Cause of Death
Bedding and Linens
Child Nutrition Disorders
Health Status Disparities
Maternal-Child Health Centers
Proportional Hazards Models
Health Services Accessibility
Child Behavior Disorders
Statistics as Topic
World Health Organization
Dental Care for Children
Medical Record Linkage
Vitamin A Deficiency
Severity of Illness Index
Geographic Information Systems
Delivery of Health Care
Health Status Indicators
Predictive Value of Tests
Wounds and Injuries
Health Services Research
Can generic paediatric mortality scores calculated 4 hours after admission be used as inclusion criteria for clinical trials? (1/344)INTRODUCTION: Two generic paediatric mortality scoring systems have been validated in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Paediatric RISk of Mortality (PRISM) requires an observation period of 24 hours, and PRISM III measures severity at two time points (at 12 hours and 24 hours) after admission, which represents a limitation for clinical trials that require earlier inclusion. The Paediatric Index of Mortality (PIM) is calculated 1 hour after admission but does not take into account the stabilization period following admission. To avoid these limitations, we chose to conduct assessments 4 hours after PICU admission. The aim of the present study was to validate PRISM, PRISM III and PIM at the time points for which they were developed, and to compare their accuracy in predicting mortality at those times with their accuracy at 4 hours. METHODS: All children admitted from June 1998 to May 2000 in one tertiary PICU were prospectively included. Data were collected to generate scores and predictions using PRISM, PRISM III and PIM. RESULTS: There were 802 consecutive admissions with 80 deaths. For the time points for which the scores were developed, observed and predicted mortality rates were significantly different for the three scores (P < 0.01) whereas all exhibited good discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve >or=0.83). At 4 hours after admission only the PIM had good calibration (P = 0.44), but all three scores exhibited good discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve >or=0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Among the three scores calculated at 4 hours after admission, all had good discriminatory capacity but only the PIM score was well calibrated. Further studies are required before the PIM score at 4 hours can be used as an inclusion criterion in clinical trials. (+info)
Childhood mortality among former Mozambican refugees and their hosts in rural South Africa. (2/344)BACKGROUND: It is important to monitor health differentials between population groups to understand how they are generated. Internationally displaced people represent one potentially disadvantaged group. We investigated differentials in mortality between children from former Mozambican refugee and host South African households in a rural sub-district in the north-east of South Africa. METHODS: Open prospective cohort of 30 276 children (80 462 person years of follow-up) followed from 1 January 1992 to 31 October 2000 in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Exposure and outcomes data came from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (DSS). RESULTS: There was no difference in infant mortality between children from former Mozambican refugee households and those from South African homes (adjusted rate ratio [RR] = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.32), but mortality levels were higher among former Mozambican refugee children during the next 4 years (adjusted RR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.50, 2.42). Increased mortality levels were also seen among children from larger households and whose mother died, while children born to mothers aged >40 years or with higher education were at lower risk. Measured maternal, household, and health service utilization characteristics could not explain the difference in mortality between children from former Mozambican refugee and South African households. Former Mozambican refugee children residing in refugee settlements had higher mortality rates than those residing in more established villages. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates higher childhood, but not infant, mortality rates among children from former Mozambican refugee households compared with those from host South African households in rural South Africa. The lack of legal status and lower wealth of many former Mozambican refugees may partly explain this disparity. (+info)
Monitoring trends in under-5 mortality rates through national birth history surveys. (3/344)BACKGROUND: We assessed whether Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), a large and high-quality source of under-5 mortality estimates in developing countries, would be able to detect reductions in under-5 mortality as established in global child health goals. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mortality estimates from 41 DHS conducted in African countries between 1986 and 2002, for the interval of 0-4 years preceding each survey (with a mean time lag of 2.5 years), were reviewed. The median relative error on national mortality rates was 4.4%. In multivariate regression, the relative error decreased with increasing sample size, increasing fertility rates, and increasing mortality rates. The error increased with the magnitude of the survey design effect, which resulted from cluster sampling. With levels of precision observed in previous surveys, reductions in all-cause under-5 mortality rates between two subsequent surveys of 15% or more would be detectable. The detection of smaller mortality reductions would require increases in sample size, from a current median of 7060 to over 20,000 women. Across the actual surveys conducted between 1986 and 2002, varying mortality trends were apparent at a national scale, but only around half of these were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The interpretation of changes in under-5 mortality rates between subsequent surveys needs to take into account statistical significance. DHS birth history surveys with their present sampling design would be able to statistically confirm under-5 mortality reductions in African countries if true reductions were 15% or larger, and are highly relevant to tracking progress towards existing international child health targets. (+info)
Relation between increased numbers of safe playing areas and decreased vehicle related child mortality rates in Japan from 1970 to 1985: a trend analysis. (4/344)OBJECTIVES: To examine vehicle related mortality trends of children in Japan; and to investigate how environmental modifications such as the installation of public parks and pavements are associated with these trends. DESIGN: Poisson regression was used for trend analysis, and multiple regression modelling was used to investigate the associations between trends in environmental modifications and trends in motor vehicle related child mortality rates. SETTING: Mortality data of Japan from 1970 to 1994, defined as E-code 810-23 from 1970 to 1978 and E810-25 from 1979 to 1994, were obtained from vital statistics. Multiple regression modelling was confined to the 1970-1985 data. Data concerning public parks and other facilities were obtained from the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport. SUBJECTS: Children aged 0-14 years old were examined in this study and divided into two groups: 0-4 and 5-14 years. MAIN RESULTS: An increased number of public parks was associated with decreased vehicle related mortality rates among children aged 0-4 years, but not among children aged 5-14. In contrast, there was no association between trends in pavements and mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: An increased number of public parks might reduce vehicle related preschooler deaths, in particular those involving pedestrians. Safe play areas in residential areas might reduce the risk of vehicle related child death by lessening the journey both to and from such areas as well as reducing the number of children playing on the street. However, such measures might not be effective in reducing the vehicle related mortalities of school age children who have an expanded range of activities and walk longer distances. (+info)
Childhood mortality and probable causes of death using verbal autopsy in Niakhar, Senegal, 1989-2000. (5/344)BACKGROUND: In African rural settings, medically certified information on causes of death is largely lacking. The authors applied the verbal autopsy to identify causes of death before 15 years old in a rural area of Senegal where a demographic surveillance system is operating. METHODS: Between 1989 and 2000, a postmortem interview was conducted using a standardized questionnaire which was independently reviewed by two physicians who assigned the probable underlying cause of death. Discordant diagnoses were discussed by a panel of physicians. Causes of death were grouped into a few categories; cause-specific mortality rates and fractions were generated. RESULTS: Between 1989 and 1997, all-cause mortality fluctuated. Diarrhoeal diseases, malaria and acute respiratory infections explained between 30% and 70% of the mortality before 10 years of age. In children 1-9 years old, malaria death rate increased between 1989 and 1994 and thereafter did not change. The 1998-2000 years were marked by a peak in mortality, attributed to a meningitis outbreak in children more than one year old paralleled by an increase in death rate from fever of unknown origin, diarrhoeal diseases, and acute respiratory infections in children under 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Verbal autopsy provided useful information on the mortality structure responsible for the 1998-2000 peak in mortality. It underlined that, outside outbreak situations, malaria was a leading cause of death for 1-9 year old children and that diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections, or fever from unknown origin accounted for up to 50% of the deaths among the children under 5 years. (+info)
