Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Child Rearing: The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Child, Institutionalized: A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Child Custody: The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Schools: Educational institutions.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.United StatesLongitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Child, Abandoned: A child or adolescent who is deserted by parents or parent substitutes without regard for its future care.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Aid to Families with Dependent Children: Financial assistance provided by the government to indigent families with dependent children who meet certain requirements as defined by the Social Security Act, Title IV, in the U.S.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.IndiaAdoption: Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Foster Home Care: Families who care for neglected children or patients unable to care for themselves.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Early Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)BrazilWounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Tonsillectomy: Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Adenoidectomy: Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Intensive Care Units, Pediatric: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill infants and children. Neonates are excluded since INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, NEONATAL is available.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Infant Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.Adult Children: Children who have reached maturity or the legal age of majority.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Kwashiorkor: A syndrome produced by severe protein deficiency, characterized by retarded growth, changes in skin and hair pigment, edema, and pathologic changes in the liver, including fatty infiltration, necrosis, and fibrosis. The word is a local name in Gold Coast, Africa, meaning "displaced child". Although first reported from Africa, kwashiorkor is now known throughout the world, but mainly in the tropics and subtropics. It is considered to be related to marasmus. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Child Restraint Systems: Devices used to protect and restrain infant and child automotive passengers.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.BangladeshSex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Otitis Media: Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Battered Child Syndrome: A clinical condition resulting from repeated physical and psychological injuries inflicted on a child by the parents or caregivers.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Lead PoisoningNutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Orphanages: Institutions for the housing and care of orphans, foundlings, and abandoned children. They have existed as such since the medieval period but the heading is applicable to such usage also in modern parlance.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Infant Equipment: Equipment and furniture used by infants and babies in the home, car, and play area.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.MexicoAccident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Only Child: Child who has no siblings.TurkeyPuberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.Family Relations: Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.EnglandTobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Great BritainInterpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Child Reactive Disorders: Reactions to an event or set of events which are considered to be of pathological degree, that have not developed into a neurosis, psychosis, or personality disorder with fixed patterns.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Enuresis: Involuntary discharge of URINE after expected age of completed development of urinary control. This can happen during the daytime (DIURNAL ENURESIS) while one is awake or during sleep (NOCTURNAL ENURESIS). Enuresis can be in children or in adults (as persistent primary enuresis and secondary adult-onset enuresis).Pediatric Nursing: The nursing specialty concerning care of children from birth to adolescence. It includes the clinical and psychological aspects of nursing care.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Arthritis, Juvenile: Arthritis of children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Vitamin A Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Adenoids: A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Professional-Family Relations: The interactions between the professional person and the family.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.ReadingQuality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.California

The pattern of severe protein-calorie malnutrition in Sudanese children attending a large hospital in The Sudan. (1/75)

One hundred fifty patients suffering from severe protein-calorie malnutrition, admitted in 1 month to the Pediatric wards of Wad Medani Hospital, Sudan, were classified according to the Wellcome classification. Marasmus was the prevailing type. It was common in the 2nd year of life, while kwashiorkor occurred mainly under the age of 12 months. Anthropometric measurements showed that kwashiorkor was an acute disease while marasmus and marasmic kwashiorkor were more chronic. The triceps skinfold was unexpectedly low in kwashiorkor. Of the simple measurements and ratios used for assessing the nutritional status, the head/chest ratio applied ot children over 1 year was not found to be reliable and the weight for head circumference correlated poorly with deficits in other variables. Non of the major clinical features was found to be pathognomonic of any type of severe protein-calorie malnutrition. Megaloblastic anemia was common.  (+info)

Hepatitis B antigen in Montreal blood donors: childhood institutionalization as an epidemiologic factor. (2/75)

In 1971 the Canadian Red Cross blood tranfusion service instituted routine screening for HBAg of all blood donors, using nationwide a standardized counterimmunoelectrophoretic technique. The prevalence of carriers in the Province of Quebec is unusually high (0.51%), being 3 to 12 times higher than in the other nine provinces. Among the carriers found in the Montreal area 289 volunteered to be seen by our group for an extensive interview and a series of laboratory tests. There were 243 men and 46 women; their ages ranged from 18 to 55, 90% being less than 40. Twenty-nine were of foreign origin and 260 were born in Canada. The epidemiologic data revealed that the reservoir of HBAg carriers among the blood donors of the Montreal area was found predominantly in the autochthonous population of French origin. Moreover, it appeared that 149 (52%) had lived in institution when they were infants or children: 127 were orphans and had been placed in institutions as newborns or babies, and 22 others had lived in institutions for at least 1 year between the ages of 5 and 10. This was by far the most important single epidemiologic factor that could contribute to the explanation of the abnormally high prevalence of HBAg carriers in the population studied.  (+info)

