Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
All deaths reported in a given population.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.
Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.
The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
Female parents, human or animal.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Size and composition of the family.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
A condition of involuntary weight loss of greater then 10% of baseline body weight. It is characterized by atrophy of muscles and depletion of lean body mass. Wasting is a sign of MALNUTRITION as a result of inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, or hypermetabolism.
A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.
The status of health in rural populations.
A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A natural, adoptive, or substitute parent of a dependent child, who lives with only one parent. The single parent may live with or visit the child. The concept includes the never-married, as well as the divorced and widowed.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.
Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.
A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
The status of health in urban populations.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Deaths that occur before LIFE EXPECTANCY is reached within a given population.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
The interactions between parent and child.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).

Can generic paediatric mortality scores calculated 4 hours after admission be used as inclusion criteria for clinical trials? (1/344)

INTRODUCTION: Two generic paediatric mortality scoring systems have been validated in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Paediatric RISk of Mortality (PRISM) requires an observation period of 24 hours, and PRISM III measures severity at two time points (at 12 hours and 24 hours) after admission, which represents a limitation for clinical trials that require earlier inclusion. The Paediatric Index of Mortality (PIM) is calculated 1 hour after admission but does not take into account the stabilization period following admission. To avoid these limitations, we chose to conduct assessments 4 hours after PICU admission. The aim of the present study was to validate PRISM, PRISM III and PIM at the time points for which they were developed, and to compare their accuracy in predicting mortality at those times with their accuracy at 4 hours. METHODS: All children admitted from June 1998 to May 2000 in one tertiary PICU were prospectively included. Data were collected to generate scores and predictions using PRISM, PRISM III and PIM. RESULTS: There were 802 consecutive admissions with 80 deaths. For the time points for which the scores were developed, observed and predicted mortality rates were significantly different for the three scores (P < 0.01) whereas all exhibited good discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve >or=0.83). At 4 hours after admission only the PIM had good calibration (P = 0.44), but all three scores exhibited good discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve >or=0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Among the three scores calculated at 4 hours after admission, all had good discriminatory capacity but only the PIM score was well calibrated. Further studies are required before the PIM score at 4 hours can be used as an inclusion criterion in clinical trials.  (+info)

Childhood mortality among former Mozambican refugees and their hosts in rural South Africa. (2/344)

BACKGROUND: It is important to monitor health differentials between population groups to understand how they are generated. Internationally displaced people represent one potentially disadvantaged group. We investigated differentials in mortality between children from former Mozambican refugee and host South African households in a rural sub-district in the north-east of South Africa. METHODS: Open prospective cohort of 30 276 children (80 462 person years of follow-up) followed from 1 January 1992 to 31 October 2000 in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Exposure and outcomes data came from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (DSS). RESULTS: There was no difference in infant mortality between children from former Mozambican refugee households and those from South African homes (adjusted rate ratio [RR] = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.32), but mortality levels were higher among former Mozambican refugee children during the next 4 years (adjusted RR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.50, 2.42). Increased mortality levels were also seen among children from larger households and whose mother died, while children born to mothers aged >40 years or with higher education were at lower risk. Measured maternal, household, and health service utilization characteristics could not explain the difference in mortality between children from former Mozambican refugee and South African households. Former Mozambican refugee children residing in refugee settlements had higher mortality rates than those residing in more established villages. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates higher childhood, but not infant, mortality rates among children from former Mozambican refugee households compared with those from host South African households in rural South Africa. The lack of legal status and lower wealth of many former Mozambican refugees may partly explain this disparity.  (+info)

Monitoring trends in under-5 mortality rates through national birth history surveys. (3/344)

BACKGROUND: We assessed whether Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), a large and high-quality source of under-5 mortality estimates in developing countries, would be able to detect reductions in under-5 mortality as established in global child health goals. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mortality estimates from 41 DHS conducted in African countries between 1986 and 2002, for the interval of 0-4 years preceding each survey (with a mean time lag of 2.5 years), were reviewed. The median relative error on national mortality rates was 4.4%. In multivariate regression, the relative error decreased with increasing sample size, increasing fertility rates, and increasing mortality rates. The error increased with the magnitude of the survey design effect, which resulted from cluster sampling. With levels of precision observed in previous surveys, reductions in all-cause under-5 mortality rates between two subsequent surveys of 15% or more would be detectable. The detection of smaller mortality reductions would require increases in sample size, from a current median of 7060 to over 20,000 women. Across the actual surveys conducted between 1986 and 2002, varying mortality trends were apparent at a national scale, but only around half of these were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The interpretation of changes in under-5 mortality rates between subsequent surveys needs to take into account statistical significance. DHS birth history surveys with their present sampling design would be able to statistically confirm under-5 mortality reductions in African countries if true reductions were 15% or larger, and are highly relevant to tracking progress towards existing international child health targets.  (+info)

Relation between increased numbers of safe playing areas and decreased vehicle related child mortality rates in Japan from 1970 to 1985: a trend analysis. (4/344)

OBJECTIVES: To examine vehicle related mortality trends of children in Japan; and to investigate how environmental modifications such as the installation of public parks and pavements are associated with these trends. DESIGN: Poisson regression was used for trend analysis, and multiple regression modelling was used to investigate the associations between trends in environmental modifications and trends in motor vehicle related child mortality rates. SETTING: Mortality data of Japan from 1970 to 1994, defined as E-code 810-23 from 1970 to 1978 and E810-25 from 1979 to 1994, were obtained from vital statistics. Multiple regression modelling was confined to the 1970-1985 data. Data concerning public parks and other facilities were obtained from the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport. SUBJECTS: Children aged 0-14 years old were examined in this study and divided into two groups: 0-4 and 5-14 years. MAIN RESULTS: An increased number of public parks was associated with decreased vehicle related mortality rates among children aged 0-4 years, but not among children aged 5-14. In contrast, there was no association between trends in pavements and mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: An increased number of public parks might reduce vehicle related preschooler deaths, in particular those involving pedestrians. Safe play areas in residential areas might reduce the risk of vehicle related child death by lessening the journey both to and from such areas as well as reducing the number of children playing on the street. However, such measures might not be effective in reducing the vehicle related mortalities of school age children who have an expanded range of activities and walk longer distances.  (+info)

Childhood mortality and probable causes of death using verbal autopsy in Niakhar, Senegal, 1989-2000. (5/344)

BACKGROUND: In African rural settings, medically certified information on causes of death is largely lacking. The authors applied the verbal autopsy to identify causes of death before 15 years old in a rural area of Senegal where a demographic surveillance system is operating. METHODS: Between 1989 and 2000, a postmortem interview was conducted using a standardized questionnaire which was independently reviewed by two physicians who assigned the probable underlying cause of death. Discordant diagnoses were discussed by a panel of physicians. Causes of death were grouped into a few categories; cause-specific mortality rates and fractions were generated. RESULTS: Between 1989 and 1997, all-cause mortality fluctuated. Diarrhoeal diseases, malaria and acute respiratory infections explained between 30% and 70% of the mortality before 10 years of age. In children 1-9 years old, malaria death rate increased between 1989 and 1994 and thereafter did not change. The 1998-2000 years were marked by a peak in mortality, attributed to a meningitis outbreak in children more than one year old paralleled by an increase in death rate from fever of unknown origin, diarrhoeal diseases, and acute respiratory infections in children under 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Verbal autopsy provided useful information on the mortality structure responsible for the 1998-2000 peak in mortality. It underlined that, outside outbreak situations, malaria was a leading cause of death for 1-9 year old children and that diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections, or fever from unknown origin accounted for up to 50% of the deaths among the children under 5 years.  (+info)

BCG vaccination scar associated with better childhood survival in Guinea-Bissau. (6/344)

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a non-specific beneficial effect on infant survival and that a BCG scar may be associated with lower child mortality. No study has previously examined the influence of BCG vaccination on cause of death. METHODS: Two cohorts (A and B) were used to describe the mortality pattern for children with and without BCG scar and to determine specific causes of death. In cohort A (n = 1813), BCG scar was assessed at 6 months of age and as previously described children with a BCG scar had lower mortality over the next 12 months than children with no BCG scar. In cohort B, 1617 children aged 3 months to 5 years of age had their BCG scar status assessed in a household-based survey and mortality was assessed during a 12-month period. Causes of death were determined by verbal autopsy (VA) and related to BCG scar status in a cause-specific hazard function. RESULTS: Controlling for background factors associated with mortality, there was lower mortality for children with a BCG scar than without in cohort B, the mortality ratio (MR) being 0.45 (95% CI 0.21-0.96). Exclusion of children exposed to TB did not have any impact on the result. In a combined analysis of cohorts A and B, the MR was 0.43 (95% CI 0.28-0.65) controlling for background factors. There were no large differences in distribution of the five major causes of death (malaria, pneumonia, acute diarrhoea, chronic diarrhoea, and meningitis/encephalitis) according to BCG scar status in the two cohorts. Having a BCG scar significantly reduced the risk of death from malaria [MR 0.32 (95% CI 0.13-0.76)]. CONCLUSIONS: A BCG scar is a marker of better survival among children in countries with high child mortality. BCG vaccination may affect the response to several major infections including malaria.  (+info)

Equitable child health interventions: the impact of improved water and sanitation on inequalities in child mortality in Stockholm, 1878 to 1925. (7/344)

Today, many of the 10 million childhood deaths each year are caused by diseases of poverty--diarrhea and pneumonia, for example, which were previously major causes of childhood death in many European countries. Specific analyses of the historical decline of child mortality may shed light on the potential equity impact of interventions to reduce child mortality. In our study of the impact of improved water and sanitation in Stockholm from 1878 to 1925, we examined the decline in overall and diarrhea mortality among children, both in general and by socioeconomic group. We report a decline in overall mortality and of diarrhea mortality and a leveling out of socioeconomic differences in child mortality due to diarrheal diseases, but not of overall mortality. The contribution of general and targeted policies is discussed.  (+info)

Helping northern Ethiopian communities reduce childhood mortality: population-based intervention trial. (8/344)

OBJECTIVE: More than 10 million children die each year mostly from preventable causes and particularly in developing countries. WHO guidelines for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) are intended to reduce childhood mortality and are being implemented in Ethiopia. As well as specific clinical interventions, the role of the community in understanding and acting on childhood sickness is an important factor in improving survival. This trial sought to assess the effect on survival of community-based health promotion activities. METHODS: Two districts in northern Ethiopia were studied, each with a random sample of more than 4000 children less than 5 years old. Regular six-monthly visits were made to document deaths among children. After the first year, communities in one district were educated about issues of good childcare and caring for sick children while the other district received this information only after the trial ended. FINDINGS: Although overall mortality was higher in the post-intervention period, most of the increase was seen in the control area. A Cox proportional hazards model gave an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.66 (95% confidence interval = 0.46-0.95) for the intervention area compared with the control area in the post-intervention period, with no significant pre-intervention difference. Significant survival advantages were found for females, children of younger fathers, those with married parents, those living in larger households, and those whose nearest health facility was a health centre. For all of the children who died, only 44% of parents or caregivers had sought health care before the child's death. CONCLUSION: This non-specific community-based public health intervention, as an addition to IMCI strategies in local health facilities, appears to have significantly reduced childhood mortality in these communities. The possibility that such interventions may not effectively reach certain social groups (for example single parents) is an important consideration for implementation of similar strategies in future. The synergy between community awareness and the availability of effective peripheral health services is also an issue that needs further exploration.  (+info)

