Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Child Rearing: The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Child, Institutionalized: A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Child Custody: The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Schools: Educational institutions.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.United StatesLongitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Child, Abandoned: A child or adolescent who is deserted by parents or parent substitutes without regard for its future care.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Aid to Families with Dependent Children: Financial assistance provided by the government to indigent families with dependent children who meet certain requirements as defined by the Social Security Act, Title IV, in the U.S.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.IndiaAdoption: Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Foster Home Care: Families who care for neglected children or patients unable to care for themselves.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Early Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)BrazilWounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Tonsillectomy: Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Adenoidectomy: Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Intensive Care Units, Pediatric: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill infants and children. Neonates are excluded since INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, NEONATAL is available.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Infant Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.Adult Children: Children who have reached maturity or the legal age of majority.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Kwashiorkor: A syndrome produced by severe protein deficiency, characterized by retarded growth, changes in skin and hair pigment, edema, and pathologic changes in the liver, including fatty infiltration, necrosis, and fibrosis. The word is a local name in Gold Coast, Africa, meaning "displaced child". Although first reported from Africa, kwashiorkor is now known throughout the world, but mainly in the tropics and subtropics. It is considered to be related to marasmus. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Child Restraint Systems: Devices used to protect and restrain infant and child automotive passengers.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.BangladeshSex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Otitis Media: Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Battered Child Syndrome: A clinical condition resulting from repeated physical and psychological injuries inflicted on a child by the parents or caregivers.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Lead PoisoningNutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Orphanages: Institutions for the housing and care of orphans, foundlings, and abandoned children. They have existed as such since the medieval period but the heading is applicable to such usage also in modern parlance.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Infant Equipment: Equipment and furniture used by infants and babies in the home, car, and play area.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.MexicoAccident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Only Child: Child who has no siblings.TurkeyPuberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.Family Relations: Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.EnglandTobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Great BritainInterpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Child Reactive Disorders: Reactions to an event or set of events which are considered to be of pathological degree, that have not developed into a neurosis, psychosis, or personality disorder with fixed patterns.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Enuresis: Involuntary discharge of URINE after expected age of completed development of urinary control. This can happen during the daytime (DIURNAL ENURESIS) while one is awake or during sleep (NOCTURNAL ENURESIS). Enuresis can be in children or in adults (as persistent primary enuresis and secondary adult-onset enuresis).Pediatric Nursing: The nursing specialty concerning care of children from birth to adolescence. It includes the clinical and psychological aspects of nursing care.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Arthritis, Juvenile: Arthritis of children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Vitamin A Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Adenoids: A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Professional-Family Relations: The interactions between the professional person and the family.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.ReadingQuality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.California

Alternate child care, history of hospitalization, and preschool child behavior. (1/231)

BACKGROUND: With more single mothers entering the workforce due to welfare reform efforts, more hospitalized children from single-parent families will have experienced alternate child care arrangements where routine care is provided by adults other than the child's mother. OBJECTIVES: To investigate with secondary analysis of data whether experience with alternate child care has a moderating effect on the relationship between hospitalization and behavior of preschool children living in female-headed single-parent families. METHOD: A sample of 60 preterm and 61 full-term children who were 3, 4, or 5 years old was recruited for the larger longitudinal study. Behavior problems were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist. History of hospitalization and alternate child care arrangements were measured with the Life History Calendar. RESULTS: Preschool children who experienced hospitalization without alternate child care experience had more somatic complaints, but those with both hospital and alternate child care experience had fewer aggressive behaviors than other children. For children with a history of hospitalization, aggressive behaviors decreased as the proportion of the child's life in alternate child care increased. CONCLUSIONS: Experience with alternate child care may ameliorate some of the negative effects of hospitalization, and potentially other novel and negative experiences, for preschool children. This could be due to child care providing positive experiences with separation from the mother, a peer group with which to talk about the novel experience, or actual instruction about the novel experience.  (+info)

Pediatric discharge against medical advice in Bouake Cote d'Ivoire, 1980-1992. (2/231)

