children with bronchial asthma.. Czasopismo: Pediatria Polska. Szczeg y: 1999 : nr 6, ... Tytu angielski: T-cell subsets in children with bronchial asthma.. Czasopismo: Pneumonologia i Alergologia Polska. Szczeg y: ... Angielskie s owa kluczowe: Blood platelets ; Asthma ; Child. Charakt. formalna: Polski artyku Charakt. merytoryczna: Praca ...
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena 84. An astronomical diary, or Almanack, ... Child. Child Care. Disease 51. The afflicted mans companion, or A directory for persons and families, afflicted with sickness ... Child Rearing. Breast Feeding 65. Observations on the emigration of Dr. Joseph Priestly [sic], and on the several addresses ... Letters to married women, on nursing and the management of children Author(s): Smith, Hugh, 1736?-1789 Publication: ...
... provide a unique opportunity to explore the direct physiological impact of these contrasting environments on children living at ... Finally, this project highlights the fact that industry and mobility was not just an urban phenomenon during the 18th and 19th ... nutritional deficiencies and respiratory disease. ... Children of the Revolution:. A rural/urban comparison of child ... These were impoverished children who were apprenticed to rural-based mills, often in the North of England. Historical evidence ...
Child Nutrition , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena 14. Child supplementary feeding programme : status report; October ... Humans , Child Nutrition Disorders , Severe Acute Malnutrition , Therapeutics , Child , Public Health , Diet , Child Nutrition ... Children with marasmic kwashiokor gained more weight per day than children those with kwashiokor. The weights of those children ... During November 1990 to January 1991 a survey of the nutritional status of high income urban children in a sample of 18 pre- ...
Child 5 - Other relative 6 - Foster child 7 - Husband 036 Examination Status 1 - Examined 037- Family Unit Code See Detailed ... 4. Other nutritional biochemistries These tests include albumin,Vitamin A and Vitamin C. 5. Serum lipids Because of their ... Focal phenomena, e.g., one extremity cyanotic should be recorded under Other findings.) b. Irregular pulse: Record any ... irregularities of pulse except physiological variations. c. Cardiac murmur: Record all murmurs. Grade, location, radiation, and ...
Beverages Child, Preschool Child Day Care Centers Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena Food Services Humans Motor Activity ... Rationale for New York Citys Regulations on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Screen Time in Early Child Care Centers. ... Evaluation Design of New York Citys Regulations on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Screen Time in Early Child Care Centers ... Rationale for New York Citys Regulations on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Screen Time in Early Child Care Centers ...
When they go on the GAPS nutritional program, the children begin putting on weight before they start growing. This is because ... They have solid physiological reasons for being finicky eaters. They get stuck in a vicious cycle of cravings and dependency ... Today, this phenomenon is well known. Gut dysbiosis can result in a chronic state of semi-drunkenness, which is particularly ... If the child is less toxic the child will be far more robust and have a better constitution; if the child is more toxic then ...
4. Tolerability and toxicity (local and systemic) related with the use of a non physiological pH and extreme pHs. p As with all ... a phenomenon known as "hydrotropism". Hydrotropic solutions do not show colloidal properties and involve a weak interaction ... LESSON PLAN ON fever.pdf child health nursing. LESSON PLAN ON fever.pdf child health nursingSakthi Kathiravan. ... Nutrition of OCD for my Nutritional Neuroscience Class. Nutrition of OCD for my Nutritional Neuroscience Classmanuelazg2001. ...
The most common nutritional deficiencies iron deficiency ranges, affecting the 2.12 billion of humanity, including over fifty ... Shortcomings in micro nutrients represents a public health problem with important economic and the physiological consequences. ... market and to survey a few characteristics of these products to eventually concluded real possibilities of to the phenomenon of ... experience with fortification of food and beverages with iron for the control of iron-deficiency anemia in Brazilian children. ...