Background: The fourth Millennium Development Goal calls for a two-thirds reduction in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015. Under-5 mortality rate is declining, but many countries are still far from achieving the goal. Effective child health interventions that could reduce child mortality exist, but national decision-makers lack contextual information for priority setting in their respective resource-constrained settings. We estimate the potential health impact of increasing coverage of 14 selected health interventions on child mortality in Ethiopia (2011-2015). We also explore the impact on life expectancy and inequality in the age of death (Ginihealth).. Methods and Findings: We used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate potential impact of scaling-up 14 health interventions in Ethiopia (2011-2015). Interventions are scaled-up to 1) government target levels, 2) 90% coverage and 3) 90% coverage of the five interventions with the highest impact. Under-5 mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate and ...
New estimates of child mortality were released today by the UN Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME), and show the global child (under-five) mortality rate has dropped 47 percent since 1990 - from 90 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990, to 48 in 2012. This decline represents substantial progress, but the rate of decline remains insufficient to reach Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) of a two-thirds reduction in 1990 levels by 2015.. But a closer look at the data show that just looking at the average trend hides the accelerated decline in rates in recent years. The average decline in rates was just 1.2 percent per year between 1990 and 1995, but between 2005 and 2012 there has been average annual reduction in child mortality rates of 3.9 percent. This recent progress is close to the average rate needed to be on track to meet MDG 4, since under-five mortality rates needs to be going down by at least 4 percent annually. ...
Data & statistics on trends in under-five mortality chad urban and rural: Trends in under-five mortality, Chad, urban and rural, Trends in urban population growth, access to safe drinking water, vaccination, and under-five mortality Trends in urban population growth, access to safe drinking water, vaccination, and under-five mortality., Under-5 mortality: Estimated trend and MDG goal Chad, 1980-2004...
There are three main service delivery channels: clinical services, outreach, and family and community. To determine which delivery channels are associated with the greatest reductions in under-5 mortality rates (U5MR), we used data from sequential population-based surveys to examine the correlation between changes in coverage of clinical, outreach, and family and community services and in U5MR for 27 high-burden countries. Household survey data were abstracted from serial surveys in 27 countries. Average annual changes (AAC) between the most recent and penultimate survey were calculated for under-five mortality rates and for 22 variables in the domains of clinical, outreach, and family- and community-based services. For all 27 countries and a subset of 19 African countries, we conducted principal component analysis to reduce the variables into a few components in each domain and applied linear regression to assess the correlation between changes in the principal components and changes in under-five
Data & statistics on Child Mortality Rates by Region in Year: Child Mortality Rates by Region in Year 1999/2000 (deaths per 1000 births), INFANT MORTALITY RATE BY REGION AND YEAR OF SURVEY, Child mortality by region and by year...
16,000 children under 5 years old die each day. 9 September 2015, NEW YORK/GENEVA/WASHINGTON - Child mortality rates have plummeted to less than half of what they were in 1990, according to a new report released today. Under-five deaths have dropped from 12.7 million per year in 1990 to 5.9 million in 2015. This is the first year the figure has gone below the 6 million mark.. New estimates in Levels and Trends in Child Mortality Report 2015 [PDF] released by UNICEF, the World Health Organization, the World Bank Group, and the Population Division of UNDESA, indicate that although the global progress has been substantial, 16,000 children under five still die every day. And the 53 per cent drop in under-five mortality is not enough to meet the Millennium Development Goal of a two-thirds reduction between 1990 and 2015.. We have to acknowledge tremendous global progress, especially since 2000 when many countries have tripled the rate of reduction of under-five mortality, said UNICEF Deputy ...
The under five mortality rate in India stands at 50 per 1000 live births down from 74 in the 10 years between 2005-06 and 2015-16.
This paper focuses on the environmental determinants of child mortality in Ethiopia. The data for this study were obtained from the demographic and health survey conducted in 2014. It specifically examines how child mortality is related to the households environmental characteristics, such as mothers education, source of drinking water, type of toilet used, type of cooking fuels, antenatal visit and place of delivery. A survival analysis was used to analyze the determinants of child mortality. As expected the Kaplan-Meier estimation show that most of the deaths occurred at first birth day of life. As the result of this we employed Cox proportional hazard and weibull regression models to select factors affecting child mortality in Ethiopia. According to the Cox proportional hazard and weibull regression models, mothers education, source of drinking water, type of toilet used, antenatal visit, place of delivery and type of cooking fuel were found to have significant impact on child mortality in ...
Uganda ranks among the top 10 countries in the world for newborn and child mortality rates and among the top 34 for burden of stunting. This study was conducted to model the impact of stunting on child mortality in the southwest region of Uganda where the prevalence of stunting and child mortality are of great public health concern. The study was conducted in Buhweju district in the southwest region of Uganda. The study was cross-sectional involving use of a structured household questionnaire, focus group discussions and interviews with key informants in order to gather relevant information on infant and young child feeding (IYCF) and coverage of antenatal care (ANC) and vaccination programs. The survey of stunting, vaccination and ANC services covered 221 children aged 6-59 months while the assessment of IYCF practices covered 83 children aged 0-23. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was used to estimate the impact of stunting on child mortality and cases of stunting averted. The study findings indicated that
There is a growing body of evidence that integrated packages of community-based interventions, a form of programming often implemented by NGOs, can have substantial child mortality impact. More countries may be able to meet Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 targets by leveraging such programming. Analysis of the mortality effect of this type of programming is hampered by the cost and complexity of direct mortality measurement. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) produces an estimate of mortality reduction by modelling the mortality effect of changes in population coverage of individual child health interventions. However, few studies to date have compared the LiST estimates of mortality reduction with those produced by direct measurement. Using results of a recent review of evidence for community-based child health programming, a search was conducted for NGO child health projects implementing community-based interventions that had independently verified child mortality reduction estimates, as well as
The neonatal period is only the first 28 days of life and yet accounts for 40% of all deaths in children under-five. Globally, neonatal conditions accounted for 3 072 000 deaths in 2010 alone. Although the number of neonatal deaths has decreased since 1990, all regions have seen slower reductions in neonatal mortality compared to under-five mortality resulting in an increased share of neonatal deaths among total under-five deaths. In order to achieve the Millennium Development Goal 4 in reducing the under-five mortality rate by two-thirds by 2015, neonatal conditions need to be addressed immediately.. Among many neonatal conditions; 1) premature birth, 2) neonatal infections, and 3) birth asphyxia, were identified as major contributors to the global burden of disease. Due to the complex etiology of these conditions, preventive methods, diagnostic tools, and treatments remain limited. Many of the current preventive approaches focus on maternal health prior to the newborns arrival such as ...
In 2019, Child Mortality Rate in Gabon was 13 Units (Deaths) Per Thousand Children Aged 5-14. Discover more data with NationMaster!
Our analysis suggests that the IMCI strategy in Egypt was associated with a doubling in the annual rate of under-five mortality reduction in districts implementing IMCI (3.3% vs 6.3%). This mortality impact is plausible, since substantial improvements occurred in all four components of our causal pathway. Health facility supports improved substantially after IMCI introduction, as illustrated by the data on availability of essential medicines and follow-up after training. The proportion of sick children who received appropriate management of illness increased and caregivers received counselling on home care and feeding. Caregivers were better able to recall key messages on home care and when to return to the healthcare provider. An increased proportion of caregivers reported to be satisfied with the services received.. We could not assess health service utilisation in relation to IMCI implementation in our analysis. Nor were we able to ascertain changes in population-based intervention coverage ...
Mortality rate; under-5 (per 1;000) in Brazil was last measured at 16.40 in 2015, according to the World Bank. Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Mortality rate - under-5 (per 1;000) in Brazil.
Mortality rate; under-5 (per 1;000) in Jamaica was last measured at 15.70 in 2015, according to the World Bank. Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Mortality rate - under-5 (per 1;000) in Jamaica.
By: Sarah Hodin, MPH, CD(DONA), LCCE, National Senior Manager of Maternal Newborn Health Programs, Steward Health Care. The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health (PMNCH) recently released its 35th knowledge summary titled Act Now for Adolescents focusing on adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 years old. While newborns and children have benefited greatly from scientific research and interventions over the last decade, adolescents have received less attention. For example, while the under-five mortality rate decreased by 52% between 2000 and 2012, the adolescent mortality rate decreased by just twelve percent. As a result, the Sustainable Development Goals call for a greater focus on adolescent health.. Though adolescent populations have historically been considered relatively healthy compared to other age groups, adolescents face unique challenges that can have serious implications for their physical and mental health. The most common causes of preventable deaths among ...
BACKGROUND: As the global under-five mortality rate declines, an increasing percentage is attributable to early neonatal mortality. A quarter of early neonatal deaths are due to perinatal asphyxia. However, neonatal resuscitation (NR) simulation training in low-resource settings, where the majority of neonatal deaths occur, has achieved variable success. In Bihar, India, the poorest region in South Asia, there is tremendous need for a new approach to reducing neonatal morality. METHODS: This analysis aims to assess the impact of a novel in-situ simulation training program, developed by PRONTO International and implemented in collaboration with CARE India, on NR skills of nurses in Bihar ...
With a GDP of about $510 billion in 2014 it has now become the biggest economy in Africa ahead of South Africa which has occupy the 1st position for a long time. Nigeria that has over the years being enjoying support from GAVI (Global Alliance for Vaccine ) to finance its Routine Immunization Programme which was reported to contribute significantly to reduction of under-five mortality rate. From 2017 by virtue of its LMIC status, the country will commence transition process from GAVI support. GAVI transition is calculated at 15% increase in Nigeria co-financing in 2017, and linear increase in co-financing obligation between 2017 and 2021. In 2022, the full market price occurs, and Nigeria will pay the full cost of device and average freight for new vaccines. Having said that last year (2015) Nigeria couldnt provide its counter funding, World Bank had to bail us out with a loan of $200 million.. With the World Bank facility of $200m, Nigerian government had purchased enough vaccines that would ...
Child mortality among Chinas rural poor and its millions of migrants remains high despite overall improvements, state media quoted the World Health Organisation as saying Friday.
INTRODUCTION The total number of annual deaths among children under-five has been falling steadily since 1990, the baseline year for the UN Millennium Development Goals. In 2008, the figure dropped to 8.8 million. However, many countries still have high levels of child mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, and in recent years have made little or no progress in reducing the number of child deaths. KEY FACTS. ...
Oct 14, 2013 The Forum at the Harvard School of Public Health, in collaboration with GlobalPost, hosted a panel on Wednesday to address the path to reducing child mortality on a global scale, the news service reports in its Rights blog. The discussion - moderated by Charles Sennott, GlobalPost co-founder and editor-at-large - explored what works in the global effort to fight child mortality, and what doesnt work, the blog notes, adding, Panel experts covered issues ranging from malaria prevention to dirty water to maternal health; but they continued to circle back to one central theme: global health is directly related to human rights. The blog quotes a number of panel participants, including Elizabeth Gibbons, senior fellow and visiting scientist at the FXB Center at Harvard and a former director at UNICEF; Jacqueline Bhabha, director of research at the FXB Center; and Regina Rabinovitch, ExxonMobil malaria scholar in residence at Harvard (Sanchez, 10/11).. ...
Modeling Change in Maternal, Neonatal and Child Mortality: Introduces students to the new Lives Saved Tool (LiST) software, which is used widely in the international health and development field, and helps countries, NGOs, and other partners understand the causal impacts of health interventions on maternal, neonatal and child mortality in developing countries. Acquaints students with methods on using epidemiological data effectively in decision making; focuses on understanding both the input and outputs of the LiST tool, as well as examining limitations of this methodology; develops the skills to appropriately manipulate publicly available data to create population and health projections.
Disturbed by the incessant maternal and child mortality rate in the country, Nollywood Actor Jim Iyke has concluded plans to lead an awareness campaign to the grassroots level in the country. This is against the backdrop that 145 people die everyday on maternal mortality.
At baseline, the child mortality rate was 15.5%. After three years, it plummeted to 1.7%. During the same period, the study documented a ten-fold increase in the number of patient home and clinic visits; a doubling of the rate of rapid access to malaria treatment for children in need; and a reduction by one-third in the share of children becoming sick with fever. Because the study was not based on a randomized controlled trial, but on repeated cross-sections in Musos area of intervention, it is important to exercise caution in assigning causality. Nevertheless, the results are very encouraging ...
The United States has the worst overall child mortality rate compared with those of 19 other wealthy nations in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Thats according to a study published in the journal Health Affairs on Monday.
Report says about 6.6 million children died before reaching their fifth birthday in 2012 compared to 12 million children who died in 1990
Annex B: Observations on the Child Death Overview Panel Process The Child Death Overview Panel has no investigative function. The purpose of the Child Death Overview Panel is to provide a mechanism for professional learning from incidents of child death. It is not intended to be a safety net to scrutinise individual cases and the evidence gathered. This is why it is anonymised. The Child Death Overview Panel is a review and cannot be held responsible for the information it receives.
Ethiopia has more than halved its mortality rates for children under the age of five years during the last two decades, new UN statistics show.
However, improvements have been slower in sub � Saharan African and in some Asian international locations where, during 1990 � ninety five, greater than 1 in each 10 youngsters born alive died before their first birthday. Poverty, malnutrition, a decline in breastfeeding and inadequacy or lack of sanitation and of health services are components related to high infant and child mortality. In some international locations, civil unrest and wars have additionally had main unfavorable impacts on child survival. Unwanted births, child neglect and abuse are components contributing to the rise in child mortality. Young youngsters 285 Reproductive Health whose mothers die at a very young age are at very high danger of dying themselves. Child survival is also closely linked to the timing, spacing and number of births and to the reproductive health of mothers. Early, late, quite a few, and closely spaced pregnancies are main contributors to high infant and child mortality and morbidity rates, ...
The number of boys and girls under 5 who die annually has dropped from 12 million in 1990 to 7.6 million in 2010, UNICEF and the World Health Organisation say in a new report.
The statistics on maternal, newborn, and child mortality around the world are staggering: 265,000 maternal deaths, 880,000 stillbirths, 1.2 million neonatal deaths, and 3.2 million infant and child deaths annually, the vast majority occurring in low-income countries.
BACKGROUND: Established in 2000, Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) catalysed extraordinary political, financial, and social commitments to reduce under-5 mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. At the country level, the pace of progress in improving child survival has varied markedly, highlighting a crucial need to further examine potential drivers of accelerated or slowed decreases in child mortality. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides an analytical framework to comprehensively assess these trends for under-5 mortality, age-specific and cause-specific mortality among children under 5 years, and stillbirths by geography over time. METHODS: Drawing from analytical approaches developed and refined in previous iterations of the GBD study, we generated updated estimates of child mortality by age group (neonatal, post-neonatal, ages 1-4 years, and under 5) for 195 countries and territories and selected subnational geographies, from 1980-2015. We also estimated numbers and
A Verbal/Social Autopsy Study to Improve Estimates of the Causes and Determinants of Neonatal and Child Mortality (Nigeria). Completed in late 2013, the 40,680 household 2013 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) was supported by USAID and conducted by the National Population Commission (NPC) of Nigeria to plan and conduct the 2013 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) that identified recent deaths of children under 5 years old from a full birth history of women age 15-49 years. With support from USAID and US Fund for UNICEFs Child Health and Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, JHU faculty is working with the NPC to implement a national-level verbal autopsy-social autopsy (VASA) study on the platform of the DHS. The VASA interviewers will return to households where a death was determined to have occurred in up to the prior 5 years to conduct the VASA interviews. Data on the biological causes or social and behavioral determinants of these deaths are ...
Oct 24, 2013 Noting several Save the Children initiatives to raise awareness and funds to combat child mortality, including the World Marathon Challenge, a relay race where kids team up and attempt to run a full marathon distance and to beat the world marathon record, Save the Children President and CEO Carolyn Miles writes in the Huffington Posts Global Motherhood blog, Through U.S. government leadership and global commitment, the number of deaths to children under five declined to 6.6 million in 2012, from 12.6 million in 1990. She continues, While this is good news, we need to do better. … [W]e need to do more in three areas where we have not yet made sufficient headway: reaching the poorest children with life-saving measures, ensuring all newborns get proper care; and providing children with good nutrition so they stay healthy and strong enough to fight off life-threatening illnesses. Miles adds, With adequate public support and appropriate levels of government investment in ...
In the NNT analysis, we found that one death could be identified by targeting 16 children or fewer with the following characteristics: weight-for-age Z score , −4 (NNT: 6.1); hospitalization , 13 days (NNT: 7.8); hypoxia (NNT: 11.5), bacteraemia (NNT: 12.6), hepatomegaly (NNT: 13.1), weight-for-age Z score , −4 but , −3 (NNT: 13.6) or jaundice (NNT: 16.2). An intervention focused on patients meeting one or more of these criteria would target approximately 545 children per year (33% of discharged patients) and 39 expected deaths (NNT: 13.9, 47% of discharge-associated deaths), whereas a programme focusing on severely underweight children alone would target 220 children per year (13% of discharged patients) and 24 potential deaths (NNT: 9.1, 29% of discharge-associated deaths).. Discussion This is the largest study to date to investigate child mortality after hospital discharge in a developing country setting. It also presents the most comprehensive analysis of the risk factors for ...
Judd Walson, Vice Chair of the Department of Global Health, is the principal investigator on a $3.5 million grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The grant, titled The CHAIN Consortium, will analyze samples collected from an observational study at nine sites in Africa and South Asia with the purpose of gaining a better understanding of risk factors to child mortality rates that could be targeted by interventions. The CHAIN (Childhood Acute Illness and Nutrition) Network features hospital sites worldwide, two coordination centers, and eight laboratories, with the Seattle location working in conjunction with the Department of Global Health and Kenya Medical Research Institute. Kirk Tickell, the network research fellow for CHAIN, received a Masters of Public Health at UW before joining CHAIN, and explained some of the public health implications of this grant, which is focused primarily on wasted children. The term wasted (also known as acute malnutrition), refers to children of a low ...
Haidong Wangs research interests are formal demographic methods, specifically mortality estimation and forecasting, as well as population health. Haidong worked on smoking and mortality in the United States; mortality forecasting methods; intergenerational transfer and its effect on the health of the elderly; and the interaction between physical activities and mental health status of the elderly in the United States. Haidongs recent research has been focused on formal demographic methods on mortality estimation. He has worked on the estimations of child and adult mortality for the Global Burden of Diseases 2010 project, results of which have been published in three separate articles in Lancet in the past two years. Haidong has also been working on developing a new model life table system. The new model utilizes more recent empirical life tables and especially those affected by HIV/AIDS epidemic. The availability of these life tables enables me to integrate the estimation of the impacts of ...
docosanol 10 cream generic In a country with long distances between health care facilities, pervasive drug shortages, and just half the health care professionals needed, the vaccine will help bring down child mortality rates. It immunizes against pneumococcal disease, a bacterial infection that causes roughly one-third of all pneumonia child deaths. Called the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine — “PCV10” for short, after the 10 pneumococcal serotypes against which it protects — it immunizes against pneumococcal disease, a bacterial infection that causes roughly one-third of all pneumonia child deaths. In July, it was kicked off in the capital with great fanfare: a marching band, theatrical performances, and celebratory speeches by high-level health officials. ...
Arnand S. and M. Ravallion (1993), Human Development in Poor Countries: On the Role of Private Incomes and Public Services, Journal of Econoomic Perspectives, Vol. 7, No. 1: 132-150.. Beenstock M. and P. Sturdy (1990), The Determinants of Infant Mortality in Regional India, World Development, Vol. 18, No. 3: 443-453.. Bidani B. and Ravallion M. (1997), Decomposing Social Indicators Using Distributional Data, Journal of Econometrics, 77: 125-139.. Boerma J.T. and G.T. Bicego (1993), Maternal Education and Child Survival: A Comparative Study of Survey Data from 17 Countries, Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 9:1207-1227.. Bourne K.L. and Walker G.M. (1991), The Differential Effect of Mothers Education on Mortality of Boys and Girls in India, Population Studies, 45: 203-219.. Brockerhoff, M. and L Derose (1996) Child Survival in East Africa: the impact of preventive health care World Development 24(12) 1841-1857.. Caldwell, J.C. (1986), Routes to Low Mortality in Developing Countries, ...
Please allow 1.5 hours for your first visit. The initial part of the visit will involve speaking with the medical team who will ask questions about the pregnancy, childs birth history, medical history (specific conditions or history of surgery) and developmental milestones/performance in school. They will also ask questions about the childs family history. It is useful to
A 13-month-old boy is hospitalized with high fever, cough, and decreased oral intake. Diagnostic work up reveals pneumococcal pneumonia (Figure 218-1). He responds well to intravenous and oral antibiotic treatment with complete resolution of symptoms. His birth history is unremarkable with a normal full-term delivery and birth weight (3.3kg). At 4 months of age, he developed otitis media successfully treated with oral antibiotics. Since then he has had numerous upper respiratory and ear infections. At 8 months of age, he was hospitalized for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus cellulitis. Each infection responded well to short courses of antibiotic therapy. He has received all scheduled immunizations up to 12 months. Physical exam reveals a pale, thin child who is below the 3rd percentile for height and weight. He has normal features and developmental milestones. Further family history reveals a maternal uncle with similar symptoms in childhood. Immunologic work up is notable for severe ...
A 5-month-old Hispanic boy, previously healthy, presents to the emergency department (ED) for 5 days of fever, 3 days of diarrhea and rash, and 2 days of vomiting. He had been diagnosed with acute otitis media by his primary care physician 3 days prior to his presentation and started on amoxicillin. The parents brought their son to the ED because of his persistent fever up to 104°F and decreased oral intake. He has no recent travel and no known sick contacts. His immunizations are up to date and he has never been hospitalized. He was born in the United States, full term with an uncomplicated birth history. ...
Hi ladies. Newly pregnant with #4 and want to get as much info as I can from anyone who has had a successful VBA2C. My birth history: 2008 C-SECTION (due to fetal distress) 2010 VBAC 2013 C-SECTION (due to preeclampsia and he was - page 2
Nearly all of these deaths occur in poor countries and almost every one of them can be prevented.. The good news is that low-cost interventions, such as adequate nutrition, bed nets and skilled health workers, keep children alive. In fact, in the world as a whole, child mortality rates have dropped 70% during the past 50 years.. But there is much more to be done. Children in poor communities are many times more likely to suffer ill-health, to have their development stunted by malnutrition, or to die from preventable illnesses, than children in richer communities and countries.. We focus on helping children in the poorest communities and the most vulnerable circumstances, including:. ...