Discharge information was obtained from pediatric ward logbooks of the Centre Hospitalier Regional de Bouake from 1982 to 1992. While number of children admitted per month and discharge diagnosis remained relatively stable throughout the period, the proportion of children who left the hospital against medical advice increased by nearly 5 times during the 11-year period to over 12% of all pediatric admissions. The proportion of discharges against medical advice decreased to 10% of all pediatric admissions after institution of a programme to provide essential drugs at cost to patients (previously only available from private pharmacies). Most children who were taken from the hospital left within the first two days of hospitalization. The admission diagnoses of these children suggest that most had serious, life-threatening illness and that they left the hospital prior to having received adequate treatment. The increase in pediatric ward discharge against medical advice occurred simultaneously with serious budgetary shortfalls in the hospital resulting in inadequacy of medicines and basic equipment. Hospital staff suspected that most of the discharges against medical advice were caused by families being unable to afford the purchase of medicines and supplies necessary for inpatient treatment. It is suggested that widespread policies of decreasing funding for basic curative services in public hospitals may be associated with a substantial increase in preventable child mortality.  (+info)

A prospective study of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized children. (3/231)

AIMS: There are few publications of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among paediatric patients, though ADR incidence is usually stated to be higher during the first year of life and in male patients. We have carried out a prospective study to assess the extent, pattern and profile risk for ADRs in hospitalized patients between 1 and 24 months of age. METHODS: An intensive events monitoring scheme was used. A total of 512 successive admissions to two medical paediatric wards (47 beds) were analysed. The hospital records were screened daily during two periods (summer, 105 days and winter, 99 days), and adverse clinical events observed were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 282 events were detected; of these, 112 were considered to be manifestations of ADRs. The cumulative incidence was 16.6%, no differences being observed between periods. Although there were no differences between patients under and over 12 months of age, risk was found to be significantly higher among girls compared with boys (RR=1.66, 95% CI 1.03-2.52). The gastro-intestinal system was most frequently affected. The therapeutic group most commonly implicated was anti-infective drugs and vaccines (41.5%). The ADRs were mild or moderate in over 90% of cases. A consistent relationship was noted between the number of drugs administered and the incidence of ADRs. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients exhibited an ADR risk profile that included female sex and the number of drugs administered. No particular age predisposition was observed. The most commonly prescribed drugs are those most often implicated in ADRs in paediatric patients.  (+info)

Clinical characteristics of acute viral lower respiratory tract infections in hospitalized children in Seoul, 1996-1998. (4/231)

This study was performed to investigate the etiologic agents, age distribution, clinical manifestations and seasonal occurrence of acute viral lower respiratory tract infections in children. We confirmed viral etiologies using nasopharyngeal aspirates in 237 patients of the ages of 15 years or younger who were hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) from March 1996 to February 1998 at Samsung Seoul Hospital, Seoul, Korea. The overall isolation rate was 22.1%. The viral pathogens identified were adenovirus (12.7%), influenza virus type A (21.1%), -type B (13.9%), parainfluenza virus type 1 (13.5%), -type 2 (1.3%), -type 3 (16.0%) and respiratory syncytial virus (21.5%). The occurrence of ALRIs was highest in the first year of life, although parainfluenza virus type 1 infection occurred predominantly in the second year of life and influenza virus caused illnesses in all age groups. The specific viruses are frequently associated with specific clinical syndromes of ALRI. The respiratory agents and associated syndromes frequently have characteristic seasonal patterns. This study will help us to estimate the etiologic agents of ALRI, and establish a program for the prevention and treatment. An annual nationwide survey is necessary to understand the viral epidemiology associated with respiratory illnesses in Korea.  (+info)

Musculoskeletal conditions in children attending two Togolese hospitals. (5/231)

OBJECTIVE: A retrospective study was conducted in order to point out the different kinds of musculoskeletal conditions observed in children attending two Togolese hospitals. RESULTS: A total of 434 (242 females, 192 males) of the 29 620 children examined (1.5%) were suffering from these conditions. Probable joint and bone infections (187 patients, 43%), limb deformities (106 patients, 24%), osteochondrosis (60 patients, 14%) and vaso-occlusive crisis due to haemoglobinopathies (29 patients, 7%) were the main conditions observed. Osteomyelitis observed in 128 patients affected the humerus (25 patients), radius (10 patients), femur (68 patients), tibia (15 patients), fibula (five patients), and both tibia and fibula (five patients). Probably, infectious arthritis seen in 30 patients affected mainly the hip (11 patients) and the knee (13 patients). In the spine, infection affected the midthoracic and upper lumbar areas. Underdevelopment, sickle cell anaemia and sickle cell haemoglobin C disease were the main risk factors in determining susceptibility to infections. Vaso-occlusive crises were due to sickle cell anaemia (11 patients) and sickle cell haemoglobin C disease (18 patients). Osteochondrosis seen in 60 patients free from haemoglobinopathy involved the spine (Scheuermann's disease, 38 patients) and the hip (Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, 22 patients). Limb deformities were observed in the knee (varus and valgus deformities in 64 patients) and the foot (talipes varus equin in 40 patients). CONCLUSION: This study's findings, which require further confirmation, suggest some conclusions. Scheuermann's disease can explain in part the degenerative disc conditions observed in African adults. Valgus and varus deformities play an important role in the development of knee osteoarthritis in Black Africa. An African child with joint or bone pain should be investigated for sickle cell anaemia. In the future, improved lifestyle and better health care will be essential to reduce bone and joint infections, and allow refined diagnosis of connective tissue diseases now probably underestimated in African children.  (+info)