... aims to analyze the adverse effects of anthropomorphism on the welfare of companion animals from several angles-physiological, ... Blaise, M. Situating Hong Kong Pet-Dog-Child Figures within Colonialist Flows and Disjunctures. Glob. Stud. Child. 2013, 3, 380 ... Nutritional deficiencies may also be reflected in the skin and fur of pets because these structures have non-specific defense ... Baun, M.; Bergstrom, N.; Langston, N.; Thoma, L. Physiological effects of human/companion animal bonding. Nurs. Res. 1984, 33, ...
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena Medicine & Life Sciences 9% * Occupational Groups Medicine & Life Sciences 9% ... recognises breast-feeding as the natural and advisable way of supporting the healthy growth and development of young children. ... nutritional supplementation for breast-fed infants, and contraindications to breast-feeding. This article emphasises the ... nutritional supplementation for breast-fed infants, and contraindications to breast-feeding. This article emphasises the ... Nutritional Physiological Phenomena (National Institutes of Health) Journal Articles References and ... Good nutrition is important in keeping people healthy throughout their lives - when they are babies, toddlers, children, adults ...
Children Youth and Environments, life; fine), 78-102. Teacher Change and the Staff Development Process: A technology in eating ... It meets in more of a nutritional self-study for Application by falling some regions that include 26(1 to present and nt will ... teachers and phenomenon ve less foreign in campuses of general neglecting technologies on Mohammedans. The innovations used ... All American eats a Physiological buzz to be a Chinese p. and useful single & stress, both in approach, and in magnetic ...
In children it is most likely racial in origin, in which case it may be called racial pigmentation or physiological ... Nutritional deficiency was thought as one of the predisposing factor since these children did not have any other abnormalities ... Mucoceles, which are of minor salivary gland origin, are also referred to as mucus retention phenomenon and mucus escape ... Most of the children were in the age group of 6-12 years. Only few children were aged 4,5,13 and 14 years old ( Table 1). ...
Hausswirth C, Le Meur Y. Physiological and nutritional aspects of post-exercise recovery: specific recommendations for female ... For children aged 6-12 years and younger adolescents aged 12-15 years, the recommended ferritin cutoff values signifying iron ... a phenomenon that could increase the chances of a higher inflammatory response to physical stress and lead to increased ... Nutritional history. It is important to gather information about nutritional intake and eating patterns. The components of each ...
Eleven participants have children (one to five children, with an average of 2.16 children by each participant), one does not ... This kind of research seeks to understand a phenomenon through the individuals own interpretation of their social ... nutritional assessment, social and psychological care, health promotion and disease prevention, pedagogical workshops, socio- ... including the sexual ones and the gender-based relations that cannot be restricted to biological or physiological approaches ( ...
Early life nutritional environment is not only associated with the growth and development of children, but also affects the ... Numerous epidemiological and animal studies suggest that early nutritional programming is an important physiological and ... However, the comprehensive understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings of these phenomena remains incomplete. Further ... There was a nutritional treatment by day interaction (P < 0.01) with CON ewes having greater umbilical blood flow compared with ...
  • This has allowed the direct documentation of their health through the range of pathological skeletal lesions, including tuberculosis, severe growth stunting, nutritional deficiencies and respiratory disease. (
  • They cannot digest and absorb their food properly and have severe nutritional deficiencies. (
  • The most common nutritional deficiencies iron deficiency ranges, affecting the 2.12 billion of humanity, including over fifty million from industrialized countries, where consumption of the iron rich hemic is vital. (
  • Pica can be a symptom of an underlying issue, such as nutritional deficiencies, gastrointestinal problems, developmental disorders, or stress and anxiety. (
  • Transition: Understanding their nutritional composition, benefits, and various sources can aid in optimizing iron intake and addressing potential deficiencies. (
  • Good nutrition is important in keeping people healthy throughout their lives - when they are babies , toddlers , children , adults, and then older adults . (
  • The skeletal anatomy of children and toddlers (see the images below) differs from the skeletal anatomy of adults. (
  • Bone in children and toddlers is more porous than adult bone, with wider haversian canals. (
  • Having worked with these children for many years, I have named this underlying disorder Gut And Psychology Syndrome. (
  • Dietary Patterns and Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy: Secondary Analysis of Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. (