Specificity and heterogeneity in children's responses to profound institutional privation. (3/75)

BACKGROUND: The sequelae of profound early privation are varied. AIMS: To delineate the behavioural patterns that are specifically associated with institutional privation. METHOD: A group of 165 children adopted from Romania before the age of 42 months were compared at 4 years and 6 years with 52 non-deprived UK children adopted in infancy. Dysfunction was assessed for seven domains of functioning. The groups were compared on which, and how many, domains were impaired. RESULTS: Attachment problems, inattention/overactivity, quasi-autistic features and cognitive impairment were associated with institutional privation, but emotional difficulties, poor peer relationships and conduct problems were not. Nevertheless, one-fifth of children who spent the longest time in institutions showed normal functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Attachment disorder behaviours, inattention/overactivity and quasi-autistic behaviour constitute institutional privation patterns.  (+info)

Does providing social services with information and advice on immunisation status of "looked after children" improve uptake? (4/75)

We prospectively assessed whether providing social services with information on the immunisation status for a cohort of looked after children in the care of an urban unitary authority in England improved uptake rates. The provision of such information did not improve immunisation coverage in these children.  (+info)

Children of low birthweight in the 1946 national cohort. Behaviour and educational achievement in adolescence. (5/75)

Among 12 468 legitimate single births in the first week of March 1946, 163 weighed 200 g or less (LBW group) and of these 80 survived to 18 years. 6 of the LBW survivors emigrated with their families and 5 have not been traced since birth. The remaining 69 were followed up to the age of 15 at which time two early school leavers were lost to the study. There is evidence that none of the survivors who emigrated or left the sample and serious physical or mental impairment. Compared with individually matched controls, the LBW children showed similar proportions with severe physical, mental, or behavioural handicaps. There are small and statistically nonsignificant differences in favour of the controls in ability and attainment scores at 15 years and in the level of academic qualifications gained by the age of 18. If the mean ability and attainment scores are expressed as an "intelligence quotient" with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, the LBW group has an average IQ of 93 and the controls of 97. Hospital stay after childbirth was much longer in 1946 than today and many LBW children spent more than 3 weeks in hospital. There is no evidence that long hospital stay was associated with problems of behaviour or learning in adolescence.  (+info)

Pre-placement screening in international adoption. (6/75)

BACKGROUND: The number of child adoptions from abroad is increasing, but the adverse living conditions of these children prior to the adoption raise questions on their medical and neurodevelopmental status, particularly since there are no guidelines for pre- or post-adoption medical evaluation. OBJECTIVES: To describe the condition of a cohort of young children who were candidates for adoption in East European orphanages and foster homes, and to determine those attributes associated with a family's decision to adopt or refuse a particular child. METHODS: Eighty-two young children, median age 11 months, were evaluated by Israeli pediatricians in Eastern Europe between 3 weeks and 6 months prior to their adoption. The evaluation consisted of comprehensive medical and neurodevelopmental testing on site using a battery of standardized assessment tools, and observation of free play and social interactive behaviors recorded on videotape. Laboratory tests included complete blood count, chemistries, serology screening, and metabolic and genetic testing. RESULTS: The children were growth-retarded. Medical problems were classified as resolved (pneumonia and diarrhea) in 32.8%; or ongoing, such as hepatitis B and C, failure to thrive, organomegaly, and visual and hearing disorders, in 14.8%. Neuromotor status was grossly abnormal in 13.4%. Twenty-two percent of the children were rejected for adoption by families in Israel. Factors associated with the adoption decision were performance skills on developmental testing (P = 0.0001), present medical status (P = 0.002), and weight (P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-placement comprehensive screening of children eligible for foreign adoption, which includes developmental screening, helps to identify a wide variety of strengths and impairments in a child's background before the adoption procedure is finalized. A family's decision to adopt or not was associated with the child's performance on Bayley Scales, weight, and current medical status, but not with language delays, serious past medical history or suspect family background.  (+info)