The study assessed the quality of mortality data from the 2013 VRS in terms of level and pattern, quality of COD data, and completeness of death registration. The findings of implausibly lower levels of CDR at the national and sub-national levels and child mortality calculated based on the 2013 registered deaths suggest that a high proportion of deaths was not registered.. The results showed serious under-registration of infant and under-five children deaths in particular. This confirms studies from other countries. In China, the capture-recapture method reported that under- registration among children under-five was 21.6%, compared with the 13.0% overall under-registration rate [33]. In Thailand, the under-registration rate among children under-5 in 2005-2006 was very high (42.8%), even while death registration was almost universal (98.4% completeness in the Survey of Population Change) [21, 34]. In South Africa, only 42.0% of deaths of children under one year were registered in 2007 [35]. The ...
Despite the countrys notable advancement in child mortality rate, silent killer pneumonia still haunts the people, particularly the low-income groups, with apprehensions of creating havoc in ones family. This became true for a couple when they faced an ordeal with their two and
Global health advocates worry deep cuts to development funding in the US House of Representatives State and Foreign Operations appropriations bill could hamper efforts to lower child mortality rates.
Using various indicators of the health condition of each country, we find that the United States has higher infant and child mortality rates, smokes less, is very obese, and has a relatively low life expectancy for the modern nations compared.
Russ: So that sounds good. Id love to come to Africa some time, see whats going on. Guest: Youre welcome to come to Africa. Youll enjoy it. Russ: But the question is magnitudes. And Im sure there are many, many beneficial aspects for some of the improvements that have been made in these villages. But when we come to try to measure them, it gets quite--it seems to be more difficult to make the case. So, there have been two peer-reviewed articles that tried to look at stunting and child mortality, published by you and your group. The one at The Lancet had to be corrected because there were some mistakes made, but more importantly than the mistakes, the decrease in child mortality was actually less than the decreases in the neighboring countries where the clusters were located. Does that not discourage you about the impact of these efforts? Guest: Russ, it couldnt be further from the truth. Since you read the book by Nina Munk youll recall chapters 8 and chapters 9 which describe my ...
NAIROBI, Kenya - Ten African countries have halved their poverty rates over the last two decades, but child mortality rates have increased in six sub-Saharan nations, a report on the U.N.s Millennium Development Goals released Tuesday found.. The countries that halved their poverty rates since 1990 include relatively populous countries such as Ethiopia and Egypt and post-conflict countries such as Angola, the report said. However, in Nigeria and Zimbabwe, the proportion of the population living in extreme poverty has risen.. Sub-Saharan Africa is the only region in the world registering an increase in the under age 5 mortality rate, which has risen in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Kenya and Zambia. Thirty-four of the worlds 36 countries with child mortality rates above 100 per 1,000 births are in sub-Saharan Africa. The others are Afghanistan and Myanmar.. The Millennium Development Goals Report Card, which was sponsored in part by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, was ...
The value for Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births) in Saudi Arabia was 14.50 as of 2015. As the graph below shows, over the past 43 years this indicator reached a maximum value of 161.00 in 1972 and a minimum value of 14.50 in 2015.. Definition: Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to age-specific mortality rates of the specified year.. Source: Estimates Developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UN DESA Population Division) at www.childmortality.org. Projected data are from the United Nations Population Divisions World Population Prospects; and may in some cases not be consistent with data before the current year.. See also:. ...
In 2019, Child Mortality Rate in Estonia was 1 Units (Deaths) Per Thousand Children Aged 5-14. Discover more data with NationMaster!
p,Childhood mortality rates are important summary indicators of social development, quality of life, overall health, maternal health and welfare. Childhood deaths are mainly caused by preventable and communicable diseases and poor coverage of health, especially in the case of underdeveloped countries. This implies the socioeconomic nature of the issue besides its intrinsic health nature. This study identifies the socioeconomic factors causing childhood mortality in Ethiopia based on the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2005. Identifying the important factors will help in policy formulation and intervention designing, should the country meet reduction of the infant and child mortality rates to the one set by the Millennium Development Goals. This study employs a probit model to identify these socioeconomic factors and finds maternal education, maternal age at first birth, age of the child and size of the household to significantly and negatively affect child mortality. On the ...
Background: As an important marker for health equity and access, under-five mortality (UFM) is a primary measure for socioeconomic development. The importance of reducing UFM has been further emphasized in an ambitious target under Sustainable Development Goals. The factors influencing UFM are not adequately understood in Bhutan. Methods: The most recent dataset of the Bhutan National Health Survey (BNHS) 2012 was used in this study. Multiple logistic regression analysis using a backwards elimination approach was performed to identify significant factors influencing UFM. All statistical analyses were adjusted for the complex study design due to the multistage stratified cluster sampling used in BNHS. Results: Bhutans UFM rate was 37 per 1000 live births. The weighted mean age of the children was 7.3 years (SD: 1.53; range: 3-12). Mothers age, household size, access to electricity and sanitation, residential region, and parity were the key factors associated with UFM. The UFM risk was significantly
Target 5. Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate. Goal 4. Reduce child mortality. Types. E - Estimated. The figure is estimated by the international agency, when corresponding country data on a specific year or set of years are not available, or when multiple sources exist, or there are issues of data quality. Estimates are based on national data, such as surveys or administrative records, or other sources but on the same variable being estimated. ...
Ghana SUMMARY Ghana is a small coastal country of West Africa well endowed with natural resources. The population is young and a high proportion is urban. Agriculture, which is still predominantly traditional, plays an important role in the country s economy and remains the main sector of employment. Over the last years, Ghana has registered robust economic growth. While poverty still has a firm grip on the North, there has been a substantial decline in poverty at national level and the country is on track to achieve the first Millennium Development Goal if the current economic growth rate is sustained. With regard to health indicators, infant and under-five mortality rates are stagnating. Low access to health services and to safe water and sanitation, high incidence of malaria and malnutrition as an underlying factor are among the main causes of mortality. Childhood immunization coverage still needs to be increased. Inadequate antenatal care coverage and unsupervised deliveries entail a high ...
Healthcare in Laos was poor in the early 1990s. Although diets are not grossly inadequate, chronic moderate vitamin and protein deficiencies are common, particularly among upland ethnic groups. Poor sanitation and the prevalence of several tropical diseases further eroded the health of the population. Western medical care is available in few locations, and the quality and experience of practitioners are, for the most part, marginal, a situation that has not improved much since the 1950s. The life expectancy at birth for men and women in Laos was estimated in 1988 at forty-nine years, the same as in Cambodia but at least ten years lower than in any other Southeast Asian nation. High child and infant mortality rates strongly affected this figure, with the Ministry of Public Health estimating the infant mortality rate at 109 per 1,000 and the under-five mortality rate at 180 per 1,000 in 1988. The United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF-see Glossary) believed these figures underestimated the true ...
While most countries are committed to increasing access to safe water and thereby reducing child mortality, there is little consensus on how to actually improve
Over the past three years, the Tibu Homa Project (THP) has been working to improve case management of children under five with fever in the Lake Zone (Kagera, Mara, Mwanza, Geita, Shinyanga, and Simiyu regions) of Tanzania through system strengthening interventions. The Lake Zone was identified by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) because of its high under-five mortality rate, above the national average, and a high prevalence of malaria.
Geographical barriers and functional challenges for the sustained and continued provision of vaccine coverage are all factors impacting on the outreach and coverage capacity of the national immunization programme, which ultimately increases the risk of outbreaks. Since January 2011, approximately 3000 cases of measles have been reported. Mortality due to vaccine-preventable diseases has significantly decreased during the past 10 years, however, infant and under-five mortality rates in Afghanistan remain among the highest in the world.
The main causes of death in most early childhood mortality are diseases which are preventable and curable. This is the reason why childhood mortality is treated as a development issue rather than a simple health problem. Ethiopia is among the places where the rate of such deaths is high, which is an indication of the poor quality of life that its people have. It is important to study the important factors of childhood mortality and design intervention in order to improve the situation. This study attempts to identify the important factors of childhood deaths by using the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2011. We have fitted an instrumental variable probit model to identify the structural relation between childhood mortality and maternal, child specific and household related variables. Maternal education, maternal age at first birth, total number of children ever born, access to facilities like toilet, safe water, radio and electricity turned out to be inversely related to childhood
Every year about 400,000 infants die during the first year of their life. One in 10 children dies before reaching the age of five and one among 30 just after they are born. Child mortality in Pakistan is a major cause of concern. The collection of new-born and child health care statistics in the country is a faulty exercise and mortality rates for children at all ages are very high. According to the 2014 State of Children in Pakistan report, one in every 14 Pakistani children (7.1%) die before their first birthday, and one in every 11 (9.1%) do not survive to their fifth birthday. Pakistan has long suffered from a high infant mortality rate and is making very slow progress towards improving the health of the child and mother. Although there is a consistent decrease in child mortality rate since the last two decades, Pakistan still has the lowest reduction rate of child mortality in Asia. The child mortality rates for Pakistan are amongst the highest in the world. It is believed that malnutrition ...
Aim. We aimed to study functional mobility and visual performance in spastic diplegic children and adolescents attending specialised schools. Methods. Spastic diplegia (SD) was confirmed by clinical examination. Birth and related history were added to explore relationships between SD, birth weight (BW) and duration of pregnancy. Place of birth, BW, gestational age (GA) and length of hospital stay were obtained by means of parental recall. Outcome measures included the functional mobility scale (FMS) and Beery tests of visuomotor integration (VMI) and visual perception (VIS). Results. Forty participants were included (age 7 years 5 months - 19 years 6 months). Term and preterm births were almost equally represented. Functional mobility assessments showed that 20 were walking independently in school and community settings and the remainder used walking aids or wheelchairs. There were no significant correlations between BW or GA and outcomes (FMS, VIS-z-scores or VMI-z-scores) and z-scores were low. VIS
Although the pace of childhood death has declined sharply in recent decades - with an estimated 6.9 million children dying before their fifth birthday in 2011, compared to around 12 million in 1990 - greater gains must be made to meet international goals to save infants and young children, according to a United Nations report released today.
Child mortality rate for 5 months of 2017 amounted to 16.2 per 1,000 live births, decreasing by 10 percent compared to the same period of 2016. The Ministry of Health presented such data.
4.5 million children on sub-Saharan continent die each year, at a time when actual number of childhood deaths worldwide has dropped alm
Different methods and data sources have been utilized to determine the relationship between malaria and mortality in endemic countries. Most of these efforts have focused on deaths directly attributed to malaria, while they overlooked causes of mortality that might be indirectly related to the disease, for instance anemia. We estimated the association of malaria parasitaemia, anemia, and malaria-anemia comorbidity with all-cause under-five mortality and evaluated the potential of malaria-anemia comorbidity prevalence to quantify malaria-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. We analysed data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and employed Bayesian geostatistical models. Mortality hazard obtained from malaria-anemia comorbidity prevalence was up to 3·5 times higher compared to the hazard related to Plasmodium parasitaemia only. Malaria parasite prevalence alone could not always capture a statistically important association with under-five mortality. Geographical variation of the ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Is there a prospect for mass drug administration of azithromycin to reduce child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa?. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Dramatic reduction in child mortality in a town close to the Malian capital shows effectiveness of a community-based system based on health workers going from house ...
A new study has pointed out the effort taken by Bangladesh in reducing the rate of child mortality in both rich and poor families.
This paper examines the impact of low levels of maternal education on the proximate determinants of child mortality using data from the 1992/93 Indian National Family Health Survey. Twenty-two outcomes are investigated, representing child mortality and morbidity, illness management, service utiliz …
We have evaluated how well civil registration systems captured deaths using a set of demographic methods called death distribution methods for adults and from consideration of survey and census data for children younger than 5 years. We generated an overall assessment of completeness of registration of deaths by dividing registered deaths in each location-year by our estimate of all-age deaths generated from our overall estimation process. For 163 locations, including subnational units in countries with a population greater than 200 million with complete vital registration (VR) systems, our estimates were largely driven by the observed data, with corrections for small fluctuations in numbers and estimation for recent years where there were lags in data reporting (lags were variable by location, generally between 1 year and 6 years). For other locations, we took advantage of different data sources available to measure under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) using complete birth histories, summary birth ...
Demographic and Health Survey, 2008 model children data provides the levels, trends, and differentials in mortality among children under the age of five. Specifically, also provides provides information on the levels and trends of neonatal, post-neonatal, infant, child, and under-five mortality. This chapter presents findings on several areas of importance to child survival. Information is presented on birth weight, child vaccinations, and treatment practices for children who have the three most common childhood diseases: acute respiratory infection (ARI), fever, and diarrhoea. Many early childhood deaths can be prevented by immunising children against preventable diseases and by ensuring that children receive prompt and appropriate treatment when they become ill. Results are presented on the prevalence of ARI and treatment of ARI with antibiotics, and the prevalence of fever and treatment of fever with anti-malarial drugs. The prevalence of treatment of diarrhoeal diseases with oral rehydration ...
STUDY SITE The study will be carried out in the Kassena-Nankana district of northern Ghana. The residents are mainly subsistence farmers. There are two main seasons, a short wet season from June to September, during which the transmission of Plasmodium species peaks and a long dry season. The primary resource of the Navrongo Health Research Centre is a district-wide surveillance system, the Navrongo Demographic Surveillance System (NDSS), a longitudinal population registration system that is updated every 90 days. The district has 4 health centres, 3 clinics and a 140-bed hospital that serves as a referral centre. Information collated for the year 2002 in the Kassena-Nankana district indicated that out of an expected 6050 pregnancies, 95% registered for ANC, the average number of visits being 2.7. There were 2173(36%) supervised deliveries, 1279 of these at health facilities and 894 by trained TBAs. 794 out of 2405(33%) pregnant women had haemoglobin levels less than 10g/dl at ...
Executive Summary In 2005 the United Nations takes stock of the implementation status of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) around the world. The MDGs are the first universal
Thakrar notes that while the U.S. spends more per capita on health care for children than other wealthy nations, it has poorer outcomes than many. In 2013, the United Nations Childrens Fund ranked the U.S. 25th in a list of 29 developed countries for overall child health and safety.. To better understand when and why the U.S. performance in improving child death rates began faltering compared to peer nations, Thakrar and colleagues tracked child mortality rates for the U.S. and 19 nations that are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The members include Canada, Australia, Switzerland, Italy and Germany, among others, which have similar levels of economic development.. While previous studies have also tracked U.S. mortality over time, theyve only done so for children in specific age groups, Thakrar says, and to his knowledge, the new study is the first to describe the full burden of excess mortality in the U.S. for children and adolescents of all ages.. The ...
Vaccinations have prevented millions of infectious illnesses, hospitalizations and deaths among U.S. children, yet the long-term health outcomes of the vaccination schedule remain uncertain. Studies have been recommended by the U.S. Institute of Medicine to address this question. This study aimed 1) to compare vaccinated and unvaccinated children on a broad range of health outcomes, and 2) to determine whether an association found between vaccination and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD), if any, remained significant after adjustment for other measured factors. A cross-sectional study of mothers of children educated at home was carried out in collaboration with homeschool organizations in four U.S. states: Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and Oregon. Mothers were asked to complete an anonymous online questionnaire on their 6- to 12-year-old biological children with respect to pregnancy-related factors, birth history, vaccinations, physician-diagnosed illnesses, medications used, and health ...
The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of socioeconomic and demographic information, for all Brazilian Federal Units (BFU), retrievable from the Brazilian Mortality Information System (aka SIM). The paper assesses SIM s potentiality to monitor inequalities in the field of infant mortality. Accessibility, opportunity, methodological soundness, relevance, completeness, and consistency have been explored as quality indicators. The variables as follows were assessed: race, birth weight, gestational age, medical assistance, parity, maternal educational background, age, and occupation of the mother. SIM s documents as well as the scientific literature on child mortality were revised. The proportions of data incompleteness, by region and BFU, were calculated, with the identification of factors that may influence (in)completeness using logistic regressions. In spite of the accessibility of the database and the relevance of most of its variables, SIM has serious quality problems, such as: ...
The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of socioeconomic and demographic information, for all Brazilian Federal Units (BFU), retrievable from the Brazilian Mortality Information System (aka SIM). The paper assesses SIM s potentiality to monitor inequalities in the field of infant mortality. Accessibility, opportunity, methodological soundness, relevance, completeness, and consistency have been explored as quality indicators. The variables as follows were assessed: race, birth weight, gestational age, medical assistance, parity, maternal educational background, age, and occupation of the mother. SIM s documents as well as the scientific literature on child mortality were revised. The proportions of data incompleteness, by region and BFU, were calculated, with the identification of factors that may influence (in)completeness using logistic regressions. In spite of the accessibility of the database and the relevance of most of its variables, SIM has serious quality problems, such as: ...
\n Ten years ago, the United Nations established the Millennium Development Goals as a means to inspire progress against key health and development issues around the world. These goals provided a vision of a more equitable future. They are: 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunge...
Downloadable! Millennium development goal (MDG) of poverty reduction aims for halving of the head-count ratio over the period 1990-2015. Available studies draw attention to the gap between observed and required growth rates, the difficulties of sustaining the latter over time, and whether the policy stance of a government makes a difference to its overall performance. Trade-offs between growth and redistribution in achieving the MDG have also been examined. The present study builds on earlier work in several respects. A two-stage procedure is developed in which income per capita depends on agricultural GDP, a measure of openness of the economy, and regional characteristics in the first stage, and poverty depends on the (estimated) income per capita, a measure of income inequality, and regional characteristics in the second stage. Alternative estimation techniques - including a panel data method- have been employed to check the robustness of the results. The feasibility of halving poverty is examined at
15 April 2008 - Antonio Maria Costa, head of UNODC, yesterday said the rule of law was not only a goal in itself but a means to achieving all eight Millennium Development Goals. Addressing the 17th session of the United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice in Vienna, he said there was a clear correlation between weak rule of law and weak socio-economic performance.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have produced the most successful anti-poverty movement in history and will serve as the jumping-off point for the new sustainable development agenda to be adopted this year.
Women with conditions that make pregnancy an unacceptable risk should be advised that the LAM may not be appropriate for them because of its relatively higher typical-use failure rates.. A woman living with HIV can transmit the virus to her child through breastfeeding. Yet breastfeeding, and especially early and exclusive breastfeeding, is one of the most critical factors for improving child survival. Breastfeeding also confers many other benefits in addition to reducing the risk of death.. Giving antiretroviral medications (ARVs) to either the HIV-positive mother or the HIV-exposed infant or both can significantly reduce the risk of transmitting HIV through breastfeeding.. In the presence of ARVs - either lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) to the mother or other ARV interventions to the mother or infant - the infant can receive all the benefits of breastfeeding with little risk of acquiring HIV. In some well-resourced countries with low infant and child mortality rates, avoidance of all ...
The physician makes the diagnosis of kyphosis with a complete medical history of the child, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. The physician obtains a complete prenatal and birth history of the child and asks if other family members are known to have kyphosis. The physician also will ask about developmental milestones since some types of kyphosis can be associated with other neuromuscular disorders. Developmental delays may require further medical evaluation.. Diagnostic procedures may include the following:. ...
The physician makes the diagnosis of kyphosis with a complete medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. If the patient is a child, the physician obtains a complete prenatal and birth history of him/her and asks if other family members are known to have kyphosis. The physician also will ask about developmental milestones since some types of kyphosis can be associated with other neuromuscular disorders. Developmental delays may require further medical evaluation.. Diagnostic procedures may include the following:. ...
In the United States, circumcision is a commonly performed procedure. It is a relatively safe procedure with a low overall complication rate. Most complications are minor and can be managed easily. Though uncommon, complications of circumcision do represent a significant percentage of cases seen by pediatric urologists. Often they require surgical correction that results in a significant cost to the health care system. Severe complications are quite rare, but death has been reported as a result in some cases. A thorough and complete preoperative evaluation, focusing on bleeding history and birth history, is imperative. Proper selection of patients based on age and anatomic considerations as well as proper sterile surgical technique are critical to prevent future circumcision-related adverse events.
The projected additional cost per year 2018-2036 varies between 8 and 100 USD million depending on the scope of the package and the target coverage. The average annual per capita cost varies from USD 0.72 for expanding routine immunization to USD 8.26 for the expanded immunization plus management of childhood illness.. The implementation of a comprehensive package of both preventive and curative care could avert over 71,000 child deaths over the course of the investment if made universally available (95% coverage), and bring the under-five mortality ratio down from its current level of 69 per 1000 live births by 62%, to reach 51 deaths per 1000 live births. The greatest absolute gains in terms of deaths averted and reduction in mortality rates comes from the management of common childhood illness. This is partially due to the lower starting coverage of these interventions.. ...
Kathleen England ntroductionMortality among children of all ages has fallen markedly over the past 30 years. Reduction in childhood mortality remains...