  • TY - BOOK AU - Dykes,Fiona AU - Moran,Victoria Hall TI - Infant and young child feeding: challenges to implementing a global strategy SN - 9781405187213 (pbk. (
  • This medical position article by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition summarises the current status of breast-feeding practice, the present knowledge on the composition of human milk, advisable duration of exclusive and partial breast-feeding, growth of the breast-fed infant, health benefits associated with breastfeeding, nutritional supplementation for breast-fed infants, and contraindications to breast-feeding. (
  • The NHANES II sample was selected so that certain population groups thought to be at high risk of malnutrition (persons with low incomes, preschool children and the elderly) were oversampled. (
  • In the maintenance of optimal energy availability, increased energy expenditure ideally justifies increased nutritional intake. (
  • What do you think is the nutritional element most essential to health? (
  • An essential nutritional element is one which we can not do without - it is essential to maintaining life. (
  • Certainly, they are important and essential, but for the purposes of this article, nutritional elements should normally be absorbed orally and make their way through a portion of the digestive tract. (
  • In a clinical setting, however, no child fits neatly into any diagnostic box because all these conditions overlap. (
  • The children who were attending the Department of Pediatric Dentistry for dental check up were examined. (
  • Initially all primary schools children underwent regular screening after which children with oral problems were referred to the Department of Pediatric Dentistry for further dental examination and treatment. (
  • The mucosal lesions were observed in 643 (64.11%) children, developmental variations of mucosa were evident in 220 (21.93%) children and normal mucosal variations were present in 391 (38.98%) children. (
  • Thus, our findings clarify the developmental origins connecting the maternal nutritional environment and potential epigenetic biomarkers for offspring hypertension. (
  • Prevalence of obesity and extreme obesity in children aged 3-5 years. (
  • Meanwhile, overweight and obesity affect approximately two billion people, including 42 million children under the age of 5. (
  • The Lancet Child and Adolescent Health. (
  • Out of 243 children/adolescent only 41(16.87%) had mucosal lesions. (
  • Dyslexia is defined as a disorder when the child cannot read or write properly. (
  • However, when you start examining a dyslexic child, you find that there is much more to dyslexia than just reading and writing. (
  • About 50 percent of children with dyslexia are also dyspraxic. (
  • Recent excavations of 18th-19th century skeletal assemblages from the rural site of Fewston, North Yorkshire (n =145) and the urban site of Coach Lane, North Shields (n = 246) provide a unique opportunity to explore the direct physiological impact of these contrasting environments on children living at the time. (
  • Children differ significantly from adults with respect to skeletal anatomy and physiology. (
  • Skeletal system of child, anterior view. (
  • A nutritional element is an element that contains chemical substances used by the body to ensure normal functioning, including growth. (
  • When you start looking at the children with so-called mental disorders, you find that they are physically ill. (
  • When parents bring me an autistic child, quite often the first thing they talk about is profuse diarrhea, bloating, reflux, severe constipation, or some other digestive problem. (
  • Children are likely to be more vulnerable to any unrecognised health risks from mobile phone use than are adults. (
  • As Mercer Rang has correctly pointed out, "Children are not young adults. (
  • The periosteal sleeve (see the image below) is much thicker in children than in adults and acts as a restraint to displacement. (
  • A variety of factors, such as genetic background, maternal nutritional status and maternal gut microbes, can influence the strength of the association. (
  • In this article, we'll delve into the various aspects of this behaviour, exploring both the psychological and physiological factors that may contribute to the urge to chew. (
  • This article summarizes the recent research of the association between MIA and neurodevelopmental disorders in children, and provides suggestion for the prevention of the incidence of NDDs. (
  • Aggressive resuscitation, nutritional support, thorough surgical excision of infected wounds, early wound closure, grafting and the development of effective topical and systemic chemotherapy have largely improved morbidity and mortality rates of burn patients. (
  • METHODS: Women were participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, and provided details of alcohol consumption at 18 weeks' gestation and diet at 32 weeks' gestation (n = 9,839). (
  • Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee to examine these children and also permission was obtained from the parents and teachers who were accompanying the children. (
  • At the start of the third millennium is a fact of concern in the development of nutritional diseases globally. (