Teaching foster grandparents to train severely handicapped persons. (7/75)

Five foster grandparents were taught training skills for use in their daily interactions with severely handicapped persons in an institution. Following baseline, specific teaching procedures consisting of teacher instructions, prompts, modelling, and praise were implemented. The grandparents' frequency of training three skill areas increased as the specific teaching was implemented in multiple-baseline format. The total amount of training continued as teacher instructions, prompts, and modelling were terminated and praise continued, although the grandparents spent their training time emphasizing only two of the three skill areas. Teacher presence was gradually reduced over an 11-week period, with no decrease in grandparents' frequency of training. Four of the foster grandchildren, all profoundly retarded and multiply handicapped, demonstrated progress throughout the study. Results were discussed in light of the available contributions of foster grandparents in institutional settings and maintenance of staff training.  (+info)

The PedsQL Family Impact Module: preliminary reliability and validity. (8/75)

BACKGROUND: The PedsQL Measurement Model was designed to measure health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children and adolescents. The PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales were developed to be integrated with the PedsQL Disease-Specific Modules. The newly developed PedsQL Family Impact Module was designed to measure the impact of pediatric chronic health conditions on parents and the family. The PedsQL Family Impact Module measures parent self-reported physical, emotional, social, and cognitive functioning, communication, and worry. The Module also measures parent-reported family daily activities and family relationships. METHODS: The 36-item PedsQL Family Impact Module was administered to 23 families of medically fragile children with complex chronic health conditions who either resided in a long-term care convalescent hospital or resided at home with their families. RESULTS: Internal consistency reliability was demonstrated for the PedsQL Family Impact Module Total Scale Score (alpha = 0.97), Parent HRQOL Summary Score (alpha = 0.96), Family Functioning Summary Score (alpha = 0.90), and Module Scales (average alpha = 0.90, range = 0.82 - 0.97). The PedsQL Family Impact Module distinguished between families with children in a long-term care facility and families whose children resided at home. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the preliminary reliability and validity of the PedsQL Family Impact Module in families with children with complex chronic health conditions. The PedsQL Family Impact Module will be further field tested to determine the measurement properties of this new instrument with other pediatric chronic health conditions.  (+info)