This paper explores the relationship between offshore outsourcing rankings and country level social index data from international sources. A review of the literature notes the scarcity of industry data and objective evidence for informing country selection for sourcing activities. A multivariate analysis was carried out to identify possible relationships between commercial outsourcing attractiveness data and country level socio-economic data. Two components from country attractiveness indexes are shown to be correlated with data from three international data sets: child mortality rate, life expectancy and unemployment. The analysis indicates that higher commercial value scores are associated with lower national performance in socio-economic data. Conversely, aggregate top rankings tend to be achieved by countries with exemplary socio-economic data. We propose approaches for extending country attractiveness metrics to explicitly incorporate social impact and sustainability factors.
Thanks mainly to campaigns to combat measles and malaria and promote breast-feeding, child deaths worldwide have reached a record low, falling below 10 million per year for the first time to 9.7 million, down from almost 13 million in 1990, according to new figures released today by the United Nations Childrens Fund.
Decreases child mortality rates. *Encouraging gender equality. *Increases environmental understanding [2]. The ages cited cover ... Child Development during the primary education phase[edit]. Main article: Child development stages ... The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), believes that providing children with primary education has many positive effects ... It attempts to say what children should be taught. History[edit]. In agrarian cultures the skills of husbandary, bartering, and ...
To reduce child mortality. *To improve maternal health. *To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases ... "Are fewer children a route to prosperity?". FACT SHEET: Population Growth and Poverty. United Nations Population Fund. Archived ... because the number of children under age 15 in developing countries is predicted to decrease. In contrast, the population of ...
child health and mortality. *child labour. *Child, Josiah (1630-1699). *childcare. *China, economics in ...
Chairman, Child Mortality Evaluation Committee, Govt. of Maharashtra[47]. *Member, National ASHA Mentoring Group, Ministry of ... In May 2017, the High Court of Bombay invited Abhay Bang to provide suggestions about how to reduce child mortality and ... Infant and child mortality, Elizabeth Day - The Observer, Sunday 20 March 2011 Dr Abhay Bang: the revolutionary pediatrician ( ... "Indias 370 mn youth will drive its future: Ratan Tata". outlookindia.com/. Retrieved 29 February 2020.. ...
Approximately 1.72 million children die each year before turning one. The under five mortality and infant mortality rates have ... "Maternal & Child Mortality and Total Fertility Rates" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-02-13. Kanjilal, Barun; Debjani Barman; Swadhin ... Maternal Mortality : Indian maternal mortality rates in rural areas are one of the highest in the world. Rural India contains ... Median 2SD of WHO Child Growth Standards NNMB Rural Survey, 2005-06; NNMB Tribal Survey, 2008-09 A well-nourished child is one ...
They are also featured in the children's book series Good Dog, Carl by Alexandra Day.[30] ... "Longevity and mortality of owned dogs in England" (PDF). The Veterinary Journal. 198 (3): 638-43. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.09. ...
Maternal & Child Mortality and Total Fertility Rates (PDF) (Report). India: Office of Registrar General. 7 July 2011. Retrieved ... Tamil Nadu achieved the goals related to improvement of maternal health and of reducing infant mortality and child mortality by ...
A 2008 paper found a U-shaped association between paternal age and the overall mortality rate in children (i.e., mortality rate ... and this could have had a large effect on child mortality." National Health Service (UK), "Older Dads and the Death of Children ... The study has been criticized for not adjusting for maternal health, which could have a large effect on child mortality.[38] ... "Paternal age and mortality in children". Eur J Epidemiol. 23 (7): 443-7. doi:10.1007/s10654-008-9253-3. PMID 18437509.. ...
Child mortalityEdit. In 2010, 7.6 million children died before reaching the age of 5. While this is a decrease from 9.6 million ... Child mortality is caused by a variety of factors including poverty, environmental hazards, and lack of maternal education.[30] ... Leading preventive interventions that reduce deaths in children 0-5 years old worldwide[30]. Intervention Percent of all child ... Recently, advertisements for food and beverages directed at children have received much attention. The Children's Food and ...
Child mortalityEdit. In 2010, 7.6 million children died before reaching the age of 5. While this is a decrease from 9.6 million ... Child mortality is caused by factors including poverty, environmental hazards, and lack of maternal education.[36] In 2003, the ... Recently, advertisements for food and beverages directed at children have received much attention. The Children's Food and ... it was still far from the fourth Millennium Development Goal to decrease child mortality by two-thirds by the year 2015.[35] Of ...
Cardiac dysfunction and mortality in HIV-infected children. The Prospective P2C2 HIV Multicenter Study. Circulation 2000;102: ... Mortality in HIV-infected patients with cardiomyopathy is increased independently of CD4 count, age, sex, and HIV risk group. ... Nutritional status and cardiac mass and function in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Clin Nutr ... Encephalopathy and progression of human immunodeficiency virus disease in a cohort of children with perinatally acquired human ...
Mortality is concentrated among children and the elderly. A consistent demographic fact is that in all recorded famines, male ... The intensity scale uses both livelihoods' measures and measurements of mortality and child malnutrition to categorize a ... Page 10 (14 in PDF) continues: " . . . The aim is to give as much nutrient rich food as the child will accept. Most children ... general food rations and supplementary feeding for vulnerable children, has provided temporary mitigation to the mortality ...
Infant mortality is at 1.9%[102] to 4%[103] and child mortality is at 4.3%.[104] ... "UBPost: Child Mortality Rate Has Decreased, UNICEF Says". Ubpost.mongolnews.mn. Archived from the original on April 5, 2008. ... "Goal 4 - Reduce Child Mortality". National Statistical Office of Mongolia. July 11, 2004. Archived from the original on October ... Since 1990, key health indicators like life expectancy and infant and child mortality have steadily improved, both due to ...
In 1950, the child mortality rate in Yemen was 370 children per 1000 births. Yemen then made significant progress, with the ... "Child mortality". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2020-08-14. "Huge malnutrition toll on Yemen children". 21 November 2018 - via ... Malnutrition is one of the leading causes of child mortality. By 2018, about two million Yemeni children suffered from acute ... According to a study, in the journal Globalization and Health, child mortality rates for those under five years old have ...
Aims to halve the gap in child mortality by 2018, close the gap on school attendance by 2018, close the gap in life expectancy ... children and youth; health; education; economic development; housing; justice (including youth justice); land and water ("where ... Aims to halve the gap in child mortality by 2018, close the gap on school attendance by 2018, close the gap in life expectancy ... The Closing the Gap targets relate to life expectancy; child mortality; access to early childhood education; literacy and ...
Reduce Child Mortality: There is some improvement in survival rates globally; accelerated improvements are needed most urgently ... Runs several nutrition program across the world, e.g., vitamin A doses for children, school meals, etc.[citation needed] ... Still, about 72 million children of primary school age, 57% of them girls, were not being educated as of 2005[update]. ... Achieve Universal Primary Education: The percentage of children in school in developing countries increased from 80% in 1991 to ...
Mitchell EA, Hutchison L, Stewart AW (July 2007). "The continuing decline in SIDS mortality". Arch Dis Child. 92 (7): 625-6. ... Infants are more likely to die of SIDS if they share a bed with parents or older children.[16] This risk is highest:[13][17] ... Infanticide and child abuse cases may be misdiagnosed as SIDS due to lack of evidence. and caretakers of infants with SIDS are ... Deliberations of an expert panel convened by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Pediatric Pathology ...
... the under-five mortality rate Under-five mortality rate Infant (under 1) mortality rate Proportion of 1-year-old children ... However, the child mortality and maternal mortality are down by less than half. Sanitation and education targets will also be ... In the case of MDG 4, developing countries such as Bangladesh have shown that it is possible to reduce child mortality with ... "Goal :: Reduce Child Mortality". Mdg Monitor. 16 May 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2012. "Goal :: Improve Maternal Health". Mdg ...
The infant mortality rate was approximately 30.42 deaths per 1,000 children in 2018. In 2014, there were 2.1 physicians per ... "Child Mortality - Tajikistan". "Physicians (per 1,000 people) - Tajikistan, Low income , Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved ... An Arab child who is bred in Persia, and thus speaks Persian. An older dictionary, Qiyas al-lughat, also defines Tajik as "one ... In 2010 the country experienced an outbreak of polio that caused more than 457 cases of polio in both children and adults, and ...
"Child mortality rate". Our World in Data. Retrieved 5 September 2020. Nafsiah Mboi; Indra Murty Surbakti; Indang Trihandini; ... and declining child mortality (from 84 deaths per 1,000 births in 1990 to 25.4 deaths in 2017), challenges remain, including ... In addition, Indonesia has been reported to have sizeable numbers of child and forced labours, with the former being prevalent ... "Slow progress in the fight against child labour in Indonesia". Equal Times. Archived from the original on 20 January 2021. ...
Reduce child mortality rates. *Improve maternal health. *Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases ... In the United States and Europe, such children, because they have the potential to bear children later in life, are usually ... which socialises the child into belonging to a culturally specific gender.[citation needed] There is huge incentive for a child ... "Child Development. 80 (5): 1531-1544. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01349.x. JSTOR 25592088. PMC 4244905. PMID 19765016.. ...
... number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births ... The average woman gives birth to five children during her entire life and 6.8% of all babies die in child-birth or infancy.[3] ... Children at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS in Afghanistan Archived 2010-12-30 at the Wayback Machine.. December 1, 2008. ... children. They belonged to Kabul, Kandahar and Herat, the provinces from where people make the most trips to neighboring and ...
... number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births. ...
... number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births ... children born/woman 2.2517 1.9 2.1 (2000-2005) 2.3 Age specific fertility rate: ages 15-19 (per 1,000) 22.5 45 49.7 (2000-2005) ... Infant mortality rate: deaths/1,000 live births 42.65 40 39 (2005) 15.4 ... Mortality under age 5: deaths/1,000 n.a. 55 49 (2005) 22 ... Infant mortality rate. 36 deaths/1,000 live births[4] (2012 est ...
... number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births ... The country's fertility rate was almost 6.5 children per woman in 2007 free.[14] ... The infant mortality rate was almost 58 deaths per 1,000 live births. The rate was estimated to be higher for males than for ... "The children of Yemen's tribal war". The Herald Scotland. Glasgow. Retrieved 22 February 2013 ...
... and national causes of child mortality in 2008: a systematic analysis". Lancet. 375 (9730): 1969-87. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10) ... In children under the age of seven, the tetanus vaccine is often administered as a combined vaccine, DPT/DTaP vaccine, which ... Even with treatment, about 10% of people who contract tetanus die.[1] The mortality rate is higher in unvaccinated people and ... GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all- ...
This study also linked maternal MMM with higher infant and young child mortality.[13] ... In addition, malnourished children showed poorer scores on intelligence quotient (I.Q.) tests than their supplemented ... In comparing a group of southern Mexican children subject to MMM and a group in the same region who received dietary ... This article treats a common situation of households prioritizing working males in food allocation, exposing growing children ...
ISBN 978-0-393-31495-3.[page needed] Currie, Janet (2008). "Child Health and Mortality". The New Palgrave Dictionary of ... Child Care; Children; Youth JEL: J14 - Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped JEL: J15 - Economics of ... Hanushek, Eric A (1992). "The Trade-Off between Child Quantity and Quality" (PDF). Journal of Political Economy. 100 (1): 84- ... Aspects of the subject include marriage and fertility the family divorce morbidity and life expectancy/mortality dependency ...
Child health and mortality. Family organization, background, and opportunities for children. Fertility and the demand for ... "child health and mortality," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract. • Shelly Lundberg and Robert A. ... Becker, Gary S.; Tomes, Nigel (1976). "Child Endowments and the Quantity and Quality of Children". Journal of Political Economy ... Having children hinders women's advancement in the workforce. They must take time off the workforce to care for the infants and ...
"Child and Infant Mortality". Our World In Data. Retrieved 13 January 2021. Elahi, Ebby, ed. (2021). Insights in Global Health, ... The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 172 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 26. In ... "Mother and child health in Central African Republic". Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014 ... As of 2010[update], the country had the 4th highest maternal mortality rate in the world. The total fertility rate in 2014 was ...
... and long-term mortality is decreased.[122] There however is some short-term mortality risk of less than 1% from the surgery.[ ... type 2 diabetes is increasingly diagnosed in children in parallel with rising obesity rates.[10] Type 2 diabetes is now ... Metformin is generally recommended as a first line treatment as there is some evidence that it decreases mortality;[7][25][104] ... Chen X, Yang L, Zhai SD (December 2012). "Risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality among diabetic patients ...
Learning to eat is a messy process for children, and children often do not master neatness or eating etiquette until they are 5 ... "Ability to sit and rise from the floor as a predictor of all-cause mortality". European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. 21 ...
"Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect" (PDF). Child Welfare Information Gateway. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 ... "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 53 (26): 582-84. PMC 2768057. PMID 15241300.. ... In the United States, the 1974 Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) required that for states to receive federal ... In short, even innocuous treatments can indirectly produce negative outcomes.[171] Between 2001 and 2003, four children died in ...
In summer 1935, Sâr went to live with his brother Suong and the latter's wife and child.[14] That year he began an education at ... Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality Crises: The Case of Cambodia, 1970-1979". Forced Migration ... Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality Crises: The Case of Cambodia, 1970-1979". Forced Migration ... Sâr was the eighth of nine children (two girls and seven boys),[8] three of whom died young.[9] They were raised as Theravada ...
"Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 44 (19): 381-2. PMID 7739512. Archived from the original on 25 June 2017.. ... Researchers traced the outbreak to a one-year-old child who died in December 2013.[181][182] The disease rapidly spread to the ... 25-90% mortality[1]. The virus spreads through direct contact with body fluids, such as blood from infected humans or other ... Ebola has a high mortality rate among primates.[241] Frequent outbreaks of Ebola may have resulted in the deaths of 5,000 ...
The prevalence of hypertension, and abnormalities in glucose metabolism are major predictors of mortality and morbidity in ... In children, the two main symptoms are obesity and decreased linear growth.[7] ... Etxabe, J.; J. A. Vazquez (1994). "Morbidity and mortality in Cushing's disease: an epidemiological approach". Clinical ... the in-hospital mortality rate was 0.7%; the complication rate was 42.1%. Diabetes insipidus (15%), fluid and electrolyte ...
Provincial awards are also presented to youth volunteers.[10] In the United States, the President's Volunteer Service Award is ... and decreased mortality.[14] ... "A Regent Park Advcocate Given Ontario's Highest Youth Honour". ... Young adults may earn the award with 250 hours of service while children may earn it with 100 hours.[11] ...
... reduced infant and child mortality in the 1960s and 1970s.[98] The decline in the mortality rate for nonwhite children ... Children and SCHIP[edit]. A child may be eligible for Medicaid regardless of the eligibility status of his parents. Thus, a ... One-third of children and over half (59%) of low-income children are insured through Medicaid or SCHIP. The insurance provides ... "Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Offer Free Or Low-Cost Health Coverage To Children And Families" ( ...
"Conjunctivitis in Children , Johns Hopkins Medicine Health Library". www.hopkinsmedicine.org. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. ... "Topical sulfacetamide vs oral erythromycin for neonatal chlamydial conjunctivitis." American Journal of diseases of children ...
JEL: J13 - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth. JEL: J14 - Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the ... JEL: I12 - Health Production: Nutrition, Mortality, Morbidity, Substance abuse and Addiction, Disability, and Economic Behavior ...
Infant Mortality: From 97.70 to 29.40 in 2015. Child malnutrition: Stunting 37%, wasting 11%, and underweight 30% among child ... to reduce child mortality) and #5A (to reduce maternal mortality). This review provided an opportunity for the MoHP and other ... Children in the lowest wealth quintile are more stunted (49%) and underweight (33%) than children in the highest quintile (17% ... over time have shown that neonatal mortality in Nepal has been decreasing at a slower rate than infant and child mortality. The ...
Mortality for allogeneic stem cell transplantation can be estimated using the prediction model created by Sorror et al.,[41] ... Cord blood can be harvested from the umbilical cord of a child being born after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for ... HSCT is associated with a high treatment-related mortality in the recipient (38 percent or higher),[32] which limits its use to ... However, for other cancers such as acute myeloid leukemia, the reduced mortality of the autogenous relative to allogeneic HSCT ...
1990) A Child is Born.. *↑ Rodeck, Charles; Whittle, Martin. Fetal Medicine: Basic Science and Clinical Practice (Elsevier ... Grimes DA (1994). "The morbidity and mortality of pregnancy: still risky business". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 170 (5 Pt 2): 1489- ... Abortion in young women and subsequent mental health. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2006 Jan;47(1):16-24. PMID 16405636 PDF ... Pro-life people think women who are pregnant and do not want to raise a child should look for alternatives to abortion such as ...
In the US, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development sponsored a workshop to develop ... No clear differences in cerebral palsy, infant mortality or other standard measures of neonatal wellbeing, neither on any ... "The 2008 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Workshop Report on Electronic Fetal Monitoring". Obstetrics ...
According to Lucie Brock-Broido of Boston Review, Ritvo is "a Realist, a gifted comic, an astronomer, a child genius, a ... "But mortality is rarely his only subject: shyness, gratitude, and erotic attachment are as important as death itself."[20] ... "Riva Ariella Ritvo-Slifka, PhD, Child Study Center, Yale School of Medicine". childstudycenter.yale.edu. Retrieved 2017-10-08. ... "Ritvo Professor to address psychosocial needs of children with cancer". www.medicineatyale.org. May 2010. Retrieved 2017-10-08. ...
... with emphasis on reduction of child mortality, and political-institutional reorganization of the sector, with a view to ...
Children[edit]. Levothyroxine is safe and effective for children with hypothyroidism; the goal of treatment for children with ... As it is a medical emergency with a high mortality rate, it should be treated in the intensive care unit[11] with thyroid ... "Levothyroxine treatment reduces thyroid size in children and adolescents with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis". The Journal of ...
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 56 (23): 573-6. PMID 17568368. Archived from the original on 19 November 2012.. ... or in children's hair, ear, or neck.[23][2] Most people who get infected do not remember seeing a tick or the bite. The rash ... In children, partial loss of vision may also occur.[30] Cranial neuritis is an inflammation of cranial nerves. When due to Lyme ... of children with only mild or moderate and transient adverse effects.[160] LYMErix was approved on the basis of these trials by ...
... no controlled studies have shown a reduction in the morbidity or mortality of prostate cancer when detected by DRE at any age.[ ... for screening with the goal of reducing prostate cancer mortality provide limited evidence to draw conclusions."[26] "The ...
Miniature and Toy varieties tend to have less patience with young children and might find certain children's antics too much to ... Litter size at birth, stillborn, early neonatal mortality for poodles in the Norwegian Kennel Club[88][89]. Size. Average ... "Poodle Dogs and Children - Poodle Savvy". Poodle Savvy. Archived from the original on 25 July 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014. ... Toy Poodles have one of the smallest litter size of all breeds.[88] The stillborn rate and early neonatal mortality (death ...
... and there was no coincident jump in mortality. The central nervous system cancer survival rate in children is approximately 60 ... In the UK, 429 children aged 14 and under are diagnosed with a brain tumour on average each year, and 563 children and young ... ChildrenEdit. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available ... In children under 2, about 70% of brain tumors are medulloblastomas, ependymomas, and low-grade gliomas. Less commonly, and ...
Child. 112 (3): 205-213. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1966.02090120073006.. *^ Lowry B, Miller JR, Fraser FC (June 1971). "A new ... Patients may survive into their late twenties, but generally suffer from early mortality due to cardiac, respiratory, and post- ... Child. 121 (6): 496-500. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1971.02100170078009. PMID 5581017.. *^ McKusick, V. A., & Kniffin, C. L. (2019, ... The lack of an inheritance pattern may be due to the fact that affected individuals are unlikely to parent children. In 20-30% ...
J.M. Sreenan; M.G. Diskin (6 December 2012). Embryonic Mortality in Farm Animals. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 172-. ... Vance SR, Ehrensaft D, Rosenthal SM (2014). "Psychological and medical care of gender nonconforming youth". Pediatrics. 134 (6 ... sexual attraction to children).[39][40] They have been used to decrease sex drive in sex offenders so as to reduce the ...
... overall in Bengal it was adults and older children who suffered the highest proportional mortality rises.[212] However, this ... Lines of small children begging stretched for miles outside cities; at night, children could be heard "crying bitterly and ... Regional differences in mortality rates were influenced by the effects of migration,[217] and of natural disasters.[218] In ... Though excess mortality due to malarial deaths peaked in December 1943, rates remained high throughout the following year.[224] ...
Martin-Löf, P. (1961). "Mortality rate calculations on ringed birds with special reference to the Dunlin Calidris alpina". ... Typical applications include estimating the number of people needing particular services (i.e. services for children with ...
2012). Differential associations of job control components with mortality: A cohort study, 1986-2005. American Journal of ... Combined effects of job strain and social isolation on cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality in a random sample of the ...
... child mortality, secondary sex ratio, selection intensity, and genetic load: a cross-sectional study from Northern India". ... Children of parent-child or sibling-sibling unions are at an increased risk compared to cousin-cousin unions.[25]:3 Inbreeding ... A consequence from inbreeding for this species has been high juvenile mortality, low fecundity, and poor breeding success.[40] ... Fareed M, Afzal M (2014). "Evidence of inbreeding depression on height, weight, and body mass index: a population-based child ...
Often parents of children with a developmental disability want to know more about their child's conditions before choosing to ... "IFITM3 restricts the morbidity and mortality associated with influenza". Nature. 484 (7395): 519-23. Bibcode:2012Natur.484.. ... These concerns can be addressed by analysis of the parents' and child's DNA. In cases where the child's developmental ...
Like Muslims, they refrain from all drinking and eating unless they are children or are physically unable to fast. Fasting is ... Ingram DD, Mussolino ME.; Mussolino (2010). "Weight loss from maximum body weight and mortality: the Third National Health and ... Thomas, Diana; Elliott, Elizabeth J.; Baur, Louise (31 July 2006). Written at University of Sydney, Children's Hospital at ... "A review and meta-analysis of the effect of weight loss on all-cause mortality risk". Nutr Res Rev. 22 (1): 93-108. doi:10.1017 ...
In her role as global patron of The White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood, and chair of the Maternal Mortality Campaign, ... "World Health Assembly approves monitoring framework for maternal and child nutrition". Geneva: World Health Organization. 21 ... Control of human hookworm infection through regular deworming of at-risk school children, endorsed in 2001 ... maternal and child health]" in an echo of Allan Rosenfield's landmark Lancet article of 1985 - and highlighting that the ...
Number and average rate (per 1,000,000) of asthma deaths among children by state/territory. Asthma deaths among children by ... Children - Homeplus icon *Children - Hospital emergency departments. *Children - Hospital inpatients. *Children - Medical ...
Ethiopia has more than halved its child mortality rates since 1990 through campaigns to increase the number of health workers ... ADDIS ABABA (Reuters) - Ethiopia has more than halved its child mortality rates since 1990 through campaigns to increase the ... The U.N. Childrens Fund (UNICEF) attributed the reductions to increased access to health posts in remote and drought-stricken ... The Horn of Africa nation has long suffered from one of the worlds highest death rates of children due to recurring droughts. ...
... This learning resource is chapter 15 on childhood mortality for an open textbook about ... This learning resource is chapter 15 on childhood mortality for an open textbook about child healthcare. It includes several ... You just viewed Child Healthcare: Childhood mortality. Please take a moment to rate this material. ... It includes several case studies.Child Healthcare addresses all the common and important clinical problems in children, ...
... and child mortality have reversed historical trends and mean that death rates among adolescents are now higher than in children ... But the strong international focus on reducing infant and child mortality has not been matched by a similar efforts in older ... "These trends are likely to continue because mortality in children younger than five years is expected to decline further, and ... LONDON (Reuters) - Medical progress and global efforts to reduce infant and child mortality have reversed historical trends and ...