Changes in children's hospital use. (6/231)

OBJECTIVES: This article examines changes in hospital separations of children aged 1 to 14 between 1986/87 and 1996/97. It focuses on four common causes of childhood hospitalization: asthma, chronic disease of tonsils and adenoids, fractures, and acute appendicitis. DATA SOURCES: Hospital separation data are from the Hospital Morbidity File, from Statistics Canada for fiscal year 1986/87, and from the Canadian Institute for Health Information for fiscal year 1996/97. ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES: Diagnoses were coded to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and surgical procedures were coded to the Canadian Classification of Diagnostic, Therapeutic, and Surgical Procedures. Population estimates for 1986 and 1996 were used to calculate hospital separation rates and surgical rates. MAIN RESULTS: In 1986/87, there were 355,000 hospital separations of children aged 1 to 14; by 1996/97, the number of separations had fallen to just over 206,000. The hospital separation rate was 37.0 per 1,000 children in 1996/97, down from 69.7 ten years earlier. The average length of stay fell from 4.5 days to 3.8. The total annual number of days Canadian children stayed in hospital dropped from over 1.6 million to 788,700.  (+info)

Prevalence and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from cattle, food, and children during a one-year prospective study in France. (7/231)

During a 1-year survey of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) prevalence in central France, 2,143 samples were investigated by PCR for Shiga toxin-encoding genes. A total of 330 (70%) of 471 fecal samples collected from healthy cattle at the Clermont-Ferrand slaughterhouse, 47 (11%) of 411 beef samples, 60 (10%) of 603 cheese samples, and 19 (3%) of 658 stool specimens from hospitalized children with and without diarrhea were positive for the stx gene(s). A STEC strain was isolated from 34% (162 of 471) of bovine feces, 4% (16 of 411) of beef samples, 1% (5 of 603) of cheese samples, and 1.5% (10 of 658) of stool specimens. Of the 220 STEC strains isolated, 34 (15%) harbored the stx(1) gene, 116 (53%) harbored the stx(2) gene, and 70 (32%) carried both the stx(1) and stx(2) genes. However, 32 (14.5%) were not cytotoxic for Vero cells. The eae gene, found in 12 (5%) of the 220 strains, was significantly associated with the stx(1) gene and with isolates from children. Sequences homologous to ehxA were found in 102 (46%) of the 220 strains. Thirteen serotypes, OX3:H2, O113:H21, O113:H4, OX3:H21, O6:H10, OX178:H19, O171:H2, O46:H38, O172:H21, O22:H16, O91:H10, O91:H21, and O22:H8, accounted for 102 (55%) of 186 typeable isolates, and only one strain (0.5% of the 186 STEC isolates from cattle), belonged to the O157:H7 serotype. We showed that the majority of the STEC isolates from cattle, beef, and cheese were not likely to be pathogenic for humans and that the STEC strains isolated from children in this study were probably not responsible for diarrheal disease. Finally, the strains associated with hemolytic-uremic syndrome in the same geographical area were shown to belong to particular subsets of the STEC population found in the bovine reservoir.  (+info)

Epidemiology of astrovirus infection in young children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Melbourne, Australia, over a period of four consecutive years, 1995 to 1998. (8/231)