BCG vaccination scar associated with better childhood survival in Guinea-Bissau. (6/344)BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a non-specific beneficial effect on infant survival and that a BCG scar may be associated with lower child mortality. No study has previously examined the influence of BCG vaccination on cause of death. METHODS: Two cohorts (A and B) were used to describe the mortality pattern for children with and without BCG scar and to determine specific causes of death. In cohort A (n = 1813), BCG scar was assessed at 6 months of age and as previously described children with a BCG scar had lower mortality over the next 12 months than children with no BCG scar. In cohort B, 1617 children aged 3 months to 5 years of age had their BCG scar status assessed in a household-based survey and mortality was assessed during a 12-month period. Causes of death were determined by verbal autopsy (VA) and related to BCG scar status in a cause-specific hazard function. RESULTS: Controlling for background factors associated with mortality, there was lower mortality for children with a BCG scar than without in cohort B, the mortality ratio (MR) being 0.45 (95% CI 0.21-0.96). Exclusion of children exposed to TB did not have any impact on the result. In a combined analysis of cohorts A and B, the MR was 0.43 (95% CI 0.28-0.65) controlling for background factors. There were no large differences in distribution of the five major causes of death (malaria, pneumonia, acute diarrhoea, chronic diarrhoea, and meningitis/encephalitis) according to BCG scar status in the two cohorts. Having a BCG scar significantly reduced the risk of death from malaria [MR 0.32 (95% CI 0.13-0.76)]. CONCLUSIONS: A BCG scar is a marker of better survival among children in countries with high child mortality. BCG vaccination may affect the response to several major infections including malaria. (+info)
Equitable child health interventions: the impact of improved water and sanitation on inequalities in child mortality in Stockholm, 1878 to 1925. (7/344)Today, many of the 10 million childhood deaths each year are caused by diseases of poverty--diarrhea and pneumonia, for example, which were previously major causes of childhood death in many European countries. Specific analyses of the historical decline of child mortality may shed light on the potential equity impact of interventions to reduce child mortality. In our study of the impact of improved water and sanitation in Stockholm from 1878 to 1925, we examined the decline in overall and diarrhea mortality among children, both in general and by socioeconomic group. We report a decline in overall mortality and of diarrhea mortality and a leveling out of socioeconomic differences in child mortality due to diarrheal diseases, but not of overall mortality. The contribution of general and targeted policies is discussed. (+info)
Helping northern Ethiopian communities reduce childhood mortality: population-based intervention trial. (8/344)OBJECTIVE: More than 10 million children die each year mostly from preventable causes and particularly in developing countries. WHO guidelines for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) are intended to reduce childhood mortality and are being implemented in Ethiopia. As well as specific clinical interventions, the role of the community in understanding and acting on childhood sickness is an important factor in improving survival. This trial sought to assess the effect on survival of community-based health promotion activities. METHODS: Two districts in northern Ethiopia were studied, each with a random sample of more than 4000 children less than 5 years old. Regular six-monthly visits were made to document deaths among children. After the first year, communities in one district were educated about issues of good childcare and caring for sick children while the other district received this information only after the trial ended. FINDINGS: Although overall mortality was higher in the post-intervention period, most of the increase was seen in the control area. A Cox proportional hazards model gave an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.66 (95% confidence interval = 0.46-0.95) for the intervention area compared with the control area in the post-intervention period, with no significant pre-intervention difference. Significant survival advantages were found for females, children of younger fathers, those with married parents, those living in larger households, and those whose nearest health facility was a health centre. For all of the children who died, only 44% of parents or caregivers had sought health care before the child's death. CONCLUSION: This non-specific community-based public health intervention, as an addition to IMCI strategies in local health facilities, appears to have significantly reduced childhood mortality in these communities. The possibility that such interventions may not effectively reach certain social groups (for example single parents) is an important consideration for implementation of similar strategies in future. The synergy between community awareness and the availability of effective peripheral health services is also an issue that needs further exploration. (+info)
Child nutrition disorders refer to a range of conditions that affect the health and development of children, primarily caused by poor nutrition or dietary imbalances. These disorders can have short-term and long-term consequences on a child's physical and mental health, academic performance, and overall quality of life.
Types of Child Nutrition Disorders:
1. Malnutrition: A condition where the body does not receive enough nutrients to maintain proper growth and development. It can be caused by inadequate dietary intake, digestive problems, or other underlying medical conditions.
2. Obesity: Excess body fat that can impair health and increase the risk of various diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and joint problems.
3. Iron Deficiency Anemia: A condition where the body does not have enough red blood cells due to a lack of iron, which is essential for producing hemoglobin.
4. Vitamin D Deficiency: A condition where the body does not have enough vitamin D, which is necessary for bone health and immune system function.
5. Food Allergies: An immune response to specific foods that can cause a range of symptoms, from mild discomfort to life-threatening reactions. Common food allergens include peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, milk, eggs, wheat, and soy.
6. Coeliac Disease: An autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to react to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye, leading to damage of the small intestine and nutrient deficiencies.
7. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing.
8. Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders: A group of conditions characterized by inflammation and eosinophils (a type of white blood cell) in the gastrointestinal tract, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and difficulty swallowing.
9. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A common condition characterized by recurring abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits such as constipation or diarrhea.
10. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
11. Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Conditions characterized by symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits, but no visible signs of inflammation or structural abnormalities. Examples include functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
12. Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders: Conditions that affect the movement of food through the digestive system, such as gastroparesis (slowed stomach emptying) and hypermobile gut syndrome (excessively loose joints).
13. Neurogastroenterology: The study of the interaction between the nervous system and the gastrointestinal system, including conditions such as functional dyspepsia and gastroparesis.
14. Pediatric Gastrointestinal Disorders: Conditions that affect children, such as pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and feeding disorders.
15. Geriatric Gastrointestinal Disorders: Conditions that affect older adults, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and dementia, which can impact digestion and nutrition.
These are just a few examples of the many different types of gastrointestinal disorders that exist. Each condition has its unique set of symptoms and characteristics, and may require different treatment approaches.
Wasting syndrome is characterized by weight loss, muscle wasting, and a decrease in body condition score. It can also lead to a range of other health problems such as dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and decreased immune function.
To diagnose wasting syndrome in your cat, your veterinarian will need to perform a series of tests to rule out other potential causes of weight loss and muscle wasting. These tests may include blood work, urinalysis, and imaging studies such as X-rays or ultrasound.
Treatment for wasting syndrome will depend on the underlying cause of the condition. For example, if the condition is caused by chronic kidney disease, treatment may involve managing the symptoms of the disease and providing supportive care such as fluid therapy and medication to help slow the progression of the disease.
In addition to medical treatment, there are several things you can do at home to help your cat feel more comfortable and manage their weight loss. These include:
* Providing a high-quality, nutrient-rich diet that is appropriate for your cat's age, health status, and lifestyle.