  • Although the effects of prenatal nutritional deficiency on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood have been extensively documented, its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. (
  • An anthropometric survey of children aged 0-59 months in north-west Uganda in February-March 1987 indicated a high prevalence of stuntingbut little wasting. (
  • Contrary to expectations and historical evidence, the prevalence of health stress was very high in the rural children as well as those living in the heavily industrialised town of North Shields. (
  • Recent experience with fortification of food and beverages with iron for the control of iron-deficiency anemia in Brazilian children. (
  • A crosssectional survey on 1,211 Brazilian children by Bessa, et al. (
  • Aim: To study the nature and distribution of oral mucosal lesions and variations in children. (
  • Conclusions: Mucosal lesions/variations were present in more than half of the children in this study. (
  • 5 (2004) found mucosal lesions in 27.0% children. (
  • A study in Spanish children revealed that 30.92% children had oral mucosal lesions 6 . (
  • The present study was undertaken to highlight the nature of oral mucosal alterations and lesions among 4-14-year-old children and to study the influence of age and gender on oral mucosal lesions. (
  • The European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition recognises breast-feeding as the natural and advisable way of supporting the healthy growth and development of young children. (
  • Yet I have never met an adult or child with so-called mental conditions who did not have digestive problems. (
  • Campaigners criticized mobile phone companies for marketing handsets to children when some scientists have suggested they are more at risk of possible health dangers. (
  • As a general rule the Expert Group considers that children less than 16 years of age should be discouraged from using mobile phones. (
  • Fifteen or twenty years ago, the majority of doctors never saw an autistic child. (
  • The study sample consisted of 1,003 children aged 4 to 14 years. (
  • From the time she first read Adelle Davis, as a young mother attempting to cope with youngsters sharing all the normal ailments, and discovered that nutritional methods really worked, she became a devoted, ardent convert. (
  • Finally, this project highlights the fact that industry and mobility was not just an urban phenomenon during the 18th and 19th centuries, but also a rural one and we should consider the impact of this on the health and population structure of those living in rural environments. (
  • It's not uncommon for children to explore the world by putting objects in their mouths, but as they grow older, this behaviour typically diminishes. (
  • METHODS: Hospital Based retrospective follow up study was conducted in Gondar University Hospital among 282 children aged 1-60 months admitted to inpatient Therapeutic Feeding Center from June 2018 to December 2020. (
  • These children fall into the gap in our medical knowledge. (
  • The Felix Letters were Clara Felix's answer and antidote to the lack of nutritional awareness that she witnessed in mainstream American culture, both lay and medical. (
  • The phenomena occurs at average power densities as low as microwatts per square centimeter with carrier frequencies from 0.4 to 3.0 GHz. (
  • Today, on average in this country, one child in 150 is diagnosed with autism. (
  • Continuation of breastfeeding after the introduction of complementary feeding is encouraged as long as mutually desired by mother and child. (
  • Shortcomings in micro nutrients represents a public health problem with important economic and the physiological consequences. (
  • It was important to Elliot that readers and patients alike see the physiological basis of acupuncture, as well as recognize that Western science has increasingly validated this venerable Chinese medicine. (
  • In rodents, LEAP-2 blunts ghrelin-induced feeding and its plasma levels are modulated in response to nutritional status, being decreased upon fasting and increased in high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice. (
  • we take a bunch of symptoms, which we describe in the child, we put them in one box and we call it autism. (
  • In a study involving Turkish children, found that excessive melanin pigmentation (6.9%) was the most common lesion in the study population 4 . (
  • If there is a hyperactive child in the classroom, about 80 percent of the teacher's time is spent on that child, meaning the rest of the class is losing out dramatically. (
  • These children are poor at sports: many of them take a long time to learn to catch a ball or to peddle a bike. (
  • Another way to assess the value of a nutritional element is to determine the length of time that one can live without consuming it. (
  • thoughts - offensive implementation for developing the Child of days. (
  • They also concluded that the frequency of mucosal alterations in children was high and increased with age, and some of them were associated with habits and systemic problems. (
  • It was a rare disorder that most people had never heard of, afflicting about one child in 10,000. (