Report says about 6.6 million children died before reaching their fifth birthday in 2012 compared to 12 million children who ... It notes sub-Saharan Africa is the region with the highest child mortality rates in the world, with 98 deaths per 1,000 live ... It says most child deaths are preventable, and that by applying a number of simple, affordable measures, more childrens lives ... says overall economic development is helpful in reducing child mortality, but poor countries that have a good strategy can make ...
... was 12 Units (Deaths) Per Thousand Children Aged 5-14. Discover more data with NationMaster! ... How does Namibia rank in Child Mortality Rate?. #. 194 Countries. Units (Deaths) Per Thousand Children Aged 5-14. Last. YoY. 5‑ ... Since 2014, Namibia Child Mortality Rate fell by 2.2% year on year. At 11.61 Units (Deaths) Per Thousand Children Aged 5-14 in ... Namibia - Child Mortality Rate Units (Deaths) Per Thousand Children Aged 5-14 - 1982 to 2019 ...
By category , Mortality and global health estimates. Child mortality. In this section:. *Child mortality levels ...
... was 10 Units (Deaths) Per Thousand Children Aged 5-14. Discover more data with NationMaster! ... How does Kenya rank in Child Mortality Rate?. #. 194 Countries. Units (Deaths) Per Thousand Children Aged 5-14. Last. YoY. 5‑ ... Units (Deaths) Per Thousand Children Aged 5-14 - 1966 to 2019. Since 2014, Kenya Child Mortality Rate fell by 2.1% year on year ... the country was number 37 comparing other countries in Child Mortality Rate with 10.2 Units (Deaths) Per Thousand Children Aged ...
Child Mortality, Income and Adult Height. Carlos Bozzoli, Angus S. Deaton, Climent Quintana-Domeque. NBER Working Paper No. ...
UNICEF today released new figures that show the rate of deaths of children under five years of age continued to decline... ... Children need your help. Children need your help. Children worldwide need your help right now. Please donate what you can today ... In South Africa the under-five mortality rate has actually gone up since 1990. The health of the child is inextricably linked ... Simple responses to child mortality make a dramatic difference in DR Congo. with video ...
The Nigerian Academy of Science has asked the Nigerian government to reduce the cost of pre-natal care and child delivery in ... to help curb the high level of child mortality. Medical officials say about 200 of every one thousand children born each year ... Talwo says another cause of infant mortality in Nigeria is the malnutrition of mother and child. He says although poverty is a ... Akin Adubifa, says an international workshop is to set up a study of other African countries with smaller child mortality rates ...
Seven-sign checklist fights child mortality. Researchers have compiled a simple set of clinical signs that mothers and ... "Anyone looking after children, mothers, should know that if children are not feeding well, it is a sign of serious illness, ...
... children, and young adults have fallen in the U.S., Canada, England and Wales, but death rates in a new study were still higher ... for American youth than for young people in other countries. ... Reuters Health) - Mortality rates for infants, children, and ... "Unfortunately, the U.S. still lags behind Canada and the United Kingdom in terms of overall mortality rates for children, and, ... Disparities in mortality rates may begin in infancy in the U.S., at least in part because black families are more likely to ...
Tag: child mortality. ActionAid trains 75 TBAs to reduce maternal, child mortality rate in Abuja. On November 30, 2019. 7:00 am ... Child Mortality: NPC begins 2019 social autopsy survey in Osun. On November 5, 2019. 6:28 pmIn Healthby Lawal Sherifat ... Afe Babalola laments child, maternal mortality in Nigeria. On August 25, 2018. 1:07 pmIn Healthby Emmanuel Okogba ... UNICEF, EU reducing maternal, child mortality in Kebbi - Village Head. On September 19, 2019. 9:56 amIn Health, Newsby David O ...
Posted in Gapminder Videos , Tagged child mortality, child survival, English, health, MDG, MDG 4, Norway, Trendalyzer, UN , 4 ... The aim (Millenium Development Goal 4) is to cut child mortality by two thirds by 2015.. How can this be achieved?. Which ... Reducing Child Mortality. httpvh://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EWI_1QoQ9aM. About. Nearly 10 million children under five die every ... And by which rate did a country like Norway reduce its child mortality the last 100 years? ...
New data released today by the United Nations show that under-five mortality rates have dropped by 49 per cent between 1990 and ... The Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation or IGME was formed in 2004 to share data on child mortality, harmonise ... New estimates in Levels and Trends in Child Mortality 2014 show that in 2013, 6.3 million children under five died from mostly ... The Levels and Trends in Child Mortality 2014 report is developed annually by the United Nations Inter-Agency Group for Child ...
Injuries Cause Most Child Deaths: Great improvements have been made in reducing the number of children who die each year, ... but there are some exceptions, notes a new report from the Child Welfare League of America. ... Infant Mortality Drops;. Injuries Cause Most Child Deaths: Great improvements have been made in reducing the number of children ... Mortality Trends Among U.S. Children and Youth is available at (800) 407-6273. ...
... We updated the data in child mortality (under-five mortality) with data for 2013, and we replaced ... existing data with new estimates from the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (IGME). We also made additional ...
Armed conflict substantially increases infant mortality in Africa, on a scale equivalent to and several times greater than ... Armed Conflict and Child Mortality in Africa. A Geospatial Analysis. Published in: The Lancet, Volume 392, Issue 10150 (8-14 ... However, the extent to which armed conflict is an important cause of child mortality, especially in Africa, remains unknown. ... infant mortality of 67 deaths per 1000 births) between 1995 and 2015. A child born within 50 km of an armed conflict had a risk ...
About 10 children under five have been dying every day in Kobe camp since June. Malnutrition is the main cause, but measles ... UNHCR addresses "alarming" level of child mortality in Ethiopian camp About 10 children under five have been dying every day in ... DOLLO ADO, Ethiopia, August 16 (UNHCR) - The UN refugee agency said Tuesday that child mortality rates at a camp for Somali ... This targeted all children between the ages of six months and 15 years. It will continue in the other camps in the coming days. ...
Ethiopia has more than halved its mortality rates for children under the age of five years during the last two decades, new UN ... Ethiopia has more than halved its mortality rates for children under the age of five years during the last two decades, new UN ... is one of the few African countries on the path to realising the millennium development goal of reducing child mortality rates ... Despite the reduction, the UN Childrens Fund said Ethiopia needed to do much more to improve health facilities for pregnant ...
The Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance NetworkExternal. (CHAMPS) program is a network of disease surveillance ... To view a printable version of this page: Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance Network (CHAMPS) Program Cdc-pdf. ... Areas covered by the sites experience high child mortality rates, as defined by a population of at least 100,000 people and an ... The initial focus includes tracking the most preventable causes of mortality among children younger than 5 years of age. The ...
Child mortality rates in Afghanistan are among the highest in the world, and one out of every five Afghan children (or 191 out ... Afghan child mortality linked to uneducated mothers. Aug 31, 2008. 12:04 am. By Marisol Seibold ... HONG KONG (Reuters) - High child mortality rates in conservative Afghanistan are linked not just to war but to mothers being ... Up to 18.3 percent of the mothers also delivered their first child before they were 16, which meant they were married when they ...
A new study has pointed out the effort taken by Bangladesh in reducing the rate of child mortality in both rich and poor ... Tackling Child Mortality Cheap and Achievable: Report. Child deaths around the world could be cut dramatically for just 40 ... UN Statement Indicates Considerable Decline in Global Child Mortality Rates. The number of children who die before the age of ... where reductions in child mortality are concentrated among children from better-off communities, Bangladesh reduced child ...
The event also follows up on a special report published by GlobalPost titled Step by Step: The Path to Ending Child Mortality ... Harvard School Of Public Health Hosts Panel On Reducing Child Mortality. Oct 09, 2013 ... the Harvard School of Public Health will host a panel on Wednesday about the steps that can be taken to reduce child mortality ... "The panel discussion comes weeks after UNICEF released its 2013 progress report on child survival. … ...
7 million to improve newborn mortality rates in the Pacific. ... Increased funding for child mortality in the Pacific. Tuesday, ... The Pacific has some of the worlds worst child mortality rates. Nearly 1,700 children under five years of age died in the ... Increased funding for child mortality in the Pacific. Foreign Affairs Minister Winston Peters announced today that New Zealand ... More than 80 percent of those children died within their first year of life and half of those children died in their first 28 ...
Child mortality is the mortality of children under the age of five. The child mortality rate, also under-five mortality rate, ... Child mortality refers to number of child deaths under the age of 5 per 1000 live births. However, the child mortality could be ... Global child mortality over time Child mortality is high in countries where women have many children (high fertility rates). ... List of countries by infant mortality rate "Child mortality". Our World in Data. Retrieved 4 March 2020. "WHO , Child mortality ...
... for children of younger fathers but not for children of older fathers. Compared with children of fathers aged between 25 and 29 ... Becher H, Muller O, Jahn A, Gbangou A, Kynast-Wolf G, Kouyate B. Risk factors of infant and child mortality in rural Burkina ... We examined the association between paternal age and mortality in children in a large population-based cohort taking maternal ... for children of fathers aged 45 years or more. Conclusion Our data revealed a higher mortality in offspring of fathers aged 45 ...
... is for the researchers, scientists, scholars, engineers, academic, ... Child Mortality Conferences in London. March 15-16, 2022. * ICBHC 2022: Building Healthy Communities Conference, London (Mar 15 ...
... is for the researchers, scientists, scholars, engineers, academic, ... Child Mortality Conferences in Montreal. August 05-06, 2021. * ICHITSRC 2021: Health IT in Small and Rural Communities ...
  • ADDIS ABABA (Reuters) - Ethiopia has more than halved its child mortality rates since 1990 through campaigns to increase the number of health workers and clinics throughout the country, government and aid officials said on Friday. (reuters.com)
  • A joint report by the United Nations Children's Fund , the World Health Organization,and World Bank finds about 6.6 million children died before reaching their fifth birthday in 2012 compared to 12 million children who died in 1990. (voanews.com)
  • The data shows a 28 per cent decline in the under-five mortality rate, from 90 deaths per 1000 live births in 1990, to 65 deaths per 1000 live births in 2008. (unicef.org)
  • According to these estimates, the absolute number of child deaths in 2008 declined to an estimated 8.8 million from 12.5 million in 1990, the base line year for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). (unicef.org)
  • Compared to 1990, 10,000 fewer children are dying every day," said UNICEF Executive Director Ann M. Veneman. (unicef.org)
  • A key example is Malawi, one of ten high under-five mortality countries that is now on track to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of a two-thirds reduction in under-five mortality between 1990 and 2015. (unicef.org)
  • Estimates show that under-five mortality in Malawi has fallen from 225 deaths per 1000 live births in 1990, to 100 per thousand on 2008. (unicef.org)
  • Niger, Mozambique and Ethiopia have all reduced under-five mortality by more than 100 per 1000 live births since 1990. (unicef.org)
  • In South Africa the under-five mortality rate has actually gone up since 1990. (unicef.org)
  • NEW YORK, 16 September 2014 - New data released today by the United Nations show that under-five mortality rates have dropped by 49 per cent between 1990 and 2013. (worldbank.org)
  • Eastern Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean and Northern Africa, have already reduced the under-five mortality rate by more than two-thirds since 1990. (worldbank.org)
  • While Sub-Saharan Africa has cut under-five mortality rates by 48 per cent since 1990, it still has the world's highest rate - 92 deaths per 1,000 live births - nearly 15 times the average in high-income countries. (worldbank.org)
  • Ethiopia has cut the number of child deaths to 68 per 1,000 births from more than 200 in 1990. (bbc.com)
  • This goal, known as MDG4, is one of the most off-track of all the MDGs as global child mortality has only fallen by 28 percent since 1990 -- far short of the stated 67 percent target. (medindia.net)
  • 13 September 2012 Although the pace of childhood death has declined sharply in recent decades - with an estimated 6.9 million children dying before their fifth birthday in 2011, compared to around 12 million in 1990 - greater gains must be made to meet international goals to save infants and young children, according to a United Nations report released today. (un.org)
  • The UN-IGME said that gains in child survival, although significant, are still insufficient to achieve the fourth MDG, which calls for reducing the global under-five mortality rate by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. (un.org)
  • Between 2000 and 2011, the annual rate of reduction in the global under-five mortality rate jumped to 3.2 per cent, up from 1.8 per cent in 1990-2000. (un.org)
  • Sub-Saharan Africa, the region with the greatest challenge in child survival, has doubled its rate of reduction, from 1.5 per cent per year in the years 1990-2010, to 3.1 per cent in the period from 2000-2011. (un.org)
  • Their disparity with other regions is becoming more marked as regions such as Eastern Asia and Northern Africa have cut child deaths by more than two thirds since 1990, it notes. (un.org)
  • But while the numbers are positive, the agencies say more must be done for the world's nations to reach U.N. development goals that call for lowering the under-5 mortality rate by two-thirds from its 1990 levels by 2015. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Hot off the presses from UNICEF and Co. "Child mortality rates have plummeted to less than half of what they were in 1990, according to a new report released today. (undispatch.com)
  • And the 53 per cent drop in under-five mortality is not enough to meet the Millennium Development Goal of a two-thirds reduction between 1990 and 2015. (undispatch.com)
  • A report released by the United Nations' Children's Fund (Unicef), the World Health Organization, the World Bank, and the UN Population Division says that an estimated 6.9 million children died before their fifth birthday in 2011, down from 12 million in 1990. (bmj.com)
  • 1 Although this means there were 14 000 fewer deaths each day in 2011 than in 1990, 19 000 children still die every day. (bmj.com)
  • The under-five mortality rate in the region dropped from 177 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 98 per 1,000 in 2012. (afdb.org)
  • If you were a kid born in 1990 [in Ethiopia], you had a 1 in 5 chance of not surviving to your fifth birthday," says Peter Salama , who directs UNICEF's efforts in Ethiopia. (nextbillion.net)
  • Child mortality is one of the MDGs adopted by UN member states, with the aim of cutting infant deaths by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. (medindia.net)
  • Another development goal, maternity mortality, remains largely unchanged since 1990, with a global average death rate of 400 maternal deaths per 100,000 births a year, and more than double that rate in sub-Saharan Africa. (medindia.net)
  • A decrease in worldwide rate of mortality in children under-five by over 50 percent, reducing from 90 to 43 deaths per 1,000 live births between 1990 and 2015. (mdgmonitor.org)
  • A global drop in the number of children under-five deaths from 12.7 million in 1990 to nearly 6 million in 2015, despite the population growth in developing regions. (mdgmonitor.org)
  • This translates to a major decline from 12.7 million deaths of children under five in 1990 to 6 million in 2015. (mdgmonitor.org)
  • One of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals requires that by 2015, developing countries should reduce their under-five mortality rate to one-third of where it stood in 1990. (resalliance.org)
  • MDG 4 calls for a two-thirds' reduction in deaths of children younger than five years between 1990 and 2015. (eurekalert.org)
  • The good news is that these estimates suggest 12,000 fewer children are dying each day around the world compared to 1990. (unicef.org)
  • While the speed at which under-five mortality rates are declining improved for 2000 to 2009 compared to the previous decade, the under five deaths are still not decreasing fast enough --especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Asia and Oceania--to achieve Millennium Development Goal target (of a two thirds decline between 1990 and 2015). (unicef.org)
  • Rapid progress has resulted in a significant decline in preventable child deaths since 1990, with the global under-5 mortality rate declining by over half between 1990 and 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • While in 1990, 12.6 million children under age five died, in 2016 that number fell to 5.6 million children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thanks mainly to campaigns to combat measles and malaria and promote breast-feeding, child deaths worldwide have reached a record low, falling below 10 million per year for the first time to 9.7 million, down from almost 13 million in 1990, according to new figures released today by the United Nations Children's Fund. (goodnewsnetwork.org)
  • The Latin American and Caribbean region is on track to achieve the child mortality Millennium Development Goal, with 27 deaths on average for every 1,000 live births, compared to 55 per thousand in 1990. (goodnewsnetwork.org)
  • Goal 4 of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals is reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate. (jolkona.org)
  • New estimates of child mortality were released today by the UN Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME), and show the global child (under-five) mortality rate has dropped 47 percent since 1990 - from 90 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990, to 48 in 2012. (worldbank.org)
  • The average decline in rates was just 1.2 percent per year between 1990 and 1995, but between 2005 and 2012 there has been average annual reduction in child mortality rates of 3.9 percent. (worldbank.org)
  • In 2011, 6.9 million children under five died, down from 7.6 million in 2010, 8.1 million in 2009, and 12.4 million in 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, under five mortality remains a prominent concern of global health even though Millennium Development Goal 4 was universally adopted to reduce child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate of under 5 mortality was halved from 1960 to 1990 but more recently there has been a slowing in the reduction. (uctv.tv)
  • In South Africa, under-five mortality was already low in 1990, but increased as the HIV epidemic emerged. (healthcanal.com)
  • Drawing conclusions from national child mortality data is difficult because it requires access to detailed, consistent and reliable data for the entire MDG period from 1990-2015. (healthcanal.com)
  • The top five causes of global infant mortality were the same for 2010 as they were for 1990. (nih.gov)
  • 2012). Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. (nih.gov)
  • If we phase out measles and oral polio campaigns after eradicating their target infections without considering the impact on child survival, the drastic decline in child mortality since 1990 could change direction. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The release of the CWLA report coincides with a recent Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report that highlights the decrease in infant mortality and sudden infant death syndrome among Northwest American Indians and Alaskan natives. (edweek.org)
  • Read 'Decrease in Infant Mortality and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Among Northwest American Indians and Alaskan Natives -- Pacific Northwest, 1985-1996,' from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . (edweek.org)
  • Initially launched as a multi-faceted vision research project in the mid-1970s, data that became available indicated the value of developing an intervention program that would not only prevent blindness, but reduce childhood (and we now know maternal) morbidity and mortality in developing countries. (solutions-site.org)
  • Because many immune system functions are affected by zinc, a deficiency often results in compromised immune function and subsequent infections, which likely caused the increased morbidity and mortality of children in the study, Dr. Black said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Despite the relatively high vaccination coverage for this population, child mortality remained alarmingly high, indicating that socioeconomic and environmental conditions must be improved to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality in this population. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • This paper uses panel survey data from rural Zambia to measure the impact of WA adult mortality and morbidity on primary school attendance and school advancement, and separately tests the extent to which orphan status affects these schooling outcomes. (umn.edu)
  • Studies from the Bandim Health Project in Guinea-Bissau, and elsewhere, have revealed, that the live measles and oral polio vaccines have beneficial non-specific effects, i.e. effects on child morbidity and mortality unrelated to prevention of the targeted diseases. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We will conduct the first cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of measles and oral polio campaigns on general child morbidity and mortality via the Bandim Health Project. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • RECAMP-MV: Measles vaccination campaign in Guinea-Bissau reduce morbidity and mortality among children between 9 and 59 months of age by 80% during the subsequent 18 months in a context of limited measles infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • RECAMP-OPV: Oral polio vaccination campaigns in Guinea-Bissau reduce morbidity and mortality among children between 0 and 8 months of age by 25% during the subsequent 12 months in a context with no polio infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • While reductions in childhood morbidity and mortality due to LRI were estimated for almost every country, we expose a cluster of residual high risk across seven countries, which averages 5.5 LRI deaths per 1,000 children per year. (nature.com)
  • The Horn of Africa nation has long suffered from one of the world's highest death rates of children due to recurring droughts. (reuters.com)
  • It notes sub-Saharan Africa is the region with the highest child mortality rates in the world, with 98 deaths per 1,000 live births. (voanews.com)
  • It says a child born in sub-Saharan Africa faces more than 16 times the risk of dying before his or her fifth birthday than a child born in a wealthy country. (voanews.com)
  • The health of the child is inextricably linked to the health of the mother and South Africa has the highest number of women living with HIV in the world. (unicef.org)
  • Voice of America English to Africa Service reporter Jacqueline Ogoh in Lagos tells us some of the factors behind child mortality in Nigeria. (voanews.com)
  • A substantial portion of child deaths in Africa take place in countries with recent history of armed conflict and political instability. (rand.org)
  • However, the extent to which armed conflict is an important cause of child mortality, especially in Africa, remains unknown. (rand.org)
  • Armed conflict substantially and persistently increases infant mortality in Africa, with effect sizes on a scale with malnutrition and several times greater than existing estimates of the mortality burden of conflict. (rand.org)
  • this has translated into better sanitation - all these have direct or indirect impact on the survival of children,' he told BBC Africa. (bbc.com)
  • The Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance Network External (CHAMPS) program is a network of disease surveillance sites in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia gathering data about why children under 5 die. (cdc.gov)
  • Reporting on progress, the report says that rates of child mortality have fallen in all regions of the world in the last two decades - down by at least 50 per cent in Eastern Asia, Northern Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, South-eastern Asia and Western Asia. (un.org)
  • Sub-Saharan Africa saw unprecedented declines in child mortality over the past two decades. (afdb.org)
  • Some of the biggest gains in child survival in Sub-Saharan Africa came through increasing the coverage of childhood immunization, even in countries with weak health systems. (afdb.org)
  • Mortality of infected and uninfected infants born to HIV-infected mothers in Africa: a pooled analysis. (ennonline.net)
  • Sub-Saharan Africa is the only region in the world registering an increase in the under age 5 mortality rate, which has risen in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Kenya and Zambia. (bet.com)
  • The highest rates of child mortality continue to be found in sub-Saharan Africa, where 1 in 8 children dies before their fifth birthday--nearly 20 times the average for developed regions (1 in 167). (unicef.org)
  • Dr. Kotloff noted that the Lancet Global Health report showed that the risk of death from diarrheal illness was greater among young children in the four GEMS sites in sub-Saharan Africa than in the three sites in South Asia. (news-medical.net)
  • In order to achieve SDG targets, progress must be accelerated in more than 1/4 of all countries (most of which are in sub-Saharan Africa) in order to achieve targets for under-5 mortality, and in 60 countries (many in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia) to achieve targets for neonatal mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The highest rates of child mortality are still found in West and Central Africa. (goodnewsnetwork.org)
  • In southern Africa hard-won gains in child survival have been undermined by the spread of HIV and AIDS. (goodnewsnetwork.org)
  • There is a clear need for action on child survival in Africa and beyond. (goodnewsnetwork.org)
  • In Africa, the country average number of child deaths by age 5 is 127! (jolkona.org)
  • In South Africa, each day round about four to five children die from Rotavirus' , said Prof Madhi. (health-e.org.za)
  • The World Health Organisation (WHO) has commended South Africa for its attempts in reducing child deaths. (health-e.org.za)
  • But, I think it also needs to be stressed that South Africa is doing a lot and has really made a lot of effort' , said Dr Bafedile Chauke, WHO National Professional Officer for EPI and Child Health. (health-e.org.za)
  • Johannesburg, SOUTH AFRICA, 30 June 2014--More than 800 leaders and public health experts from around the world opened a landmark two-day meeting in Johannesburg to review new data and call for accelerated action to improve maternal, newborn and child health. (eurekalert.org)
  • Child mortality remains high in Sub-Saharan Africa and is driven in part by deaths due to respiratory infection, diarrhea and malaria. (givewell.org)
  • The highest rates of under-five mortality are found in Sub-Saharan Africa, which account for roughly half of all under-five mortality. (givewell.org)
  • In that year, Africa had the highest child mortality rate, with some 76 deaths per one thousand live births. (statista.com)