* Encouraging your cat to drink plenty of water by placing multiple water bowls around the house and making water more appealing through the use of flavored or scented water.
* Providing a safe and comfortable environment for your cat to rest and relax.
* Monitoring your cat's weight and body condition score regularly and working with your veterinarian to adjust their diet and treatment plan as needed.
It is important to work closely with your veterinarian to manage wasting syndrome in your cat, as this condition can have a significant impact on their quality of life and longevity. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many cats are able to recover from wasting syndrome and lead happy, healthy lives.
There are several different types of malaria, including:
1. Plasmodium falciparum: This is the most severe form of malaria, and it can be fatal if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
2. Plasmodium vivax: This type of malaria is less severe than P. falciparum, but it can still cause serious complications if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
3. Plasmodium ovale: This type of malaria is similar to P. vivax, but it can cause more severe symptoms in some people. It is found primarily in West Africa.
4. Plasmodium malariae: This type of malaria is less common than the other three types, and it tends to cause milder symptoms. It is found primarily in parts of Africa and Asia.
The symptoms of malaria can vary depending on the type of parasite that is causing the infection, but they typically include:
4. Muscle and joint pain
6. Nausea and vomiting
8. Anemia (low red blood cell count)
If malaria is not treated promptly, it can lead to more severe complications, such as:
3. Respiratory failure
4. Kidney failure
5. Liver failure
6. Anemia (low red blood cell count)
Malaria is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood smears or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Treatment for malaria typically involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapies. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications and provide supportive care.
Prevention is an important aspect of managing malaria, and this can include:
1. Using insecticide-treated bed nets
2. Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors
3. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the number of mosquito breeding sites
4. Using indoor residual spraying (IRS) or insecticide-treated wall lining to kill mosquitoes
5. Implementing malaria control measures in areas where malaria is common, such as distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)
6. Improving access to healthcare services, particularly in rural and remote areas
7. Providing education and awareness about malaria prevention and control
8. Encouraging the use of preventive medications, such as intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for pregnant women and children under the age of five.
Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical in preventing the progression of malaria and reducing the risk of complications and death. In areas where malaria is common, it is essential to have access to reliable diagnostic tools and effective antimalarial drugs.
There are several types of diarrhea, including:
1. Acute diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is short-term and usually resolves on its own within a few days. It can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, food poisoning, or medication side effects.
2. Chronic diarrhea: This type of diarrhea persists for more than 4 weeks and can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
3. Diarrhea-predominant IBS: This type of diarrhea is characterized by frequent, loose stools and abdominal pain or discomfort. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, and certain foods.
4. Infectious diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection and can be spread through contaminated food and water, close contact with an infected person, or by consuming contaminated food.
Symptoms of diarrhea may include:
* Frequent, loose, and watery stools
* Abdominal cramps and pain
* Bloating and gas
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever and chills
* Fatigue and weakness
Diagnosis of diarrhea is typically made through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, fluid replacement, and dietary changes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications.
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly storing and cooking food to prevent contamination
* Drinking safe water and avoiding contaminated water sources
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea
Complications of diarrhea can include:
* Dehydration: Diarrhea can lead to a loss of fluids and electrolytes, which can cause dehydration. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
* Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can also cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, which can lead to serious complications.
* Inflammation of the intestines: Prolonged diarrhea can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to abdominal pain and other complications.
* Infections: Diarrhea can be a symptom of an infection, such as a bacterial or viral infection. If left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications.
* Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, which can have long-term effects on health and development.
Treatment of diarrhea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include:
* Fluid replacement: Drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and replace lost electrolytes.
* Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter or prescription medications to slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
* Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
* Rest: Getting plenty of rest to allow the body to recover from the illness.
* Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or making dietary changes to help manage symptoms and prevent future episodes of diarrhea.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:
* Severe diarrhea that lasts for more than 3 days
* Diarrhea that is accompanied by fever, blood in the stool, or abdominal pain
* Diarrhea that is severe enough to cause dehydration or electrolyte imbalances
* Diarrhea that is not responding to treatment
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Good hand hygiene: Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food.
* Safe food handling: Cooking and storing food properly to prevent contamination.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea, such as rotavirus.
Overall, while diarrhea can be uncomfortable and disruptive, it is usually a minor illness that can be treated at home with over-the-counter medications and plenty of fluids. However, if you experience severe or persistent diarrhea, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require more formal treatment.
1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
2. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): A disorder marked by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures.
3. Conduct Disorder (CD): A disorder characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the child violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules.
4. Anxiety Disorders: A group of disorders that cause excessive fear, worry, or anxiety that interferes with daily life.
5. Mood Disorders: A group of disorders that affect a child's mood, causing them to feel sad, hopeless, or angry for extended periods of time.
6. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties with social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and repetitive behaviors.
7. Tourette Syndrome: A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic, often involving involuntary sounds or words.
8. Selective Mutism: A disorder characterized by a persistent and excessive fear of speaking in certain situations, such as school or social events.
9. Separation Anxiety Disorder: A disorder characterized by excessive and persistent anxiety related to separation from home or loved ones.
10. Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A group of disorders that include ODD, CD, and conduct disorder, which are characterized by a pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules.
These disorders can be challenging to diagnose and treat, but early identification and intervention can make a significant difference in a child's outcome. It is important for parents and caregivers to seek professional help if they notice any signs of these disorders in their child.
1. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM): This type of malnutrition is caused by a lack of protein and energy in the diet. It is common in developing countries and can lead to weight loss, weakness, and stunted growth in children.
2. Iron deficiency anemia: This type of malnutrition is caused by a lack of iron in the diet, which is necessary for the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies: Malnutrition can also be caused by a lack of essential vitamins and minerals such as vitamin A, vitamin D, calcium, and iodine. Symptoms vary depending on the specific deficiency but can include skin problems, impaired immune function, and poor wound healing.
4. Obesity: This type of malnutrition is caused by consuming too many calories and not enough nutrients. It can lead to a range of health problems including diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
Signs and symptoms of malnutrition can include:
* Weight loss or weight gain
* Fatigue or weakness
* Poor wound healing
* Hair loss
* Skin problems
* Increased infections
* Poor appetite or overeating
* Digestive problems such as diarrhea or constipation
* Impaired immune function
Treatment for malnutrition depends on the underlying cause and may include:
* Dietary changes: Eating a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods can help to correct nutrient deficiencies.
* Nutritional supplements: In some cases, nutritional supplements such as vitamins or minerals may be recommended to help address specific deficiencies.
* Medical treatment: Certain medical conditions that contribute to malnutrition, such as digestive disorders or infections, may require treatment with medication or other interventions.
Prevention is key, and there are several steps you can take to help prevent malnutrition:
* Eat a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods.
* Avoid restrictive diets or fad diets that limit specific food groups.
* Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water.
* Avoid excessive alcohol consumption, which can interfere with nutrient absorption and lead to malnutrition.
* Maintain a healthy weight through a combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise.
It is important to note that malnutrition can be subtle and may not always be easily recognizable. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing malnutrition, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Types of Nutrition Disorders:
1. Malnutrition: This occurs when the body does not receive enough nutrients to maintain proper bodily functions. Malnutrition can be caused by a lack of access to healthy food, digestive problems, or other underlying health issues.