The incidence of astrovirus infection in children less than 5 years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Melbourne, Australia, from 1995 to 1998 was determined. Astrovirus was detected in 40 of 449 specimens tested by Northern hybridization, and astrovirus infection was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR with or without culture in CaCO-2 cells. This represented 3.0% (40 of 1, 327) of all children tested for enteric pathogens, including viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens, over the survey period. The incidences of astrovirus infection in each year were 4.4% (1995), 2. 2% (1996), 3.9% (1997), and 1.4% (1998). In 1995 and 1997, the incidences of astrovirus infection were greater than the incidence of infection with all individual bacterial pathogens and were either greater than or equal to the incidence of adenovirus infection. Astrovirus exhibited an unusual biennial winter peak of incidence that correlated with a greater incidence of serotype 1 virus and an increased rate of hospitalization of children aged 6 to 12 months. Uncommon (serotype 2 and 4) and rare (serotype 8) serotypes were detected during the survey period. Genetic analysis of ORF2 (which encodes the astrovirus capsid precursor) of Melbourne isolates showed nucleotide sequence variation from year to year. This was not accompanied by significant amino acid substitutions. However, geographical variation was apparent by comparison of Melbourne astrovirus isolates with prototype strains identified in the United Kingdom.  (+info)

  • We used propensity score matching and multivariable linear regression methods to evaluate the relationship between the use of Family-Link and stress experienced by children during hospitalization. (aappublications.org)
  • Methods: The case-control design included 140 children (70 cases and 70 controls) in a stratified cluster sample from Naser Medical Complex and Alnasser Pediatric Hospital. (omicsonline.org)
  • Methods: Children ≤ 59 months presenting to the Albert Schweitzer or George Rawiri Regional hospitals (February-July 2017) in Lambaréné, Gabon were included if they had ≥ 3 liquid stools per day within the past 3 days. (gwu.edu)
  • Compared to those with MSSA, kids with MRSA had longer hospital stays (13 days versus 8 days) and were more likely to have multiple surgeries (38 percent versus 15 percent). (medicinenet.com)
  • If children get this, they're more likely to die, they're more likely to have surgery, they're going to be in the hospital longer, so there's a significant impact of the disease," said study researcher Dr. Cade Nylund, of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda, Md. (livescience.com)
  • The researchers noted that from their data, they could not distinguish between patients who acquired the disease in the hospital and those who were already infected when they were hospitalized. (livescience.com)
  • So it's important to have good isolation and preventive measures within the hospital to prevent transfer from one sick child to the next. (livescience.com)
  • The use of videoconferencing by some hospitalized children and families to conduct virtual visits with family and friends outside of the hospital was associated with a greater reduction in stress during hospitalization than those who did not use videoconferencing. (aappublications.org)
  • All children who were evaluated at a large teaching hospital during the 1999 to 2000 influenza season were eligible if they were 1) younger than 19 years and hospitalized with respiratory symptoms or 2) younger than 3 years and hospitalized with fever. (aappublications.org)
  • She took a closer look at the most recent data available, from the 2012 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database , which tracks hospital stays for children. (cnn.com)
  • The data don't include children who die in the emergency room or before they get to the hospital, nor does it include those who are treated and released. (cnn.com)
  • The child was taken to the hospital with what police at the time believed to be non-life-threatening injuries. (savannahnow.com)
  • In a nine-year retrospective study, sick children with parents whose English proficiency was limited spent 60% longer in hospital than those whose parents spoke fluently, according to Michael Levas, MD, and colleagues from Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics in Kansas City, Mo. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Founder Jen Rubino has also blogged about Cards for Hospitalized Kids and her own experience in the hospital for the Huffington Post. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opioids and benzodiazepines (commonly used for reducing anxiety) are the medication types that most commonly send children to the hospital, according to the study. (livescience.com)
  • Compared with children ages 2 to 9, the rate of hospital-associated VTE was about four times higher for teens ages 14 to 17 (incidence rate ratio 4.3, 95% CI 2.7-6.8) and nearly eight times higher for young adults ages 18 to 21 (IRR 7.7, 95% CI 5.1-12.0), according to Clifford Takemoto, MD , of Johns Hopkins Hospital, and colleagues. (medpagetoday.com)
  • These data can contribute to the design of future clinical trials to prevent hospital-associated VTE in high-risk children," they wrote. (medpagetoday.com)