  • Each of three consecutive annual sessions assessed pubertal stage via physical examination and salivary cortisol reactivity to the Trier social stress test, a task designed to measure response to social evaluation, which was adapted for children. (
  • Violence against children and adolescents, women, and older persons have assumed a prominent position on the health agenda, while other forms of violence, such as child labor, human trafficking, homophobic and racial violence, and violence against street dwellers and people with disabilities, who are deprived of their liberty, are gradually finding their way onto the agenda. (
  • children (parents with less than high school education), Achieving this objective entails determining and American Indian/Alaska Native children and adolescents defining the information needed to measure progress toward living in Indian Health Service (IHS) service areas, and each national health objective. (
  • The health of women, children, and adolescents is a central component of the new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). (
  • The Global Strategy for Women's, Children's, and Adolescents' Health (2016-2030) lays out a broad strategy for achieving the health-related SDGs, especially the ending of preventable maternal, child, newborn and adolescent deaths with a greater focus on enabling all citizens of the world to achieve their full health potential [ 1 ]. (
  • Prevalences and configurations of mental disorders among institutionalized adolescents. (
  • Homeless and runaway children and adolescents were the most likely to be sterilized. (
  • Traumatic events and posttraumatic reactions among children and adolescents in out-of-home placement: A 25-year systematic literature review. (
  • Number one, it assumes that coaching a child into a fixed-false belief is mentally healthy,' she said about the two pro-trans studies, but 'science doesn't allow you to assume your conclusion. (
  • Sure, we all know about the blessings that a special needs child brings to a family, but, frankly, those stories are talking about Down's syndrome children, or mentally handicapped ones - not someone like Menachem. (
  • Hello, I just wanted to know, if a mentally ill mother (specifically one who is a Paranoid Schizophrenic but on medication) loses her adult child to suicide, what would her reaction be? (
  • Amid a pandemic-driven firestorm over nursing-home care , one particularly vulnerable group of long-term care residents has been all but forgotten: children. (
  • Thousands of America's sickest children live in long-term care facilities. (
  • Although children generally have been less affected by Covid than adults, the new coronavirus poses a significant threat in pediatric long-term care facilities. (
  • Children with complex medical conditions and compromised immune systems "are at higher risk for any viral illness, inclusive of Covid," says Dr. Matthew McDonald, vice president and chief medical officer at Children's Specialized Hospital, which has two pediatric long-term care facilities in New Jersey. (
  • In addition to the virus itself, children in long-term care facilities face isolation as strict social-distancing measures are imposed. (
  • Regulators and long-term care industry groups say they don't know the total number of pediatric long-term care facilities or how many children they house-much less how many may suffer from Covid-19 and its ripple effects. (
  • Patricia Budo, executive director of the Pediatric Complex Care Association, estimates that at least 60 long-term care facilities nationwide serve children with complex medical conditions. (
  • Does early family risk and current quality of care predict indiscriminate social behavior in institutionalized Portuguese children? (
  • Stronger health systems, with an emphasis on community-based primary health care, are required to help accelerate the pace of ending preventable maternal and child deaths as well as contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). (
  • Point-of-care Capillary Blood Lactate Measurements in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-uninfected Children With In Utero Exposure to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Antiretroviral. (
  • Back in 1989 conditions were very bad, children were suffering, the staff were not trained for child care," Unicef representative in Romania Edmond McLoughney told AFP. (
  • Everything is not perfect, but most children are now in family-type care, which makes a huge difference, it's an incredibly more humane situation, they have more individual attention from care givers," he added. (
  • But when that institution was closed down and the children moved to Targu-Jiu, Iulia started getting the attention and care she needed. (
  • 2-7 Other speculations include the possibility that Chinese birth mothers may receive better prenatal care than birth mothers in other countries who relinquish their children, and the possibility that institutional care for abandoned children in China is superior to that provided in other countries. (
  • Furthermore, Abe has promised to improve the precarious day care shortage through creating 200,000 new day care spots for children by 2015 and 200,000 more by March 2018 (Otake 2014). (
  • Vaccinations are among the simplest collective measures we can take to care for our children. (
  • This resource includes strategies to care for ourselves, our children, and others who might need help. (
  • As children, they need loving care and extra attention to make sure that their minds are stimulated. (
  • I take care of patients across the street from the hospital, kids and adults, and I used to take care of kids in that hospital. (
  • And they're going to get the perfect care for that runny nose, but nobody's going to notice the bruise on the back of their leg that is an early sign of child abuse that are child abuse team here would have caught up and would hae intervened on early, before the kid could be put back in danger. (
  • Many remain in institutionalized care for their entire childhood. (
  • Migration uproots a family's stability and, as a result of separation, reduced care and resources may negatively impact the social and psychological development of left-behind children. (