  • About half of child deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Child Mortality Rate is the highest in low-income countries, especially countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The global child mortality rate has dropped significantly in the last two decades with Sub-Saharan Africa experiencing the fastest decline. (umn.edu)
  • Officially launching the Programme for Accelerating the Reduction of Maternal and Child Mortality in Namibia, its patron and the Namibian first lady, Madam Penehupifo Pohamba said maternal and child mortality remain unacceptably high in Africa and Namibia is not an exception. (economist.com.na)
  • How can we improve the care of severely malnourished children in Africa? (springer.com)
  • The case of South Africa, which failed to meet the MDG4 child mortality goal due to the simultaneous onset of the HIV epidemic, suggests that success is partly determined by how the goal was formulated. (healthcanal.com)
  • Thus, despite considerable mortality reduction in the last 10 years, South Africa saw no appreciable change between 2015 and the beginning of the MDG period (see graph). (healthcanal.com)
  • Our statistical research shows that it is possible to be successful in terms of controlling the HIV epidemic and lowering child mortality, as has been the case in South Africa, but at the same time spectacularly failing to meet MDG4. (healthcanal.com)
  • Although South Africa was never likely to meet the arbitrarily defined goal of reducing under-five child mortality by two thirds, the country is nevertheless back to the child mortality level it had before the HIV epidemic, which objectively should be considered a huge success. (healthcanal.com)
  • The findings are described in an article titled "A successful failure: Missing the MDG4 target for under-five mortality in South Africa", published today in the journal PLOS Medicine. (healthcanal.com)
  • Even though South Africa in the last 10 years has successfully reduced the number of childhood deaths associated with HIV, bringing overall child mortality levels down, the country's progress as measured against MDG4 is deemed a failure. (healthcanal.com)
  • Child mortality in South Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa between 1980-2015. (healthcanal.com)
  • 1 Of every 1000 children born in sub-Saharan Africa, approximately 170 die, compared with less than 10 of those who are born in developed countries. (who.int)
  • We used Bayesian geostatistical modelling to estimate LRI incidence, prevalence and mortality in children under 5 subnationally in Africa for 2000-2017, using surveys covering 1.46 million children and 9,215,000 cases of LRI. (nature.com)
  • Although childhood deaths due to LRIs are estimated to have fallen by more than 28.5% in Africa since 2000, this reduction is not geographically uniform, and LRIs still caused more than 432,000 deaths in children under 5 in 2017 (ref. 1 ). (nature.com)
  • Eight of the 60 countries identified as 'high mortality countries' - with at least 40 under-five deaths for every 1,000 live births - have already reached or surpassed the MDG target (67 per cent reduction). (worldbank.org)
  • Children born in Angola, which has the highest under-five mortality rate in the world (167 deaths per 1,000 live births), are 84 times more likely to die before the age of five than children born in Luxembourg, with the lowest rate (2). (worldbank.org)
  • The nation's infant-mortality rate has seen a steady decline: From 1950 to1997, the rate dropped from 29.2 deaths per 1,000 live births to 7.1, the Washington-based CWLA says. (edweek.org)
  • During that period, infant-mortality rates for both groups decreased from 20 per 1,000 live births to 7.7. (edweek.org)
  • Areas covered by the sites experience high child mortality rates, as defined by a population of at least 100,000 people and an under-5 mortality rate greater than 50 per 1,000 live births. (cdc.gov)
  • Child mortality rates in Afghanistan are among the highest in the world, and one out of every five Afghan children (or 191 out of every 1,000 live births) will not survive beyond age five. (jihadwatch.org)
  • Infant mortality rate is 75/1,000 live births, which is eight per cent of the global total, and an estimated 70 per cent of these deaths are preventable. (sunnewsonline.com)
  • Child mortality rate is 117/1,000, which means one million deaths yearly and accounts for 10 per cent of the global total. (sunnewsonline.com)
  • Preliminary estimates suggest that universal under-five mortality has dropped by more than 50 percent - from 90 to 43 deaths per 1,000 live births in that period. (mdgmonitor.org)
  • In the last 25 years, the universal neonatal mortality rate has dropped from 33 to 19 deaths per 1,000 live births, though this rate has been slower than the decline in mortality for children aged 1-59 months. (mdgmonitor.org)
  • The global under-five mortality rate has dropped by a third over that period, from 89 deaths per 1,000 live births to 60 in 2009. (unicef.org)
  • A new study has warned that over two-thirds of the districts in the country are unlikely to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target of reducing deaths to 25 or less per 1000 live births in under 5-year-old children and 12 or less per 1,000 live births for newborns by 2030. (thehindubusinessline.com)
  • The results indicate that on an average, estimated deaths of under 5 children is double the targeted figure (49.4 against targeted 25 deaths per 1000 live births) while estimated deaths of newborns is about 2.4 times greater than the targeted one (29.2 against targeted 12 deaths per 1,000 live births). (thehindubusinessline.com)
  • The child mortality rate, also under-five mortality rate, refers to the probability of dying between birth and exactly five years of age expressed per 1,000 live births. (wikipedia.org)
  • Target 3.2 is "by 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce … under‑5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chad infant mortality is about 96 per 1,000 live births, compared to only 2.2 per 1,000 live births in Japan. (wikipedia.org)
  • This statistic depicts the child mortality worldwide among children under five years of age in 2018, by region and per 1,000 live births. (statista.com)
  • The under-five mortality rate is defined as the probability of dying by age 5 expressed as the total number of such deaths per 1,000 live births. (statista.com)
  • More than 1,300 mothers die per 100,000 live births and around 109 children are dying per 1,000 live births respectively. (msf.org.uk)
  • Safemedicines.org noted that Ghanaian children in 2010 suffered 110 deaths for each 1,000 children under five: a startling 11% of children. (sproxil.com)
  • The newborn mortality rate among the richest quintile was 23 per 1,000 live births, compared with 59 in the poorest quintile. (pepbonet.com)
  • In 2013, the GAPPD established the goal of reducing child mortality rates attributable to LRIs to below 3 in 1,000 persons and reducing severe LRI episodes to 75% of the 2010 values by 2025 (ref. 8 ). (nature.com)
  • Somalia's child mortality rate in 2010, stood at 180 deaths per 1,000 live births which now ranks worst in the world,' the United Nations Children's Fund said in a media statement. (cnn.com)
  • Child mortality rate for 5 months of 2017 amounted to 16.2 per 1,000 live births, decreasing by 10 percent compared to the same period of 2016. (24.kg)
  • UNICEF is committed to doing all it can to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in partnership with governments, civil society, business, academia and the United Nations family - and especially children and young people. (unicef.org)
  • UNICEF uses innovative approaches to solve problems and improve the lives of children around the world. (unicef.org)
  • NEW YORK, 10 September 2009 - UNICEF today released new figures that show the rate of deaths of children under five years of age continued to decline in 2008. (unicef.org)
  • Research by UNICEF reveals that over 834,000 children die annually in Nigeria. (voanews.com)
  • Anama said that this was achieved through the introduction of UNICEF and European Union - Maternal, Newborn, Child Health and Nutrition Project in 2016. (vanguardngr.com)
  • But the latest Unicef figures show Ethiopia is one of the few African countries on the path to realising the millennium development goal of reducing child mortality rates, he says. (bbc.com)
  • The panel discussion comes weeks after UNICEF released its 2013 progress report on child survival. (kff.org)
  • Funding will continue to support UNICEF as a long-standing partner of the New Zealand Aid Programme with considerable child health expertise in the Pacific and globally. (scoop.co.nz)
  • New Zealand has been providing support to UNICEF under the Pacific Maternal Newborn and Child Health Initiative since 2014, working closely to develop areas of focus, countries to target and interventions to be supported. (scoop.co.nz)
  • New estimates in Levels and Trends in Child Mortality Report 2015 released by UNICEF, the World Health Organization, the World Bank Group, and the Population Division of UNDESA, indicate that although the global progress has been substantial, 16,000 children under five still die every day. (undispatch.com)
  • In this regard, FAO programmes, in combination with efforts by the Renewed Efforts against Child Hunger and Undernutrition (REACH) and WHO, WFP, and UNICEF have helped communities and households secure access to nutritionally adequate diets to minimise child undernutrition. (mdgmonitor.org)
  • The Government of Japan has continued its commitment to reducing child mortality in Sudan, with the contribution tomorrow of US$5 million (¥596 million) to UNICEF, in support of disease eradication programmes in the country. (albawaba.com)
  • Welcoming the contribution, UNICEF Representative Ted Chaiban noted that the funds would improve the health status of millions of women and children in Sudan. (albawaba.com)
  • That contribution, matched by the leadership of the Sudanese health sector, the technical support of agencies such as UNICEF and WHO, and the backing of other international donors, has provided us an opportunity to re-energise the battle to improve child health. (albawaba.com)
  • The Lancet, UNICEF, and the Norwegian Government will host a key meeting in New York on September 18th to assess the progress being made to reduce child deaths by two-thirds by 2015--the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4). (eurekalert.org)
  • NEW YORK, 17 September 2010 - The latest United Nations under-five mortality estimates were released today by UNICEF and they show continued progress in reducing the number of children who don't live to see their fifth birthdays. (unicef.org)
  • UNICEF is on the ground in over 150 countries and territories to help children survive and thrive, from early childhood through adolescence. (unicef.org)
  • The world's largest provider of vaccines for developing countries, UNICEF supports child health and nutrition, good water and sanitation, quality basic education for all boys and girls, and the protection of children from violence, exploitation, and AIDS. (unicef.org)
  • According to UNICEF , "Most child deaths every year are attributable to six causes: diarrhea, malaria, neonatal infection, pneumonia, pre-term delivery or lack of oxygen at birth. (jolkona.org)
  • In addition to these national programs and policies, various regions also implemented different intervention programs, for example, the Kybele program in the Greater Accra region, Accelerated Child Survival and Development (ACSD) sponsored by United Nation Children and Education Fund (UNICEF) in the Northern, Upper East, and Upper West regions, and Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) which commenced in six regions in 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Unicef data , about seven million children a year die before their fifth birthday, mostly from preventable and treatable causes like pneumonia, diarrhea and neonatal complications. (nytimes.com)
  • Reducing malnutrition, which is an underlying factor in at least half of all under-five deaths, has had a profound impact on the survival rates of children," he told a gathering of representatives of United Nations agencies. (reuters.com)
  • Young says Niger also has set up an emergency nutrition program to address child malnutrition. (voanews.com)
  • Dr. Talwo says another cause of infant mortality in Nigeria is the malnutrition of mother and child. (voanews.com)
  • Acute malnutrition is thought to be the major cause of the child deaths at the Kobe refugee camp, which was opened to help cope with an influx of tens of thousands of Somalis crossing to the Dollo Ado area to escape drought, famine and fighting in their country. (unhcr.org)
  • There is a need to encourage parents to return with their children to health centres for continued treatment for malnutrition, and to actively identify children who are sick to ensure they receive immediate medical attention," Edwards said. (unhcr.org)
  • The deepening global economic crisis could significantly raise infant mortality and malnutrition rates, a UN official said Tuesday, urging Asian governments to protect millions of vulnerable children. (medindia.net)
  • Dr. Kotloff, previously reported that children who were stunted at baseline (a sign of malnutrition) were significantly more likely to die during the two to three months following their GEMS diarrheal illness. (news-medical.net)
  • She further noted that at the one site in Asia (Pakistan) where the risk of death following diarrhea was higher than at the other two Asian sites (India and Bangladesh), the Pakistani children were significantly more malnourished at baseline, providing further proof that malnutrition unfavorably affects the outcome of diarrheal illness. (news-medical.net)
  • In less developed countries, malnutrition is the main cause of child mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among children under five years of age, 70 percent of deaths are caused by infections compounded by malnutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite excellent coverage of antenatal care services and delivery in health facilities, Namibia has made no progress in reducing maternal mortality rates since independence and although the country have improved in immunisation coverage, child health remains a challenge with high levels of malnutrition and inadequate immunisation against childhood diseases. (economist.com.na)
  • Of these 110 children, 57 (51.8%) had edematous malnutrition and 53 (48.1%) had non edematous malnutrition. (springer.com)
  • Children with severe malnutrition: can those at highest risk of death be identified with the WHO protocol. (springer.com)
  • 2006) 19.7 million children die worldwide before their fifth birth day mostly from preventable cause such as malnutrition. (scribd.com)
  • Recent commitments by the government to scale up interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS should help improve the situation. (unicef.org)
  • The toll of conflict on children, who are presumably not combatants, underscores the indirect toll of conflict on civilian populations, and the importance of developing interventions to address child health in areas of conflict. (rand.org)
  • As the database of causes of death expands, international health partners will be able to utilize the data to develop policy and health interventions that target causes of death for children under age five, making it possible for future generations to live longer and healthier lives. (cdc.gov)
  • Highly cost-effective interventions are feasible even at the community level," stated UN-IGME, which advocates expanding preventative and curative interventions that target the main causes of infant mortality. (un.org)
  • Our primary question is whether taking into account of cause of death using a competing risk model, compared with a simple model of all-cause mortality, affects conclusions about the effectiveness of policy interventions. (repec.org)
  • Tanzania's success has been attributed to scaling up several key child survival interventions and doubling public spending on health, as well as governance reforms such as greater decentralization, which gave districts substantial financial resources and opened opportunities for local problem-solving. (afdb.org)
  • A key aim of the GFF is to mobilize private sector resources that, in addition to public sector resources, help close gaps in the financing of essential interventions required to improve the health of women, children and adolescents. (worldbank.org)
  • The issue will include the latest findings from the Child Survival Countdown, a worldwide effort to monitor the use of interventions that can improve child survival in 60 countries where 94% of child deaths under five occur. (eurekalert.org)
  • Achieving this will require widespread use of effective interventions known to improve child survival. (eurekalert.org)
  • These interventions include exclusive breastfeeding, vaccination, access to safe drinking water and sanitation services, the use of insecticide-treated nets for preventing malaria, delivery attendants when babies are born (to ensure newborn health), prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, oral rehydration therapy (ORT), and treatments for malaria and pneumonia. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since many of the deaths occurred more than 14 to 21 days after the children were enrolled in the study, Dr. Levine suggests that where resources and logistics make it feasible active follow-up visits and interventions for all cases of diarrhea could help reduce fatalities. (news-medical.net)
  • Disparities in the decrease in deaths in newborns vis-à-vis under 5-year-old children could be related to implementation of interventions. (thehindubusinessline.com)
  • Child survival interventions are designed to address the most common causes of child deaths that occur, which include diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, and neonatal conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The child survival strategies and interventions are in line with the fourth Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which focused on reducing child mortality by 2/3 of children under five before the year 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • He identifies current progress in mortality reduction and identifies effective interventions. (uctv.tv)
  • The Countdown to 2015, an international coalition that implements and tracks the progress of interventions critical to reducing maternal and child mortality worldwide, reports that only 16 of the 68 nations that have 97 percent of maternal and child deaths worldwide are on track to reach Millennium Development Goals for reducing maternal and child mortality. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • In contrast to many African nations that have made little or no progress in reducing childhood mortality, Tanzania is on target to reach Millennium Development Goals, an improvement achieved by increases in government spending on health and implementation of key interventions, such as insecticide-treated netting to prevent malaria, immunization and exclusive breast-feeding. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • It places the "best interests of the child as the paramount consideration and requiring that protective interventions prioritise community based mechanisms over institutional alternatives. (com.pg)
  • Bandim Health Project runs a Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Guinea-Bissau since 1978 and assesses child health interventions' real-life effects, via continuous registration of all interventions given to all children, and follow-up of individuals. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 1 An understanding of the risk factors associated with child mortality and the design of appropriate interventions are urgently required. (who.int)
  • This course focuses on the historical problems and interventions associated with infant mortality. (jhsph.edu)
  • Introduces students to the new Lives Saved Tool (LiST) software, which is used widely in the international health and development field, and helps countries, NGOs, and other partners understand the causal impacts of health interventions on maternal, neonatal and child mortality in developing countries. (jhsph.edu)
  • Current patterns indicate that high economic growth is not a prerequisite for improving child survival rates, as several low-income countries have managed to reduce child mortality in a short period of time. (afdb.org)
  • These trends are likely to continue because mortality in children younger than five years is expected to decline further, and injury-related mortality is expected to increase in the next 25 years," said Russell Viner from the University College London institute of child health, who led the study. (reuters.com)
  • The data shows global under-five mortality has decreased steadily over the past two decades, and that the rate of the decline in the under-five mortality rates has increased since the 1990s. (unicef.org)
  • Niger reduced its child mortality rate from 226 in 2009 to 128 in 1998, a 5.1% annual rate of decline. (afdb.org)
  • A decrease in malaria-related mortality has been another significant contributor to the decline of child mortality in the region. (afdb.org)
  • The decline in the death toll of children under five illustrates what can be achieved by strengthening health systems," said WHO health statistics director Ties Boerma. (medindia.net)
  • Over the past decade we've seen a decline in child mortality linked to diarrheal illness, but certainly more needs to be done,' said Kathleen Neuzil, MD, MPH, the Myron M. Levine Professor in Vaccinology, Professor of Medicine and Pediatrics and Director of the Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health (CVD). (news-medical.net)
  • This ultimately, would result in a decline in maternal and child deaths. (ghanaweb.com)
  • We hypothesize that an increase in the number of climate shocks are partially responsible for the slow decline of child mortality in Mali. (umn.edu)
  • Our surprise finding is that the recent several decades long decline in inequality comes from reducing child mortality, whereas much increase in life expectancy comes from reducing cardiovascular deaths. (stanford.edu)
  • During this time, there was a decline in inequality in under-five mortality by household wealth but a substantial increase by mother's education. (rand.org)
  • A declining birth rate from the 1870s meant smaller families and more time available for baby care, which contributed to a decline in mortality. (teara.govt.nz)
  • Afe Babalola, the Founder of Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti (ABUAD), has lamented the menace of child and maternal mortality in the country, saying the unfortunate situation has rendered many children motherless owing to pervasive ignorance among the African people. (vanguardngr.com)
  • Less than a quarter of 'priority countries' are on track to reach UN goals for reducing high rates of infant and maternal mortality by 2015, according to a major report released Friday. (medindia.net)
  • There is hope that adequate implementation of the new policy can go a long way in curbing child and maternal mortality in Nigeria. (sunnewsonline.com)
  • According to the report by the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA), Nigeria has maternal mortality rate of 560/100,000 live births, which means 33,000 women die each year and one in nine maternal deaths worldwide is a Nigerian. (sunnewsonline.com)
  • Unfortunately, Nigeria has made no progress in maternal mortality for 29 years. (sunnewsonline.com)
  • He also tagged the country the fourth place with the worst maternal mortality rate, coming after Sierra Leone, Central African Republic and Chad. (sunnewsonline.com)
  • According to the Northern Regional Health Directorate, maternal mortality in the region reduced from 115 in 2007 to as low as 19 deaths by December, 2014. (ghanaweb.com)
  • But causes of child and maternal mortality are not solely medical or economic. (pepbonet.com)
  • The target date for achieving the promises politicians made when they signed up to the Millenium Development Goals to reduce the number of children dying by two thirds and to reduce maternal mortality by three quarters is 2015. (pepbonet.com)
  • LONDON (Reuters) - Medical progress and global efforts to reduce infant and child mortality have reversed historical trends and mean that death rates among adolescents are now higher than in children, researchers said on Tuesday. (reuters.com)
  • The findings, published in the Lancet medical journal, partly reflect success in reducing death rates among very young children, the researchers said. (reuters.com)
  • To find changes in mortality, they calculated death rates averaged over three five-year periods - 1955 to 1959, 1978 to 1982, and 2000 to 2004. (reuters.com)
  • But in the 50 years up to 2004, death rates in children aged one to nine fell by 80 to 93 percent, mostly due to reductions in deaths from infectious disease. (reuters.com)
  • In contrast, declines in death rates in those aged 15 to 24 years were only about half that in children, largely because of increases in injury-related deaths, particularly in young men. (reuters.com)
  • The new data also shows that seven of the 67 high mortality countries (those with under-five mortality rates of 40 per thousand live births or higher) have consistently achieved annual rates of reduction of under-five mortality of 4.5 per cent or higher. (unicef.org)
  • The executive director of the Nigerian Academy of Science, Dr. Akin Adubifa, says an international workshop is to set up a study of other African countries with smaller child mortality rates and brainstorm on how Nigeria might adopt their solutions for reducing death rates. (voanews.com)
  • Reuters Health) - Mortality rates for infants, children, and young adults have fallen in the U.S., Canada, England and Wales, but death rates in a new study were still higher for American youth than for young people in other countries. (reuters.com)
  • Unfortunately, the U.S. still lags behind Canada and the United Kingdom in terms of overall mortality rates for children, and, within the U.S., death rates remain higher among American Indian/Alaska Natives and black children, compared to other racial/ethnic groups," Shiels said by email. (reuters.com)
  • Overall, from 1999 to 2015, mortality rates for people under 25 years old declined 0.82 percent per year to 4.01 percent a year, researchers report in JAMA Pediatrics. (reuters.com)
  • But the U.S. had higher mortality rates for all age groups than Canada or England and Wales. (reuters.com)
  • In the U.S., black babies had the highest infant mortality rates, at 1,128 per 100,000, followed by 968 per 100,000 for American Indian/Alaskan Natives. (reuters.com)
  • By contrast, infant mortality rates were 498 per 100,000 white babies and 466 per 100,000 Latino babies in the U.S. (reuters.com)
  • In all other age groups in the U.S, American Indian/Alaska Natives had the highest mortality rates. (reuters.com)
  • Deaths from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) declined in the U.S., but mortality rates rose for suffocation and strangulation in bed, the analysis found. (reuters.com)
  • The study wasn't a controlled experiment designed to prove whether or how specific changes in medicine or shifts in behavior at the population level might directly impact mortality rates for young people. (reuters.com)
  • Disparities in mortality rates may begin in infancy in the U.S., at least in part because black families are more likely to have parents and caregivers share beds with babies, increasing the risk of SIDS, said Dr. Anna Pease, a researcher at the University of Bristol in the U.K. who wasn't involved in the study. (reuters.com)
  • We've known for some time that the infant mortality rates in the U.S. were higher than in other countries, but this paper adds to our understanding about some of the causes of death and how these vary across different ethnic groups," Pease said by email. (reuters.com)
  • By Gabriel Ewepu - Abuja An international humanitarian and nonprofit making organization, ActionAid Nigeria, AAN, has trained 75 Traditional Birth Attendants, TBAs, in 55 communities in five Area Councils of the Federal Capital Territory, FCT, Abuja, to reduce maternal and child mortality rates. (vanguardngr.com)
  • Records 789,037 deaths of children under five By Chioma Obinna A new study mapping child deaths for over two decades has shown that Nigeria currently leads countries with the highest mortality rates of children under the age of five even as it records 789, 037 deaths of children in 2017. (vanguardngr.com)
  • Among the American Indians and Alaskan natives studied, the drop in infant-mortality rates is attributed to such factors as the creation of parental-education programs and improved access to tertiary care for very-low-weight newborns. (edweek.org)