  • To explore the characteristics associated with developing hospital-associated VTE -- defined as cases in which VTE symptoms developed after 2 days of hospitalization or within 90 days of discharge -- the researchers retrospectively analyzed data from patients 21 and younger who were hospitalized at their center from 1994 to 2009. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Participants were recruited from a specialized inpatient psychiatric hospital unit for youth with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities. (nih.gov)
  • KMOV.com) - Three kids were transported to an area hospital after becoming unresponsive and lethargic Thursday afternoon. (kmov.com)
  • Wuhan evacuation flight headed to Travis AFB amid coronavirus outbreakAlthough medical teams on the base have been evaluating the quarantined Americans, the child was taken to the hospital "out of an abundance of caution," the statement from Riverside county health officials said.Also Monday, a traveler who arrived at Los Angeles International Airport on a flight from China was placed under federal quarantine and transferred to March Air Reserve Base. (kcra.com)
  • Although medical teams on the base have been evaluating the quarantined Americans, the child was taken to the hospital "out of an abundance of caution," the statement from Riverside county health officials said. (kcra.com)
  • Three adults and two children were taken to an area hospital after a high-level of carbon monoxide was found inside a Fairfax County home. (wusa9.com)
  • Of the seven people inside the home that complained of illness, three adults and two children were taken to an area hospital. (wusa9.com)
  • Not only are more children being diagnosed with high blood pressure (hypertension), but these children also cost more to treat and stay longer in the hospital, researchers from the University of Michigan said. (drugs.com)
  • Children with high blood pressure stayed in the hospital twice as long as children without high blood pressure -- eight days versus four days -- the study found. (drugs.com)
  • These children were likely to be older than 9, male, African-American and seen in a teaching hospital, Tran's group found. (drugs.com)
  • A 5-year-old Bryan County child was transported to a local hospital with serious head trauma after being struck by a vehicle Thursday afternoon just outside of Pembroke. (savannahnow.com)
  • Financial assistance for medically necessary services is based on family income and hospital resources and is provided to children under age 21 whose primary residence is in Washington, Alaska, Montana or Idaho. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • One man was found dead and two children were rushed to the hospital after a fire at a Spring Grove Village apartment complex. (local12.com)
  • A spokesperson for Shriners Hospital says that the children remain in critical condition and in the intensive care unit. (local12.com)
  • When a child goes to the hospital, brothers and sisters can feel afraid, worried or confused. (chop.edu)
  • Each child has his or her own concerns when a brother or sister is in the hospital. (chop.edu)
  • This cluster-randomized trial will evaluate the impact of a multifaceted intervention (including electronic medical alerts) coordinated by a Nutritional Support Team, on adherence to recommended practices for care of starved children, among health personnel of a large university hospital. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Children admitted with Type 2 diabetes had significantly longer lengths of stay in the hospital and more diagnoses on record than children with Type 1 diabetes, suggesting greater morbidity among these children. (medindia.net)
  • Out of total children, 90 (81.8%) were discharged from the hospital, 18 (16.6%) died and 2 (1.8%) left against medical advice (LAMA, excluded from the analysis). (springer.com)
  • In the past ten days, two dozen children with the syndrome were admitted to Children's National Hospital in Washington, D.C. (nationalreview.com)
  • The spokesperson adds that the hospital had seen no children admitted this year for the condition before those initial five cases. (nationalreview.com)
  • The aim of this study is to describe the experience of children in their interactions with nursing professionals while in hospital. (scielo.br)
  • The results showed that children positively valued nursing care at the hospital and recognized that interactions with nursing staff included social and emotional factors. (scielo.br)
  • It is concluded that communication established with children plays a fundamental role to comprehend their experiences while in hospital. (scielo.br)
  • Therefore, nurses need to evaluate their strategies and relational skills used to interact with children at the hospital. (scielo.br)
  • Relations with nursing professionals are especially important when involving children, due to the fact that pediatric patients have needs that are very distinct from adults needs, as a result of their limited ability to adapt to the hospital environment (2-3) . (scielo.br)
  • One factor influencing children s general wellbeing is the meaning families and the children themselves attribute to hospital stimuli. (scielo.br)
  • Thus, to get to know what factors influence or facilitate the relation established between the nursing staff and the hospitalized child, this study is proposed with the following aims: to describe the children s experience when interacting with nursing professionals during their hospital stay and to identify what behaviors nursing professionals adopt can influence the minors psychosocial wellbeing. (scielo.br)