  • The main objective of this study was to assess the developmental status of children living in the severely adverse environment of institutional care and the examination of risk factors with regard to developmental status, including degree of stunting and emotional-behavioral and anemia status. (
  • Our findings indicated that young children in institutions were developmentally compromised, with duration of institutional care correlated with the severity of delay. (
  • Our findings indicate that institutional care has a detrimental impact on the development and emotional regulation of young children. (
  • Time in institutional care is a negative predictor for cognitive status for children placed at birth. (
  • 2011). I. Children in institutional care: Delayed development and resilience. (
  • The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy presents a platform for providing integrated child care services for the most common childhood afflictions. (
  • The Regional Office continued to provide technical support for improving the quality of hospital care for children. (
  • Pocket book of hospital care for children - Guidelines for the management of common illnesses with limited resources . (
  • Family and community process for improving quality of child care in hospitals was initiated in Bangladesh. (
  • A Regional consultation on the subject led to the drafting of a Regional framework for improving the quality of hospital care for children. (
  • Children experiencing psychosocial deprivation as a result of early institutional rearing demonstrate many difficulties with memory and executive functioning (EF). (
  • The results show a high prevalence of TMD and a slight association between TMD and children with low body weight. (
  • The new survey will measure for the first time in Mali the prevalence and extent of child labor based on the new resolution on child labor statistics aimed at harmonizing international statistical standards for the identification (and classification) of children in productive activities and child labor. (
  • At the beginning of his administration in 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt wished to propose legislation to guarantee minimum wages and maximum hours and to restrict child labor , but he feared constitutional challenges. (
  • 22 ) In addition, the law allows children ages 12 through 14 to engage in light work for a limited number of hours, but it does not specify the conditions under which light work may be undertaken, nor does it define the activities that are permitted, as called for under international standards. (
  • Buried in annual news reports about the War on Drugs is the fact that alcohol, not cocaine or marijuana, remains the drug of choice for kids ages 12 to 17. (
  • It is believed up to 200,000 children were living in state institutions in 1989. (
  • Ukrainian migrants, who left 200,000 children behind, sent home an estimated US$9 billion in remittances in 2014, the largest amount in the region, representing 5.4 percent of GDP. (
  • With a $60,000 target, he has now raised more than $200,000 and plans to use the extra funds to support programs that help abandoned children in Armenia and families with disabled children. (
  • In this paper, we propose a new conceptual framework that depicts three primary pathways through which NGOs can contribute to the institutionalization of community-focused maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) strategies to strengthen health systems at the district, national or global level. (
  • 9 The preventive and curative interventions in the basic package of health services target the disease burden in the country, particularly infectious disease and the high maternal and child morbidity and mortality (Box 1). (
  • Since Ayres 1 described sensory integration dysfunction in the 1970s, sensory-based therapies have been used increasingly, mainly by occupational therapists (but sometimes other health professionals) to treat a range of symptoms seen in children presenting from across a variety of settings, including the home, community organizations, clinics, and schools. (
  • That fear is repeatedly tamped down as unfounded, but the fact remains, according to , that autism has spiked at "an alarming rate" from one of every 2,000 children in the 1970s and 80s to one of every 150 today. (
  • Surprisingly few people have met adults with autism, but an overwhelming majority knows a child living with the disorder. (
  • That's no surprise, given that the latest CDC statistics say 1 in 150 children has autism. (
  • But without a doubt, the numbers mean a whole new generation of children will be growing up with autism. (
  • That's because much of the research on autism is focused solely on identifying it and intervening while a child is still young. (
  • Jenny McCarthy and Larry King aren't the only ones who are trying to learn more about the process of raising a child with autism. (
  • Children today do not receive that much in their vaccines but, with the rates of autism still as high as they are, that would tell me that it only takes a little to cause autism and other problems. (
  • Occupational therapists commonly work with children with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit disorder, learning disabilities, and other developmental disorders. (
  • Moreover, under a law passed in 2002, children under the age of two can no longer be placed in orphanages, unless suffering from disabilities requiring constant medical assistance. (
  • SEARCH is a six-site, multiethnic, population-based observational study that ascertained all patients with physician-diagnosed diabetes who were aged 0-19 years on 31 December 2001, retrospectively, and all new cases of diabetes in youth aged 0-19 years from 1 January 2002 forward ( 23 ). (
  • As one of six clinical sites participating in the SEARCH Study, Colorado identified youth with prevalent diabetes in 2001 who resided in the Denver metropolitan area at diagnosis (seven counties covering 55% of the Colorado population) and is conducting ascertainment of cases newly diagnosed in 2002 and beyond in the entire state of Colorado. (
  • The West African nation of Benin faces many challenges in achieving Millennium Development Goal 4---reducing child mortality. (
  • Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, April, Denver, Colorado. (
  • Environmental Factors in the Development of Institutionalized Children, pp. 450-472. (