  • DOLLO ADO, Ethiopia, August 16 (UNHCR) - The UN refugee agency said Tuesday that child mortality rates at a camp for Somali refugees in eastern Ethiopia have reached "alarming" levels, with an average of 10 children under the age of five dying every day since the facility opened in June. (unhcr.org)
  • Ethiopia has more than halved its mortality rates for children under the age of five years during the last two decades, new UN statistics show. (bbc.com)
  • HONG KONG (Reuters) - High child mortality rates in conservative Afghanistan are linked not just to war but to mothers being uneducated and having little or no say when their children need medical help, a study has found. (jihadwatch.org)
  • Foreign Affairs Minister Winston Peters announced today that New Zealand will contribute a further NZ$7 million to improve newborn mortality rates in the Pacific. (scoop.co.nz)
  • The Pacific has some of the world's worst child mortality rates. (scoop.co.nz)
  • New Report: Child Mortality Rates Plummet, But. (undispatch.com)
  • A new study shows that children and teens with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis are susceptible to higher mortality rates than the general population. (healthline.com)
  • The country used to have one of the highest rates of child mortality in the world. (nextbillion.net)
  • Cause-specific mortality rates for 2005 were calculated nationally and for the six regions by combining the recorded proportions for each cause in the neonatal deaths and deaths at ages 1-59 months in the study with population and death totals from the United Nations. (nih.gov)
  • Two UK studies on survival rates after heart surgery across the United Kingdom in children less than 1 year old, which were published in the BMJ last year, prompted the Department of Health to request an investigation by Thames Valley Strategic Health Authority. (bmj.com)
  • Southern Asia has the second highest rates, with about 1 in 14 children dying before age five. (unicef.org)
  • The state-level mortality rate does not reflect the inter-district variation in neonatal or under-five mortality rates. (thehindubusinessline.com)
  • Canada's global reputation as a healthy place to raise children is belied by statistics showing strikingly high rates of suicide, child abuse and struggles with mental health, a new report suggested Tuesday. (680news.com)
  • Health markers covering everything from infant mortality to obesity and poverty rates paint a troubling picture of child welfare in Canada, according to the report compiled by Children First Canada and the O'Brien Institute for Public Health. (680news.com)
  • Death rates were highest among children under age 1, followed by children ages 15 to 19, 1 to 4, and 5 to 14. (wikipedia.org)
  • Countries that are in the second or third stage of the Demographic Transition Mode (DTM) have higher rates of child mortality than countries in the fourth or fifth stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • China achieved its target of reduction in under-5 mortality rates well ahead of schedule. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Ethiopia, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda and Tanzania child mortality rates have declined by more than 20 per cent. (goodnewsnetwork.org)
  • This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicate that asthma-related mortality and hospitalization rates are increasing among persons aged less than 25 years. (cdc.gov)
  • The MDG 4 aims at lowering child mortality rates through expanding health care services and addressing determinants of child health. (wikibooks.org)
  • In the world now, child mortality rates are falling but 22.6 million children still lack access to basic vaccines and an ever increasing number of poor children die before reaching their fifth birthday. (wikibooks.org)
  • Almost one third of the 49 least developed countries have managed to reduce their underfive mortality rates by 40 per cent or more over the past 20 years. (wikibooks.org)
  • This recent progress is close to the average rate needed to be "on track" to meet MDG 4, since under-five mortality rates needs to be going down by at least 4 percent annually. (worldbank.org)
  • Reported death rates in the households per 1000 children (0-107 months) within the last year from the interview were 20.5 for boys and 27.0 for girls. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Sierra Leone's maternal and child mortality rates are among the highest in the world. (msf.org.uk)
  • Since 2017, MSF continues to contribute to the recovery of the health system after the Ebola outbreak that devastated the country and combat the high mortality rates among pregnant women and children. (msf.org.uk)
  • The United States has been slowest among 20 economically similar nations to improve childhood mortality rates, according to new research. (futurity.org)
  • To learn when and why the US performance in improving child death rates began faltering compared to peer nations, researchers tracked child mortality rates for 20 nations that are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (futurity.org)
  • Mean was used for data analysis, the findings include seven causes of child mortality, seven rates of child mortality and eleven possible ways of reducing child mortality rate, based on the findings, six recommendations were made, which include among others, parent should be made to be aware of the crisis associatedwith early motherhood through public enlighten programmessuch as counseling agents, workshops, seminars and radio jingles. (scribd.com)
  • Infant mortality rates, fetal mortality rates, and perinatal mortality rates by race: United States, selected years 1950-2010. (nih.gov)
  • It plays a leading role in African affairs, and yet it has one of the highest maternal and neonatal mortality rates in the world, with a shocking 700 babies dying each day and 136 mothers dying in, or as a result of, childbirth each day. (pepbonet.com)
  • These overall mortality rates mask the vast disparity between rich and poor. (pepbonet.com)
  • A new study published in JAMA Psychiatry analyzed mortality rates in suicidal adolescents after an intervention called the Youth-Nominated Support Team (YST). (madinamerica.com)
  • Their health records were followed for 11-14 years to determine mortality rates. (madinamerica.com)
  • By the end of follow-up over a decade after the intervention, there had been 13 deaths in the control group, and only 2 in the YST group-a 6.6-fold increase in mortality rates. (madinamerica.com)
  • As he describes in this video by intern Samantha Kramer, Zhang returned to Penn State determined to raise awareness of how poor hand hygiene in Uganda spreads bacterial diseases, a leading cause of child mortality in the Third World. (psu.edu)
  • Benue State, Nigeria, specifically, the study determined (i) the cause of child mortality among teenage mothers, and (ii) rate of child mortality among teenage mothersand (iii) possible ways of reducing child mortality rate, and it answered three research questions to guide the study. (scribd.com)
  • Elizabeth Mason, director of the World Health Organization's department of maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health, says the first 28 days of life are critical for a child's survival. (voanews.com)
  • We matched child survival with proximity to armed conflict using information in the Uppsala Conflict Data Program Georeferenced Events Dataset on the location and intensity of armed conflict from 1995 to 2015 together with the location, timing, and survival of infants younger than 1 year (primary outcome) in 35 African countries. (rand.org)
  • Bangladesh has defied the odds," and avoided this "dangerous trend" with an average 5.3 percent annual fall in the child mortality rate between 1993 and 2007 and a closing of the gap between girls' and boys' chances of survival, the report, entitled "A Fair Chance at Life", found. (medindia.net)
  • Proven solutions need to be expanded to accelerate progress on child survival faster and farther," according to a news release on the latest annual report of the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN-IGME). (un.org)
  • The universal advance in child survival is still elusive to many of the globe's youngest children - as well as those in the most vulnerable situations. (mdgmonitor.org)
  • In the coming year, this latest contribution will also feed into a new Accelerated Child Survival Initiative in Sudan," Chaiban added. (albawaba.com)
  • The meeting will coincide with the publication of a special issue of The Lancet devoted to child survival. (eurekalert.org)
  • Children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may develop a wide range of cardiovascular abnormalities, some of which are known to be associated with poor survival. (ahajournals.org)
  • Child survival is a field of public health concerned with reducing child mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health (PMNCH) 2014 Partners' Forum was opened by Graça Machel, Chair of PMNCH and African Ambassador for Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed, who is making her first public appearance since the end of her mourning period after the death of her husband, Nelson Mandela. (eurekalert.org)
  • Background: All observational studies and a few randomised controlled trials (RCT) suggest that early measles vaccine (MV), in particular an early two-dose strategy, has a much better effect on overall mortality than later MV. These results suggest that MV has a non-measles related beneficial effect on child survival. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Objective: To evaluate in a multi-center RCT the effect on child survival and other health indicators of a two-dose measles vaccination schedule by providing an additional dose of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) MV as soon as possible after 4 months of age as well as the standard measles vaccine at 9 months of age. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The children will be followed for survival and hospitalisations to 3 years of age or to the end of the study after three years. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Similarly, the IMCI targeted to improve child survival through the provision of clinical guidelines for management of childhood illnesses, health system strengthening, and improving community health practices. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FANC pursues improvement in maternal and child survival through individualized antenatal care that entails a comprehensive assessment of pregnant women in terms of their socio-cultural beliefs, lifestyle, and medical characteristics to improve early detection and treatment of illness and pregnancy complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applying survival analysis, we find significant effects of rain shocks on child mortality. (umn.edu)
  • Furthermore, higher numbers of women in the household and proximity to health facilities have a positive effect on child survival. (umn.edu)
  • The health and well-being of a mother is closely related to the survival of a child," she said. (economist.com.na)
  • Both campaigns were created to support the newborn and child survival efforts, primarily overseas, of Save the Children. (nytimes.com)
  • However, few studies have focused on sex differences in survival and in access to kidney transplantation among children with end-stage kidney disease. (nih.gov)
  • This might do more harm than good for child survival in low-income countries. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We measured the increase in mortality risk for infants exposed to armed conflicts within 50 km in the year of birth and, to study conflicts' extended health risks, up to 250 km away and 10 years before birth. (rand.org)
  • Medical fraternity is concerned over the prevailing double-digit mortality rate among infants despite a decreased rate recorded over the last few years in the country. (medindia.net)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes the harm racism causes to infants, children, adolescents, and their families. (aappublications.org)
  • Child mortality, which is also known as under-5 mortality, refers to the death of infants and children under the age of five. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the most recent decade studied (2001-2010), infants in the United States were 76 percent more likely to die and children 1 to 19 years old were 57 percent more likely to die than counterparts in peer nations. (futurity.org)
  • The NICHD's research efforts related to infant mortality are aimed at understanding the causes of and contributors to infant mortality, preventing or reducing the most common causes of infant mortality, and treating life-threatening conditions in pregnant mothers and infants. (nih.gov)
  • However in our still overwhelmingly patriarchal post-Agrarian Revolution societies, mothers are tightly linked to care of infants and children [2, 3], and in the high birth rate societies of the Developing World that are subject to deadly impoverishment children are roughly 50% of the population, females about 50%, women about 25%, and women and children about 75% of the population [4, 5]. (countercurrents.org)
  • In the United States, African-American infants have significantly higher mortality than white infants. (luriechildrens.org)
  • Conclusion Our data revealed a higher mortality in offspring of fathers aged 45 years or more that lasted into adulthood. (springer.com)
  • More than 300,000 kids, teens, and young adults in the United States live with some form of juvenile arthritis (JA) - and with these diagnoses comes a higher mortality rate than that of the general, healthy population. (healthline.com)
  • In children aged 1-59 months, girls in central India had a five-times higher mortality rate (per 1000 livebirths) from pneumonia (20·9, 19·4-22·6) than did boys in south India (4·1, 3·0-5·6) and four-times higher mortality rate from diarrhoeal disease (17·7, 16·2-19·3) than did boys in west India (4·1, 3·0-5·5). (nih.gov)
  • Child mortality refers to number of child deaths under the age of 5 per 1000 live births. (wikipedia.org)
  • This learning resource is chapter 15 on childhood mortality for an open textbook about child healthcare. (merlot.org)
  • You just viewed Child Healthcare: Childhood mortality . (merlot.org)
  • The ultimate goal of the program is to use the data to inform policies to reduce childhood mortality in these regions. (cdc.gov)
  • The effect of parental age, birth order and other variables on early childhood mortality: a Caribbean example. (springer.com)
  • Although the deadline for the attainment of MDG 4 has passed, 99% of childhood mortality still occurs in LMICs. (wikipedia.org)
  • While looking at deaths between 1961 and 2010, researchers found that US childhood mortality has been higher since the 1980s than those in all 19 peer nations. (futurity.org)
  • Childhood mortality is an indicator of a country's public health position, which translates to the country's socio-economic development level. (sproxil.com)
  • CDC's Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology (DHCPP) out of the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) has teamed up with domestic and international partners to map the causes of child mortality in developing countries. (cdc.gov)
  • In light of its potential impact on primary causes of child mortality, recent studies have sought to understand the impact of mass drug administration (MDA) of azithromycin for children. (givewell.org)
  • But the strong international focus on reducing infant and child mortality has not been matched by a similar efforts in older groups, they said, even though more than two-fifths of the world's population is in the five to 24 years age group. (reuters.com)
  • Becher H, Muller O, Jahn A, Gbangou A, Kynast-Wolf G, Kouyate B. Risk factors of infant and child mortality in rural Burkina Faso. (springer.com)
  • Results We observed a U-shaped association between paternal age and the overall mortality rate in children up to 18 years of age. (springer.com)
  • Sample size, follow-up and analyses: To detect a 43% reduction in overall mortality at each site the investigators intend to enroll at least 4050 children in Burkina Faso. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Women holding children wait for a medical examination at the health centre in Gbangbegouine village, western Ivory Coast, July 4, 2013. (voanews.com)
  • Mark Young, a senior adviser on health at the U.N. Children's Fund, says overall economic development is helpful in reducing child mortality, but poor countries that have a good strategy can make significant gains. (voanews.com)
  • They instituted a free health care policy for women and children, abolished user fees, so increased financial access. (voanews.com)
  • They expanded geographic access by establishing a series of rural health posts… staffed by community trained health workers to deliver essential maternal-newborn child health services at the peripheral level. (voanews.com)
  • How does Namibia perform in the Child Health industry? (nationmaster.com)
  • How does Kenya perform in the Child Health industry? (nationmaster.com)
  • Anyone looking after children, mothers, should know that if children are not feeding well, it is a sign of serious illness, they should take it to care," said lead author Martin Weber of the World Health Organisation. (arabianbusiness.com)
  • Mental health issues underpin youth opioid abuse and the increase in suicides reported in this study," Peet said by email. (reuters.com)
  • The study of 2,474 children from 1,327 households in Kabul province found that diarrhoea (32.5 percent), acute respiratory infection (41 percent), emaciation (12.4 percent) and stuntedness (39.9 percent) were among the most common health problems, said the article published in the latest issue of BioMed Central Public Health. (jihadwatch.org)
  • Culturally appropriate programmes with multifaceted approaches that provide families and communities with education and reproductive health services can help stop child marriage," they wrote. (jihadwatch.org)
  • In collaboration with GlobalPost, "[t]he Forum at the Harvard School of Public Health will host a panel on Wednesday about the steps that can be taken to reduce child mortality around the world," GlobalPost's " Pulse " blog reports, noting that the discussion will be live streamed on the blog. (kff.org)
  • and stronger health promotion at a community level to increase awareness of, and improve practices that pose risks to child health," Mr Peters says. (scoop.co.nz)
  • Funding will help the Solomon Islands, Kiribati and Vanuatu as countries with some of the worst child health indicators. (scoop.co.nz)
  • A mother and her newborn baby at the Maternal and Child Health Training Institute for medically needy in Dhaka, Bangladesh. (un.org)
  • They said there are many reasons for the improved under-5 mortality rate, including better access to health care and preventive measures such as immunisation. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The Minister of Health, Professor Isaac Adewole, explained that the documents would provide policy direction for stakeholders on reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health service delivery. (sunnewsonline.com)
  • Government at all levels should prioritise the health of Nigerians, especially the highly vulnerable persons such as children and mothers. (sunnewsonline.com)
  • We use a competing risk model to analyze environmental determinants of child mortality using the 1992 China National Health Survey, which collects information on cause of death. (repec.org)
  • The effects of improved nutrition, sanitation, and water quality on child health in high-mortality populations ," Journal of Econometrics , Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 209-235, March. (repec.org)
  • Maternal Health and Child Mortality in Rural India ," ASARC Working Papers 2009-12, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre. (repec.org)
  • In Ethiopia the Health Extension Worker Program significantly increased the proportions of children vaccinated and of children and women using insecticide-treated bed nets. (afdb.org)
  • In Rwanda, the Mutuelles de Santé project increased access to child health services. (afdb.org)
  • Multipronged approaches are needed to upgrade human resources for health, improve work on family planning for birth spacing, which have not yet been used on a large scale but have been shown to be effective in other regions, can lead to further significant gains in reducing child mortality in the region. (afdb.org)
  • The team investigated the effect on mortality of maternal health, infant HIV infection, feeding practices, and age at acquisition of infection on mortality. (ennonline.net)
  • Concerned over increase in girl child mortality, the Bihar government today said it was contemplating several measures to motivate parents to provide good health care to new born girl child. (business-standard.com)
  • In a bid to motivate parents particularly of poor section of the society, the state government is contemplating to compensate them for wage loss so that they could take their newly born girl child for proper health care after birth, Health minister Tej Pratap Yadav said replying to a short notice question of BJP Tarkishore Prasad in state Assembly. (business-standard.com)
  • Yadav further said that the government is also working out to provide incentive money to ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) workers to motivate them to take newly born girl child for proper medicare. (business-standard.com)
  • Blinded field research assistants assessed the health of the children and monitored compliance weekly for about one year. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The funds will be used to provide and essential package of primary health care services such as immunization of children and pregnant women, polio eradication campaigns, distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets to protect against malaria, and provision of anti-malarial drugs for children and pregnant women. (albawaba.com)
  • Indeed, child health is one of the critical dividends of peace," Ambassador Ishii further stated. (albawaba.com)
  • The Government of Japan hopes that this contribution will assist child health: children themselves are indeed the future of the Sudan, which will pursue consolidation of peace," Ambassador Ishii commented. (albawaba.com)
  • This initiative will build upon some of the existing structures and capacity created in recent years - such as the immunization infrastructure - with the addition of regular health days in local communities, extended local health service delivery, and increased investment in the skills of community health workers to provide a more holistic package of services for women and children. (albawaba.com)
  • At the launch, the World Bank Group announced a new GFF partnership with its International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) to raise funds from capital markets for countries with significant funding gaps for reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (RMNCAH). (worldbank.org)
  • The Government of Canada is jumpstarting this initiative with a $40 million investment towards two focus areas: one that prioritizes strengthening front-line health systems and scaling-up of community health workers, and another that focuses on the control of malaria to reduce child mortality. (worldbank.org)
  • In 2000, governments worldwide committed to improving the health and nutrition of children by adopting the Millennium Declaration, with its ten Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). (eurekalert.org)
  • The study, which analyzes data from major research organizations including Statistics Canada and the Canadian Institute of Health Information, said all orders of government need to do more to ensure that children benefit from the country's overall wealth and prosperity. (680news.com)
  • Whether we're talking infant mortality or accidents or mental health concerns, all these statistics are deeply disturbing," said Sara Austin, lead director of Children First. (680news.com)
  • The various research agencies included in the latest report have documented many troubling markers of kids health over the years, Austin said, with mental health emerging as an area of increasing urgency. (680news.com)
  • The numbers represent the continuation of a well-established trend according to Dr. Peter Szatmari, Chief of the Child and Youth Mental Health Collaborative between Sick Kids Hospital, the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health and the University of Toronto. (680news.com)
  • Despite documenting high prevalence of mental health issues in kids as far back as 1987, he said Canada has taken comparatively little action to get at the root of the problem. (680news.com)
  • they) all tie back to lots of related causes around poverty, around abuse, and the systemic underinvestment in the health and well-being of our children. (680news.com)
  • Austin said child abuse figures are particularly striking - one in three Canadians report suffering some form of child abuse before turning 16 - calling them a "public health crisis. (680news.com)
  • Now we must build on this public health success to push for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals ," she added of the ambitious targets set by the UN Millennium Summit of 2000, which include slashing by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five by 2015. (goodnewsnetwork.org)
  • Fortunately progress is being made on several fronts to improve the health of children under 5 around the globe. (jolkona.org)
  • Each year, millions of children die due to lack of hygiene and exclusion from health care services. (wikibooks.org)
  • Stories are told of instances where pregnant women suffered complications and or even died through child birth because the husbands to sanction any decision to send them to the facilities were either not at home when the women were in labour or simply refused to give their consent to delivery at a health facility. (ghanaweb.com)
  • Another intervention that is significantly contributing to the reduction maternal and child mortality in the country is the Strengthening Health Outcomes for Women and Children (SHOW) Project. (ghanaweb.com)
  • The SHOW project is a 53-month gender focused maternal, neonatal and child health intervention being implemented by NORSAAC, a non-governmental organization, with funding from Global Affairs Canada. (ghanaweb.com)
  • It is improving the utilization of essential health services by women of child bearing age, adolescent girls, newborns and children. (ghanaweb.com)
  • Added to these are the quality, availability and utilization of maternal, neonatal and child health services through health system strengthening, accountability and the promotion of gender equality in the districts. (ghanaweb.com)
  • The Dads' Support Clubs are composed of men and they are taught to assist their wives to undertake household activities, help them during pregnancy by following them to health centres for ante-natal care, during child delivery and post-natal care. (ghanaweb.com)
  • We must ensure that all women, adolescent girls, children and newborns, no matter where they live, are able to fulfill their rights to health and education, and realize their full potential. (eurekalert.org)
  • In support of the UN Secretary-General's Every Woman Every Child movement, the Partners' Forum builds on two months of high-level meetings in Toronto, Prague, and Washington, DC, where global leaders and health experts met to discuss strategies to promote the health of women and children. (eurekalert.org)
  • At this Forum, leaders discussed steps to assist countries that have lagged behind in efforts to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health, and made specific recommendations for how to maintain the focus on women and children within the post-2015 development agenda. (eurekalert.org)
  • Design, Burkina Faso: Newborns are followed through the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) of the Centre de Recherche en Sante de Nouna. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Also, several 'calls for action' to reduce neonatal mortality have been made and in response, both governmental and non-governmental institutions have contributed considerable resources to this global health challenge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), post-adoption of MDG 4 in Ghana observed construction and implementation of maternal and child health policies and intervention programs towards objectifying MDG 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • The SMP aims to secure safe delivery for women and improve child health services while the LSS seeks to sharpen the clinical skills of midwives. (wikipedia.org)
  • An already fragile health system, and a dire lack of health workers, caused in part by the 2014-16 Ebola outbreak, have also led to a drastic rise in the number of deaths among children under five. (msf.org.uk)