2. Obesity: This is a condition where excess body fat accumulates to the point that it negatively affects health. Obesity can increase the risk of various diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.
3. Anorexia Nervosa: This is an eating disorder characterized by a fear of gaining weight or becoming obese. People with anorexia nervosa may restrict their food intake to an extreme degree, leading to malnutrition and other health problems.
4. Bulimia Nervosa: This is another eating disorder where individuals engage in binge eating followed by purging or other compensatory behaviors to rid the body of calories consumed. Bulimia nervosa can also lead to malnutrition and other health issues.
5. Diabetes Mellitus: This is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes, in particular, has been linked to poor dietary habits and a lack of physical activity.
6. Cardiovascular Disease: Poor dietary habits and a lack of physical activity can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, which includes heart disease and stroke.
7. Osteoporosis: A diet low in calcium and vitamin D can contribute to the development of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by brittle bones and an increased risk of fractures.
8. Gout: This is a type of arthritis caused by high levels of uric acid in the blood. A diet rich in purine-containing foods such as red meat, seafood, and certain grains can increase the risk of developing gout.
9. Dental Problems: Poor dietary habits, particularly a diet high in sugar, can contribute to dental problems such as cavities and gum disease.
10. Mental Health Disorders: Malnutrition and other health problems caused by poor dietary habits can also contribute to mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety.
In conclusion, poor dietary habits can have significant negative effects on an individual's overall health and well-being. It is essential to adopt healthy dietary habits such as consuming a balanced diet, limiting processed foods and sugars, and increasing physical activity to maintain good health and prevent chronic diseases.
Measles is caused by a virus that is transmitted through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The virus can also be spread through direct contact with an infected person's saliva or mucus.
The symptoms of measles usually appear about 10-14 days after exposure to the virus, and may include:
* Runny nose
* Red, watery eyes
* Small white spots inside the mouth (Koplik spots)
* A rash that starts on the head and spreads to the rest of the body
Measles can be diagnosed through a physical examination, laboratory tests, or by observing the characteristic rash. There is no specific treatment for measles, but it can be treated with over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to relieve fever and pain.
Complications of measles can include:
* Ear infections
* Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)
* Death (rare)
Measles is highly contagious and can spread easily through schools, workplaces, and other communities. Vaccination is the best way to prevent measles, and the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine is recommended for all children and adults who have not been previously infected with the virus or vaccinated.
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Infantile diarrhea is a common problem in infants and young children. It is characterized by frequent, loose, and watery stools that may be accompanied by vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain. The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral or bacterial infections, allergies, and intestinal malabsorption disorders.
Signs and Symptoms:
1. Frequent, loose, and watery stools (more than 3-4 per day)
3. Fever (temperature >100.4°F or 38°C)
4. Abdominal pain
5. Blood in the stool
6. Dehydration (signs include dry mouth, decreased urine output, sunken eyes, and dry diaper)
1. Stool culture to identify the causative agent
2. Blood tests to check for electrolytes and signs of dehydration
3. X-ray or ultrasound abdomen to rule out any intestinal obstruction
4. Other tests such as urine analysis, blood glucose, and liver function tests may be done based on the severity of the diarrhea and the child's overall condition.
1. Fluid replacement: Replacing lost fluids with oral rehydration solutions such as Pedialyte or Gatorade is essential to prevent dehydration.
2. Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
3. Dietary modifications: Breastfeeding should be continued or initiated in infants under 6 months old. For formula-fed infants, a special formula that is easier to digest may be recommended. Solid foods should be introduced gradually.
4. Medications: Anti-diarrheal medications such as loperamide may be given to help slow down bowel movements and reduce the frequency of stools.
5. Hospitalization: In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor the child's condition and provide intravenous fluids if oral rehydration is not effective.
1. Dehydration: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to dehydration, which can cause serious complications such as seizures, brain damage, and even death if left untreated.
2. Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, leading to muscle cramps, weakness, and heart problems.
3. Infection: Diarrhea can be a sign of an underlying infection, which can lead to more severe complications if left untreated.
4. Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, especially in children who are not getting enough nutrients.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease: Repeated episodes of diarrhea can lead to inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.
1. Hand washing: Frequent hand washing is essential to prevent the spread of infection and diarrhea-causing bacteria.
2. Food safety: Ensure that food is cooked and stored properly to avoid contamination and infection.
3. Vaccination: Vaccines are available for some types of diarrhea-causing infections, such as rotavirus, which can help prevent severe diarrhea in children.
4. Breastfeeding: Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life can help protect infants against diarrhea and other infections.
5. Probiotics: Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that can help maintain a healthy gut microbiome and prevent diarrhea.
1. Oral rehydration therapy: ORS or other oral rehydration solutions can help replace lost fluids and electrolytes.
2. Antibiotics: Antibiotics may be prescribed to treat diarrhea caused by bacterial infections.
3. Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter anti-diarrheal medications such as loperamide can help slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
4. Probiotics: Probiotic supplements or probiotic-rich foods like yogurt can help restore the balance of gut bacteria and treat diarrhea.
5. IV fluids: In severe cases of diarrhea, IV fluids may be necessary to prevent dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.
It's important to note that while these remedies can help alleviate symptoms, they may not address the underlying cause of the diarrhea. If diarrhea persists or worsens, medical attention should be sought. A healthcare professional can diagnose and treat any underlying conditions or infections causing the diarrhea.
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.
There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:
1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)
The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
8. Weight loss
If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:
1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)
HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.
Prevention methods for HIV infection include:
1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.
It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.
Examples of communicable diseases include:
1. Influenza (the flu)
3. Tuberculosis (TB)
6. Hepatitis B and C
8. Whooping cough (pertussis)
Communicable diseases can be spread through various means, including:
1. Direct contact with an infected person: This includes touching, hugging, shaking hands, or sharing food and drinks with someone who is infected.
2. Indirect contact with contaminated surfaces or objects: Pathogens can survive on surfaces for a period of time and can be transmitted to people who come into contact with those surfaces.
3. Airborne transmission: Some diseases, such as the flu and TB, can be spread through the air when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes.
4. Infected insect or animal bites: Diseases such as malaria and Lyme disease can be spread through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks.
Prevention and control of communicable diseases are essential to protect public health. This includes:
1. Vaccination: Vaccines can prevent many communicable diseases, such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), and influenza.
2. Personal hygiene: Frequent handwashing, covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick can help prevent the spread of diseases.
3. Improved sanitation and clean water: Proper disposal of human waste and adequate water treatment can reduce the risk of disease transmission.
4. Screening and testing: Identifying and isolating infected individuals can help prevent the spread of disease.
5. Antibiotics and antiviral medications: These drugs can treat and prevent some communicable diseases, such as bacterial infections and viral infections like HIV.
6. Public education: Educating the public about the risks and prevention of communicable diseases can help reduce the spread of disease.
7. Contact tracing: Identifying and monitoring individuals who have been in close contact with someone who has a communicable disease can help prevent further transmission.
8. Quarantine and isolation: Quarantine and isolation measures can be used to control outbreaks by separating infected individuals from those who are not infected.