  • This project aims to assess the effect of group peer support to children with HIV in relation to adherence, virological treatment failure as well as physical development. (
  • The results from this project will lead to an increased knowledge in relation to the impact of enhanced treatment support on adherence, virological suppression and resistance development for children with HIV and have an impact on HIV treatment policies and guidelines for Pediatric HIV in low-income settings globally. (
  • Attachment theory has led to a new understanding of child development. (
  • Some studies, however, claim there is not enough evidence demonstrating that migration has a negative impact on the future development of children, and that parents typically choose to migrate only when there is a well-functioning caregiver arrangement in place. (
  • This new project is well aligned to the strategic priorities of development cooperation between Norway and Malawi, which include a focus on the agriculture sector and respect for human rights, as well as with Norway's global development cooperation priorities regarding the elimination of modern slavery and child labour. (
  • The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were used to assess development status in 103 children aged 14.9 months (SD = 6.8) in six Kazakh institutions. (
  • Particular attention is needed for special-needs children such as those with low birth weight, since their development was found to be more sensitive to early adversity than that of normal birth weight children. (
  • Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 76 (4), 1-7. (
  • 10. The South-East Asia Expert Group on Child Health and Development was established to guide the Regional Office and Member countries in preventing disease and promoting health of the child, focusing on the areas of delivery of effective interventions, quality of information, research, and demand for child health interventions. (
  • Set up in the 1990s, the French NGO Solidarite enfants roumains abandonnes (SERA or Solidarity for abandoned Romanian children) has so far helped close several of the most infamous orphanages, building new, smaller centres instead. (
  • 70 children between 6 and 14 years enrolled in the Rogationist Benevolent Institute of charity in the city of São Paulo (Brazil) underwent clinical examination by one calibrated examiner for the use of Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD. (
  • We're sitting in a conference room at the San Marcos Treatment Center, just south of Austin, Texas, a space that has witnessed countless difficult conversations between troubled children, their worried parents, and clinical therapists. (
  • The reconceptualisation of play presented here is supported by research that explored the spiritual experiences of young children in different early childhood contexts. (
  • There is no cure or effective treatment and most children with the disease die in childhood. (
  • Attachment theory ( Bowlby 1969, 1973, 1980) is rooted in the ethological notion that a newborn child is biologically programmed to seek proximity with caregivers, and this proximity-seeking behavior is naturally selected. (
  • Parents who find themselves at their wits' end with their children and teens are resorting to sending their kids away to programs away from home, often hundreds and thousands of miles from home. (
  • Tens of thousands of parents each year are placing their children and teens into residential programs across the US and around the world without realizing what they are getting themselves, and most importantly, their child or teen, into. (
  • CAICA has received complaints from parents that their children have been abused in many of these programs . (
  • If your child, teen, or family are not in imminent danger CAICA recommends parents Stop - Take a Breath - and Do Your Research. (
  • Many parents have indicated if they knew then what they know now they would never have sent their child or teen away. (
  • For parents who have no other choice but to place their child in a program (court-appointed, etc. (
  • CAICA and the US Department of State warns against parents sending children and teens to programs outside the country . (
  • CAICA warns against parents hiring teen transports for the sake of transporting children to facilities they themselves have not visited and fully investigated. (
  • CAICA warns against hiring transport companies who pick children up in the middle of the night , taking them from their beds without pre-warning from parents and without their consent. (
  • Since 1989, American parents have adopted 18 846 Chinese children. (
  • The travel group comprised 260 of 325 Chinese children placed by a single Massachusetts adoption agency between 1991 and 1996 whose adoptive parents and American physicians responded to mailed questionnaires. (
  • 1 In 1988, for example, only 52 children were adopted from mainland China, whereas in 1999, 4101 Chinese children were adopted by American parents: 26% of all international adoptees. (
  • Adoptive parents, adoption agencies, and physicians caring for international adoptees have wondered whether the young age of most of the Chinese children at the time of placement reduced the frequency of health and developmental problems that have been described in children from Russia, Eastern Europe, and other regions. (
  • We evaluated 2 groups of Chinese children adopted by American parents. (
  • I started the Drowning Prevention Foundation in 1985 to help make sure other children, parents, families and pool owners do not suffer what my family suffered. (
  • The law updates the Swimming Pool Safety Act to require two safety barriers, instead of one, to help keep children from accessing pools and/or to alert parents if a young child gets into the pool area alone. (
  • Sara A. Brown (1922) lists reasons children ran away from home during the early twentieth century: death of parents, abusive home life, broken homes, feeblemindedness, delinquency, and poverty. (
  • Amanda Baggs has a strong message for parents of autistic children. (
  • They may be the vaccine-hesistant Amish , vaccine-refusing Christian Scientists , Jenny McCarthy acolytes, granola crunchers who don't want to put "unnatural" things in their kids' bodies, or simply worried parents who delay immunizing their children. (
  • U nless they get a phone call from an emergency room or the police, most parents never do learn how much their children drink or how close they have come to disaster. (