  • 15 years of age who were hospitalized for measles, to determine the extent to which these findings, in research settings, are applicable to the case management of measles under conditions of routine hospital practice. (nih.gov)
  • Serious abuse was defined as any child who was admitted to the hospital with an injury that was coded as abuse. (healthcanal.com)
  • For 17% of 7,000 children, the hospital recommended changes to the use of prescription antibiotics. (empr.com)
  • The researchers found that when doctors followed the recommendations, children without complex chronic health issues stayed in the hospital for shorter periods (an average of 68 hours vs. 82 hours), and the children were less likely to be readmitted. (empr.com)
  • Studies have shown stewardship programs reduce antibiotic use and decrease the risk of antibiotic resistance, but this is the first to demonstrate that these programs actually reduce length-of-stay and readmission in children," Jason Newland, MD, study lead author and medical director of patient safety and systems reliability at Children's Mercy Hospital, said in a Society news release. (empr.com)
  • From infants, to toddlers, to school-aged children and adolescents, we want you and your child to feel like our pediatric hospital is your home away from home when they are sick or injured. (sahealth.com)
  • When your child is admitted into the hospital, it is normal for them to have misconceptions about what hospitalization means, feel a loss of independence, or be scared of pain. (sahealth.com)
  • New London - Crews took a child to the hospital Friday after a Jeep Grand Cherokee crashed into a stroller in the parking lot of The Cake Lady Café. (theday.com)
  • Kamryn Smith, 11, said she believes it is extremely impor-tant to give to the children who have to spend their Christmas in a hospital bed. (theexaminer.com)
  • Both children were expect-ed to be released from the hospital before Christmas, their parents said. (theexaminer.com)
  • The organization also deliv-ered presents to children at Baptist Hospital in Beaumont, The Medical Center of South-east Texas in Port Arthur, Sal-vation Army, Buckner Chil-dren's Village, Girls' Haven and Boys' Haven, among other places. (theexaminer.com)
  • Another had been upgraded to stable condition, said Dr. Mehul Dixit, who is treating some of the children at Florida Hospital Orlando. (nbcnews.com)
  • One child was treated at Arnold Palmer Hospital for Children & Women and released several weeks ago. (nbcnews.com)
  • Children often are admitted to the hospital for additional observation after blunt head trauma to allow frequent neurologic examinations. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Admitting these children after normal CT scans is costly, causes them to spend time away from their families and loved ones, and potentially exposes them to other health risks, such as hospital-borne infections," Kuppermann said. (emaxhealth.com)
  • In the study, Tran and her colleagues analyzed the hospital records from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Kids' Inpatient Database for the years 1997, 2000, 2003 and 2006. (growingyourbaby.com)
  • In total, the costs for inpatient hospital treatment for children with hypertension increased by 50% over the decade, with an amount that reached approximately $3.1 billion. (growingyourbaby.com)
  • This is especially true for families where a follow-up appointment could be another financial stressor on top of a child already being in the hospital. (newswise.com)
  • The rareness of vasculitis, especially in children, often means getting medical care out-of-town at a hospital that has multiple pediatric subspecialists, such as pediatric rheumatologists, pediatric nephrologists and pediatric pulmonologists, not available in your community. (vasculitisfoundation.org)
  • Having a seriously ill child in the hospital, you, the parent, become physically exhausted and emotionally raw. (vasculitisfoundation.org)
  • The causes of hospital admission and death among children in Bamako, Mali. (ajtmh.org)
  • The first is to help kids who are stuck in the hospital and who can't make it to the recreational room by supplying bead kits. (inmenlo.com)
  • Even though these are two of the leading causes of hospitalization among young children, there is surprisingly sparse data comparing the two in terms of disease severity and hospital resource utilization, including antibiotic consumption. (mdedge.com)
  • What is feared, above all, when children arrive at the hospital is isolation. (sogeti.se)
  • The average hospital stay for a child or teen with COVID-19 is 14 days, the researchers said. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Strategies to enhance early diagnosis in children and improve hospital management of critically ill HIV-infected children are needed. (ovid.com)
  • to help put together parts for two unique activity kits that kids in the hospital will use to make their own creation. (volunteerhoward.org)
  • The kids in the hospital can then take our kits and make their own creation, right in their own hospital room! (volunteerhoward.org)
  • I remember being left overnight in the hospital when I was a kid. (leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk)
  • Identification of children at risk of malnutrition is not easily achieved in hospital settings. (who.int)
  • Malnutrition in hospitalized children is an important pathological condition and a risk factor for unfavourable outcomes, prolonged hospital stay, delayed recovery and increased care costs. (who.int)