9. Improved healthcare infrastructure: Adequate healthcare facilities, such as hospitals and clinics, can help diagnose and treat communicable diseases early on, reducing the risk of transmission.
10. International collaboration: Collaboration between countries and global organizations is crucial for preventing and controlling the spread of communicable diseases that are a threat to public health worldwide, such as pandemic flu and SARS.
Causes of Vitamin A Deficiency:
1. Poor diet: A diet that is deficient in vitamin A-rich foods, such as dark leafy greens, liver, and dairy products, can lead to a deficiency.
2. Malabsorption: Certain medical conditions, such as celiac disease, Crohn's disease, and pancreatic insufficiency, can impair the body's ability to absorb vitamin A from food.
3. Pregnancy and lactation: The increased demand for nutrients during pregnancy and lactation can lead to a deficiency if the diet does not provide enough vitamin A.
4. Chronic diseases: Certain chronic diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and kidney disease, can increase the risk of vitamin A deficiency.
Symptoms of Vitamin A Deficiency:
1. Night blindness: Difficulty seeing in low light environments, such as at night or in dimly lit rooms.
2. Blindness: In severe cases, vitamin A deficiency can lead to complete blindness.
3. Dry skin: Vitamin A is important for healthy skin, and a deficiency can cause dry, rough skin that may be prone to dermatitis.
4. Increased risk of infections: Vitamin A plays a role in immune function, and a deficiency can increase the risk of respiratory, gastrointestinal, and other infections.
5. Bitot's spot: A condition that causes white patches on the cornea, which can be a sign of vitamin A deficiency.
6. Dry eyes: Vitamin A is important for healthy tear production, and a deficiency can cause dry, itchy eyes.
7. Weakened immune system: Vitamin A plays a role in immune function, and a deficiency can weaken the body's ability to fight off infections.
8. Increased risk of cancer: Some studies suggest that a vitamin A deficiency may increase the risk of certain types of cancer, such as colon, breast, and lung cancer.
9. Reproductive problems: Vitamin A is important for reproductive health, and a deficiency can cause irregular menstrual cycles, infertility, and other reproductive problems.
10. Poor wound healing: Vitamin A is important for healthy skin and wound healing, and a deficiency can cause poor wound healing and an increased risk of infection.
In conclusion, vitamin A deficiency is a common problem worldwide, especially in developing countries, and can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important to ensure adequate intake of vitamin A through diet or supplements, particularly for pregnant women, children, and individuals with chronic illnesses. If you suspect you may have a vitamin A deficiency, it is important to speak with your healthcare provider to determine the appropriate course of treatment.
1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.
Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.
Types of Neoplasms
There are many different types of neoplasms, including:
1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.
Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms
The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:
1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.
Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms
The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:
1. Unusual lumps or swelling
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms
The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:
1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
Prevention of Neoplasms
While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:
1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.
It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.
1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.
It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.
Acute wounds and injuries are those that occur suddenly and heal within a relatively short period of time, usually within a few days or weeks. Examples of acute wounds include cuts, scrapes, and burns. Chronic wounds and injuries, on the other hand, are those that persist over a longer period of time and may not heal properly, leading to long-term complications. Examples of chronic wounds include diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and chronic back pain.
Wounds and injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, sports injuries, violence, and medical conditions such as diabetes or circulatory problems. Treatment for wounds and injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may include cleaning and dressing the wound, applying antibiotics, immobilizing broken bones, and providing pain management. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or restore function.
Preventive measures for wounds and injuries include wearing appropriate protective gear during activities such as sports or work, following safety protocols to avoid accidents, maintaining proper hygiene and nutrition to prevent infection, and seeking medical attention promptly if an injury occurs.
Overall, wounds and injuries can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper treatment and management of wounds and injuries can help to promote healing, reduce the risk of complications, and improve long-term outcomes.
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Some common examples of respiratory tract diseases include:
1. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
2. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways (bronchi) that can cause coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.
3. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive condition that makes it difficult to breathe due to damage to the lungs over time.
5. Tuberculosis: An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs.
6. Laryngitis: Inflammation of the voice box (larynx) that can cause hoarseness and difficulty speaking.
7. Tracheitis: Inflammation of the trachea, or windpipe, that can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
8. Croup: An infection of the throat and lungs that can cause a barky cough and difficulty breathing.
9. Pleurisy: Inflammation of the lining around the lungs (pleura) that can cause chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Pertussis (whooping cough): An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis that can cause coughing fits and difficulty breathing.
These are just a few examples of the many different types of respiratory tract diseases that exist. Each one has its own unique symptoms, causes, and treatment options.
There are different types of myocardial infarctions, including:
1. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): This is the most severe type of heart attack, where a large area of the heart muscle is damaged. It is characterized by a specific pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG) called the ST segment.
2. Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI): This type of heart attack is less severe than STEMI, and the damage to the heart muscle may not be as extensive. It is characterized by a smaller area of damage or a different pattern on an ECG.
3. Incomplete myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack is when there is some damage to the heart muscle but not a complete blockage of blood flow.
4. Collateral circulation myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack occurs when there are existing collateral vessels that bypass the blocked coronary artery, which reduces the amount of damage to the heart muscle.
Symptoms of a myocardial infarction can include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, and fatigue. These symptoms may be accompanied by anxiety, fear, and a sense of impending doom. In some cases, there may be no noticeable symptoms at all.
Diagnosis of myocardial infarction is typically made based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac enzyme tests, and imaging studies like echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.
Treatment of myocardial infarction usually involves medications to relieve pain, reduce the amount of work the heart has to do, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. These may include aspirin, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins. In some cases, a procedure such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area.
Prevention of myocardial infarction involves managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, and obesity. This can include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction, as well as medications to control these conditions. Early detection and treatment of heart disease can help prevent myocardial infarction from occurring in the first place.
Child mortality in Ghana
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Health in Yemen
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Closing the Gap
Millennium Development Goals
Miracle on the Han River
Health in the Central African Republic
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Sanctions against Iraq
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List of U.S. states and territories by infant mortality rates
Hunger in Nigeria
A Hill to Die Upon
Fabula Nova Crystallis Final Fantasy
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Pierce County, Wisconsin
Samuel Fisher (died 1681)
Jigme Singye Wangchuck
Nigeria and the World Bank
Abortion in Afghanistan
Mother and Child Scheme
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Royal Columbian Hospital
Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative
Uranium mining in the Bancroft area
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2022 monkeypox outbreak
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Diseases of poverty
Child Mortality | Asthma | CDC
Browsing EB122 by Subject "Child Mortality"
Asthma Mortality & Hospitalization Among Children & Young Adults
Infant Mortality | NICHD - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
NIH Coordinating Committee for Maternal Morbidity and Mortality (CCM3) | NICHD - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of...
Sierra Leone's determination to stem maternal and child mortality | WHO | Regional Office for Africa
SEA/RC69/R3 - Ending preventable maternal, newborn and child mortality in the South-East Asia Region in line with the...
Perspectives on Maternal Mortality and Morbidity | NICHD - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human...
Environmental pollutants and disease in American children: estimates of morbidity, mortality, and costs for lead poisoning,...