  • Background: Growth assessment based on the WHO child growth velocity standards can potentially be used to predict adverse health outcomes. (uib.no)
  • The findings show that in terms of protecting child health, we're very far behind where we could be. (futurity.org)
  • Overall, child mortality in wealthy countries, including the US, is improving, but the progress our country has made is considerably slower than progress elsewhere," says Ashish Thakrar, an internal medicine resident at Johns Hopkins Hospital and lead author of the study, which appears in Health Affairs . (futurity.org)
  • While the United States spends more per capita on health care for children than other wealthy nations, it has poorer outcomes than many, Thakrar says. (futurity.org)
  • In 2013, the United Nations Children's Fund ranked the United States 25th of 29 developed countries for overall child health and safety. (futurity.org)
  • The researchers analyzed mortality and population data from the Human Mortality Database and mortality and cause of death data from the World Health Organization for all children up to 19 years old from 1961 to 2010. (futurity.org)
  • The findings show that in terms of protecting child health, we're very far behind where we could be," says Christopher Forrest, the study's senior author and a pediatrician at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. (futurity.org)
  • We hope that policymakers can use these findings to make strategic public health decisions for all US children to ensure that we don't fall further behind peer nations. (futurity.org)
  • First Lady, Madam Penehupifo Pohamba (second from right) with Minister of Health and Social Services, Richard Kamwi (left), Mrs Madge Robalo, WHO Representative in Namibia, and EU Ambassador, Raúl Fuentes Milani (right), at the launch of the EU-funded programme to reduce maternal and infant mortality. (economist.com.na)
  • The programme is designed to address the challenges faced by Namibia with regard to the achievement of maternal and child health goals by 2015. (economist.com.na)
  • Despite remarkable achievements in various health indicators in the country, maternal and child mortality has not shown a sign of reduction in the past two decades. (economist.com.na)
  • David Lubars, chairman and chief creative officer of BBDO North America, said that when the agency began working with Save the Children, it decided to use the organization's "unheralded" health workers to illustrate its aid efforts. (nytimes.com)
  • It hired the documentary makers Sean and Andrea Fine , who have worked in Uganda and India, to film a local health worker, trained by Save the Children, in a rural village in Malawi. (nytimes.com)
  • Find out how it can help front-line health workers bring hope to millions of children at EveryBeatMatters.org ," a Web site that BBDO created for the campaign. (nytimes.com)
  • A portrait of a health worker, Madalitso Masa-Boxer, composed of real electrocardiogram images from children she helped in Malawi. (nytimes.com)
  • Help front-line health workers like Chisomo bring hope to millions of children at EveryBeatMatters.org . (nytimes.com)
  • The author of an editorial calls for collective action by society to reduce maternal and child mortality worldwide and applauds the work of the Countdown towards this end: 'At the half-way stage towards the Millennium Development Goals, Countdown symbolizes a model for collaboration, evaluation, and action that has valuable lessons for many other domains in global health. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • These networks are essential for community organizers, religious leaders, and educators to help families in need and bring children and adults suffering from malaria to community health workers or to centers where care is provided. (worldbank.org)
  • Child mortality is a public health problem worldwide. (scribd.com)
  • According to WHO (2002)at least 20 percent of the burden disease in children below the age of five is related to poor maternal health and nutrition as well as quality of care at delivery and during the new born period they stated that yearly over 8 million babies die before or during delivery or in the first week of life. (scribd.com)
  • Ignorance can on the part of teenage mothers also results in the death of their children as they are still in the dark ways of improving the health of their children and increasing their chances of surviving. (scribd.com)
  • In fact, according to the World Health Organization , 7% of child deaths are caused by malaria. (sproxil.com)
  • In 2006, a review of child health equity in 16 African countries highlighted Nigeria as the country with the largest disparity between rich and poor. (pepbonet.com)
  • Only 28% of children with diarrhea receive adequate oral rehydration salts, and just 33% with suspected pneumonia are taken to an appropriate health provider. (pepbonet.com)
  • Population-based studies suggest that poor access to health care, which results in delayed attendance at a health facility or none at all, may be a key determinant of mortality in children under 5 years of age in developing countries. (who.int)
  • Therefore, we evaluated traditional measures of access to health care in addition to non-traditional measures to study mortality in children under 5 years of age in the Gambia. (who.int)
  • Children were excluded from the study if their primary caregiver could not be located or had since died or if their cause of death was unrelated to access to health care (e.g. congenital malformations, in-hospital neonatal deaths, immediate death after an injury, etc. (who.int)
  • A health visitor holding a small child, promoting a campaign against tuberculosis and infant mortality. (europeana.eu)
  • We focus on improving child health, transforming pediatric medicine and ensuring healthier futures. (luriechildrens.org)
  • Child health in complex emergencies / William J. Moss. (who.int)
  • Rwanda also introduced the pneumococcal vaccine to combat acute respiratory infections, which helped lower child mortality substantially. (afdb.org)
  • For patients with severe systemic JIA, the standardized mortality ratio was 21.7, substantially higher than the rate of 3.9 among JIA patients with the nonsystemic form of the disease. (healthline.com)
  • HIV contributes substantially to child mortality, but factors underlying these deaths are inadequately described. (ennonline.net)
  • Expanded neonatal and intrapartum care, case management of diarrhoea and pneumonia, and addition of new vaccines to immunisation programmes could substantially reduce child deaths in India. (nih.gov)
  • DHAKA, Bangladesh, Aug. 23-A weekly dose of zinc has substantially reduced the risk of illness or death for young poverty-stricken urban children in Bangladesh. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The mortality rate was substantially higher for girls than for boys treated with RRT. (nih.gov)
  • We identified 15,441 armed conflict events that led to 968,444 combat-related deaths and matched these data with 1.99 million births and 133,361 infant deaths (infant mortality of 67 deaths per 1000 births) between 1995 and 2015. (rand.org)
  • Child mortality, in this case, is the number of deaths per 1000 children under the age of 5. (jolkona.org)
  • The Nigerian Academy of Science describes infant mortality as the rapid destruction of the country's future. (voanews.com)
  • Canada's data on infant mortality also sounded alarm bells for Austin, who said the country's performance put it in the bottom third of developed nations. (680news.com)
  • Just 1% of children sleep under an insecticide treated net, leaving them vulnerable to malaria, which accounts for nearly a quarter of the country's under-five deaths. (pepbonet.com)
  • "The global community is poised to end preventable maternal, newborn and child deaths within a generation," said Dr Flavia Bustreo, Assistant Director General at WHO . (worldbank.org)
  • One in every eight Nigerian children dies before their fifth birthday, and nearly 10 per cent of newborn deaths occur in Nigeria. (sunnewsonline.com)
  • Globally, diarrheal diseases are the second leading cause of death among children under five years after the newborn period, despite the existence of effective treatments such as oral rehydration solutions (ORS) and zinc supplements and preventions such as rotavirus vaccines. (news-medical.net)
  • Major areas of NICHD research support relevant to infant mortality include preterm birth and birth outcomes, birth defects , Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) , pregnancy complications , fetal development, birth processes, infections, genetic and metabolic disorders, and newborn screening , to name a few. (nih.gov)
  • While China, with 13% of the world's 636m children under five, is on course to meet the goal by 2015, it will be among only an additional 23 countries to do so, leaving 101 countries set to miss the target. (resalliance.org)
  • Despite some positive signs, progress towards meeting Millennium Development Goals for reducing maternal and child mortality in the world's poorest countries is inadequate, according to the Countdown report and other articles in a special edition of The Lancet published April 12. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • FRIDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- Despite some positive signs, progress towards meeting Millennium Development Goals for reducing maternal and child mortality in the world's poorest countries is inadequate, according to the Countdown report and other articles in a special edition of The Lancet published April 12. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • However, palpably ignored in this praiseworthy activism are the horrible and massive realities that women and children represent three quarters of the barely subsisting 2 million inmates of Apartheid Israel's Gaza Concentration Camp, three quarters of the world's 70 million displaced persons, and three quarters of the 15 million people who die avoidably from poverty and deprivation each year. (countercurrents.org)
  • Somalia now has the world's highest mortality rate for children under the age of five, according to new data released by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. (cnn.com)
  • New estimates in Levels and Trends in Child Mortality 2014 show that in 2013, 6.3 million children under five died from mostly preventable causes, around 200,000 fewer than in 2012, but still equal to nearly 17,000 child deaths each day. (worldbank.org)
  • We updated the data in child mortality (under-five mortality) with data for 2013, and we replaced existing data with new estimates from the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (IGME). (gapminder.org)
  • Although, we do not find significant differences between estimates obtained from the competing risk model and those from simpler hazard models, we do find evidence supporting the causal interpretations of the effect of access to safe water on child mortality. (repec.org)
  • The new estimates were published in the 2010 report Levels & Trends in Child Mortality, issued by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (IGME), and in a special commentary in The Lancet. (unicef.org)
  • The estimates are the work of a number of UN system organizations that form the Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, and are developed with oversight and advice from independent experts from academic institutions. (unicef.org)
  • IGME) was formed in 2004 to share data on child mortality, harmonize estimates within the UN system, improve methods for child mortality estimation and produce consistent estimates of child mortality worldwide for reporting on progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. (unicef.org)
  • The IGME updates its child mortality estimates annually after reviewing newly available data and assessing data quality. (unicef.org)
  • This report contains the latest IGME estimates of child mortality at the country, regional and global levels. (unicef.org)
  • Country-specific estimates and the data used to derive them are available from the child mortality database of the IGME: CME Info ( www.childmortality.org ). (unicef.org)
  • However, estimates of the level and trend in child mortality are now available from two additional surveys. (lse.ac.uk)
  • Neither of the new sets of estimates show any sign of a sharp increase in child mortality in the early 1990s. (lse.ac.uk)
  • We check the robustness of these estimates using cause specific mortality. (ssrn.com)
  • 2 The fourth Millennium Development Goal is to reduce child and infant mortality in the world by two-thirds by 2015, 2 yet current estimates suggest that at least 44 developing countries have less than a 20% chance of achieving the goal. (who.int)
  • It includes several case studies.Child Healthcare addresses all the common and important clinical problems in children, including:immunisation history and examination growth and nutrition acute and chronic infections parasites skin conditions difficulties in the home and society. (merlot.org)
  • Unless mortality in these countries can be significantly reduced, the MDG targets will not be met. (unicef.org)
  • In infected children, mortality was significantly lower for those with late infection than those with early infection (0.52, 0.39-0.70). (ennonline.net)
  • Our international team of investigators showed that for the individual child moderate-to-severe diarrheal illness posed a significantly greater risk of death than less-severe diarrhea. (news-medical.net)
  • Thus, it was of particular interest to observe that Shigella not only significantly increased the risk of death in children with non-dysenteric moderate-to-severe diarrhea, but it was also quite common when detected by highly sensitive molecular diagnostic techniques. (news-medical.net)
  • Household income, children's vaccinations, TT immunization of mothers and personal cleanliness appeared to be significantly associated with child mortality. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • It says Ethiopia, Kenya, Niger, Tanzania, Bangladesh and states in India are following strategies to reduce child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhea, which together kill two million children each year. (voanews.com)
  • Only India, with one million children lost each year, has a higher number of child deaths. (voanews.com)
  • Two countries, India (21 per cent) and Nigeria (13 per cent), together account for more than one-third of deaths among children below 5 years of age. (worldbank.org)
  • The impoverished South Asian country is on track to meet its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of reducing child mortality by two-thirds by 2015 -- a goal bigger countries such as India may not meet, the report said. (medindia.net)
  • The report says an average global reduction in child mortality of 28 percent over the past decade masks an expansion of the child mortality gap between the richest and poorest families in many countries, including India, Nepal, Pakistan, Cambodia and the Philippines. (medindia.net)
  • Causes of neonatal and child mortality in India: a nationally representative mortality survey. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated the causes of neonatal and child mortality in India and their differences by sex and region. (nih.gov)
  • Five avoidable causes accounted for nearly 1·5 million child deaths in India in 2005, with substantial differences between regions and sexes. (nih.gov)
  • What do children die from in India today? (nih.gov)
  • It is important to note that India experienced the highest reduction in mortality rate in the period 2005-2016. (thehindubusinessline.com)
  • There is paucity of studies on predictors of early death in hospitalized SAM children in India. (springer.com)
  • The report, released two weeks before world leaders gather in New York to discuss all of the MDGs, aims to highlight weak progress on the goal of reducing child mortality by two-thirds. (medindia.net)
  • Its activities include sharing data on child mortality and improving methods for child mortality estimation reporting on progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ), a set of eight goals agreed upon by world leaders in 2000 to slash extreme poverty and other global ills. (un.org)
  • In the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals, which will supersede the MDGs from 1 January, the new child mortality goal is based on absolute numbers instead of a percentage reduction from the baseline rate. (healthcanal.com)
  • Niger lead the ranking with 36.53 Units (Deaths) Per Thousand Children Aged 5-14 in 2019, that is a decrease of 2.1% compared to 2018. (nationmaster.com)
  • Niger lead the ranking with 36.53 Units (Deaths) Per Thousand Children Aged 5-14 in 2019, that is -2.1% versus 2018. (nationmaster.com)
  • In 2018, 5.3 million children died before the age of five. (givewell.org)
  • We conducted an observational study from September 2016 through May 2018 to identify risk factors of mortality in hospitalized children, aged 6 to 60 mo, fulfilling the WHO criteria of SAM. (springer.com)
  • London's Bill of Mortality (December 1664-December 1665) [Official Document]," in Children and Youth in History, Item #159, http://chnm.gmu.edu/cyh/items/show/159 (accessed January 18, 2018). (gmu.edu)
  • The siblings of children with FAS had increased mortality (11.4%) compared with matched controls (2.0%), a 530% increase in mortality. (nih.gov)
  • The number of children dying before they reach their fifth birthday has fallen sharply since 2000, but this progress needs to accelerate if the United Nations' millennium development goal of reducing child mortality is to be reached, new figures show. (bmj.com)
  • Reduction of child mortality is reflected in several of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until recently, it has generally been thought that there was a sharp rise in the level of child mortality in the country during the early 1990s as a result of the first Gulf war and the accompanying United Nations economic sanctions. (lse.ac.uk)
  • Reduction of child mortality was the fourth of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine the clinical value of baseline echocardiographic findings as predictors of mortality, we studied children with vertically transmitted HIV infection participating in a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute study, Pediatric Pulmonary and Cardiac Complications of Vertically Transmitted HIV Infection (P 2 C 2 HIV). (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study we found that features of shock, severe dehydration, oliguria and hyponatremia were independent predictors of mortality. (springer.com)
  • The main causes of infant mortality in the United States are different than the main causes of infant death around the world. (nih.gov)
  • Learn more about the risk factors for infant mortality . (nih.gov)
  • In this review, the authors look beyond traditional risk factors for infant mortality and examine the social context of race in this country, in an effort to understand African-American women's long-standing birth outcome disadvantage. (luriechildrens.org)
  • Only Oceania has not achieved over 50 percent reduction in under-five mortality compared to other developing regions. (mdgmonitor.org)
  • Unlike many developing countries, where reductions in child mortality are concentrated among children from better-off communities, Bangladesh reduced child mortality in a more "equitable way", the report said. (medindia.net)
  • Similar reductions in mortality were seen at 90 days (14 percent with vitamin C protocol vs. 35 percent in controls and 37 percent in the hydrocortisone only group). (news-medical.net)
  • My results suggest that local PMTCT introduction in Zambia may have actually increased all cause child mortality in the short term. (repec.org)
  • He noted that measles is highly contagious and can have a devastating impact on children, especially those who are malnourished. (unhcr.org)
  • A number of children were lying helplessly on the ground, suffering from measles, which is apparently affecting many in the settlement. (unhcr.org)
  • Measles - deaths caused by measles have declined rapidly between 2000 and 2015, from 544,200 to 145,700 deaths, mostly among children under five. (mdgmonitor.org)
  • Notable steps have been made in recent years to reduce preventable diseases - Sudan has been polio-free for two years, while 3 million children have been vaccinated against measles in Southern Sudan since 2005. (albawaba.com)
  • Trial of Additional Measles Vaccine to Reduce Child Mortality. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As such children will be randomised to receive either an early measles vaccine at 4 months after DTP3 or not. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Thereafter both groups of children will receive the recommended EZ measles vaccine at 9 months of age according to WHO policy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Vaccination coverage (DPT, polio, measles and BCG) was 73% for children (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Pneumonia alone causes about 1.58 million deaths annually of children under five, which is more than the deaths caused by HIV/AIDS, malaria and measles put together. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial focus includes tracking the most preventable causes of mortality among children younger than 5 years of age. (cdc.gov)
  • Worldwide, an estimated 19,000 children still died every day in 2011, with around 40 per cent in the first month of life and most from preventable causes. (un.org)
  • But we cannot for a moment forget the chilling fact of around 21,000 children dying everyday from preventable causes. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • About 16,000 children under five continue to die every day in 2015, mostly due to preventable causes like pneumonia, malaria, and diarrhea. (mdgmonitor.org)
  • 10.5 million children die every year before 5 years of age, mostly from preventable causes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Of the portion of children under the age of 5 alone, an estimated 5.6 million children die each year mostly from such preventable causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2004). Nigeria is still far from reducing mortality among children. (scribd.com)
  • Treating septic shock in children with a combination of intravenous vitamin C, vitamin B1 and hydrocortisone (a commonly used steroid) is associated with lower mortality, according to a study from Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago. (news-medical.net)
  • 2020) Hydrocortisone-Ascorbic Acid-Thiamine Use Associated with Lower Mortality in Pediatric Septic Shock. (news-medical.net)
  • In the general population, girls have lower mortality risk compared with boys. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers note that YST was associated with more engagement in drug treatment programs, and that this may have accounted for a large part of the lower mortality rate. (madinamerica.com)
  • however, in this country, mothers are subject to a number of restrictions in the decision-making process regarding child healthcare," said the article published by a team of Afghan and Japanese researchers. (jihadwatch.org)
  • The researchers said they interviewed mothers of the children and found the problems correlated most closely with mothers not having any autonomy (79.1 percent) and education (71.7 percent). (jihadwatch.org)
  • Up to 18.3 percent of the mothers also delivered their first child before they were 16, which meant they were married when they were still children, the researchers wrote. (jihadwatch.org)
  • The researchers defined a lack of maternal autonomy to mean mothers requiring permission from the head of the household to bring a child to the doctor, or if she required another person - usually a male relative - to accompany her to a clinic with the child. (jihadwatch.org)
  • Our findings suggest that among young children zinc has a substantial protective effect against pneumonia, severe pneumonia, suppurative otitis media, and most importantly, mortality secondary to pneumonia," the researchers concluded. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Now, researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) found that even milder cases of diarrheal diseases can lead to death in young children. (news-medical.net)
  • GENEVA - A new report says the number of global deaths among children under age five is almost half what it was 22 years ago. (voanews.com)
  • The leading causes of death among children under five years old include pneumonia, prematurity, birth asphyxia, diarrhea and malaria. (voanews.com)
  • And, the report notes, accidental injuries--motor-vehicle crashes, fires, and drowning, among others--have replaced infectious disease as the leading overall cause of death among children 14 and under. (edweek.org)
  • Globally, it notes, the leading causes of death among children under five are pneumonia, pre-term birth complications, diarrhoea, complications during birth and malaria. (un.org)
  • Austin said suicide is the second-most common cause of death among children, adding that Canada's child suicide rate is among the top five in the world. (680news.com)
  • To characterize national trends in mortality and hospitalizations attributable to asthma among children and young adults (persons aged less than 25 years) during 1980-1993, CDC analyzed mortality data from its multiple cause-of-death files and hospitalization data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey. (cdc.gov)
  • Although the death rate among children aged 0-4 years increased slightly during 1980-1993 (from 1.8 to 1.9 per million population), the rate in 1993 had decreased from that in 1992 (2.4 per million population). (cdc.gov)
  • In 1993, among children aged 0-4 years, blacks were six times more likely to die from asthma than whites, and boys were 1.4 times more likely than girls. (cdc.gov)
  • Among children aged 5-14 years, the asthma death rate nearly doubled from 1980 to 1993 (from 1.7 to 3.2 per million population). (cdc.gov)
  • Although the rate of hospitalization for asthma was highest and increased the most among children aged less than 1 year (from 35.6 to 64.7 per 10,000 population) ( Figure 2 ), the rate in 1993 had decreased from that in 1992 (66.3 per 10,000 population). (cdc.gov)
  • Among children aged 1-4 years, the rate of hospitalization increased during 1980-1992 (from 38.3 to 60.1 per 10,000 population), but decreased in 1993 (43.6 per 10,000 population) because of a decrease in the number of participating hospitals. (cdc.gov)
  • Government has added a new vaccine to fight mortality among children under five. (health-e.org.za)
  • Determinants of mortality among children in the urban slums of Dh. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The most frequent reported causes of deaths were tetanus in infancy and diarrhoea among children aged ≤ 12 months. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Many of those deaths occur among children under five. (worldbank.org)
  • Draper ES, Kurinczuk JJ, Abrams KR, Clarke M. Assessment of separate contributions to perinatal mortality of infertility history and treatment: a case-control analysis. (springer.com)
  • Parents were asked to complete a checklist to measure a range of behaviors in children and adolescents. (edweek.org)
  • The Youth-Nominated Support Team intervention invites adolescents to select adults in their life to receive training on how to support them. (madinamerica.com)
  • According to King, "To our knowledge, no other intervention for suicidal adolescents has been associated with reduced mortality. (madinamerica.com)
  • Association of the youth-nominated support team intervention for suicidal adolescents with 11- to 14-year mortality outcomes: Secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. (madinamerica.com)
  • A randomised controlled trial to investigate three methods to reduce early mortality in adults, adolescents and children aged 5 years or older starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) with severe immuno-deficiency. (nih.gov)
  • REALITY is a open-label randomised trial of 1800 adults, adolescents and children aged 5 years or more with low CD4 counts about to initiate ART. (nih.gov)
  • In 2000, only 3 per cent of children under five slept under a mosquito net - a key means of preventing malaria, whereas by 2006 this had risen to 25 per cent. (unicef.org)
  • Under-five mortality has declined 29 per cent between 2000 and 2004 in Malawi. (goodnewsnetwork.org)
  • Data from the survey carried out nationwide by the Federal Office Statistic (2000), indicatedthat almost one in five Nigeria children die before reaching the age of five. (scribd.com)
  • Environmental determinants of child mortality in rural china : A competing risks approach ," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3241, The World Bank. (repec.org)