  • A new study says that each year approximately 7,500 children are admitted to U.S. hospitals with gunshot wounds and more than 500 children die during hospital admission from these injuries. (therecordherald.com)
  • From February 2015 to April 2017, 1526 children hospitalized in our hospital were selected as the objects, consisting of 892 males and 634 females aged from 5 months to 10 y with an average age of 5.6 ± 0.3 y. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Between January 2012 and December 2017, 1863 stool samples were collected at Maternal and Child Health Hospital in Hohhot. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To confirm this hypothesis, we analyzed FQ prescriptions for hospitalized children in a Belgian university hospital. (bmj.com)
  • The Student Council of Roosevelt Intermediate School in Westfield went on a shopping spree on Feb. 28 to purchase children's toys and baby items for the Children Specialized Hospital in Mountainside. (tapinto.net)
  • The report follows up on the researchers' previous studies on asthma ( bit.ly/1SmcWdy and bit.ly/1RtopqR ) and calls the illness "the most frequent reason for preventable emergency department (ED) and hospital admissions among children in the U.S. (aappublications.org)
  • Hospital-based review could provide insight leading to improvements in clinical practice and increase the survival of critically ill children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A retrospective analysis of data of all children aged 1 month to 11 years who died at Xinhua Hospital between 2006 and 2015. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A comprehensive understanding of the causes of death could help improve high quality of hospital care for children and would promote better outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Improving hospital care for seriously ill children is critical for promoting children's health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To see the effects of hypertension, Tran's team used data from the Kids' Inpatient Database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project from 1997, 2000, 2003 and 2006. (drugs.com)
  • These data will help to better define the clinical spectrum of disease in children and the contributions of race and ethnicity and underlying medical conditions to hospitalizations and outcomes. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • We prospectively collected demographic and clinical microbiology data for all Syrian children 0-17 years of age who were admitted to GMC during March 2013-February 2016. (cdc.gov)
  • Respiratory swabs and sera were collected, and researchers noted patients´ clinical information and whether each child was hospitalized. (flu.org.cn)
  • North Oaks Children's Services Clinical Nurse Manager Tamara Mitchell and Patient Services Secretary Linda Jo Kincaid visited with the students Tuesday, Dec. 4 to personally thank them and explain how the donated toys will be used to comfort and entertain hospitalized children. (northoaks.org)
  • Using data from a randomized controlled trial (NCT02063880), we determined baseline sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory cofactors of mortality among HIV-infected children in Kenya. (ovid.com)
  • To improve clinical pain assessment and reduce unnecessary pain for hospitalized preverbal children, a better understanding of aspects concerning these scales is needed, and nurses' views regarding clinical pain assessment and their understanding and practical use of structured pain scales need to be further explored. (avhandlingar.se)
  • The overall aim of this thesis was to contribute to knowledge regarding how to reduce unnecessary pain and suffering in hospitalized preverbal children by exploring aspects that influence nurses' assessment of pain in the clinical setting. (avhandlingar.se)
  • nurses expressed strong preferences for pain assessment based on clinical judgment and individually tailored to the child and the situation. (avhandlingar.se)
  • The children, in the age group of 5 to 12, reported symptoms such as vomiting and nausea after eating lunch at a wedding at Kirat village on Monday and were shifted to Somta Primary Health Centre. (yahoo.com)
  • Cases have been reported in other states, including Louisiana, Mississippi and California , and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has said it will soon issue an alert asking doctors to report cases of children with symptoms of the syndrome. (nationalreview.com)
  • In all, 108 people, more than half of them small children, were affected by E. coli traced to the fair, though most had far milder symptoms than the 15. (nbcnews.com)
  • And that's important to consider, as well, because children may not have any symptoms but may still be infected and contagious, Salemi noted. (ahealthyme.com)
  • From 2008 to 2015, the percentage of children ages 5 to 17 hospitalized for suicidal thoughts or actions more than doubled, according to data presented Sunday at the 2017 Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting in San Francisco. (pressherald.com)
  • ELIZABETH, NJ - Jonathan Tavara-Nima, 32, of Elizabeth has been sentenced to 25 years in state prison for sexually assaulting a young child he was hired to care for in May of 2017. (tapinto.net)