VIDEO: Under-5 Mortality: Keeping Kids Alive - UCTV - University of California Television
Effect of vaccination programmes on mortality burden among children and young adults in the Netherlands during the 20th century...
The New Crisis of Increasing All-Cause Mortality in US Children and Adolescents - PubMed
Niger's attack on child mortality | Archives of Disease in Childhood
WHO EMRO | Determinants of maternal and child mortality: some methodological notes | Volume 25, issue 7 | EMHJ volume 25, 2019
The 'weekend effect' in pediatric surgery-increased mortality for children undergoing urgent surgery during the weekend. | PSNet
Causes of Mortality and Risk Factors for Injury Mortality among Children in the Agricultural Health Study - PubMed
Child mortality is rising at the fastest rate in 50 years. Here's why | KTSM 9 News
Altmetric - Suicide mortality among youth in southern Brazil: a spatiotemporal evaluation of socioeconomic vulnerability
Child mortality in rural India<...
Mortality inequalities by parental education among children and young adults in Finland 1990-2004 | Journal of Epidemiology &...
Subjects: Child Mortality - Digital Collections - National Library of Medicine Search Results
Household Factors Influencing Child Mortality Levels in Kilifi District, Kenya
Details for: Infant and child mortality / › WHO HQ Library catalog
Infant mortality rate disparity - Black vs. White | KIDS COUNT Data Center
Development and validation of a new method for indirect estimation of neonatal, infant, and child mortality trends using...
Morbidity and Morta2
- morbidity and mortality. (who.int)
- This outcome shows the key role of nutritional and/or physiological status in early-life morbidity and mortality among partially and especially fully weaned children from pre-antibiotic, pre-vaccination, and poor sanitation contexts and proposes that adult survival is rooted in early life experiences, in keeping with the developmental origins of health and disease. (uva.es)
- This Viewpoint discusses increased rates in pediatric mortality by age and cause between 1999 and 2021. (nih.gov)
- These increases, the largest in decades, followed a period of great progress in reducing pediatric mortality rates," the authors wrote. (ktsm.com)
- This increase in all-cause pediatric mortality has ominous implications," Dr. Steven Woolf , a professor of population health and health equity at Virginia Commonwealth University and lead author of the study wrote. (ncvoices.com)
Centers for Diseas1
- According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the mortality rate increased by 11% between 2019 and 2020 and by an additional 8% between 2020 and 2021. (ncvoices.com)
- Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and Demographic Surveillance System (DSS) data from Ethiopia, and to investigate the methodological bias in DHS-based childhood mortality rates due to the impossibility of including children whose mothers were deceased. (who.int)
- Burkina Faso with respect to the effects of risk factors on Nevertheless, the fact that DSSs are localized systems childhood mortality (5). (who.int)
- In the 20th century, childhood mortality decreased rapidly, and vaccination programmes are frequently suggested as a contributing factor. (thelancet.com)
- We present historical data from the Netherlands that allow us to quantify the reduction in childhood mortality burden for vaccine-preventable diseases in this period as a function of vaccination coverage. (thelancet.com)
- To correct for long-term trends, we calculated the cause-specific contribution to the total childhood mortality burden. (thelancet.com)
- This study examines the presence and strength of the association between parental education and mortality during different periods of childhood and young adulthood, and changes in the association over time. (bmj.com)
- A comprehensive analysis has found that each year of parental education is associated with lower risks of childhood mortality. (unescochair-ghe.org)
- The majority of childhood injuries are accidental, but an inflicted injury missed or improperly evaluated can escalate to child fatality. (medscape.com)
- One overarching factor is firearms: between homicides and suicides, guns accounted for nearly half of the overall increase in child mortality in 2020, the report found. (ktsm.com)
- This study estimated levels and trends in under-5 mortality for 195 countries from 1990 to 2019, and conducted scenario-based projections of the U5MR and NMR from 2020 to 2030 to assess country progress in, and potential for, reaching SDG targets on child survival and the potential under-5 and neonatal deaths over the next decade. (childhealthtaskforce.org)
- Deaths before age 28 days can also be classified as neonatal mortality. (nih.gov)
- If a baby dies before age 28 days, the death can also be classified as neonatal mortality . (nih.gov)
- Development and validation of a new method for indirect estimation of neonatal, infant, and child mortality trends using summary birth histories. (bvsalud.org)
- The addition of neonatal (NN) mortality targets in the Sustainable Development Goals highlights the increased need for age-specific quantification of mortality trends , detail that is not provided by summary birth histories (SBHs). (bvsalud.org)
- The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), set in 2015 by the UN General Assembly, call for all countries to reach an under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) of at least as low as 25 deaths per 1000 livebirths and a neonatal mortality rate (NMR) of at least as low as 12 deaths per 1000 livebirths by 2030. (childhealthtaskforce.org)
- The death rate for children and adolescents rose by nearly 20 percent between 2019 and 2021, according to an analysis published on March 13 in the Journal of the American Medical Association. (ktsm.com)
- Another factor is alcohol and drugs, which caused twice as many child deaths in 2021 as in 2019, mostly via accidental overdose. (ktsm.com)
- The number of children and teens under 18 who died from guns spiked by 50% between 2019 and 2021, according to the Pew Research Center, which also analyzed the CDC death data. (ncvoices.com)
Infant and child4
- The migrations and, frequently, social and economic women's questionnaire is used to gather information on correlates of population and health dynamics, in an open complete birth histories to estimate infant and child cohort population within a clearly circumscribed mortality probabilities. (who.int)
- abstract = "This paper focuses on infant and child mortality in rural areas of India. (vu.nl)
- Infant and child mortality / Jeremiah M. Sullivan, Shea Oscar Rutstein, George T. Bicego. (who.int)
- The relationship between infant and child feeding practices and early mortality is difficult to address in past societies. (uva.es)
- This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicate that asthma-related mortality and hospitalization rates are increasing among persons aged less than 25 years. (cdc.gov)
- The Institute also studies ways to prevent or reduce the risk of these causes and conditions to reduce infant mortality rates and improve infant health outcomes. (nih.gov)
- Find answers to other common questions about infant mortality, such as if the risk is hereditary and how research is reducing infant mortality rates. (nih.gov)
- Freetown ‒ Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in the world, with 717 mothers dying annually for every 100 000 live births as of 2019 (DHS, 2019). (who.int)
- Patients admitted on the weekend may have higher rates of complications and mortality. (ahrq.gov)
- This analysis of more than 400,000 pediatric surgical admissions also found evidence of a weekend effect, as patients who underwent a weekend surgical procedure had higher rates of mortality and postoperative complications. (ahrq.gov)
- The Hill ) - Mortality rates for children are rising at rates not seen in at least half a century, interrupting a long era of progress in shepherding America's youth to adulthood. (ktsm.com)
- Child mortality rates trended downward for decades, the collective result of several successful public health campaigns. (ktsm.com)
- The estimation results show that socioeconomic and environmental characteristics have significantly different impacts on mortality rates at different ages. (vu.nl)
- Finally, we still found substantial differences in mortality rates between states, which are associated with differences in schooling expenditures, female immunization, and poverty rates. (vu.nl)
- Child mortality rates would likely have declined even in the absence of CRC ratification, but CRC is associated with a larger decline. (biomedcentral.com)
- We are interested in understanding whether declining child mortality rates are associated with the ratification of the CRC by countries around the world. (biomedcentral.com)