  • It was the end of the kindergarten school year and the teacher called the whole class together, at the behest of the boy's parents, and had the children sit down and she read them two stories. (
  • Single parents or couples from foreign countries adopt a small minority of these beautiful children. (
  • Most parents wouldn't hesitate: a healthy child. (
  • The test will also produce false positives that frighten parents into thinking their child will have a disability when in fact he or she will be healthy. (
  • Comeau estimates that 4,000 to 5,000 children live in skilled nursing facilities-either in stand-alone pediatric facilities or pediatric units attached to geriatric facilities. (
  • The second study was conducted under contract with Macro Systems, Inc., to assess policy and practice with regard to a number of issues bearing on pediatric AIDS and the child welfare system. (
  • Malawi leads the developing world as the first to propose an approach to prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV that addresses the health of the mother. (
  • it funded and coordinated 137 institutions in the US that conducted research - including chemical warfare agents and prevention of infectious diseases tested on prisoners and children. (
  • SB 442 addresses one part of the drowning prevention puzzle - multiple safety barriers to prevent a child accessing a pool unsupervised by an adult. (
  • The experiment induced stuttering in twenty-two children living at the Iowa Soldiers' Orphans' Home in Davenport. (
  • Art educators and classroom teachers in the elementary schools are confronted with the challenge of helping children look critically at works of art and develop written and/or verbal skills to communicate their findings. (
  • Special teaching is also needed to ensure that these children develop as far as possible. (
  • Early marriage deprives a child from enjoying life, entertainment and education, he said. (
  • It's such an early stage of these children being treated that we don't hear a lot of these side effects cropping up yet. (
  • Barak describes the early discussions and definitions of vagrancy laws, in which children were referred to as waifs and were included in the definition of hobos, tramps, vagabonds, beggars, and bums. (
  • They already had three biological children, but they felt called to add Samantha (not her real name) and her half sister, who is two years older, to their family. (
  • I always planned to adopt a child if I wasn't married and having biological children by the age of 35. (
  • The Philadelphia Registry showed a stable rate for both Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites from 1985 to 1999 and an increase in incidence for black children. (
  • Turns out the Vaccine Injury Compensation Court exists in part due to the 3.5 million dollar malpractice suit that Dr. David Tayloe lost in 1985 when a child he gave the DPT shot to magically got permanent brain injury! (
  • La asistencia al niño en las guarderías y residencias infantiles : informe sobre la reuni'on de un Comité de Expertos ONU/OMS celebrada con la participaci'on de la FAO, la OIT y el UNICEF, Ginebra, 23 de octubre - 1 de noviembre de 1962. (
  • UNICEF estimates that there are approximately 8 million children worldwide who live in institutions. (
  • According to Bowlby, attachment provides a secure base from which the child can explore the environment, a haven of safety to which the child can return when he or she is afraid or fearful. (
  • Unsuspected significant medical diagnoses, including hearing loss, orthopedic problems, and congenital anomalies, were found in 18% (81/452) of the children. (
  • Sometimes when meiosis ( the division of reproductive cells ) occurs, chromosomes may be lost, left behind, or too many may be passed on, resulting in the birth of a child with a genetic or congenital defect or disease. (
  • An agency under the Ministry of Labor, Social Solidarity and Family that is mandated to coordinate and control Romania's child rights protection and promotion activities, including monitoring implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, and Romania's Law 272/2004 on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of the Child. (
  • In 2016, Samoa made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. (
  • The Government ratified two United Nations optional protocols on child labor and increased funding for the Samoa School Fee Relief Grant Scheme to enhance access to basic education for all children. (
  • In addition, the Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Labor endorsed the findings of a study that provides information on children working on the streets in Apia, Samoa. (
  • The Government lacks a mechanism to coordinate interagency efforts to address child labor, and Samoan laws do not comprehensively specify the types of hazardous work prohibited for children. (
  • Samoa has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3). (
  • The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). (
  • However, gaps exist in Samoa's legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor. (
  • It also established requirements for overtime and restricted child labor . (
  • Many southern conservatives feared that the bill's requirements of minimum wages and maximum hours and abolition of child labor would eliminate the competitive advantage that the region possessed because of its generally lower wage rates. (
  • For example, in 1916, Congress outlawed child labor by passing the Child Labor Act, which prohibited transportation of products made with child labor in interstate commerce. (
  • In Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918), the Court held the Child Labor Act unconstitutional as an interference with state regulatory power. (
  • This article focuses on the impact of labor migration on children left behind, examining this phenomenon through a lens of economic, social, and gendered implications. (
  • It is unknown how labor migration patterns and their impact on children will be affected by the current chaotic political situation in Ukraine. (
  • The most important and timely question raised by scholars Ernesto Castañeda and Lesley Buck in the debate on labor migration and children left behind addresses the issue of who is actually raising the children of the developing world. (