  • A policy of Hi-VAT for all children hospitalized with measles was started during the intervening period. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that a policy of high dose oral vitamin A (400,000 IU) supplementation in measles provides benefits which are equivalent to those previously observed only in controlled research trials, that it is highly cost effective, and that it should form part of the routine case management of all children hospitalized with measles. (nih.gov)
  • To evaluate lymphocyte changes during measles, children (n= 274) hospitalized with measles in Lusaka, Zambia, were evaluated at entry, discharge, and 1-month follow-up and compared to healthy Zambian children (n= 98). (elsevier.com)
  • The multiple effects of measles on lymphocytes from Zambian children include decreased numbers in circulation, increased activation, and increased susceptibility to cell death, with substantive differences in the magnitude of these changes between boys and girls. (elsevier.com)
  • When hypertension was the main diagnosis, it was seen most often in children with lupus, complications from a kidney transplant, pneumonia and other kidney conditions. (drugs.com)
  • This letter was sent to the authors of "Diagnosis and Management of Dehydration in Children," who declined to reply. (aafp.org)
  • When their children get sick, they may have difficulty negotiating the healthcare system, and it has been shown that - in the pediatric emergency setting, at least - limited English proficiency hurts healthcare, they wrote. (medpagetoday.com)
  • KID was prepared by the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, part of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (healthcanal.com)
  • This finding probably implies a high carriage rate of MDR pathogens (especially ESBL) among healthy children in Syria and acquisition of MDR pathogens (especially CRE and MDR-AB) in the healthcare system in Syria. (cdc.gov)
  • The fact that more kids are getting antibiotics in the scheduled follow-up group suggests that healthcare is begetting healthcare," Dr. Coon said. (newswise.com)
  • Further investigations on these complex causes of deaths in children could give more information to the healthcare providers to recognize fatal situations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • conclusions: careful administration of oxacillin in children is recommended with established treatment duration. (oalib.com)
  • They looked at the yearly rates of emergency room visits and hospitalization for unsupervised prescription-drug ingestions among children younger than age 6 between 2007 and 2011. (livescience.com)
  • During March 21-July 25, weekly hospitalization rates steadily increased among children (from 0.1 to 0.4 per 100,000, with a weekly high of 0.7 per 100,000). (cdc.gov)
  • According to the CDC, the rate of suicide deaths among children between the ages of 10 and 14 has doubled since 2007. (pressherald.com)
  • Rates of MDR carriage were similar among wounded and ill children, mean MDR carriage rate among children increased from 1.19 in 2013-2014 to 1.45 in 2015 (p = 0.02). (cdc.gov)
  • Rhinoviruses were more common among children without compared to with fever (15% vs 2%, p=0.01). (ersjournals.com)
  • Recurrence of wheezing was not significantly different among children with different viral etiological agents (p=0.95). (ersjournals.com)
  • The Paediatric Intensive Care Society UK (PICS) warned about a small rise in the number of cases of critically ill children, some who had tested positive for Covid-19, presenting "overlapping features of toxic shock syndrome and atypical Kawasaki disease with blood parameters. (cnn.com)
  • They would take that extra step to help families manage the insanity that comes with caregiving a critically ill child. (aceweekly.com)
  • The hospitalization rate among Latinos was around 16 per 100,000 while Black children had a rate of about 11 per 100,000. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • Overall, Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) and non-Hispanic black (black) children had higher cumulative rates of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations (16.4 and 10.5 per 100,000, respectively) than did non-Hispanic white (white) children (2.1). (cdc.gov)
  • Children in their first year of life were at highest risk, of being hospitalized, making up 58.2 per 100,000 children in this age group. (healthcanal.com)
  • These numbers are higher than the rate of sudden infant death syndrome (about 50, per 100,000 births), which is alarming," said Leventhal, who also notes that children covered by Medicaid had rates of serious abuse about six times higher than those not on Medicaid. (healthcanal.com)
  • Better understanding of risk factors of mortality will be helpful in reducing the mortality by timely recognition and specific intervention in these children. (springer.com)
  • The presence of one or more of these risk factors in children with SAM should alert the physician of increased mortality risk in these children and requires early stabilization, close monitoring, and appropriate therapy. (springer.com)
  • Influenzavirus often circulates concurrently with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the most common cause of respiratory illnesses in young children. (aappublications.org)
  • It is important to determine the specific factors for diarrheal deaths in infants & young children to enable the intervention and reduce the mortality rates. (nih.gov)
  • But what about the risks related to secondhand marijuana smoke - especially for young children? (westword.com)
  • and avoidance of antidiarrheals and antiemetics owing to lack of benefit and potential for harm in young children. (gwu.edu)