- During the 1980s, high child mortality rates, particularly from highly preventable causes of death, put pressure on donor-receiving countries and lending agencies to take more action. (biomedcentral.com)
- Infant vaccination rates plummeted during the lock down, so why did INFANT mortality rates also plummet to historic lows? (prayformychild.org)
- Researchers have shown that living near newly built roads in Ethiopia is associated with higher rates of infant mortality. (gebeta.net)
- The recent rise in child mortality rates among children in the United States between the ages of 1 to 19 is deeply concerning. (ncvoices.com)
- NICHD conducts and supports research on infant mortality and on many disorders associated with infant mortality. (nih.gov)
- NICHD conducts and supports a variety of clinical research projects related to infant mortality. (nih.gov)
- On May 2-3, 2019, NICHD hosted the meeting, Maternal Mortality in the United States: Future Research Directions . (nih.gov)
- This study represented the first comprehensive attempt to estimate the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and costs associated with pediatric disease of toxic environmental origin in the United States. (nih.gov)
- Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated, using state mortality data to generate expected deaths. (nih.gov)
- To characterize national trends in mortality and hospitalizations attributable to asthma among children and young adults (persons aged less than 25 years) during 1980-1993, CDC analyzed mortality data from its multiple cause-of-death files and hospitalization data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey. (cdc.gov)
- We used a restricted mean life-time method to estimate cause-specific mortality burden among children and young adults for each birth cohort as the years of life lost up to age 20 years, excluding migration as a variable because this did not affect the results. (thelancet.com)
- Mortality trends and leading causes of death among adolescents and young adults. (nih.gov)
- Here, stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope measurements of bulk bone and sequential dentine samples of deciduous second and/or permanent first molars of four younger children, one older child, one late adolescent, and two young adults (n = 8) from Moro de Alins cave, north-eastern Iberia, are used to explore the potential impact of early-life nutrition on mortality in the Bronze Age. (uva.es)
- Scientific experts examined data quality and trends, populations disproportionately affected, social determinants of maternal mortality, and clinical causes of the increase in U.S. maternal mortality. (nih.gov)
- Did the Millennium Development Goals Change Trends in Child Mortality? (bvsalud.org)
- however, efforts to monitor mortality trends in important age groups such as the first month and first year of life have yet to utilize the vast amount of SBH data available from household surveys and censuses . (bvsalud.org)
- We analyzed 243 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 76 countries, which collected both complete and SBHs from 8.5 million children from 2.3 million mothers to develop a new empirically based method to indirectly estimate time trends in age-specific mortality . (bvsalud.org)
- Our model was able to closely approximate trends in age-specific child mortality . (bvsalud.org)
- Use of such methods allows researchers to utilize a massive amount of SBH data for estimation of trends in NN and infant mortality . (bvsalud.org)
- CRC ratification was associated with a significant change in shorter-term child mortality trends in all groups except high-income, non-democratic countries and low-imcome democratic countries. (biomedcentral.com)
- CRC ratification was associated with long-term child mortality trends in all groups except middle-income, non-democratic countries. (biomedcentral.com)
- Wang L. Determinants of child mortality in LDCs: empirical findings from demographic and health surveys. (who.int)
- The researchers used data from two rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in 2005 and 2011, which contain several indicators for health among adults and children, including infant mortality, anaemia, and the level of haemoglobin in the blood. (gebeta.net)
- Citation: Bayati M. Determinants of maternal and child mortality: some methodological notes. (who.int)
- Our historical time series analysis of mortality and vaccination coverage shows a strong association between increasing vaccination coverage and diminishing contribution of vaccine-preventable diseases to overall mortality. (thelancet.com)
- METHODS: We matched identifying information for children provided by mothers on self-administered questionnaires to state death registries (1975-1998). (nih.gov)
- Age-specific estimates were evaluated in three ways using cross-validation, using an external database of an additional 243 non-DHS census and survey data sources , and comparing overall under-5 mortality to existing indirect methods . (bvsalud.org)
- This new method for estimating child mortality produces results that are comparable to current best methods for indirect estimation of under-5 mortality while additionally producing age-specific estimates. (bvsalud.org)
- Overall, similar estimates of hazard rate ratios were derived from both DHS and DSS data and the child mortality risk profile is similar between each data source, with multiple births and living in less populous households being significant risk factors for under-five mortality. (who.int)
- Excluding children whose mothers were deceased from the DSS analysis had no important effect on risk profiles or estimates of survival functions at age 5 years. (who.int)
- Despite differing methodologies, cross-sectional DHS and longitudinal DSS data produce estimates of the distribution and effects of under-five mortality risk factors that are broadly similar. (who.int)
- The parameter estimates indicate that child mortality can be reduced substantially, particularly by improving the education of women, providing safe water, and reducing indoor air pollution caused by dirty cooking fuels. (vu.nl)
- External validation using census and survey data found close agreement with concurrent direct estimates of mortality in the NN and infant age groups . (bvsalud.org)
- The rate of under 5 mortality was halved from 1960 to 1990 but more recently there has been a slowing in the reduction. (uctv.tv)
- He identifies current progress in mortality reduction and identifies effective interventions. (uctv.tv)
- Increasing exercise over 8 years was associated with a 40% reduction in the rate of death from any cause, compared with maintenance of low exercise, Scott said, and each 6 MET-h/wk increase in vigorous exercise was associated with a 13% reduction in all-cause mortality. (medpagetoday.com)
Maternal and child health2
- There were no differences in mortality between the two groups (14.0 v. 15.9). (bvsalud.org)
- We retrieved cause-specific and age-specific historical mortality data from Statistics Netherlands from 1903 to 2012 (for Dutch birth cohorts born from 1903 to 1992), and data for vaccination coverage since the start of vaccination programmes from the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate and the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. (thelancet.com)
- Determinants of maternal mortality in Eastern Mediterranean region: A panel data analysis. (who.int)
- We used complete birth history (CBH) data to train a discrete hazards generalized additive model in order to predict individual hazard functions for children based on individual-, mother -, and country-year-level covariates. (bvsalud.org)
- Results Lower parental education was associated with a higher risk of mortality during the whole period of 1990-2004. (bmj.com)
- This analysis focuses on the role of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), which was adopted and entered into force by the Article 49 of the United Nations General Assembly on September 2, 1990. (biomedcentral.com)
- Since 1990, about 90 million young lives have been saved by interventions that improve health and reduce the risk of the most common causes of death among children. (time.com)
- OBJECTIVE: In the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) cohort, we examined causes of mortality among 21,360 children in Iowa and North Carolina between 1975 and 1998. (nih.gov)
- A persistent question regarding the weekend effect is whether higher weekend mortality reflects patient characteristics (i.e., patients admitted on the weekend are more severely ill) or health system characteristics (i.e., decreased availability of clinical services on the weekend). (ahrq.gov)
- We used logistic regression to examine parent, child and farm characteristics associated with injury mortality. (nih.gov)
- WHO provided technical and financial support to develop the national Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health Strategy, and supported the adaptation and roll out of Integrated the Obstetric Care Guideline, including preconception care, WHO antenatal care (ANC) recommendations, and intrapartum and post-natal care. (who.int)
- Technical support provided by WHO was instrumental in the development and roll out of safe abortion and post-abortion care guidelines, including self-care intervention for Reproductive maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (RMNCAH). (who.int)
- Dr Austin Demby, Sierra Leone's Minister of Health and Sanitation, has appealed to world leaders to support the nation in its efforts to reduce maternal and infant mortality, saying that "every case of maternal mortality constitutes an emergency" for his Ministry. (who.int)
- A resource for kids, parents, and teachers to find fun and educational materials related to health, science, and the environment we live in today. (nih.gov)
- Firstly, for a comprehensive investigation of health-related socioeconomic factors, not only the HDI indicator but also other determinants of health status (maternal and child mortality) need to be considered. (who.int)
- An Australian study that attempted to answer this question found a mixed picture, with certain diagnoses (especially those requiring urgent admission and treatment) appearing to have increased mortality for weekend admissions due principally to health system factors. (ahrq.gov)
- Farm children face unique health risks due to sharing their residential environment with hazardous machinery and materials. (nih.gov)
- A spiraling mental health crisis looms across the landscape of child mortality. (ktsm.com)
- Although children are protected in other human rights instruments, these were generally viewed as insufficient protection, especially with regard to issues around children's health [ 8 , 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The Child Health Task Force is managed by JSI Research & Training Institute, Inc. through the USAID Advancing Nutrition project and funded by USAID and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation . (childhealthtaskforce.org)
- j. child health (Online);7(1): 17-21, 2013. (bvsalud.org)
- The pattern was similar for recurrence/progression and health-related mortality. (medpagetoday.com)
- When the investigators compared that rate with 0 MET-h/wk, they found the adjusted RRs were 0.58, 0.80, and 0.63 for all-cause, recurrent/progressive, and health-related mortality, respectively. (medpagetoday.com)
- Although the death rate among children aged 0-4 years increased slightly during 1980-1993 (from 1.8 to 1.9 per million population), the rate in 1993 had decreased from that in 1992 (2.4 per million population). (cdc.gov)
- Among children aged 5-14 years, the asthma death rate nearly doubled from 1980 to 1993 (from 1.7 to 3.2 per million population). (cdc.gov)
- Although the rate of hospitalization for asthma was highest and increased the most among children aged less than 1 year (from 35.6 to 64.7 per 10,000 population) ( Figure 2 ), the rate in 1993 had decreased from that in 1992 (66.3 per 10,000 population). (cdc.gov)
- Among children aged 1-4 years, the rate of hospitalization increased during 1980-1992 (from 38.3 to 60.1 per 10,000 population), but decreased in 1993 (43.6 per 10,000 population) because of a decrease in the number of participating hospitals. (cdc.gov)
- Child mortality is rising at the fastest rate in 50 years. (ktsm.com)
- But researchers found the death rate rising for children of both genders and multiple races and across several causational categories, from car accidents to drug overdose. (ktsm.com)
- Infant mortality rate is the number of infants who die before their first birthday per 1,000 live births. (aecf.org)
- Infant mortality rate disparity is the ratio of the Black infant mortality rate compared to the White infant mortality rate. (aecf.org)
- Risk factors and outcomes for foreign body left during a procedure: analysis of 413 incidents after 1,946,831 operations in children. (ahrq.gov)
- hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) and mortality .Results. (bvsalud.org)
- Fewer children are dying of diseases that vaccines can prevent. (ktsm.com)
- Around the start of mass vaccinations, these contributions to the mortality burden decreased rapidly to near zero. (thelancet.com)
- It has been proposed that abuse requires a parent who is capable of abuse, a child who is actively or passively a target, and a crisis that triggers an inappropriate response. (medscape.com)
- A nation that begins losing its most cherished population - its children - faces a crisis like no other. (ncvoices.com)
- Local and institutional resources such as social workers, child abuse physicians, pediatric radiologists, CPS, and law enforcement should be consulted early in the evaluation when possible. (medscape.com)
- Links to websites of groups that study or provide information about infant mortality. (nih.gov)
- Secondly, the type of current study was an ecological (1) or correlational study (2), and the main purpose was to determine the correlation between factors under study and not determinant factors of maternal and child mortality. (who.int)
- A new study suggests that in making all that mess, their child is learning. (time.com)
- This is the largest increase in U.S. child mortality in more than 50 years, according to the study. (ncvoices.com)
- According to a study by the Williams Institute at the University of California-Los Angeles, gender-affirming care is under attack in 30 states, which puts around 150,000 transgender children at risk of losing their access to care. (ncvoices.com)
- Are there ways to reduce the risk of infant mortality? (nih.gov)
- Using all-cause under-5 mortality as an outcome variable, the distribution and effects of risk factors were modeled using survival analysis. (who.int)
- So we have to ask why do Republican leaders continue to put our children at greater and greater risk of harm and death by allowing guns to be accessible to those who would cause harm? (ncvoices.com)
- Also, if survivors with low exercise levels increased the amount they work out, they also reduced their mortality risk, reported Jessica Scott, PhD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City. (medpagetoday.com)
- The valuable article recently published in the EMHJ examined the relationship between HDI, maternal and child (under 5 years) mortality in West Asia (1). (who.int)
- Child abuse is a challenging diagnosis to manage in the emergency department (ED). It is best managed systematically, with a multidisciplinary team, and with established guidelines to maintain objectivity and thoroughness. (medscape.com)
- Scott said that studies looking at the effect of exercise after diagnosis on mortality among people with adult-onset cancer generally find a higher benefit than what her group found, but those analyses were limited by small sample sizes and limited follow-up. (medpagetoday.com)
- Conclusion The association between parental education and mortality in young age was consistent, although distinctively patterned by sex, age and cause of death. (bmj.com)
- We estimate that mass vaccination programmes averted 148 000 years of life lost up to age 20 years (95% prediction interval 110 000-201 000) among children born before 1992. (thelancet.com)
- The research shows that an additional road built within five kilometres increases the probability that a mother experiences an infant death by three percentage points from 8.5 per cent to 11.5 per cent The research team also found that children under the age of five living near a recently built road have a lower level of haemoglobin in the blood and are more likely to suffer from severe anaemia. (gebeta.net)
- Scott's group found a statistically significant but nonlinear inverse association between exercise and all-cause mortality. (medpagetoday.com)
- In 1993, among children aged 0-4 years, blacks were six times more likely to die from asthma than whites, and boys were 1.4 times more likely than girls. (cdc.gov)
- 95%CI=0.28, 0.61) in children aged 0-19 years. (nih.gov)
- Fatal vehicular accidents, which declined for years, have rebounded and are elevating the youth death toll. (ktsm.com)
- Child mortality has been reduced by more than 50 % over the past 30 years. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although the absolute increase in mortality was small, the proportional increase was similar to prior studies. (ahrq.gov)
- Did the UN convention on the rights of the child reduce child mortality around the world? (biomedcentral.com)
- The meeting's goal was to inform a research agenda designed to address maternal mortality in the United States. (nih.gov)